â€˜Curious’ baboon cuts off electricity to Zambian town        
JOHANNESBURG — A baboon in Zambia has interfered with machinery at a power station in a tourist town near Victoria Falls, knocking out power to tens of thousands of people for several hours. State broadcaster ZNBC says the blackout affected residents in Livingstone and surrounding areas Sunday and reports that it was caused by an...
          Singer removed as gender violence spokesman after ‘assault’ on woman        
LUSAKA, Zambia — Zambia’s president revoked a popular singer’s position as ambassador against gender violence after the performer was accused of assaulting a woman. President Edgar Lungu said Monday that Clifford Dimba could not fulfill his role as a spokesman against gender violence while he is on trial for the alleged assault. Lungu said he...
          Crocs devour man in front of horrified tourists        
A group of British tourists were enjoying a sunset cruise along the beautiful Zambezi River when they saw something they will never forget — for all the wrong reasons. Their dream trip along the river, which lies between Zimbabwe and Zambia, quickly turned into horror when they witnessed a grisly act. Having spotted several crocodiles...
          Sloshed diplomat won’t be charged for hitting cop car        
A sloshed Zambian government official who “reeked of alcohol” and could barely talk slammed his car into a parked NYPD van in Queens on Monday morning, injuring two officers, police sources said. But Langford Banda isn’t going to face criminal charges or even get a traffic ticket — thanks to his diplomatic immunity. Banda, 41...
          Gigantic hippo gets terrifying close to safari speedboat        
Don’t tell this hippo he’s slow. Riding in a speed boat in the Kafue National Park in Zambia, a videographer captured the terrifying moment when a gigantic hippopotamus got way too close for comfort, according to the Daily Mail. Uploaded to Facebook by Michael Varndell, the managing director at tour company Malawian Style, the video starts with...
          Sub-Saharan Africa gets 1st white leader in 20 years        
LUSAKA, Zambia — Zambia’s vice president Guy Scott, a white Zambian of Scottish descent, became the country’s acting president on Wednesday, making him the first white leader of a sub-Saharan African nation since 1994 when South Africa moved to majority rule. The appointment of Guy Scott as Zambia’s acting president until elections are held within...
          Thirsty elephant fights off hungry crocodile        
Got your nose! Or trunk, that is. An elephant at the Mfuwe Lodge in South Luangwa National Park in Zambia got an unwanted surprise while going for a drink, and 62-year-old Ian Salisbury was there to capture the moment on his camera. Salisbury’s photos show the exact moment when an unsuspecting elephant reached its trunk...
          DR Congo launches its National Investment Plan for Agriculture. Is anyone listening?         

At around 2.5 per cent of the national budget, DR Congo spends the least on agriculture of all its neighbors, a figure made more minuscule given the great untapped potential of its vast arable lands. For comparison, the Republic of Congo spends close to 14%, Zambia 10% and Ethiopia over 20%.

Following the 2009 Maputo Accords, NEPAD initiated the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (or CAADP), a continent-wide compact to reduce poverty and hunger by increasing state investment in agriculture over a ten-year period, with two basic metrics: raise public ag spending to 10% of GDP and raise ag growth rates to 6% by 2020. Participating countries were encouraged to tailor their growth strategies and investment plans accordingly, and solicit the views of farmers' associations, civil society and the private sector for an inclusive national approach with popular support.

DR Congo announced its National Investment Plan for Agriculture (PNIA) last month in Kinshasa, with great fanfare and expense. A total of $5,730m is budgeted, but only $857m had been committed (93% from donors, 7% from GDRC) by the closing ceremony. So where were the investors? In interviews and public pronouncements, government officials are confident that their chosen path, the PNIA, will attract foreign investment and will modernize and monetize Congo’s vast agricultural potential, thus transforming the lives of the country's rural poor, nearly all of whom are isolated, subsistence farmers.

Outside of government, skepticism regarding the PNIA is high. The primary criticism from donors and the Congolese private sector accuses the GDRC of failing to commit to sweeping infrastructural renovation (communications, transport, electricity, etc) as the foundation of national economic growth, and instead shifting that burden onto the international firms it assumes are lining up to invest. Yet no foreign firm would consent to such a capital outlay given the country’s dismal business environment. Serious investors would expect to see government planning and budgets to this end, yet beyond the PNIA the GDRC has no comprehensive plan to address the country’s deeply eroded infrastructure (piecemeal donor projects are the norm), or resolve its regulatory morass and lack of legal protection for private enterprise.

An even greater deterrent, the current Code Agricole stipulates that any private enterprise would require a 51% ownership stake by the GDRC. These terms are currently being revisited, but the compromise under discussion is 20% national ownership -- still untenable for obvious reasons, particularly given the country's long history of nationalization (viz., Zairianisation), expropriating private businesses, stripping assets and triggering massive capital flight. This legacy is still felt today among potential investors who see Congo as too risky (unpredictable and unstable), and in the Kabila administration's patrimonial, anti-entrepreneurial policies. 

The other main deterrent for foreign investors is the cost of commerce itself which, after the endless hoops and ladders of business registration, is so high that local produce cannot compete with cheap imports. In the country’s urban centers, imported versions of Congo’s basic foodstuffs (palm oil, maize, beans, sugar, rice, and wheat flour) outnumber local varieties, except for cassava.  

This wave of imported commodities began with a policy enacted in Mobutu's final years (1992-96, known as ‘Plan Mobutu’) as colonial infrastructure finally and irretrievably collapsed, interrupting the regular flow of local produce into Kinshasa and causing food prices to soar. Allowing cheap foodstuffs from outside to saturate the market was initially intended as a stopgap measure, but the challenge of infrastructure rehabilitation proved overwhelming and was postponed indefinitely. Now as then, local produce is uncompetitive because high transport costs and extortion rackets deter trade, production and investment. Specific to local farming, the impact of systematic rent-seeking on agricultural production and trade is another crippling deterrent to rural agricultural production and commerce. Detailed studies of these organized rackets abound, but have had no policy impact.


Ambitious in vision and consistent with COMESA and AU policy frameworks, operationally the PNIA is unlikely to succeed. It is hostage to the government's general inability to address the country’s primary obstacles to economic growth—a chaotic business environment (legal protection, banking systems, transparent procedures/absence of corruption, and credit) and a very thin, highly unreliable infrastructure (power, transport, communications, etc). If in fact l'argent n'aime pas le bruit, then Congo's leaders need to concentrate on creating a law-abiding and responsive administration capable of reassuring investors that their entrepreneurism is welcome and respected.

          Why My Husband Is So Darned Appealing        
When he receives obvious spam, like this...

-----Original Message-----
From: Maria Levy Mwanawasa [mailto:sanaali@bigmir.net]
Sent: Monday, August 16, 2010 3:17 PM

Subject: Hello

Hello Dear,

I know this mail will come to you as a surprise since we haven't discuss it before, but kindly bear with me at this moment. I have a special reason why I wrote you first in the dating site. My situation at hand is miserable but I trust in God and hope you will be of my help. My name is Maria Levy Mwanawasa. I am 22 years old and I held from Zambia, I am the daughter of late President Levy Mwanawasa, the former President of Zambia. My beloved father died on the 19th of August, 2008 in the French Hospital after he was hospitalized for a stroke. well, You can read more detail about they death of my late father here.

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26287278/

I am constrained to contact you because of the maltreatment which I am receiving from my step mother and my uncle. They both planned to take away all my late father's treasury and properties from me since the unexpected death of my beloved Father. Meanwhile I wanted to travel to Europe, but she hides away my diplomatic passport and other valuable documents. Luckily she did not discover where I kept my father's File which contained important documents.I am presently staying in the Mission camp in Burkina Faso. I am seeking for long-term relationship and investment assistance.

My father of blessed memory deposited the sum of $6.4Million US Dollars in a local bank in Burkina Faso with my name as the next of kin. I had contacted the Bank to claim the deposit but the Branch Manager whom I met in person told me that being a refugee my status does not permit and according to the local law and the agreement between my late father and the bank does not authorize me to carry out the operation. However, he advised me to provide a trustee who will stand on my behalf. Please I need your Assistance in this regard. I had wanted to inform my stepmother Mrs. Maureen Mwanawasa about this deposit but I am afraid that she will not offer me anything after the release of the money. Therefore, I decide to seek for your help in transferring the money into your bank account in your country or any safer place. while I will relocate to your country and settle down with you.

It is my intention to compensate you with 30% of the total money for your assistancend the balance shall be my investment in any profitable venture which you will recommend to me as I have no any idea about foreign investment.

Please your kind reply is need and I beg you to maintain absolute privacy because my stepmother is seeking for me to provide infrmation on the account details for retrival of the money.

Yours Sincerely,

Maria Levy Mwanawasa.


He responds like this....


-----Original Message-----
From: K, Man of The House of Joy
Sent: Monday, August 16, 2010 3:28 PM
To: 'levy2@lajt.hu'
Subject: [POSSIBLE SPAM] RE: Hello
Importance: Low

The poetry of this moment, this unbridled act of generosity, this happenstance is so incredible that I have broken out in song. I sing for the generosity of the human spirit. I sing for the good fortune you should choose me. I pray my words of thanks soar to the ears of God.

This luck is made more incredible by the unbelievable happenstance that I knew your father well. We spent many an evening relaxing after a fine meal on the patio of the presidential palace in Lusaka, discussing the human hardship in Zambia and in Africa. He demonstrated great insight into the human spirit and evinced such compassion. He remains a great hero of mine.

I weep knowing the cruelty you must endure at the pampered hands of your Uncle and step mother. Godspeed to you.

I will gladly share with you any and all personal information that might effectuate our happy business cooperation.

While it has been awhile, I think I can recall enough Bemba and Nyanja to offer my good wishes in your home tongues. "Zee pinga war galun ta fisna."

K

          Eclipse 04-05-2015 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
The Roots- Understand feat Dice Raw Greg Porn - And Then You Shoot Your Cousin
Beastie Boys- Alive - Beastie Boys Anthology The Sounds Of Science
Wu Tang All Stars- Soul In The Hole - 12
Ghostface Killah- Celebrate Instrumental - 12
Cold Crush Brothers- Fresh Wild Fly And Bold - Fresh Wild Fly And Bold The Complete Studio Recordings
Biz Markie- Let Me Turn You On - Bizs Baddest Beats The Best Of Biz Markie
De La Soul Feat Black Sheep And A Tribe Called Quest- What Yo Life Can Truly Be - 12
Crazy Wisdom Masters- Spittin Wicked Randomness - Black Hoodz Ep
Public Enemy- Welcome To The Terrordome - Fear Of A Black Planet
- voicebreak -
The Roots- Understand feat Dice Raw Greg Porn - And Then You Shoot Your Cousin
Shabazz Palaces- High Climb To The Gallows - Lese Majesty
The Baby Namboos- Hard Times - Ancoats2Zambia
Major Lazer- Aerosol Can - Apocalypse Soon
Urban Thermo Dynamics- Manifest Destiny - Utd Manifest Destiny
Poor Righteous Teachers- Shakiyla JRH - 12
Sly The Family Stone- Family Affair Featuring John Legend And Joss Stone - Different Strokes By Different Folks
EPMD- Gold Digger - Business As Usual
Boogie Down Productions- Still No 1 Freestyle Live - Live Hardcore Worldwide
Donald D- FBI - Notorious
- voicebreak -
Zion I- Antenna Instrumental - 12
Felix Fast 4ward- Soft Hat - 4ward Movements
Felix Fast 4ward- Wind Chime Love - 4ward Movements
Felix Fast 4ward- Hee Haw Celebrity - 4ward Movements
Babah Fly- Innerstate Interstellar - 12
Fly4Wird- Water - 12
Babah Fly Mike Wird Ill 7 DJ Cavem- Warp Speed - 12
Qbala- News - Dark Side Of The Rain EP
Mother Superia- Most Of All - Only For The Real DJ A Premier Selection Of Hip Hop Inspired By The Boom Bap Sound Vol 3
Lin Que- Let It Fall - Only For The Real DJ A Premier Selection Of Hip Hop Inspired By The Boom Bap Sound Vol 3
Bahamadia- Spontaneity - Kollage
The Lady Of Rage- Afro Puffs - Above The Rim Soundtrack From The Motion Picture
Kai Ama- Thug Style - Thug Style
UNeek- Above Water - Above Water
Brandy- I Wanna Be Down Human Rhythm Hip Hop Remix - Brandy
DAdore- Flow Like A River - Dadore
MC Lyte- Cha Cha Cha - Rhino HiFive MC Lyte EP
Boss- Recipe Of A Hoe - Born Gangstaz
Missy Elliott- The Rain Supa Dupa Fly - Supa Dupa Fly
Doomtree- Sadie Hawkins - Dessa
Queen Latifah- UNITY - Black Reign


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/101/playlistDate/2015-04-05
          World: FPMA Bulletin #7, 10 August 2017        
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat rose further in July on quality concerns, particularly for higher protein wheat, although upward pressure was limited by prospects of ample global supplies. Export prices of maize remained generally unchanged, while a slowdown in demand capped gains in rice quotations.
  • In East Africa, prices of cereals in most countries declined signi cantly for the second consecutive month in July with the new harvests, but remained generally higher than a year earlier. However, in Ethiopia, prices of maize surged further and reached record levels, underpinned by uncertain prospects for the 2017 crops.
  • In the CIS, prices of staple potatoes declined sharply from the record or near-record highs of June in most countries of the subregion with the beginning of the new harvest. Prices, however, remained higher than in July last year after the sharp increases of the past months.

          World: Food Assistance Outlook Brief, August 2017        
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion.


          FIDE Newsletter July 2017        

official logo

FIDE Grand Prix Series was held in Geneva, Switzerland from 5th to 16th of July 2017

Teimour Radjabov emerged clear winner of the FIDE World Chess Grand Prix in Geneva after sharing the point with his nearest follower Ian Nepomniachtchi in the final round. Radjabov earned 20.000 EUR and 170 Grand Prix points for the clear first place. Nepomniachtchi and Grischuk took 13.500 EUR and 105 GP points each.

Radjabov gp2017

In the overall Grand Prix standings Shakhriyar Mamedyarov is leading with 340 points, while Grischuk is second with 316,4. They have completed three events each and will cautiously await the results from the final 4th leg.

kosteniuk

Radjabov jumped through to the third place with 241,4 points. Ding Liren on 240 and Maxime Vachier-Lagrave on 211,4 can also hope to earn one of the two qualifying spots for the Candidates Tournament.

Official website

Photo gallery


European Senior Team Chess Championship 2017 took place in Novi Sad, Serbia from 24th of June till 4th of July 2017.

The Serbian team became European champion in the "50+" section European Championships for seniors. The title was brought by the grandmasters Miloš Pavlović, Goran M. Todorović, Siniša Dražić and Nenad Ristić and international master Zoran Arsović.

European Senior Team Chess Championship

Second place get to the team of Italy, which had three grandmasters in their team composition, and the third place went to team of Sweden. Particularly interesting is the fact that for the Swedish team successfully played the Swedish ambassador in Serbia, His Excellency Jan Lundin.

In the 65+ section the team of Russia, for which are playing the legendary grandmasters Sveshnikov, Vasyukov and Balashov made amazing result of all eight victories, and took the first place. The Danish team was the second, and Belgium, after they lost match in the last round against Russia, took third place.

Official website


Panamerican Youth Championship 2017 took place in Costa Rica from 30 June 2017 till 7th of July 2017.

Panamerican Youth Championship 2017

Total medal counts at PanAm Youth Championships:

USA 4 Gold, 5 Silver, 6 Bronze = 15 medals
Peru 2 Gold, 3 Silver, 2 Bronze = 7 medals
Canada 2 Gold, 2 Silver, 1 Bronze = 5 medals
Venezuela 1 Gold, 1 Silver, 1 Bronze = 3 medals
Colombia 1 Gold, 1 Bronze = 2 medals
Argentina 1 Gold
Chile 1 Gold
Mexico 1 Silver
Bolivia 1 Bronze

U8
Lopez Rayo Santiago COL
Mishra Abhimanyu USA
Prestia Sebastian USA

U8 girls
Vidyarthi Omya USA
Maravi Ceron Ayme PER
Qu Greta CAN

U10
Li Eric USA
Atanasov Anthony CAN
Gao Marvin USA

U10 Girls
Contreras Fiorella PER
Wong Allyson USA
Wang Ellen USA

U12
Chasin Nico Werner USA
Galaviz Medina Sion Radam MEX
Flores Quillas Diego Saul Rod PER

U12 Girls
Perez Hernandez Vicmary C. VEN
Yellamraju Ambica USA
Matute Escobar Roxanny VEN

U14
Liu Aristo S USA
Nakada Akira W USA
Titichoca Daza Daniel BOL

U14 Girls
He Emma CAN
Zeng Sheena USA
Ehsani Yassamin L USA

U16
Varacalli Francisco ARG
Ramirez Gonzalez Mauricio VEN
Liang Albert USA

U16 Girls
Gomez Barrera Javiera Belen CHI
Mostacero Velarde Isabella PER
Caballero Quijano Mitzy Mishe PER

U18
Song Michael CAN
Cori Quispe Kevin Joel PER
Quinonez Garcia Santiago COL

U18 Girls
Cosme Contreras Trilce PER
Wang Constance CAN
Cervantes Landeiro Thalia USA

Panamerican Youth Championship 2017 2

Official website

Results


North American Youth Championship 2017 was held in Morristown, NJ, USA from 12th to 16th of July 2017.

North American Youth Championship 2017 2

A record-breaking 357 players from the United States, Canada and Mexico descended on the historic American Revolution town of Morristown, NJ, to compete in the North American Youth Chess Championships from July 12th to 16th. Sponsored by the Chess Tech, Continental Chess Association’s Darcy Lima, the International Chess School’s Michael Khodarkovsky and in Association with New Jersey Chess Federation and United States Chess Federation, the tournament had 12 sections with girls and open sections from under 8 to under 18. International Arbiters Steve Doyle, Eduard Duchovny and Ken Ballou have a staff of New Jersey State Chess Federation officers and staff: Hal Sprechman, Jim Mullanaphy, Jabari McGreen and Noreen Davisson. IA Steve Doyle, a legend on the chess scene, former President of USCF and Vice President of FIDE conducted the Tournament together with Tournament Directors GM Darcy Lima and Michael Khodarkovsky.

Final Standings 


Asian Zonal 3.1 took place in Tehran, Iran from 29th of June till 8th of July 2017

20 players (18 from Iran, 1 from Syria, 1 from Iraq) took part in the women`s section. Mobina Alinasab, a youth player from North of Iran, won the golden medal; Sarasadat Khademalsharieh and Mitra Hejazipour were second and third.

Asian Zonal 3.1

30 players (28 from Iran, 1 from Syria, 1 from Iraq) took part in the Open section. GM Amirreza Pourramezanali achieved Gold Medal. IM Aryan Gholami and GM Pouya Idani took silver and bronze medals.

Sponsor of Federation and this championship is MCI (Mobile Telecommunication Company).

Official website


African Individual Chess Championships 2017, African Rapid and Blitz Championships took place in Oran, Algeria from 1st till 13th of July 2017

45 players (and 18 players) among which the best African players, including a member of the top 100 the Egyptian GM Bassem Amin (Elo 2684) and Ahmed Adly, ex-junior world champion Elo on 2598. All the participants representing 8 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Zambia, Angola, Tunisia, Republic Centers African, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast) greeted the perfect organization and the good conditions of play in the international hotel "Assala" situated in the city center.

African Individual Chess Championships 2017

GM Amin Bassem from Egypt won the African Individual Championship. Daniel Cawdery from South Africa shared the first place but came second on the tie-break. Adly Ahmed from Egypt finished on the third place. 3 Egyptian players occupied the stage in women's section: WGM Mona Khaled won the championship, while Wafa Shrook and Wafa Shahenda took silver and bronze medals.

Amin Bassem

Rapid Championships: Amin Bassem (Egypt) won another golden medal, Adly Ahmed (Egypt) came second and Hesham Abdelrahman (Egypt) was third.

Amin Bassem 2

Wafa Shahenda (Egypt) was the best one in blitz, Esperance Caxita (Angola) and Amina Mezioud (Algeria) came third.

Blitz championships:
Adly Ahmed (Egypt) won blitz championship, Mohamed Haddouche (Algeria) was second and Phiri Richmond from Zambia was third.
Wafa Shrook (Egypt) was the strongest in blitz. Amina Mezioud (Algeria) took the silver medal, while Mona Khaled (Egypt) came third.


Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 took place in New Delhi, India from 2nd till 10th of July 2017.

Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 2

Grandmaster and former world junior champion Abhijeet Gupta (india) came up with an inspired performance in the final round to crush Aleksander Wohl of Australia and annexed the gold medal in the Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017. GM Vaibhav Suri (India) won the silver while the bronze medal went to GM Tejas Bakre (India). WGM Swati Ghate (India) became the Women Champion.

Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 3

Players from 15 countries including some from South Africa and Kenya have registered for the nine-day long events. The championship had over 550 registered players in various categories spanning from under-8 till open. There were 16 Grandmasters and 13 International Masters in the fray apart from five more Woman Grandmasters.

Official website


Asian Schools Chess Championship 2017 and Asian Schools Rapid and Blitz Chess Championships were held in Panjin Lianoing, China from 20th till 30th of July 2017.

Chinese Chess Association under the auspices of the Asian Chess Federation and World Chess Federation, organized the event in high-standard playing hall and hotel, earning unanimous acclaims from more than 700 participants from 23 countries and regions in Asia.

Asian Schools Chess Championship 2017 3

China won 10 gold medals, Uzbekistan won 8 gold medals and Philippines won 7 gold medals.

U7
Yuruultei Batbaatar MGL
Nurgaliyev Sauat KAZ
Kiaan Agrawal IND

U7 Girls
Tselmuun Dorjsuren MGL
Ruzimatova Afruzabonu UZB
Zhumagali Raian KAZ

U9
Xie Kaifan CHN
Chen Muye CHN
Huang Yishi CHN

U9 Girls
Chen Yining CHN
Dela Cruz Daren PHI
Azzaya Amarbat MGL

U11
Wei Yaqing CHN
Rakhmatullaev Almas UZB
Zhou Xiangru CHN

U11 Girls
Omonova Umida UZB
Kriti Mayur Patel IND
Withanarachchi W A Vinoli One SRI

U13
Peng Shunkai CHN
Wang Zideng CHN
Arfan Aditya Bagus INA

U13 Girls
Cai Boheng CHN
Khegay Yuliya UZB
Liuviann Cecilia Natalie INA

U15
Nanayakkara J A K Saranath SRI
Lin Yi CHN
Tan Jun Ying MAS

U15 Girls
Rasyid Nur Aini INA
Mordido Kylen Joy PHI
Saparova Sitora UZB

U17
Pangilinan Stephen Rome PHI
Sagita Catur Adi INA
Min Po-Yen TRE

U17 Girls
Doroy Allaney Jia G PHI
Edithso Samantha INA
Men JiaYi CHN

All results


          Angola Computer dealer - Wholesale Computer Dealers - Computers in Africa - Zambia IT and computer s        
Computron is the leading Distributor and Wholesaler of all I.T / Computer products in Africa , looking for dealers and resellers in Ethiopia, Angola and Zambia ( Computers, Printers, Peripherals, Accessories and Cables, Consumer Electronics and Office Equipment and Supplies).
          WFP’s Chief Calls for Support for Those Most Vulnerable to Climate Change        

With El Nino affecting countries in southern Africa, threatening agricultural production due to a massive heat wave, the World Food Programme has urged the international community to support the upscaling of climate smart agricultural technology for resilience. During her recent visit to Zambia, one of the region’s foremost producers and exporters of maize and other […]

The post WFP’s Chief Calls for Support for Those Most Vulnerable to Climate Change appeared first on Inter Press Service.


          Master Power Technologies invests in Kenya        
As part of its plan for growth in Africa, Master Power Technologies has opened an office in Kenya in order to serve East Africa. According to the company, the office will be Situated in Nairobi. Additionally, the company has opened offices in Kitwe and Lusaka in Zambia with further African countries earmarked for expansion. Neill […]
          air force vs army worms in Zambia        
BBC article





          Comment on Zambia & Zimbabwe, Chapter 1: River Club by will        
great recap Jean and very useful - thanks so much
          South Coast treated to exciting international polocrosse        
Sunny but cold, windy South Coast weather provided perfect conditions for the Under-14 Junior International Polocrosse Tournament final between South Africa and Zambia last weekend. The tournament, which was hosted at Paddock Polocrosse Club from Friday to Sunday, saw a fairly young and inexperienced South African team being emphatically beaten by the older, more experienced […]
          Nowe rynki otwierają się na polskich eksporterów żywności        
Polskie firmy spożywcze coraz uważniej przyglądają się dalekim rynkom. O atrakcyjności takiego kraju, jak Chiny, niemal powszechnie już wiadomo, jednak do świadomości producentów żywności stopniowo przebijają się także inne ciekawe rynki, jak Uzbekistan, Azerbejdżan, Wietnam, Tanzania, Zambia, Botswana czy wiele innych. Na ten temat serwis portalspozywczy.pl rozmawiał ze Sławomirem Majmanem, prezesem Polskiej Agencji Informacji i Inwestycji Zagranicznych.
          Muchismo.Cristina de Middel        
En esta edición de PHE16, las exposiciones de dos fotógrafas están dando mucho que hablar por motivos muy diferentes. Aunque distantes en el tiempo y el espacio se hallan unidas por un ambiguo misterio.


En la Fundación Canal, Vivian Maier, se presenta fraguada por una hermosa leyenda romántica en torno al mito de Mary Poppins, fotógrafa niñera que de su bolsa de viaje en lugar de percheros, lámparas, espejos o plantas saca Rolleiflex y carretes. Ante el asombro de los dos niños, Mary Poppins atusándose ante el espejo les decía: â€œnunca juzguéis las cosas por las apariencias”.

En el Centro Cultural Fernán GómezCristina de Middel expone Muchismo, una fotógrafa de éxito desde Afronautas que juega con las apariencias.



Muchismofunciona, como afirma Cristina de Middel en el texto de presentación, a modo de inventario. Un inventario del archivo cerebral de sus imágenes, digerido y vomitado desde las vísceras. Al entrar en la difícil sala de los bajos del Centro Fernán Gómez, con ese suelo negro barnizado, la sensación puede ser de desconcierto, como quien entra en una almoneda y se enfrenta a cajones de fotografías sin orden ni concierto.  Dándonos tiempo, el caos acaba configurando su propio orden. 














Si aceptamos el desorden y procuramos pactar con el caos quizá lleguemos a comprender los modelos ocultos, los patrones de comportamiento de este universo propio.


Cristina de Middel se mueve en territorios intermedios, entre arte y documento, entre ficción y realidad, entre el mercado que genera objetos valiosos y estas imágenes que pierden valor por su acumulación y porque son copias de exhibición. Y tiene además un extraordinario talento para elegir historias inverosímiles que relatar a través de sus fotografías.  


En este inventario que es Muchismo, se han mezclado las imágenes de cinco proyectos donde la realidad, si es que existe como tal, supera a cualquier invención.

This is what hatred did  -Esto es lo que hace el odio- es la última frase del libro de Amos Tutuola, Mi vida en la maleza de los fantasmas (1964)  basado en narraciones tradicionales de la mitología africana  vividas a  través del relato  de terror de un niño que huyendo de la guerra se refugia durante treinta años en la selva donde habitan los fantasmas y los espíritus yorubas. 


Party es la historia de otro libro, un pequeño libro rojo que dominó la lectura de un país tan inmenso como China.

Jan Mayen es el nombre de una pequeña isla negra que escupía fuego, al norte de Islandia entre Groenlandia y Noruega. En 1911, una fallida expedición al Polo Norte filmó su supuesto desembarco en esta isla ballenera, a orillas de una playa islandesa.


PolySpam recoge esos mensajes imposibles que entran en la bandeja de nuestra de correo y que nos lanzan anzuelos  apelando apelan a las flaquezas de los siete pecados capitales que dominan nuestras acciones.

Afronautas  es la historia de un profesor y sus alumnos en Zambia, que idearon una catapulta para intentar llegar a la luna  y competir en la carrera espacial con la URSS y Estados Unidos.



Snap fingers and whistle -Chasquea los dedos y silba- es  la documentación de las calles de Nueva York a través de secuencias de la mítica West Side Story que configura, junto a otras películas americanas, el imaginario colectivo que nos permite cuando caminamos por primera vez por dicha ciudad que todo sea tan familiar.

“Decidí documentar Nueva York de acuerdo con lo que esperaba de estas calles tantas veces documentadas. Buscaba la parte real de la película, si es que la había, explorando de nuevo la línea variable entre la realidad y la ficción, a través de la siempre respetable fotografía callejera”

Chasquea los dedos y silba es el hilo conductor que enlaza a ambas fotógrafas, Vivian Maier y Cristina de Middel,  intentando documentar la parte real, si es que existe, de la invención de Nueva York.


El propósito de Cristina de Middel parece ser un intento de documentar la realidad de la ficción.  Esta antropóloga moderna de la imagen no pretende tener una mirada científica sobre el otro, lo tantas veces criticado en su trabajo. 

En la exposición nos sorprende la narración de estos seis cuentos fantásticos, casi reales, que se superponen, se mezclan, se multiplican, se muestran a diferentes tamaños, con diferentes marcos, o sin marco, se fragmenta el relato, se hace saltar por los aires la coherencia interna, para descubrir otras historias.


Son los restos de un naufragio, imágenes recolocadas en la orilla de esa playa que debería ser el Polo Norte pero fue Islandia, y que Cristina ha reconstruido en Escocia.

Son muchas imágenes, un exceso de imágenes producidas por Cristina de Middel y por todos los productores de imágenes desde que se inventó la fotografía (solo de una oscura y secreta fotógrafa como Vivian Maier parecen existir unos 100.000 negativos). Es misión casi imposible intentar elaborar un inventario visual del mundo contemporáneo.  


Es interesante meternos en la cabeza o en las tripas de Cristina de Middel y comprender las reglas sofisticadas del juego, con la apariencia de un damero sencillo, pero que acaba siendo un tablero que se transforma  a modo de los caprichos y laberintos de Piranesi, o de los enigmas de Escher. 

Pero el espectador abrumado por esta montaña de imágenes, apenas tiene respiro para reflexionar, para descubrir las no-normas del juego, el otro lado del espejo de Alicia, perdido entre el poderoso embrujo visual de la acumulación de imágenes hermosas.

Y como Mary Poppins  ante el espejo volvemos a recordar que las apariencias son engañosas.




          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

           The work experiences of loan officers in Microfinance: Is it different for women loan officers? Evidence from Zambia         
Siwale, Juliana (2013) The work experiences of loan officers in Microfinance: Is it different for women loan officers? Evidence from Zambia. In: 2013 British Academy of Management Conference, 10 - 12 September 2013, Liverpool, UK.
           A critical evaluation of international development and poverty: the case of microfinance and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency in Zambia         
Siwale, Juliana (2013) A critical evaluation of international development and poverty: the case of microfinance and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency in Zambia. In: The 8th International Conference in Critical Management Studies, 10-12 July 2013, Manchester University,UK.
           Challenging western perceptions: a case study of rural Zambia         
Siwale, Juliana (2013) Challenging western perceptions: a case study of rural Zambia. In: Interpreting rurality: multidisciplinary approaches. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415696722
          Project Manager (Asset Audit and Tagging) at IHS Towers        

IHS Towers is the largest independent mobile telecommunications infrastructure provider in Europe, Africa and the Middle East.  Founded in 2001, IHS provides services across the full tower value chain – colocation on owned towers, deployment and managed services. Today IHS Towers has operations in Nigeria, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Zambia and Rwanda. Following the recent acquisitions […]

The post Project Manager (Asset Audit and Tagging) at IHS Towers appeared first on Career Hob.


           Accounting for microfinance failure: insights from Zambia         
Siwale, Juliana and Ritchie, John (2013) Accounting for microfinance failure: insights from Zambia. International Journal of Critical Accounting, 5 (6). ISSN 1757-9848
          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
          Clap! Clap! – DIG! DELVE! DAMN! (Dutch Archive Edition)        

Clap! Clap!

“DIG! DELVE! DAMN! (Dutch Archive Edition)”

“To have the honour of digging through the Dutch audio archives was like a dream come true! I was very excited to delve in and explore the vast differences between those countries. It was also an important responsibility to approach the project with respect for the sources of recordings, as many were from the ex-Colonies of the Netherlands.” -Clap! Clap!

Unlocking Sounds revives Amsterdam’s Tropenmuseum audio collection which features thousands of original field recordings from around the globe dating back to the 1920s. This collection was started by Dutch conservationist J.C. Lamster and Jaap Kunst, who would eventually coin the term ‘ethnomusicology’.

To connect with the source material and explore the multitude of intricacies that accompany topics like ethnomusicology, anthropology and cultural appropriation, all the artists visited the Netherlands where they conferred with leading researchers from the University of Amsterdam, Utrecht University, Leiden University, and the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies.

Much like the sampled source material, each artist translates the world sounds through their individual styles. Clap! Clap! – DIG! DELVE! DAMN! (Dutch Archive Edition) strips down his bombastic, multilayered take on global rhythms, jazz, and footwork, letting the samples take center stage. Drawing on the archive’s recordings from Afghanistan, Suriname, Zambia, Bali, Libya, India, Uzbekistan & Morocco, accompanying and accentuating them with his singular voice.
credits

released July 28, 2017

Sampled sounds provided by the Tropenmuseum

www.revivethis.org
materialculture.nl
www.tropenmuseum.nl


          Zone Fam – Da Bidness (Audio)        
Zambian Rap outfit; Zone Fam have come full circle, within the past year they have released Hit after Hit including Contolola, Sinjonjo, Propeller, Lobola and now “Da Bidness”. This is all in anticipation of the release of their second album in February 2014.
           World AIDS Day Programming        
Today, on World AIDS Day, GLAAD’s Entertainment Team takes time to celebrate the future and hope for a better tomorrow while raising awareness about the very real disease that is HIV and AIDS. Sundance Channel features four cinematic salutes to this cause, beginning with the television premiere of the amazing documentary, Where the Water Meets the Sky. Morgan Freeman narrates this clever film about 23 women from the small East African nation of Zambia who, with the help of two teachers, use filmmaking as a tool to speak about their lives, the effect AIDS has had on each of them and their communities and ultimately, to challenge the silence of the local traditions. Where the Water Meets the Sky touches upon the human and courageous nature of these young women who took the risk to share the truth about AIDS in their community and share their stories with the world.
 Where the Water Meets the Sky

Where the Water Meets the Sky

From writer-producer Madonna comes the premiere of I Am Because We Are, a call to action about Africa’s Malawi orphans. Also on Sundance, French filmmaker Andre Techine's drama The Witness followed by writer-director Thom Fitzgerald’s The Event, starring Parker Posey as an assistant D.A. investigating the deaths of AIDS patients in NY. Showtime’s programming starts with the Emily Abt documentary, All of Us, about the Ethiopian-American HIV/AIDS activist Dr. Mehret Mandefro and his work educating at-risk patients in the Bronx about health, relationships, and the human spirit. Love in a Time of HIV depicts HIV positive people in all walks of life, from a 27 year old in Cape Town, South Africa to a mother and daughter in New York City to a young straight couple in London. BET has joined with Alicia Keys to present a special episode of their signature show, 106 & Park. Keys and special guests will encourage teens to get tested and discuss why knowing your status is so important.  Keys’ organization Keep a Child Alive is dedicated to giving treatment, care and financial support to children and families affected by HIV/AIDS in Africa and India. Her live sold out Nokia show will be available on You Tube at 8pm, for free, also in support of World Aids Day. In an interesting local news story, Cambridge Community Television will darken its Channel 10 and display a continuous scroll of the names of Cambridge, MA community members lost to HIV/AIDS. The names have been collected over the years and community members are urged to call or email names of loved ones and friends lost to the disease. A few times every hour commemorative pieces performed by local artists will be shown as well. Held every year on December 1, World AIDS Day reminds our global community that this epidemic is real, still relevant, and people need to aware of it. For more information on how to get involved with this event check out www.worldaidsday.org.
December 1, 2009

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It’s a long way from the Grove, but Zambia is going to be home now for Catherine Grace Norris (BSGE 16). Norris took her “still warm” diploma around the world to find relevance and reward in her major. She is working with strangers who have become her closest friends overnight, literally. The night is aRead the story …

The post Catherine Grace Norris: Muzungu from Mississippi appeared first on Ole Miss News.


          Feminism FTW        

Oh Emma Watson, I <3 you so much. Thank you for putting this issue into words so eloquently. I've tried (and often failed) to explain the ideas behind feminism as gender neutral; to justify the term "feminism;" and to find a way to call out those who equate feminism with misandry with such grace and poise.

Feminism isn't just about women and girls. It's about people, and acknowledging that for equality, the female half of things needs a boost. But like she says in her video, feminism is also about changing hurtful barriers for males, too. Feminism isn't just about females - it's about making sure that little girls born in Albania or Zimbabwe get the same chance at a successful, fulfilling life as do baby boys born in America or Zambia.


I seriously cannot recommend this speech enough. Hermione would be proud.



          Comment on Why Poverty? The BBC’s best kept secret? by Mariana Swann        
It seems to me that the rich world is quite happy to live in ignorance. Yes, that's right. IGNORANCE of the truth about poverty. I watched the Why Poverty programme called Stealing Africa, and it confirmed what I have known all my life: big multinationals and powerful countries steal from poorer nations, and that is how they manage to grow richer and fatter. Not only that, the poor are then blamed for being poor (they are lazy, they are corrupt, etc etc). The BBC should broadcast these programmes again, please, and advertise them well. Not everyone wants to watch celebrities or soap operas... By the way, here's an article about rich sugar/tea multinationals not paying taxes in Zambia. Shame on them. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/09/zambia-sugar-empire-tax      
          Education is cheaper than ignorance        
From rural Zambia:
          Comment on Shop by Milton Sinyangwe        
what is the CIF Zambia Africa price?
          Maeneo ya kuabudu Tanzania kuboreshwa        

 Waziri wa Nchi Ofisi ya Rais Utumishi na Utawala Bora  Angela Kairuki akihutubia kwenye mkutano wa kitaifa wa shukrani na kumuombea Rais Dk.John Magufuli pamoja na nchi uliofanyika Uwanja wa Uhuru jijini Dar es Salaam jana.

Kwaya ya Kanisa la Kiinjili la Kilutheri Tanzania (KKKT), Usharika wa Kijitonyama ikitoa burudani ya nyimbo za kumsifu mungu katika mkutano huo.
 Burudani ya kwaya ikiendelea.
 Kikundi cha Utoaji Hamasa  kikiwa kazini uwanjani hapo.
 Mwonekano katika majukwaa.

 Maandamano yakipita mbele ya mgeni rasmi Angela Kairuki.

 Maandamano yakiendelea.
 Mjumbe wa Kamati ya maandalizi ya mkutano huo, Jane Magigita akimwelekeza jambo mgeni rasmi wa mkutano huo Waziri wa Nchi Ofisi ya Rais Utumishi na Utawala Bora  Angela Kairuki baada ya kuwasili kwenye mkutano huo.
 Baadhi ya maaskofu na wachungaji wakiwa katika picha ya pamoja na mgeni rasmi.
 Mratibu wa maombi hayo ambaye ni Askofu Mkuu wa Kanisa la Abudant Blessing Center (ABC), Askofu Flaston Ndabila akisalimiana na mgeni rasmi.
 Mgeni rasmi Angela Kairuki akisaini baada ya kufika katika mkutano huo.
 Wananchi wakiwa jukwaani wakati wa mkutano huo.
 Mtumishi wa mungu muhubiri wa kimataifa mtanzania anayeishi Marekani, Dk. Nicku Kyungu 'Mama Afrika' (katikati), akiwa meza kuu na mgeni rasmi, Angela Kairuki (kulia). Kushoto ni Mratibu wa maombi hayo ambaye ni Askofu Mkuu wa Kanisa la Abudant Blessing Center (ABC), Askofu Flaston Ndabila
 Jukwaani.
 Wanafunzi kutoka Shule maalumu ya Jeshi la Wokovu wakiimba katika mkutano huo.
 Mtumishi wa mungu muhubiri wa kimataifa mtanzania anayeishi Marekani, Dk. Nicku Kyungu 'Mama Afrika' akizungumza kwenye mkutano huo.
 Maaskofu wakimsindikiza mgeni rasmi Angela Kairuki kuelekea jukwaa lililoandaliwa kwa maombi na kuhutubia.
 Maombi yakifanyika.
 Askofu Bernard Nwaka kutoka nchini Zambia akimuombea Rais Dk.Joh Magufuli.
 Mtumishi wa mungu Askofu kutoka Marekani akiomba.
 Askofu Timoth Joseph kutoka Nigeria akiombea nchi.
 Askofu Sylvester Gamanywa akiomba.
 Maombi ya kuombea vyombo vya usalama na ulinzi yakifanyika.
 Maombi yakiendelea.
 Askofu kutoka Afrika Kusini akiombea nchi.
 Mwenyekiti wa kamati ya maandalizi ya maombi hayo, Askofu Mkuu wa Naoith Pentekoste Church, Dk.David Mwasota akiombea nchi kuhusu uchumi.
 Mtumishi wa mungu muhubiri wa kimataifa mtanzania anayeishi Marekani, Dk. Nicku Kyungu 'Mama Afrika' akiteta jambo na Waziri Angela Kairuki.

 Mwakilishi wa Askofu Dk. Alex Malasusa wa Kanisa la Kinjili la Kilutheri Tanzania , Mchungaji Andrew King akizungumza kwenye mkutano huo.
Maaskofu Wakuu wakiwa jukwaani katika mkutano huo.
 Maombi ya kuombea nchi yakiendelea.



 Kwaya ikitoa burudani.
Mratibu wa maombi hayo ambaye ni Askofu Mkuu wa Kanisa la Abudant Blessing Center (ABC), Askofu Flaston Ndabila akihitima maombi hayo kwa kutoa neno la shukrani.

Na Dotto Mwaibale

SERIKALI itaendelea kuboresha mazingira bora na wezeshi ili kila mtanzania apate uhuru wa kuabudu kupitia dini yake na hata kwa yule ambaye hana dini.

Hayo yalisemwa na Waziri wa Nchi Ofisi ya Rais Utumishi na Utawala Bora , Angela Kairuki wakati akihutubia kwenye maaombi maalumu ya kitaifa ya kuombea nchi na Rais Dk.John Magufuli yaliyofanyika Uwanja wa Uhuru jijini Dar es Salaam jana ambapo alikuwa mgeni rasmi.

"Serikali licha ya kuwa haina dini itaendelea kuboresha mazingira ya kuabudu ili kila mwananchi apate fursa ya kuabudu bila ya bugudha yoyote" alisema Kairuki.

Alisema viongozi wa dini kuptia taasisi zao wamekuwa wakifanya kazi kubwa ya kuiletea nchi maendeleo na amani ambayo imedumu tangu tupate uhuru hivyo wanapaswa kupongezwa.

Kairuki alisema serikali ina thamini maombi yanayofanywa na viongozi wa dini hapa nchini kwani yanaleta amani, umoja na uzalendo na si kwa waumini wa dini pekee bali na kwa watu wote wenye mapenzi na nchi yetu.

Waziri Kairuki alisema ni vizuri tukatumia fursa hii ya amani iliyopo nchini kwa kila mtu kufanya kazi kwa bidii kama Rais Dk.John Magufuli anavyohimiza kila siku ikiwa pamoja na kumuombea.

Mtumishi wa mungu muhubiri wa kimataifa mtanzania anayeishi Marekani, Dk. Nicku Kyungu 'Mama Afrika' ambaye alipata maono ya kufanya mkutano huo wa maombi ya shukrani hapa nchini alisema Afrika pamoja na Tanzania zimebarikiwa kwa kuwa na rasilimali za kutosha tulizopewa na mungu hivyo hatuna budi kumshukuru mungu.

Alisema Tanzania imejaa kila kitu kizuri, mbuga za wanyama, madini, ardhi ikiwemo amani iliyodumu tangu utawala wa Hayati baba wa Taifa Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, Ali Hassan Mwinyi, Benjamin Mkapa, Jakaya Kikwete na sasa Dk. John Magufuli.

Alisema kutokana na neema hiyo kutoka kwa mungu aliona ni vema yakafanyika maombi ya shukrani ya kitaifa na kumuombea Rais Dk.John Magufuli na nchi kwa ujumla.

Dk.Kyungu alisema kauli alioianzisha Rais Dk. Magufuli ya Hapa Kazi tu ipo katika biblia hivyo ni wajibu wa kila mtu kufanya kazi kama mungu alivyomuagiza adamu pale bustani ya hedeni na hiyo itasaidia kupambana na adui umaskini, ujinga na maradhi hasa katika kipindi hiki ambacho Rais Dk. John Magufuli anahimiza nchi kuingia katika uchumi wa viwanda.


Katika maombi hayo maaskofu wakuu zaidi ya kumi kutoka ndani na nje ya Tanzania waliweza kuiombea nchi katika maeneo mbalimbali, kama uchumi, vyama vya siasa na viongozi wao, Rais na Serikali, Bunge, amani, masuala ya ulinzi na usalama na mambo mengine.

Maombi hayo ambayo ni ya kihistoria hapa nchini yaliandaliwa na  viongozi wa dini kutoka madhehebu ya Huduma ya Kikristo Tanzania na Taasisi ya I Go Africa For Jesus yalifanyika kuanzia saa nne asubuhi hadi jioni na kuhudhuriwa na mamia ya watanzania na viongozi wa dini huku yakipambwa na burudani za nyimbo za kumtukuza mungu kutoka kwaya mbalimbali ambapo yalifungwa na neno la shukrani na Mratibu wa maombi hayo ambaye ni Askofu Mkuu wa Kanisa la Abudant Blessing Center (ABC), Askofu Flaston Ndabila.

Baadhi ya maaskofu wakuu waliohudhuria maombi hayo ni pamoja na Dk. Philemon Tibananason, Dk.Bernard Nwaka kutoka Zambia, Sylvester Gamanywa, Lawrence Kameta, Dk.Barnabas Mtokambali, Timoth Joseph kutoka Nigeria na wengine kutoka nje ya nchi.

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TOUR (wins)    
PGA TOUR (19)    
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RSM Classic Mackenzie Hughes Pro V1x
SBS Tournament of Champions Justin Thomas Pro V1x
Sony Open in Hawaii Justin Thomas Pro V1x
AT&T Pebble Beach Pro-Am Jordan Spieth Pro V1x
Honda Classic Rickie Fowler Pro V1
Puerto Rico Open D.A. Points Pro V1x
Shell Houston Open Russell Henley Pro V1x
Zurich Classic of New Orleans Cameron Smith and Jonas Blixt Pro V1x
Wells Fargo Championship Winner Pro V1x
AT&T Byron Nelson Championship Billy Horschel Pro V1x
DEAN & DELUCA Invitational Kevin Kisner Pro V1
The Memorial Tournament Jason Dufner Pro V1x
117th U.S. OPEN CHAMPIONSHIP Winner Pro V1x
Travelers Championship Jordan Spieth Pro V1x
Quicken Loans National Kyle Stanley Pro V1
RBC Canadian Open Jhonattan Vegas Pro V1
     
EUROPEAN TOUR (17)    
Alfred Dunhill Championship Brandon Stone Pro V1
BMW South African Open Graeme Storm Pro V1x
Abu Dhabi HSBC Championship Tommy Fleetwood Pro V1x
Commercial Bank Qatar Masters Jeung-hun Wang Pro V1x
Maybank Championship Fabrizio Zanotti Pro V1
World Super 6 Perth Brett Rumford Pro V1x
Joburg Open Darren Fichardt Pro V1x
Hero Indian Open SSP Chawrasia Pro V1x
Shenzhen International Bernd Wiesberger Pro V1
Volvo China Open Alex Levy Pro V1x
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          Farmer Reaps the Benefit of Embracing Conservation Agriculture        

A tale of how a lead farmer in Chongwe District, Zambia has defied the odds and has moved herself out..

The post Farmer Reaps the Benefit of Embracing Conservation Agriculture appeared first on Impakter.


          Es un bulo el humanoide volador en Zambia         
Circula en algunas webs una falsa historia. Supuestamente en Zambia vieron un humanoide volador en el cielo, provocando preocupación y personas rezándole a Dios creyendo que era una manifestación divina.

La historia al parecer proviene de la Fanpage de Facebook “Zambia Watch" (1).

La imagen no es auténtica, es un montaje de una cometa.

Buscando encontré esta imagen
Más clara que la supuesta imagen de Zambia ¿no?
Continue buscando y encontré el Instagram de una muchacha de nombre Yessy Lim. Ella subió el 9 de febrero del presente año la imagen de la cometa. (2)
Ahora una comparación
Fotografía original del Instagram de Yessy, arriba. Abajo montaje de la noticia falsa de Zambia.
Referencias:

1. Publicación de Zambia Watch

2. Publicación de Yessy Lim
          Comment on Sakeji Photo Archives by Joshua Kaluwasha        
Sakeji is by far the most adventure filled school in Zambia.
          Global Day of Action Against Roche’s Inhumanity #RocheGreedKills        
  ACTIVISTS AROUND THE WORLD MARCH #ForTobeka  – Demonstrations held at Roche & pharma associations in South Africa, Malaysia, UK, France, Zambia, Brazil, US – 108 organisations endorse a letter to Roche                               Tuesday, 7th February 2017 – Swiss multinational company Roche […]
          Record-breaking 47 young trade unionists participate in May Day brigade in Cuba        


The British and Irish 2017 May Day brigade delegation
A record-breaking 47 young trade unionists and activists from Britain and Ireland participated in the 12th annual Cuba Solidarity Campaign (CSC) young trade unionists’ May Day brigade to Cuba.
The largest ever CSC delegation - representing millions of workers from across the British and Irish trade union movement including delegates from Unite, UNISON, TSSA, GMB, RMT and CWU - took part in a full programme of solidarity and agricultural work, conferences, meetings, visits and exchanges with the Cuban people.
A total of 286 brigadistas from 29 countries – demonstrating the excellent range of international solidarity with Cuba – attended the brigade where they took part in solidarity work and learned how they could support Cuba’s ongoing struggle to end the illegal US blockade of the island.
The brigade was mostly spent at the Julio Antonio Mella International Camp (CIJAM) in rural Cuba,near Caimito, Artemisia province, 40km away from Havana. Conditions on the camp were basic, with shared dormitory accommodation, basic meals and cold water showers, but the delegates fully embraced the inspirational atmosphere on the camp of internationalism and solidarity.
Performing agricultural work
All continents were represented at CIJAM, with brigadistas attending from countries including Chile, Brazil, Congo, Zambia, Switzerland, Korea, Australia, Ukraine and many more. For the first time ever, a United States delegation took part in the brigade, with 50 activists representing the US, including Black Lives Matter activists from Chicago alongside solidarity activists from Chicago, LA, Philadelphia and New York.
In addition to the opportunity to speak to Cubans about their lives and experiences under US blockade, the international camp was an excellent environment for the young members to share ideas and exchanges with trade unionists and activists from all around the world.
Delegates took part in agricultural work based locally to the camp included weeding, cutting crass, cleaning and clearing rocks and sticks. Grass was cut by hand using machetes, giving the young members a brief insight into the difficulties of agricultural work under the blockade in Cuba, as many resources are difficult to obtain.

Brick making at a co-operative in Artemisa
The brigade visited local co-operatives in Artemisia, which are playing an increasingly significant role in Cuba’s economy. Agriculture is the largest sector in Artemisia province, and the co-operatives visited produced a variety of fruits such as coconuts and mangoes, vegetables, sugar, cattle, milk and beans. The co-ops also produced non-agricultural products, such as brick making. Over 330 workers were employed at the cooperative the brigade visited, where the workers were paid a monthly salary plus shares of the profits.
May Day
Havana May Day march
The highlight of the brigade for many of the young workers was the spectacular May Day rally in Havana, under the banner of “Unity is our Strength”. Over 800,000 Cubans from the Havana province marched through the capital - and other huge marches took part in each of Cuba’s 16 provinces.
May Day 2017 in Havana
Half of the delegation joined the huge rally, where they marched alongside the Cuban workers in Havana, and the other half watched from the tribune at Revolution Square alongside hundreds of international guests and trade unionists, where they stood near to the Cuban President Raul Castro, Ulises Guilarte CTC (Cuban TUC) General Secretary and four of the Miami Five Cuban heroes.
This was the first May Day since the passing of the historic leader of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro. The event featured many tributes, images and banners celebrating the leader, and chants of ‘Viva Fidel!’ and ‘Yo Soy Fidel!’ erupted from the crowd.
International Solidarity with Cuba Conference
On May 2 the brigade participated in the International Solidarity with Cuba Conference at the Palace of Conventions in Havana. This unique opportunity, as official guests of the CTC, allowed young members to participate in a conference in a prestigious venue where Cuba’s parliamentarians meet and state visits are held.

International Solidarity with Cuba Conference
The conference featured many high level Cuban politicians and trade unionists and was attended by over 1,000 international solidarity activists and trade unionists from around the world.
Esteemed guests and speakers included Salvador Valdés Mesa, a vice president of the Council of State, Ana Teresita González Fraga, Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, Raymundo Navarro, International Secretary CTC (Cuban TUC), Teresa Amarelle Boué, General Secretary of the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC), José Ramón Balaguer Cabrera, member of the Secretariat of the PCC Central Committee and head of its International Relations Department, Fernando González Llort, President of the Cuban Institute of Friendship with Peoples (ICAP), and the General Secretary and Vice President of the World Federation of Trade Unions, George Mavrikos and Valentin Pachu.
Ana Teresita González gave a detailed update on Cuban foreign policy and the island's relations across the globe. The Vice Minister stressed that despite the 2015 re-establishment of diplomatic relations with the United States, the US blockade of the island remains in place and Guantanamo Bay continues to be illegally occupied by the US.
Furthermore, Miami Five hero Fernando González said; “When we hear in the media that the U.S. government is improving its relations with Cuba, it does not mean that the blockade has been eliminated, the blockade against the Cuban people continues.”
Highlighting the importance of international solidarity - which he said played a key role in the successful struggle for his and all the Miami Five’s freedom - Fernando called on those present to continue their support for the end of the blockade and the closure of the Guantánamo Naval Base and the return of this illegally occupied territory to the Cuban people.
UNISON Scotland delegate Jenni Gunn was interviewed by the national Cuban paper Granma International at the Conference. “You hear a lot about the politics of the Revolution but it really transcends into the social aspect of Cuba as well… the people of Cuba are just some of the warmest people I’ve ever met,” Jenni said in the interview. Unite Ireland delegate Conor McGuinness also gave an interview to Cuban television during the conference.
Cienfuegos
Doctor at the Cienfuegos Hospital
A three day trip to Cienfuegos was included in the programme to visit hospitals, universities and communities in the region. The delegation stayed at Hotel Pasacaballo, a hotel which recently was used to accommodate patients as part of Operation Miracle, a joint Cuban-Venezuelan initiative which restored the eyesight of 4 million people across Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa and Asia.
Before visiting Cienfuegos, the brigade the visited Che Guevara Memorial and the Armoured train in Santa Clara - the site of the Battle of Santa Clara, where Che’s battalion attacked a train carrying weapons for Batista, a defining moment which ultimately led to the triumph Cuban Revolution.
Medical students from Western Sahara
Visits in Cienfuegos included the Dr Gustavo Alderguia Lima University General Hospital, where the delegates were given a presentation from a doctor at the hospital and later met with medical students from Cuba and overseas.
In addition to free university and medical school education that Cuba provides for its own citizens, the socialist island also offers free medical scholarships to young people from across the developing world. At the University Hospital in the delegation met with students from a wide range of countries including South Africa, Venezuela, Bolivia and Western Sahara.
At a welcome event in Cienfuegos, featuring performances by local musicians and artists, Unite Ireland delegate Conor McGuinness spoke on behalf of the delegation, calling on the US to end the blockade of Cuba and sending solidarity greetings on behalf of the British and Irish trade union movement.
Conor McGuinness speaks on behalf of our delegation
A local CDR (Committees for the Defence of the Revolution) in Cienfuegos welcomed the entire 286-strong brigade to their community with welcome songs, dancing, speeches and food for their international guests.
The event provided a great opportunity to speak to the Cuban people about their lives, politics and society, with some brigadistas welcomed into the homes of the community, including one with a plaque that was visited by Raul Castro and Hugo Chavez, the late Venezuelan President. The community’s houses visited were built as part of a joint Cuba-Venezuela project to host international delegates at the 2007 Petrocaribe Summit in Cienfuegos. The newly built houses were then provided to the local community following the end of the conference.
Many trade unions had raised material aid for their delegates to take over with them to the island, as due to the blockade Cuba struggles to obtain many essential items. The material aid included sanitary products, condoms, pens, paper and notebooks. Some of the material aid was presented to the Co-ordinator of the CDR, and more material aid was re-distributed by ICAP in Artemisa.
Amongst a packed schedule there was also free time to explore, visit museums, historical sites and practice speaking Spanish in Havana, Cienfuegos and Trinidad.
International Solidarity with Cuba
The brigade saw first-hand the achievements of the Cuban Revolution; world class hospitals, universities training Cuban and international medicine students for free; hundreds of thousands of proud Cubans marching in unity and celebrating their achievements; and trade unions and mass organisations directly involved in the running and legislation of their country. Yet if the blockade was to be lifted, Cuba could achieve so much more.
With the recent election of US President Donald Trump, who has appointed some key pro-blockade lobbyists into leading roles in his administration, the Cuban people made clear that international solidarity with the island is now more important than ever.
TSSA delegate Gary Kilroy spoke on behalf of the delegation at a concluding meeting at CIJAM. He spoke of the delegation’s inspiration that they had got from the brigade and their commitment to campaigning in their trade union and in CSC on their return home to end the US blockade and return the Guantanamo Bay area to the Cuban people.


Brigadista feedback:
“Visiting Cuba with CSC has been an inspirational opportunity to see the benefits of progressive, people-focused politics first-hand. It was incredible to witness the achievements of Cuban society in terms of health, education and social well being, despite the harsh limitations imposed by the blockade. Despite recent improvements in diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba, the island is still under economic siege from its giant neighbour. The illegal and inhumane US blockade of Cuba must be lifted, and international solidarity and support will be key to achieving this.” Conor McGuinness, Unite Ireland
“Witnessing first hand the strength and resolve of the Cuban people, and their commitment to their revolution was awe-inspiring… This small Caribbean Island stands as a beacon of hope for all oppressed people across the world and it certainly has filled me with the determination to take the message of the revolution home with me - that it is possible to feed every hungry child, that it is possible to guarantee that every citizen has the right to a world class education and the right to a long and healthy life. It has shown me the importance of international solidarity and how these bonds are essential in challenging the US blockade and supporting the sovereignty of the Cuban people in their struggle at Guantanamo. This trip has been life changing, and has given me the determination to get more active within my own union and in the Cuba Solidarity Campaign, to spread the word that Cuba needs our solidarity now, more than ever.” Jenni Gunn, UNISON Scotland
“I’m hugely thankful to have been given this once-in-a lifetime opportunity to see a side of Cuba that most tourists won’t. It was a real privilege to meet so many local community activists along with delegates from different countries all over the world, with an absolute highlight being able to attend the May Day parade in Havana. Overall, the experience has certainly strengthened my resolve to help towards building a fairer society over here too, and I really hope to return to Cuba one day.” Katie Roskams, Unite North East, Yorkshire & Humberside Region
“All in all, Cuba is an amazing and extremely interesting country that has a lot to be proud of. Top class health care, astounding education system and not one homeless person in the whole country. Viva Cuba!” Danie Chance, Unite East Midlands
“Cubans are so proud of their country and it’s so clear why, because I would be too! The brigade made me passionate about promoting the end to the blockade and the closure of Guantanamo Bay. Not enough people know about what’s happened in Cuba and the massive injustice Cubans have suffered, and I want to help put that right.” Cathy Kamara, Unite National Publishing Branch
“Visiting Cuba has inspired me and given me hope. It's reinforced that there is a viable and adequate alternative to what the majority of us currently live under - something that can and will supersede the greed of capitalism. Cuba has made great achievements in health care and education, despite the US blockade and their continued attempts to destabilise the. If the blockade was listed the country could achieve so much more. This wouldn't only benefit the Cuban people, but the rest of the world. Solidarity is crucial and we must continue to educate ourselves and others about the real situation with Cuba.” Jamie George, CWU
“Going to Cuba with CSC was a fantastic experience I have come home with a lot more knowledge on Cuban history and how the country runs now and how important helping to campaign and fight the illegal blockade that the USA has imposed on the country. Going forward I want to get branches affiliated to CSC and get more young members the opportunity to go to Cuba with CSC and give them the experience I had volunteering with agricultural work seeing the hospitals and see how real socialism works. This whole experience has given me so much more enthusiasm and a fresh way of looking at campaigning back home. I encourage everyone to go to Cuba and see this amazing country and the amazing people who live there." Rebecca Mitchell, GMB Birmingham and West Midlands Region
“Going to Cuba with an open mind has enthused and enriched me politically by allowing me to see what can be achieved in a country where everyone is fighting for the same cause. Seeing first-hand the successes in public healthcare and education, it can only beg the question of what may be possible without the harsh blockade imposed by the USA, affecting every Cuban daily. Lifting the blockade will allow Cubans to have viable links to international markets, particularly its closest neighbours, the US. Without the blockade, Cuba would be able to export its products to the US and import essentials such as medical supplies and food, therefore benefiting everyone. International solidarity is critical for Cuba, to show that they are not on their own in their struggle for a fair society, to show that we do not support the unlawful blockade and to ultimately pressure the USA into ending it, as this is the only way Cuba will be able to develop and succeed to their full potential.” Harry Gibb, TSSA
"Cuba has achieved so much in every single sector despite the illegal blockade from the USA. Healthcare, education and social security are the sectors that Cuba sets an example to all countries. Being a brigadista with the CSC May Day brigade was an honour, having the chance to experience first hand the simple life and values of Cuban people and their everyday struggle to overpass the difficulties caused by the illegal blockade… Solidarity to everyone with common interests, without discrimination - that is Cuba's message to the world. Solidarity to the unions everywhere, to every government and movement trying to do the best thing for its people and solidarity to Cuba! That is the message as a brigadista that I will try to pass on.” Naya Posotidou, Unite National Publishing Branch

 â€œFor all the warmth, welcome and love that the Cubans shared with us, we need to return their solidarity by dispelling the myths about their country. We need to double our efforts to put political pressure on our MP’s to campaign for the United States to finally lift the blockade. We need to show our practical solidarity and organise to support them any way we can. I have huge admiration of the Cuban people and their achievements, but even more could be achieved if the blockade was lifted and Cuba could trade its goods with the world.” Chris Trestrail, Unite Scotland

"The experience of visiting Cuba has broadened my horizons beyond U.K politics and helped me to begin to develop an understanding of socialism in practice. British trade unions have a long history of solidarity with Latin America and I am incredibly proud to be a part of that tradition. It is inspiring to see a country put the well-being of its population first. Health, education and housing are not treated as extras but as fundamental rights. I have made friends for life through my involvement in the Cuba Solidarity Campaign. I will continue to express solidarity with the Cuban people until the blockade is lifted and Guantanamo is returned". Gwen Cross, Unite South East Region

“Overall, my trip to Cuba was hugely influential and really inspiring… The Brigade showed us all aspects of Cuban life from Health to Education to Agriculture and to be able to participate and work alongside them not as tourists but instead as friends and supporters was a hugely humbling and powerful experience.” Luke Addison

“Going to Cuba with an open mind I was blown away with the people that I met and the knowledge I gained. From start to finish it was educational and entertaining. My eyes were opened by talking with the Cuban people. Their struggle to end the blockade is a bigger struggle than many people will ever face in a lifetime, but they were happy and full of optimism for the future. The passion they showed for their struggle will live with me forever and for that reason I will be hoping to return in 2018, hopefully seeing Cuba marching forward to victory in ending the blockade! VIVA CUBA!” Ciaran Dwyer

For more brigade photos, visit the CSC Flickr page

For more information on Cuba Solidarity Campaign, visit the CSC Website
If you are interested in attending the 2018 May Day brigade, please get in touch with Ollie Hopkins, CSC Campaigns Officer

Gwen Cross, Unite South East delegate on May Day
UNISON delegates march on May Day


GMB Delegates Rebecca Mitchell and Joe Spicer on May Day

          The Sound of Songwriter José Cónde        
JoseConde11_1-c-MichelleCure

José Cónde lives his lyrics. He gets grooves from the names of trees. He leaves melody lines on his own answering machine. He can turn a playful refrain to his dog into a dance anthem. His songs are odes to hot dresses, Brazilian muses, discombobulated elephants, and life-giving springs.

Cónde brings a new focus and maturity to this whimsical world on Jose Conde. He turns highly personal songs into new global grooves and reflective, dynamic ballads.

“When I was in my 20s, I didn’t dance at all. I had to come out of my shell,” Cónde exclaims with a laugh. “I’m a late bloomer, though I’ve always been explorer. Now I’ll go anywhere and do anything, I’ll try anything, experimenting with flavors and playing around with different elements and sounds.”

As a songwriter and bandleader, Cónde developed a striking instinct for merging his Miami upbringing, Cuban roots, and the sizzle of New York’s Latin underground. But the new self-titled album is distinguished by a universality; catchy melodies and danceable rhythms likely to draw listeners of all stripes.  Cónde has traded in his Cubantres for a vintage Gresch guitar (and Hammond B3 and a dozen other instruments). Pan-American and trans-Atlantic influences flow effortlessly onJose Conde. “The whole idea of fusing elements of American funk, Cuban son, and Brazilian music has been kicking around in my head for years. But it was still in the context of a ‘Latin’ band. Now I’m free to move in any and all directions.”

Cónde rocks a smoking tango (“El Vestido”) or sways through a sensuous, gentle samba (“Mabel”). Lyrically, he points to the absurdness of the habitat displacement that led to an elephant wandering into a Zambian hotel lobby (taken straight from the pages of National Geographic; on “Elephante en Hotel”). Or to the crazy, rockabilly-tinged capers of his dog (“Gordito Cabezon”).



Rumba meets infectious Brooklyn break beats on “Amor y Felicidad.” The hard-grooving “Matapalo Matamusa” sparkles with electro blips while raising the roof off the sucker, thanks to funky guitar riffs and an irresistible bass line. Cónde’s musical exuberance bursts out at the least provocation. Witness the cool cha-cha-cha-suggesting phrase in the South African language of Tsonga (“Munghana Wamina”).Yet the irrepressible spontaneity is balanced by an emotional and introspective side that turns grooves into poetry.


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          Chisembele, S. 2016. Zambia, the freedom struggle and the aftermath: The personal story of freedom fighter and leader Sylvester Mwamba Chisembele. [Book review]        
Chisembele, S. 2016. Zambia, the freedom struggle and the aftermath: The personal story of freedom fighter and leader Sylvester Mwamba Chisembele. [Book review] Kanduza, Ackson M
           Whither Zambia? The Zambian presidential and parliamentary elections of November 1996         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Whither Zambia? The Zambian presidential and parliamentary elections of November 1996. ELECTORAL STUDIES, 16 (3). pp. 407-416. ISSN 0261-3794
          Tobacco Kill, ban it        
Tobacco Kill, ban it
Public Agenda
Monday, June 1st, 2009
By Basiru Adam

Vision for Alternative Development [VALD], and NGO, convinced that Tobacco has done more harm than good to both smokers and non-smokers, has demanded that government takes a number of measures, including increase tax on tobacco, to make Ghana an unpleasant market for tobacco trade. The NGO believes that government would be saving more money as against the returns it makes from tobacco companies if it protected its citizens from exposing themselves to the harmful effects tobacco. “Our health facilities are already overstretched. How many specialized units do we have at Korle-Bu? How is government going to come up with money to take care of diseases that result from tobacco smoking?” asks Issah Ali, Executive Director of VALD. VALD is thus asking for a hundred percent ban on Tobacco smoking in public places even as it calls for the passage of Tobacco Control Bill that has been pending since 2005 into law.

Issah Ali refuted the notion that smokers could be allotted designated places where they could smoke. In his view, there is no guarantee whatever that the smoke, the movement of which cannot be controlled, would not ultimately reach non-smokers. “As there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke, we are recommending a 100% ban on smoking in public places. Kenya, Zambia and other countries have banned smoking. Public smoking in Abuja is illegal. Designating areas for smokers does not protect non-smokers.” In the Western World, governments have and continue to tighten control measures so that Tobacco companies are finding it increasingly less conducive to do business in those countries. Naturally therefore, such companies would be looking for jurisdictions that have loose regulations to stay and expand their frontiers. And Issah Ali believes that the Tobacco companies are finding Africa a safe haven in that regard. For example, he argued, some of the companies are putting up production plants in Senegal and elsewhere in Africa to serve as a strong manufacturing base in the supply of the drug.

Meanwhile, there is in place, in the international arena, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] which was negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization and unanimously approved by member states of the World Health Assembly. Ghana, as usual, is one of the 164 countries that are party to the convention. “Ghana is among the first forty countries which supported the entry into force of the FCTC.” The objective of the convention is to “protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption.” It is on the back of the afore-mentioned that VALD is urging the government of Ghana to expedite action on the passage into law of the Tobacco Control Bill to give effective provisions of the framework convention. Article 4 of the convention demands of Ghana that “every person should be informed of the health consequences, addictive nature, and mortal threat posed by tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and effective legislative, executive, administrative or other measures should be contemplated at the appropriate governmental level to protect all persons from exposure to tobacco smoke.” To strengthen implementation of the law if passed, VALD proposes that government establishes a Tobacco Control Council, comprising relevant agencies and civil society groups to advice the health minister and other relevant agencies in the enforcement of the Tobacco Control Act.

Another worrying phenomenon that VALD wants government to be wary of is the attempt by tobacco companies to maneuver their way into the good books of legislator as it alleged to have happened in Kenya. Before Kenyan parliamentarians debated the bill on tobacco control, a tobacco company is alleged to have carter some of them away into a hotel where they were to believed to have been bribed so that “upon their retune from the sponsored holiday, interesting proposals were made towards weakening the bill.” “We are not saying it is happening in Ghana. But we know the possibility is there,” says Issah Ali. Issah Ali thus urged government and the Association of Ghana Industries to stop dealing with tobacco companies. “The health effects of tobacco are circumstances, mechanisms and factors of tobacco consumption on human health. Epidemiological research has been focused primarily on tobacco smoking, which has been studied more extensively than any other form of consumption. As of 2000, smoking is practice by some 1.22 billion people, of which men are likely to smoke than women, however the gender gap decline with age, poor more likely than rich, and people of developing countries more than those of developed countries. Fresh tobacco processed tobacco, and tobacco smoke contain carcinogens. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Acrolein, and Nitrosamines are created during pyrolysis. These compounds are DNA adducts which induces mutation during DNA copying.

Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], emphysema, and cancer. As of 2000, smoking is practiced by 1.22 billion people. Assuming no change in prevalence it is predicted that 1.45 billion people will smoke in 2010 and 1.5 to 1.9 billion in 2025. Assuming that prevalence will decrease at 1% a year and that there will be a modest increase of income of 2%, it is predicted the number of smokers will stand at 1.3 billion 2010 and 2025. Smoking is generally five times higher among men than women; however the gender gap has begins to decline with younger age.

As of 2002 in China 67% of men smoke as to 4% of women, however among teens the gap closes to 33% among men as to 8% with women. In developed countries smoking rates for men have peaked and have begun to decline, however for women they continue to climb. As of 2002, about twenty percent of young teens [13 – 15] smoke worldwide. From which 80,000 to 10,000 children begin to smoking every day, of which roughly half of which live in Asia. Half of those who begin smoking in adolescent years go on to smoke for 15 to 20 years. Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor.” Of the 1.22 billion smokers, 1 billion of them live in developing or transitional economies. Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world, from which the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006 falling from 42% to 20.8% in adult.
However, up to 30% of men are former smokers in developing countries, only 2% of men in China have quit, and 10% in Vietnam. In the developing world, however, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year as of 2002. The WHO in 2004 projected 58.8 million deaths to occur globally, from which 5.4 million are tobacco-attributed, and 4.9 million as of 2007. As of 2002, 70% of the deaths are developing countries “. Wikipidia.com
          NGO urges early passage of Tobacco Control Bill        
NGO urges early passage of Tobacco Control Bill Ghanaian Times
29th June 2009
By Patrick Baidoo

THE Executive Director of Vision for Alternative Development (VALD), Mr. Issah Ali, has urged government to facilitate the passage of “Tobacco Control Bill (TCB)” into law.
He said government’s inability to pass was the major reason why much young person smoke at public places exposing non smokers to tobacco related diseases.
Addressing the Media Alliance in Tobacco Control (MATCO), a network of journalists against tobacco use during a press conference in Accra yesterday, he said that when passed, the Tobacco Act would provide the framework for effective tobacco control and help reduce tobacco related disease and deaths. “Scientifically it has been proven that tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke cause lung cancer, heart and respiratory diseases, stroke and other fatal ailments,” the Executive Director said.
He said that the Tobacco Act had become more crucial now because tobacco companies in their own countries had targeted developing countries like Ghana as a safe haven for their products to the detriment of the nations human resource quality.
“Ghana is struggling to address health issues such as malaria, tuberculoses, HIV/AIDS, maternal mortality while our health facilities are over stretched and as such can not cope with additional heart diseases and cancers; hence, the Tobacco Law,” he said.
Mr. Ali said that since there can be no safe haven for non-smokers in the country VALD was recommending a 100 per cent ban on smoking in all public places.
“Kenya, Zambia and other countries have banned public smoking. Public smoking in Abuja is illegal and even designating special places for smokers cannot protect non-smokers” he said.
He further said that the bill, when passed, will be in accordance with the International Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] provision which prohibits advertisement and promotion of tobacco products and donation, sponsorship and advertisement of tobacco firms and their products.
The Executive Director of VALD also called on government to increase tobacco tax as a means of making the product expensive and unattractive for the youth to patronize. Besides this, he said, it was also important for tobacco products to be labeled clearly for persons to see the health implication.
“The bill calls for the labeling of tobacco products and such we are recommending a plain package for all tobacco product and safe of single cigarette sticks to be banned.
“The picture warning would make a high percentage of the population aware of the dangers tobacco usage,” he said.
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          Restoration of Land Rights to Endorois        

We read with joy the restoration of rights to ancestoral land to the Endorois of Kenya. It is gratifying that at last, when all hope was almost lost, the AU rose to the challenge and did the right thing. The AU like its predecessor the OAU which left this case hanging, has had its own weaknesses, but there is time for everything. There was time for the harassment of innocent Endorois and time to restore their rights. This is a good precedent and the AU should listen to other silenced minorities and ensure their rights are protected, defended and promoted. Lest we forget, we have San people and pygmies in Zambia and other Southern African countries who need full care and support. And the Albinos are being slaughtered like sheep in Tanzania, Burundi and other nearby countries. We can't leave this battle to Tanzanian leader Jkaya Kikwete and UN Chief Ban Ki Moon. The AU should take a lead on these matters and it should not take close to 40 years for justice to prevail. Now that the Endorois case has been concluded, the AU should address other problems facing indigenous and tribal minorities, and other minorities like Albinos on the continent.


          Zambian Performer Joins Circus Smirkus        
When Zambian circus artist Patrick Chikoloma does a back flip or strikes a pose on a Chinese pole in front of an enraptured audience, he isn't just defying gravity. He's also proving skeptics wrong. Chikoloma, 18, grew up in Chibolya Township, a slum in the Zambian capital, Lusaka. "If you come from Chibolya, no one believes in you," said Chikoloma in an audition video that he submitted to Circus Smirkus last December. "My target is to kill the bad name of Chibolya using circus as a tool." Since July, Chikoloma has been touring New England as a member of the Greensboro-based youth circus' annual Big Top Tour, along with 29 other performers. To cap off their two-month travels, the circus artists will perform eight shows in Montpelier and Greensboro next week. The first-ever sub-Saharan African member of the tour, Chikoloma performs acts on the Chinese pole and does banquine, acrobatics and hand balancing. "This is my greatest opportunity," he said in a phone interview after a show in St. Johnsbury last month. "It's my first time living a true circus life." Chikoloma first visited the U.S. last summer as part of an exchange program between students of the Van Lodostov Family Circus in Hartford, Vt., and Circus Zambia. The latter group was founded by his cousin, Gift Chansa, who accompanied him on the exchange trip. Chansa started the nonprofit Circus Zambia in 2014 to equip vulnerable youth in Chibolya with circus and life skills, as well as to offer them educational and employment opportunities. "We grew up in a notorious compound," said Chansa in a Skype interview from his residence in Lusaka. "It was considered to be dangerous ... a lot of criminality [and] drugs." Chansa, 26, became interested in acrobatics as a young boy and was introduced to circus arts in 2011. He has performed in China, Europe and the U.S. "Whenever we go somewhere, we try to bring our identity as Zambians," Chansa continued. The performers do this by wearing costumes made from chitenge, a colorful garment, similar to a sarong, that is often worn by women in Zambia. Circus Zambia members train with rudimentary equipment. They share one gymnastics mat and practice acrobatics by jumping off of old truck tires. But when the kids see the fruits of hours spent practicing juggling and acrobatics, it instills in them a work ethic and sense of purpose,…
          14 July 2014 – Big Lottery Fund Awards £4.2m for International Projects        

The Big Lottery Fund’s International Communities Programme has awarded £4.2 million to nine UK-based not-for-profit organisations in support of their work in disadvantaged communities abroad. The funding will support projects in Columbia, Honduras, Liberia, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Sierra Leone, DR Congo, and Namibia. One of the organisations to benefit from this week’s funding is Children […]

The post 14 July 2014 – Big Lottery Fund Awards £4.2m for International Projects appeared first on Make it happen.


          Comment on Review of Marc Epprecht: Sexuality and Social Justice in Africa by NTULA        
this Article is very good . am curently working as a clinical advisor on and HIV program for Key Populations i Zambia to address the issue of LGBTI accessing ARVs and Sexual reproductive Health issues. What has been said here is true.
          Experto encargado de investigar la muerte de Dag Hammarskjöld termina su trabajo        
Mohamed Chande Othman, ex procurador de Justicia de Tanzania, presentó hoy al Secretario General de la ONU su informe sobre la investigación de la trágica muerte de Dag Hammarskjöld y del grupo que viajaba con él en el avión que cayó la noche del 17 al 18 de septiembre de 1961 cerca de Ndola, en el territorio que hoy es Zambia.
          JohanBruyneel: Congrats 2 Suzanne Stegeman-World Bicycle Relief Superbike raffle winner!Tks to all who donated. 44 children in Zambia will get a WBR bike.        
JohanBruyneel: Congrats 2 Suzanne Stegeman-World Bicycle Relief Superbike raffle winner!Tks to all who donated. 44 children in Zambia will get a WBR bike.
          GONNA MAKE YOU SWEAT!        
First off, in case anyone was concerned, I am alive and well and more than 2,000 miles away from the fires in Victoria. They are pretty horrific. Nearly 200 people have died already. Australians aren’t very used to large-scale natural disasters, and this one is hitting home hard. It’s nice to know that my current job has contributed to the relief efforts, but we’ll get to that in a bit.Where were we? Ah, yes. Darwin.

Darwin was getting way too hot and boozy. Before I left the Top End, I took a three-day tour of Kakadu National Park. I expected to encounter all sorts of freaky Aussie critters, and I was not disappointed. We saw frilled lizards, emus, pythons, crocodiles, dingoes, and wallaroos (too big to be a wallabie, too small to be a kangaroo). But the creatures that I will remember most from my Kakadu experience were the thousands upon thousands of flies that were buzzing around my sweaty head at any given moment. Australian flies crave the salty goodness of human perspiration. It is widely known that I am The Sweatiest Man in the World, and when The Sweatiest Man in the World went to Kakadu, The Sweatiest Place in the World, a perfect storm of Sweatiness erupted. The flies of Kakadu greeted me like manna from heaven. From dawn ‘til dusk, they never left me alone. They didn’t bite. Instead they just buzzed and crawled all over my face, occasionally creeping into my eyelids as I tried to appreciate ancient Aboriginal rock paintings (many of which are sex education literature in hieroglyphic form).Still, Kakadu was pretty awesome. We did some nice walks and took lots of dips in spectacular swimming holes. The highlight of the trip was our first night of camping, when I ate kangaroo meat and played a didgeridoo under a full moon while dingoes howled in the distance – my most quintessentially Australian experience so far. I barely got a wink of sleep and the tour group was kind of lame, but it was still a good time. It was our tour company’s last trip before they shut down for the wet season, and our guide made no secret that he was trying to score an English girl from another tour group at the campsite as a year-end bonus. Not sure if he succeeded.After several farewell drinks with my Darwin friends, I took to the skies and flew to Perth. Flying over the vast expanse of Western Australia was humbling. Gazing out my window, I could see astoundingly little evidence of human development – just miles upon miles of desert punctuated by the occasional mine site or dirt road to nowhere. The in-flight movie was “Mamma Mia,” so many of my future reminiscences of the Outback will be scored not with “Waltzing Matilda” or “Blue Sky Mine,” but with “Waterloo” and “Dancing Queen.” Thanks, Qantas. And for the record, Pierce Brosnan can’t sing for shit.

If Darwin is Australia’s version of a Texas oil rig town, then Perth is an Aussie San Diego – nice weather, great beaches, suburban sprawl, a mellow populous, not a whole lot of character, but still a nice place to live. My buddy Sam got me my current job, which involves me standing on the street and encouraging strangers to donate money to charitable organizations. It’s not as hard as it might seem (I got promoted!). You just gotta learn to deal with constant rejection. If I get four sign-ups a day, I’m doing well. The easiest people to sign up are recent African emigrants, and there are plenty of them in Perth. I’ve signed up folks from Sudan, Egypt, Kenya, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe (I had no idea there were so many white people from Zimbabwe). Black, white, male, female, old, young – the Africans are very charitable and generous. Without a doubt, the hardest demographic to sign up is suit-wearing, white dudes. Shocker.

I suppose that I can’t get through this entry without mentioning the election of Barack Obama. I watched the results come in at The Fox Ale House, one of the pubs I worked at in Darwin where my buddy Carboni was nice enough to let me put on the big screen TV. A girl from California strolled by the pub and watched it with me. As nice as it was to hear Australians cheering and applauding the speech of a soon-to-be American president, it was great to be able to share that moment with a fellow Yank. Hope home is treating you well, Marie! As for the inauguration, I was at a hostel in Busselton where I had to wake up at 1:30 AM to watch live coverage. I don’t think I’ve ever watched a live inauguration, not even for Clinton. I was hoping for some momentous “The Only Thing We Have To Fear Is Fear Itself” quote from Obama, which never really surfaced. But I suppose the fact that such a seemingly decent, intelligent, charismatic and inspiring person who just happens to be a black man became the president of the United States in front of a crowd of millions of proud, hopeful and motivated Americans speaks for itself. America, FUCK YEAH!!!!

Back to Australia…

Perth was Heath Ledger’s hometown. As big a city as Perth is, its isolation gives it a small-town familiarity, and all the locals seem to know someone who actually knew Heath or at least knows one of his family members. His Academy Award nomination for “The Dark Knight” came on the anniversary of his death, and made front-page news here. Assuming (and it’s a safe bet) that he receives a posthumous Oscar, it will be interesting to see how Perth reacts. I wonder what it must be like for his family to walk around Perth, where “Dark Knight” merchandise is inescapable, looking at images of their boy and his now iconic incarnation of The Joker displayed on posters, DVDs and t-shirts in every other store window. If any Ledgers are reading this, you have my sympathies.And if there are any Academy members reading this, how the hell could you not nominate “The Dark Knight” for Best Picture and Best Director? What the fuck is wrong with you people? The movie is beloved by audiences and critics the world over. It has a great story, terrific acting, and superlative technical artistry. It is now the second highest-grossing movie ever made. You gave the film eight other nominations, but just couldn’t see it in your crooked little hearts to give it the big ones, presumably because it is based on a comic-book character and therefore must be kid stuff - incapable of exploring significant psychological or dramatic terrain. That attitude is snobby and retarded. Why does Stephen Daldry have three (THREE!!!) Best Director nominations to his credit while Christopher Nolan has zero? The man has never made a bad movie. You weren’t even this mean to Spielberg in his early days. Wake up, douchebags!

Ah, well, at least some other genuinely decent movies got nominated, and it will be fun watching my former boss tackle the hosting duties.

Perth will most likely be my last major stomping ground in the Land of Oz. My vague plan is to save up money here, see a bit more of the outback (not sure where or what exactly – somewhere ABBA-free, if possible) and then head homeward in April. My big dilemma now is deciding which way to go. Next time you’re near a globe, find Perth and then find Boston. I am nearly as far away from home as the North Pole is to the South Pole. I could go east or west and spend about the same amount of money and travel time. As nice as it is, how the hell did I end up here?

Shameless Self-Promotion Alert!!!!

Click here to view the trailer for "X-Men Origins: Wolverine," the movie that completely consumed my life just a year ago. After all the hard work that thousands of people put into the production, it is hugely gratifying that the trailer looks as good as it does, biased as I am. I was physically present for pretty much every shot that features a motorcycle, helicopter, explosion, mountain scenery and/or Hugh Jackman fighting with Liev Schreiber. When I was a kid and fantasized about making movies, this is the kind of stuff I saw myself working on. The movie will be released on May 1st, and I hope it lives up to the trailer!

In the meantime, dear readers, I hope you all survive the Global Financial Crisis with your life savings intact. For those in the movie biz, try to get gigs on funny flicks – Hollywood thrived during the 1930s thanks in great part to cheaply made screwball comedies. To all my “Pineapple Express” buddies, keep Judd Apatow on speed dial, and please put in a good word for me!
          Climate change could push staple food prices up 130%        

Climate change could lead to shortages and punishing 130% price rises in staple foods within our lifetime, raising the spectre of riots and civil unrest, a new study warned today. The report, by the International Food Policy Research Institute, warned that warming of even one degree by 2050 could play havoc with food production – […]

The post Climate change could push staple food prices up 130% appeared first on The Green Times.


          Presidents of Zambia        
Presidents of Zambia (1964-Present)

Name Born-Died Term start Term end Political Party
Kenneth Kaunda 1924 - 24 October 1964 2 November 1991 United National Independence Party
Frederick Chiluba 1943 - 2 November 1991 2 January 2002 Movement for Multiparty Democracy
Levy Mwanawasa 1948 - 2 January 2002 Present Movement for Multiparty Democracy
          Exposing The Evolution Industry        
A new MP3 sermon from Reformation Church is now available on SermonAudio.com with the following details:

Title: Exposing The Evolution Industry
Speaker: W. J. Mencarow
Broadcaster: Reformation Church
Event: Audio Book
Date: 7/26/2013
Bible: Genesis 1:1; Isaiah 45:12
Length: 39 min. (64kbps)

Overview: This is the audio of a review by Walter J. ReMine of -The Altenberg 16- An Expos- of the Evolution Industry- by Suzan Mazur.----Creation Ministries International--http---creation.com-----Creation Multimedia--http---creation.com-media-center----Creation Magazine--http---creation.com-creation-magazine----Creation for Kids--http---creation.com-creation-for-kids----SWRB Puritan Hard Drive Sale--http---ow.ly-fPY4o----'I don't believe there has been a more valuable extra-biblical resource and tool than the Puritan Hard Drive -http---ow.ly-fPY4o-.' - Dr. Matthew McMahon, aPuritansMind.com----'There is no other resource, outside Scripture itself, where you can find so much of God's truth as in the Puritan Hard Drive.' - Pastor Greg Price -Author, Theologian, etc.- http---ow.ly-fPY4o----'In the history of extra-biblical study and research tools there has never before been a resource as useful as the Puritan Hard Drive.' - Paul Washer -HeartCry Missionary Society- http---ow.ly-fPY4o----'Every scholar, pastor, elder and professing Christian should take a great interest in the Puritan Hard Drive, for it sets before us the golden age of Protestant piety, preaching and scholarship.' - Pastor Brian Schwertley http---ow.ly-fPY4o----'I was in Zambia showing the Puritan Hard Drive to Conrad Mbewe -the Spurgeon of Africa- and he absolutely fell in love with it. I simply had to leave it there.' - Dr. Voddie Baucham http---ow.ly-fPY4o----MORE PURITAN HARD DRIVE REVIEWS http---bit.ly-c5MGjL
          Why Everyone Is So Nervous About Kenya’s Election        

Hell didn’t break loose Tuesday during voting in Kenya’s close-fought presidential election—but the real moment to worry about is Wednesday, when the results are expected to be announced. That’s when many fear a repeat of 2007, when post-election violence killed 1,400 people and displaced more than half a million, nearly plunging the country in outright civil war.

In that election, Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner over Raila Odinga after initially trailing, prompting allegations of fraud. The violence broke down along ethnic lines, with Kibaki’s Kikuyu tribe and Odinga’s Luo fighting each other in riots and brutal street battles. There were widespread reports of sexual violence and torture. Finally, a deal brokered by former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan made Kibaki president and gave Odinga the newly created position of prime minister.

That explosive episode would come to influence every subsequent Kenyan election. In 2013, Odinga lost again to Uhuru Kenyatta. There was no violence that time, but the result was controversial because Kenyatta was then under indictment by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity over his alleged role in the 2007 violence. The charges, portrayed by Kenyatta as neo-imperialist interference, may have backfired, driving Kikuyu voters to the polls. The ICC dropped the charges against Kenyatta in 2014, with prosecutors accusing the Kenyan government of blocking their investigation.

This year’s election is a Kenyatta vs. Odinga rematch. They are the sons, respectively, of Kenya’s first president and first vice president, who were also fierce rivals during the 1960s and ‘70s. Kenyatta is trying to avoid becoming the first Kenyan president to lose re-election. And at 72, Odinga is looking at his last chance. Kenyatta is running on a record of economic growth and infrastructure projects, including a new Chinese-built highway between Nairobi and the port city of Mombasa. Odinga counters that Kenyatta’s administration is mired in corruption and dominated by his fellow Kikuyus.

The election is likely to be close, and if neither man can get over 50 percent of the vote, there will be a runoff, further raising the tension. Election procedures and security are thought to have improved since 2007. Election observers including former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry are on the ground, and former President Barack Obama has urged calm in his father’s native country. There were vague reports of “insecurity” at a few polling places, but mostly the vote seems to have been peaceful and orderly.

There’s reason for concern: Last month, Christ Msando, the head of IT for the country’s election commission, who had helped develop a new electronic ballot system, was found tortured and murdered in the outskirts of Nairobi. There have also been recent attacks by the Somali militant group al-Shabaab and increasing attacks by armed nomadic cattle herders on locals in the drought-hit Laikipia region. A recently instituted gender quota for the country’s parliament has also prompted a backlash in the form of widespread violence against women running for office.

The election has implications beyond Kenya’s borders. For one thing, as analyst Murithi Mutiga of the International Crisis Group notes, Kenya’s main port at Mombasa is the primary entry point for imported goods into eastern Africa, and the 2007 violence resulted in food shortages for landlocked countries like Rwanda and Uganda. With its combination of a large economy, vast disparities of wealth, and political instability, Kenya is also viewed as something of a bellwether. After years of steady gains, the spread of electoral democracy in Africa seems to have stalled somewhat. The recent presidential election in Zambia, generally considered a poster child for political stability, was marred by violence and controversy. Rwanda’s Paul Kagame, elected to a third term with a dubious 99 percent of the vote last week, seems destined to join the ranks of the continent’s “forever presidents.” The Democratic Republic of Congo’s Joseph Kabila seems to have decided he doesn’t need to hold elections at all.

So while the stakes of these tense contests are obviously highest for Kenyans themselves, they won’t be the only ones anxiously watching the events of the next few days.


          International industrial systems giant, ABB sets its sights on Angola and Zambia with new Windhoek site        
Asea Brown Boveri (ABB), the amalgamated Swedish Swiss technology company this week officially opened its newly-constructed 2200 square metre facility in Windhoek in preparation for what it sees as continued capital spending on infrastructure and industry. “Namibia is an important market for ABB, as it is the second largest contributor in the region to our […]
          Big Discoveries Still Happen – Zebras Make Africa’s Longest-Known Terrestrial Wildlife Migration        

Do you ever wonder what it would be like to be an explorer? To discover a natural wonder? Being a conservation biologist, I always hope I might experience that in some small way. But in our rapidly developing world, where wilderness continues to shrink, it can feel like there is nothing big left to discover. Yet my colleague Robin Naidoo and his collaborators in Namibia (WWF, Ministry of Environment and Tourism) and Botswana (Elephants Without Borders) have done just that. They have discovered the longest known land mammal migration in Africa — a 300+ mile seasonal trek by Burchell’s zebra (their newly published full study appears in Oryx).

Adding to the surprise, this journey is not happening in the Serengeti that is so famous for massive wildlife migrations. It is happening in southern Africa, where up to several thousand zebra migrate back and forth between the Chobe River floodplains in Namibia and Nxai Pan National Park in Botswana.

The discovery seems straight out of the golden age of exploration. It’s a story about modern technology and adrenaline-pumping adventure producing some good old fashioned field science. The key technology was GPS tracking collars that Robin and colleagues used to document the movement of eight female zebra for several months through the dry and wet seasons. But first they had to get the collars onto wild zebra – no easy task! In their scientific paper about the discovery, there is a very clinical explanation: "Adult female zebras (n=8) were darted from the air or ground and immobilized using a mixture of etorphine hydrochloride, azaperone and hyaluronidase. The age and family group size were estimated for each individual, and a satellite-tracking collar attached.”

The work began when team members, including a wildlife veterinarian and one of Namibia's best chopper pilots, went swooping over the bush in a helicopter looking for a healthy female zebra. The vet would lean out to sedate the animal with a tranquilizer dart. The team would then jump out the helicopter, put the collar on the animal, take some measurements and blood samples, and administer a drug to wake the animal back up. All the while they had to be on the lookout for protective and possibly dangerous family members who were not tranquilized. One kick from an angry zebra and the operation is over for you. 

Once the zebra were collared, and everyone safely back in the helicopter, technology took over the work. The GPS units recorded the precise location of each animal every 5 hours, and uploaded the data via satellite communications. When Robin plotted the data on a map upon his return from Christmas holiday in 2013, he and other wildlife biologists were stunned to see the zebras' long-distance migration route.

They had collared the animals in October, during the dry season near the Chobe River in Namibia. The zebra stayed there until early December, when one, and then the others, started moving south. By late December, seven of the 8 zebra had traveled more than 150 miles to Nxai Pan; the eighth animal arrived in early January. As more GPS data came in, Robin and colleagues could see that the zebra remained at Nxai pan for almost two months. Then, as the grass on the pan started to dry out, they headed back north to Chobe where they had started their migration.

People in Namibia have long known that zebra leave Salambala conservancy, which borders the Chobe River, at the end of the dry season, but they didn’t know where they went. Likewise, people knew that zebras came to Nxai Pan during the wet season but didn’t know where they came from. Thanks to Robin and team's adventurous and high tech fieldwork, the dots are now connected. We know that it’s the same zebra traveling 150 miles each way between Chobe and Nxai Pan, the longest documented land migration of any mammal in Africa.

And it turns out that this superlative is part of an even bigger one. The entire migration takes place within the boundaries of the largest multi-country conservation area in the world—the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area, commonly known as KAZA.

This 109 million acre expanse covers five countries. It was established in 2011 by the governments of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, in recognition of the large-scale habitat needs of some of Africa’s most magnificent wildlife species.

KAZA reflects the reality that wildlife never has, and never will, abide by the political boundaries that humans draw on maps. Today, elephants, wild dogs, wattled cranes and both black and white rhinos call KAZA home and benefit from protection within its vast landscape.

With this in mind, we know that the previously unknown migration is more than a cool discovery. It reminds us of the value of doing science in the field in order to explore and better understand a natural world that is still full of surprise. And it underscores how essential large-landscape conservation is for preserving spectacular phenomena like the longest zebra migration in the world.

To glimpse this process from the researcher’s point of view, check out this stunning short video:


           - Publications could be shut down under Zambia's "state of threatened public emergency"        
Zambia's police Inspector General Kakoma Kanganja suggested that some "publications" could be shut down while emergency powers are in place.
          Kirim SMS Gratis Menggunakan Gmail Ke Hp Telkomsel dan Indosat        

Kalau Anda penggemar layanan SMS, ada kabar gembira. Mulai hari ini, Anda tidak perlu mengeluarkan uang lagi untuk membeli pulsa sebelum mengirim SMS. Karena dengan Gmail, Anda bisa mengirimkan SMS secara gratis. Memang bukan layanan yang gres, tetapi diperkirakan masih banyak orang yang belum mengetahui tentang layanan ini. Dengan SMS in Chat, pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima SMS dari akun Gmail.



Awalnya, layanan nilai tambah ini hanya bisa dipakai untuk nomor-nomor Amerika Serikat (+1) saja. Tetapi, baru-baru ini Google membukanya di sejumlah negara, termasuk Indonesia, Ghana, Israel, Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia, Uganda, Tanzania, Arab Saudi, Senegal, Palestina, hingga Kenya. Di Indonesia, hanya dua operator yang mendukung layanan SMS gratis ini di Indonesia, yaitu Telkomsel dan Indosat. Meski kuotanya dibatasi 50 SMS per hari, Google cukup membantu pelanggan, terlebih lagi bagi yang kerap mengirimkan SMS internasional.

Sebagaimana diketahui, tarif SMS internasional Telkomsel adalah Rp600, sementara Indosat Rp500 per SMS, kecuali seluruh negara di Eropa, Fiji, Papua Nugini, Senegal & Uni Emirat Arab dikenakan biaya Rp1.200 per SMS. Dibandingkan dengan SMS in Chat di Gmail, tentu sangat terasa. Apalagi, setelah 24 jam, kuota SMS akan kembali ke 50.

Instalasinya sangat mudah. Di Gmail, terdapat fitur Google Labs. Di dalamnya, Anda mengaktifkan fitur SMS (text messaging) in Chat dan SMS in Chat gadget dengan mengklik Enable. Jika sudah, geser mouse ke bawah dan klik Save Changes. Instalasi selesai. Di sebelah kiri inbox Gmail Anda akan muncul tabulasi ‘Send SMS’.

Untuk menggunakannya juga mudah. Masukkan nomor tujuan dengan kode negara (misalnya, +62811890xx), kemudian Enter. Anda akan diminta memasukkan detail kontak. Setelah kontak diregistrasi, akan ada pop-up window layaknya Gtalk. Selesai. Anda bisa mengirimkan SMS sepuasnya, maksimal 50 kali dalam sehari. Selamat mencoba!





sumber:http://ruanghati.com/2011/03/30/kirim-sms-gratis-menggunakan-gmail-ke-hp-telkomsel-dan-indosat/

          Countries in Africa        
Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          THREE-HORNED RHINOCEROSES AND ALBRECHT DÜRER'S SHOULDER-HORNED SURPRISE        

Digital creation of a three-horned white rhinoceros (digital manipulation © Dr Karl Shuker using a public domain photograph)


There was the forest three-horned dark rhino that would be in small herds that would occasionally run into the snares of man. These forest rhinos were deemed by many as a prized possession.

   Douglas S. Taylor – Sword of Souls: Chronicles of Caledon


The three-horned rhinoceroses referred to in the above quotation are fictitious, but factual records do indeed exist of rhino specimens possessing extra (supernumerary) horns. Of the five species of rhinoceros alive today, two of them (the great Indian Rhinoceros unicornisand the Javan R. sondaicus) each typically sports one horn, whereas the other three (the Sumatran Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, African white Ceratotherium simum, and African black Diceros bicornis) each typically sports two. Very rarely, however, exceptions to this standard rule arise, and as reported widely in the media during late December 2015 one such exception has lately been encountered and photographed in Namibia's Etosha National Park by 73-year-old Jim Gibson.

Eschewing its species' normal two-horn condition (and its taxonomic name too), the adult black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis(translating as 'two-horned two-horned') in question also bears a slender but distinctive, forward-curving third horn, sprouting forth from the centre of its brow (click hereto see photos of this singular beast, and hereto view a short video clip of it). Its extra horn would not cause this rhino any discomfort; and if resulting from a non-genetic developmental abnormality occurring when the rhino was a foetus, it would not be inherited by any of its offspring. If caused by a mutant gene, however, it could be inherited - this latter situation probably explaining why triple-horned black rhinoceroses were once quite common around Zambia’s Lake Young.

On 10 February 1906, big game hunter Abel Chapman shot a three-horned black rhinoceros at Elmenteita in British East Africa (now Kenya), and a photograph of Chapman posing alongside its head subsequently appeared in his book Retrospect: 1851-1928 (1928). That same book also included a drawing of this animal. And a similar specimen was exhibited alive at Lisbon Zoo, Portugal, as documented in two International Zoo Yearbook reports of 1978.

Digital creation of a three-horned black rhinoceros (digital manipulation © Dr Karl Shuker using a public domain photograph)

Three-horned examples of unspecified two-horned rhinoceros species in southern Africa were alluded to by Swedish explorer-naturalist Charles J. Andersson in his book Lake Ngami (1861), which documented his four years spent exploring southwestern Africa, including time spent during 1854 at this nowadays very famous but then newly-discovered lake in Botswana:

I have met persons who told me that they have killed rhinoceroses with three horns; but in all such cases (and they have been but few), the third, or posterior horn is so small as to be scarcely perceptible.

Even Linnaeus mentioned three-horned rhinoceroses - to his description of the black rhinoceros in Gmelin’s edition (1788) of Systema Naturae was added: “Rarior est Rhinoceros tricornis, tertia cum cornu ex alterato priorem excrescente”. In the past, moreover, Sumatran native hunters asserted that three-horned specimens of the Sumatran rhinoceros were occasionally met with too.

In most cases, the extra horn is usually nothing more than a small, rounded knob - a rudimentary third horn positioned behind the two normal ones. Similarly, towards the end of the 19th Century, London Zoo exhibited a female great Indian rhinoceros that bore a rudimentary second horn upon her forehead. Alternatively, a pseudo-third horn can develop via the splitting into two of one of the normal, pre-existing horns, as seen in the following photograph of one such zoo specimen:

Captive rhinoceros with pseudo-third horn (© Owen Burnham)

Occasionally, even more extreme cases are recorded. One such individual was the abnormal female black rhinoceros shot during August 1904 in a dense covert west of Kenya’s Jambeni Mountains, at an elevation of 4150 ft above sea-level, and reported by Colonel W.H. Broun in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London on 14 November 1905. In addition to the two normal horns, this rhino had a third, rudimentary horn between its ears, plus a fourth, equally diminutive example located about 4 in further back.

During his extensive black rhinoceros researches, renowned German zoologist Dr Bernard Grzimek encountered reports of a five-horned specimen, and even of rhinos with horns growing out of their bodies. He also suggested that the famous woodcut of a great Indian rhinoceros bearing an incongruously-sited horn on its shoulder produced by Albrecht Dürer in 1515 (and later copied by Conrad Gesner in his Historiae Animalium, Liber I, 1551) may have been truly based upon an abnormally horned specimen.

Albrecht Dürer’s famous shoulder-horned rhinoceros woodcut (public domain)

At one time, this idea was discounted in favour of the theory that the horn was either an error on the part of Dürer, or, if genuine, merely an excrescence developed by the rhinoceros in question during its long confinement in the ship bringing it from India to Portugal’s King Manuel the Great, at Lisbon (the king then offering it up as a gift to Pope Leo X). Moreover, as discussed in 1961 via an entire paper on the subject written by Dr K.C.A. Schulz and published in African Wild Life, rough sores of a horny nature have been observed for some time among black rhinos too.

However, Grzimek’s view was reinforced in spring 1968, when Prof. Heini Hediger photographed a white rhinoceros living in San Francisco Zoo that bore a bona fide, unequivocal shoulder horn, measuring some 4 in high. Prof. Hediger subsequently documented this distinctive creature via an illustrated Zoologische Garten article published in 1970.

At present, the precise reasons for the development of extra horns by rhinoceroses remain relatively unclear. In some cases, a genetic origin is indicated, especially when they involve several multi-horned specimens inhabiting one specific locality, as with the Lake Young individuals. Injury-induced development (echoing the ‘excrescence theory’ for Dürer’s specimen) may also occur - as documented from various antelopes and deer possessing supernumerary (and often oddly located) horns, sometimes emerging from the forehead, face, or even sites on the body.

Digital creation of a three-horned southern white rhinoceros (photograph and digital manipulation © Dr Karl Shuker)

NB – As noted in their respective credits above, all of the photographs of three-horned rhinoceroses included here have been created by me via digital manipulation of existing photographs of normal two-horned specimens, because although, as this present article of mine unequivocally demonstrates, rhinos with supernumerary horns are a reality, I am not aware of any existing photos of such specimens other than those of the above-documented Namibian individual and the photo in Abel Chapman's book depicting him alongside his three-horned rhino head (unfortunately, however, I have so far been unable to obtain sight of this latter picture). Consequently, if anyone knows of any photographs depicting supernumerary-horned rhinos, or drawings based upon documented specimens of such creatures, I would greatly welcome details.

Finally: if three-horned rhinoceroses are not exotic enough for you, how about three-humped camels and a bull African elephant with two trunks? If you think that I'm joking, be sure to click here on ShukerNature and discover that I'm not!

This ShukerNature blog article is excerpted and greatly expanded from my book Extraordinary Animals Revisited.






          Curso Online de Inglés (4 niveles) + 12 meses de acceso + Examenes + Certificados conforme a los estándares europeos        
Curso Online de Inglés (4 niveles) + 12 meses de acceso + Examenes + Certificados conforme a los estándares europeos
¿Sabías que el inglés es el idioma que se habla en más de 50 países alrededor del mundo? En lugares como Australia, Inglaterra, Irlanda, Canadá, Jamaica, Sudáfrica, Uganda, Zambia, Guyana, Ghana, Bahamas, Nueva Zelanda, Barbados, y muchos otros; el inglés es indispensable desde para no perderte como turista hasta para hacer negocios. Que el idioma no sea una barrera para realizarte, aprende inglés en línea y expande tus horizontes. 
 
Paga S/.59 soles en vez de S/.700 (descuento del 92%) por un Curso Integral Online de INGLES (4 niveles) + Examenes en cada nivel + certificados
 
Inglés123 te propone un curso online interactivo orientado a los niveles A1-A2. El material didáctico está pensado para jóvenes y adultos que no han alcanzado aún un nivel fluido de comunicación en inglés. Todo el curso ha sido diseñado por un equipo internacional de profesionales para que asimiles los conocimientos de una manera intuitiva y natural.
 
El curso ofrece 4 niveles de enseñanza. Cada nivel consta de 22 lecciones que incluyen diferentes herramientas de aprendizaje como videos, diálogos, ejercicios, fotolecciones, gramática, diccionario o juegos ¡para que nunca más te aburras estudiando!
 
Inglés123 cuenta, además, con un método innovador de aprendizaje del idioma con el que podrás practicar tu pronunciación mediante un sistema de alta calidad que, a través de tu micrófono, verificará si es correcta.
 
Temario: Ver AQUI.
 
El usuario puede realizar un seguimiento de su progreso en cualquier momento, y si al menos el 80% de los ejercicios de cada nivel están resueltos adecuadamente, obtendrá un diploma de aprovechamiento. También se puede realizar un examen final para evaluar el nivel alcanzado y recibir un certificado con el resultado del mismo conforme a los estándares europeos.
 
Funmedia es líder en el campo del E-learning y cuenta con el Sello Europeo de las Lenguas para proyectos innovadores en enseñanza y aprendizaje de lenguas, un distinguido premio que se otorga a las iniciativas más novedosas en el campo de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de idiomas.
 
Cupón disponible por pocos días solo por Ofermedia. Si tienes alguna duda o consulta llámanos al FONOCOMPRAS 484-5486 o escríbenos a clientes@ofermedia.com. Estamos para servirte.
 
¡Compra ya, que es una oferta limitada! Regístrate, dale Click en Comprar, y paga utilizando los siguientes medios de pago:
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          Curso Integral Online de INGLES (4 niveles) + Examenes + Certificados        
Curso Integral Online de INGLES (4 niveles) + Examenes + Certificados
¿Sabías que el inglés es el idioma que se habla en más de 50 países alrededor del mundo? En lugares como Australia, Inglaterra, Irlanda, Canadá, Jamaica, Sudáfrica, Uganda, Zambia, Guyana, Ghana, Bahamas, Nueva Zelanda, Barbados, y muchos otros; el inglés es indispensable desde para no perderte como turista hasta para hacer negocios. Que el idioma no sea una barrera para realizarte, aprende inglés en línea y expande tus horizontes. 
 
Paga S/.59 soles en vez de S/.700 (descuento del 92%) por un Curso Integral Online de INGLES (4 niveles) + Examenes en cada nivel + certificados
 
Inglés123 te propone un curso online interactivo orientado a los niveles A1-A2. El material didáctico está pensado para jóvenes y adultos que no han alcanzado aún un nivel fluido de comunicación en inglés. Todo el curso ha sido diseñado por un equipo internacional de profesionales para que asimiles los conocimientos de una manera intuitiva y natural.
 
El curso ofrece 4 niveles de enseñanza. Cada nivel consta de 22 lecciones que incluyen diferentes herramientas de aprendizaje como videos, diálogos, ejercicios, fotolecciones, gramática, diccionario o juegos ¡para que nunca más te aburras estudiando!
 
Inglés123 cuenta, además, con un método innovador de aprendizaje del idioma con el que podrás practicar tu pronunciación mediante un sistema de alta calidad que, a través de tu micrófono, verificará si es correcta.
 
Temario: Ver AQUI.
 
El usuario puede realizar un seguimiento de su progreso en cualquier momento, y si al menos el 80% de los ejercicios de cada nivel están resueltos adecuadamente, obtendrá un diploma de aprovechamiento. También se puede realizar un examen final para evaluar el nivel alcanzado y recibir un certificado con el resultado del mismo conforme a los estándares europeos.
 
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          I Care About Her: Building a movement of champions to end violence against women and girls        
I Care About Her March, Zambia, November 2013. Photo: Oxfam

Blog: I Care About Her: Building a movement of champions to end violence against women and girls

Over half of women in Zambia have experienced physical or sexual violence. Oxfam is working with diverse local partners to end this. I Care About Her, which has been running since 2012, engages men and boys as allies in the fight against violence against women and girls (VAWG).


          Vocational Training In Tanzania – Who Benefits More        

Tanzania is a tropical country located in East Africa and is neighbors with Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, and Malawi. Tanzania’s economy revolves mainly around agriculture. Other factors that contribute to the economy are natural gas and tourism. Once children reach mid-teen years or even before, they stop attending school. A Broader View, the non-profit […]

The post Vocational Training In Tanzania – Who Benefits More appeared first on Volunteer Abroad News.


          Law / Human rights in Zambia        

Zambia has a human rights groups known as A Broader View, which stands out as not only advocates, but social supporters. This non-profit organization is a strong advocate for battered both physically and mentally, women and children. A Broader View is making a special appeal for volunteers to help keep this program alive and see […]

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          Volunteer in Zambia, Welcome from our Director        

Welcome to Zambia! Hi Friends, My Name is Josphat, a Im a social worker, teacher, project manager, adult educator and child rights activist. I have been working with A broader View here in Zambia as the ABV Coordinator for the last 3 years. My job is to make your volunteer work and stay in Zambia […]

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          Candomblé - Suas raízes e vertentes        

Candomblé
Candomblé é uma religião derivada do animismo africano onde se cultuam os Orixás, Voduns, Nkisis dependendo da nação. Sendo de origem totêmica e familiar, é uma das religiões afro-brasileiras praticadas principalmente no Brasil, pelo chamado povo do santo, em outros países escravocatas como; Uruguai, Argentina, Venezuela, Colômbia, Panamá, México, Alemanha, Itália, Portugal e Espanha.
Cada nação africana tem como base o culto a um único orixá. A junção dos cultos é um fenômeno brasileiro em decorrência do contrabando de escravos onde, varias nações se agrupados em senzalas.
A religião que tem por base a anima (alma)da Natureza, sendo portanto chamada de anímica, foi desenvolvida no Brasil com o conhecimento dos sacerdotes africanos (Babalorixá e Iyalorixá) que foram escravizados e trazidos da África, juntamente com seus Orixás/Nkisis/Voduns, sua cultura, e seus idiomas, entre 1549 e 1888.
Embora confinado originalmente à população de negros escravizados, inicialmente nas senzalas, quilombos e terreiros, proibido pela igreja católica, e criminalizado mesmo por alguns governos, o candomblé prosperou nos quatro séculos, e expandiu consideravelmente desde o fim da escravatura em 1888. Estabeleceu-se com seguidores de várias classes sociais e dezenas de milhares de templos. Em levantamentos recentes, aproximadamente 3 milhões de brasileiros (1,5% da população total) declararam o candomblé como sua religião. Na cidade de Salvador existem 2.230 terreiros registrados na Federação Baiana de Cultos Afro-brasileiros e catalogados pelo Centro de Estudos Afro-Orientais da UFBA, (Universidade Federal da Bahia) Mapeamento dos Terreiros de Candomblé de Salvador.
Entretanto, na cultura brasileira as religiões não são vistas como mutuamente exclusivas, e muitas pessoas de outras crenças religiosas — até 70 milhões, de acordo com algumas organizações culturais Afro-Brasileiras — participam em rituais do candomblé, regularmente ou ocasionalmente. Orixás do Candomblé, os rituais, e as festas são agora uma parte integrante da cultura e uma parte do folclore brasileiro.
O Candomblé não deve ser confundido com Umbanda, Macumba e/ou Omoloko, outras religiões afro-brasileiras com similar origem; e com religiões afro-americanas similares em outros países do Novo Mundo, como o Vodou Haitiano, a Santeira cubana, e o Obeah, em Trindade e Tobago, os Shangos (similar ao Tchamba africano, Xambá e ao Xangô do Nordeste do Brasil) o Ourisha, de origem yoruba, os quais foram desenvolvidas independentemente do Candomblé e são visualmente desconhecidos no Brasil.

Nações
Os negros escravizados no Brasil pertenciam a diversos grupos étnicos, incluindo os yoruba, os ewe, os fon, e os bantu. Como a religião se tornou semi-independente em regiões diferentes do país, entre grupos étnicos diferentes evoluíram diversas "divisões"ou nações, que se distinguem entre si principalmente pelo conjunto de divindades veneradas, o atabaque (música) e a língua sagrada usada nos rituais.
A lista seguinte é uma classificação pouco rigorosa das principais nações e sub-nações, de suas regiões de origem, e de suas línguas sagradas:
  • ·      Ketu ou Queto (Bahia) e quase todos os estados - Língua yoruba (Iorubá ou Nagô em Português)
  • ·      Efan na Bahia, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo
  • ·      Ijexá principalmente na Bahia
  • ·      Nagô Egbá ou Xangô do Nordeste no Pernambuco, Paraíba, Alagoas, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo
  • ·      Mina-nagô ou Tambor de Mina no Maranhão
  • ·      Xambá em Alagoas e Pernambuco (quase extinto).
  • ·      Bantu, Angola e Congo (Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul), mistura de línguas Bantu, Kikongo e Kimbundo.
  • ·      Candomblé de Caboclo (entidades nativas Ã­ndios)
  • ·      Jeje A palavra Jeje vem do yoruba djedje que significa estrangeiro, forasteiro. Nunca existiu nenhuma nação Jeje na África. O que é chamado de nação Jeje é o candomblé formado pelos povos fons vindo da região de Daomé e pelos povos Mahis ou Mahins. Jeje era o nome dado de forma pejorativa pelos yorubás para as pessoas que habitavam o leste, porque os mahis eram uma tribo do lado leste e Saluvá ou povos Savalu do lado sul. O termo Saluvá ou Savalu, na verdade, vem de "Savé" que era o lugar onde se cultuava Nanã. Nanã, uma das origens das quais seria Bariba, uma antiga dinastia originária de um filho de Oduduá, que é o fundador de Savé (tendo neste caso a ver com os povos fons). O Abomey ficava no oeste, enquanto Ashantis era a tribo do norte. Todas essas tribos eram de povos Jeje, (Bahia, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo) - língua ewe e língua fon (Jeje)
  • ·      Jeje Mina língua mina São Luiz do Maranhão
  • ·      Babaçuê, Belém, Pará


Crenças
Candomblé é uma religião "monoteísta”, embora alguns defendam a ideia que são cultuados vários deuses, o deus único para a Nação Ketu é Olorum, para a Nação Bantu é Nzambi e para a Nação Jeje Ã© Mawu, são nações independentes na prática diária e em virtude do sincretismo existente no Brasil a maioria dos participantes consideram como sendo o mesmo Deus da Igreja Católica.
Os Orixás / Inkisis / Voduns recebem homenagens regulares, com oferendas de animais, vegetais e minerais, cânticos, danças e roupas especiais. Mesmo quando há na mitologia referência a uma divindade criadora, essa divindade tem muita importância no dia-a-dia dos membros do terreiro, mas não são cultuados em templo exclusivo, é louvado em todos os preceitos e muitas vezes é confundido com o Deus cristão.
  • ·      os Orixás da Mitologia Yoruba foram criados por um deus supremo, Olorum;
  • ·      os Voduns da Mitologia Fon foram criados por Mawu, o deusa suprema dos Fon;
  • ·      os Nkisis da Mitologia Bantu, foram criados por Zambi, Zambiapongo, deus supremo e criador.

O Candomblé cultua, entre todas as nações, umas cinquenta das centenas de divindades  ainda cultuadas na Ãfrica. Mas, na maioria dos terreiros das grandes cidades, são doze as mais cultuadas. O que acontece é que algumas divindades têm "qualidades", que podem ser cultuadas como um diferente Orixás / Inkisis / Voduns em um ou outro terreiro. Então, a lista de divindades das diferentes nações é grande, e muitos Orixás do Ketu podem ser "identificados" com os Voduns do Jejé e Inkisis dos Bantu em suas características, mas na realidade não são os mesmos; seus cultos, rituais e toques são totalmente diferentes.
Orixás têm individuais personalidades, habilidades e preferências rituais, e são conectados ao fenômeno natural específico (um conceito não muito diferente do Kami do japonês Xintoísmo). Toda pessoa é escolhida no nascimento por um ou vários "patronos" Orixás, que um babalorixá identificará. Alguns Orixás são "incorporados" por pessoas iniciadas durante o ritual do candomblé, outros Orixás não, apenas são cultuados em árvores pela coletividade. Alguns Orixás chamados Funfun (branco),que fizeram parte da criação do mundo, também não são incorporados.
Acreditam na vida após a morte, e que os espíritos dos babalorixá falecidos possam materializar-se em roupas específicas, são chamados de Babá Egum ou Egungun e são cultuados em roças dirigidas só por homens no Culto aos Egungun, os espíritos das Iyalorixá falecidas são cultuados coletivamente Iyami-Ajé nas sociedades secretas Gelede, ambos cultos são feitos em casas independentes das de candomblé que também se cultuam os eguns em casas separadas dos Orixás.
Acreditam que algumas crianças nascem com a predestinação de morrer cedo, são os chamados abikus (nascidos para morrer).

Sincretismo
No tempo das senzalas os negros para poderem cultuar seus Orixás, Nkisis e Voduns usaram como camuflagem um altar com imagens de santos católicos e por baixo os assentamentos escondidos, segundo alguns pesquisadores este sincretismo já havia começado na África, induzida pelos próprios missionários para facilitar a conversão.
Depois da libertação dos escravos começaram a surgir as primeiras casas de candomblé, e é fato que o candomblé de séculos tenha incorporado muitos elementos do cristianismo. Imagens e crucifixos eram exibidos nos templos, orixás eram frequentemente identificados com santos católicos, algumas casas de candomblé também incorporam entidades caboclos, que eram consideradas pagãs como os orixás.
Mesmo usando imagens e crucifixos inspiravam perseguições por autoridades e pela Igreja, que viam o candomblé como paganismo e bruxaria, muitos mesmo não sabendo o que era isso.
Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado um movimento em algumas casas de candomblé que rejeitam o sincretismo aos elementos cristãos e procuram recriar um candomblé "mais puro" baseado exclusivamente nos elementos africanos

Templos
Os Templos de candomblé são chamados de Casas, Roças ou Terreiros.
As casas podem ser de linhagem Matriarcal, Patriarcal ou Mista:
Casas pequenas, que são independentes, possuídas e administradas pelo babalorixá ou iyalorixá dono da casa e pelo Orixá principal respectivamente. Em caso de falecimento do dono, a sucessão na maioria das vezes é feita por parentes consanguíneos, caso não tenha um sucessor interessado em continuar a casa é desativada. Não há nenhuma administração central.
Casas grandes, que são organizadas tem uma hierarquia rígida, não é de propriedade do sacerdote, nem toda casa grande é tradicional, é uma Sociedade Civil ou Beneficente.
Casas de linhagem matriarcal: (só mulheres) assumem a liderança da casa como Iyalorixá.

  • Ilé Asé Iyá Nassô Oká - Casa Branca-Engenho Velho - considerada a primeira casa a ser aberta em Salvador, Bahia
  • Ilê Maroiá Lájié - Mãe Olga de Alaketu - Fundada em 1636 no Matatu de Brotas por Otampé Ojarô
  • Ilé Iyá Omi Asé Yámassê do Gantois - Terreiro do Gantois - Salvador, Bahia
  • Ilé Asé Opó Afonjá - Opó Afonjá - Salvador, Bahia e Coelho da Rocha, Rio de Janeiro
  • Zoogodô Bogum Malé Rondó - Terreiro do Bogum - Salvador, Bahia
  • Querebentan de Zomadônu - Casa das Minas - fundada +/- 1796 - São Luiz, Maranhão
  • Kwe Kpodaba - Asé Podaba - fundado em 1851 - Rio de Janeiro
  • Ilé Asé Íyà Atara Magbá - Santa Cruz da Serra - RJ. Fundada e dirigida até hoje por Omindarewa de Yemanja
  • Ilé Omo Oyá Legi - Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro

Casas de linhagem patriarcal: (só homens) assumem a liderança da casa como Babalorixá no Culto aos Orixá ou Babaojé no Culto aos Egungun.

  • Ilê Agboulá - Ilha de Itaparica
  • Sociedade Cultural e Religiosa Ilê Axipá - Ilê Axipá - Salvador, Bahia

Casas de linhagem mista: tanto homens como mulheres podem assumir a liderança da casa.
  • Ilé Asé Oxumarê - Casa de Oxumare - Salvador, Bahia
  • Ilé Asé Odó Ogè - Terreiro Pilão de Prata - Salvador, Bahia
  • Obá Ogunté - Terreiro Obá Ogunté - Recife, Pernambuco
  • Kwé Ceja Houndé - Roça do Ventura - Cachoeira e São Félix, Bahia
  •  Ilê Asé Iyá Ogunté - Casa de Iemanjá - Maceió, Alagoas
  • Terreiro Viva Deus - Asepo Eran Opé Oluwá - Cachoeira - Bahia. Fundada por José Domingos de Santana- Zé do Vapor de Ogum. Dirigido hoje pelo babalaxé Luiz Sérgio Barbosa de Oxalufã.
  •  Ilé Àsé Igba Onin Odé Akueran - Casa Pai Francisco - Curitiba - Paraná. Fundada por José Francisco - Odé Otaioci. Dirigido hoje pela Iyálàsé Tutty.
  • Kunzo Nkisi Caxuté Teempu Mavula - Terreiro Caxuté - Valença, Bahia

A progressão na hierarquia é condicionada ao aprendizado e ao desempenho dos rituais longos da iniciação. Em caso de morte de um Babalorixá ou Iyalorixá, o sucessor é escolhido, geralmente entre seus filhos, na maioria das vezes por meio de um jogo divinatório Opelê-ifá (jogo de búzios). Entretanto a sucessão pode ser disputada ou pode não encontrar um sucessor, e conduz frequentemente a rachar ou até mesmo ao fechamento da casa. Há somente três ou quatro casas em atividade Brasil que viram seu 100° aniversário.

Hierarquia
No Brasil, existe uma divisão nos cultos: Ifá, Egungun, Orixá, Vodun e Nkisi, são separados por tipo de iniciação ao sacerdócio.
  • ·   Culto de Ifá participam tanto homens quanto mulheres, sendo um Culto patriarcal conduzido pelos Babalawos.
  • ·    Culto aos Egungun participam tanto homens quanto mulheres, sendo Culto patriarcal que lida diretamente com a ancestralidade, conduzidos pelos Ojés.
  • ·      Candomblé Ketu participam tanto homens quanto mulheres, sendo conduzido tanto por homens (Babalorixás) quanto por mulheres (Iyalorixás), entram em transe com Orixá.
  • ·      Candomblé Jeje participam tanto homens quanto mulheres, sendo conduzido tanto por homens quanto por mulheres Vodunsis, entram em transe com Vodun.
  • ·      Candomblé Bantu participam tanto homens quanto mulheres, sendo conduzido tanto por homens quanto por mulheres inicia Muzenzas, entram em transe com Nkisi.


Sacerdócio
Nas religiões Afro-brasileiras o sacerdócio é dividido em:
  • ·      Axogun - O cargo mais importante do Candomblé. Em grau de importância, está acima até mesmo dos Babalorixás. Todos estão á disposição deste sacerdote, porém, como não é rodante, não pode iniciar ninguém sem a participação de um babalorixá ou iyalorixá.
  • ·      Babalawo - Sacerdote de Orunmila-Ifá do Culto de Ifá
  • ·      Bokonon - Sacerdote do Vodun Fa
  • ·      Babalorixá ou Iyalorixá - Sacerdotes de Orixás
  • ·      Doté ou Doné - Sacerdotes de Voduns
  • ·      Tateto e Mameto - Sacerdotes de Inkices
  • ·      Ojé - Sacerdote do Culto aos Egungun
  • ·      Babalosaim - Sacerdote de Ossaim



          As Diferenças Entre As Nações        
Como se sabe, muitas são as formas existentes de culto no Brasil que se utilizam da denominação Candomblé. Isto se dá pela grande variedade de etnias de negros, que reduzidos à condição de escravos, chegaram ao nosso país. Cada grupo/etnia que aqui aportou pertencia a locais distintos na África, tendo assim, costumes e culturas diferenciadas. Assim, portanto, chegaram daometanos, yorubás, congolenses, angolanos, malês e inúmeros outros grupos, que em terras brasileiras procuraram manter seus hábitos, sua cultura e também seus ritos religiosos. Daí surgiram às nações de candomblé, ou seja, a prática do candomblé conforme ritos específicos da origem do povo praticante, como a nação de Ketu, a nação Jêje, a nação Efón, Angola e Kongo (atualmente, estas duas últimas, consideram-se fundidas dada a grande semelhança das práticas religiosas e a proximidade das línguas utilizadas, que são respectivamente, o Kimbundo e o Kikongo). Portanto, cada nação de candomblé possui características próprias, que a diferencia das demais. Estas diferenças se encontram na língua utilizada, nas divindades cultuadas, em determinadas práticas de caráter sigiloso (fundamento), no modo de se enxergar determinadas questões, enfim, numa série de fatores distintivos.
Abaixo algumas diferenças entre as Nações Angola, Jêje e Ketu.
A primeira e primordial diferença entre as citadas nações de candomblé se encontra com relação às divindades, objeto do culto. Assim:
Mukixes para os Angolanos;
Inkices para os Congolenses;
Orixás para os Yorubás (Nação Ketu), e;
Voduns para os Daometanos (Nação Jêje).
Outra diferença encontrada, dentre muitas, é a variação do idioma/língua/dialeto utilizado em cada vertente, assim:
Kimbundo para os Angolanos;
Kikongo para os Congolenses;
Yorubá para os Yorubás, e;
Éwé-fon para os Daometanos.
Distinguem-se ainda pelo próprio ritmo dos atabaques, pelas denominações que cada nação dá a estes, ou mesmo pela maneira de tocá-los, assim teremos:
Kongo de Ouro, Barra Vento e Kabula para as tradições Bantu (Angola e Kongo), ritmos estes, obtidos através do toque com as mãos. Sendo denominados, os atabaques, simplesmente de engomas ou "ngomas".
Ijexá, Igbin, Aguerê, Bravum, Opanijé, Alujá, Adahun e Avamunha para as tradições Yorubás e Daometanas. As denominações dos atabaques para os últimos (Jêjes) são: rum, rumpi e lé (os atabaques nesta cultura diferem-se das demais até mesmo no formato, pois são acomodados em suportes na posição horizontal, diferentemente das demais tradições); Para os primeiros (Yorubás), os atabaques são chamados de ilubatás ou ilús, sendo tocados com a ajuda de varetas (aguidavi) e não diretamente com as mãos (exceto o Ijexá, que se utiliza também do toque com as mãos). Embora em muitas casas de diferentes nações e comum as corimbas serem chamados como na nação Jêje.

Candomblé de Angola
Religião afro-brasileira, de origem banto, que compreende as nações de Angola e Congo (Cassanges, Kikongos, Kimbundo, M´bundo e Kiocos), e se desenvolveu entre os escravos africanos que falavam a linguagem Kimbundo e Kikongo e são facilmente reconhecidos pela maneira diferente de cantar, dançar e percutir seus tambores.
Na hierarquia de Angola o cargo de maior importância é para homem Tata Nkisi (tata de inquinces) e para mulher Mametu Nkisi (Mametu de inquices), que correspondem ao Babalorixá e a Yalorixá dos Yorubás, e o Deus supremo é Zambi (Nzambi) ou Zambiapongo (Ndala Karitanga).
O Candomblé de Caboclo é uma modalidade desta nação, e cultua os antepassados. Há uma nação que faz parte do Batuque do Rio Grande do Sul que descende de Angola, que é a Cabinda.
Os rituais da nação Angola começam com o Massangá, que é o batismo na cabeça do iniciado, feito com água doce e Obí; Bori com sacrifício de animais para o uso do sangue (menga); ritual de raspagem, conhecido como feitura de santo; ritual de obrigação de 1 ano; ritual de obrigação de 3 anos, onde muda o grau de iniciação; ritual de obrigação de 5 anos, com o uso de frutas, obrigação de 7 anos, quando o iniciado recebe seu cargo, é elevado ao grau de Tata Nkisi (zelador) ou Mametu Nkisi (zeladora). Após 7 anos de obrigações, será renovado a cada ano com o rito de Obí ou Bori, conforme o caso, e de 7 em 7 anos se repete as obrigações para conservar o individuo forte, se transformando em “Kukala Ni Nguzu”, que quer dizer um ser forte.
Em frente a toda casa de Candomblé Angola existe um mastro com uma bandeira branca que representa a nação.
Mukuiú N´zambi
Candomblé Djedje
Dahomé, o berço da nação Éwé e Fon, denominados Djedjes, no Brasil, enumeram-se em diversas tribos como os Agonis, Axântis, Gans-Crus, Popós etc. Os primeiros povos djedjes tiveram como destino São Luís do Maranhão, onde ainda se mantém vivas as tradições religiosas trazidas da terra mãe, África. Também se encontra o ritual djedje em Salvador, Cachoeira de São Félix, Pernambuco entre outros estados do Brasil como Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, que também importou os rituais desta nação.
O negro descendente do Dahomé, hoje Benin, trouxe consigo o culto à suas divindades chamadas Voduns, cujo Deus Supremo é Mawu, a quem são subordinados, assim como Olódúmarè o Deus Supremo dos Orixás Yorubás. Diz a Mitologia Fon que Mawu tinha um companheiro chamado Lissá. Mawu era a Lua, que teve força ao longo da noite e viveu no oeste. Lissá era o Sol, que fez sua morada no Leste. Quando existia um eclipse dizia-se que Mawu e Lisa estavam fazendo amor. Eles eram pais de todos os outros Deuses. E existem catorze destes deuses, que eram sete pares de gémeos. Este relato é um mito do primeiro povo do Dahomé, os Fons.
O culto aos Voduns teve ênfase na Bahia, conhecido como Candomblé Djedje, e no Maranhão Tambor de Mina.
Algumas casas de djedje tiveram influencias dos yorubás e vice-versa, formando o que se chama de cultura Djedje-Nagô. A exemplo do candomblé, as instalações dos terreiros contam com um barracão central para as danças, pequenas casas reservadas para as diferentes famílias de divindades, onde são mantidos os assentamentos, há uma cozinha, quartos para dormir e se vestir e quarto onde os iniciados ficam recolhidos durante as obrigações. Há também a casa de Legba, onde são feitas grandes obrigações.
A iniciação djedje requer um longo período de confinamento, que pode durar de seis meses a um ano de reclusão, onde um Vodunsi aprende as tradições religiosas djedje como: danças, cantigas, preparo das comidas sagradas, cuidar de árvores e espaços sagrados, votos de segredo e obediência. As entidades são assentadas, recebem sacrifícios de animais, comidas, bebidas e outros presentes. Os assentamentos são preparados em pedras, que representam um “imã” que tem a força do Vodun, e ficam guardadas no quarto de segredo recobertos com jarras, louças e ferramentas. Existem, também, assentamentos em outras partes da casa e do quintal marcados por árvores como a cajazeira, ginja e pinhão branco. É comum ter assentamentos no centro do barracão de danças; assim como em outras nações, no culto djedje também são feitos rituais de limpezas, banhos com ervas e muitas preces.
Mawu é o ser supremo dos povos Éwé e Fon, criador do mundo, dos seres vivos e das divindades. Mawu (feminino) e Lissá (masculino) formam a divindade dupla Mawu-Lissá cujos Voduns são filhos e descendentes de ambos. Os principais Voduns são: Loko; Gu; Heviossô; Sakpatá; Dan; Agbê; Águé; Ayizan; Agassu; Legba e Fa.
            Kolofé Olorun
Candomblé de Ketu/Nagô
Ketu é o nome de um antigo reino da África, na região agora ocupada pela República Popular do Benin e pela Nigéria. Seu rei tem o nome de Alaketu, de onde vem o sobrenome da conhecida Yalorixá Olga de Alaketu. Também indica o nome do povo dessa região, que veio como escravo para o Brasil. Em termos de identidade cultural, forma uma subdivisão da cultura iorubana. Em geral, membros de origem ketu são responsáveis por boa parte dos terreiros mais tradicionais da Bahia.
A diferença entre as outras nações está no idioma utilizado, no caso o Yorubá, no toque dos seus atabaques, nas cores e símbolos dos Orixás, e nas cantigas; Os fundamentos são passados oralmente por sacerdotes de Orixás que são chamados de Babalorixá (masculino) Yalorixá (feminino).
Outra grande diferença é em relação ao culto dos Eguns; existe um sacerdote preparado para este ritual especifico chamado Ojé ou Baba Ojé, que faz o uso de um Ixã (bastão) para dominar os Eguns; conforme informações de um antigo sacerdote de Ketu, chamado Balbino de Xangô, quem lida com Orixás não lida com Eguns; Já no Rio Grande do Sul, é o próprio Sacerdote de orixá quem faz os rituais de Eguns.
Os cargos principais na nação Ketu/Nagô são:
- Babalorixá ou Yalorixá: autoridades máximas no Candomblé
- Iyakekerê: mãe pequena
- Babakekerê: pai pequeno
- Yalaxé: mulher que cuida dos objetos ritual.
- Babalaxé: homem que cuida dos objetos ritual.
- Ajibonã ou jíbonan: mãe/pai criadeira (o) supervisiona e ajuda na iniciação.
- Egbomi: pessoa que já cumpriu sete anos de obrigação.
- Iyabassê: mulher responsável pela preparação das comidas de santo.
- Yawo: filha (o) de santo (que já incorpora Orixá).
- Abiã: novato.
- Axogun: responsável pelo sacrifício de animais.
- Alagbê: responsável pelos atabaques e pelos toques.
- Ogan: tocadores de atabaques.
- Ajoiê ou Ekedi: camareira de Orixá.
Os Orixás cultuados na nação Ketu são: Exu, Ogun, Oxóssi, Logun Edé, Xangô, Obaluàyé, Oxumarê, Ossãe, Oyá, Oxun, Yemanjá, Nanã, Ewá, Oba, Oxalá, Ibeji, Irôko, Orunmilá.
Na nação Ketu, existente principalmente na Bahia, predominam os Orixás de origem Yorubá, e os terreiros mais conhecidos são: a Casa Branca do Engenho Velho, o Ilê Axé Opô Afonjá, o Gantois.
O Candomblé de origem ketu já se espalhou por todos os grandes centros urbanos do Brasil e também para o exterior, e nota-se um movimento de recuperação de raízes africanas, que rejeita o sincretismo católico, procurando reaprender o yorubá como língua original e tenta reproduzir os rituais que estavam perdidos ao longo do tempo, há casos em que muitos sacerdotes procuram viajar até África para descobrir mais sobre a cultura dos Orixás.
Motumbá Asé 

          AGCO Opened its First Future Farm in Lusaka, Zambia        
Over 300 visitors to the Grand opening ofAGCO Future Farm have showed interest in farm mechanization technologies, grain storage and handling solutions and GSI’s poultry learning center. AGCO held an official opening ceremony of its Future Farm and Learning Center near Lusaka, Zambia on May 27, 2015. […]
          Kommentar til Elefanter pÃ¥ Mfuwe Lodge af Heidi        
Kan ikke finde noget på Zambia?
          Human Subjects        

In 2013 I moved to Ndola, a city in northern Zambia, to work on an HIV research project. Ndola is the hub of the country’s copper mining industry, a bustling commercial center that draws entrepreneurs from South Africa and beyond. My organization worked with government clinics in villages around the Ndola area to provide HIV and family-planning counseling, care, and education. I’d recently graduated from a master’s program in public health, and a US-based research organization had hired me to co-lead a year-long study of HIV infection among women.

During the week, my office prepared truckloads of supplies—test kits, condoms, appointment logbooks—and shipped them to the clinics. Once every week, our doctors also treated patients at our headquarters in the city. Ndola, Zambia’s third-largest city, had a great need for affordable, high-quality health care. If at times the cityscape seemed picturesque to me—jacaranda-lined dirt roads, merchants bearing enormous bowls of vegetables upon their heads, uniformed schoolchildren gleefully walking back home at the end of day—there were always reminders of Zambia’s extreme, endemic poverty. For many of the children I saw, home was the sprawling encampments on the city’s outskirts—a maze of rudimentary, one-room structures that housed entire families.

The post Human Subjects appeared first on In The Fray.


          The British Roots of the Afrikaner Designation.         
The term Afrikaner - as anyone studying its roots knows - is a political term that was first used to describe a political abstraction within a political context during the late 19th cent & was initiated by a Cape organization composed of Cape Dutch intellectuals & two individuals from Holland. As such, this term was significantly influenced by the British colonial power. The following are some quotes further outlining this fact. 

Quote: [ Another point of grotesque confusion that we need to clear up, is that Boers are not "Afrikaners". None of your co-workers seem to have any understanding of this. All Boers are aware of the systematic subterfuge and distortion of "identity" that has been the result of the makings of the Broederbond and the National Party, based upon the then image of the British imperialist gentleman. This artificial identity was meant to wean away the Boers from their strong identity, from their history, from their nationalism, and thus weaken them. ]

From: Professor Dr. Tobias Louw. Open Letter to the Institute for Security Studies. September 16 2003.





Quote: [ As a point of departure it should be stated that Cape Afrikaners, upon encountering British occupation, possessed only a rudimentary collective consciousness. The process of collective consciousness formation among them took place largely, as we have seen, under the aegis of British rule. Generations of Afrikaners had been born as British subjects before this process matured in the 1870s in ethnic political mobilization. British colonial experience, with all its contradictory ramifications, left a deep impression on their evolving collective consciousness. The manifestations of loyalty by the Afrikaner Bond serve as clear evidence thereof. It may sound somewhat speculative, but the admiration and love for the Queen may suggest that she played a role in the formation of Cape Afrikaner group identity and consciousness. They seem to have adopted Queen Victoria as a collective mother figure. Praising and congratulating the Queen on her birthday in 1890, the Z A suggested that if a president were to replace the Queen, the centrifugal forces in the Cape would increase. Cape Afrikaners seemed to have internalized their imperial monarchical experience. Beyond that, it was the balance of their colonial experience which influenced their disposition. ]

From: Page 61. Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners. Mordechai Tamarkin.


 

Quote: [ THE "AFRIKANERS"

7.1 Thus at the time of the ending of the Second Anglo Boer War, there were three distinct ethnic groupings amongst the broad White population of South Africa:

(i) the internationally recognized and indigenous Boer people;
(ii) the Cape Dutch Settlers, loyal to the British Empire; and
(iii) the English speaking White settlers, also loyal to the British Empire.

7.2 The British Empire realized that it had to bring the Boers under control for once and for all, and therefore devised a plan to neutralize the Boer Republics - a plan to make them join up with the other two White segments of their colonies in South Africa.

7.3 The British masters of Southern Africa therefore engineered the National Convention of 1908, which saw the creation of the Union of South Africa. This union consisted of the former Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, and the two former Boer Republics. This union was not merely a geographic convenience, but a deliberate plan to try and destroy the independence minded Boers by mingling them with the Cape Dutch & English settlers.

7.4 It is worth noting that the British Empire used their technique in other parts of Africa as well -reference can be made to the short lived federation of Nyasaland (Malawi); Northern Rhodesia (Zambia); and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) to name but one.

7.5 The prime representative of the British Empire in South Africa, Sir Alfred Milner, put it this way: "The new tactic (to subjugate the Boers) must be to consolidate the different areas of British South Africa into one nation. Although unification will be initially put the Boers into political control of the entire South Africa, it will, ironically, eventually lead to their final downfall."

7.6 This was of course precisely what happened - but not until a new name had been developed for the new "nation" which Milner spoke about. They could not continue to call the new nation a "Boer" state, because the Boers had been subjugated. They could not call it a "Cape Dutch" state, as the Dutch colonialists were now British colonialists, and they could not call it a British state, for obvious reasons. The answer then was to give a general term to all White inhabitants of the new union - "Afrikaners". Although the word originally meant "African" it was politicized by a group of Cape Dutch propagandists under one SJ du Toit in 1880 (the same year the Boers took up arms to fight the British colonialists) in literature of the time. It was then decided to try and blend the Boers into the Cape Dutch and English speaking White populations but calling them all Afrikaners instead of referring to their real ethnic bases.

7.7 This then is how the world began to hear of "Afrikaners" - although only 80 years ago there was no such word in the international vocabulary.

7.8 By forcing the Boers into the Union of South Africa, the British made them co- responsible for the policy of racial segregation, which had of course been established and legislated by the British colonial government.

7.9 The new "Afrikaners" - in fact a coalition of Cape Dutch, English speaking Whites and some Boers - tried as best they could to come to grips with the racial and geographic legacy left to them from the British colonial times - and it was from this disaster that the policy of Apartheid was developed.

7.10 It is of supreme importance to note here that the Boers were dragged unwillingly into the Union of South Africa - and at the first opportunity which presented itself they tried to extricate themselves by force of arms. This was the unsuccessful 1914 Boer rebellion, which ended when some Boer war era generals were killed or imprisoned by the pro-British Union of South Africa government.

7.11 It is thus unfair of the international world to regard the "Boers" as having been responsible for what happened in South Africa during the second part of the 20th century - the Boers were just as much victims of the colonial powers as were any other indigenous people of Africa. ] Source: [ http://www.arthurkemp.com/whoaretheboers.htm ]

From: The Boers of Southern Africa. Arthur Kemp.



          Five Videos Of The Botswana Music & Dance Group "Dikakapa"        
Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post provides information about the Botswana music and dance group "Dikakapa". This post also includes five videos of that group and selected comments from all but one of these videos discussion thread. Most of the selected comments provide information about what the individual songs mean.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the performers who are featured in these videos. In addition, thanks to 4thejuice, the publisher of these videos on YouTube.

****
INFORMATION ABOUT DIKAKAPA
From https://www.musicinafrica.net/directory/dikakapa
"Dikakapa is a traditional music group from Gaborone, Botswana made up of nine members who are mainly members of the Botswana Defence Force, except for its two female members. Members include Dragon, Comeback, Jumbo, Ngo, Suzzi, Stsuatsue, Skuta, Esa, Fix-Stena, Tshumu, Tshutshu, Katli. The group came to the music scene in 2006 and has since made an impact in the country. They draw their musical inspiration from artists such as Seragantswana, Scar,Vee, Gong Master and Extra Musica.

As of July 2016 they were not signed to any record label. Their debut album ‘Selempu-re ya kae Batswana’ earned them a mark. Some of the songs are their own compositions but they also modify and record some common songs to suit their style."
-snip-
I didn't include any of these comments below, but it should be noted that a number of comments to some of the discussion threads of videos that are showcased below (but particularly Dikakapa-Pula) expressed their regret that "Gong Master" had left Dikakapa. I'm not sure when that happened.

****
SHOWCASE VIDEOS
Example #1: Dikakapa-O tswa kae



4thejuice Published on Apr 26, 2008

Gake rate metsamao ya gago...
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)

1. SBUDEX, 2011
"What they sayin...? Bt she's kinda Hot. :P"

**
2. Loasa, 2011
"@SBUDEX The whole song is one of those dreaded 'traditional interventions' that has come about as a result of the girl spending too much time away from home. As its tradition, the other guys are probably her uncles who've been called to help put her in a righteous path . The father is basically saying 'I don't like your behavior.if you're truly my child, you'll listen and obey me. I want you to grow up into a proper woman,someone worth marrying.You're breaking my heart my child.'"

**
3. kenn Gondwe, 2015
"Hey Guys, Am a Malawian-Zambian born and found this song the best. I just love it even when i can understand the langauge. Help me with the basic meaning of the song and how i can get their music on CD. Please.

**
Reply
4. Morebodi Modise, 2015
"+kenn Gondwe The group is called Dikakapa and they are from Botswana singing in Setswana. The song is about a rebellious young girl whom her grand-parents are rebuking her for misbehaving, particularly of sleeping out late, not respecting her virtue as a potential wife."

**
5. adnissak ordep, 2016
"let's keep our music, dance and African tradition now and for the future generations."

**
Badisa Bonamelo, 2016
"Edmore is a story of a girl who does not behave well and always uncontrollable and does not listen to her parents she says i am coming from wherever i want at anytime"

****
Example #2: Dikakapa-Pula



4thejuice Published on Apr 27, 2008

pula naa naa!retlaa dika re kotshe!
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)

1. Kat LaFrance, 2010
"Beautiful. Thanks so much for sharing with the world!"

**
2. janny dada, 2012
"love love this video.thnx 4 the upload.made me all teary.love Africa...my mother land.my African people love u all.from East to west to North to south, Central etc

**
[The following comment is written in response to several comments that “pula” means something different in Romanian]

3. TheTassmanian, 2013
"hahaha, i get what you mean i checked from google translate. Pula is simply rain in Setswana, pula na na means it should rain.. they are basically saying it should rain so they may eat and have full tummies.

**
[This is written in response to questions about what the song means in English]

4. Costain Oaitse Kebatlege, 2014
"my English is not that good but I'll try; they are saying, rain come down so that we can have plenty of food to eat and have our stomachs full. the man is saying, we'll eat porridge. and then they keep on repeating..."

**
5. Christine Amann, 2015
"This sounds like it is music from botswana. The comments talk about ssestwana. What is the difference?"

**
Reply
6. Amogelang Moeng, 2015
"+Christine Amann SeTswana is a language spoken in Botswana ma'am"

**
7. Maipelo Molathiwa, 2016
"pula means rain,the song is all about being happy tat year because it is raining, and we will have better harvest"

****
Example #3: Dikakapa-Mmalobeto



4thejuice Published on May 15, 2008

basha reja maswe!reja ntshothwane mogodu wa peba!
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)

1. justice bapadile, 2012
"he is saying he dates older women becoz his agemates go out with older men, who have cars and money"

**
Reply
2. Obakeng Modise
"banna ba ba tona. elder man took my girlfriend so im consoling myself by dating older woman"

****
Example #4: Dikakapa-Tsala



4thejuice Published on May 15, 2008

ao tsala yame!
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)
1. Gofha Ronald Molale, 2011
"this song talks about how some FRIENDS-'TSALA' are good for nothing..and the back up singers confirms this by saying..."Oh wel my friend,yes,you my friend!""

**
2. Agustin Pius, 2013
"Real African dance in an African setting even though I don't understand a word.

**
3. Pious Chavula, 2013
"Tell me what does this song say. I like ghe dancing."

**
Reply
4. Tlhabo I AM, 2013
"He is singing about his friend who betrayed him and then laughed at him when he was in trouble. He basically tells this "friend" of his to stop laughing because what comes around goes around. The language is seTswana from Botswana!!!!"

****
Example #5: Dikapakapa selempu



petrose taole Published on Jun 19, 2017

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Thanks for visiting pancocojams.


          Yvonne Chaka Chaka - Mamaland (information, video, comments)        
Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases a video of 1990s song "Mamaland" by South African singer Yvonne Chaka Chaka.

Information about Yvonne Chaka Chaka is included in the summary of this video.

Selected comments from this video's discussion thread are included in this post.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Yvonne Chaka Chaka for her musical legacy and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publisher of this video on YouTube.

****
SHOWCASE VIDEO: Yvonne Chacka chacka – Mamaland



yaz oshea Published on Mar 10, 2011

Yvonne has been on the forefront of South African music for over 15 years and still going strong.

Yvonne Chaka Chaka is always spinning gold. In 1985, when she was only 19 years old, Phil Hollis of Dephon Records discovered her in Johannesburg. Soon after she was introduced to record producers Rick Wolfe and Attie van Wyk. Her debut album "I'm in Love With a DJ" was released. It became tremendous hit.

Songs like "I'm burning Up" |"I'm in Love With a DJ"| "I Cry for Freedom" |"Makoti" |"Motherland" and the ever-popular, "Umqombothi" immediately insured Yvonne's status as star in South Africa music scene. Continuing to release hit after hit, her subsequent award winning albums were : "Burning Up" |"Sangoma" |"Who's The Boss" "Motherland" |" Be Proud to be African"| "Thank You Mr DJ" |"Back on my Feet"|"Rhythm of Life" |"Who's got the Power" |"The Best Of Yvonne Chaka Chaka" |"Bombani ( Tiko Rahini)| "Power of Afrika"|"Yvonne and Friends" and "Kwenzenjani"..

For her artistic achievement Yvonne has won the "Ngomo Award" (the "Grand Prix Pan African de la Chanson" in Zaire), as well as the "FNB/SAMA Awards" for the best female singer. Yvonne has also worked with noted producers Sello 'Chicco' Twala and Gabi LeRoux. The African Music Encyclopedia says of Yvonne, "Chaka-Chaka's powerful alto voice, along with her finely-crafted and arranged material, account for her wide popularity."
-snip-
Statistics (as of July 27, 2017 at 8:07 AM)
total views: 1,418,900
likes: 3,420 ; dislikes: 257
total # of comments: 556

****
SELECTED COMMENTS FROM THIS VIDEO'S DISCUSSION THREAD
These selected comments document commenters' high opinions of Yvonne Chaka Chaka and this song.

These selected comments also are a small sample of the expressions of affection that commenters wrote about their own African nation as well as expressions of a desire for African unity. In addition, these selected comments demonstrate the wide reach of recorded music from a specific African nation throughout the entire African continent.

Numbers are assigned for referencing purposes only.

2013
1. Chica Delarosa
"I Love my Mamaland Congo/Afrika"

**
2. Kweku Takyi-Annan
"Africa/Ghana"

****
2014
3. lord isaac
"This song give me power when i hear it.....because i remember where i come frome, i really miss you mama Africa... for Africa forever..!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

**
4. Anna Andreas
"I am born free ,but i am great fan of old school .BIG FAN OF IVONNE CHAKA CHAKA LOVE FROM NAMIBIA."

**
5. Sydonia3 years ago
My grandma had the entire VHS of all her songs! This was all that played in our house. 1997, good times

****
2015
6. abdiaziz ahmed osman
"southafrica people dont respect othere african people they kill them naglet them they forget there fredome were give by othere african country shame to south african people i heat them"
-snip-
"Heat" here is a typo for "hate".

**
Reply
7. Solomon Modisha, 2016
"+abdiaziz ahmed osman please don't "heat" us man, not all South Africans are xenophobic.come to the Madiba land you will see."

**
Reply
8. raan chol, 2016
"+Solomon Modisha I know majority of South African people are good people who love Africa and their African brothers and sisters. When the apartheid was being practiced, all African people were supporting brothers and sister from South Africa but the incident that happened in South Africa by killing other Africa is big embarrassment and betrayal to all Africa people in this world."

**
9. Gabriel Komango
"my land.... TANGANYIKA / TANZANIA"

**
10. Shell Winchester
"mama land África, my first mama i really miss you, and i love you so much... Áfricaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa... Angolaaa!!!"

**
11. Vidakon Jemusse
"Chokwe at Gaza, South of Mozambique,.... Makweniu wa Maxangane..... Peace From Mozambique"

**
12. Ismael Botan
"My mamaland somalia africa am proud to be african where our culture teach us to respect the old and the young ones am realy proud of whom i am"

**
13. hlaloso moreri
"my mamaland-Botswana/Africa"

**
14. M.S K
"Zambia✊ Africa Mamaland"

**
15. Evans Machera
"A celebratory song by African greatest song bird."

**
16. Silver Back
"One Love mama Africa. From S.Leone Westside Africa."

**
17. thadmans
"Africa is indeed our mamaland. Travelled from Kenya to RSA in June for the first time and still felt that I was still at home."

**
18. Bint Mohammed
"Ethiopia , Africa mamaland"

**
19. Martila Omba
"I luv my mamaland Congo DRC/Zambia"

****
2016
20. Nona Ford
"This song reminds me of those turn up weddings and parties!"

**
21. Chol Akuany
"My Mamaland Africa, Yvone Chacka Chacka has said it all. Stop fighting yourselves my people. Why is this tribal division among some Africans tribes? South Sudan, Dinka and Nuer used to inter-marry and did barter trade with one another until the money came along which in turn made some individuals like Riek Machar lust for even more. The 1991 & 2013 episodes are just examples. Greed is dividing my people and blinding them from realizing the truth. And what is the truth? There is no truth when you pick up a gun and kill innocent people. To the peaceful African nations, I thank you for being there for Africa, our Mamaland"

**
Reply
22. ntege samuel, 2017
"Chol Akuany
Also i wish S. Sudan people can wake up & stop murdering Ugandans like insects. We have taken you in as refugees & no one has been killed in here by a Ugandan. I the same way you should treat us well. Stop hooliganism its not the way to go in this modern era. If Ugandans werent good to you then you wdnt have come in here. Ugandan are peaceful & hospitable....& so should be you S. Sudanese. Treat us well...we sell food to you not because there no other markets but we know you are a desert helpless country. Finally we wish you well S.Sudan no matter how you kill us in your land."

**
23. Loice Mukandi
"Oh yes my mama land lots of love from Zimbabwe"

**
24. Jossey Kibebe
"you are such amazing lady,queen of africa i like the song truely africa is our mother land,it is our home and we are home to stay,lets practice peace,love and unity to our mother land God bless africa"

**
25. GLORIA 256
"Am from Uganda and I love Africa ma mama land God bless South Africans the freedom fighters 👏👏👏👏👏"

**
26. Social Streaming
"Stop killing, stop killing, it's our motherland Africa, very iconic music!"

27. Baba Theo Chriss
"Am Tanzanian my mamaland country. proud to be African.."

**
28. Daniel Boateng
"Her songs really contributed South Africa freedom. Big up Yvonne"

**
29. Givemore Chiguvare
"YAAAH wenever i go to a NEW AFRICAN PLACE I PLAY THIS ONE."

**
30. migxgy
"Always played this song at parties"

**
31. morenikespring #apple
"these were our beyonces"

**
32. Rufus J. Kerkulah
"From Gbarnga, Bong County, Liberia to South Africa with love."

**
33. Kenny Chukwu
"In character, in manner, in style, in all the things, the supreme excellence is simplicity. Like all magnificent things, she is an epitome of beauty and class. #Naija."

**
34. Jacob Paulo
"my thanks giving from Angola, love this song so much Chaka"

**
35. thamsanqa nyathi
"I waz young by then in rural areas listening to radio 2 before it waz named radio Zimbabwe,gne are the day's"

**
36. BE8Y LUBEGA
"I miss my mama land, just thought of Chaka Chaka one of the music icons of the 90s. Missing you Africa..."

**
37. Annah Makhoshi
"I am happy to be at African. I'm coming from Ghana I love south Africa it make me happy here"

**
38. Kbc Construction
"the time wen she was young looking good that we fighting apartheid in Namibia remind me my fellow whose gone with war"

**
39. samantha gloria
"Kbc Construction She still looks good,watched her on BBC hard talk one day ago"

**
40. jimmy heguye
"♨❤ l should give huge all Mother in Village!😀&dance with them😀My heart fired to Mother land home village! l feel so much to them!"

**
41. rumbie portia
"My roots are here in Africa....nyc song"
-snip-
“nyc song” = “nice song” and not New York City song

**
42. Regina Drescher
"Those were the good old days were no internet or mobile existed,millenials will never know how good it felt. Thank you Yvonne,you have no idea how many hearts you changed during your time.I give thanks to you..Thank you princess of Africa"

**
43. Femme Fatale
"yvonne chaka chaka in ZAÏRE ♥♥"

**
44. Bertin Ngindu
"So proud to be an African...my mamaland Tanzania/DRC"

**
45. Sidiki Fofana
"I am not from sudafrika but I love it realy all afrika are brothers"

****
2017
46. Charles Lotara
"Those were more than just musicians but were iconic freedom fighters through their songs! You made us proud of our motherland, we love you, we love Africa!"

**
48. James Ndula
"Yvonne was actually asking African countries to stop fighting and unite to become one, unfortunately that didn't happen"

**
49. Gabriel Mandlenkosi Vundla
"africa start from cape town to cairo,so all countries which are in this continent must get united not fight,nigerians are my brothers,zimbabweans are my sisters,so stop fighting guys"

**
50. polycap orina
"produced at the height of Racism...I listened to this as a kid,And will still bomb to hit"

**
51. stephen mugisha
"mam land so great,am Rwanda and proud to be so, i love ur music!!!"

**
52. Chris Tifana chikafa Tifana
"Yoh! aunt you suppose to continue singing please, i like all your songs maam"

**
53. Sebongile Nkachela Baggio
"my mamaland a better land, my home town. before cell phones take over"

**
54. Julius Chacha
"I remember those days 1992 when my uncles used to play kinanda."

**
55. jiya jalaqsan
"I love my motherland in somali"

**
56. Onasis Kanika Since88
"Am from Zambia Africa is my motherland let's not kill each other Africa unite. One love brothers and sisters"

**
57. Mula chain
"I am proud to be Congolese (DRC)"

**
58. ispm quartoano
"sory abaut my inglish im Mozambican. I love this song i rember my infacnc 7 year s old mamaland from Yvone .i never forget you."

**
59. Gisele Belole
"part of the video done in Kinshasa -Zaïre (DRC)"

**
60. Vannuge Jiiko
"I remember this song when I was young back in Malawi I feel so emotional now I miss you mama land the warm heart of Africa"

**
61. Vhuramai Chimbindi
"its true this Africa is our mama land why are we fighting for. lets not divide our selves"

**
62. maikano Rabe
"You contributed a lot in saving south Africa from the apartheid ruling. Great and tremendous zulu voice. It me remembered Dabezitao un Chakra zulu movie."

**
63. james pa92
"Childhood jam!!!"

**
64. Tracy Justice
"my mama land Tanzania, proud to be Tanzanian watching from the USA"

**
65. Lucy Leopold
"i real mic my home town my mama land Tanzania...from sweden"

**
66. JDOUG757
"being a black american, I envy u guys so much. we don't know where we are from. we are so lost...MAMA AFRICA I LOVE YOU!!! I MISS U!!!"

**
67. Willy Kabuya EL GANADOR
"i love africa proud To be congolese. my land"

**
68. Vivi Cruz
"Hi, I'm Cape Verdean, I love this rhythm, how I wanted to understand the lyrics, Kisses"

**
Reply
69. Tonny Okello
"Ni we nakupenda , ni we Mamaland - It a swahili phrase that translates literally : It is you I love, it is you my motherland."

**
70. Lionel Pessi Aka El Vomito
"BURUNDI forever"

**
71. mike koechner
"my mama land Kenya. watching from Doha Qatar. I miss my home Africa..."

**
72. OMBENI MIHWELA
"i love and i proud with african mucian who was sing the song of liberazation"

****
Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.
          Lungu tries to have his cake and eat it: a state of emergency in all but name        

DiA’s Nic Cheeseman reflects on President Lungu’s decision (not to) call a State of Emergency, and where his assumption of greater executive power leaves the state of democracy in Zambia. For 24 hours rumours swirled through Zambia that President Edgar Lungu planned to initiate a state of emergency. When he finally took to the airwaves […]

The post Lungu tries to have his cake and eat it: a state of emergency in all but name appeared first on Democracy in Africa.


          President Lungu requests emergency powers in Zambia        

President Edgar Lungu has sought parliamentary approval for extra powers in a move that could lead to a State of Emergency in Zambia. Listen here for the audio as DiA brings you the story first…   *** President Lungu this evening (5 July 2017) has declared a State of Emergency in Zambia. To listen to […]

The post President Lungu requests emergency powers in Zambia appeared first on Democracy in Africa.


          Career Opportunities With VSO ( United Kingdom, Kenya, Zambia, Malawi, Pakistan)        
ShareSocial Accountability Programme Manager Kenya, 9 Aug 2017 Programme Development and Partnership Adviser( livelihoods & resilience) Cambodia, 10 Aug 2017 Senior Programme Manager – Health, HIV & AIDS and ICS Malawi, 12 Aug 2017 Programme Manager Zambia, 13 Aug 2017 Fundraising Officer For New Products and Digital Fundraising United Kingdom, 13 Aug 2017 Evaluation consultant to conduct a project impact […]
          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. To get the additional information and place the order just visit our website: http://www.salepassportsfake.cc www. salepassportsfake.cc >> Contact e-mails: General support: support@salepassportsfake.cc Technical support: admin@salepassportsfake.cc ----------------------------- Keywords: sell false/fake ID card of Afghanistan sell false/fake ID card of Albania sell false/fake ID card of Algeria sell false/fake ID card of Andorra sell false/fake ID card of Angola sell false/fake ID card of Antigua & Deps sell false/fake ID card of Argentina sell false/fake ID card of Armenia sell false/fake ID card of Australia sell false/fake ID card of Austria sell false/fake ID card of Azerbaijan sell false/fake ID card of Bahamas sell false/fake ID card of Bahrain sell false/fake ID card of Bangladesh sell false/fake ID card of Barbados sell false/fake ID card of Belarus sell false/fake ID card of Belgium sell false/fake ID card of Belize sell false/fake ID card of Benin sell false/fake ID card of 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          How to prepare for a safari        

Preparing for a safari


It’s not every day you get to go to a real wildlife safari in Africa. With all the excitement for the trip, it’s easy to overlook some necessary preparations. Here are some essential items that should be on your checklist for what’s sure to be an amazing, rewarding experience. 

For your safari trip to be as enjoyable as possible it is essential to pack the right things to go with you. Space is probably going to be limited so you need to pay extra attention to bring the right gear and nothing that you do not really need.

Travel documents

Make sure you have a valid passport, an absolute necessity for any time you travel outside the country. Check the expiration date on your passport and make sure it will still be valid for at least six months after you return from your trip. If you do not have a passport, fill out the application in as far advance as possible, at least three months, to make sure you get your passport in time for travel. You will need to pay additional fees to have your passport expedited.

Also check the visa requirements for the country you are traveling to. Some countries, like Rwanda, do not require a visa at all, just a passport. Other countries, like Zambia and Kenya, require a visa but it is issued upon your arrival to that country, at which time you must pay for it. The one you need to be most concerned about it the type of visa you must obtain in advance, as, for example, required by Egypt.

Health and safety precautions


In order to enjoy your trip to the fullest extent possible, you must be in good health. One of the worst things that can happen on a vacation is getting sick and not being able to do or see all the things you want in the limited time you have. First, check the vaccination requirements for the countries you are visiting. You may need a vaccination for diseases like yellow fever and malaria, and some countries may require you to present a certificate of vaccination before allowing you to gain entry.

If you take medications, go to your doctor prior to your trip to make sure all your prescriptions are filled ahead of time and that you will have enough for the duration of the trip. It might be a good idea to bring some bottled water or cleansing tablets in case you’re going to an area where the water is not recommended for drinking. Pack some insect repellant, too. You don’t want to worry about getting stung while trying to enjoy the safari.

Make sure that you have a travel insurance in place and that it covers the planned activities and the required geographical area.

Clothing

Africa is generally a hot place, so bring lots of light, comfortable, breathable clothing. Go for bland colors, like brown and tan, especially for the safari because you don’t want to stand out too much and attract unwanted attention from dangerous animals. You want to blend in as much as possible. Do not, however, wear camouflage. You could get in trouble for it because, in some places, such colors are allowed to be worn only by officials in many places.

Although you should pack as light as possible, make sure you have both shorts and long pants for your trip, as well as short and long-sleeved shirts. Temperatures can drop in the evenings, so pack a sweater or jacket. Opt for clothes that you can layer to adjust to the temperature. It might be wise to bring a couple of dressy outfits in case you’ll be going out in the cities at night.

Bring good walking shoes and boots. This is especially important if you’re going on a walking safari. Depending where you are, African terrain can be quite treacherous, so definitely invest in some sturdy footwear for your trip. Boots that cover your ankles are ideal because it will protect your feet from scratches as well as ground creatures like snakes.

Of course, don’t forget the essentials like socks and underwear!

Sun protection

The African sun can get uncomfortably hot, so prepare accordingly. Pack lots of sunscreen, as well as hats and sunglasses to protect your face from the sun’s rays. Bring lip balm or chapstick with SPF protection. Make sure you have enough light-colored cotton shirts to wear on the hottest days.

Camera


Bring a good camera and extra batteries and film. You want to be ready to capture all those special moments that will give you a lifetime of memories. A trip to the African safari is a unique experience that you’ll want to be able to relive through your photos and the stories they tell.

Binoculars

Binoculars are a very crucial item to bring along. In case you want to take photographs (who doesn’t) or video remember to bring enough memory. Also remember that the availability of electricity for charging may be limited. Another crucial piece of gear are a pair of good sunglasses to protect your eyes and to make you more comfortable. Also bring a comfortable back bag to hold your gear.




          Neymar moto wa kuotea mbali Brazil        
Neymar moto wa kuotea mbali Brazil
BRAZIL chini ya Kocha wake Luiz Felipe Scolari, jana iliichapa Korea Kusini katika mechi ya kirafiki ya kimataifa, ukiwa ni ushindi wa tatu mfululizo kabla ya kuikabili Zambia, Jumanne ijayo katika mechi nyingine ya kimataifa.
Mabao ya wenyeji hao wa fainali za Kombe la Dunia za mwakani, yalifungwa na Neymar na  Oscar.
Neymar alifunga bao lake mwanzoni mwa kipindi cha pili kwa mpira wa adhabu ya moja kwa moja na kumtungua kipa Jung Sung-Ryong kabla ya Oscar  kufunga jingine kwa shuti kali.

          Seven Fellows Complete Bloomberg Terminal Certification at Questrom        
We are pleased to announce that seven members of the 2016–2017 cohort have completed the Bloomberg Essentials Program in the Frederick S. Pardee Management Library at the Questrom School of Business: Valeria Rios Molina, Bolivia Josiane Sylvie Mbakop Noukeu, Cameroon Latu Sera Laukilakeba, Fiji Pakaiphone Syphoxay, Laos Beatriz Gonzalez, Panama Sevgim Çisel Çelik Keskin, Turkey Edward Kapili, Zambia Bloomberg […]
          Christians mobilise globally against corruption        

Christians around the world took to the streets to pray and ‘shine a light on corruption’ during the EXPOSED Week of Action.

Hundreds of thousands of Christians around the world took to the streets to pray and ‘shine a light on corruption’ during the recent EXPOSED Week of Action (14-20 October 2013), claim its organisers.

Many hundreds of Vigils were held where people from all churches and nations highlighted the effect of corruption on the world’s poorest people.

The bells of St Paul’s Cathedral rang across London at the end of one of the first vigils of the week; there were prayer walks around Cape Town and in other cities in South Africa; and vigils organised by church groups, businesses and communities were held in 150 nations including Nigeria, Zambia, Hong Kong, Mexico, Brazil, France, Ecuador, Italy, UAE and DR Congo.

The EXPOSED campaign aims to call to account leaders in government, business and church who hold the keys to combating bribery, abuse of public influence and other forms of corruption, which is one of the main causes of poverty in the world today.

Event organisers used some clever messaging. In the Philippines, where vigils were held in every major city, a roast pig was displayed, to highlight and respond to the ‘pork barrel’ scam allegedly involving billions of pesos - tax payers’ money which has been lost to massive corruption in major branches of the government.

Cats were involved in an event in Peru where the aim was to expose and catch the ‘rats’ in the corrupt justice system. Women trained by a local group – Paz y Esperanza – visited the law courts building to publicise corrupt procedures in abuse cases which saw influential men go free. Three judges lost their jobs as a result of the women's actions.

"Hope does not always begin on high budget platforms; and a million candle lights in unfamiliar places can dispel darkness more powerfully than floodlights in predictable places," said Joel Edwards, International Co-ordinator of EXPOSED.

"This has been a tremendous week when the effects of the scourge that is corruption have been highlighted as never before by people of conscience across all nations," he added.

Social media played a significant role in spreading the EXPOSED message during the week of action. A ‘Thunderclap’ on Twitter, reached more than 300,000 people across the world, and Facebook, YouTube and Twitter came into their own to spread the EXPOSED message.

In addition to the hundreds of vigils and other events, EXPOSED supporters used the Week of Action to gain support and signatures for its Global Call to End Corruption, an international petition pressing for more open tax regimes and greater transparency in payments to combat bribery and tax avoidance. The Global Call aims for one million signatures and will be presented to the leaders of the G20 – the world’s leading economies – when it meets in Brisbane, Australia in November 2014.

As Australia prepares to host the G20 next year, church leaders from across Brisbane gathered to plan how they can make sure the voices of the global poor are heard at the meeting.

In Brazil, Pastor José Marcos, President of the Institute Solidare, encouraged Christians to speak out: "Because of corruption, millions and millions of people around the world have no right to 'our daily bread', and so are unable to see 'Our Father'. All churches should join EXPOSED signing the Global Call, having Vigils and actively participating, as it is more Christian than the solemn meetings we do in our temples, where they do not pose a sound prophetic voice against injustice, especially corruption," Pastor Marcos declared.

The EXPOSED campaign now moves into its next phase running up to Brisbane, concentrating on collecting the one million signatures for the Global Call to end Corruption.

"After this week of action, millions of people across the world are now more motivated to expose corruption where they find it, but this really is just the start. We journey on to Brisbane hoping to see God’s justice shine more brightly as we tackle corruption," explained Joel Edwards, a former head of the Evangelical Alliance in the UK.

The EXPOSED campaign aims to reach 100 million people across the world, encouraging them to consider practical and positive ways to resist corruption in their communities, including their churches, and to promote increased integrity and ethics in business.

* The Global Call to End Corruption can be signed online at www.exposed2013.com

[Ekk/3]


          New International Airstrip for Lake Malawi        
The Makokola airstrip on the Southern Shore of Lake Malawi is now Malawi’s fourth international airport. This will make combinations between Zambia’s South Luangwa National Park and Lake Malawi even easier. For clients that, after an exhilarating but tiring safari in the South Luangwa, wish to relax and recuperate on Lake Malawi’s beautiful sandy beaches, […]
          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps, VISAs and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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<Levini> Nah, Newsea shit gives TSRW it's mensies
<Nysha> ...mensies?
<Levini> Menustrals
* HystericalParoxysm sighs at Levini.
<HystericalParoxysm> No.
<HystericalParoxysm> Just.
<HystericalParoxysm> No.
<HystericalParoxysm> Stahp.
<Levini> ok
<Nysha> Are menustrals like thestrals?
<Nysha> But with sauce?
<HystericalParoxysm> What's a thestral?
<Nysha> WHAT'S A FUCKING THESTRAL
<HystericalParoxysm> I'M SORRY I WENT TO US PUBLIC SCHOOLS OKAY
<HystericalParoxysm> I DON'T KNOW THINGS
<Levini> LOL
<HystericalParoxysm> LIKE WHERE ZAMBIA IS
          RättegÃ¥ngen - om mordet pÃ¥ Dag Hammarskjöld av Daniel Suhonen        

Natten till den 18 september 1961 störtar en DC6a utanför Ndolas flygplats i nuvarande Zambia. Nu reser sig frågorna. Blev generalsekreteraren för Förenta nationerna mördad. Hans plan nerskjutet och kroppen skändad. Varför har det i så fall tystats ner. Vilka krafter låg bakom? Kan rättvisa alls skipas? Kan sanningen komma fram över femtio år efteråt? I denna pjäs gör några ett försök att skipa rättvisa ändå.

För vad händer i en värld om de stora skeendena ständigt hålls dolda för medborgarna? Där ekonomiska intressen griper kring sig och styr världen som den vill. Vika blir konsekvenserna då? Samtidigt: Kan vi bli så naiva att vi inte ser sanningen fast den inträffar rakt framför oss?


          As FIFA World Cup 2010 kicks off, Zambian youth journalists speak out         
As part of a project supported by UNICEF and the Children's Radio Foundation, young reporters in Mongu, Zambia broadcast their thoughts on sports, gender and the challenges of daily life.
          Voices heard: Stan Lengwe, youth delegate at Zambian climate conference        
Zambian Children's Climate Conference youth delegate Stan Lengwe, 16, talks about helping his neighbours understand the importance of a clean environment.
          Voices heard: Tendai Nyirenda, youth delegate at Zambian climate conference        
Zambian Children's Climate Conference youth delegate Tendai Nyirenda, 16, talks about the need for young people to work together against climate change.
          Voices heard: Wilfred Simbule, youth delegate at Zambian climate conference        
Zambian Children's Climate Conference youth delegate Wilfred Simbule, 15, discusses educating community members about climate change.
          Digital Diary: Changing behaviour to fight AIDS        
UNICEF Radio and Voices of Youth Digital Diarist Chinyanta Chimba, 19, talks about behaviour change and AIDS prevention in Zambia.
          Digital Diarist Chinyanta Chimba on HIV-prevention in Zambia         
Digital Diarist Chinyanta Chimba, age 19, interviews young people in Zambia about HIV prevention.
          Zambia’s far-reaching measles campaign declared a success        
UNICEF Representative in Zambia Lotta Sylwander talks to UNICEF Radio about the country’s recent successful measles campaign.
          Chinyanta’s Digital Diary: A Zambian teen fights for child rights and gender equality        
Voices of Youth and UNICEF Radio Digital Diarist Chinyanta Chimba reports on child rights from Lusaka, Zambia and Florence, Italy.
          UNICEF presents awards to youth radio producers in Mexico and Zambia        
UNICEF Radio correspondent Blue Chevigny speaks to the young producers from Mexico and Zambia who won top honours in the UNICEF/OneWorld Radio competition.
          Youth producers from Zambia and Mexico win UNICEF and OneWorld radio prize (Part 2 of 2)        
The AUGE group from Mexico produced the winning radio PSA 'Lupita' in the UNICEF and OneWorld Radio Contest for 2006.
          Youth producers from Zambia and Mexico win UNICEF and OneWorld radio prize (Part 1 of 2)        
Jose Yesani of Zambia produced the winning radio feature 'Living with HIV' in the UNICEF and OneWorld Radio Contest for 2006.
          OIL RIG ADDRESSES ALL OVER THE WORLD        
ABAN LOYD CHILES OFFSHORE
LTD
“Janpriya Crest”
No. 113, Pantheon Rd
Egmore, Chennai Tamil Nadu 600
008 INDIA
Phone: 91/044-28222400
Fax: 91/044-28229412
E-Mail:
abanloyd@abanindia.com
Web: www.abanindia.com
______________________

ABU DHABI GENERAL
MAINTENANCE AND PETROLEUM
SERVICES CO. (ADMASCO)
PO Box 7384
Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES
Phone: 971/2 6775000
Fax: 971/2 6671099
E-Mail:
admasco@emirates.net.ae
_______________________________
ADOBE OILFIELD SERVICES, INC.
PO Box 12490
Odessa, Texas 79768 USA
8124 Sprague Rd
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-552-5553
Fax: 432-550-5782
E-Mail:
brendab@adobeservices.com
Web: www.adobeservices.com
___________________________________
ALADDIN MIDDLE EAST LTD.
Sogutozu Caddesi No 23
Balgat 06520
Ankara TURKEY
Phone: 90/312-2871915
Fax: 90/312-2873357
E-Mail: csayer@tr.net
ALEXANDER DRILLING INC.
PO Box 6162
Ft Smith, Arkansas 72906 USA
Phone: 918-436-2491
Fax: 918-436-2493
E-Mail: alexdrlg1@aol.com
Web: www.alexandersrilling.com
_______________________________________
ALTHEV OILFIELD SERVICES LTD.
3 Teak Street
Trincity TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Phone: 868-640-5604
Fax: 868-640-8619
E-Mail: awilliams@althev.com
____________________________________

AMERICAN DRILLING
CONTRACTORS, LLC
3100 La Plata Highway
Farmington, New Mexico 87401
USA
Phone: 505-564-3111
Fax: 505-564-3109
_______________________________
ANWAR AKKAD SONS COMPANY
5th Floor, Dar El Mohandseen Bldg
Arnos Square
Damascus SYRIA
Phone: 963/11 3322683
Fax: 963/11 3326666
E-Mail: unitedoil@mail.sy
______________________________________
APACHE DRILLING CO.
4001-A N. Main
Fort Worth, Texas 76106 USA
Phone: 817-625-7897
Fax: 702-552-9790
________________________________
PT APEXINDO PRATAMA DUTA
TBK
MEDCO Building 2nd-3rd floor
Jl Ampera Raya No 20
Cilandak
Jakarta 12560 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-7804766
Fax: 62/21-7804666
E-Mail: investorrelations@
apexindo.com
Web: www.Apexindo.com
______________________________________
PT APEXINDO PRATAMA DUTA
Jl. Jend. Sudirman
Balikpapan Permai Complex
Block L No 10-12
Balikpapan, East Kalimantan 76114
INDONESIA
Phone: 62/542-410258
Fax: 62/542-411788
E-Mail: investorrelations@
apexindo.com
________________________________
MESA DRILLING INC.
2929 Briarpark Dr
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-993-7082
Fax: 713-993-7084
____________________________________
ARAB DRILLING & WORKOVER CO.
PO Box 680
Tripoli LIBYA
Phone: 218/21-4804855
Fax: 218/21-4804998
E-Mail: adwoc@lttnet.net
______________________________________
ARROW DRILLING, LLC
3817 NW Expressway, Ste 605
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73112
USA
Phone: 405-917-7860
Fax: 405-917-7862
E-Mail:
bradpumphrey@coxinet.net
______________________________________
ARTESIA FISHING TOOL CO INC
P.O. Box 1370
Artesia, New Mexico 88211 USA
Phone: 505-746-3518
Fax: 505-748-2205
E-Mail: aftdrlg@pvtnetworks.net
_______________________________________
ASCOM GROUP S.A.
18, Renasterii Bld. Chisinau
Republic of Moldova MD-2005
MOLDOVA
Phone: 373/22-221872
Fax: 373/22-227566
E-Mail: info@ascom.md
___________________________________
CASCO-DRILLING CONTRACTOR
AND TURNKEY OPERATOR
Manghistau Oblast
Beyneu District, Borankul
Republic of Kazakhstan
KAZAKHSTAN
Phone: 7/3292510602
ASPEN DRILLING CO., INC.
9054 Highway So. 285
Morrison, Colorado 80465 USA
Phone: 303-697-8335
Fax: 303-697-6816
E-Mail: cmcaspen@aol.com
____________________________________
ASSOCIATION OF DRILLING
CONTRACTORS
PO Box 623
Moscow 117049 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-236-9714
Fax: 7/095-236-9714
__________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS
PO Box 218350
Houston, Texas 77218-8350 USA
15835 Park Ten Place Dr Ste 200
Houston, Texas 77084-5131 USA
Phone: 281-749-7800
Toll Free: 800-231-5924
Fax: 281-492-0345
Web: www.atwd.com
____________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS SERVICES
400 Orchard Rd #06-09A
Orchard Towers (Front Block)
Singapore 238875 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/7373492
Fax: 65/7336386
_____________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS AUSTRALIA
PTY. LTD.
35 Peel Rd
O’Connor, WAU 6163 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/8-93312099
Fax: 61/8-93371383
______________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS PACIFIC
LIMITED ATWOOD OCEANICS
INT’L., LIMITED
Road #11, #10B, 4th Floor
Maadi EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-706-6167
Fax: 20/2-706-6166
_____________________________________
____________________________

AXXIS DRILLING
1015 N. Cruse Avenue
Broussard, Louisiana 70518 USA
Phone: 337-837-8806
Fax: 337-837-8807
E-Mail: rborel@axxisdrilling.com
1 Inland Barges
Gulf Coast, USA
_____________________________________
AZTEC INT’L. LTD.
1000/40-41, 11th Flr, P.B. Tower
Sukhumvit 71 Road
Klongtonnua, Wattana
Bangkok 10110 THAILAND
Phone: 66/2-3910765
Fax: 66/2-3812800
E-Mail: info@aztec.co.th
Web: www.aztec.co.th
___________________________________
AZTEC WELL SERVICING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 100
Aztec, New Mexico 87410 USA
Phone: 505-334-6194
Fax: 505-334-8729
E-Mail: stewart-aws@digii.net
__________________________________________
BANDERA DRILLING CO., INC.
809 T & P Lane
Abilene, Texas 79602-3099 USA
Phone: 325-676-5591
Toll Free: 800-634-3693
Fax: 325-676-5599
E-Mail: ray@banderadrlg.com
Web: www.banderadrilling.com
_________________________________________
BARNICO DRILLING INC.
1006 An Co Rd 2212
Palestine 75803
Phone: 903-729-1509
Fax: 903-729-5793
___________________________________
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
P O Box 10460
Midland, Texas 79702 USA
400 West Illinois, Ste 800
Midland, Texas 79701 USA
Phone: 432-620-5500
Fax: 432-620-5501
E-Mail:
info@basicenergyservices.com
Web:
www.basicenergyservices.com
_____________________________________________
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 10460
Midland, TX 79702 USA
406 N. Big Spring
Midland, Texas 79701 USA
Phone: 432-571-8100
Fax: 432-620-5501
Charlie Swift, VP-Permian Division
Charley Gregg, Marketing
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
2417 Wilcox Drive
Norman, OK 73069 USA
Phone: 254-442-2200
Fax: 254-442-1699
Terry Yates, Manager-Mid
Continent Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 1519
Eastland, TX 76488 USA
14902 IH 20
Cisco, Texas 76437 USA
Phone: 254-442-2200
Fax: 254-442-1699
Tim Dame, VP-North Texas Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
9674 Highway 149
Longview, TX 75603 USA
Phone: 903-643-1140
Fax: 903-643-7590
Marvin Hall, VP-ArkLaTex Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 846
Kingsville, TX 78364 USA
100 E Kleberg, Ste 324
Kingsville, Texas 78364 USA
Phone: 361-592-3200
Fax: 361-592-3297
Tom Best, VP-South Texas Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 20478
Beaumont, TX 77720 USA
9045 Hwy 124
Beaumont, Texas 77720 USA
Phone: 409-842-6262
Fax: 409-842-1094
Morris B Windham, VP-Gulf Coast
Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
1490 West Canal Court, Ste 1000
Littleton, CO 80120 USA
Phone: 303-224-9700
Fax: 303-224-9710
Scott Kinnamon, VP-Rocky
Mountain Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 2783
Farmington, NM 87499-2783 USA
Phone: 505-634-0113
Fax: 505-634-0114
Jerry Tufly, Manager-Four Corners
Division
__________________________________________
BASIN DRILLING COMPANY L.L.C.
PO Box 277
Aberdeen, Mississippi 39730 USA
Phone: 662-369-0394
Fax: 662-369-0307
E-Mail: ccasindrlg@aol.com
____________________________________________
BEARCAT DRILLING L.L.C.
12225 Greenville Ave Ste 950
Dallas, Texas 75243 USA
Phone: 972-889-2100
Fax: 972-889-2104
________________________________________
BEARCAT DRILLING L.L.C.
PO Box 717
Farmington, NM 87499 USA
5424 US Hwy 64
Farmington,NewMexico87401USA
Phone: 505-327-5218
Fax: 505-564-9185
E-Mail: bearcat@acrnet.com
__________________________________________
BIG 6 DRILLING COMPANY
7500 San Felipe Ste 250
Houston, Texas 77063 USA
Phone: 713-783-2300
Fax: 713-783-4463
E-Mail:
mdstone@big6drilling.com
Web: www.big6drilling.com
______________________________________
BIG DOG DRILLING COMPANY,
LLC
PO Box 613
Fort Morgan, Colorado 80701 USA
17525 US Hwy 34
Fort Morgan, Colorado 80701 USA
Phone: 303-867-4736
Fax: 970-867-3714
E-Mail: hgreenwood@bigdogshark.
com
______________________________________________
BIG DOG DRILLING CO.
110 N. Marienfeld Ste 200
Midland, Texas 79701 USA
Phone: 432-570-7355
Fax: 432-570-7734
___________________________________
BIG DOG DRILLING CO.
1612 East Co Rd 115
Midland, TX 79706 USA
Phone: 432-570-7355
Fax: 432-570-7734
__________________________________________
BIG E DRILLING CO Div of Eastham
Enterprises
4710 Bellaire Blvd Ste 350
Bellaire, Texas 77401 USA
Phone: 713-661-6890
Fax: 713-661-8106
E-Mail: lyle@bigedrilling.com
________________________________________
BIG THREE DRILLING INC.
225 Main
Russell, Kansas 67665 USA
Phone: 785-483-3404
E-Mail: smk@media-net.net
_________________________________________
BLACK CREEK DRILLING INC
PO Box 520
Columbus, Texas 78934 USA
3993 Hwy 90
Columbus, Texas 78934 USA
Phone: 979-733-9688
Toll Free: (866) 897-3188
Fax: 979-733-9901
_______________________________________
BLACK CREEK DRILLING INC.
515 N. Sam Houston Pkwy East
Suite 400
Houston, TX 77060 USA
Phone: 281-847-1691
Fax: 281-847-2691
___________________________________________
BLACKBRUSH OIL & GAS, INC.
15600 San Pedro, Ste 204
San Antonio, Texas 78232 USA
Phone: 210-495-5577
Fax: 210-495-0075
_______________________________________
BLACKBRUSH OIL & GAS, INC.
CATARINA FIELD OFFICE
19682 Hwy 83
Catarina, TX 78836 USA
Phone: 830-999-3400
Fax: 830-999-3404
____________________________________
BLUE RIBBON DRILLING, LLC
PO Box 279
Dewey, Oklahoma 74029-0279 USA
399258 W 1330 Dr
Dewey, Oklahoma 74029 USA
Phone: 918-534-2322
Fax: 918-534-2322
E-Mail: johnrountree@bratcooperating.
com
___________________________________________________
BMR DRILLING, INC.
501 West County Rd 109
Venus, Texas 76084 USA
Phone: 972-366-9933
Fax: 972-366-1649
_____________________________________________
BOLDON DRILLING
Colwick Industrial Estate
Colwick
Nottingham NG4 2BB ENGLAND
Phone: 44/115-9-611300
Fax: 44/115-9-617338
E-Mail: drill@bdf.co.uk
____________________________________________
BRENT BAKER DRILLING INC.
8005 S I-35 Ste 203
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73149
USA
Phone: 405-632-2982
Fax: 405-631-5612
________________________________________
BRONCO DRILLING CO. LLC
6601 South 29th
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73179
USA
Phone: 405-745-6060
Fax: 405-745-8096
E-Mail: shale@broncodrill.com
Web: www.broncodrill.com
________________________________________
BULGARGEOMIN LTD.
PO Box 600
Sofia 1000
3 Ogneboretz Str
Sofia 1619 BULGARIA
Phone: 359/2-9571466
Fax: 359/2-9571238
E-Mail: bgm@applet-bg.com
Web: www.bulgargeomin.com
____________________________________________
BURGAZ DRILLING COMPANY
Open Joint Stock Co. “Gazprom”
Prospekt Vemadskogo 41/1
Moscow 119991 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-7820943
Fax: 7/095-7820974
E-Mail:
burgaz@burgazgazprom.ru
__________________________________________
HORIZONTAL DRILLING CENTER
Orenburg RUSSIA
Phone: 7/3532-733509
Fax: 7/3532-733549
______________________________________________
CACTUS DRILLING COMPANY, LLC
PO Box 270848
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73137-
0848 USA
621 North Morgan Road
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73127
USA
Phone: 405-577-5347
Fax: 405-577-9306
E-Mail: ront@kfoc.net
___________________________________________
CANTEX DRILLING INC.
3953 W 42nd St
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-385-1744
Fax: 432-385-1745
_______________________________
CAPSTAR DRILLING, LP
PO Box 13678
Odessa, Texas 79768 USA
8901 N. County Road West
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-366-0161
Toll Free: 800-442-5224
Fax: 432-366-2433
E-Mail:
mike.roghair@oilstates.com
___________________________________________
________________________________________
CAPSTAR DRILLING, INC.
1432 Prairie Lane
Wooster, OH 44691 USA
Phone: 330-264-2206
Fax: 330-263-2134
_________________________________________
CASPIAN DRILLING COMPANY
LTD.
Vishechnaya St, 3
North Wharf
Baku 370009 AZERBAIJAN
Phone: 994/12-974612
Fax: 994/12-974610
E-Mail: dave.walls@gsfdrill.com;
shaig.bakirov@gsfdrill.com
__________________________________________
CAZA DRILLING INC.
PO Box 17805
Denver, Colorado 80217 USA
1801 Broadway Ste 360
Denver, Colorado 80202 USA
Phone: 303-292-1206
Fax: 303-292-5843
E-Mail: cazamail@cazadrilling.com
_______________________________________
CAZA DRILLING INC.
PO Box 846
Williston, ND 58801 USA
Phone: 701-572-0131
Fax: 701-572-0447
____________________________________
CAZA DRILLING (CALIFORNIA)
INC.
7001 Charity Avenue
Bakersfield, CA 93308 USA
Phone: 661-589-0111
Toll Free: 800-443-5925
Fax: 661-589-0283
______________________________________
ENSIGN RESOURCE SERVICE
GROUP INC
400 5th Ave SW, Ste 900
Calgary, Alberta, AB T2P 0L6
CANADA
Phone: 403-262-1361
Fax: 403-265-7673
____________________________________
CDX-DART DRILLING &
TECHNOLOGY, LLC
5485 Beltline Road Ste 330
Dallas, Texas 75254 USA
Phone: 972-692-1400
Fax: 972-692-1401
E-Mail: steve.johnson@cdxdart.
com
Web: www.cdxgas.com
________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING LIMITED
BRISBANE (WACOL) OFFICE
49 Campbell St
Wacol, Queensland 4076
AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/7-38793333
Fax: 61/7-38793322
E-Mail:
info@centurydrilling.com.au
Web:
www.downergroup.com.au
_________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING LIMITED
INDONESIAN OFFICE
Jl Gaharu 1, #15
Cilandek Barat, Jakarta
Selatan 12430 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-7591 0650
Fax: 62/21-766 1308
E-Mail: cendril@indosat.net.id
___________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING & ENERGY
SERVICES (NZ) LIMITED
166 Karetoto Rd
Wairakei NEW ZEALAND
Phone: 64/7-3748899
Fax: 64/7-3748508
E-Mail: cdes@centurydrilling.co.nz
_______________________________________
CHALLENGER LTD HEADQUARTERS
Gastelun 367 P O Box 92
Eschen 9492 LIECHTENSTEIN
E-Mail: chmain@challenger.com.eg
___________________________________________
CHALLENGER LTD
Challenger Bldg
1 El-Moshier Ahmed Ismail St
Heliopolis Cairo 11361 EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-2682810
Fax: 20/2-2676122
E-Mail: chmain@challenger.com.eg
__________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
3728 W Jones Ave
Garden City, Kansas 67846-9762 USA
Phone: 620-277-2062
Fax: 620-277-2094
E-Mail:
wvalentine@cheyennedrilling.com
Web: www.cheyennedrilling.com
________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
PO Box 1085
Woodward, OK 73802 USA
Phone: 580-256-7226
Fax: 580-256-5665
E-Mail:
balexander@cheyennedrilling.com
___________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
500 Main, Suite 1110
Ft. Worth, TX 76102 USA
Phone: 817-332-1212
Fax: 817-332-1213
E-Mail:
ajjacques@cheyennedrilling.com
________________________________________
CHINA OILFIELD SERVICES LTD
PO Box 232
Beijing 101149
College Street, Yanjiao
East Beijing 101149 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/10-8452 2134
Fax: 86/10-84522133
___________________________________
CHINA FRANCE BOHAI
GEOSERVICES COMPANY LTD
PO Box 548
Tanggu
Tianjin 300452 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/22-66916447
Fax: 86/22-25311647
_____________________________
COASTAL DRILLING COMPANY,
L.L.C.
311 Saratoga Blvd
Corpus Christi, Texas 78417-3506
USA
Phone: 361-852-6195
Fax: 361-852-6676
E-Mail:
chris@coastaldrilling.com
______________________________
Monagas 6201 VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/291 6430460
Fax: 58/291 6434205
E-Mail: comanpa@telcel.net.ve
Web: www.comanpa.com
_________________________________
CROSCO INTEGRATED DRILLING
& WELL SERVICES CO. LTD.
Naftni servisi, d.o.o.
Ulica Grada Vukovara 18
Zagreb HR - 10000 CROATIA
Phone: 385/1-3652 333
Fax: 385/1-3096 448
E-Mail: marketing@crosco.hr
_____________________________________
SEA HORSE SHIPPING INC.
PO Box 1405
Majuro MARSHALL ISLANDS
NORDIC SHIPPING LTD
PO Box 1405
Majuro MARSHALL ISLANDS
________________________________
CROSCO INTERNATIONAL
LIMITED
Canada Court, Upland Road
St. Peter Port
Islands of Guernsey UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 1/780-988-2283
_________________________________
CROSCO DRILLING & WELL
SERVICES (UK) LIMITED
10 Orange Street
London UNITED KINGDOM
MIDEAST INTEGRATED DRILLING
& WELL SERVICES COMPANY LLC
(MIDWESCO)
P O Box 2670
Postal Code 112
Ruwi OMAN
Phone: 968/245 91493
Fax: 968/245 94732
E-Mail: crosco@omantel.net.om
__________________________________
NOBLE CROSCO DRILLING LTD
PO Box 20585
Doha QATAR
Phone: 97/4-4352-004
Fax: 97/4-4352-263
E-Mail: FStricko@noblecorp.com
_________________________________________
CROSCO INTERNATIONAL
PODJETJE ZA NAFTNE SERVISE
D.O.O.
Rudarska ulica 1
Lendava 9220 SLOVENIA
Marijan Preglej, Director
CORTECROS
Nova ves 57
Republika Hrvatska
Zagreb 10000 CROATIA
Phone: 385-1-4667383
Fax: 385-1-4667382
E-Mail: info@cortecros.hr
______________________________
CROWN DBL, INC.
PO Box 51433
Lafayette, Louisiana 70505 USA
1026 O’Noal Drive
Breaux Bridge, Louisiana 70517
USA
Phone: 337-332-8563
Fax: 337-332-8598
E-Mail:
dblquest@worldnet.att.net
________________________________
CYCLONE DRILLING INC.
PO Box 908
Gillette, Wyoming 82717-0908 USA
Phone: 307-682-4161
Fax: 307-682-3158
E-Mail: cyclonedrilling.com
__________________________________

DALMA ENERGY, LLC
PO Box 46226
Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES
Phone: 971/2-671-5544
Fax: 971/2-671-5505
E-Mail:
dalmaen@emirates.net.ae
____________________________________
DALMA ENERGY & CO., LLC
P.O. Box 739, Mina Al Fahal
P.C. 116 OMAN
Phone: 968/24636-400, 24636
Fax: 968/24636-415
E-Mail:
dalmaenergy@dalmaenergy.com
____________________________________
DALMA ENERGY LLC
Almana Towers
PO Box No. 491
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/462-1897
Fax: 974/462-2084
E-Mail: qatar@dalmaenergy.com
___________________________________
RAWABI DALMA CO. LTD
PO Box 79707
Al-Khobar 31952 SAUDI ARABIA
Phone: 966/3-8939557
Fax: 966/3-8939585
E-Mail:
rawabidalma@dalmaenergy.com
Al-Khobar 31952 SAUDI ARABIA
_______________________________
DALMA ENERGY LLC
301-302 Anand Complex
2-Anand Nagar Society
Near New India Mill, Jetalpur Rd
Baroda 390 005 INDIA
Phone: 91/265-2320246
Fax: 91/265-2320252
E-Mail:
baroda@dalmaenergy.com
_____________________________________
DELTA ENGINEERING COMPANY,
LTD
PO Box 16113
62—2005 IADC Membership Directory Contractor Listings
Sana’a YEMEN
Phone: 967/1-676601/2/3
Fax: 967/1-676412
E-Mail: deltagrpye@yahoo.com
_____________________________________
DEWANCHAND RAMSARAN
INDUSTRIES (P) LTD. (OIL & GAS
DIVISION)
7-8, Trade Worl, B-Wing, 1st Floor
“Kamala City”, Senapati Bapat
Marg.
Lower Parel (W)
Mumbai 400 013 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-494 0977
Fax: 91/22-498 5432
E-Mail: dnipl@vsn1.com
_____________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
PO Box 4558
Houston, Texas 77210-4558 USA
15415 Katy Fwy Ste 100
Houston, Texas 77094 USA
Phone: 281-492-5300
Fax: 281-492-5316
Web:
www.diamondoffshore.com
_________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
111 Veterans Blvd Ste 1030
Metairie, LA 70005 USA
Phone: 504-834-9040
Fax: 504-834-0332
________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
(U.K.) LTD.
Howe Moss Drive
Kirkhill Industrial Estate
Dyce
Aberdeen AB21 0GL SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-727500
Fax: 44/1224-772321
_________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
6501 Freetown Rd
New Iberia, LA 70560 USA
Phone: 337-365-5180
Fax: 337-365-0557
________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE GENERAL
COMPANY
Unit 2, 5 Turner Avenue
Bently, Perth WA 6102 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61-8-6363-8900
Fax: 61-8-6363-8999
______________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE
NETHERLANDS B.V.
Koninginnegracht 60
Den Haag 2514 AE THE
NETHERLANDS
Phone: 31/70-311-7890
Fax: 31/70-311-7899
_____________________________________
BRASDRIL SOCIEDADE DE
PERFURACOES, LTDA.
Rua Tenente Celio, 185
Novo Cavaleiros
Macae RJ CEP 27930-120 BRAZIL
Phone: 55/22-2791-8200
Fax: 55/22-2773-4115
____________________________________
MEXDRILL OFFSHORE S. DE R.L.
DE C.V.
Ave. Central por 1 Sur Manz J
Lote 1, Puerto Isla del Carmen
C.P. 24140, Ciudad del Carmen
Campeche MEXICO
Phone: 52/938-381-4121
Fax: 52/938-381-3772
________________________________________
DISCOVERY DRILLING CO., INC.
PO Box 763
Hays, Kansas 67601-0763 USA
3505 Fairway Dr
Hays, Kansas 67601 USA
Phone: 785-623-2920
Fax: 785-623-4156
E-Mail:
discoverydrilling@eaglecom.net
________________________________________
DLS ARGENTINA LIMITED
Sarmiento 663 - Piso 4
Buenos Aires C1041AAM
ARGENTINA
Phone: 54/11-5129-2900
Fax: 54/11-5129-2949
E-Mail: info@dlsargentina.
com.ar
Web: www.dls-argentina.com.ar
___________________________________
DOLPHIN DRILLING LTD.
Howe Moss Drive
Kirkhill Industrial Estate, Dyce
Aberdeen AB21 0GL SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-411411
Fax: 44/1224-723267
______________________________
DOLPHIN WELL SERVICE
Platformveien 5
P O Box 63
Tanager N-4098 NORWAY
Phone: 47/51-694300
Fax: 47/51-696156
________________________________
DOYON DRILLING INC
101 West Benson Blvd Ste 503
Anchorage, Alaska 99503 USA
Web: www.doyondrilling.com
_________________________________
DRILLFOR S.A.
Av. Amazonas 1047 y Naciones
Unidas
Edificio La Previsora Torre
A-Piso 6-Oficina 601
Quito ECUADOR
Phone: 593/2 227 0990
Fax: 593/2 227 0853
E-Mail: drillfor@drillfor.com
________________________________
DRILLFOR BASE CAMP
Km 6 Via a Lago Agrio
El Coca ECUADOR
Fax: 593/6 880 982
__________________________________
DRILLING COMPANY ALLIANCE
PO Box 20
Usinsk
Komi Republic 169710 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/82144-41196
Fax: 7/82144-41510
E-Mail: sserver99@online.ru
Web: www.alliancedc.com
_______________________________
DRILLING RISK MANAGEMENT,
INC.
116 E Anglin St
Uvalde, Texas 78801 USA
Phone: 830-278-4567
Fax: 830-278-5255
E-Mail: DRMI@hilconet.com
________________________________
DRILLTEC GUT GMBH
In don Teichen 2
Jona D-07751 GERMANY
Phone: 49/7243-76890
Fax: 49/7243-768941
E-Mail: info@drilltec.de
________________________________
DUKE DRILLING CO., INC.
100 S Main Ste 410
Wichita, Kansas 67202-3737 USA
Phone: 316-267-1331
Fax: 316-267-5180
E-Mail: ddcisrb@aol.com
______________________________
DUKE DRILLING CO., INC.
PO Box 823
Great Bend, KS 67530 USA
Phone: 620-793-8366
Fax: 620-793-8743
620 Hubbard
Great Bend, Kansas 67530 USA
_________________________________
E & D SERVICES INC.
2300 Hwy 11 North
Laurel, Mississippi 39440 USA
Phone: 601-649-9044
Fax: 601-649-3139
E-Mail: asumrall28@yahoo.com
____________________________________
E & H DRILLING COMPANY
PO Box 1058
Graham, Texas 76450 USA
Newcastle Hwy
Graham, Texas 76450 USA
Phone: 940-549-0370
Fax: 940-549-8191
E-Mail: rho@wf.net
____________________________________________
EAGLE DRILLING LLC
1108 Rambling Oaks Dr
Norman, Oklahoma 73072 USA
Phone: 405-364-1613
Fax: 405-447-9351
____________________________________
EAGLE ROCK DRILLING, L.L.C.
1113 Dayton Rd
Midland, Texas 79706 USA
Phone: 432-682-3030
Toll Free: (866) 867-3745
Fax: 432-682-1212
E-Mail:
dtally@eaglerockdrilling.com
_____________________________
EDDE DRILLING CO
P O Box 4966
Victoria, Texas 77903 USA
2607 E Rio Grande St
Victoria, Texas 77901 USA
Phone: 361-572-4884
Fax: 361-578-6376
E-Mail: troy@tuckerop.com
_____________________________
EGYPTIAN DRILLING CO.
PO Box 8071
Nasr City Housing
Cairo 11371 EGYPT
Km. 17.5 Cairo/Suez Road
64—2005 IADC Membership Directory Contractor Listings
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-4176701
Fax: 20/2-4176731
E-Mail: management@egyptiandrilling.
com
________________________________________
EDC SYRIA BRANCH
Mazza Sharkia - Al Farabi St.
Yassin Al Safadi
Building No. 77, 1st Floor
Damascus SYRIA
Phone: 963/11-6110459
Fax: 963/11-6131085
Yehia A Aal, General Manager
_______________________________
DRILLING & PETROLEUM
SERVICES CO
PO Box 2589
Al Khobar 31932 SAUDI ARABIA
Phone: 966/3-8825089
Fax: 966/3-8825164
E-Mail: mashraf@dps.com.sa
________________________________
ELENBURG EXPLORATION
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 2440
Casper, Wyoming 82602 USA
1910 N Loop Ave
Casper, Wyoming 82601 USA
Phone: 307-235-8609
Fax: 307-577-7227
E-Mail: nich@drilloilandgas.com
____________________________________
ELENBURG EXPLORATION
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 3213
Billings, MT 59103 USA
Phone: 406-245-3511
Fax: 406-252-7682
______________________________________
ENAFOR COMPANY
BP 211
Hassi Messaoud 30500 ALGERIA
Phone: 213/29 737595
Fax: 213/29 738026
E-Mail: enafor@wissal.dz
Web: enafor.net
_____________________________
ENERGY DRILLING COMPANY
PO Box 905
Natchez, Mississippi 39121 USA
Phone: 601-446-5259
Fax: 601-446-8607
________________________________
ENSCO INTERNATIONAL
INCORPORATED
500 N. Akard Street, Ste 4300
Dallas, Texas 75201 USA
Phone: 214-397-3000
Toll Free: 800-423-8006
Fax: 214-397-3379
Web: www.enscous.com
____________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE COMPANY
620 Moulin Road
Broussard, LA 70518 USA
Phone: 337-837-8500
Toll Free: 800-322-8217
Fax: 337-837-8501
__________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE COMPANY
11200 Richmond Avenue, Suite
490
Houston, TX 77082 USA
Phone: 281-920-6440
Fax: 281-920-6441
____________________________________
ENSCO DRILLING (CARIBBEAN)
INC.
Edificio Ensco
Muelle Terminales Maracaibo
Las Morochas, Ciudad Ojeda
Edo. Zulia VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/265-631-2287
Fax: 58/265-631-1435
______________________________________
ENSCO INTERNATIONAL
OFFSHORE COMPANY
The Hamma Galleries Bldg, 3rd
Floor
One Lane Hill, East Broadway
Hamilton
Bermuda HM 19 WEST INDIES
Phone: 441-278-0800
Fax: 441-292-9188
______________________________
ENSCO CORONADO LIMITED
91-93 St. Vincent Street
1st Floor Algico Plaza
Port of Spain TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Phone: 868-623-0525
Fax: 868-624-9137
________________________________
ENSCO DRILLING COMPANY
NIGERA LTD.
c/o Speciality Drilling Fluids
Plot 184c Trans Amadi Industrial
Layout
Port Harcourt NIGERIA
Phone: 234-8423-1322
Fax: 234-8423-5915
_________________________________
ENSCO HOUSE
Badentoy Avenue
Badentoy Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 4YB SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-780400
Fax: 44/1224-780444
___________________________________
ENSCO NETHERLANDS LTD.
c/o DONG
Agern Alle 24-26, Building 5
Hoersholm DK 2970 DENMARK
Phone: 45/4517-0776
Fax: 45/4517-0836
_____________________________
ENSCO OCEANICS
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
Al Moosa Tower 2, Ste 2601
Sheikh Zayed Rd
PO Box 72453
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/4-403-7300
Fax: 971/4-403-7305
_________________________________
ENSCO ASIA PACIFIC PTE.
LIMITED
300 Beach Rd #10-01/03
The Concourse
Singapore 19955 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6394-3100
Fax: 65/6394-3105
____________________________________
ENSCO AUSTRALIA PTY. LIMITED
Level 4, 66 King’s Park Road
West Perth, WA 6005 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/8-9211-3388
Fax: 61/8-9211-3390
_________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
Lot 4600, Simpang 4
Jalan Pandan Lima (Off Jalan
Maulana)
Kuala Belait KA 1931
Brunei Darussalam MALAYSIA
Phone: 673-333-0080
Fax: 673-333-2710
_______________________________
ENSCO GERUDI (M) SDN BHD
5th Floor, Bangunan Angakasa
Raya
Jalan Ampang
Kuala Lumpur 50450 MALAYSIA
Phone: 60/3-2148-4909
Fax: 60/3-2148-3909
_________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
3rd Floor, QFl (Qatar General
Insurance)
Bldg. Al Asmakh Street, PO Box
22895
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/441-7075
Fax: 974/442-6780
___________________________________
ENSCO MARITIME LIMITED
Unit No. 601, 6th Floor
Centre Point, Andheri Kurla Rd
J. B. Nagar, Andheri East
Mumbai 400 059 INDIA
Phone: 91-22-564-95454
Fax: 91-22-564-90596
__________________________________
ENSCO HOLLAND B.V.
8th Floor, BRI Building
Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 37
Balikpapan 76112
East Kalimantan INDONESIA
Phone: 62/542-736791
Fax: 62/542-736751
_______________________________
ENTREPRISE NATIONALE DES
TRAVAUX AUX PUITS
BP 206/207
Hassi Messaoud 30500 ALGERIA
Phone: 213/9738850
Fax: 213/9732097
__________________________________
ENVIROSAFE DRILLING LP
1614 C. Nantucket Drive
Houston, Texas 77057 USA
Phone: 713-818-3919
Fax: 713-784-0805
E-Mail: rsage@houston.rr.com
_________________________________
EVERTSON INTERNATIONAL
VENEZUELA
Ave. Marino, Via La Guarapera
Edi Evertson, El Tigrito,
Edo. Anzoategui
Phone: 58/283-2554744
Fax: 58/283-2554722
E-Mail: jims@evertson.com
Web: www.evertson.com
__________________________________
EXCELL SERVICES, INC
36629 Hwy 385
P O Box 305
Wray, Colorado 80758 USA
Phone: 970-332-3156
Fax: 970-332-5821
E-Mail:
eandrews@jwoperatiog.com
Web: www.jwoperating.com
_________________________________
EXPLORATION OIL & GAS JASLO
LTD. NAFTGAZ BRANCH IN
WOLOMIN
ul Lukasiewicza 11
Wolomin 05-200 POLAND
Phone: 48/22-7873704
Fax: 48/22-7762340
E-Mail: naftgaz@naftgaz.com.pl
____________________________________
FAITH DRILLING L.L.C.
PO Box 1378
Seminole, Texas 79360-1378 USA
902 S.W. Ave C
Seminole, Texas 79360 USA
Phone: 432-758-2552
Phone: 432-758-6352
Fax: 432-758-2552
_______________________________
FELDERHOFF BROTHERS
DRILLING
PO Box 1299
Gainesville, Texas 76240 USA
4337 E Hwy 82
Gainesville, Texas 76240 USA
Phone: 940-665-3592
Fax: 940-613-4065
E-Mail: Feld@bsicompanies.com
Web: www.bsicompanies.com
___________________________________
1ST DRILLING COMPANY OF
ZHONGYUAN PETROLEUM
EXPLORATION BUREAU
Mazhuangqiao Town
Qingfeng County
Henan Province 457331 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/393-4807196
Fax: 86/393-4800734
_______________________________
Bucharest ROMANIA
Phone: 40/21-224-0538
Fax: 40/21-224-0538
E-Mail: office@foradex.ro
Web: www.foradex.ro
____________________________
FORADEX SA
14, Rue 7051, Cite Essalem
El-Menzah IV
1082 Tunis TUNISIA
Phone: 216/71-230005
Fax: 216/71-230005
_________________________________
FORADEX SA
Lukind House 1st Fl
Cha Cha Cha Road
PO Box 31911
Lusaka ZAMBIA
Phone: 260/1-223723
Fax: 260/1-223723
_____________________________
FORADEX SA
PO Box 4105
Benghazi LIBYA
Phone: 218/61-2222809
Fax: 218/61-2222809
_____________________________
FORESIGHT LTD.
Foresight House
6 Elder Street
London E1 6BT UNITED KINGDOM
Phone: 44/207-3775755
Fax: 44/207-2472700
E-Mail: fk.)@fs-g.com
________________________________
Mumbai 400 055 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-6155132
Fax: 91/22-6155133
E-Mail: asm@bom5.vsnl.net.in
___________________________________
HALLWORTHY SHIPPING LTD.
PO Box 41164
Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/6-5281914
Fax: 971/6-5281974
E-Mail:
foresight@emirates.net.ae
_____________________________
FOSERCO SA
2 Avram Iancu Street
TG. OCNA 5467 ROMANIA
Phone: 40/234-344035,344036
Fax: 40/234-344395
E-Mail: foserco@mic.ro
_________________________________
FRIGSTAD OFFSHORE PTE. LTD.
2 Mistri Rd
#11-00 HMC Bldg
Singapore 079624 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6223-1277
Fax: 65/6223-3906
E-Mail: fo@frigstad.com.sg
Web: www.frigstad.com
______________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING I, LP
PO Box 1116
Luling, Texas 78648 USA
Phone: 830-875-3774
Fax: 830-875-2484
E-Mail:
rthomas@frontierdrilling.com
_________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING ASA
PO Box 6076
Postterminalen
Bergen 5892 NORWAY
Statsminister Michelsensveg 38
Paradis
Bergen 5231 NORWAY
Phone: 47/55-922820
Fax: 47/55-922830
E-Mail: post@frontier-drill.com
Web: www.frontier-drill.com
________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING (ASIA) PTE.
LTD.
491 B River Valley Rd
#14-01 Valley Point
Singapore 248373 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6887 0440
Fax: 65/6887 0444
E-Mail: singapore@frontierdrill.
com
_________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING do BRAZIL
LTDA
Edificio Leberty Center - Sala 901
Avenida Nossa Senhora da Penha
#387
Praia da Canto
Vitoria ES 29055-131 BRAZIL
Phone: 55/27 3334 8600
Fax: 55/27 3334 8610
________________________________
GASCO DRILLING INC
PO Drawer 330
Cedar Bluff, Virginia 24624 USA
Phone: 540-964-2696
Fax: 540-963-0487
_____________________________
GASCO DRILLING INC
PO Box 527
Cedar Bluff, VA 24609 USA
Jerry E Ratliff, Sec
_________________________
GEM DRILLING CO.
PO Box 65
Stamford, Texas 79553 USA
500 Adams Rd
Stamford, Texas 79553 USA
Phone: 325-773-3654
Fax: 325-773-3655
__________________________
GEORGE N. MITCHELL DRILLING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 550
Carmi, Illinois 62821 USA
1239 County Rd 1500N
Carmi, Illinois 62821 USA
Phone: 618-382-2343
Fax: 618-384-2435
E-Mail: nrgy@mitchelldrilling.
com
________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE CORPORATION
PO Box 4577
Houston, Texas 77210-4577 USA
15375 Memorial Drive
Houston, Texas 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-6000
Toll Free: (800) 231-5754
Fax: 281-925-6010
E-Mail:
firstname.lastname@gsfdrill.co
m
Web: www.gsfdrill.com
______________________________
CASPIAN DRILLING COMPANY
LIMITED
Vishechnaya Street #3
North Wharf
Baku AZERBAIJAN
Phone: 994/12-497-4612
Fax: 994/12-497-4610
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CORP
B.P. 5893
c/o Saga Logistics Base
Douala CAMEROON
Phone: 237/343-8713
Fax: 237/343-4979
_____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
COMPANY (CANADA) LTD.
36 Brookshire Court Ste 13
Bedford, NS B4A 4E9 CANADA
Phone: 902-832-9460
Fax: 902-832-9480
Kevin Knott
Victor Dias
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL (CANADA)
DRILLING COMPANY
Baine Johnston Centre, Ste 400
10 Fort William Place
St John’s
Newfoundland A1C 1K4 CANADA
Phone: 709-724-6600
Fax: 709-724-6610
_____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE CORP
Kilometer No. 11
Kattameya-Ein Soukhna Desert Rd
PO Box 341
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 202-757-5681
Fax: 202-757-5669
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
OPERATIONS, INC.
Parque de las Avenidas de Africa
Carracolas
Malabo EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Phone: 240-0-96-968
Fax: 240-0-94-091
____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CORP
Boite Postale 556
Port Gentil GABON
Phone: 241/552040
Fax: 241/560458
____________________________________
PT SANTA FE SUPRACO
INDONESIA
Jalan, Melawai 1X/2
PO Box 2351
Jakarta Selatan INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-721-1700
Fax: 62/21-721-1714
_________________________________
PT SANTA FE-POMEROY
INDONESIA
Merak Petroleum Base
Jl. Pulorida, Merak
West Java INDONESIA
Phone: 62/254-571 408
Fax: 62/254-571 189
_______________________________
PT SANTA FE SUPRACO
INDONESIA
Gedung BRI, Lantai 5
Jin. Jend Sudiman No. 37
Balikpapan
Kalimantan 76112 INDONESIA
Phone: 62-542-426-396
Fax: 62-542-426-408
_____________________________
SAFEMAL DRILLING SDN. BHD.
9th Floor, Angkasa Raya Building
123 Jalan Ampang
Kuala Laumpur 50450 MALAYSIA
Contractor Listings 2005 IADC Membership Directory—69
Phone: 603-2050-2100
Fax: 603-2050-2122
_____________________________________
GLOBAL OFFSHORE DRILLING
LIMITED
Kilometer 14 Aba Expressway
PO Box 7086
Port Harcourt NIGERIA
Phone: 234/84-231356
Fax: 234/84-231353
_______________________________________
SANTA FE CONSTRUCTION CO.
139 Corporate Center
10th Floor, Unit 1001
139 Valero Street, Salcedo Village
Makati City Manila PHILIPPINES
Phone: 632/830-2210
Fax: 632/818-8237
_______________________________
SANTA FE DRILLING
OPERATIONS, INC.
PO Box 4396
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/455-0797
Fax: 974/455-1298
____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC.
Letter Box 5096, Bldg 104, Sops
Ave.
Loyang Offshore Base
Loyang Crescent
Singapore 508988 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6545 2679
Fax: 65/6545 6173
______________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC.
Unit 3004, 30th Floor, Suntowers
Bldg B, 123 Vibhavadi-Rangsit Rd
Khwaeng Ladyao, Khet Chatuchak
Bangkok 10900 THAILAND
Phone: 662-617-6170
Fax: 662-617-6171
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE SOUTH
AMERICA LLC
Maple House
3 Sweet Briar Road
St. Clair, Trinidad WEST INDIES
Phone: 868/622-6432
Fax: 868/622-6563
_______________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING UK
LIMITED
Lothing Depot
North Quay
Lowestoft
Suffolk NR32 2TF UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 44/1502-542-000
Fax: 44/1502-542-001
________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING UK
LIMITED
Langlands House Huntley St
Aberdeen AB10 1SH SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-654400
Fax: 44/1224-654401
________________________________
RESOURCE RIG SUPPLY, INC.
15375 Memorial Drive
Houston, TX 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-7300
Fax: 281-925-7399
__________________________________
APPLIED DRILLING TECHNOLOGY,
INC.
15375 Memorial Drive, Suite A200
Houston, TX 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-7100
Fax: 281-925-7199
________________________________________
ACCESS EXPLORATION
CORPORATION
1177 West Loop South, Ste 1450
Houston, TX 77027 USA
Phone: 713-621-2777
Fax: 713-621-2779
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
VENEZUELA, C.A.
Av. Nueva Esparta c/c/ Cerro Sur,
Centro
Bahia Pozvelos Torre b
Mezanina I, Oficina 20
Barcelona VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/281-262-4250
Fax: 58/281-267-9362
____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC
02 Hoang Dieu Street
Vung Tau City VIETNAM
Phone: 84/64-852164
Fax: 84/64-852162
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE ANGOLA
OFFICE
Malango Base
Cabinda ANGOLA
Phone: 925-842-1111
Fax: 832-463-6806 (V-sat)
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE ARGENTINA
OFFICE
25 de Mayo 555, Piso 20
C1002ABK Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
Phone: 54-11-4310-2470
Fax: 54-11-4310-2471
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE BRAZIL OFFICE
Estrada de Capuabe, 73
Santa Rita - Vila Velha - ES
CEP 29118-461 BRAZIL
Phone: 55-27-3239-8734
Fax: 55-27-3239-8734
_____________________________________
GOLDEN STATE DRILLING INC
3500 Fruitvale Ave
Bakersfield, California 93308 USA
Phone: 661-589-0730
Fax: 661-589-0147
E-Mail: bstevens@gsdrilling.com
________________________________
GOOBER DRILLING CORPORATION
PO Box 1432
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74076 USA
4905 S Perkins Rd
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 USA
Phone: 405-743-2132
Fax: 405-743-0052
E-Mail:
mike.brown@gooberdrilling.com
_____________________________________

GREAT WALL DRILLING COMPANY
LIMITED
No. 6 Liupukang Street
Xicheng District
Beijing 100724 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/10-62095684
Fax: 86/10-62094976
____________________________________

GREEN GAS POWER LIMITED
16A Fore Street, Topsham
Exeter, Devon EX3 OHF UNITED
KINGDOM
Wolstanton Retail Park, Wolstanton
Newcastle-Under-Lyme
Staffordshire ST5 0EE UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 44/1-395-223972
Fax: 44/1-395-227447
E-Mail: jg@greengaspower.com
___________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP
10370 Richmond Ave Ste 600
Houston, Texas 77042-4136 USA
Phone: 713-435-6100
Toll Free: (800) 553-7563
Fax: 713-435-6171
E-Mail:
trichards@greywolfdrilling.com
____________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP ARK-LA-TEX DIVISION
333 Texas St Ste 925
Shreveport, LA 71101 USA
Phone: 318-213-1100
Toll Free: 800-959-3003
Fax: 318-213-1155
_____________________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP ROCKY MOUNTAIN DISTRICT
2136 North Oil Dr
Casper, WY 82604 USA
Phone: 307-266-0700
Toll Free: (866) 522-0700
Fax: 307-266-0166
__________________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP GULF COAST DIVISION
254 Stanford Rd
Eunice, LA 70535 USA
Phone: 337-457-0500
Toll Free: 888-457-4089
Fax: 337-457-0558
_____________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP SOUTH TEXAS DIVISION
1907 E Main
Alice, TX 78332-4142 USA
Phone: 361-668-8364
Toll Free: 800-242-3280
Fax: 361-668-0823
_________________________________________

GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP WEST TEXAS DISTRICT
6 Desta Drive, Suite 3350
Midland, TX 79705 USA
Phone: 915-684-6828
Toll Free: (888) 864-6828
Fax: 915-684-6841
____________________________________
GUICHARD OPERATING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 2000
Crowley, Louisiana 70527-2000
USA
849 Oddfellows Rd
Crowley, Louisiana 70526 USA
Phone: 337-783-5141
Toll Free: 800-738-4645
Fax: 337-783-5155
E-Mail: GuichardCo@aol.com
____________________________________
GULF DRILLING INTERNATIONAL
LIMITED (Q.S.C.)
PO Box 9072
Doha QATAR
7th Floor
HBK Tower, Musherib St
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/4378777
Fax: 974/4434788
E-Mail: gdi@gulfdrilling.net
___________________________________.
GWALTNEY DRILLING INC
PO Box 520
Washington, Indiana 47501 USA
107 SE 3rd St
Washington, Indiana 47501 USA
Phone: 812-254-5085
Fax: 812-254-4943
__________________________________________
GWALTNEY DRILLING INC
RR #2 Box 255
Washington, IN 47501-1216 USA
Phone: 812-254-9168
Neal Newton, Prod Supt
_________________________________
H-40 DRILLING INC.
11828 W Central Ste 100
Wichita, Kansas 67212-5178 USA
Phone: 316-773-3640
Fax: 316-773-3740
_______________________________
HALLWORTHY SHIPPING LTD S.A
Torre Universal Ave Federico Boyd
Piso No 12 (Penthouse)
Panama 0816-02033 REPUBLIC OF
PANAMA
PO Box 41164
C/O Sharjah Shipping Co.
Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/6-5281914
Fax: 971/6-5281974
E-Mail: foresite@emirates.net.ae
HAMAD AL-HAMAD & PARTNERS
COMPANY
PO Box 47143
Fahaheel 64022
Phone: 965/3261369,3261378
Fax: 965/3261348
E-Mail:
hamadalhamad@hhpco.com.kw
Web:
www.hamadalhamad@hhpco.co
m.kw
___________________________________
HEART LAND DRILLING, INC.
PO Box 3714
Abilene, Texas 79604 USA
Phone: 325-676-4621
Fax: 325-670-0325
E-Mail: hlpc@abilene.com
________________________________
HEARTLAND OIL AND GAS
CORPORATION
1625 Broadway, Ste 1480
Denver, Colorado 80202 USA
Phone: 303-405-8450
Fax: 303-405-8451
E-Mail:
charlie@heartlandoilandgas.com
Web:
www.heartlandoilandgas.com
________________________________________
HEARTLAND OIL AND GAS
CORPORATION
200 Burrard St, Ste 1925
Vancouver, B.C. V6C 3L6 CANADA
Phone: 604-693-0177
Fax: 604-638-3525
E-Mail:
rcoglon@heartlandoilandgas.co
m
Web:
www.heartlandoilandgas.com
_____________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
1437 South Boulder Avenue
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74119 USA
Phone: 918-742-5531
Fax: 918-742-0237
______________________________________

INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 95969
Oklahoma City, OK 73143 USA
Phone: 405-677-8882
Fax: 405-670-2667
_____________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 6173
Pearl, MS 39288-6173 USA
Phone: 601-939-1589
Fax: 601-939-9122
____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 3909
Western Offshore District
Ventura, CA 93006 USA
Phone: 805-642-4656
Fax: 805-642-6024
_______________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 1700
Alice, TX 78333 USA
Phone: 361-664-0114
Fax: 361-664-8534
_______________________________________

HELMERICH & PAYNE (COLOMBIA)
DRILLING
Cra 9A No 99-02
Office 410
Bogota COLOMBIA
Phone: 57/1-6182399
Fax: 57/1-6182345
__________________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (ANACO)
Apartado 16 Carretera Negra KM
98
Final Ave dose Antonio Anzoategul
Anaco Edo Anzoategui
VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/282-4247754
Fax: 58/282-4247753
_______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (MATURIN)
Av. Alirio Ugarte Pelayo
(Al lado de Plasticor)
Maturin, Edo. Monagas
VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/291-641-9535
Fax: 58/291-643-1130
_______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (CD. OJEDA)
Carretera N, Entre Avenidas 42y 43
Ciudad Ojeda
Edo. Zulia VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/265-641-2537
Fax: 58/265-641-1552
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DEL
ECUADOR INC.
Luis Cordero y Andalucia
Edificio “Cyede” Quinto Piso
Quito ECUADOR
Phone: 593-2-2555-372
Fax: 593-2-2555-512 X 102
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
16365 Park Ten Place, Ste 300
Houston, TX 77084 USA
Phone: 281-398-5457
Fax: 281-398-7960
_____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE BOLIVIA
S.A.
Calle 9 Oeste No. 73
Barrio Las Palmas
Santa Cruz BOLIVIA
Phone: 591/3-3531-741
Fax: 591/3-3536-784
_________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
106 Park Place, Ste 100
Covington, LA 70433 USA
Phone: 985-871-4071
Fax: 985-871-4072
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE (AFRICA)
DRILLING CO. EQUATORIAL
GUINEA
Avenida Parques de Africa
Caracolas
Malabo EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Phone: Houston 713-431-9212
Fax: Houston 713-431-9216
_____________________________________

HELMERICH & PAYNE
(ARGENTINA) DRILLING CO.
San Martin #201, Piso 4, Oficina 12
Bis
Codigo Postal 1003
Buenos Aires ARGENTINA
Phone: 54/11-4326-3481
Fax: 54/11-4322-2005
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
341 East E St Ste 180
Casper, WY 82601 USA
Phone: 307-237-0056
Fax: 307-237-6756
___________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
Smolensk Passage, Smolensk
Square
The House 3 6th Floor, Office No.
628
Moscow 121099 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-937-8272
Fax: 7/095-937-8200
____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 133228
Tyler, TX 75713 USA
Phone: 903-533-1340
Fax: 903-535-9238
__________________________________
HERCULES OFFSHORE, LLC
2929 Briarpark Drive, Ste 435
Houston, Texas 77042 USA
Phone: 713-952-4176
Fax: 713-952-4342
____________________________________
HERCULES DRILLING COMPANY
2929 Briarpark Drive Ste 400
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-952-7977
Fax: 713-952-7990
________________________________
HERCULES LIFTBOAT COMPANY
5319 Port Road
New Iberia, LA 70560 USA
Phone: 337-560-8000
Fax: 337-374-3247
____________________________________
HTC INTERNATIONAL
PO Box No 1376
Corner of Hadda Cinema Complex
Sana’a YEMEN
Hadda Cinema Complex
Sana’a YEMEN
Phone: 967/1-269224
Fax: 967/1-269223
E-Mail: hashedi@y.net.ye
_______________________________
ICELAND DRILLING CO
Jardboranir hf
Skipholt 50 d
Reykjavik 105 ICELAND
Phone: 354/5113800
Fax: 354/5883801
E-Mail: sveinn@jardboranir.is
___________________________________
INLET DRILLING ALASKA INC
210 N Willow Street
Kenai, Alaska 99611 USA
Phone: 907-283-3567
Fax: 907-283-7065
E-Mail: inletdrl@ptialaska.net
__________________________________
IRAQ DRILLING COMPANY (IDC)
Ministry of Oil
Al-Nidal Street
Baghdad IRAQ
Phone: 1-914-360-3105
E-Mail: dr-alaboudi@web.de
__________________________
OIL EXPLORATION COMPANY
(OEC)
Ministry of Oil
Oil Exploration Company
PO Box 476
Baghdad IRAQ
Phone: 964/1-772-9802
Fax: 964/1-727-0388
E-Mail: oecman@uruklink.net
_________________________________
IROILRIGS INTERNATIONAL LTD
Suite 1301
1-7 Lyndhurst Terrace
Central
Hong Kong P R CHINA
Phone: 852-92380288
Fax: 852-25217979
E-Mail: robinson@iroilrigs.com
Web: www.iroilrigs.com
_______________________________
ITAG - TIEFBOHR GMBH &
COMPANY KG
Itagstrasse
Celle D-29221 GERMANY
Phone: 49/5141914-351
Fax: 49/5141-914-388
E-Mail: thor.noevig@itag-ce.de
Web: www.itag-celle.de
_________________________________
JAGSON INTERNATIONAL LTD.
2nd Floor
6 Pearey Lal Building
Janpath
New Delhi 110 001 INDIA
Phone: 91/11-3718059
Fax: 91/11-3324693
E-Mail: jil@nda.vsnl.net.in
_______________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
Nishi Azabu Annex 5th-7th Floor
3-20-16 Nishi Azabu, Minato-ku
Tokyo 106-0031 JAPAN
Phone: 81/3-5411-9870
Fax: 81/3-5411-9200
E-Mail: info@jdc.co.jp
Web: www.jdc.co.jp
JAPAN DRILLING (MALAYSIA)
SDN. BHD.
Box No 535 Lot 6.01
6th Fl Wisma Central
Jalan Ampang 50450
Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA
Phone: 60/3-21668071
Fax: 60/3-21668070
E-Mail: hirishi@jdc.co.jp
___________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO., LTD. H-5
OPERATIONS OFFICE
C/O Perforadora Central, S.A.
DE.C.V.
Calle 24 No. 52 Altos-2. Col.
Centro C.P. 24100
Ciudad del Carmen MEXICO
Phone: 52/938-382-5964
Fax: 52/938-382-0577
E-Mail: yoichi.onoe@jdc.co.jp
_________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
SAGADRIL, INC.
PO Box 17340
Jebel Ali, Room No. 604 of Lob-16
Building, in Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/4-8814945
Fax: 971/4-8814965
E-Mail: toshio.harada@jdc.co.jp
______________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
SINGAPORE OFFICE
Loyang Offshore Supply Base
Box No 5056
Loyang Cresent
Singapore 508988 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6543-1722
Fax: 65/6542-1765
E-Mail: freddy@jdcs.com.sg
_____________________________________
PT JAPAN DRILLING INDONESIA
19th Floor, Plaza Sentral JK
Jendral Sudirman Kav 47
Jakarta 12930 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-5746441
Fax: 62/21-5746386
_______________________________________
JET DRILLING PTE LTD
152 Beach Road
#09-01 Gateway East
Singapore 189721 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/392-0201
_____________________________
NORTHERN OFFSHORE LTD.
PO Box 1751 Vika
Oslo 0122 NORWAY
Phone: 47/2201-7500
Fax: 47/2201-7510
E-Mail:
management@northern.no
____________________________________
JINDAL DRILLING & INDUSTRIES
LTD.
1207 Vikram Tower
16 Rajendra Place
New Delhi 110 008 INDIA
Phone: 91/11-2574-0419-0421
Fax: 91/11-2575-4604
E-Mail:
jindal@giasdl01.vsnl.net.in
Web: www.jindal.com
_________________________________
JINDAL DRILLING & INDUSTRIES
LTD.
3rd Fl Keshva Bldg
Bandra Kurla Complex
Bandra (East)
Mumbai 400 051 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-2659-2893-2894
Fax: 91/22-2654-2881
E-Mail:
neptune@bom5.vsnl.net.in
_____________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
Registered Office:
220 G.I.D.C. Estate
Mehsana - Gujarat, 384 002 INDIA
Phone: 91/2762-254079
Fax: 91/2762-254822
E-Mail: john.adl@sancharnet.in
Web: www.johnenergy.com
_______________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED Corporate
Office
101, Shapath-III, Near GNFC Tower
S.G. Road
Bodakdov, Ahmedabad
Gujrat INDIA
Phone: 91/79-26850132
Fax: 91/79-26850133
E-Mail: john@johnenergy.com,
hinduad1@sancharnet.in
________________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
Durga Bhavan, Subhash Nagar
Chandkheda
Ahmedabad INDIA
Phone: 91/79-55228235
Fax: 91/79-55228235
_________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
5 Besant St, Santacruz West
Mumbai 400 054 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-26494581
Fax: 91/22-26052472
__________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
196 Narnarayan Bunglows
Behind MIPCO, Bolav Road
Bharuch
Gujrat INDIA
Phone: 91/2642-246753
Fax: 91/2642-246753
__________________________________
JUSTISS OIL CO., INC.
PO Box 2990
Jena, Louisiana 71342 USA
1120 E Oak
Jena, Louisiana 71342 USA
Phone: 318-992-4111
Fax: 318-992-7201
E-Mail: justiss@justissoil.com
________________________________
JUSTISS DRILLING DE
VENEZUELA, S.A.
Base Ubicada en la Prolongacion
Avenida Miranda, Via Lechozal Km
3
Anaco
Estado Anzoategui VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/282-4253555
Fax: 58/282-4253151
E-Mail: justiss@telcel.net.ve
___________________________________
JW DRILLING INC
PO Box 160
Artesia, New Mexico 88211 USA
5104 W Richardson
Artesia, New Mexico 88210 USA
Phone: 505-748-8704
Fax: 505-748-8719
_________________________________
KAL DRILLING COMPANY
11500 S Meridian
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73173
USA
Phone: 405-691-1202
Fax: 405-691-2377
E-Mail:
kaldrlg@oecadvantage.net
_______________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC
No. 54 Zhongxing Road
Baijiantan District
Karamay, Xinjiang 834009 P R
CHINA
Phone: 86/990-6827312
Fax: 86/990-6920617
E-Mail: gizjgs-wyx@xjkdc.com
_______________________________
SINO-KAZAK GREAT WALL
DRILLING COMPANY, LTD.
56 Arkdanuwa St
Arkqubin City 463022
KAZAKHSTAN
Phone: 7/313-2967956
Fax: 7/313-2967953
____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC NIGERIA
Phone: 234/8033580816
Fax: 234/53-321429
E-Mail:
songhykdc@yahoo.com.cn;
nrly70116@xjkdc.com
____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC
23 Road 286
New Maadi
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-5202256
Fax: 20/2-5202254
E-Mail: ajxmb@xjkdc.com;
mengqinggang@sina.com
___________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/416-6823790
Fax: 58/282-4251824
E-Mail: wnrlxmb@xjkdc.com;
xqg6926256@126.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC NIGERIA
Phone: 87/1-762662915
Fax: 87/1-762662916
E-Mail:
yongsheng8105@sina.com;
nrly7017@xjkdc.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC IRAN
Phone: 87/1-763222177
Fax: 87/1-763222179
E-Mail:
xj16@inmarsat.francetelecom.fr
________________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC, OMAN
Phone: 968/6-93086
Fax: 968/6-93085
E-Mail: amxmb@xjkdc.com;
wanghu1974@yahoo.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC, SYRIA
Phone: 963/11-6120070
Fax: 963/11-6120070
E-Mail: xlyxmb@xjkdc.com
_____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING GROUP
Minto Dr
Altens Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 3LW SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-299600
Fax: 44/1224-230400
E-Mail:
colleen.reid@uk.kcadeutag.com
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING UK
OFFICE
Minto Drive
Altens Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 3LW SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-299600
Fax: 44/1224-230401
E-Mail:
pam.vickers@uk.kcadeutag.com
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
___________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING GERMANY
OFFICE
PO Box 1253
Bad Bentheim D-48443 GERMANY
Phone: 49/5922-72000
Fax: 49/5922-72105
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING INC USA
OFFICE
10777 Westheimer Ste 1111
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-243-6230
Fax: 713-243-6231
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
______________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING DUBAI
OFFICE
Jebel Ali
PO Box 17240
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/48816697
Fax: 971/48816940
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
_______________________________________-
KENAI DRILLING Corporate Office
PO Box 2248
Orcutt, California 93457-2248 USA
6430 Cat Canyon Rd
Santa Maria, California 93455 USA
Phone: 805-937-7871
Fax: 805-937-4768
Web: www.kenaidrilling.com
____________________________________
KENAI DRILLING Operations Office
2701 Patton Way
Bakersfield, CA 93308 USA
Phone: 661-587-0117
Fax: 661-587-0116
Web: www.kenaidrilling.com
____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC.
Corporate Headquarters
6 Desta Dr Ste 4400
Midland, Texas 79705 USA
Phone: 432-620-0300
Toll Free: (877) 539-2940
Fax: 432-620-0307
____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC.
Executive Offices
400 S River Rd
New Hope, PA 18938 USA
Phone: 215-862-7900
Toll Free: (800) 525-2147
Fax: 215-862-7901
___________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC. Drlg.
Opns. - Permian Basin Drlg.
6 Desta Dr Ste 4400
Midland, TX 79705 USA
Phone: 915-620-0300
Toll Free: (877) 539-2940
Fax: 915-570-0465
_____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC. Drlg.
Opns. - Four Corners Drlg.
PO Box 900
Farmington, NM 87401 USA
Phone: 505-327-4961
Fax: 505-327-4962
5651 US Hwy 64
Farmington, New Me
          Former Chapecoense defender finding comfort in Malaysian football        
It is a sad reality in the history of football that crashes involving air travel have had a deep and profound impact upon the sport. The crash involving the Torino Football Club in 1949, Manchester United’s ‘Busby Babes’ disaster in Munch in 1958 and the 1993 accident off the coast of Gabon that killed most of the Zambian national team are three such examples. But Brazilian centre-back Demerson (seen above left) never thought he would be able to relate personally to such tragedies. That was until those 71 people – which included 19 Chapecoense players, plus club officials and some football journalists – were killed when LaMia Airlines Flight 2933 ran out of fuel and crashed into the mountains outside the Colombian city of Medellin. “It was very bad … I lost many good friends and we were like a family,” Demerson told FourFourTwo. “Everyone there were good people. The staff were all great too. “I was very close to Bruno Rangel, our striker … he was a good goal-getter and had scored over 80 goals in three years. “I was among the nine that stayed back because matches are back-to-back in Brazil and there was another game after the Copa Sudamericana final. The coach asked us to stay back and prepare for that game.” That Copa Sudamericana final – which is the South American equivalent of the Europa League – was scheduled to be held over two matches between Chapecoense and Colombian side Atletico Nacional. Reaching the final had been the biggest achievement in the Brazilian club’s history, but the matches were never held and Chapecoense were ultimately declared the official champions by the South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) and Atletico Nacional. As a result of the tragedy, Demerson felt he and his young family had to leave Brazil so he could regain his focus and continue his career. “The crash made me want to leave Brazil and play elsewhere,” the 31-year-old said. “My life was not the same after the tragedy because I kept remembering everything. I was traumatised. “I wasn’t there for many years, but I still think of them sometimes these days. “Being away is helping me move on. I feel much better and can focus on my football once again. I pray that their souls rest in peace.” Settling down in Kuching For the second time in his professional career, Demerson left for Asia and had several trials before signing for Malaysia Super League (MSL) side Sarawak for the 2017 season. His previous stint in the continent was at then-Chinese second division outfit Jiangxi Liansheng in 2015. He moved back to Brazil 15 months later after the club was relegated to the third tier. The defender has found it easier to settle in Malaysia, as he had experienced some language issues during his time in China. “Going to China was difficult, but Malaysia has been better because everyone speaks English,” he said. “My wife and two children are feeling good and are happy in Kuching. Things are laid back there, which is good for me to unwind and get over things back home in Brazil. “I still have another daughter in Brazil though.” Sarawak just need confidence to get season going Demerson has earned the praise of Crocs coach David Usop for comfortably slotting in alongside Ronny Harun in the heart of the Sarawak defence. They have yet to get their season going and are in the relegation zone after nine rounds, but Demerson feels Sarawak just need some confidence for the situation to improve. He pointed to the team’s performances against Selangor, Johor Darul Ta’zim (JDT) and Felda United, matches the Crocs lost but showed some encouraging signs. “We have good players … some young talent too. I think what is lacking is confidence. Once we have more of that, we’ll win more matches and climb up the table,” he said. “We played well in some matched but ended up losing. In football, if you don’t have confidence then you are in danger. “Now we are in a dangerous position and must pick things up. We need a change of fortunes and to build on that.” Sarawak are sitting 11th in the 12-team competition, although they are only three points behind seventh-placed T-Team in a congested bottom half of the ladder. Their next match is at home to fifth-placed Perak on Saturday, followed by the second leg of their Malaysia FA Cup quarter-final against Terengganu. Photos: Asiana.my unless stated
          Na, milyen volt Afrika?        
2011-ben lehetőségem nyílt, hogy egy angol keresztény, karitatív szervezettel Afrika déli felére utazhassak, nevezetesen pont Zambiába. Körülbelül három hét alatt hosszában teljesen bejártuk az országot és minden héten egy-egy helyen letáborozva, valami könnyű fizikai munkát végezve segítettünk az ottaniaknak. Az első héten Lusakában, Zambia fővárosában, egy iskolát festett le a társaság kívülről. Én ennek már […]
           PATTERN OF ADULT MALIGNANCIES IN ZAMBIA (1980-1989) IN LIGHT OF THE HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 EPIDEMIC         
PATIL, P; ELEM, B; ZUMLA, A; (1995) PATTERN OF ADULT MALIGNANCIES IN ZAMBIA (1980-1989) IN LIGHT OF THE HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 EPIDEMIC. J TROP MED HYG , 98 (4) 281 - 284.
           INTESTINAL PARASITES IN HIV-SEROPOSITIVE ZAMBIAN CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA         
CHINTU, C; LUO, CW; BABOO, S; KHUMALONGWENYA, B; MATHEWSON, J; DUPONT, HL; ZUMLA, A; (1995) INTESTINAL PARASITES IN HIV-SEROPOSITIVE ZAMBIAN CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA. J TROP PEDIATRICS , 41 (3) 149 - 152.
           Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 on common pediatric illnesses in Zambia         
Chintu, C; Luo, C; Bhat, G; DuPont, HL; MwansaSalamu, P; Kabika, M; Zumla, A; (1995) Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 on common pediatric illnesses in Zambia. J TROP PEDIATRICS , 41 (6) 348 - 353.
           THE SPECTRUM OF GASTRITIS IN ZAMBIAN PATIENTS WITH THE ACQUIRED-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-SYNDROME         
STEEPHEN, A; RAIJMAN, I; SCHWARZ, P; ELZIMALTY, H; MALATY, HM; SELLIN, J; DUPONT, HB; ... GENTA, R; + view all <#> STEEPHEN, A; RAIJMAN, I; SCHWARZ, P; ELZIMALTY, H; MALATY, HM; SELLIN, J; DUPONT, HB; ZUMLA, A; GENTA, R; - view fewer <#> (1995) THE SPECTRUM OF GASTRITIS IN ZAMBIAN PATIENTS WITH THE ACQUIRED-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-SYNDROME. GASTROENTEROLOGY , 108 (4) A921 - A921.
          Guatemala Quetzal(GTQ)/Zambian Kwacha(ZMK)        
1 Guatemala Quetzal = 705.43057 Zambian Kwacha
           Geology assists mineral exploration in Zambia         
Coats, J S; Barclay, W; Cuss, R; Key, R; Mankelow, J M; Mosley, P; O'Connor, E.. 2002 Geology assists mineral exploration in Zambia. Mining Journal, 338 (8670). 79-82.
          For A' That 43 - Tricky Business        
For the 42nd episode of the For A’ That podcast two returning guests joined Andrew and I. The first of those is Ivan McKee of Business for Scotland and the second was Ruaridh Waddell who is an Aid worker (usually to be found in Zambia, but not at the moment). Our first topic was the CBI. Who are the winners and losers coming out of the storm regarding their involvement in the Independence Referendum? Who could we get impartial information from if not them? Are there going to be some grey areas surrounding campaign funding? It would seem so, and Andrew outlined what he saw as some of the problems. You won't be getting your pensions in Indy Scotland, except for the fact that, as the letter shows, you will. Is the Sunday Herald coming out for Yes a big turning point in the campaign or much wahoo about nothing? You can find out where Cybernat control distributes its orders too. Oh and what's Rupert Murdoch got to do with chocolate? There is all that and more. Hope You Enjoy LINKS http://michaelgreenwell.wordpress.com/ http://lallandspeatworrier.blogspot.co.uk/ http://www.businessforscotland.co.uk/ https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/rome-to-home-1421-miles-on-a-bike-for-yes#home https://twitter.com/Ivan_McKee https://twitter.com/mgreenwell https://twitter.com/PeatWorrier https://twitter.com/RuairidhWaddell
          ScotIndyPod 18 - Ruaridh & Keith Waddell        
"Dodging riots and tear gas in Livingstone today. There is a by-election tomorrow and the leader of the opposition has been arrested and charged with inciting violence, personally I think Mrs Lamont should watch out as she does that every Thursday afternoon." I just got that email from the latest guests on the Scottish Independence Podcast when I emailed them to tell them I was just about to publish their episode. The guests are Ruaridh and Keith Waddell who are Scottish aid workers who have been in Zambia for some time. It's important to consider not only the good things we could get or do at home as an independent nation, but also the good we could do abroad. The conversation we had considered how our aid policy could be better than that currently offered by the United Kingdom, which often used aid to suit some more Machiavellian aims. We spoke about what they are doing over in Zambia and we also talked about the role of Scots in the British Empire, and how is not as clear cut as some people like to present it. Furthermore, we had a chat about some, and one in particular, of the less well-known independence movements that can be found around the world. People tend to know about Catalonia and Quebec and so forth but I'd be prepared to bet most of you haven't heard of this one. Enjoy. P.S. This is the advert I mentioned in the podcast that they decided you weren’t mature enough to make your own mind up on. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5kRJ2-vZS34 LINKS https://twitter.com/RuairidhWaddell https://twitter.com/mgreenwell http://idaandkeith.blogspot.com
          10 Kota Paling Terpolusi di Dunia        
Hijau, namun mematikan - Chernobyl (Foto oleh Stefan Krasowski)
Dunia industri berkembang dari keinginan manusia untuk membuat hidupnya menjadi lebih mudah, namun hampir semua keinginan akan kemudahant tersebut malah membuat sebagian besar penduduk bumi menjadi kesusahan. Hal ini karena pengembangan industri yang tidak memperhatikan kelestarian lingkungan, terutama lingkungan perkotaan yang menjadi sangat terpolusi oleh berbagai produk sampingan dari industri yang dijalanan di dalamnya.

Beberapa kota di dunia bahkan telah mengalami polusi yang begitu parah hingga bisa dikatakan tidak layak untuk dihuni oleh manusia. Kota mana saja yang termasuk dalam kota paling terpolusi tersebut?Berikut ini adalah 10 kota paling terpolusi di dunia.

1. Linfen, Cina

Kota Linfen via Wikimedia Commons
Linfen adalah salah satu kota di dalam wilayah Republik Rakyat Cina, Provinsi Shanxi. Kota ini dihuni sekitar 3 juta jiwa. Kota ini mungkin adalah kota paling terpolusi di dunia sehubungan dengan perannya sebagai pusat dari kawasan penambangan batu bara.
Kawasan perbukitan yang mengelilingin kota Linfen adalah kawasan pertambangan batu bara yang legal maupun illegal. Tinggal di kota ini, anda tidak akan bisa menghirup udara yang tidak mengandung aroma batu bara. Karena begitu terpolusinya kota ini, pakaian yang anda jemur akan menjadi hitam bahkan sebelum mengering.

2. Tianying, Cina

Penyebab utama masalah polusi di kota Tianying adalah timah dan logam berat lainnya. Tianying terletak di timur laut wilayah Cina, merupakan sebuah kota industri besar. Sayangnya kota ini dipimpin dengan kebikakan yang kurang baik. Kota ini sebenarnya memiliki tanah yang subur, namun sekarang telah dipenuhi dengan timah. Saat ini penghuni kota Tianying berhadapan dengan berbagai masalah kesehatan yang berhubungan dengan timah. Masalah-masalah kesehatan tersebut termasuk diantaranya penurunan tingkat kecerdasan, halusinasi, hingga kehilangan ingatan.

3. Sukinda, India

Sukinda adalah kawasan pertambangan krom dan beberapa logam berat lainnya, yang sayangnya dilakukan secara berlebihan. Hingga 97% persediaan kromium India berasal dari kota ini, menghasilkan setidaknya 30 juta ton limbah yang menggunung. Hexavalent chromium, yang merupakan zat pemicu kanker yang kuat, dapat ditemukan berlimpah di perairan terdekat kawasan kota ini.
Bahan berbaya tersebut diyakini telah memenuhi udara, tanah, dan perairan dekat tambang kota ini dan diperkirakan telah menyebabkan berbagai jenis kanker pada sekitar 2,6 juta orang.

4. Vapi, India

Sebagian besar industri nasional India beraga di kota Vapi. Air dan tanah pada kota ini telah mengalami kontaminasi berat oleh berbagai bahan kimia berbahaya dan logam berat. Air tanah pada kota ini dilaporkan mengandung merkuri hingga 96 kali lebih tinggi dari pada batas aman yang ditetapkan oleh WHO. Terpapar merkuri secara berulang dalam waktu lama bisa menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan seperti lemah otot, gangguan penglihatan, dan masalah syaraf. Tidak hanya masalah air dan tanah, udara di kota Vapi juga mengandung logam berat.

5. La Oroya, Peru

Kota La Oroya adalah sebuah kota pertambangan di kawasan Andes.
99 dari 100 anak di dalam kota ini memiliki konsentrasi timah lebih tinggi dari pada batas yang dapat di terima tubuh manusia. Secara keseluruhan, penghuni kota ini memiliki kandungan timah hingga 3 kali lebih tinggi dari batas normal yang ditetapakan oleh WHO. Karena tingginya polusinya timah di kota ini, jika semua aktfitas pertambangan di hentikan pada saat ini juga, maka polusi timah masih akan bertahan hingga satu abad mendatang.

6. Dzerzhinsk, Rusia

Kota ini adalah kota dengan angka harapan hidup yang sangat rendah, pria biasanya meninggal pada umur 42 tahun, sementara wanita sedikit lebih lama, yaitu 47 tahun. Mungkin banyak hal yang bisa saja menyebabkan hal ini, tetapi penyebab utama yang disepakati banyak orang adalah tingginya tingkat polusi beracun yang terdapat di kota ini.
Antara 1930 dan 1998, lebih dari 300.000 ton limbah kimia dibuang di kota Dzerzhinsk. Berhubungan dengan kontaminasi bahan kimia, kota Rusia ini memegang Rekor Guinness untuk menjadi kota paling tercemar di dunia.

7. Chernobyl, Ukraina

Mungkin anda mengira bahwa Nagasaki dan Hiroshima adalah tragedi radiasi nuklir terparah di dunia, kenyataannya, tragedi Chernobyl bisa dikatan seratus kali lebih parah dari pada kejadian di kedua kota di Jepang tadi. Melelehnya pembangkit tenaga nuklir di kota ini telah membuatnya menjadi tidak layak huni, terutama dalam radius 19 mil dari lokasi pembangkit tersebut.
Lebih dari 4000 anak di Ukraina, Belarusia dan Rusia didiagnoasa menderita kanker tiroid. Untungny, tindakan pencegahan telah dilakukan dengan cepat untuk mencegah kebocoran radiasi ini menyebabkan masalah yang lebih parah.

8. Norilsk, Rusia

Diperkirakan hingga 4 juta ton limbah logam berat dan beracun lainnya telah dilepaskan ke udara kota Norilsk. Kota ini adalah pusat peleburan logam berat terbesar di dunia. Angka kematian penduduk kota ini akibat gangguan pernafasan begitu tinggi. Jika anda datang kekota ini, anda bisa melihat bahwa dalam radius 30 mil dari pusat peleburan nikel di kota ini, anda tidak akan menemukan pohon yang hidup.

9. Sumgayit, Azerbaijan

Kawasan buangan limbah industri kota Sumgayit adalah korban lain dari kelalaian Uni Soviet. Meskipun banyak pabrik tidak beroperasi lagi, polutan yang dilepaskan saat masih beroperasi masih ada di udara sampai hari ini. Di atas itu semua, tidak ada yang bersedia untuk mengambil tanggung jawab atas 120.000 ton emisi beracun yang terus memenuhi kota ini.

10. Kabwe, Zambia

Pada tahun 1902, deposit timah dalam jumlah besar di temukan di dekat kota ini. Hanya sedikit perhatian yang diberikan terkait dengan potensi masalah polusi dan kesehatan yang akan disebabkan oleh pertambangan logam ini. Konsentrasi timah pada anak-anak di kota ini bahkan sudah cukup untuk dikatakan berdampak vatal, atau paling tidak akan menyebabkan masalah kesehatan yang sangat serius.
Untungnya, sebuah proyek senilai 40 juta dolar amerika telah dilakukan untuk menangai masalah polusi timah di kota ini.

Itulah sepuluh kota paling tercemar di dunia. Mungkin anda tidak merasakan dampak langsung dari pencemaran di kota-kota tersebut, namun itu tidak berarti anda mengabaikannya. Apa yang terjadi pada kota-kota tersebut bisa menjadi pelajaran bagi kita agar bisa berperilaku lebih ramah lingkungan agar terhindar dari berbagai polusi yang berbahaya. Hiduplah ramah lingkungan untuk hidup kita dan generasi mendatang yang lebih baik.
Sumber: http://www.curiosityaroused.com/
          List of African Countries by region        
List of countries of East Africa Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda Seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe List of countries of West Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Nigeria Guinea Guinea Bissau Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Sierra Leone Togo List of countries of ...
          List of countries of Africa by Region        
The countries of Africa by region are as follows; Angola Cameroon Central African Republic Chad DR. Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Republic of Congo Sao Tome and Principe Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe  Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan Tunisi Botswana Lesotho Maurtius NamibiaSouth ...
          Zambia Snaps Up International Transparency Milestone in Mining        
The International Board of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Norway today formally designated Zambia as an EITI-compliant country. This means that Zambia’s EITI process which was launched in 2008 by the government, mining companies and civil society has been successfully validated as having met the EITI criteria and requirements. The EITI process commits [...]
          OxiDance #04 - Freedom FM By DjBernardo Junior        



Playlist:
1.Lançamento
2.Yves V & Felguk - WOW (Original Mix)
3.W&W & Ummet Ozcan - The Code\w/Basto - Stormchaser
4.Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike - Wakanda (Original Mix)
5.Dimitri Vegas, Like Mike & Coone feat. Lil Jon - Madness (Original Mix)
6.Showtek & Bassjackers - Hey! (Original Mix)
7.Eitro - The Night Friend (Bernardo Junior MashUP)
8.Eitro vs Dyro & Ansol - Character of The World (Duhrty Harrie Bootleg)
9.Dannic - Clobber (Original Club Mix)
10.Mastiksoul - I Like to Move It
11.Tujamo & Plastik Funk - Who (Zambianco Bootleg)
12.Gregor Salto & Chuckie - Toys Are Nuts
13.Lana Del Rey - Summertime Sadness
14.Lançamento
15.Steve Aoki & Angger Dimas vs. Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike - Phat Brahms
16.Lançamento do Mês!
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          Total Mix #18        

Playlist:
1.Edward Maya feat. Vika Jigulina - Mono In Love (Extended Version)
2.Naldo VS Roul And Doors - Amor de Chocolate (DJ Paulo Pringles Trá Mash Up)
3.Mastiksoul - I Like To Move It
4.Skunk Anansie - I Hope You Get To Meet Your Hero (Gregor Salto Remix)
5.Charles Le Freak - WUAH (Original Mix)
6.Tujamo & Plastik Funk - Who (Zambianco Bootleg)
7.Will I.Am feat. Britney Spears - Scream & Shout (Cosmic Dawn Club Mix)
8.Foster The People - Pumped Up Kicks (Lonczinski Summer Remix)
9.Pitbull feat. TJR - Don't Stop The Party (R3hab & ZROQ Remix)
10.Antonia Giacca - Vamos, Sex & Stupidisco [Lançamento]
11.Arianna feat. Pitbull - Sexy People (All Around The World) (DJ Kue Remix)
12.Avicii vs. Andrew Bennett feat. Shena - Twisted Dance
13.David Guetta, Ludacris, Usher - Rest Of My Life (Extended Mix)
14.Sean Finn - Riders On the Storm (Original Mix)


          Total Mix #05 **Especial Tribal**        

Playlist 25/10/2012 #05 *Especial Tribal*
Bloco 1

1.Deniz Koyu - Tung! (Simon Sky IntroBootleg)
2.Jennifer Lopes - Dance Again (Thiago Antony Remix)
3.Flo Rida feat Sia   Wild Ones (Double Facë Brazil Progressive Mix)
4.Nicki Minaj - Starships (Edson Pride Remix)
5.Jessie J Feat. David Guetta - Laserlight (George M Remix) 
6.The Wanted - Chasing The Sun (Bernardo Junior Vs. Hardwell Remix)
7.Wanessa - Get Loud (Tommy Love Big Room Mix) w/Loreen - Euphoria (John W Remix)
8.Gal Costa - Gabriela (George M. Remix)
9.Fun feat Janelle Monáe - We Are Young (Bruno Ramos Rework)
10.Tony Igy - Astronomia (Stop In My Mind) (Fabricio Lampa Private Mix)
11.Antoine Clamaran feat Soraya - Live Your Dreams (Junior Caldera & M.O.D.A Remix)
12.Breno Barreto Feat. Alex Marie - Shake It w/Breno Barreto feat. Alex Marie - The Music
13.2NE1 - I Am The Best (Ivan Gomes Tribal Mash Mix)
14.Maroon 5 - Payphone (Edson Pride & John W Remix)
15.Will Bro's - Baile Funk (Original Mix)
16.As Tequileiras Do Funk & DJ Gasparzinho - Surra De Bunda (Sidney Samson Remix)
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Bloco 2
1.Calvin Harris - Feel So Close (AlexSoares Tribal Mix)
2.Mister Jam feat. Ali Pierre & CymcoLé - Bring On The Nite (Rafael Lelis Chumbo Remix)
3.LuGuessa Feat. Filipe Guerra - Touch Myself (Zambianco & Bencini Mix)
4.Abel Ramos vs Madonna - Vogue Latex (Hector Fonseca Mix)
5.The Wanted - Glad You Came (Jefferson Gazzineu & Lipe Marques Remix)
6.Julio Posadas - Control Policial (Ranlusy Bootleg Mix)
7.Patrick Sandim - Hysteria (Original Mix) 
8.Bob Sinclar - Groupie (Nick, Danny Chatelain Remix)
9.Offer Nissin Vs Deniz Koyu - The First Time (Oscar Pacheco Bootleg Tung Mix)
10.Britney Spears - Criminal (Rafael Lelis Anthem Mix)

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          African Football Players in Russia Premier League 2014-15        
African Football Players in Russia Premier League 2014-15. Here is a comprehensive list of African Football players in Russia for the 2014-15 season but first may I say this. Well we had a tremendous 2014 FIFA World Cup this summer in Brazil and Germany the worthy winners. No complaints about that right? 🙂           Besides, the weather in Moscow is just so great (no complaints about that either) and so ladies and gentlemen as it in my tradition to present to you the list (subject to changes) of African players plying their trade in the Russian Top Flight a.k.a Russian Premier League for the 2014/2015 Football season which starts today 1st August 2014. Gongs, drum roll, Camera….ACTION! 1. Name: Mousa Conate Country of Origin-  Senegal Date of Birth – 03.04.1993 Team: Krasnodar Position – Striker 2. Name: Ibrahim Niasse Country of Origin- Senegal Date of Birth – 18.04.1988 Team: – Mordovia Position – Defender 3. Name: Chimbasa Lungu Country of Origin-  Zambia Date of Birth – 31.01.1991 Team: – Ural Football Club Position – Striker 4. Name: Mohammed Fuseini Country of Origin-  Ghana Date of Birth – 02.07.1992 Team:- Terek Football Club Position – Midfielder 5. [...]
          Documento de posición de Nigeria en relación al Africa        
Revista de Relaciones Internacionales Nro. 2
La dimensión económica de la política exterior de Nigeria
Prof. Dr. Okon Edetuya (Embajador de Nigeria)
Introducción
Permítanme comenzar agradeciendo a las autoridades de esta institución por la oportunidad de encontrarme nuevamente aquí para interactuar en este magnífico medio académico. Esto es testimonio de las crecientes y confiablemente beneficiosas relaciones entre su institución y la Embajada, en primer término, y la Argentina y Nigeria, en segundo lugar.
Les felicito, en particular, por la decisión de inaugurar un programa de Estudios Africanos, a nivel de postgrado en vuestra institución. Como probablemente sabrán, postulo firmemente que las emergentes y crecientes relaciones entre Africa y América Latina en los campos político, diplomático y económico deben aclararse sólidamente en conocimientos concretos, intelectualmente convalidados y firmes acerca de las mutuas condiciones actuales. Es mi firme convicción que relaciones perdurables y significativas solo pueden conformarse superando la ignorancia mutua, que lamentablemente, aún caracteriza ampliamente nuestro enfoque recíproco.
Al embarcarse en la tarea de estudiar a Africa. permítanme solicitarles tener en cuenta lo siguiente:
I. Que los estudios africanos han madurado enormemente en los últimos 30 años y que, por lo tanto, no pueden ser ya considerados como un área de curiosidad de turismo intelectual, sino como un asunto digno de rigurosa y seria atención académica.
II. Que, ampliamente, si bien europeos y norteamericanos continúan realizando excelentes investigaciones acerca de Africa, los africanos, tanto en el continente como fuera de el, han surgido como los intérpretes más confiables de su realidad ante el mundo exterior, mediante la investigación rigurosa. Es, entonces, importante que los puntos de vista de estos investigadores africanos sean considerados ante asuntos importantes que se refieran al continente.
III. Que se ha producido una gran revolución en las perspectivas y enfoques metodológicos aplicados al estudio de Africa, debida al creciente reconocimiento de que la naturaleza de sus sociedades, incluyendo las perspectivas culturales y las cosmologías, debe influir significativamente en la selección de las perspectivas y los métodos para el estudio del continente. En realidad, se acepta actualmente en general que nadie puede llamarse investigador de la realidad africana, sin incorporar deliberadamente una perspectiva afrocéntrica y una metodología multidisciplinaria.
Espero que tengan presente los comentarios generales precedentes al estructurar los programas de enseñanza e investigación de los estudios africanos. De todos modos, pueden siempre contar con el apoyo intelectual y la cooperación de la Embajada de Nigeria y la Comunidad Académica Nigeriana en esta digna empresa.
Sobre la base de lo antedicho, permitanme compartir con ustedes algunos de mis pensamientos acerca de un importante aspecto de la política exterior de Nigeria; tal es, la dimensión económica en su concepción, articulación y práctica. En primer término, hare un breve comentario acerca de los parámetros generales de la diplomacia nigeriana, dentro de los cuales puede apreciarse mejor el componente económico.
PARAMETROS GENERALES
A pesar de haberse producido variantes en estilo de una administración a otra y a pesar de los frecuentes cambios de liderazgo y la alternancia entre regimenes civiles y militares en el país, los intereses de la política exterior de Nigeria han mantenido suficiente consistencia, si bien algunos aspectos han recibido mayor énfasis en determinadas circunstancias, reflejando las necesidades del momento, los intereses y las cambiantes alianzas a nivel nacional, regional y global. Las preocupaciones que han dominado las relaciones de Nigeria, tanto en el plano bilateral como multilateral, fueron así identificadas: protección de la soberanía e integridad territorial del Estado Nigeriano, principalmente mediante la promocion del bienestar socio-económico y político de los nigerianos, respeto por la integridad territorial y la soberania de otros estados africanos; promoción de la unidad y solidaridad de los estados africanos; incluyendo la total emancipación política, económica, social y cultural y el rejuvenecimiento de Africa; el apoyo a la autodeterminación de todos los pueblos, incluyendo el compromiso inquebrantable con la eliminacion del colonialismo, el apartheid y el racismo en todo el mundo; la promoción de la cooperación y la comprensión internacionales en los campos económico, social y político, conducentes a la consolidación de la paz y la seguridad esenciales para el rápido desarrollo de nuestra aldea global; garantizar la dignidad y la promoción del bienestar de los africanos y los pueblos de ascendencia africana en todo el mundo; y finalmente, compensar los desequilibrios en las estructuras de poder internacionales que han tendido a frustrar e invalidar el desarrollo adecuado y ordenado y la maduración de los pueblos del mundo en desarrollo.
Los teorizadores de la política exterior de Nigeria han postulado que esta puede representarse cabalmente como operando dentro de tres círculos concéntricos. El núcleo interior corresponde a las actividades de Nigeria dentro de la sub-región del Africa Occidental, principalmente a traves de la ECOWAS (Comunidad Económica de Estados del Africa Occidental). El círculo medio representa la preocupación de Nigeria por, y sus actividades dentro de Africa, frecuentemente descriptas como la pieza central de su política exterior. El círculo exterior corresponde a las relaciones de Nigeria con el mundo no Africano. En años recientes, especialmente en vista de que la política exterior de Nigeria ha sido identificada como el principal instrumento para el desarrollo económico del pais, se ha volcado un esfuerzo conciente para dividir al mundo no africano en dos categorías mayores, a saber, los paises recientemente industrializados de Asia y América latina, especialmente Argentina, Brasil, Malasia, las dos Coreas, Indonesia e India, que son vistos actualmente como zonas preferenciales para la adquisición de nuevas tecnologías; y las naciones de más larga historia industrial, aún consideradas como fuente importante de capital para el desarrollo.
Se considera actualmente, en general, que aún durante las dos primeras décadas de vida independiente, cuando el multilateralismo era visto como un refugio para las naciones débiles, con el objeto de encarar con efectividad a los fuertes y poderosos, la política exterior de Nigeria siempre fue una saludable combinación de bi- y multilateralismo, especialmente en materia económica. Un cuidadoso análisis de las actividades de Nigeria en organismos multilaterales tales como la ECOWAS, la OAU (Organización de la Unidad Africana), el Commmonwealth británico de naciones y las Naciones Unidas y sus varias Agencias, confirma que, dada su envergadura y su enorme base de recursos naturales, minerales y humanos, Nigeria ha surgido como líder en Africa y como miembro de equipo respecto de temas fundamentales en la escena mundial. Esto es particularmente así en asuntos relativos a la descolonización, la lucha contra el apartheid, y, quizás lo más importante dentro de este contexto, los problemas de atraso social y económico y la continuada y expansiva disparidad económica entre las naciones ricas y las pobres del mundo.
Naturalmente, los temas relativos a la descolonización, el apartheid y el racismo y la necesidad de sensibilizar a la comunidad internacional respecto de su recurrencia en el mundo, especialmente en Africa, dominaron la diplomacia nigeriana de los primeros años. En realidad, el país asumió la carga de un liderazgo autoimpuesto en esta materia, especialmente respecto de la lucha para terminar con el apartheid en sus variadas manifestaciones en Africa del Sur, con la sincera convicción de que la independencia de Nigeria no habría de tener sentido hasta tanto Africa se liberara del flagelo del colonialismo y el racismo.
En 1963, a pesar del continuado énfasis puesto sobre los asuntos políticos, el compromiso de Nigeria de aplicar la diplomacia como importante instrumento para el desarrollo económico del continente africano, había pasado al frente. En el contexto africano, esto tomó forma mediante el apoyo a la incorporación de un componente económico a la doctrina, y posteriormente, a la Carta de la naciente Organización de la Unidad Africana. Así, en una presentación ante la Conferencia Cumbre Africana de Mayo, 1963, el Primer Ministro de Nigeria, Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa insistía en que, mientras algunos líderes africanos compartían el punto de vista acerca de que la unidad africana debería alcanzarse mediante la fusión política de los diferentes Estados africanos, la posición de Nigeria era que "la unidad africana podría alcanzarse tomando algunas medidas prácticas de cooperación económica, educativa, científica y cultural". Más aún, mientras Nigeria apoyaba la idea de un Mercado Común Africano, mantenía el punto de vista que era de aplicación práctica entonces, "un Mercado Común Africano basado sobre ciertos agrupamientos tales como el de Africa del Norte, el de Africa Occidental y el de Africa Oriental" Nigeria se constituyó en un de los principales promotores del enfoque práctico y progresivo para la cooperación e integración en Africa, que ha pasado a ser el modus operandi de la Organización de la Unidad Africana para asuntos económicos. En realidad, Nigeria ha continuado insistiendo en que una integración exitosa del continente africano sólo podrá tener lugar mediante agrupamientos sub-regionales o regionales basados sobre la cooperación entre los Estados miembros en áreas específicas tales como comercio, transporte, comunicación, y recursos naturales. La carta de la OAU, aprobada en mayo de 1963, específicamente obliga a los estados africanos a "coordinar e intensificar su cooperación y esfuerzos para alcanzar un mejor nivel de vida para los pueblos de Africa, armonizando sus políticas generales en el campo de la cooperación económica, incluyendo transporte y comunicaciones".
En 1976 se hizo cada vez más obvio que la recientemente ganada independencia de los países africanos no tenía sentido sin el concomitante desarrollo económico y la autosuficiencia. Nigeria fue uno de los países que insistió en realizar una Sesión Extraordinaria del Consejo de Ministros de la Organización de la Unidad Africana dedicada exclusivamente a asuntos económicos. El foro multilateral, que tuvo lugar en Kinshasha, Zaire, recomendó la formación de una política energética común para el continente; la promoción de la Cooperación Inter-Africana para completar el emergente nuevo Orden Económico Internacional y el establecimiento de un Banco de Datos Económico, por la Comisión Económica para Africa (ECA), y la OAU. Nigeria también desempeñó un activo rol en varios symposios destinados a analizar y desarrollar una perspectiva más panafricanista y afrocéntrica del desarrollo africano, durante las décadas de 1970 y 1980. El symposiun de Monrovia de 1979, uno de los más exitosos, reclamó una nueva pedagogía orientada hacia la unidad africana; la necesida de apoyar el desarrollo africano sobre valores científicos, culturales y sociales; el control de los instrumentos vitales técnicos y financieros para alcanzar tal desarrollo, y un nuevo enfoque de la cooperación internacional destacando los lazos entre los países en desarrollo. En 1973, los Jefes de Estado africanos suscribieron la Declaración Africana de Cooperación, Desarrollo e Independencia Económica que compromete explícitamente a las naciones africanas a actuar para redimensionar el compromiso económico del continente y prestar especial atención a los temas económicos en reuniones subsiguientes. En una de las sesiones, Nigeria insistió en que "en la búsqueda de soluciones a los actuales problemas económicos mundiales, nosotros, como africanos, debemos realizar nuestra contribución positiva reorganizando nuestras prioridades económicas y promoviendo el contacto y la cooperación". Era la firme convicción de Nigeria que "la cooperación económica africana no es simplemente un ideal excelso. Es una realidad de la vida, es una necesidad de nuestro tiempo". Estas variadas actividades culminaron en la cumbre de la OAU en Lagos, Nigeria, en 1980, que fue testigo de la adopción del Plan de Acción de Lagos (LPA), para el Desarrollo Económico de Africa, así como del Acta Final de Lagos, considerada como el anteproyecto del desarrollo económico de Africa.
El plan de Acción de Lagos, por ejemplo, preveía el establecimiento de un Mercado Común Africano para el año 2.000 sobre la base de una economía continental autosustentada y autoregulada, fundada sobre agrupamientos económicos sub-regionales. El desarrollo de la alimentación y la agricultura, la industria, la ciencia y la tecnología, el transporte y las comunicaciones, el comercio y las finanzas y los recursos humanos y naturales fueron identificados como las principales áreas de interés. No es necesario decir que el optimismo con que se recibió la adopción de estos documentos fundamentales no se materializó debido a la mala administración interna, el medio económico internacional desfavorable, la corrupción nacional, la caída en los ingresos por exportaciones, el colapso de los precios del mercado internacional para los productos primarios, el declinante flujo de recursos y el proteccionismo de las economías desarrolladas, y, quizás, lo más importante, el peso de la deuda. Estos serían algunos de los temas fundamentales que ocuparían a la diplomacia nigeriana en las décadas de 1980 y 1990.
Indeclinablemente, Nigeria ha continuado defendiendo y articulando nuevos enfoques para abordar los problemas económicos. Por ejemplo, en 1984, Nigeria convocó a una cumbre de la OAU para revisar los progresos realizados en la implementación del Plan de Acción de Lagos y el Acta Final de Lagos, así como formular una programa de emergencia ante la crisis económica africana. Se estableció un Comité de Conducción Permanente, conformado por Argelia, Côte D'Ivoire, Senegal, Tanzania, Zimbabwe y Nigeria. También se constituyó un Fondo Especial de Asistencia de Emergencia (SEAF) para Sequías y Hambrunas en Africa, al que Nigeria contribuyó con U$S 3 millones. Finalmente, la 21a. Cumbre convocada subsiguientemente, dedicada exclusivamente a temas económicos, adoptó el Programa Prioritario Africano para la Recuperación Económica (APPER), para 1985-1990, el que, entre otras cosas, reclamaba la convocatoria de una conferencia internacional sobre la deuda externa africana, bajo los auspicios de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas que tuviera lugar en New York, desde el 27 de mayo al 1º de junio de 1986. La conferencia adoptó el Programa de Acción de Naciones Unidas para la recuperación Económica y el Desarrollo, que comprometía a los gobiernos africanos a implementar reformas políticas y a reunir U$S 82.5 mil millones para la ejecución del proyecto y la provisión por parte de la comunidad internacional de U$S 46.1 mil millones para financiar el proyecto. Los focos principales eran alimentación y agricultura, desarrollo de recursos humanos, industrialización y temas afines, el medio económico internacional y sequías y desertificación. Nigeria, que jugó un rol catalítico en los pasos conducentes a la convocatoria de la conferencia, encabezó la discusiones sobre los temas relativos a alimentación y agricultura.
Como es sabido, en gran parte debido a la incapacidad de la comunidad internacional para cumplir con su compromiso con el programa, a pesar de los programas de ajuste estructural en los que se embarcaron muchos países africanos, la crisis económica africana ha continuado siendo una de las mayores preocupaciones de todos los Estados africanos, Nigeria incluída, ante numerosos foros multilaterales tales como la OAU, las N.U., el Grupo de los Quince, y otros. Como miembro activo de tales grupos, Nigeria continua aplicando su músculo diplomático para llamar la atención sobre, y articular soluciones para la crisis económica africana, que es realmente la crisis económica africana, que es realmente la crisis de los paises en desarrollo vis-a-vis el mundo desarrollado, particularmente el problema de la deuda externa. En realidad, Nigeria participó activamente en la Sesión Extraordinaria de la Asamblea de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OAU realizada en Addis Abeba en diciembre de 1987, que adoptó una Posición Africana Común sobre la Deuda Externa de Africa, la que, en 1986 se estimaba en U$S 200 mil millones alcanzando el 45% del Producto Bruto interno combinado del continente. Entre las propuestas se contaba con el mejoramiento del medio económico internacional, un incremento en el flujo de recursos, un tope en los pagos del servicio de la deuda pendiente. Nigeria se mantiene como miembro del Grupo de Contacto Permanente establecido por la conferencia para controlar el desarrollo de tales temas.
Las iniciativas diplomáticas de Nigeria y su apoyo a la aplicación de las relaciones exteriores entre los países de Africa para promover el desarrollo económico rápido y la integración del continente culminó en la 27a. Cumbre de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OAU, concluida recientemente en Abuja, nueva Capital Federal de Nigeria, en junio de 1991, que finalmente aprobó el acuerdo de constitucion de una Comunidad Economica Africana. Los objetivos de la comunidad incluyen:
I. promoción del desarrollo económico, social y cultural e integración de las economías africanas, a fin de incrementar la autoregulación y un desarrollo endógeno autosuficiente.
II. establecimiento, a escala continental, de una estructura para el desarrollo, la movilización y el aprovechamiento de los recursos humanos y materiales de Africa con el objeto de alcanzar un desarrollo autoregulado.
III. promoción de la cooperación en todos los campos del quehacer humano con el objeto de elevar el nivel de vida y mantener y garantizar la estabilidad económica, promover relaciones estrechas y pacíficas entre los estados miembros y contribuir al progreso, al desarrollo y la integración económica de Africa.
IV. coordinar y armonizar políticas entre las comunidades existentes y las futuras con el objeto de promover el gradual afianzamiento de la Comunidad Economica Africana.
Sin pecar de inmodestia, la adopción del tratado y su pendiente ratificación por los Estados miembros marca un hito importante en la búsqueda de la integración económica de Africa. Es aún más importante, en cuanto no podemos olvidar que las expotencias coloniales han probado todo recurso posible para mantener sus reductos de influencia, especialmente económica, en Africa y han manipulado frecuentemente tales influencias para frustrar la aspiraciones africanas de unidad e integración, superando el elegado separatista linguístico y cultural del colonialismo. A pesar de los obvios problemas de implementación, el tratado puede considerarse como el comienzo de una nueva alborada en la cooperacion e integración económica de Africa. Dentro de este contexto, el tratado convalida la correción del enfoque gradual, práctico y concreto para la integración de Africa promovido por Nigeria desde 1963. En este sentido, se lo puede considerar un triunfo de la diplomacia nigeriana en Africa.
En las Naciones Unidas, la principal organización multilateral del mundo, la voz de Nigeria en apoyo de los temas referidos al desarrollo económico, especialmente respecto del mundo en desarrollo, no ha sido menos sonora y efectiva. Cuando Nigeria se constituyó en el 99 miembro de la Organización en 1960, existía un creciente reconocimiento de la necesidad internacional de prestar especial atención a la transformación económica, social y política de las emergentes nuevas naciones en desarrollo de Africa y Asia. De particular importancia fue el reconocimiento del rol de las Naciones Unidas para encarar problemas de seguridad económica, la reestructuración del orden económico internacional, la autoregulación y la cooperación entre los países en desarrollo. Nigeria, que ha destacado en forma consistente los logros de Naciones Unidas y sus organismos especializados en áreas tales como educación, alfabetización, alimentación, agricultura y asistencia técnica para el desarrollo, se ha sentido igualmente perturbada por lo que percibe como "el peligro de la paz y estabilidad mundiales ante un orden económico caracterizado por la existencia en un mismo mundo de pequeñas islas de abundancia en medio de un océano de pobreza y privaciones". Desde el punto de vista de Nigeria, la independencia política de las nuevas naciones no tiene sentido sin una adecuada seguridad económica, dado que su continuada dependencia económica las hace vulnerables ante ideologías y otras formas de presión externas.
Con una firme convicción e independencia nacional; y no alineamiento positivo, Nigeria apoyó activamente la adopción de la Primera Década de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (1961- 1970), propuesta para acelerar la evolución de las naciones en desarrollo, reduciendo así la brecha entre el mundo desarrollado y el mundo en desarrollo. Es así que Nigeria participó activamente en las actividades conducentes a la convocatoria de la primera Conferencia de Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD) realizada en Ginebra en 1964. El grupo de los 77, que se constituyó en foro de coordinación de puntos de vista de los países en desarrollo, preparatorios de la reunión de Ginebra, fue aceptado por Nigeria como importante plataforma y fuerza vital para armonizar las posiciones de estos paises ante cuestiones de economia internacional. Del mismo modo, Nigeria participó efectivamente en el desarrollo de los aspectos doctrinarios de la Segunda Década para el Desarrollo, especialmente en cuanto a la adopción de la Estrategia Internacional para el Desarrollo, que definió metas específicas de crecimiento en educación, comercio, empleo, finanzas, salud, vivienda, y producto nacional en 1980. Estas metas, como es sabido, no fueron alcanzadas, especialmente con posterioridad a la caída de las instituciones de Bretton Woods en 1971 y el abandono del patrón oro como medida de intercambio por los EE.UU. Nigeria denunció cambios unilaterales en el sistema monetario, insistiendo en que tales "medidas financieras, tomadas por países avanzados y poderosos, con economías altamente desarrolladas, han causado incertidumbre que provocara graves efectos sobre los países cuyas economías no son tan avanzadas". Nigeria reclamó consultas entre las naciones desarrolladas y en desarrollo para examinar la situación y participó en la reafirmación de la posición de la Cumbre de No Alineados que tuvo lugar en Argelia en 1973, sobre el mismo tema. A posteriori, en la primavera de 1974, la Sesión de la Asamblea General sobre Materias Primas y Desarrollo adoptó la Declaración y Programa de Acción para el establecimiento de un Nuevo Orden Económico Internacional (NOEI), que entre otras cosas, proclamó la determinación de los Estados miembros de Naciones Unidas de trabajar mancomunadamente por la evolucion de un nuevo orden que eliminara desigualdades, redujera injusticias y, finalmente, eliminara la brecha de desarrollo entre las naciones desarrolladas y las en desarrollo. El programa contempla las relaciones entre los precios de los productos básicos exportados desde los países en desarrollo y los de las manufacturas que importan, la reforma del sistema monetario internacional, involucrando a los países en desarrollo en los procesos de toma de decisiones por parte de las instituciones financieras internacionales, el mejoramiento de los términos de intercambio de los países en desarrollo y el incremento en la producción y exportación de alimentos desde estos países.
Si bien Nigeria recibió con beneplacito estos avances, continuo reclamando mayores medidas para encarar estos asuntos, tales como el derecho de los Estados a controlar sus propios recursos, y la regulación y supervisión de las corporaciones transnacionales. Esta posición fue compartida por la mayoría de los Estados miembros, los que, en diciembre de 1974, aprobaron la Carta de Naciones Unidas sobre Derechos y Deberes Económicos de los Estados. La Carta, entre otras cosas afirma los derechos de los Estados al control soberano de sus recursos naturales y a establecer procedimientos para la regulación, nacionalización, expropiación y transferencia de la titularidad de empresas extranjeras en tales países. Este interés en la interdependencia entre las naciones desarrolladas y las en desarrollo, basada sobre el respeto a las respectivas soberanías y la necesidad de modificar las estructuras económicas existentes y las disposiciones para facilitar el desarrollo de las naciones de Africa, Asia y America Latina, ha continuado siendo un importante elemento de la política exterior nigeriana. En realidad, en los ccomienzos de la crisis de las economías de la mayoría de las naciones africanas en la década de 1980, caracterizada por el colapso de los precios de la mayoría de los productos básicos, incluído el petróleo; declinantes ingresos nacionales, escasez de alimentos, hambrunas, sequías, reducción en el flujo de recursos; términos de intercambio comercial en deterioro, resultando una pérdida de alrededor de U$S 50 mil millones entre 1986 y 1990; y el enorme peso de la deuda, estimada actualmente en U$S 272 mil millones o el 109% de su Producto Bruto Interno; estas preocupaciones han adquirido mayor significatividad y prominencia.
Como señalara anteriormente, Nigeria jugo un rol importante al sensibilizar a la comunidad mundial ante estos problemas y al buscar y articular soluciones para ellos dentro de la OUA y las NU y sus organismos especializados. La posición de Nigeria continua sosteniendo que, a pesar de los valerosos profundos ajustes estructurales, que acarrean considerable riesgo político y costo social a partir de los sacrificios que se pide de los pueblos africanos, la fortuna económica del continente continúa siendo abismalmente descorazonadora dado que " las contribuciones de la comunidad internacional para la implementación del Programa han quedado muy por detrás de las expectativas de los paises africanos". Queda en claro que esta preocupación por el desarrollo económico de Africa se mantendrá como plataforma fundamental de la política exterior de Nigeria durante varios años por venir. En realidad, se cuenta con que sea el tema dominante de la contribución de Nigeria a las deliberaciones de la próxima Conferencia del Grupo de los 15 a realizarse en Caracas, Venezuela.
Mientras Nigeria ha enfocado correctamente su accionar en foros internacionales para la articulación y promoción de la dimensión económica de su política exterior afrocéntrica, no ha ignorado los foros bilaterales. Nigeria cuenta actualmente con convenios de cooperación económica bilateral con muchos países africanos y no africanos. Los ejemplos mejor conocidos de ellos son la Comisión Conjunta con Niger y los acuerdos de joint-venture con las Repúblicas de Guinea y Benin para la explotación de uranio, producción de cemento, refinado de azucar y construcción vial. A ellos podemos agregar la Comisión de la Cuenca de Lake Chad que reune a Camerun, Chad, Niger y Nigeria para la exploración y desarrollo conjunto de los recursos de Lake Chad y la Comunidad Económica de los Estados de Africa Occidental (ECOWAS) que agrupa a 16 países de la sub-región del Africa Occidental. Muchos países de Africa, incluídos Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Côte D'Ivoire, Etiopía, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauricio, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, Tanzania y Togo se han beneficiado con el Fondo Fiduciario de Nigeria administrado por el Banco Africano de Desarrollo para la ejecución de proyectos específicos de desarrollo.
Mas recientemente, en 1986, la Administración Babangida organizó el Esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Tecnica (TAC) cuyo objetivo es abordar las cruciales necesidades técnicas de los países receptores, así como "promover la cooperación y el entendimiento, de importancia crítica en las relaciones internacionales contemporáneas". El esquema también ha sido diseñado para facilitar "contactos significativos entre grupos de jovenes nigerianos dinámicos y otros africanos, así como con poblaciones de ascendencia africana en las regiones del Pacífico y el Caribe, con el objeto de establecer un punto de apoyo, a partir del cual forjar relaciones interpersonales entre Nigeria y otros pueblos africanos". Como explicara el Presidente, Comandante en Jefe de las FF.AA. de Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida, en ocasión del lanzamiento formal del Esquema, el 7 de octubre de 1987:
El esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Técnica forma parte de nuestro compromiso con nuestra política exterior que coloca a Africa como pieza central. Esta administración considera que, por ser parte del interés nacional de Nigeria, debe considerarse como un deber sagrado, el dignificar el status de toda persona negra en el mundo. Intentamos alcanzar este objetivo sin interferir en los asuntos de otros pueblos, ni haciendo el papel de Papa Noel, sino incorporando mayor realismo a nuestra política, brindando asistencia sobre la base de las necesidades de sus beneficiarios en tanto son percibidas y evaluadas, sin descuidar nuestro interés nacional.
El objetivo del Esquema es compartir know-how tecnológico disponible y experiencia en areas claramente identificadas, con las naciones menos afortunadas de Africa, el Pacífico y el Caribe. El gobierno de Nigeria se hace cargo de los gastos y pasajes de voluntarios cuidadosamente seleccionados asignados a estos países por dos años. Desde 1991, los siguientes países se han beneficiado con este Esquema: Cabo Verde, Guinea Ecuatorial, Fiji, Gambia, Jamaica, Kenya, el Reino de Lesotho, Mozambique, las Seychelles, Sierra Leona, Tanzania y Zambia. Las áreas de especialización de los participantes incluyen Medicina, Ingeniería, Contaduría, Investigación, Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Leyes, Historia y Enfermería. El Esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Técnica ha sido recibido calurosamente por los países beneficiarios "como una demostración práctica de la Cooperación Sur-Sur dentro del contexto de la Cooperación Económica Universal entre los Países en Desarrollo (ECDC)".
Diplomacia Económica
Como señalara al principio de esta presentación, una de las principales preocupaciones de la política exterior de Nigeria ha sido el aplicarla como instrumento fundamental para promover el bienestar de los nigerianos, que es considerado esencial para la protección de la soberanía y la integridad territorial del Estado nigeriano. Si bien esta preocupacion de la soberania y la integridad territorial del estado nigeriano, siempre estuvo presente, fue la Administración actual del General Babangida que la bautizó como "Diplomacia Económica" en 1987. En este sentido amplio, la Administración Babangida considera a la diplomacia económica significativa en la circunstancia actual, sólo si contribuye a resolver los acuciantes problemas económicos que agobiaron al país desde principios de la década de 1980. Así, ademas de los intereses tradicionales panafricanistas y los temas relativos a la paz y la seguridad, desde 1987 en adelante se tomó la decisión deliberada de enfatizar la dimensión económica de las relaciones de Nigeria con otros países. En realidad, la designación de los Jefes de Misión ha estado determinada ampliamente por una evaluación de su capacidad para contribuir a este proceso. La medida en que se logre atraer la participación externa a las actividades económicas de Nigeria es criterio fundamental para evaluar su desempeño.
La Diplomacia Económica implica el reconocimiento explícito por parte de Nigeria de que la diplomacia sin el componente económico no es más que la retórica vacía. Además, involucra la decisión de abrir la economía nigeriana, hasta entonces ampliamente controlada por el Estado, a la empresa privada, incluyendo empresas extranjeras. En realidad, el proyecto integra deliberadamente al sector privado en el plano de la política exterior. Tercero, la diplomacia económica incluye el deseo expreso de redimensionar los desequilibrios en los sistemas económico y monetario internacionales, que fueron identificados como parte responsable de las contínuas dificultades económicas de las naciones en desarrollo. Finalmente, especialmente en cuanto a la adquisición de tecnologías de producción apropiadas, se tomó la decisión de otorgar mayor prominencia a las naciones de potencia intermedia, recientemente industrializadas de Asia y América Latina, con la convicción de que tales naciones estarían mejor dispuestas a compartir su know-how tecnológico en el espíritu de la cooperación Sur-Sur.
Para apreciar plenamente este postulado de la política exterior de Nigeria, es importante tener en cuenta que, a pesar de sus ampliamente conocidos vastos recursos naturales, minerales y humanos, capaces de transformar a Nigeria en una nación altamente industrializada, el país no ha logrado aún desarrollarse plenamente en toda su potencialidad. Como la nación negra más populosa del mundo, con una población estimada en 110 millones de personas, núcleo del mercado de la ECOWAS que abarca una población superior a los 200 millones de personas, 6º productor mundial de petróleo, con reservas estimadas en 17.1 mil millones de barriles, contando al mismo tiempo con reservas de gas natural, oro, piedra caliza, manganeso, estaño y uranio, con su inmenso espacio geográfico, tanto físico como humano, capaz de generar una razonable demanda interna, indispensable para un crecimiento autocentrado y autosuficiente, Nigeria no ha logrado aún satisfacer las expectativas de su ciudadanía y de la comunidad internacional. La diplomacia económica fue concebida como un importante paso para revertir esta situación inaceptable.
La intención fue instaurar políticas e incentivos que atrajeran el know-how tecnológico y capital necesarios para la rápida transformación del país en una economía vibrante y garantizar la autosuficiencia en el área crítica de la alimentación.
En el terreno de la industrialización, el énfasis actualmente está puesto sobre la creación de un clima apropiado, que sea propicio a la incorporación de capital y tecnología extranjeros para la industrialización del estado nigeriano. Se ha dispuesto un paquete de incentivos, incorporados a un documento titulado Nueva Política Industrial de Nigeria. Estos incluyen: la creación de un departamento de coordinación del desarrollo industrial, como agente de diligenciamiento en un sólo paso de solicitudes y aprobaciones, eliminando así los cuellos de botella burocráticos; la eliminación de licencias de importación, otra de las trabas fundamentales de nuestro comercio; privatización y comercialización de las empresas públicas; libre acceso a la divisa extranjera, a través del Mercado de Cambios; garantías para la libre repatriación de beneficios, dividendos, honorarios de consultoría, derechos y por servicios técnicos y de administración, revisión del Decreto de Promoción de Empresas para permitir al capital extranjero ser titular de hasta el 80% de participación en empresas que requieran gran inversión de capital y/o tecnología sofisticada; el establecimiento de una zona de opción libre donde los extranjeros pueden participar hasta con el 100% de la titularidad; así como generosos incentivos impositivos, incluyendo la exención para inversiones en sectores pioneros de la economía.
Los principales objetivos de la política industrial son la expansión de oportunidades laborales, incremento de exportaciones del sector no petrolero, dispersión de industrias a las áreas rurales del país, perfeccionamiento de la capacidad tecnológica, creciente uso de materias primas locales, atracción de capital extranjero y el incremento de la participación del sector privado, tanto nativo como extranjero.
Las áreas industriales pioneras, donde los incentivos son particularmente atractivos y generosos son las siguientes: cultivo y procesamiento de alimentos, vegetales y frutas; manufactura de productos sobre la base de cacao; procesamiento de oleaginosas para la producción de aceites vegetales; producción láctea integral; cría de ganado en general; triturado de huesos; pesca, ya sea de altura, costera o en aguas interiores; procesamiento de sal; explotación de plomo y zinc; manufactura de hierro y acero a partir de mineral de hierro; fundición y refinado de metales no ferrosos y manufacturas en sus aleaciones; explotación de minerales varios; manufactura de materiales para perforación petrolera; cemento; vidrio y artículos de vidrio; cal a partir de piedra caliza, mármoles; manufactura de productos cerámicos, productos químicos industriales básicos; productos farmacéuticos, instrumental quirúrgico; almidón vegetal; producción de levaduras; alcohol y derivados; alimentos para animales; producción de papel; curtidos de cuero y manufacturas en cuero; fibras textiles naturales y sintéticas ; artículos de metal; maquinaria; productos total o parcialmente de caucho; redes de pesca con materia prima local; cultivo y procesamiento de trigo local; cultivo y procesado de aceite de palma; cultivo y procesado de caucho; de goma arábiga; producción integral de madera; producción de fertilizantes y fabricación de vehículos comerciales. Otros sectores que reclaman la inversión extranjera son el petróleo y la explotación de las enormes reservas de gas natural. La política exterior de Nigeria actualmente, y en los años por venir, continuará orientando sus esfuerzos a la mejor aplicación de la diplomacia para atraer capitales y know-how tecnológico necesarios para la rápida transformación del Estado Nigeriano. La diplomacia económica es, por lo tanto, considerada como importante componente de nuestro proyecto de recuperación económica.
Aludí anteriormente al hecho que, buscando las fuentes de tecnología de producción adecuadas, Nigeria ha enfocado su interés sobre las naciones recientemente industrializadas del mundo, especialmente en América Latina, especialmente con Argentina y Brasil.
Nigeria cree firmemente que los lazos económicos fuertes y la interacción económica entre Africa y América latina redundarán en el beneficio mutuo de ambas regiones, especialmente dentro del contexto de la problemática del intercambio y el comercio internacionales durante el período posterior a 1992. Lo que es más importante aún, es que las tecnologías de producción existentes en países como la Argentina en áreas tales como alimentos, fármacos, maquinaria industrial, servicios y mantenimiento, transporte y energía nuclear para fines pacíficos, son más adecuadas a nuestra circunstancia presente que aquellas tecnologías más sofisticadas que ofrecen las naciones altamente industrializadas. Uno de los objetivos más importantes en nuestras relaciones con este país es el atraer e involucrar a estas tecnologías en el desarrollo económico de Nigeria.
Para tal fin, el 17 de agosto de 1988, Nigeria y Argentina firmaron un Acuerdo de Cooperación Económica, Científica y Técnica, ya ratificado por parte de la Argentina. Este acuerdo de resguardo, entendido como para insuflar vida y confianza a la cooperación económica, establece claramente las áreas específicas de cooperación económica y científica, tal como indique antes y, quizás lo más importante, estipula las modalidades para la incorporación de los sectores privados de ambos países para la implementación del acuerdo. El mismo facilitara el incremento de las actividades de joint-venture, a las que se están incorporando en forma creciente empresas privadas argentinas y nigerianas. Sea como fuere, Nigeria cree firmemente que se impone una mayor cooperación económica entre nuestros países, por el hecho de ser vecinos y por la complementaridad existente entre la tecnolgía argentina y las necesidades de Nigeria. Creemos también que los empresarios aún no han sacado el máximo provecho de las oportunidades que ofrece Nigeria para la inversión de su experiencia y capital, si bien hay indicios de que el ritmo se ha acelerado en los últimos dos o tres años.
Conclusión
En esta reseña he intentado destacar la dimensión económica de la política exterior de Nigeria, tanto en el plano bilateral como el multilateral. De ello surge que, aún cuando los temas relativos a la descolonización, el racismo y la lucha contra el apartheid han dominado las relaciones de Nigeria con el resto del mundo, el componente económico ha sido persistente y contínuo. Es así que, durante la gestión del actual Presidente Ibrahim Babangida y su actual Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores, General I.O.S. Nwachukwu, que esta dimensión económica de la política exterior ha sido manifestada explícita y expresamente como el componente más importante de nuestra política exterior, que ha sido bautizado como "la diplomacia económica". En tanto persistan los actuales dilemas económicos de Africa y otras naciones en desarrollo este énfasis continuará dominando la diplomacia nigeriana en los tiempos por venir. En este aspecto recae el peso del contenido del mensaje dirigido por el Presidente Ibrahim Babangida en ocasión del sexto aniversario de su administración, el 27 de agosto de 1991. Decía el Presidente:
"Deseo aprovechar la ocasión de este aniversario para destacar los fuertes lazos que unen a nuestras políticas interna y exterior dentro del programa de transición. Estamos conformando un nuevo orden socio-político según el cual el país no se mantendrá aislado de Africa ni del resto del mundo. Al mismo tiempo, deseamos garantizar que Nigeria se encuentre mejor equipada que en el pasado para interactuar con otros países. El objetivo es continuar promoviendo el bienestar y la amplitud de horizontes para nuestro pueblo como así también, contribuir a la paz y seguridad internacionales. Nuestro punto de partida es una economía nacional sólida y una situación política democrática estable sobre la base de la justicia social y la autorregulación, que sustente una política exterior dinámica.


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          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niño ha de ser una consideración primordial en todas las medidas que se adopten en relación con los niños,
Reafirmando, la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño y el Plan de Acción para la aplicación de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño en el decenio de 1990, aprobados en la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que se celebró en Nueva York el 29 y 30 de septiembre de 1990 A/45/625, anexo., en particular el compromiso solemne de asignar alta prioridad a los derechos del niño, su supervivencia, su protección y su desarrollo, y reafirmando asimismo la Declaración y Programa de Acción de Viena que aprobó la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, celebrada en Viena del 14 al 25 de junio de 1993A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), cap. III., en que, entre otras cosas, se indica que deben reforzarse los mecanismos y programas nacionales e internaciona- les de defensa y protección de los niños, en particular de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles, con inclusión de medidas eficaces para combatir los casos de explotación y el maltrato de niños, como el infanticidio femenino, el empleo de niños en trabajos peligrosos, la venta de niños y de sus órganos, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de los niños en la pornografía, y en que se reafirma que todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales son universales,

Observando con profunda preocupación que la situación de los niños en muchas partes del mundo sigue siendo crítica como resultado de la pobreza, las dificultades sociales y económicas en una economía cada vez más mundializada, las pandemias, los desastres naturales, los conflictos armados, el desplazamiento de la población, la explotación, el analfabetismo, el hambre, la intolerancia, la discriminación y la protección jurídica inadecuada, y convencida de que es preciso adoptar medidas urgentes y eficaces en los planos nacional e internacional,
Destacando la necesidad de integrar la dimensión del género en todas las políticas y programas relacionados con los niños,
Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social del niño, así como de proporcionar un acceso universal a la enseñanza primaria en condiciones de igualdad,

Reconociendo también que la colaboración entre los gobiernos, las organizaciones internacionales y todos los sectores de la sociedad civil, en particular las organizaciones no gubernamentales, es importante para el ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Destacando la importancia del décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño para la movilización y adopción de nuevas medidas a fin de lograr el pleno ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Acogiendo con satisfacción los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General, dedicado al seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que ha de celebrarse en 2001,


I
Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
1. Insta una vez más a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que, como cuestión prioritaria, firmen y ratifiquen la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 o se adhieran a ella, a fin de lograr el objetivo de la adhesión universal para el décimo aniversario de la celebración de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y de la entrada en vigor de la Convención en el año 2000;
2. Reitera su preocupación por el elevado número de reservas a la Convención e insta a los Estados partes a que retiren las reservas que sean incompatibles con el objeto y propósito de la Convención y que revisen periódicamente sus reservas con el fin de retirarlas;
3. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que apliquen plenamente la Convención y subraya que la aplicación de la Convención contribuye al logro de los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia;
4. Insta a los Estados a que hagan participar a los niños y a los jóvenes en las actividades para lograr los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y la Convención;
5. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que cooperen estrechamente con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño y cumplan puntualmente la obligación de presentar informes que les impone la Convención, ateniéndose a las directrices elaboradas por el Comité, y alienta a los Estados partes a que tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones formuladas por el Comité en la aplicación de las disposiciones de la Convención;
6. Exhorta asimismo a los Estados partes a que promuevan la capacitación en materia de derechos del niño de quienes participan en actividades relacionadas con niños, por ejemplo, por conducto del programa de servicios de asesoramiento y cooperación técnica en materia de derechos humanos;
7. Pide al Secretario General que facilite el personal y los medios necesarios para que el Comité pueda cumplir de manera eficaz y rápida sus funciones, y toma nota del apoyo temporal proporcionado por el plan de acción de la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos para reforzar la importante función del Comité en la promoción de la aplicación de la Convención; y le pide que presente información sobre las medidas complementarias del plan de acción;
8. Exhorta a los Estados partes en la Convención a que adopten las medidas apropiadas para que la enmienda del párrafo 2 del artículo 43 de la Convención sea aceptada a la mayor brevedad posible por una mayoría de dos tercios de los Estados partes a fin de que entre en vigor y el número de miembros del Comité pueda aumentar de 10 a 18 expertos;
9. Invita al Comité a que siga intensificando su diálogo constructivo con los Estados partes y la transparencia y eficacia de su funcionamiento;
10. Acoge con satisfacción la atención que presta el Comité al logro de los niveles más altos posibles de salud y de acceso a la atención de la salud y a los derechos de los niños afectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y exhorta a los gobiernos a que, en cooperación con los órganos y las organizacio- nes de las Naciones Unidas, tomen todas las medidas que corresponda con el fin de hacer efectivos esos derechos;
11. Insta a los Estados a que protejan todos los derechos humanos de los niños migrantes, en particular los niños migrantes no acompañados, y que garanticen que el interés superior del niño sea, por tanto, la consideración principal, y alienta al Comité, al Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a otros órganos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que, en el marco de sus mandatos respectivos, presten especial atención a las condiciones de los niños migrantes en todos los Estados y, según convenga, formulen recomendaciones para fortalecer su protección;
12. Recomienda que, en el marco de sus mandatos, todos los mecanismos competentes de derechos humanos y otros órganos y mecanismos pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, así como los órganos de supervisión de los organismos especializa- dos, presten especial atención a las situaciones particulares que pongan a los niños en peligro y en que sus derechos sean violados y que tengan en cuenta la labor del Comité, y alienta a seguir desarrollando el criterio basado en los derechos del niño que ha adoptado el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a adoptar nuevas medidas a fin de incrementar la coordinación a nivel de todo el sistema y la cooperación interinstitucional para la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño;
13. Alienta al Comité a que, en su labor de supervisión de la aplicación de la Convención, siga prestando atención a las necesidades de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles;
14. Alienta a los gobiernos, a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas, a las organizaciones no gubernamentales competentes y a las personas dedicadas a las actividades en pro de la infancia a que, según corresponda, contribuyan a la base de datos que ha establecido en la red el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) a fin de continuar proporcionando información sobre leyes, estructuras, políticas y procesos adoptados a escala nacional con el objeto de llevar a la práctica la Convención;


II
Prevención y erradicación de la venta de niños y de su explotación y maltrato sexual, en particular la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía
1. Acoge con satisfacción el informe provisional de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía A/54/411. y expresa su apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial;
2. Pide al Secretario General que proporcione a la Relatora Especial toda la asistencia necesaria en materia de recursos humanos y financieros para que pueda cumplir plenamente su mandato;
3. Invita a que sigan aportándose contribuciones voluntarias por conducto de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y a que se preste apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial para que pueda cumplir su mandato con eficacia;
4. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 relativo a la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía e insta al grupo de trabajo a que concluya su labor antes de la celebración del décimo aniversario, en 2000, de la entrada en vigor de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
5. Reafirma la obligación de los Estados partes de impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma y de proteger al niño de todos los tipos de explotación o abuso sexual, de conformidad con los artículos 34 y 35 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
6. Insta a los Estados a que tipifiquen como delito y castiguen eficazmente todas las formas de explotación y abuso sexual de los niños, en particular dentro de la familia o con fines comerciales, la utilización de niños en la pornografía y la prostitución infantil, incluida la explotación de niños en el turismo sexual, garantizando al mismo tiempo que los niños víctimas de esas prácticas no sean penalizados; y a que adopten medidas eficaces para garantizar el procesamiento de los delincuentes, tanto locales como extranjeros, por las autoridades nacionales competentes, en el país de origen del delincuente o en el país de destino, respetando las garantías procesales;
7. Insta también a los Estados a que en los casos de explotación de niños en el turismo sexual aumenten la cooperación internacional entre las autoridades competentes, en particular las autoridades policiales, y a que compartan los datos pertinentes a fin de erradicar esa práctica;
8. Pide a los Estados que intensifiquen la cooperación y la acción concertada a nivel nacional, regional e internacional, incluido en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas, por parte de todas las autoridades e instituciones competentes, a fin de adoptar y aplicar medidas eficaces para la prevención y la erradicación de la venta de niños y su explotación y abuso sexual y para prevenir y desmantelar redes de trata de niños;
9. Destaca la necesidad de combatir la existencia de un mercado que fomenta ese tipo de prácticas delictivas contra los niños, incluso mediante la adopción de medidas preventivas y coercitivas dirigidas contra los clientes o las personas que explotan o maltratan sexualmente a los niños;
10. Insta además a los Estados a que promulguen, apliquen, examinen y revisen, según proceda, la legislación pertinente e implanten políticas, programas y prácticas para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de la explotación y abuso sexual, incluida la explotación sexual con fines comerciales, y eliminar esas prácticas, teniendo en cuenta los problemas específicos que plantea la utilización de la Internet en este sentido;
11. Alienta a los gobiernos a que faciliten la participación activa de los niños víctimas de explotación o abuso sexual en la formulación y aplicación de estrategias para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de explotación o abuso sexual;
12. Alienta a seguir tratando de determinar a nivel regional e interregional las mejores prácticas y las cuestiones que exigen una respuesta particularmente urgente para dar seguimiento a la aplicación de medidas acordes con las indicadas en la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo.;
13. Invita a los Estados y órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que asignen recursos suficientes para la rehabilitación de los niños víctimas de la explotación y el maltrato sexual y a que tomen las medidas correspondientes para promover su plena recuperación y reintegración social;


III
Protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados
1. Acoge con beneplácito el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre el efecto de los conflictos armados en los niñosA/54/430.;
2. Expresa su apoyo a la labor del Representante Especial del Secretario General, en particular sus esfuerzos por crear mayor conciencia de la cuestión en todo el mundo y por movilizar a la opinión oficial y pública en favor de la protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, a fin de promover el respeto de los derechos y las necesidades de los niños en los conflictos y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, y recomienda al Secretario General que prorrogue su mandato por un nuevo período de tres años, conforme a lo estipulado en los párrafos 35, 36 y 37 de la resolución 51/77 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996;
3. Insta al Secretario General y a todas las partes pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluido el Representante Especial y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, a que intensifiquen sus esfuerzos por elaborar un enfoque concertado de los derechos, la protección y el bienestar de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, incluso, según proceda, en los preparativos de las visitas al terreno del Representante Especial y en el seguimiento de dichas visitas;
4. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes interesadas a que sigan cooperando con el Representante Especial, cumplan los compromisos que han contraído, y examinen atentamente todas las recomendaciones del Representante Especial y se ocupen de las cuestiones señaladas;
5. Celebra el apoyo constante que se ofrece a la labor del Representante Especial y las contribuciones voluntarias efectuadas a ese respecto;
6. Insta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario, a poner fin a cualquier forma de agresión dirigida a los niños y a los ataques a lugares en los que suele haber un número considerable de niños, exhorta a los Estados Partes a que respeten plenamente las disposiciones de los Convenios de Ginebra de 12 de agosto de 1949 Naciones Unidas, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, Nos. 970 a 973. y los Protocolos Adicionales de 1977 Ibíd., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 y 17513., y exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a adoptar todas las medidas necesarias para proteger a los niños de los actos que constituyen violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario, incluso mediante el enjuiciamiento por los Estados, en el marco de la legislación nacional, de los responsables de dichas violaciones;
7. Reconoce, a ese respecto, que el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional contribuiría a poner fin a la impunidad de los perpetradores de ciertos crímenes cometidos contra los niños, tipificados en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional Véase A/CONF.183/9, art. 8., que incluyen, entre otros, los que entrañan violencia sexual o la utilización de niños soldados, y tendrá también un efecto preventivo;
8. Condena el secuestro de niños en situaciones de conflicto armado o con el fin de involucrarlos en conflictos armados e insta a los Estados, a las organizaciones internacionales y a otras partes interesadas a que adopten todas las medidas que sean apropiadas para obtener la liberación incondicional de todos los niños secuestrados, e insta a los Estados a someter a los perpetradores a la acción de la justicia;
9. Toma nota de la importancia del segundo debate público sobre los niños y los conflictos armados, celebrado por el Consejo de Seguridad el 25 de agosto de 1999 Véase S/PV.4037., y del compromiso del Consejo de prestar especial atención a la protección, el bienestar y los derechos de los niños, al adoptar medidas encaminadas al mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad Resolución 1261 (1999) del Consejo de Seguridad., y reafirma el papel fundamental que corresponde a la Asamblea General y al Consejo Económico y Social en la promoción y protección de los derechos y el bienestar de los niños;
10. Exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a que velen por que el personal humanitario tenga acceso seguro y sin restricciones a todos los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, y por que se preste asistencia humanitaria a esos niños;
11. Celebra la decisión del Consejo Económico y Social Documentos Oficiales de la Asamblea General, quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones, Suplemento No. 3 (A/54/3), cap. VI, párr. 5, conclusiones convenidas 1999/1, párr. 22. de exhortar a una acción interinstitucional sistemática, concertada y amplia a favor de los niños y pedir que se asignen recursos suficientes, en forma sostenible, para prestar a los niños asistencia inmediata de emergencia y financiar medidas a largo plazo a ese respecto durante todas las etapas de una emergencia;
12. Insta a los Estados y a todas las otras partes en los conflictos armados a poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados y asegurar su desmovilización y desarme efectivo, y a adoptar medidas eficaces para la rehabilitación, la recuperación física y sicológica y la reinserción en la sociedad de todos los niños que han sido víctimas de situaciones de conflicto armado; invita a la comunidad internacional a prestar asistencia en ese empeño; y subraya que no se debe prestar a quienes utilicen niños soldados ningún apoyo que haga posible o que facilite esa práctica;
13. Exhorta a los Estados y a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas a que continúen prestando apoyo a las actividades nacionales e internacionales de remoción de minas, incluso mediante contribuciones financieras, programas de información sobre el peligro de las minas y programas de asistencia a las víctimas y de rehabilitación dedicados especialmente a los niños, y celebra también los efectos positivos que tiene para los niños la adopción de medidas legislativas concretas respecto de las minas antipersonal;
14. Toma nota con preocupación del efecto de las armas pequeñas y ligeras sobre los niños en situaciones de conflicto armado, en particular como consecuencia de su producción y tráfico ilícitos, e insta a los Estados a ocuparse de ese problema;
15. Recomienda que, cada vez que se impongan sanciones, se evalúen y vigilen sus efectos en los niños, y que las exenciones por motivos humanitarios tengan especialmente en cuenta a los niños y se formulen con unas claras directrices de aplicación;
16. Exhorta a los Estados, a los órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y a las organizaciones regionales a que integren los derechos del niño en todas sus actividades durante los conflictos armados y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, incluidos los programas de capacitación y las operaciones de socorro de emergencia, los programas en los países y las operaciones sobre el terreno encaminadas a promover la paz y a prevenir y resolver conflictos, así como en la negociación y aplicación de los acuerdos de paz, y, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias a largo plazo para la sociedad, subraya la importancia de incorporar disposiciones específicas para los niños, incluso disposiciones relativas a la aportación de recursos, en los acuerdos de paz y en los acuerdos negociados por las partes en los conflictos;
17. Acoge con beneplácito las gestiones que realizan, entre otros, las organizaciones regionales, las organizaciones intergubernamentales y las no gubernamentales para poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados en los conflictos armados, y reafirma la necesidad urgente de aumentar la edad mínima límite establecida en el artículo 38 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 para el reclutamiento y la participación de cualquier persona en los conflictos armados, con el objeto de poner fin a la utilización de niños soldados;
18. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño relativo a la participación de los niños en los conflictos armados, y las consultas que dirige el presidente del grupo de trabajo para seguir avanzando con el fin de concluir su labor antes del décimo aniversario de la entrada en vigor de la Convención;


IV
Los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país
1. Insta a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de políticas y programas para la protección, el cuidado y el bienestar de los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país, con la cooperación internacional necesaria, en particular la de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Representante del Secretario General sobre los desplazados internos, en consonancia con las obligaciones contraídas en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
2. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados, así como a los órganos y organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, a que presten atención urgente a la protección y asistencia a los niños refugiados o desplazados en el interior del país, que están especialmente expuestos a riesgos relacionados con los conflictos armados, como los de ser reclutados forzosamente o ser objeto de violencia, maltrato o explotación sexual;
3. Expresa su profunda preocupación por el número cada vez mayor de niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados, y hace un llamamiento a todos los Estados y a los órganos y organismos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones pertinentes para que den prioridad a los programas para la búsqueda y reunificación de las familias y continúen supervisando las disposiciones en materia de cuidado de los niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados;


V
Eliminación progresiva del trabajo infantil
1. Reafirma el derecho del niño a la protección respecto de la explotación económica y la realización de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para él o constituir un obstáculo para su educación o que pueda resultar nocivo para su salud o su desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o social;
2. Acoge con satisfacción la aprobación por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en el 87° período de sesiones de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, celebrado en Ginebra del 1° al 17 de junio de 1999, del Convenio No. 182 sobre la prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación, y alienta a todos los Estados a considerar, como cuestión prioritaria, la posibilidad de ratificarlo, con miras a que entre en vigor lo antes posible;
3. Exhorta a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que consideren la posibilidad de ratificar los convenios de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo relativos al trabajo infantil, en particular el Convenio No. 29, de 1930, sobre la abolición del trabajo forzoso u obligatorio y el Convenio No. 138, de 1973, sobre la edad mínima de empleo, y los exhorta a que apliquen esos Convenios;
4. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a que traduzcan en medidas concretas su compromiso de eliminar progresiva y efectivamente las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas y los insta a que, como cuestión prioritaria, eliminen de inmediato las peores formas de trabajo infantil, enumeradas en el nuevo Convenio No. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo;
5. Exhorta además a todos los Estados a que evalúen y examinen sistemáticamente la magnitud, la naturaleza y las causas del trabajo infantil y a que elaboren y pongan en práctica estrategias para la eliminación del trabajo infantil que contravenga las normas internacionales aceptadas, prestando especial atención a los peligros concretos a que hacen frente las niñas, así como a la rehabilitación y la reinserción social de los niños afectados;
6. Reconoce que la educación primaria es uno de los principales instrumentos para reintegrar a los niños que trabajan e insta a todos los Estados a que reconozcan el derecho a la educación, haciendo obligatoria la enseñanza primaria y garantizando que todos los niños tengan acceso a la enseñanza primaria gratuita como estrategia fundamental para prevenir el trabajo infantil, y reconoce, en particular, la importante función que cumplen a este respecto la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia;

7. Exhorta a todos los Estados y al sistema de las Naciones Unidas a que incrementen la cooperación internacional como medio de ayudar a los gobiernos a prevenir o a combatir las violaciones de los derechos de los niños y a alcanzar el objetivo de eliminar las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas;

8. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que fortalezcan la cooperación y coordinación en los planos nacional e internacional, para abordar efectivamente el problema del trabajo infantil, cooperando también estrechamente con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, entre otros organismos;


VI
La difícil situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle

1. Exhorta a los gobiernos a buscar soluciones amplias a los problemas que dan lugar a que los niños trabajen o vivan en la calle y a aplicar políticas y programas apropiados para la protección y la rehabilitación y reinserción de esos niños, teniendo en cuenta que son particularmente vulnerables a todo tipo de violencia, maltrato, explotación y abandono;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a velar por que se presten servicios a los niños para evitar que se dediquen a actividades que puedan acarrearles daño, explotación y maltrato y atender a las necesidades económicas apremiantes que motivan su participación en tales actividades;

3. Insta encarecidamente a todos los gobiernos a que garanticen el respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, en particular el derecho a la vida, a que adopten con carácter urgente medidas eficaces para evitar que se mate a los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle, combatir la tortura, el maltrato y los actos de violencia contra ellos y someter a los perpetradores de tales actos a la acción de la justicia;

4. Hace un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que, mediante una cooperación internacional eficaz, incluida la prestación de asesoramiento y asistencia técnicos, apoye la labor de los Estados encaminada a mejorar la situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle;


VII
Niños con discapacidad

1. Celebra que, de conformidad con la decisión del Comité de los Derechos del Niño, se haya establecido un grupo de trabajo con el fin de elaborar un plan de acción en favor de los niños con discapacidad, en estrecha colaboración con el Relator Especial sobre Discapacidad de la Comisión de Desarrollo Social y otros sectores pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas Véase CRC/C/84, párrs. 219 a 222.;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que adopten todas las medidas necesarias para asegurar que los niños con discapacidad gocen plenamente y en condiciones de igualdad de todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales y a que promulguen y hagan cumplir leyes contra la discriminación de esos niños;

3. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a promover para los niños con discapacidad una vida plena y decorosa, en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten la autosufi- ciencia y faciliten la participación activa del niño en la comunidad, incluido el acceso efectivo a la educación y los servicios de atención de la salud;


VIII

Decide:

a) Pedir al Secretario General que le presente en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones un informe sobre los derechos del niño que contenga información sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 y los problemas a que se hace referencia en la presente resolución;

b) Pedir al Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados que presente a la Asamblea General y a la Comisión de Derechos Humanos informes que contengan información pertinente sobre la situación de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, teniendo en cuenta los mandatos actuales y los informes de los órganos correspondientes;

c) Seguir examinando esta cuestión en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones en relación con el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño”.
***

13. La Comisión también recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe el siguiente proyecto de decisión:



Informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
La Asamblea General toma nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño A/54/265
Iraq: ONU califica de intolerable situación de niños



25 de abril, 2008 La representante especial de la ONU para Niños en Conflictos Armados, Radhika Coomaraswamy, consideró que la situación de los niños en Iraq es intolerable debido a la violencia.
Al concluir una visita de cinco días a ese país, la enviada dijo hoy que los menores son víctimas silenciosas del entorno violento que impera

en Iraq.




En este sentido, instó a los líderes religiosos, políticos, militares y comunitarios del país a enviar un mensaje claro a la niñez iraquí para que se mantengan el margen de las hostilidades y vuelvan a la escuela.

Coomaraswamy urgió a todas las partes en conflicto a apegarse estrictamente a los estándares humanitarios internacionales sobre la protección de los niños y a liberar de inmediato a los menores de 18 años que estén asociados a cualquier organización combatiente.

Señaló que más de la mitad de los desplazados y refugiados iraquíes son niños que afrontan grandes dificultades en los lugares donde llegan a asentarse ya sea en su propio país o en uno ajeno.

“La comunidad internacional debería asistir a los países anfitriones para garantizar que se protejan los derechos de los niños y que tengan acceso a servicios básicos como la educación y los servicios de salud”, enfatizó la representante especial.


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Kadhum Al-Sahir, nuevo Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, habla sobre las necesidades de los más pobres
BAGDAD, Iraq, 9 de mayo de 2011. Kadhum Al-Sahir, el cantante iraquí mundialmente reconocido como uno de los más grandes representantes de la música árabe contemporánea, se convirtió hoy en el primer Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq. Al regresar a su país tras 14 años de ausencia, Al-Sahir destacó la necesidad de luchar por la igualdad en pro de los niños más necesitados de Iraq.

VÍDEO (en inglés): 5 de mayo de 2011. El famoso cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir, recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, compuso una nueva canción, titulada "Juntos por los niños", en la que convoca a todos los segmentos de la sociedad de su país a que ayuden a poner fin a las penurias que afrontan los jóvenes y niños.
"Los niños y niñas de Iraq han sufrido penurias indescriptibles en las últimas dos décadas, en las que cientos de miles de menores sufrieron las consecuencias brutales de la violencia y las privaciones inhumanas", dijo. "Ha llegado la hora de poner fin a esa situación".
Al-Sahir es uno de los más destacados músicos en la historia de Iraq y uno de los artistas más populares de la región.
El cantante aboga por los niños y jóvenes desde hace mucho tiempo. Ese apoyo comenzó en 1998, cuando compuso e interpretó "Tathakkar" ("Recuerda"), una canción sobre los niños en las situaciones de conflicto. El tema recibió un premio de UNICEF por tratarse de una contribución sobresaliente al mejoramiento de las vidas de los niños en situación de necesidad. En 2004, Al-Sahir ofreció un concierto a beneficio de más de 50.000 niños y niñas de Oriente Medio.



Juntos por los niños
Continuando en la misma vena, Kadhum Al-Sahir presentó hoy "Juntos por los niños", una nueva canción que es también un llamamiento a la acción.



© UNICEF Iraq/2011/Arar
Kadhum Al-Sahir, el famoso cantante recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, regresa a su país tras una ausencia de 14 años.
La canción rinde homenaje al coraje de los niños de Iraq en versos que dicen, por ejemplo, "¿Hay alguien que haya sufrido las penurias que sufrieron ustedes? Porque ustedes han superado los límites del temor y las privaciones".
El cantante convocó a todos los segmentos de la sociedad iraquí a que ayuden a mejorar la situación de sus niños. "Unámonos a UNICEF, y marchemos juntos para poner fin a las muertes, las enfermedades, el abandono y la pobreza", añadió. "Ayudemos a los niños que son víctimas de las guerras. Vengan y hagamos algo para que sus penurias se conviertan en prosperidad. Vengan, trabajemos todos juntos".
Las cuestiones que afectan a los niños de Iraq
En el decenio de 1970, Iraq era uno de los mejores países de Oriente Medio y África septentrional si se era niño, pero tras varias décadas de guerra y abandono, hoy es uno de los peores. Entre las cuestiones más graves que afectan a los casi 15 millones de niños y niñas iraquíes figuran las siguientes:
 Unos 35.000 lactantes mueren anualmente durante su primer año de vida.
 Más de 1,5 millones de niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición.
 Unos 700.000 niños y niñas en edad escolar no asisten a clases, mientras que cientos de miles de niños que inician sus estudios no los terminan.
 Unos 2,5 millones de niños carecen de acceso al agua potable y unos 3,5 millones no cuentan con instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas.
 Unos 800.000 niños y niñas de 5 a 14 años de edad trabajan.


© UNICEF-Iraq/Arar/2011
El cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir se dirige a un grupo de periodistas tras el anuncio en Bagdad de su nombram
          Awareness in St. George School in Madrid        
The month of February has hosted the final of the African Nations Cup, whose champion has been Ivory Coast. And how does this relate to St. George School of Madrid?  The story is as follows:  Tom Maclure, professor at Saint George School had the unusual idea of carrying out with his pupils a study about Africa y poverty, seen through football.   The students found out, like in the majority of the cases-luckily not in every case- the teams of the African champions are those with the biggest further development and economic power.

From there, they decided to invite Red Deporte in order to carry out several awareness activities on poverty, development and to show how sports can become a tool for the youth development. These high school students made in the previous days some interesting murals about sports in Africa, which, in addition, are a beautiful and colorful decorative element in the classrooms.  These youngsters also showed an excellent attitude and interest about the causes of poverty and the North-South inequality.   We interviewedTom Maclure to comment upon the activity.



How the students have welcomed the idea of studying our world through football in Africa?

To begin with, the boys especially were motivated by the idea of selecting and representing a country that was participating in the football tournament of Africa (AFCOM 2015). They wanted to ´own´ the big-name countries that were expected to do well in the competition, like Ivory Coast, Algeria, Ghana  and Cameroon, so that they would be seen as victorious within the class amongst their peers… boys hey!  However, the problem was that not all of the ´big names´ had qualified, like Egypt, Nigeria, and Angola, also, Morocco had withdrawn, so there were not so many ´big-names´ left to go around all the boys!   

Both the girls and boys got more interested when they had to find out how well-ranked their different countries were in terms of development statistics, another competitive element for them, and it started them all thinking about the purpose of our project: To consider and explore whether development levels might affect the success of a country in international sporting competition.  In the end though, it was the girls who sustained their interest better, because they were more motivated by the presentation aspects of the project - both visually and conclusively - and so how well or badly their country did on the football pitch, mattered not nearly so much to them! The boys, in contrast, were either loud or silent in class depending on their country´s results on the field!  

To which extent has been interesting and fun this experience to students and teachers?

I think greater interest in discovering and learning more about some of Africa´s countries was one major achievement. Also, recognizing and appreciating, that access to education and good health care, acknowledging democratic rights within society and having consideration to gender equality, are privileges that we take for granted here within Spain in comparison to Africa, was also acquired and considered by the students.  

Being able to explore and investigate geographical issues through a familiar medium like Football or the Fashion industry, or sporting events in general (eg. the Olympics/World Cups) enables students to relate better to the topic and to thus tap into their personal interest and self- motivation levels more easily.  Thinking about other cultures and other people ´s lifestyles in comparison to their own also helps them develop more empathy and a greater sensitivity in the future.  As a teacher, it´s fun to see your students self-motivation one another within a project group and enjoying geographical exploration, just because their own curiosity and desire to find out and produce more, stimulates them and spurs them on.  

What have you enjoyed or attracted your attention the most about this activity?

The students really enjoyed hearing about the difference in sports facilities and sporting opportunities in Zambiaduring Carlos's presentation.  They were surprised and quite 'shocked' to hear of the limited amount of sports equipment and sport and activity time that children find time for in their day, especially boys and girls who have to care for younger siblings.  The students loved seeing and touching the home-made footballs and seeing the photos of ´African-style' hockey equipment and African sports grounds.  I am sure it will motivate them to raise some funds for equipment at the ´City of Hope´.  They also appreciated learning more about the problems of Malaria, Tuberculosis and HIV, through Carlos´s PowerPoint and his own personal experiences and stories. It opened their eyes and they are now really enjoying researching and exploring the Sport and Cooperation Network and Conectandoafrica.org websites to investigate the microprojects! 




          Sensibilización en St. George School de Madrid        
El mes de febrero ha acogido la final de la Copa de Naciones de África que ha tenido como campeón a Costa de Marfil. ¿Y qué relación tiene esto con St. George School de Madrid? La historia es la siguiente: Tom Maclure, profesor de la escuela Saint George tuvo la original idea de realizar con sus alumnos un estudio sobre África y pobreza, visto a través del fútbol. Los alumnos averiguaron como en la mayoría de casos -afortunadamente no en todos- los equipos campeones de África son aquellos con un mayor desarrollo y poder económico.

A partir de ahí, decidieron invitar a Red Deporte para llevar a cabo una serie de actividades de sensibilización sobre pobreza, desarrollo y mostrar cómo el deporte puede convertirse en una herramienta de desarrollo de la juventud. Los alumnos de enseñanza secundaria realizaron los días previos unos interesantísimos murales sobre el deporte en África que además son un bonito y colorido elemento decorativo de las aulas. Los jóvenes además mostraron una excelente actitud e interés sobre las causas de la pobreza y la desigualdad Norte-Sur. Entrevistamos a Tom Maclure para comentar a cerca de la actividad.




¿Cómo han recibido los chicos la idea de estudiar cómo es nuestro mundo a través del fútbol en África?

Al principio los chicos estaban sobre todo muy motivados con la idea de seleccionar y representar un país que estaba participando en un torneo africano.(AFCOM 2015). Ellos querían  “conseguir” los grandes equipos de los países que se esperaba iban hacerlo bien en la competición, como Costa de Marfil, Argelia, Ghana  and Camerún, para poder ser vistos por sus compañeros  de clase como los ganadores… ¡chichos!!  Sin embargo, el problema fue que ninguno de los  “grandes equipos” se habían clasificado como fue el caso de  Egipto, Nigeria y Angola, además Marruecos se había retirado, así que no había suficientes  “equipos fuertes” para todos los chicos.

Ambos chicos y chicas empezaron a interesarse más cuando tuvieron que investigar  el ranking de los diferentes equipos en question de  estadísticas de desarrollo, un nuevo elemento competitivo  para ellos, además del inicio de pensar sobre el propósito de nuestro proyecto: Considerar y explorar si los niveles de desarrollo pueden afectar el éxito de un país en competiciones deportivas internacionales.  Al final fueron las chicas las que mantuvieron el mayor interés, porque ellas estuvieron más motivadas con los aspectos relacionados con la presentación no sólo visualmente sino  de manera general- así que como de bien o de mal sus países lo hacían en el campo, no importaba tanto para ellas! Los chicos por el contrario, se mantuvieron ruidosos o silenciosos dependiendo del resultado de sus países en los campos de futbol!  

¿En qué medida ha resultado a alumnos y profesores interesante y divertida esta experiencia? 

Creo que el crear interés de descubrir y aprender más sobre países africanos ha sido un gran logro. Además de ayudar a reconocer y apreciar que el acceso a la educación , una buena sanidad, los derechos humanos dentro de la sociedad y consideración por la igualdad de género son privilegios que damos por sentado  aquí en España en comparación con Africa.  

Ser capaz de explorar e investigar questiones geográficas a través de un medio tan familiar como el fútbol o la moda, o cualquier evento deportivo (Los juegos olímpicos, el mundial) permite a los estudiantes relacionar mejor el tema y así conectar más fácilmente con sus intereses personales y sus niveles de motivación.  Pensar en otras culturas y otros estilos de vida diferentes en comparación con las suyas también les ayuda a desarrollar más empatía y sensibilidad en un futuro. Como profesor, es divertido ver   la motivación personal  de tus estudiantes  trabajando en un proyecto en grupo a la vez que se divierten con una exploración geográfica, la curiosidad y el deseo de producir más les estimula y les incita a aprender más.  

¿Qué es lo que más te ha gustado o llamado la atención del conjunto de esta actividad?

Los estudiantes verdaderamente disfrutaron escuchado las diferencias sobre las diferentes instalaciones y las  oportunidades deportivas en Zambia.  Se sorprendieron e impresionaron al escuchar la limitada cantidad de equipación deportiva, deporte y tiempo de actividad que los niños tenían durante el día, sobretodo niños y niñas que tienen que cuidar de sus hermanos más pequeños. A los estudiantes les encanto ver y tocar los balones hechos a mano y ver las fotos de la equipación de hockey al  Â´estilo africano'  y las de los campos de deporte. Estoy seguro de que les motivará para recaudar fondos para  las equipaciones  en  Â´City of Hope´.  También apreciaron aprender sobre los problemas de malaria, tuberculosis y VIH, a través de la presentación de power point de Carlos y su experiencia personal acompañada de historias.  Abrió sus ojos y ahora se entusiasman investigando y explorando las páginas web de  Red de Deporte y Cooperación y Conectandoafrica.org  para investigar los micro proyectos! 




          Mosi-oa-Tunya        


I maj 1884 besökte min mammas farbror August Hammar de gigantiska vattenfallen Mosi-oa-Tunya i Zambesiflodens övre lopp mellan nuvarande Zambia och Zimbabwe. De namngavs tidigt pÃ¥ Lozi-sprÃ¥ket till "DÃ¥nande rök". August Hammar förklarade i en parentes i brevet till sin syster i Strömstad att platsen ocksÃ¥ var känd som Victoria falls. DÃ¥ hade David Livingstone besökt omrÃ¥det 29 Ã¥r tidigare, "upptäckt" vattenfallet och gett det sin drottnings namn (!).  2005 skrev Dagens Nyheter faktiskt fortfarande att Livingstone upptäckte Viktoriafallen.

Vad har Drottning Viktoria att göra med dånet. bruset, röken och regnbågarna i vattenfallet "Dånande rök" Mosi-oa-Tunya (från Alexander Bassano https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6640482)

Jag kom att tänka pÃ¥ farbror August när jag slog upp Dagens Nyheter i morse. Bredvid Theresa May´s önskan om goda förbindelser med Sverige lever det brittiska imperiet vidare i resebyrÃ¥n Albatross entusiastiska utrop om en safariupplevelse. "Victoriafallen - bara namnet fÃ¥r tankarna att flyga högt i skyn". Vad menar reklamskribenten? Bara namnet?


 


Idag - 172 Ã¥r efter Livingstones namnbeslag av Lozis "DÃ¥nande Rök" Mosia-oa-Tunya  och 53 Ã¥r efter Zambias självständighet marknadsförs platsen fortfarande som Victoriafallen. I Zambia heter nationalparken visserligen Mosi-oa-Tunya men i Zimbabwe heter nationalparken fortfarande Victoria Falls.

(Vill läsa mer om min mammas farbror August? Kolla min artikel Mammas, farbror, kung Khama och politisk ekologi , läs om hans lantmäteriförrättningar i Sofiero  och Sigtuna som bÃ¥da ligger i  Kwa Zulu Natal.  HÃ¥ll ocksÃ¥ ögonen pÃ¥ http://www.august-and-josef.com/ där det snart kommer mer innehÃ¥ll)

TILLÄGG -- SE AUGUST HAMMARS MÅLNING FRÅN FALLEN: 
LÄNK


          By: Jody Graham        
Hi Suzanne, Thanks for contacting me. I do offer consulting. I am very familiar with Ontario's options for grid connection and off grid and was heavily involved in helping others and supplying equipment for the Microfit program which was doomed to fail from the start. Offering 80.2 cents per kWh with 20 year contracts back then was insane. Who is going to pay for it? You the tax payer. Although I loved the promotion of solar I know with every new government those contracts could be cancelled. Regardless it was what it was. I can help you. My rate is $30 per hour which is going towards my next trip to Zimbabwe and Zambia in February 2017. Solar is my passion and with over 30,000 visitors to this website making money for my family is not a problem at this point. I accept prefer Email transfer, Visa, MasterCard but accept wire transfers personal cheques via mail. I think you should shop around for your equipment as the prices in Canada are crazy right now for solar. I can direct you to most of the best deals in the US with reputable companies that won't take your money and ship no product. Let me know what you think and we can go from there... Have a great day! Jody
          New Designer Sunglasses Fund Crucial Solar Lighting In Malawi, Zambia and Uganda        
Designer sunglasses that fund solar lights for Africa can create over 1000 hours of extra education for each pair sold.
          Bulan November        
1 November
Panama Lepas dari Spanyol

Tanggal 1 November 1821, Panama lepas dari penjajahan Spanyol dan bergabung dengan Kolombia. Panama dijajah oleh Spanyol sejak tahun 1501. Pada tahun 1513, Spanyol membangun Terusan Panama yang menghubungkan Samudera Pasifik dengan Atlantik. Seiring dengan mundurnya Spanyol dari Panama, terusan itu menjadi sepi. Pada tahun 1848, setelah ditemukannya tambang emas di California, Terusan Panama kembali ramai dilalui para pedagang. Karena terusan ini pula, Panama bersengketa dengan Kolombia. Akibatnya, pada tahun 1903, Panama memisahkan diri dan mendirikan negara independen.

Austria dan Hongaria Memisahkan Diri
Tanggal 1 November 1918, akibat kekalahan yang dialami dalam Perang Dunia Pertama, imperium Austria-Hongaria memisahkan diri dan menjadi dua negara dengan pemerintahan republik. Pada abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, imperium ini merupakan salah satu kekuatan besar di Eropa.

Permulaan Perang Kemerdekaan Aljazair
Tanggal 1 November 1954, dengan didirikannya Gerakan Pembebasan Aljazair oleh Ahmed Ben Bella, perang kemerdekaan negara ini pun dimulai. Aljazair pada awal abad ke-20 secara penuh dijajah oleh Perancis dan selama itu perjuangan bangsa Aljazair bersifat sporadis. Akhirnya, setelah 132 tahun dijajah oleh Perancis, Aljazair berhasil meraih kemerdekannya pada tahun 1962 dan Ben Bella menjadi presiden. Namun, pemerintahan Ben Bella tidak berlangsung lama karena pada tahun 1965, ia digulingkan oleh Menteri Pertahanannya sendiri, Kolonel Boumedienne.

Ali Qadi Thabathabai Gugur
Tanggal 1 November 1979, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Ali Qadhi Thabathabai, seorang ruhaniwan Iran terkemuka, gugur syahid akibat teror kelompok Furqan. Beliau dilahirkan pada tahun 1904 di kota Tabriz di barat laut Iran. Beliau memulai pendidikan dasar agamanya di bawah bimbingan ayahnya sendiri dan kemudian melanjutkan menuntut ilmu di hauzah-hauzah ilmiah terkemuka dan menjadi murid ulama-ulama besar saat itu, di antaranya Imam Khomeini. Akibat aktivitas perjuangannya melawan rezim despotik Shah Pahlevi, Ayatullah Thabathabai berkali-kali dipenjara dan diasingkan. Setelah kemenangan Revolusi Islam Iran, Ayatullah Thabathabai ditunjuk Imam Khomeini sebagai imam Jumat di kota Tabriz.

Jawad Tondgoyan Disandera Tentara Irak
Tanggal 1 November 1980, Muhammad Jawad Tondguyan, Menteri Perminyakan Iran waktu itu, disandera oleh tentara Irak. Tondguyan bersama beberapa pejabat lainnya sebulan setelah invasi Irak ke Iran, dikirim ke Iran selatan untuk memeriksa fasilitas perminyakan di sana. Selama beberapa waktu, penyanderaan Tondguyan ini dirahasiakan oleh Rezim Baghdad. Tondguyan akhirnya gugur syahid dalam penyanderaan itu akibat siksaan keji yang dilakukan antek-antek Saddam Husein.

Salman Herati Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 1 November 1986, Salman Herati, seorang penyair kontemporer Iran, meninggal dunia pada usianya ke 27 tahun. Dia dilahirkan di sebuah desa di Iran utara dan setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, ia berprofesi sebagai guru. Salman Herati menciptakan syair dalam berbagai bentuk, seperti ghazal, matsnawi, syair dua bait, dan syair empat bait atau ruba'iy. Karya-karya syairnya tersebut dibukukan dalam tiga jilid berjudul "Dari Langit Hijau", "Pintu Rumah Matahari", dan "Dari Bintang ke Bintang".

2 November
Abrecht Durer Lahir

Tanggal 2 November 1471, Albrecht Durer, seorang seniman dan pelukis besar Jerman, terlahir ke dunia di kota Nurnberg. Periode aktivitas dan kehidupan seni dan sastra pelukis ini bersamaan dengan dimulainya kebangkitan renaissance di Jerman. Oleh karena itu, dia dianggap sebagai salah satu pelopor kebangkitan ini. Durer meninggal dunia tahun 1527.

Sharif Husein menjadi Penguasa Arab
Tanggal 2 November 1916, Sharif Husain, penguasa kota Mekah dan Madinah mengangkat dirinya sebagai Raja Arab. Sejak 5 Juni tahun itu, atas provokasi Inggris, dia memulai perlawanan terhadap pemerintahan Imperium Ottoman. Saat itu, Ottoman juga tengah berperang melawan pasukan Sekutu dalam Perang Dunia Pertama. Inggris menjanjikan kepada Sharif Husain bahwa setelah perang, dia akan diangkat sebagai raja Arab. Namun, kemudian Inggris melanggar janjinya kepada Sharif Husain dan mendukung dinasti Saud untuk menguasai tanah Arab. Untuk menutupi muka karena telah mengingkari janji, Inggris mengangkat anak-anak Sharif Husain menjadi raja di Irak dan Yordania yang saat itu merupakan koloni Inggris.

Penerbitan Deklarasi Balfour
Tanggal 2 November 1917, diterbitkanlah Deklarasi Balfour oleh Lord Arthur James Balfour, menlu Inggris saat itu. Melalui deklarasi ini, dimulailah upaya untuk menciptakan negara Israel di atas tanah bangsa Palestina. Saat itu, Kawasan Palestina berada di bawah penjajahan Inggris. Deklarasi ini membuktikan bahwa Inggris menyetujui berdirinya sebuah pemerintahan Yahudi di Palestina dan memberi bantuan dari berbagai segi dalam pembentukan negara illegal ini. Akhirnya 31 tahun kemudian, yaitu tahun 1948, diumumkanlah berdirinya negara Israel. Setiap tahun, pada hari deklarasi Balfour ini, rakyat muslim sedunia menunjukkan kemarahan dan kecaman mereka kepada Israel dan negara-negara pendukungnya.

Penandatanganan Perundingan KMB
Tanggal 2 November 1949, Indonesia dan Belanda menandatangani hasil perundingan Konferensi Meja Bundar atau KMB. KMB diadakan di Den Haag Belanda, setahun setelah Belanda melakukan agresi militernya yang kedua pada bulan Desember 1948 terhadap Indonesia. Agresi ini mendapat kecaman internasional dan atas desakan PBB, kedua pihak mengadakan konferensi tersebut. Hasil KMB antara lain penyerahan kedaulatan kepada Indonesia. Indonesia kemudian mendirikan Republik Indonesia Serikat dengan Ir. Sukarno sebagai presiden pertama.

3 November
Dimulainya Kongres Wina

Tanggal 3 November 1814, dimulailah Kongres Wina di kota Wina, Austria dengan dihadiri oleh para kepala negara Eropa. Kongres yang diadakan setelah kekalahan Napoleon Bonaparte, Kaisar Perancis ini, diadakan dengan tujuan untuk memperbaharui peta Eropa. Arsitek di balik kongres ini adalah Matternich, Kanselir Austria waktu itu. Dia bersama raja-raja despotik Eropa lainnya berkeinginan untuk sekali lagi memaksakan penerapan sistem monarkhi despotis di benua Eropa serta mengembalikan raja-raja yang sudah terguling ke posisinya semula. Keputusan kongres Wina yang berlangsung selama setahun itu, selama beberapa dekade berlaku di Eropa, namun kemudian secara bertahap terjadilah reformasi politik dan sosial di benua ini.

Perang Heroin di Cina Meletus
Tanggal 3 November 1839, Perang Heroin meletus dengan adanya serangan angkatan laut Inggris terhadap kapal-kapal sipil Cina. Perang ini semakin memanas sejak bulan Juli 1840. Perang ini pecah karena tindakan Inggris yang ingin memperluas perdagangan heroin yang menggunakan wilayah Cina sebagai jalur perdagangan. Akibatnya, banyak rakyat Cina yang menjadi pecandu heroin. Pemerintah Cina kemudian membuang 20 ribu peti heroin milik pedagang Inggris ke laut dan akibatnya, meletuslah perang antara kedua pihak. Dalam perang ini, Cina mengalami kekalahan dan terpaksa membayar ganti rugi perang yang sangat banyak kepada Inggris. Namun, Inggris masih belum puas dengan kemenangan ini karena ingin memperluas perdagangan heroinnya. Pada tahun 1856, Inggris dan Perancis kembali berniat memerangi China. Pada tahun 1860, China menyerah dan Inggris semakin leluasa melakukan perdagangan heroinnya.

Edward Branley Lahir
Tanggal 3 November 1844, Edward Branley, seorang ahli fisika terkenal Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Sejak masa mudanya, ia sudah melakukan berbagai penelitian fisika. Karya besar Branley adalah penemuan telegraf tanpa kabel. Branley meninggal dunia tahun 1940.

Panama Memisahkan Diri
Tanggal 3 November 1903, Panama berhasil memisahkan diri dari Kolombia dan hari ini dijadikan Hari Nasional Panama. Sejak tahun 1501, Panama dijajah oleh Spanyol. Pada saat yang sama, Spanyol juga menjajah Kolombia dan negara-negara Amerika Latin lainnya. Bersamaan dengan serbuan Napoleon ke Spanyol pada awal abad ke-19, perjuangan kemerdekaan pun meletus di seluruh Amerika Latin. Pada tahun 1812, Kolombia menguasai Panama. Pada tahun 1819, Simon Bolivar, pemimpin Kolombia memproklamirkan berdirinya republik Kolombia Raya, yang meliputi Panama. Pada tahun 1903, warga Panama berontak ketika Senat Kolombia menolak memberi izin kepada AS untuk membangun kembali Terusan Panama. Atas dukungan AS, akhirnya Panama memisahkan diri dari Kolombia dan menjadi negara merdeka. Namun akibatnya, AS selalu campur tangan dalam urusan dalam negeri republik ini.

Tentara Israel Menyerang Khan Yunes
Tanggal 3 November 1956, dalam era perang Mesir-Israel, tentara Israel menyerang kota Khan Yunes di Jalur Gaza dan membunuh massal warga kota itu. Setelah menduduki kota ini, tentara Israel kemudian membunuh 25 tentara Mesir. Kekejaman mereka masih belum berhenti sampai di sana, karena kemudian mereka menyerang rumah sakit kota Khan Yunes. Seluruh pasien, perawat dan para dokter di rumah sakit itu gugur syahid dalam serangan itu. Selanjutnya, tentara Israel meledakkan sebuah tempat perlindungan yang berisi puluhan wanita dan anak-anak. Secara keseluruhan, korban yang tewas dalam serangan keji Zionis ini mencapai 275 orang.

4 November
Imperium Austria-Hongaria Menyerah

Tanggal 4 November 1918, seminggu sebelum berakhirnya Perang Dunia Pertama, Imperium Austria-Hongaria menyerah kepada pasukan Sekutu. Imperium yang merupakan pemulai perang ini adalah sekutu Jerman yang terpenting. Namun, karena kekalahan beruntun yang dialaminya, Imperium Austria-Hongaria akhirnya bersedia untuk menyerah dan menandatangani perjanjian Padova. Setelah perang berakhir, wilayah kekuasaan imperium ini dibagi-bagi menjadi beberapa negara dan dengan demikian berakhirlah kekuasaan kaisar dari dinasti Hansburg.

Unesco Terbentuk
Tanggal 4 November 1946, UNESCO dibentuk oleh 43 negara dunia. Lembaga ini bergerak di bidang ilmu, budaya, dan pendidikan. Tujuan pendirian organisasi ini adalah untuk membangun hubungan ilmu dan kebudayaan di antara berbagai negara serta menyebarkan buku-buku dalam berbagai bahasa. Dengan cara ini, diharapkan ikatan kebudayaan dunia semakin meningkat. Di antara poin penting yang tercantum dalam piagam pendirian UNESCO adalah penghormatan terhadap keadilan, pemerintahan hukum, perlindungan HAM, dan kebebasan asasi. Badan utama dalam UNESCO adalah Sekjen, Badan Pelaksana, dan Sidang Umum. Markas UNESCO terletak di Paris.

Imam khomeini Ditangkap
Tanggal 4 November 1954, Imam Khomeini ditangkap di rumah beliau di kota Qom oleh antek-antek rezim Shah Pahlevi. Beliau kemudian diasingkan ke Turki. Tujuan rezim Shah dari pengasingan Imam Khomeini adalah untuk menghentikan perjuangan beliau dan rakyat Iran dalam menentang rezim Shah. Namun, harapan rezim despotik tersebut tidak tercapai karena rakyat Iran malah melakukan demonstrasi besar-besaran menuntut agar Imam dikembalikan ke Iran. Dari tempat pengasingannya pun, Imam tak berhenti berjuang dengan terus menyebarluaskan pidato dan seruan perjuangan kepada rakyat Iran. Revolusi Islam di Iran mencapai kemenangannya pada tahun 1979 dengan tergulingnya pemerintahan Shah dan berdirinya Republik Islam Iran.

Demonstrasi Berdarah di Teheran
Tanggal 4 November 1978, terjadi demonstrasi berdarah yang dilakukan oleh para mahasiswa dan pelajar Iran, di kota Teheran. Dalam demonstrasi yang mengenang hari diasingkannya Imam Khomeini ke Turki ini, para pelajar dan mahsasiwa yang berkumpul di depan Universitas Teheran untuk mengecam rezim Shah. Para tentara rezim Shah menghadapi para demonstran dengan peluru, sehingga menimbulkan banyak korban jiwa di kalangan pelajar dan mahasiswa Iran. Oleh karena itulah, tanggal 4 Nopember di Iran diperingati sebagai Hari Pelajar.

Pendudukan Kedubes AS oleh Mahasiswa Iran
Tanggal 4 November 1979, dalam peringatan atas hari diasingkannya Imam Khomeini ke Turki dan peringatan atas terbunuhnya para mahasiswa dan pelajar Iran di tahun sebelumnya, para pelajar dan mahasiswa Iran melangsungkan demonstrasi besar-besaran di Teheran. Dalam kesempatan ini, sekelompok mahasiswa muslim yang menamakan diri sebagai "Mahasiswa Pengikut Imam" menduduki Kedubes AS dan menyandera para pegawainya. Sebelum kejadian ini, kementrian luar negeri Republik Islam Iran berkali-kali menyampaikan protes resmi kepada Washington atas campur tangan mereka terhadap urusan dalam negeri Iran.
Dalam penyanderaan Kedubes AS itu, ditemukan berbagai dokumen resmi yang membuktikan bahwa Kedubes AS untuk Iran telah berubah fungsi sebagai kantor agen mata-mata AS, CIA. Hari penyanderaan kedubes AS ini hingga kini diperingati di Iran sebagai "Hari Perlawanan Terhadap Kaum Arogan Dunia". Dalam mengomentari aksi para mahasiswa Iran ini, Imam Khomeini berkata, "Pembongkaran sarang mata-mata AS merupakan revolusi yang lebih besar daripada revolusi pertama."

Yitzhak Rabin Terbunuh
Tanggal 4 November 1995, Perdana Menteri Israel, Yitzak Rabin, tewas akibat dibunuh seorang Yahudi ekstrim. Rabin yang berasal dari Partai Buruh ini, menjadi Perdana Menteri Israel sejak tahun 1974 hingga 1977, namun karena skandal keuangan, dia terpaksa mundur. Pada tahun 1992, dia kembali terpilih sebagai Perdana Menteri dan aktif melakukan perundingan dengan pihak Palestina. Aktivitasnya inilah yang membuat kalangan Zionis fanatik membunuhnya. Rabin adalah seorang komandan kelompok teror Israel dan bertanggung jawab atas berbagai aksi teroris terhadap rakyat Palestina.

5 November
Pierre Laplace Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 5 November 1827, Pierre Laplace, seorang ahli matematika Perancis terkenal, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1749, dan menghabiskan umurnya dengan penelitian dan penelaahan di bidang matematika dan astronomi. Laplace mengemukakan teori bahwa bumi jutaan tahun yang lalu terpisah dari matahari dan secara bertahap kulit luarnya mengering dan mengeras. Pada tahun 1773, di depan Akademi Perancis, dia membuktikan bahwa gerakan planet-planet adalah stabil. Penemuan Laplace lainnya adalah di bidang integral kalkulus, differensial terbatas, persamaan differensial, dan astronomi.

Wabah Influenza di Islandia
Tanggal 5 November 1918, wabah influenza mulai menyebar di Islandia yang dicurigai dibawa oleh para penumpang kapal Botnia dari Denmark. Banyak orang jatuh sakit pada beberapa hari pertama dan secara cepat penyakit ini menyebar di Islandia. Dalam dua minggu saja, di kota Reykjavik, ibu kota Islandia, 10.000 orang tewas akibat penyakit ini.
Tahun 1918-1819 adalah tahun ketika wabah influenza menyebar luas di Eropa. Pada musim semi tahun 1918, penyakit tersebut menyebar di Perancis dan dikenal dengan nama Flu Spanyol. Pada musim panas tahun itu, di Amerika, ribuan tentara tewas akibat flu Spanyol ini. Pada akhir musim panas, influenza menyebar ke Jerman dan lebih dari 400.000 warga Jerman tewas. Di Inggris, influenza mulai muncul pada bulan Mei 1918 dan menyebar dengan cepat hingga menewaskan 228.000 orang. Diperkirakan, di seluruh dunia lebih dari 70 juta orang tewas akibat wabah ini.

Alexis Carrel Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 5 November 1944, Alexis Carrel, seorang dokter, ahli lingkungan hidup dan filsuf perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia adalah seorang ahli bedah inovatif yang eksperimennya dalam mentransplantasi organ hewan telah membawa kemajuan dalam bidang bedah.
Carrel juga orang pertama yang menemukan teknik penjahitan pembuluh darah. Atas penemuannya tersebut, Carrel dianugerahi Nobel pada tahun 1912.
Selain menggeluti bidang kedokteran, Carrel juga melakukan perjalanan ke berbagai negara dunia dan mengamati berbagai kebudayaan dan agama dari dekat. Hasil dari perenungannya dituangkan dalam buku filsafat berjudul "Manusia, Wujud Yang Tak Dikenali".

PM Sharif Emami Mengundurkan Diri

Tanggal 5 November 1978, Perdana Menteri Sharif Emami, terpaksa mengundurkan diri akibat meluasnya gerakan perlawanan rakyat terhadap rezim Shah Iran. Shah Iran kemudian mengangkat Azhari sebagai perdana menteri, yang kemudian mendirikan pemerintahan militer. Namun, tindakan ini juga tidak bisa membendung revolusi Islam di Iran.

6 November
Abraham Lincoln Menjadi Presiden AS

Tanggal 6 November 1860, Abraham Lincoln terpilih sebagai presiden AS dan menjadi presiden pertama dari Partai Republik AS. Lincoln mendapat penentangan dari sebagian warga AS karena perjuangannya dalam menghapuskan perbudakan di AS. Pada tanggal 4 Maret 1861, saat Lincoln dilantik sebagai presiden, delapan negara bagian memisahkan diri dan membentuk pemerintahan Konfederasi. Sebulan kemudian meletuslah perang sipil di antara pasukan Konfederasi melawan pasukan pemerintah Lincoln atau pasukan Union. Pada tahun 1863, seiring dengan kekalahan Konfederasi, Lincoln menghapuskan perbudakan. Pada tahun 1864, diadakan pemilu ulang dan Lincoln berhasil menang. Pada bulan April 1865, Lincoln dibunuh oleh seorang pendukung Konfederasi. Pembunuhan ini terjadi hanya lima hari setelah Perang Sipil AS resmi berakhir dengan menyerahnya komandan pasukan Konfederasi.

Pemberontakan Bolshevik di Rusia
Tanggal 6 November 1917, terjadilah pemberontakan Bolshevik di Rusia. Partai Bolshevik di bawah pimpinan Lenin menggulingkan pemerintah Rusia saat itu dan dalam dua hari, terbentuklah pemerintahan baru dengan Lenin sebagai pemimpinnya. Pemerintahan Bolshevik Rusia kemudian berganti nama dengan Republik Sosialis Uni Soviet dan merupakan negara Marxis pertama di dunia.Lenin dilahirkan pada tahun 1870 dan sejak muda telah aktif dalam gerakan Marxis yang bertujuan menggulingkan kekaisaran Rusia. Akibatnya, dia pernah dipenjara dan dibuang ke Siberia. Setelah menjalani masa pembuangannya, Lenin pergi ke London dan di sana ia mendirikan Partai Buruh Sosial Demokratik Rusia. Sejak awal, ada dua kubu yang berseteru dalam partai ini. Pertama, kubu Bolshevik yang cenderung pada militerisme di bawah pimpinan Lenin dan kedua, kubu Menshevik yang cenderung demokratis. Pada tahun 1912, Lenin mendirikan Partai Bolshevik. Setelah kemenangan revolusi Rusia 1905, Lenin kembali ke Rusia, namun pada tahun 1907 ia dibuang oleh Kaisar Nicholas II yang berkuasa saat itu. Pada tahun 1914, meletuslah Perang Dunia Pertama yang mengakibatkan tergulingnya Kaisar Nicholas II dan berakhirnya era kekaisaran di Rusia. Pada tahun 1917, Lenin kembali ke Rusia dan mendirikan Uni Soviet.

Resolusi Anti Apharteid PBB

Tanggal 6 November 1962, Majelis Umum PBB mengeluarkan resolusi anti apartheid di Afrika Selatan dan mengajak seluruh anggotanya untuk menghentikan hubungan ekonomi dan militer dengan Afsel. Pada tahun 1960, terjadi pembunuhan massal terhadap para demonstran kulit hitam di Johannesburg. Sejak itu, gerakan internasional menenetang apartheid mendapat dukungan luas. Meskipun ada beberapa kekuatan Barat yang tidak mendukung embargo terhadap Afsel, namun gerakan anti apartheid terus meluas dan pada tahun 1973, PBB mengeluarkan resolusi yang menyatakan bahwa sistem apartheid telah melakukan kejahatan melawan kemanusiaan. Namun, baru pada tahun 1993, sistem apartheid resmi dihapuskan di Afrika Selatan.

Karyawan Radio Televisi Iran Mogok Massal
Tanggal 6 November 1978 para karyawan radio dan televisi Iran melakukan mogok massal untuk memprotes rezim Shah Pahlevi. Pemogokan ini bertujuan untuk menekan Shah dan mempercepat tergulingnya rezim despotik ini. Pada hari ini pula, para tentara Shah menyerang berbagai kantor penerbitan suratkabar dan menahan sejumlah karyawan mereka. Akibatnya, berbagai suratkabar ber-oplah banyak di Iran terpaksa berhenti terbit.

Demonstrasi Menentang Pemerintahan Militer Azhari

Tanggal 6 November 1978, rakyat Iran di berbagai penjuru negara ini, mengadakan demonstrasi menentang pemerintahan militer Azhari, yang baru saja berdiri atas dukungan Rezim Shah Pahlevi dan Amerika. Rakyat Iran saat itu mengeluarkan resolusi bahwa perubahan pemerintahan yang hanya bersifat kamuflase tidak akan bisa menghentikan Revolusi Islam. Tiga hari sebelumnya, para pelajar dan mahasiswa Iran juga mengadakan demonstrasi besar-besaran, yang dihadapi Rezim Shah dengan senjata. Akibatnya, sejumlah pelajar dan mahasiswa gugur syahid dalam demonstrasi tersebut.

Mehdi Bazargan Mengundurkan Diri

Tanggal 6 November 1979, pemerintahan sementara Mahdi Bazargan di Iran mengundurkan diri dan menyerahkan kekuasaan kepada Imam Khomeini. Pemerintahan sementara ini mulai bertugas sejak akhir tahun 1978, namun karena ketidakmampuan mereka dalam mengikuti gerakan revolusi Islam, pemerintahan ini terpaksa mengundurkan diri. Urusan pemerintahan Iran kemudian dijalankan sementara oleh Dewan Revolusi sampai diadakan pemilu.

7 November
Deklarasi Doktrin Monroe

Tanggal 7 November 1823, dideklarasikan Doktrin Monroe oleh Presiden AS kelima, James Monroe. Dalam doktrin ini dinyatakan bahwa benua Amerika adalah milik bangsa-bangsa Amerika dan tidak ada pemerintahan selain bangsa Amerika yang boleh berkuasa di benua ini, terutama di Amerika Serikat. Sebaliknya, Amerika juga berjanji tidak akan mencampuri urusan Eropa. Deklarasi ini dijalankan dengan tegas oleh AS, sehingga negara-negara Eropa terpaksa menerimanya. Di dalam deklarasi ini juga sangat ditekankan mengenai pembentukan koloni baru bagi AS. Sesungguhnya, dengan dikeluarkannya deklarasi ini AS telah memonopoli penjajahan di Amerika Selatan dan Tengah untuk dirinya sendiri.

Marie Curie Lahir
Tanggal 7 November 1867, Maria Sklodowska yang terkenal dengan nama Marie Curie, dilahirkan di Warsawa, Polandia. Ayahnya adalah seorang guru sekolah menengah dan Marie Curie mendapat pendidikan menengah dari ayahnya sendiri. Pada tahun 1891, Marie Curie melanjutkan pendidikan ke Universitas Sorbonne, Perancis. Tiga tahun kemudian, ia bertemu dan menikah dengan Pierre Currie, seorang profesor fisika Perancis. Kedua suami istri itu kemudian bersama-sama melakukan berbagai penelitian di bidang fisika dan kimia dalam kondisi laboraturium yang sangat menyedihkan dan keuangan yang sulit. Penemuan radioaktif oleh Henry Becquerel pada tahun 1896, telah memberi inspirasi kepada mereka berdua untuk menganalisis pemisahan plonium dan radium. Sepeninggal Pierre Curie, Marie Curie diangkat sebagai profesor di Fakultas Ilmu Sorbonne, dan menjadi wanita pertama yang meraih posisi ini. Marie Curie dianugerahi Nobel dua kali, yaitu di bidang fisika dan kimia. Dia meninggal dunia tahun 1934.

Albert Camus Lahir
Tanggal 7 November 1913, Albert Camus, seorang penulis terkenal Perancis, terlahir ke dunia di Aljazair. Ketika Camus berusia setahun, ayahnya meninggal dan mereka hidup dalam kemiskinan di Aljazair. Kemampuannya yang besar memberinya kesempatan menuntut ilmu hingga ke Universitas Aljeria. Setelah meraih gelar di bidang filsafat, ia pindah ke Perancis. Di sana ia aktif di bidang jurnalistik dan politik. Setelah pecah Perang Dunia II, ia mengkonsentrasikan diri di bidang penulisan dan berhasil melahirkan karya tulis yang membuatnya terkenal, di antaranya berjudul "The Stranger", "The Plague", dan "The Rebel". Pada tahun 1957, Albert Camus menerima hadiah Nobel di bidang sastra. Tiga tahun kemudian, yaitu tahun 1960, dia tewas akibat kecelakaan mobil.

Perang Terusen Suez Berakhir
Tanggal 7 November 1956, perang Terusan Suez di Mesir berakhir atas campur tangan PBB. Perang ini dimulai dengan agresi Israel ke semenanjung Sinai dan serangan pasukan penerjun payung Inggris dan Perancis ke daerah sekitar Terusan Suez. Alasan agresi ketiga negara itu terhadap Mesir adalah karena tindakan Presiden Mesir saat itu, Gamal Abdul Naser, yang menasionalisasi Terusan Suez.

8 November
John Milton Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 8 November 1674, John Milton, salah satu penyair Inggris terbesar, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1906 di kota London. Pada tahun 1951, matanya menjadi buta, namun sepertinya, kebutaannya itu malah meningkatkan kekayaan bahasa yang dimilikinya. Karya Milton yang paling terkenal berjudul "Paradise Lost" yang diciptakannya pada tahun 1667. Kekuatan bahasa dan kefasihannya memberi pengaruh mendalam gaya syair abad ke-18. Selain menulis puisi, Milton juga menerbitkan pamflet-pamflet yang memperjuangkan hak sipil dan hak beragama.
Conrad Rontgen Menemukan Sinar X
Tanggal 8 November 1895, sinar X ditemukan oleh Conrad Rontgen, seorang ahli fisika terkenal Jerman. Pada tahun 1901, atas penemuannya itu, Rontgen dianugerahi hadiah Nobel. Rontgen menamai sinar yang ditemukannya dengan nama "X" karena ia tidak mengenali sinar tersebut. Sinar ini mampu menembus jaringan badan manusia sehingga menjadi alat terbaik untuk memfoto dan melihat bagian dalam tubuh yang rusak atau patah.

Margaret Mitchell Lahir
Tanggal 8 November 1900, Margaret Mitchell, seorang penulis Amerika terkenal, terlahir ke dunia di kota Atlanta, Georgia. Selama beberapa waktu, Mitchell menuntut ilmu di fakultas kedokteran, namun setelah kematian ibunya, ia sangat terpukul dan berhenti kuliah. Sejak usia 22 tahun, Mitchell memulai karir di bidang penulisan dan selama beberapa waktu bekerja sebagai wartawan. Nama Margaret Mitchell menjadi terkenal ke seluruh dunia atas novel legendarisnya yang berjudul "Gone With The Wind". Novel ini, hingga kini terus dicetak ulang dan telah diterjemahkan dalam hampir seluruh bahasa di dunia.

9 November
Penandatanganan Perjanjian Seville

Tanggal 9 November 1729, ditandatangani perjanjian Seville di kota Seville, Spanyol. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, dua negara Perancis dan Spanyol yang memiliki perselisihan di bidang politik dan batas wilayah, akan menyingkirkan segala perselisihan mereka dan menghentikan segala klaim atas batas wilayah dan daerah jajahan mereka. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, Perancis berjanji bahwa sejak saat itu, dalam semua perang yang melibatkan Spanyol, Perancis akan berpihak kepada Spanyol.
Ivan Turgenev Lahir
Tanggal 9 November 1818, Ivan Turgenev, seorang penulis novel terkenal asal Rusia, terlahir ke dunia. Dia menuntut ilmu di bidang bahasa sambil melakukan aktivitasnya di bidang sastra. Karya pertama Turgenev berjudul "Old Pine". Di sebagian besar karya-karyanya, Turgenev menunjukkan pembelaan terhadap kebebasan dan hak-hak warga pedesaan. Oleh karena itulah, dia mendapat tekanan dari para Tzar Rusia. Turgenev kemudian hijrah ke Perancis. Karya lain dari Turgenev adalah "A Hunter Sketches" dan "Fathers and Sons".

Muhamad Iqbal Lahore Lahir
Tanggal 9 November 1873, Allamah Muhammad Iqbal Lahore, penulis, pemikir, dan penyair Pakistan, terlahir ke dunia. Sejak masa remajanya, Iqbal telah menciptakan syair dan karya syair pertamanya berjudul "Rintihan Anak Yatim". Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya di Pakistan, Iqbal pergi ke Jerman dan Inggris selama empat tahun untuk belajar filsafat. Setelah kembali ke negaranya, Iqbal berjuang menggugah bangsanya untuk bersatu dan berupaya keras untuk mempersatukan pemikiran kaum muslimin melalui syair-syairnya, khususnya dalam bahasa Persia. Iqbal adalah seorang pejuang reformasi agama di India dan aktif memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Pakistan dari India. Iqbal banyak meninggalkan karya-karya dalam bahasa Persia dan Urdu.

Kaisar Terakhir Jerman Mengundurkan Diri
Tanggal 9 November 1918, menyusul kekalahan beruntun yang dialami Jermand dan Sekutu pada Perang Dunia Pertama dan meningkatnya penentangan di dalam negeri yang berakhir dengan diproklamasikannya Republik Jerman, William Dua, Kaisar terakhir dalam Imperium Jerman, mengundurkan diri. Dua hari kemudian, dia mengungsi ke Belanda dan dengan demikian, berakhirlah periode kekaisaran di Jerman. Presiden pertama Republik Jerman bernama Friedrich Ebert.

Tembok Berlin Diruntuhkan
Tanggal 9 November 1989, Tembok Berlin, setelah 28 tahun membagi kota ini menjadi Berlin Barat dan Berlin Timur, diruntuhkan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, bagian timur Jerman dikuasai oleh Soviet dan bagian baratnya dikuasai oleh Amerika, Inggris, dan Perancis. Pada tahun 1961, meningkatnya ketidaktentraman dan pelarian penduduk Jerman Timur ke Jerman Barat, membuat pemerintah Jerman Timur dan Jerman Barat khawatir. Mereka kemudian membangun Tembok Berlin dan secara bertahap, tembok ini menjadi simbol pemisahan Jerman. Namun, runtuhnya Uni Soviet yang juga mempengaruhi perkembangan di Jerman Timur, membuat rakyat kedua belah kota Berlin bersatu untuk menghancurkan tembok itu pada tahun 1989. Jerman kini menjadi sebuah negara yang bersatu.

10 November
Kudeta Bromer di Perancis

Tanggal 10 November 1799, kudeta Broumer yang terkenal terjadi di Prancis. Broumer adalah nama bulan dalam penanggalan revolusi Prancis atau sama dengan bulan Nopember pada penanggalan Masehi. Ketika Napoleon sedang berada di wilayah utara Afrika, ia secara diam-diam dipanggil oleh salah seorang anggota pemerintahan Direktorat ke Prancis. Dengan mengandalkan kekuatan militer yang dimilikinya, Napoleon mengumumkan pembubaran parlemen dan Konvensi Nasional. Kemudian dia mengangkat dirinya menjadi Konsul Pertama dalam pemerintahan Konsulat dan memegang kekuasaan penuh Prancis. Tahun 1802, Napoleon dinobatkan menjadi Konsul Pertama seumur hidup. Namun dua tahun kemudian Napoleon mengangkat dirinya sebagai Kaisar Prancis.
Maroko Dijajah Perancis dan Spanyol
Tanggal 10 November 1912, Maroko resmi dijajah oleh Prancis dan Spanyol. Sebelumnya Maroko menjadi jajahan Rusia, Ottoman dan Italia. Menyusul terjadinya pergolakan dan persaingan antar kekuatan imperialis di awal abad ke-20, negeri ini dinyatakan berada dibawah kekuasaan Prancis dan Spanyol melalui sebuah perjanjian. Sejak saat itulah, rakyat Maroko bangkit mengadakan perlawanan bersenjata. Setelah melalui perjuangan panjang dan berdarah, akhirnya rakyat Maroko berhasil memperoleh kemerdekaan negeri mereka tahun 1956.

Perlawanan Rakyat Surabaya Melawan Sekutu
Tanggal 10 November 1945 kota Surabaya, ibukota propinsi Jawa Timur Indonesia, dengan dalih: kematian Brigjen Mallaby, rakyat dan pemuda menghalangi perlucutan tentara Jepang oleh Sekutu, rakyat dan pemuda tidak mau menyerahkan tawanan Jepang dan senjatanya kepada Sekutu, pada tanggal 10 Nopember 1945 kota Surabaya dibombardir oleh kapal-kapal Sekutu dari laut dan pesawat-pesawat tempur mereka dari udara. Ribuan rumah di kota Surabaya hancur dan ribuan mayat bergelimpangan di mana-mana, berhari-hari Sekutu melakukan serangan tersebut dengan kejam tanpa pertimbangan perikemanusiaan sama sekali. Tujuan mereka supaya rakyat dan pemuda minta ampun dan menyerah kepada Sekutu. Tetapi rakyat dan pemuda Surabaya di bawah pimpinan Soemarsono (PRI) dan satuan-satuan bersenjata lainnya yang pantang menyerah dan pantang minta ampun, makin menguatkan tekad dan semangat untuk meneruskan perlawanan bersenjata terhadap siapa saja yang akan memaksakan kembalinya penjajahan di Indonesia. Atas dasar ideologi dan semangat rakyat dan pemuda Surabaya yang pantang menyerah itulah maka tanggal 10 Nopember dijadikan "Hari Pahlawan" di Indonesia.

Doktor Husein Fatimi Dihukum Mati
Tanggal 10 Nvember 1954, Doktor Sayyid Husein Fatimi, Menteri Luar Negeri Iran pada kabinet Doktor Mosaddeq dijatuhi hukuman mati oleh pengadilan militer rezim Syah. Doktor Fatimi setelah terjadinya kudeta yang dilakukan AS terhadap pemerintahan kebinet Mosaddeq tahun 1953, hidup secara sembunyi-sembunyi. Akhirnya ia ditangkap oleh agen-agen Syah dijatuhi hukuman mati.

11 November
Dimulainya Pelayaran Vasco Da Gama

Tanggal 11 November 1498, ekspedisi laut Vasco Da Gama, seorang pelaut besar Portugis dimulai. Tujuan ekspedisi ini adalah mengelilingi benua Afrika untuk menemukan jalan menuju India. Setelah melakukan pelayaran yang lama mengelilingi Afrika, akhirnya ekspedisi ini mencapai hasilnya dengan menemukan negeri India. Keberhasilan Vasco da Gama ini memainkan peran penting dalam dimulainya penjajahan bangsa-bangsa Eropa di Asia.
Nichepore Niepce Lahir
Tanggal 11 November 1765, Nicephore Niepce, seorang kimiawan Perancis penemu teknik fotografi, terlahir ke dunia. Dia adalah orang pertama yang menemukan bahwa citra yang dibentuk di bawah cahaya matahari dapat dipertahankan dengan cara melapisi sebuah plat logam dengan bitumen, sebelum menempatkannya di dalam kamera obscura untuk memperpanjang usianya. Pada tahun 1829, Niepce melakukan kerjasama dengan Daguerre dan berhasil mendesain kamera foto pertama.

Ali Isfandiar Lahir
Tanggal 11 November 1897, Ali Isfandiar, yang kerap dipanggil "Nima Yushij", seorang penyair kontemporer Iran, terlahir ke dunia di desa Yush, Mazandaran, di utara Iran. Setelah melalui masa kanak-kanaknya, ia pergi ke Teheran untuk menuntut ilmu di bidang bahasa Perancis dan bahasa Arab. Atas dorongan salah seorang gurunya, Nima Yushij mulai menulis syair. Syair-syairnya memiliki kekhasan tersendiri yang menggunakan persesuaian nada. Karya terpenting Nima Yushij berjudul "Afsaneh'. Penyair Iran ini meninggal dunia tahun 1959.

Berakhirnya Perang Dunia Pertama
Tanggal 11 November 1918, Perang Dunia Pertama diakhiri dengan penandatanganan perjanjian penghentian perang. Perang yang berlangsung sejak tahun 1914 hingga 1918 itu, terjadi antara negara-negara Sekutu yang terdiri dari Rusia, Inggris, Perancis, dan Italia melawan negara-negara Axis, yakni Jerman, Bulgaria, Ottoman, dan Imperium Austria-Hongaria. Selama perang ini, lebih dari 15 juta orang terbunuh dan 20 juta lainnya luka-luka. Selain itu, kerusakan yang dialami negara-negara yang terlibat perang, mencapai 150 milyar dolar. Setahun kemudian, negara-negara Sekutu menandatangani perjanjian Versailles yang memberikan hukuman politik, ekonomi, dan militer yang keras terhadap Jerman.

Virus Folio Ditemukan
Tanggal 11 November 1953, virus polio yang merupakan penyebab penyakit yang sangat berbahaya, yaitu penyakit polio, berhasil ditemukan. Virus yang lebih banyak menyerang anak-anak ini ditemukan oleh Dokter Salk. Beberapa lama kemudian, Dr. Salk berhasil menciptakan vaksin untuk melawan virus ini. Kini, di sebagian negara, penyakit polio sudah berhasil dilenyapkan dan di sebagian negara lainnya, menunjukkan penurunan.

Angola Merdeka
Tanggal 11 November 1975, Angola meraih kemerdekaannya dari Portugis dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional Angola. Pada tahun 1483, Portugis menginjakkan kakinya ke Angola yang pada saat itu merupakan bagian dari Kerajaan Kongo. Selama abad ke-16, Portugis membangun pusat-pusat perdagangan budak di sepanjang pantai Angola dan memulai imperialismenya di kawasan ini. Pada tahun-tahun pasca Perang Dunia Kedua, negara-negara Afrika mulai berjuang melepaskan diri dari penjajahan, termasuk Angola. Setelah melalui berbagai peperangan, Angola berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1975.
Angola memiliki luas wilayah 1.246.700 kilometer persegi dan terletak di bagian tenggara benua Afrika, serta berbatasan dengan Kongo, Zambia, dan Namibia.

Bom Mati Syahid di Markas Serdadu Israel
Tanggal 11 November 1982, markas komando pasukan Israel di kota Shur di selatan Libanon, hancur akibat aksi bom mati syahid yang dilakukan seorang pejuang muslim Libanon, Ahmad Qashir. Dalam aksi bom mati syahid ini, 89 tentara Zionis tewas dan 86 lainnya luka-luka. Sebelumnya, tentara Israel menyerang Libanon pada bulan Juni tahun itu dan bergerak maju hingga ke Beirut, ibukota Libanon. Aksi militer Israel itu menyebabkan ribuan warga sipil Libanon tewas atau luka-luka. Pada bulan September tahun ini pula, terjadi pembantaian massal terhadap warga Palestina di kamp pengungsian Shabra Shatila, Libanon.


Yasser Arafat Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 11 November tahun 2004, Yasser Arafat, Pemimpin Otorita Palestina dan Ketua Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) meninggal dunia. Yasser Arafat dilahirkan pada tahun 1929, sejak usia remaja ia mulai aktif melawan pendudukan Rezim Zionis Israel. Pada tahun 1946, ia hijrah ke Mesir untuk melanjutkan studinya di Cairo Unversity, dan dalam jangka waktu lima tahun, ia telah menamatkan kuliahnya di jurusan arsitektur. Pada tahun 1965, Arafat kembali ke Palestina, kemucian ia mendirikan gerakan Fatah untuk melawan Rezim Zionis Israel. Empat tahun kemudian, ia duduk sebagai ketua Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) hingga akhir hayatnya. Organisasi ini merupakan afiliasi dari beberapa organisasi lain yang ada di Palestina.
Selama dekade 1970-an, Arafat aktif memimpin gerakan melawan Tel Aviv. Akan tetapi pada tahun 1982, setelah Rezim Zionis Israel menggempur Lebanon, Arafat mengeluarkan perintah kepada pasukannya untuk menarik diri ke wilayah Tunisia. Aksi ini praktis menandai berakhirnya perlawanan bersenjata PLO terhadap Rezim Zionis Israel. Pada tahun 1988, Arafat secara resmi mengakui keberadaan Rezim Zionis Israel, dan tiga tahun kemudian, ia memulai perundingan damai dengan Tel Aviv. Dan pada tahun 1993, Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) dan Rezim Zionis Israel menandatangani kesepakatan damai Oslo. Karena Rezim ini tidak komitmen dengan kesepakatan-kesepakatan yang mereka buat, akhirnya pada tahun 2000, rakyat Palestina mendeklarasikan dimulainya intifadah masjid Al-Aqsa. Sejak tahun 2002, Rezim Zionis Israel memberlakukan tahanan kota kepada Arafat, dan ia dilarang keluar dari kota Ramallah Tepi Barat Sungai Jordan. Akan tetapi, karena menderita sakit parah, akhirnya ia dilarikan ke Paris untuk menjalani perawatan. Setelah dua pekan dirawat, pada tahun 2002, Arafat meninggal dunia di rumah sakit dalam usia 75 tahun.

12 November
Pematung August Rodin Lahir

Tanggal 12 November 1840, August Rodin, seorang pematung terkenal abad ke-19, terlahir ke dunia di Paris. August Rodin dianggap sebagai salah satu pematung terbesar dan paling produktif abad ke-19 dan 20. Karya-karyanya sangat inovatif dan non-konvensional, sehingga awalnya ditolak oleh para kritikus senirupa Perancis. Bertentangan dengan tradisi senirupa pada masa itu, Rodin meyakini bahwa patung haruslah merefleksikan subjek secara realistis, bukan dalam bentuk ideal. Namun akhirnya, kejeniusan Rodin dikenali oleh para kritikus dan pemerintah Perancis membeli patung "The Age of Bronze" sebagai karya pertama Rodin yang dimiliki oleh negara. Rodin meninggal dunia tahun 1917.
Bulgaria Merdeka
Tanggal 12 November 1908, Bulgaria meraih kemerdekaannya. Negara ini dijajah oleh imperium Ottoman sejak tahun 1393. Lima abad kemudian, pada tahun 1878, menyusul kekalahan Ottoman dari Rusia, Bulgaria Utara dinyatakan sebagai wilayah kerajaan yang dikuasai oleh bangsa Bulgaria, meskipun tetap di bawah pengawasan Ottoman. Sementara itu, Bulgaria Selatan tetap dikuasai oleh Ottoman. Pada tahun 1885, Pangeran Alexander merebut kembali wilayah Bulgaria selatan dan pada tahun 1908, Bulgaria menyatakan kemerdekaannya dari Ottoman. Pada Perang Dunia Pertama dan Kedua, Bulgaria selalu bergabung dalam negara-negara axis bersama Jerman. Akibat kekalahan dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, Bulgaria dikuasai oleh Soviet dan terbentuklah pemerintahan sosialis di negara itu. Seiring dengan keruntuhan Uni Soviet di akhir dekade 1980-an, pemerintahan komunis di Bulgaria pun dihapuskan.

Pembunuhan Massal Warga Rafah
Tanggal 12 November 1956, tentara Israel melakukan pembunuhan massal di kamp pengungsian besar Palestina di kota Rafah, Jalur Gaza, Mesir. Kejahatan Zionis ini dilakukan hanya beberapa hari setelah diumumkan gencatan senjata dalam perang antara rezim ini, Inggris, dan Perancis, melawan Mesir. Dalam pembunuhan massal terhadap penghuni kamp pengungsian tersebut, tercatat 110 laki-laki, perempuan, dan anak-anak tewas dan sekitar 1000 orang lainnya luka-luka.

Said Nafisi Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 12 November 1965, Said Nafisi, sastrawan, penulis, dan peneliti besar Iran, meninggal dunia pada usia 71 tahun. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan menengahnya di Iran, dia pergi ke Perancis dan menyelesaikan pendidikan tinggi di bidang hukum dan ilmu politik. Sekembalinya ke Iran, Said Nafisi mengajar di beberapa universitas. Selain itu, dia menjadi anggota tetap organisasi kebudayaan Iran. Nafisi meninggalkan karya lebih dari 180 judul tulisan dan terjemahan, di antaranya koreksi atas teks "Sejarah Baihaqi" dan "Ghazaliyat Athar" dan terjemahan atas buku "Sejarah Politik Sosial Kontemporer Iran". Karyanya yang terpenting lainnya adalah "Kamus Besar Bahasa Perancis-Parsi."

13 November
Antoinne De Lavoisier Lahir

Tanggal 13 November 1743, Antoinne Lauren De Lavoisier, seorang kimiawan terkenal Perancis, terlahir ke dunia di kota Paris. Lavoisier adalah penemu prinsip perubahan kimia dan melakukan inovasi dalam perkembangan ilmu kimia. Di antara penemuan Lavoisier adalah unsur-unsur penyusun air, yaitu oksigen dan hydrogen, cara pemisahan senyawa tersebut, dan peran oksigen dalam proses oksidasi.
Namun, ahli kimia jenius ini pada tahun 1794 dituduh menentang revolusi Perancis dan dijatuhi hukuman mati.

James Clerk Maxwell Lahir
Tanggal 13 November 1831, James Clerk Maxwell, fisikawan dan matematikawan Skotlandia, terlahir ke dunia. Pada masa pendidikan menengahnya, Maxwell sudah mampu menemukan metode untuk menggambar garis kurva yang membentuk elips sempurna dan metode ini dia serahkan kepada Dewan Kerajaan Skotlandia.
Maxwell pada akhir masa pendidikannya di bidang matematika Universitas Cambrige dan Edinburgh melakukan penelitian di bidang astronomi dan gerakan molekul-molekul gas dari sudut matematika. Karya terpenting Maxwell adalah buku "Gerakan elektrisitas dan magnetisme" yang didalamnya Maxwell membuktikan bahwa eletrisitas dan magnetisme tidak terpisah satu sama lain. Maxwell meninggal dunia tahun 1879.

Parlemen Ketiga Iran Dibubarkan
Tanggal 13 November 1915, parlemen periode tiga di Iran dibubarkan atas perintah Ahmad Shah, raja terakhir dari Dinasti Qajar. Tindakan illegal Ahmad Shah ini dilakukan setelah pertemuannya dengan menteri-menteri Rusia dan Inggris. Pada masa itu, pemerintahan Inggris dan Rusia berusaha untuk menarik Iran agar terlibat dalam Perang Dunia Pertama melawan Jerman. Oleh karena itu pula, kedua negara mendatangkan pasukannya ke Iran. Pasukan Rusia masuk ke Iran dari arah utara dan pasukan Inggris dari arah selatan. Perlemen Iran menentang kedatangan pasukan asing ini dan mendirikan komite pertahanan nasional. Namun, komite ini tidak mampu berbuat banyak karena lemahnya posisi Shah Iran di hadapan negara-negara asing. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1917, seiring dengan revolusi di Rusia, pasukan negara ini ditarik keluar dari Iran. Namun, Inggris masih tetap bercokol di Iran untuk melebarkan sayap imperialismenya di negara ini.

Topan Besar di Bangladesh
Tanggal 13 November 1970, terjadi topan besar dan angin puting-beliung di Bangladesh. Bencana ini terjadi pada masa puncak perjuangan rakyat negara ini untuk memerdekakan diri dari Pakistan. Akibat topan ini, 200 ribu orang tewas dan 800 ribu lainnya luka-luka. Akibatnya, ratusan ribu orang kehilangan tempat tinggal dan menimbulkan kerusakan besar pada tanah pertanian, pabrik-pabrik, dan fasilitas ekonomi lainnya. Bangladesh adalah negara yang hampir tiap tahun dilanda topan dan banjir yang banyak menimbulkan korban jiwa dan materil.

Mehrdad Bahar Wafat
Tanggal 13 November 1994, Doktor Mehrdad Bahar, seorang ahli bahasa-bahasa kuno Persia, meninggal dunia. Dia adalah putra dari Malik Syuara Bahar, seorang penyair terkenal Iran dan karena itulah, sejak masa kanak-kanaknya, Mehrdad Bahar telah mengenal dunia sastra dan bahasa. Pendidikan tinggi Doktor Mehrdad Bahar ditempuhnya di London dan sekembalinya ke Iran, ia mendirikan pusat kebudayaan sastra dan seni, serta aktif mengajar di universitas. Dia pun banyak melakukan penelitian terhadap bahasa-bahasa kuno dan pertengahan Iran. Di antara karya-karyanya, adalah buku berjudul "Legenda-Legenda Iran" dan "Pembahasan Mengenai Shahnameh".

14 November
Ekuador Ditemukan

Tanggal 14 November 1533, Ekuador ditemukan oleh para petualang Spanyol dan dijadikan sebagai jajahan Spanyol. Setelah tiga abad dijajah oleh Spanyol, akhirnya pada tahun 1822, perjuangan kemerdekaan rakyat Ekuador di bawah pimpinan Simon Bolivier, mencapai hasilnya dan Ekuador bergabung ke dalam Federasi Kolombia Raya. Namun, federasi ini tidak berdiri lama dan pada tahun 1830 dibubarkan dan masing-masing anggotanya mendirikan negara independen, termasuk Ekuador. Ekuador memiliki luas wilayah 283.561 kilometer persegi dan berbatasan dengan Kolombia dan Peru.
Wilhelm Leibniz Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 14 November 1716, Wilhelm Leibniz, matematikawan dan filsuf Jerman, meninggal dunia pada usia 70 tahun. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1646 dan sejak usia 15 tahun dia telah serius melakukan penelaahan dan penelitian di bidang matematika dan filsafat, sampai akhirnya berhasil meraih gelar doktor. Leipniz pada tahun 1676 menemukan prinsip penghitungan differensial dan kalkulus integral sehingga menempatkan namanya di antara matematikawan besar dunia.

Kelahiran Jawaharlal Nehru
Tanggal 14 November 1889, Jawaharlal Nehru, salah satu pemimpin besar perjuangan rakyat India dalam melawan penjajahan Inggris, terlahir ke dunia di kota Allahabad, India utara. Nehru adalah lulusan pendidikan tinggi di bidang hukum dan dengan menjadi anggota gerakan Kebangitan Nasional India, dia memulai perjuangannya melawan penjajahan Inggris. Akibat aktivitasnya itu, Nehru berkali-kali dipenjarakan. Selama di penjara, Nehru melahirkan karya berjudul "Hidupku", "Meninjau Sejarah Dunia", dan "Penemuan India". Setelah bergabungnya Mahatma Gandhi dalam Kebangitan Nasional India, gerakan perjuangan rakyat India semakin kuat dengan dipimpin oleh kedua pemimpin besar itu. Akhirnya, pada bulan Agustus 1947, India meraih kemerdekaannya. Setelah India merdeka, selama 16 tahun Nehru menjabat sebagai Perdana Menteri India. Nehru meninggal pada tahun 1960.

Aset Keuangan Iran Dibekukan AS
Tanggal 14 November 1979, pemerintah AS membekukan aset-aset keuangan Iran di bank-bank seluruh dunia. Tindakan illegal AS ini dilakukan beberapa hari setelah aksi pendudukan atas Kedubes AS di Teheran yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa revolusioner Iran karena kedubes tersebut telah berubah menjadi sarang kegiatan mata-mata, Akibat tindakan ini, tekanan ekonomi terhadap Iran semakin berat, namun Iran berhasil melalui masa embargo ekonomi itu dan tetap tegak berdiri sebagai Negara Islam.

Dewan Ahli Iran Merampungkan Draft Konstitusi Negara Islam
Tanggal 14 November 1979, Dewan Ahli yang baru terbentuk di Iran berhasil merampungkan penyusunan konstitusi baru negara Islam ini. Kemudian, rancangan konstitusi baru itu diajukan dalam referendum. Hasilnya, mayoritas mutlak rakyat Iran menyatakan persetujuannya dengan konstitusi baru yang berasaskan hukum Islam itu. Hasil referendum tersebut membuktikan bahwa rakyat Iran dengan tanpa paksaan siap untuk menjalani kehidupan bernegara dengan berlandaskan nilai-nilai Islam.

Allamah Thabathabai Wafat
Tanggal 14 November 1981, Allamah Sayid Muhamad Husein Thabathabai, seorang filsuf, mufasir, dan ulama besar Iran meninggal dunia pada usianya 80 tahun. Beliau dilahirkan di kota Tabriz, sebuah kawasan di barat laut Iran, dari sebuah keluarga religius dan pecinta ilmu.
Allamah Thabathabai dikenal sebagai ulama yang memberikan warna kesegaran dalam dunia pengajaran keagamaan di hauzah ilmiah Iran. Dalam mengajarkan filsafat, tafsir, dan ‘irfan di hauzah, Allamah memperkenalkan cara-cara baru. Hal yang sama ia lakukan dalam bidang penulisan. Kitab Tafsir "Al-Mizan", sebuah karya agung di bidang tafsir kontemporer, adalah salah satu karya tulisannya. Dalam kitab tafsir itu, untuk pertama kalinya dunia tafsir dikenalkan dengan metodologi tafsir baru yaitu penafsiran ayat dengan ayat.

15 November
Johannes Keppler Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 15 November 1630, Johannes Kepler, seorang astronom ternama Jerman, meninggal dunia pada usia 59 tahun. Kepler dilahirkan pada tahun 1571. Setelah menyelesaikan masa belajarnya, ia pergi ke Austria dan mengajar di negara itu. Di Austria, ia berkenalan dengan salah seorang astronom berasal dari Denmark. Sejak saat itulah Kepler mulai berminat untuk mendalami ilmu astronomi. Kepler kemudian berhasil merumuskan sebuah hukum peredaran planet-planet yang mengitari matahari. Dunia astronomi kemudian menamakan rumus yang dikemukakan Kepler itu dengan nama "Hukum Kepler". Ia juga menulis sebuah buku berjudul "Astronomi Baru".

Konferensi Berlin Dimulai
Tanggal 15 November 1884, dimulailah Konferensi Berlin di Jerman yang membahas pembagian koloni negara-negara Eropa di kawasan Afrika. Konferensi yang berlangsung hingga bulan Februari tahun berikutnya itu, dihadiri oleh Perancis, Inggris, Rusia, Belgia, Portugis, Austria, dan Jerman. Tujuan utama penyelenggaraan konferensi itu adalah untuk menyelesaikan persengketaan di antara negara-negara peserta konferensi menyangkut perluasan daerah koloninya di Afrika. Saat itu, benua Afrika dikenal sebagai daerah yang memiliki sumber daya alam yang subur serta tenaga kerja orang-orang kulit hitam yang sangat murah.
Dalam konferensi itu dihasilkan kesepakatan bahwa setiap negara yang hendak memperluas daerah koloninya di Afrika diharuskan untuk memberitahu negara-negara lainnya. Namun kesepakatan konferensi ini tidak berhasil mengakhiri persaingan Negara-negara imperialis Eropa.

Sattar Khan Meninggal
Tanggal 15 November 1913, Sattar Khan, yang terkenal dengan julukan "Panglima Nasional", salah seorang pejuang era Revolusi Konstitusional Iran, meninggal dunia. Pada masa mudanya, karena bentrokan dengan pasukan rezim despotik Qajar, dia meninggalkan tanah kelahirannya, Tabriz, Iran utara. Namun ketika Revolusi Konstitusional bergolak, ia kembali ke Tabriz dan memimpin perjuangan di kota itu. Setelah dikuasainya kota Teheran oleh pejuang konstitusional dan mundurnya Shah Muhammad Ali, Sattar Khan diundang rakyat untuk datang ke Teheran. Namun, para pejabat rezim Qajar menentang kehadiran Sattar Khan di kota itu dan terjadilah bentrokan sengit antara pasukan pemerintah dan pejuang konstitusional. Dalam bentrokan ini, banyak pejuang konstitusional yang tewas dan Sattar Khan sendiri terluka parah. Akibat lukanya itu, Sattar Khan meninggal.

Kota Susangerd Bebas dari Pendudukan Irak
Tanggal 15 November 1980, kota perbatasan "Susangerd" di barat daya Iran, menjadi saksi perjuangan pasukan Iran melawan pasukan agresor Irak. Operasi pertahanan militer Iran itu dilakukan hanya oleh 200 orang pasukan garda revolusi, para relawan, dan beberapa warga kota itu dengan berbekal senjata ringan. Dalam operasi ini, pasukan Iran dengan dipimpin oleh Doktor Mustafa Chamran, berhasil membebaskan kota Susangerd dari kepungan tentara Irak. Pasukan Iran melewati perjuangan pertahanan ini dengan amat berat, karena harus kehilangan banyak pasukan dan selama tiga hari berturut-turut tidak mendapat air dan makanan.

Muhammad Taqi Mudarres Rizvi Wafat
Tanggal 15 November 1986, Muhammad Taqi Mudarres Rizvi, seorang penulis dan peneliti terkemuka Iran, meninggal dunia pada usia 95 tahun. Dia dilahirkan di kota Mashad Iran dan kemudian menuntut ilmu di kota Teheran. Seusai menamatkan pendidikannya, Muhammad Rizvi mencurahkan perhatiannya di bidang penelitian dan mendidik para peneliti muda. Dia juga terlibat dalam penyusunan kamus besar "Dehkhuda". Karya-karya Rizvi antara lain mengoreksi teks dan menulis catatan kaki dari karya-karya sastra kuno. Selain itu, dia juga menulis banyak buku, antara lain berjudul "Sejarah Bukhara", "Biografi Nashiruddin Thusi" dan "Diwan Anwari".

16 November
The Great Adolph Tewas

Tanggal 16 November 1632, Gustav Kedua, Raja Swedia yang terkenal dengan nama The Great Adolph tewas terbunuh. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1594 dan pada usia 17 tahun telah diangkat menjadi raja. Gustav Kedua terkenal karena kemenangannya dalam era perang agama yang berlangsung selama 30 tahun di antara kaum Protestan dan Katolik sejak tahun 1618 hingga 1658. Gustav Kedua dengan dukungan Perancis berperang melawan imperium Roma dan sekutu-sekutunya demi membela kaum Protestan Jerman. Dia turun langsung ke medan perang dan menjadi panglima tentara Swedia. Dalam dua perang pertama, Gustav berhasil menang, namun pada perang ketiga, dia tewas akibat terjangan peluru. Meskipun demikian, pasukan Swedia tetap menang dalam pertempuran ini.

Serangan Perancis Ke Vietnam
Tanggal 16 November 1945 Masehi, agresi militer Prancis ke Vietnam mengawali peristiwa perang berdarah dan melelahkan rakyat negara ini demi merebut kemerdekaan. Seiring satu abad penjajahan Prancis atas Vietnam dan juga di tengah berkecamuknya perang dunia kedua, Jepang berhasil mengambil kontrol atas wilayah Vietnam. Namun pasca kekalahan Jepang dan hengkang dari Vietnam, Prancis kembali menjajah negara ini meskipun adanya kesepakatan atas kemerdekaan Vietnam. Dalam agresi kali ini, rakyat Vietnam di bawah kepemimpinan Ho Chi Minh bangkit melawan penjajahan Prancis. Setelah rakyat Vietnam melakukan perlawanan sengit, akhirnya pada tahun 1954 tentara Prancis menuai kekalahan. Peristiwa ini mengakhiri pendudukan Prancis atas wilayah Vietnam.

Hujan Buatan (Rain Making)
Tanggal 16 November 1946 Masehi, seorang ahli meteorologi berkebangsaan Amerika, Dr. Vincent Scahaefer untuk pertama kalinya menciptakan hujan buatan. Dr. Vincent dengan dibantu oleh seorang ahli kimia Amerika, Irving Langmuir berhasil menciptakan hujan buatan. Proses pembuatan hujan ini dilakukan dengan menyebarkan gas karbonik (proses super cooling) di udara. Hujan buatan biasanya digunakan di daerah dengan curah hujan rendah. Meskipun hujan buatan telah ditemukan, akan tetapi belum dapat dipergunakan secara luas di daerah-daerah dengan curah hujan rendah, mengingat biaya produksinya tergolong besar.

17 November
Giuseppe Verdi Gelar Opera Pertamanya

Tanggal 17 November 1839, komposer Italia terkenal, Giuseppe Verdi, melaksanakan opera pertamanya yang berjudul Oberto, Conte Di San Bonifacio di Milan. Giuseppe Verdi dilahirkan di Le Roncole, Italia pada tahun 1813. Sejak kecil, ia telah menunjukkan bakat musiknya dan pada usia 18 tahun, ia dikirim ke Milan untuk belajar di Milan Conservatory. Namun, dia ditolak oleh sekolah tersebut karena usianya telah melewati batas. Verdi kemudian belajar musik dari Vincenzo Lavigna di La Scala, Italia.

Terusan Suez Diresmikan
Tanggal 17 November 1869, Terusan Suez yang menghubungkan laut Mediterania dengan Laut Merah, resmi dibuka. Pembangunan terusan ini dipimpin oleh seorang insinyur Perancis bernama Ferdinand De Lesseps dan memakan waktu 10 tahun. Panjang terusan ini mencapai 168 kilometer dengan lebar antara 120 hingga 200 meter. Beberapa abad sebelumnya, langkah-langkah untuk membuka jalan air di antara kedua laut itu, telah dilakukan oleh Raja Dariush dari Iran dan sebagian raja-raja Mesir. Hal ini menunjukkan posisi penting terusan yang menghubungkan benua Eropa dengan Asia ini.

Konferensi Kairo
Tanggal 17 November 1943, diadakan Konferensi Kairo di Mesir, yang merupakan salah satu konferensi terpenting pada era Perang Dunia Kedua. Konferensi ini diadakan oleh para pemimpin negara-negara Sekutu dan dihadiri oleh Presiden AS dan China, serta Perdana Menteri Inggris. Di antara keputusan yang diperoleh dalam konferensi ini adalah pemberian kemerdekaan kepada Korea.

SCIRI Didirikan untuk Melawan Rezim Saddam
Tanggal 17 November 1982, dibentuklah Dewan Tertinggi Revolusi Islam Irak (SCIRI) yang terdiri dari partai-partai dan kelompok-kelompok Islam yang menentang Rezim Saddam. Tujuan pembentukan Dewan ini adalah untuk menyelamatkan rakyat Irak dari cengkeraman kezaliman rezim Saddam dan mendirikan pemerintahan yang berasaskan suara dari rakyat. Dengan memanfaatkan periode invasi Irak ke Iran, dewan ini berhasil memberikan pukulan telak terhadap rezim Saddam. Pasca perang Irak-Iran, kelompok oposisi terbesar Irak ini terus melakukan aktivitas politik dan militernya. Menyusul invasi AS yang menggulingkan Saddam Husein pada bulan Maret 2003, dewan ini masuk ke Irak dan melakukan aktivitasnya di dalam negeri. Pada bulan Agustus 2003, Ayatullah Baqir Hakim, pemimpin dewan, gugur syahid akibat ledakan bom di depan kompleks Mesjid Imam Ali, di kota Najaf. Namun, majelis ini tetap maju berjuang untuk mengusir pasukan agresor dari negeri mereka dan membentuk pemerintahan Irak yang independen.

18 November
Rakyat Aljazair Mulai Perjuangan Periode Kedua

Tanggal 18 November 1839, dimulailah periode kedua perjuangan rakyat Aljazair melawan penjajahan Perancis dengan dipimpin oleh Abdul Qadir bin Mahyud-Din. Pada tahun 1830, Perancis menyerang Aljazair dengan tujuan untuk menguasai negeri ini. Abdul Qadir dengan 50 ribu pasukannya berjuang hingga tahun 1847, namun akhirnya mengalami kekalahan dan dia ditawan oleh tentara Perancis. Sekitar satu abad kemudian, setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, sekali lagi rakyat Aljazair memulai perjuangannya melawan penjajahan Perancis. Pada tanggal 31 Juli 1962, barulah Aljazair meraih kemerdekaannya.
Louis Daguerre Meninggal
Tanggal 18 November 1851, Louis Daguerre, pelukis, inventor, dan fisikawan Perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1789 dan sepanjang umurnya, dia berhasil menciptakan berbagai peralatan. Karya Daguerr yang terpenting adalah alat potret atau kamera, yang diciptakannya bersama dengan rekannya Joseph Niepce pada tahun 1829.

Perjanjian Terusan Panama Diteken
Tanggal 18 November 1903, Perjanjian Terusan Panama ditandatangani oleh pemerintah Panama dengan AS. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, Terusan Panama disewakan untuk selama-lamanya kepada AS dengan imbalan 10 juta dolar tunai dan 250 ribu dolar pertahun. Namun, atas tekanan dari rakyat Panama, AS terpaksa mengubah perjanjian ini. Pada tahun 1978, Presiden AS saat itu, Jimmy Carter dan Presiden Panama, Jenderal Torrijos, menandatangani perjanjian baru yang menyatakan akan mengembalikan Terusan Panama pada akhir tahun 2000.
Terusan Panama yang memiliki panjang 68 kilometer ini, merupakan penghubung antara Samudera Atlantik dengan Lautan Teduh.

Maroko meraih kemerdekaannya
Tanggal 18 November 1956, Maroko meraih kemerdekaannya. Pada abad ke-8, Maroko merupakan sebuah kerajaan yang menjadi bagian dari imperium Islam. Pada abad ke-15, Portugis dan Spanyol menguasai seluruh pelabuhan Maroko hingga abad ke-19. Sejak tahun 1906, dalam Konferensi Algecira, Maroko resmi dijadikan jajahan Perancis. Sejak tahun 1911, rakyat Maroko memulai perjuangan mereka melawan penjajah. Pada tahun 1953, Perancis menangkap raja Maroko, Sultan Midi Muhammad bin Yusuf dan mengucilkannya ke Madagaskar, namun dua tahun kemudian mengelamblikannya ke Maroko. Akhirnya, tahun 1956, Maroko berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.

Kolonel Abdul Salam Arif Berkuasa di Irak
Tanggal 18 November 1963, Kolonel Abdul Salam Arif, meraih kekuasaannya di Irak melalui sebuah kudeta berdarah. Dia mengebom gedung Kementrian Pertahanan Irak dan membunuh presiden Irak saat itu, Abdul Karim Qasim. Sebelumnya, Abdul Karim Qasim berhasil menjadi presiden juga setelah melakukan kudeta berdarah yang mengakhiri sistem monarkhi di Irak. Setelah Abdul Karim Qasim meraih kekuasaan, ia menyingkirkan anggota-anggota Partai Ba'ats yang sejak bulan Februari tahun itu, menduduki pos-pos sensitif di pemerintahan.Namun, tiga tahun kemudian, Abdul Karim Qasim tewas dalam sebuah kecelakaan udara dan posisinya digantikan oleh saudaranya, Abdur-rahman Arif.

Batu Pahatan Berusia 5000 Tahun Ditemukan di Iran
Tanggal 18 November 1989, di pinggiran kota Hamedan, Iran, ditemukan artefak berupa batu-batuan berusia 5000 tahun. Menyusul penemuan ini, kelompok arkeolog yang melakukan penggalian menemukan banyak batu-batuan pahatan peninggalan masa lampau. Penemuan ini disebut-sebut sebagai penemuan arkeologi terbesar di Iran. Gambar-gambar yang terdapat pada bebatuan tersebut menceritakan kehidupan di jaman dua ribu hingga ribu tahun sebelum masehi. Sebelum kelahiran Isa Al-Masih, kota Hamedan yang dahulu bernama kota Hegmataneh dan Ekbatan pernah menjadi pusat pemerintahan Iran.

19 November
Pemerintahan Directoire Berakhir di Perancis

Tanggal 19 November 1799, pemerintahan directoire di Perancis berakhir setelah berjalan selama empat tahun. Tiga tahun setelah kemenangan Revolusi Perancis, pada tahun 1792, berdirilah Republik Perancis. Republik Pertama Perancis yang berlangsung selama 12 tahun terdiri dari tiga tahap, yaitu convention, directoire, dan consul. Pemerintahan directoire dimulai sejak Oktober 1795.

Kunjungan Pertama Presiden Arab ke Israel
Tanggal 19 November 1977, Anwar Sadat, Presiden Mesir melakukan kunjungan ke Beitul Maqdis. Kunjungan Sadat ini merupakan kunjungan pertama presiden Negara-negara Arab ke Palestina Pendudukan, yang dilakukannya tak lama setelah mendekatnya hubungan Mesir dengan Rezim Zionis dan ditandatanganinya perjanjian antara kedua pihak, yang mereka istilahkan sebagai perjanjian perdamaian. Kunjungan Sadat ini menimbulkan kemarahan dari kaum muslimin Arab dan khususnya bangsa Palestina. Meski demikian, pada tahun 1978, dengan mediator AS, Sadat malah menandatangani perjanjian Camp David dengan Israel. Akibatnya, terjadi gelombang protes besar-besaran dari negara-negara Arab, negara-negara muslim, serta dari rakyat Mesir sendiri. Penandatangan perjanjian ini dianggap sebagai pengkhianatan terhadap bangsa Arab dan rakyat Mesir sendiri. Akhirnya pada tahun 1981, Anwar Sadat dibunuh oleh seorang perwira revolusioner Mesir bernama Khalid Islambuli.

NATO dan Pakta Warsawa Teken Perjanjian di Paris
Tanggal 19 November 1990, pemimpin Negara-negara NATO dan Pakta Warsawa, menandatangani perjanjian di Paris yang mengakhiri perang dingin antara kedua pihak. Mereka juga menyetujui penghentian perang propaganda dan pengurangan senjata di kedua organisasi militer ini. Blok barat yang dipimpin oleh AS dan blok Timur yang dipimpin oleh Uni Soviet terlibat dalam perang dingin setelah adanya niat Uni Soviet untuk memindahkan rudal nuklirnya ke Kuba yang mengancam terjadinya perang nuklir di dunia. Akibatnya, Uni Soviet dan AS terpaksa menandatangani perjanjian untuk mencegah perang nuklir. Namun demikian, perang politik, propaganda, dan mata-mata di antara kedua blok terus berlangsung dan inilah yang disebut sebagai perang dingin. Menyusul runtuhnya Uni Soviet, berakhirlah perang dingin tersebut.

20 November
Kegagalan Revolusi Irak

Tanggal 20 November 1920, rev
          Bulan Desember        
1 Desember
Persatuan Suci Eropa Bubar

Tanggal 1 Desember 1825, persatuan negara-negara Eropa yang dinamakan Persatuan Suci membubarkan diri seiring dengan keluarnya Rusia dari persatuan tersebut. Organisasi ini berdiri pada tahun 1815 menyusul tumbangnya kekaisaran Napoleon serta terbentuknya Kongres Wina. Pada saat itu, ditandatangani sebuah kesepakatan di antara negara-negara Rusia, Austria, dan Kekaisaran Prusia. Ketiga negara itu sepakat untuk melaksanakan ajaran Kristen dalam kehidupan bernegara ataupun dalam hubungan internasional. Tidak lama kemudian, sejumlah negara Eropa lainnya turut menandatangani dan bergabung dengan Persatuan Suci ini. Akan tetapi, hanya berselang sepuluh tahun dari ditandatanganinya kesepakatan itu, persatuan tersebut bubar karena banyak prinsip-prinsip yang tidak terjelaskan dari isi kesepakatan, ditambah lagi dengan bermunculannya revolusi di sejumlah negara yang digerakkan oleh kelompok-kelompok yang menginginkan kebebasan.

Perjanjian Non Agresi antara Italia dan San Marino

Tanggal 1 Desember 1897, Italia dan San Marino menandatangani perjanjian non-agresi. Dalam perjanjian itu disebutkan bahwa San Marino berjanji untuk tidak menyerang Italia. Sebaliknya, selain berjanji untuk tidak menyerang San Marino, Italia juga mengakui kedaulatan negara tetangganya itu. San Marino adalah salah satu negara terkecil sedunia. Negara ini terletak di kawasan selatan selatan Eropa dengan luas wilayah hanya 61 kilometer persegi yang artinya lebih kecil dari Pulau Ternate di Indonesia. Pemerintahan negara ini berbentuk Republik dan penduduknya mayoritas beragama Katolik Roma.

2 Desember
Laos Merdeka

Tanggal 2 Desember 1954, Laos, sebuah negara yang terletak di semenanjung Indocina, meraih kemerdekaannya. Kemerdekaan negara ini disahkan dalam Konferensi Jenewa tahun 1954 yang dihadiri oleh negara-negara kawasan Indocina dan negara-negara adidaya. Laos sejak tahun 1893 resmi dijajah oleh Perancis. Pada tahun 1949, menyusul gerakan kemerdekaan yang bergolak di India dan Cina, Perancis terpaksa memberikan kemerdekaan terbatas kepada Laos. Kemudian, bersamaan dengan perjuangan melawan Perancis di Vietnam, sejak tahun 1950, kelompok sosialis Laos, yaitu "Pathet Lao" dengan dukungan Cina dan Vietnam, juga melancarkan perlawanan terhadap Perancis. Selepas kemerdekaan tahun 1954, perang saudara bergolak di Laos hingga tahun 1975, yaitu ketika kaum komunis berhasil meraih kekuasaan di negara itu.

Revolusi Fidel Castro Dimulai
Tanggal 2 Desember 1956, dimulailah revolusi Kuba yang dipimpin oleh Fidel Castro. Saat itu, Kuba dikuasai oleh rezim Batista yang despotik dan korup. Sebelumnya, pada tahun 1953, Castro juga pernah melakukan perlawanan, namun mengalami kekalahan dan dia dijebloskan ke penjara. Dua tahun kemudian, yaitu tahun 1955, Castro dibebaskan dari penjara dan dibuang ke AS. Pada tanggal 2 Desember 1956, Castro dan 82 pasukannya mendarat di Kuba namun kembali kalah dan mereka melarikan diri ke Sierra Maestra. Pada tahun 1957 , Castro melancarkan kembali serangannya yang berhasil membuat Batista kabur ke luar negeri pada tanggal 1 Januari 1959. Catro kemudian mengambil alih kekuasaan dan aksi poliknya yang pertama adalah menasionalisasi industri-industri Kuba yang sebelumnya dikuasai AS. Perlawanan Castro melawan AS inilah yang menyebabkan Kuba dijatuhi embargo dan blokade ekonomi oleh AS. Pada tahun 1976, Castro diangkat sebagai presiden dan kemudian ia mengangkat diri sebagai presiden seumur hidup. Ia menjalankan pemerintahan negaranya dengan system komunis.

Mirza Kuchak Khan Janggali Gugur Syahid

Tanggal 2 Desember 1921, Mirza Kuchak Khan Janggali, seorang ruhaniwan pejuang Iran, gugur syahid dalam perjuangan melawan rezim Reza Khan yang despotik. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan agamanya, Kuchak Khan bergabung ke dalam barisan pejuang kebebasan Iran yang saat itu berada dalam cengkeraman rezim despotik dan kekuasaan imperialis asing. Pada tahun 1919, Iran dan Inggris menandatangani perjanjian yang memberi peluang lebih besar kepada Inggris untuk mengontrol Iran. Kuchak Khan kemudian menggalang perjuangan untuk menentang perjanjian ini yang disebut sebagai "Kebangkitan Hutan". Pada awalnya, pasukan Kuchak Khan meraih kemenangan, namun atas kerjasama pasukan pemerintah dengan Soviet dan Inggris, sebagian anggota gerakan "Kebangkitan Hutan" terbunuh dan sebagian lainnya ditawan. Akhirnya. Kuchak Khan juga terbunuh dan dengan demikian berakhirlah gerakan "Kebangkitan Hutan".

Uni Emirat Arab Merdeka
Tanggal 2 Desember 1971, Uni Emirat Arab meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai hari nasional negara tersebut. Uni Emirat Arab adalah sebuah negara yang berbentuk federasi yang dipimpin oleh tujuh orang Syeikh. Para Syeikh itu tetap berkuasa ketika bangsa Eropa datang ke wilayah itu pada abad ke-17 hingga abad ke-19. Sejak tahun 1920, Inggris menjalin kerjasama dengan para Syekh dan mengesksploitasi tambang minyak yang sangat kaya di kawasan itu. Pasca Perang Dunia Kedua, Inggris terpaksa keluar dari kawasan itu dan Teluk Persia pada umumnya. Menjelang keluarnya Inggris dari sana, pada tahun 1969, Inggris membentuk "Dewan Tinggi Uni Emirat Arab" yang terdiri dari sembilan wilayah kekuasaan para Syekh. Tak lama kemudian, Syekh Qatar dan Bahrain keluar dari federasi ini, sehingga kini UAE hanya beranggotakan tujuh anggota, di antaranya Abu Dhabi dan Dubai.

3 Desember
Machiavelli Lahir

Tanggal 3 Desember 1469, Nicolo Machiavelli, seorang sejarawan dan politikus Italia, terlahir ke dunia di kota Florence, Italia. Pada masa mudanya, Machiavelli telah menjadi diplomat penting. Namun, ketika terjadi peralihan kekuasaan, dia disingkirkan dari publik dan kemudian berkonsentrasi di bidang penulisan sejarah, filsafat politik, dan drama. Akhirnya, oleh pemerintah yang berkuasa, Machiavelli ditarik kembali untuk aktif dalam pemerintahan. Karya terbesar Machiavelli adalah The Prince yang ditulisnya tahun 1513 dan diterbitkan tahun 1532, lima tahun setelah kematiannya. Dalam buku yang kontroversial ini, Machiavelli berpendapat bahwa para pangeran haruslah meraih kekuasaan absolut atas wilayah kekuasaan mereka dan mereka harus menggunakan berbagai cara untuk itu, termasuk penipuan. Dalam beberapa bagian ia bahkan memuji-muji Caesar Borgia yang tiran dan despotik. Namun, pada tahun 1810, ditemukan surat yang ditulis Machiavelli bahwa dia menulis The Prince dengan tujuan untuk mengambil hati rezim yang berkuasa di Florence saat itu.

Pemberontakan Terhadap Louis Napoleon
Tanggal 3 Desember 1851, dimulailah pemberontakan warga Paris, Perancis dalam melawan rezim diktator Louis Napoleon, kemenakan dari Napoleon Bonaparte. Selama masa pemerintahannya, Louis Napoleon bertindak represif terhadap para penentangnya. Banyak di antara tokoh-tokoh terkemuka Perancis yang dipenjarakan dalam waktu lama oleh Louis Napoleon. Hal ini menimbulkan kemarahan warga Paris dan melakukan pemberontakan. Namun, Louis Napoleon membungkam pemerontakan warganya itu dengan pembunuhan, pemenjaraan, dan pembuangan. Victor Hugo, seorang penulis terkemuka Perancis adalah salah satu korban yang dibuang oleh Louis Napoleon.

Rajendra Prasad Lahir
Tanggal 3 Desember 1884, Doktor Rajendra Prasad, seorang politikus dan filsuf India, terlahir ke dunia di kota Bihar, India. Dia adalah seorang ilmuwan yang amat gigih dalam memperjuangkan kemerdekaan bangsanya dari penjajahan Inggris. Rajendra Prasad berjuang bersama-sama Mahatma Gandhi dan beberapa kali terpilih sebagai pemimpin Kongres Nasional India. Pada tahun 1950, setelah kemerdekaan India dan dibentuknya pemerintahan republik di negara itu, Rajendra Prasad terpilih sebagai Presiden India yang pertama.

Pierre-August Renoir Meninggal
Tanggal 3 Desember 1919 Pierre-August Renoir, seorang pelukis besar Perancis meninggal dunia pada usia 78 tahun. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1841 dan sejak usia 13 tahun, dia telah bekerja magang sebagai pelukis bunga-bunga di piring porselen. Setelah memiliki uang tabungan, pada tahun 1862, dia masuk ke Atelier Gallery dan bergabung dengan pelukis-pelukis besar seperti Monet dan Bazille. Renoir adalah seorang pelopor aliran impresionis. Karya-karyanya banyak menggambarkan kehidupan asli serta penuh warna dan cahaya yang cerah. Karya-karya Renoir di antaranya berjudul, Potraits dan In The Meadow. Pada tahun 1898, tangannya lumpuh, namun dia tetap melukis sambil menahan sakit. Pada tahun 1919, tak lama sebelum kematiannya, dia berhasil menyelesaikan lukisan terakhirnya "The Nhymps".

Tragedi Bhopal India
Tanggal 3 Desember 1984, terjadi ledakan besar di pabrik Union Carbide milik AS. Ledakan akibat kebocoran gas methyl isocyanate dan gas-gas kimia lainnya itu telah membunuh 4,000 people hanya dalam beberapa jam. Hingga kini, angka korban yang tewas telah meningkat sampai 20.000 orang. Ratusan ribu lainnya yang masih hidup dengan menderita dampak gas berbahaya itu. Para korban tregedi Bhopal ini masih mendapat kesulitan dalam mengklaim ganti rugi dari perusahaan AS itu. Hingga kini, pabrik Union Carbide terus berdiri meskipun kepemilikannya sudah beralih tangan. Pemilik baru dari perusahaan itu menolak bertanggung jawab atas kehidupan para korban tragedy Bhopal.

4 Desember
Claude Berthollet Lahir

Tanggal 4 Desember 1748, Claude Berthollet, seorang kimiawan Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, dia banyak melakukan eksperimen eksperimen kimiawi. Berthollet meyakini bahwa hasil dari sebuah reaksi tergantung kepada perbandingan reaktan. Teori ini kemudian dibuktikan salah oleh ahli kimia lainnya, yaitu Proust. Namun, proposisi Berthollet bahwa tingkat reaksi kimia tergantung pada konsentrasi reaktan adalah benar. Fakta ini kemudian disebut sebagai Hukum Aksi Massa. Berthollet meninggal dunia pada tahun1822.

Mirza Abdul Qasim Farahani Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 4 Desember 1835, Mirza Abdul Qasim Qaim-e Maqam Farahani, seorang penulis dan politikus Iran periode Qajar, meninggal dunia akibat dibunuh. Dia merupakan putra mahkota Dinasti Qajar dan kemudian diangkat menjadi penasehat Shah Muhammad. Dia banyak melakukan reformasi dalam berbagai bidang di Iran. Namun, para lawan politiknya dan imperialis asing melihat bahwa kebijakan yang diambil Farahani membahayakan kepentingan ilegal mereka, sehingga mereka merencanakan pembunuhan atas Farahani.
Farahani banyak meninggalkan karya penulisan, di antaranya berjudul "Mansha`at", "Jalayer Nameh" dan "Kumpulan Syair".

Vaksin Tipus Diaplikasikan

Tanggal 4 Desember 1899, untuk pertama kalinya, vaksin tipus diaplikasikan kepada masyarakat. Penyakit ini menyebar sejak abad ke-17 di Eropa dan memuncak pada era Perang Napoleon. Kemajuan signifikan dalam melawan penyakit ini dimulai setelah tahun 1909 ketika seorang dokter perancis, Charles Nicolle menemukan bahwa tipus berpindah dari orang ke orang melalui bakteri yang ada di tubuh. Virus dan bakteri penyebab tipus tersebar melalui air yang tercemar dan sanitasi yang yang buruk. Biasanya penyakit ini dimulai dengan demam lebih dari satu minggu yang muncul pada sore dan malam hari dan tidak juga turun meski kita sudah mengonsumsi obat penurun panas. Gejala lainnya adalah sakit kepala dan rasa tidak enak pada perut yang menyebabkan diare, perut kembung dan muntah-muntah. Lidah yang terlihat berselaput putih susu pada bagian tengah juga merupakan salah satu gejalanya. Bila semakin parah, hati dan limpa bisa membengkak. Penyakit tipus juga bisa berkomplikasi atau membuat luka pada bagian usus. Penyakit ini bisa disembuhkan dengan meminum antibiotika.

Konferensi Bermuda Dimulai
Tanggal 4 Desember 1952, konferensi segi tiga yang diikuti AS, Inggris, dan Perancis, berlangsung di kepulauan Bermuda yang terletak di Samudera Atlantik Amerika Selatan, . Ketiga negara peserta konferensi itu, selain membicarakan kerjasama di antara mereka, juga mengambil keputusan penting dalam kerjasama menghadapi Uni Soviet. Pada saat itu, bagian barat Berlin berada dalam kekuasaan ketiga negara tersebut, sedangkan bagian timur Berlin dikuasai Uni Soviet. Pergolakan di antara kedua pihak itu memuncak dengan didirikannya Tembok Berlin pada tahun 1961 oleh Jerman Timur dan Soviet.

Jabar Baghcheban Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 4 Desember 1966, Jabbar Baghcheban, seorang pendidik besar kaum tuna rungu Iran, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan tahun 1882 dan pada tahun 1923, dia mendirikan taman kanak-kanak pertamanya di kota Tabriz. Di taman kanak-kanak inilah Baghcheban mulai mendidik tiga anak tuna rungu agar bisa berkomunikasi. Dia kemudian menciptakan metode baca-tulis khusus bagi anak-anak tuna rungu yang hingga kini diterapkan di Iran. Pada tahun 1934, Baghcheban mendirikan sekolah tuna rungu pertama di Iran.

Doktor Muhammad Fereyduni Meninggal
Tanggal 4 Desember 1990, Doktor Muhammad Husein Masayekh Fereyduni, seorang peneliti dan penulis terkemuka Iran, meninggal dunia pada usia 76 tahun. Dia meraih gelar doktornya di bidang bahasa dan sastra Persia serta banyak melakukan penelitian di bidang islamologi, Iranologi, dan hubungan budaya negara-negara Islam. Doktor Fereyduni juga pernah menjadi anggota komisi penelitian ilmiah internasional di UNESCO mengenai jalur sutra. Semua hasil penelitiannya ditulis dalam berbagai buku yang bernilai. Doktor Fereyduni juga sangat menyukai karya-karya Iqbal, sehingga banyak menerjemahkannya syair-syair Iqbal ke dalam bahasa Persia. Karya-karya Dr. Fereyduni di antaranya berjudul "Suara Penyair Masa Depan" dan "Riwayat Baru Tentang Rahasia Diri Iqbal"

Konferensi Palestina Pertama di Teheran

Tanggal 4 Desember 1990, konferensi pertama tentang Palestina digelar di kota Teheran, Iran. Konferensi ini adalah untuk menggalang kerjasama dunia untuk mendukung gerakan Intifadhah dan penentangan terhadap berlanjutnya imigrasi kaum Yahudi ke Palestina. Orang-orang yang hadir dalam konferensi ini, di antaranya adalah para pejuang dan pemikir muslim dari Palestina, Iran, dan negara-negara lainnya. Masalah utama yang dibahas dalam konferensi ini adalah dimensi dan penyebab gerakan Intifadhah, revolusi Islam Palestina, dan pengaruh perubahan regional terhadap Palestina.

5 Desember
Albert The Great Meninggal

Tanggal 5 Desember 1230, Albert Magnus yang dikenal dengan nama Albert The Great, seorang pendeta yang dianggap sebagai intelektual Gereja, meninggal dunia. Albert Magnus belajar di Universitas Padua dan kemudian meraih doktor di Universitas Paris. Selain berprofesi sebagai pendeta, Albert Magnus juga menekuni berbagai bidang ilmu seperti biology, kimia, astronomi, geografi, metafisika, dan matematika. Salah satu karya Albert Magnus adalah "Manusia dan Binatang, Studi Atas Teks-Teks Renaissance dan Abad Pertengahan." Dia juga berhasil memutihkan tembaga dengan menggunakan arsenik.

Ben Johnson Lahir

Tanggal 5 Desember 1573, Ben Johnson, seorang seorang penyair dan penulis drama Inggris, terlahir ke dunia. Ketika Johnson masih kecil, ayahnya meninggal dunia dan ia dibesarkan oleh ayah tirinya yang berprofesi sebagai tukang batu. Johnson pun pada awalnya menekuni profesi sebagai tukang batu, kemudian bergabung ke dalam kelompok teater. Ketekunannya dalam membaca membuat pengetahuannya menjadi amat luas, meskipun ia tidak memiliki pendidikan formal yang tinggi. Pada tahun 1598, Ben Johnson membuat naskah drama pertamanya berjudul "Every Man in His Humour", yang berupa komedi dalam gaya klasik. Karya pertamanya ini membuatnya sangat dikagumi publik dan menjadikannya seorang selebritis.

Napoleon Kembali Ke Perancis
Tanggal 5 Desember 1812, setelah mengalami kekalahan besar di Rusia, Napoleon Bonaparte dan pasukannya kembali ke Perancis. Serangannya ke Rusia dimulai pada tahun 1812 dan dilakukan setelah meraih berbagai kemenangan di Eropa. Setelah enam bulan berperang, Moskow berhasil dikuasai oleh Napoleon dan pasukannya. Namun, suhu yang sangat dingin dan serangan balik dari tentara Rusia, membuat Napoleon kalah dan kehilangan 320 ribu pasukannya.

Manuchehr Jahan Beglu Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 5 Desember 1990, Manuchehr Jahan Beglu, seorang pemusik tradisional Iran terkemuka, meninggal dunia pada usia 62 tahun. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1928 dan kemudian menuntut ilmu musik di bidang musik dari pemusik-pemusik terkemuka Iran saat itu. Kemudian, ia melanjutkan pendidikannya di Austria hingga berhasil meraih gelar doktor. Sekembalinya ke Iran, di samping mengajar musik, Manuchehr Jahan Beglu melakukan penelitian di bidang musik. Karya yang ditinggalkannya antara lain buku berjudul "Pelajaran Sintur".

6 Desember
Amandemen Ke-13 Diratifikasi

Tanggal 6 Desember 1865, Amandemen ke-13 dalam konstitusi Amerika Serakat diratifikasi. Amandeman yang berisi penghapusan perbudakan ini dipelopori oleh presiden AS waktu itu, yang merupakan seorang pejuang anti-perbudakan, yaitu Abraham Lyncoln. Isi amandemen ini adalah "Tidak ada perbudakan atau kerja paksa yang boleh diberlakukan di Amerika Serikat atau di tempat manapun yang berada dalam naungan hukum Amerika Serikat, kecuali jika hal itu berkaitan dengan hukuman terhadap kejahatan yang telah terbukti,"Amandemen ke-13 ini kemudian diinterpretasi oleh Mahkamah Agung AS sebagai pelarangan diskriminasi dalam bidang publik atau privat serta dalam bidang tenaga kerja.

Finlandia Merdeka
Tanggal 6 Desember 1917, Finlandia meraih kemerdekaannya dari Rusia. Pada abad ke-12, Finlandia pernah meminta Swedia agar melindungi Finlandia dari ekspansi Rusia. Namun, Swedia kemudian malah menjajah Finlandia. Pada tahun 1721, Rusia menduduki Finlandia. Akibat perlawanan keras dari rakyat Finlandia, pada tahun 1901, Rusia memberikan hak untuk memilih dan memiliki dewan legislatif. Akhirnya menyusul revolusi Bolshevik di Rusia pada tahun 1917 dan keluarnya tentara Rusia dari wilayah Finlandia, negara ini pun memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Finlandia berbatasan dengan Rusia, Swedia, dan Norwegia dan pemerintahannya berbentuk republik.

Terowongan Italia-Perancis Mulai Dibangun

Tanggal 6 Desember 1958, dimulailah pembangunan salah satu terowongan terpanjang di dunia, yang menghubungkan Italia dan Perancis. Terowongan ini dibangun di bawah gunung Mont Blanc yang merupakan salah satu gunung tertinggi di Perancis. Terowongan ini panjangnya 12.233 kilometer dan dinamai Terowongan Gunung Cenis. Pembangunan terowongan ini memakan waktu enam tahun dan selesai pada tanggal 14 Agustus 1963. Terowongan ini menjadi salah satu objek pariwisata di Perancis dan Italia.

Masjid Babri Dihancurkan Oleh Hindu Ekstrim

Tanggal 6 Desember 1992, masjid Babri yang terletak di kota Faizabad, provinsi Uttar Pradesh, India, dihancurkan oleh kelompok Hindu ekstrim. Masjid ini dibangun pada tahun 1528 oleh Raja Zahiruddin Muhammad Babri dari Dinasti Timur India, di atas sebuah bukit. Pada tahun 1855, seorang berdarah Inggris bernama HW Nobel secara sengaja melakukan kesalahan dalam mencatat dokumentasi kawasan mesjid tersebut. Ia mencatat bahwa mesjid tersebut dibangun di atas reruntuhan candi tempat kelahiran Rama, salah satu dewa Hindu. Kaum Hindu kemudian berniat mendirikan candi di sana sehingga pada tahun 1922 mereka menyerang dan menghancurkan Masjid Babri. Aksi kaum Hindu ini menimbulkan kerusuhan besar dan mengakibatkan 3.000 kaum muslimin tewas.

7 Desember
Kunjungan Nixon ke Tehran Didemonstrasi

Tanggal 7 Desember 1953, tiga mahasiswa Universitas Teheran gugur syahid karena dibunuh oleh tentara Rezim Shah di Iran. Para mahasiswa itu terbunuh dalam demonstrasi terhadap kunjungan Presiden AS, Richard Nixon, ke Teheran, Iran. Kunjungan Nixon ini dilakukan tiga setengah bulan setelah Pemerintahan Mushadeq yang mendapatkan dukungan rakyat Iran, digulingkan dalam sebuah kudeta yang didalangi oleh CIA. Pada tanggal 7 Desember, tentara Rezim Shah mendatangi Universitas Teheran dan menyerang para mahasiswa yang tengah berdemonstrasi sehingga tiga orang di antara mereka tewas. Sehari kemudian, Nixon juga datang ke Universitas Teheran untuk dianugerahi gelar doktor kehormatan di bidang hukum. Kini, tanggal 6 Desember diperingati di Iran sebagai Hari Mahasiswa.

Pascal Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 7 Desember 1662, Blaise Pascal, seorang matematikawan Perancis daan penemu mesin hitung, meninggal dunia. Ibu Blaise meninggal dunia ketika dia masih kecil, dan kemudian, Blaise dididik sendiri oleh ayahnya, Etienne Pascal. Pada usia 12 tahun, setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan bahasa Latin dan Yunaninya, Blaise mulai belajar geometri sendiri dan pada usia 16 tahun, dia sudah menerbitkan karya geometri pertamanya di bidang kerucut.
Pascal memiliki kesehatan yang sangat lemah, namun dia tetap bekerja konsisten di bidang ilmu. Pada usianya ke-18, dia berhasil menciptakan mesin hitung pertama di dunia. Ketika Blaise berusia 23 tahun, ia mulai tertarik menekuni agama dan menulis beberapa buku filsafat. Di akhir usianya, Pascal memberikan harta kekayaannya kepada kaum fakir miskin dan memberi perlindungan kepada penderita penyakit cacar. Dia meninggal pada usia 39 tahun dan kata-kata terakhirnya berbunyi, "Semoga Tuhan tidak mengabaikanku."

Pearl Harbour Diserang
Tanggal 7 Desember 1941, di saat ketika Perang Dunia Kedua berlangsung sengit, dua ratus pesawat tempur Jepang menyerang pangkalan militer AS, Pearl Harbour, yang terletak di Lautan Teduh. Operasi militer ini terjadi ketika Jepang dan AS tengah melakukan berunding mengenai masalah Asia Tenggara. Seiring dengan serangan yang menghancurkan 19 kapal perang AS ini, Jepang juga menyerang dan menduduki negara-negara di Asia Tenggara, di antaranya Indonesia. Menyusul serangan ke Pearl Harbour ini, AS mengumumkan perang dengan Jepang dan Perang Dunia Kedua meluas hingga ke Asia Timur.

Abdul Wahab Kiyali Syahid
Tanggal 7 Desember 1981, Abdul Wahab Kiyali, salah seorang tokoh pejuang kemerdekaan Palestina, gugur syahid dalam peristiwa teror yang didalangi oleh agen Zionis di kota Beirut. Sejak masa sekolah, Kiyali telah mulai berkecimpung di dunia politik untuk membebaskan Palestina. Dia menulis tesis doktornya di Universitas London dengan pembahasan mengenai masalah Palestina dan perjuangan bangsa Arab melawan penjajahan dan Zionisme. Di antara perjuangan yang dilakukan Kiyali adalah menerbitkan majalah Palestina pertama bernama Palestina Bebas dan mendirikan yayasan penerbitan yang menyuarakan kebebasan rakyat Palestina. Di antara karya yang ditinggalkan pejuang intelektual ini berjudul "Sejarah Baru Palestina", "Gerakan Perlawanan Palestina" dan "Penelitian Mengenai Palestina."

8 Desember
Kekuasaan Shogun Tumbang

Tanggal 8 Desember 1868, kekuasaan militer Shogun di Jepang tumbang dan ‎dimulailah reformasi di bidang sosial, politik, dan budaya di negara ini. Shogun ‎mulai menjalankan kekuasaan militernya sejak abad ke-12. Pada saat itu, ‎meskipun pemerintahan resmi berada di tangan para kaisar di Kyoto, namun ‎sesungguhnya kekuasaan berada di tangan para Shogun. Kekuasaan para Shogun ‎semakin lama semakin meluas di Jepang dan mereka melakukan pelarangan ‎hubungan antara Jepang dengan negara-negara lain. ‎
Pada tahun 1868, Pangeran Mutsuhito diangkat menjadi kaisar dan memilih nama ‎Meiji yang artinya "pemerintahan yang tercerahkan". Kaisar Meiji kemudian ‎menumbangkan kekuasaan Shogun dan menggantikannya dengan administrasi ‎kerajaan. Dia juga pindah dari Kyoto ke Tokyo dan melakukan berbagai reformasi. ‎Di masa kekaisaran Meiji, Jepang berhasil menjadi negara industri yang mampu ‎bersaing dengan negara-negara Barat.‎

Perang Falkland Meletus
Tanggal 8 Desember 1914, meletuslah Perang Falkland di Samudera Atlantik. ‎Perang ini terjadi antara angkatan laut Jerman dan Inggris. Dalam perang ini, ‎angkatan laut Jerman mengalami kekalahan besar dan pulau Falkland tetap ‎dikuasai oleh Inggris. Kepulauan Falkland terletak di Laut Atlantik Selatan, sekitar ‎‎480 kilometer dari pantai Argentina. Inggris telah menduduki kepulauan yang kaya ‎minyak itu sejak tahun 1833. Argentina sejak tahun 1820 telah mengklaim ‎kepemilikan atas kepulauan tersebut namun klaim ini ditolak Inggris. Pada tahun ‎‎1982, Argentina menginvasi kepulauan ini dan pecahlah perang antara Argentina ‎dan Inggris. Perang ini diakhiri dengan kekalahan Argentina.‎

Kudeta di Brunei Gagal
Tanggal 8 Desember 1962, kudeta di Brunei berhasil digagalkan. Kudeta yang ‎dilakukan oleh tentara Gurkha ini dipimpin oleh Sheikh Azahari yang pro-partai ‎demokratis di Brunei, yaitu Brunei People's Party (PRB). Kudeta ini dilakukan ‎sebagai reaksi atas penolakan Sultan Brunei untuk menyelenggarakan sidang ‎dewan legislatif. Sejak itu, Brunei diperintah dengan sistem absolut oleh Sultan, ‎yang memegang posisi sebagai perdana menteri, menteri keuangan dan menteri ‎pertahanan sekaligus. Pada tahun 1980-an berdirilah partai politik di Brunei, namun ‎dibubarkan pada tahun 1988. Pemerintah juga memiliki kekuasaan darurat, yang ‎termasuk di dalamnya hak untuk menahan warga negara tanpa melalui pengadilan. ‎Awalnya, Brunei berstatus protektorat Inggris, dan baru pada tanggal 1 Januari ‎‎1984, meraih kemerdekaan penuh.‎

Golda Meir Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 8 Desember 1978, Golda Meir seorang tokoh rezim Zionis, meninggal ‎dunia. Dia dilahirkan di Kiev Rusia tahun 1898 dan pindah ke Wisconsin Amerika ‎tahun 1906. Pada tahun 1915, Golda Meir bergabung dengan Partai Buruh Zionis ‎dan pada tahun 1921, dia dan suaminya pindah ke Palestina. Pada tahun 1969, ‎Golda Meir terpilih sebagai Perdana Menteri Israel, hingga tahun 1974. ‎Sebelumnya, ia menjabat sebagai Menteri Luar Negeri Israel.‎
Golda Meir adalah salah satu anggota Dewan Rakyat yang menandatangani ‎proklamasi pendirian Negara Israel tahun 1948. Secara signifikan, Deklarasi ‎Kemerdekaan Israel itu tidak menyebutkan adanya perbatasan, dan negara Yahudi ‎tidak pernah secara terbuka menyatakan batas-batasnya. Pada awal pendiriannya, ‎orang-orang Israel telah menyita 158.332 unit dari keseluruhan 179.316 unit ‎perumahan, termasuk rumah-rumah dan apartemen-apartemen milik bangsa Arab ‎Palestina. Orang-orang Yahudi sedikitnya telah mengambil alih 10.000 toko dan ‎‎1.000 gudang. Selain itu, kira-kira 90 persen kebun zaitun dan 50 persen kebun ‎jeruk Israel juga berasal dari rampasan. Perampasan kebun-kebun ini nilainya ‎sangat besar sehingga sangat menolong Israel dalam meringankan masalah serius ‎dalam keseimbangan neraca pembayaran Israel dari 1948 hingga 1953.‎

9 Desember
Palestina Diduduki Inggris

Tanggal 9 Desember 1917, dalam periode Perang Dunia Pertama, pasukan Inggris ‎berhasil mengalahkan tentara Ottoman di Palestina dan wilayah ini pun diduduki ‎oleh Inggris. Pada bulan Oktober tahun berikutnya, Inggris mengadakan perjanjian ‎penghentian perang dengan Ottoman dan sebagian besar kawasan Timur Tengah ‎diduduki oleh Inggris. Pendudukan Palestina oleh Inggris merupakan langkah ‎penting dalam realisasi Deklarasi Balfour yang berisi rencana pendirian negara ‎Yahudi di tanah milik bangsa Palestina. ‎

Gerakan Intifadhah Pertama Dimulai

Tanggal 9 Desember 1987, dimulailah gerakan kebangkitan rakyat Palestina untuk ‎melawan rezim Zionis yang telah menjajah tanah air mereka. Kebangkitan rakyat ‎Palestina yang dinamakan Intifadhah ini terjadi menyusul semakin kerasnya aksi ‎teror dan represi dari kaum Zionis terhadap bangsa Palestina dan berlanjutnya ‎pendudukan rezim tersebut atas tanah milik mereka. Di samping itu, bangsa ‎Palestina juga telah putus harapan atas bantuan dari pemerintahan Barat dan ‎organisasi-organisasi Plaestina yang ada. Gerakan Intifadhah pertama setelah ‎beberapa tahun terhenti, kembali dilanjutkan pada bulan September tahun 2000, ‎yang diberi nama "Intifadhah Masjid Al-Aqsha". Di antara keistimewaan gerakan ini ‎adalah adanya dukungan luas dari rakyat, kepercayaan bahwa Islam satu-satunya ‎jalan keselamatan, dan ketiadaan ketergantungan pada negara-negara lain. Oleh ‎karena keistimewaan inilah, meskipun tidak berbekal senjata, namun gerakan ini ‎tidak bisa dikalahkan oleh rezim penjajah Zionis. ‎

Irak Diumumkan Sebagai Agresor dalam Perang Irak-Iran
Tanggal 9 Desember 1991, Javier Peres De Cuellar, sekjen PBB waktu itu, secara ‎jelas dalam laporannya, mengumumkan bahwa Irak pada tanggal 22 Septrember ‎‎1980, melakukan agresi ke wilayah Iran. Menurut Sekjen PBB tersebut, ‎berdasarkan Piagam PBB, agresi Irak tersebut tidak bisa diterima oleh prinsip dan ‎hukum internasional serta etika internasional. ‎
Pada tanggal 22 September 1980, tentara Irak secara resmi memulai perang ‎dengan Iran dengan menyerang lewat udara dan darat. Kota-kota dan desa-desa ‎Iran dihancurkan serta jutaan anak-anak, pria, dan wanita menjadi korban. Irak ‎bahkan juga menggunakan senjata pembunuh massal yang korbannya hingga kini ‎masih hidup dengan menanggung penyakit akibat senjata kimia tersebut. Namun, ‎setelah delapan tahun berlalu, Irak tetap tidak mampu menaklukkan Iran dan ‎mereka mundur ke belakang garis perbatasan internasional. ‎

Ayatullah Gulpaygani Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 9 Desember 1993, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Ridha Gulpaygani, ‎seorang ulama dan marji besar dunia muslim, meninggal dunia. Beliau dilahirkan di ‎kota Gulpaygan Iran tengah dan memulai pendidikan agamanya dengan ‎mempelajari Al-Quran. Beliau kemudian menuntut ilmu dari ulama-ulama besar ‎pada zaman itu, di antaranya Ayatullah Hairi. Kemudian, beliau mengajar di hauzah ‎ilmiah Qum. Setelah meninggalnya Ayatullah Burujerdi yang merupakan ulama ‎paling penting saat itu, Ayatullah Gulpaygani pun menggantikan posisi beliau ‎sebagai marji taklid dan ulama terkemuka di Qum. Setelah kemanangan revolusi ‎Islam Iran yang digerakkan oleh para ulama, Ayatullah Gulpaygani memberikan ‎dukungan penuh beliau kepada Imam Khomeini. Di samping meninggalkan karya ‎penulisan di berbagai bidang ilmu, beliau juga meninggalkan sebuah rumah sakit ‎di Qum, yaitu Rumah Sakit Gulpaygani yang dikhususkan bagi para pelajar agama ‎dan kaum fakir miskin.‎

10 Desember
Belanda Kembali Meraih Kekuasaan di Sumatera

Tanggal 10 Desember 1816, Belanda kembali meraih kekuasaannya atas ‎Sumatera, dan Indonesia pada umumnya. Belanda menginjakkan kaki di wilayah ‎Indonesia pada tahun 1651 dengan menginvasi Kupang di Timur Barat. Sebelum ‎kedatangan Belanda, beberapa wilayah Indonesia timur telah dikuasai oleh ‎Portugis. Namun, hingga 200 tahun kemudian, batas jajahan antara dua kekuasaan ‎imperialis itu masih belum jelas. Pada tahun tanggal 20 April 1859, Belanda dan ‎Portugis menjalin perjanjian bahwa Belanda menguasai bagian barat pulau Timor ‎dan Portugis menguasai bagian timurnya. ‎
Selama era Perang Napoleon, Belanda jatuh ke tangan Perancis dan akibatnya, ‎wilayah jajahan Belanda di Indonesia diambil oleh Inggris. Gubernur Jenderal ‎Inggris di Indonesia dipegang oleh Sir Thomas Raffles. Setelah jatuhnya Napoleon ‎dan berakhirnya pendudukan Belanda oleh Perancis, Belanda dan Inggris ‎menandatangani sebuah konvesi di London pada tahun 1814, yang berisi ‎pengembalian wilayah kolonial Belanda yang didapatnya sejak tahun 1803. Dua ‎tahun kemudian, Sumatera pun kembali jatuh ke tangan Belanda. Selama waktu ‎itu, rakyat Indonesia dengan gigih berjuang melawan penjajahan Belanda, namun ‎selalu mengalami kegagalan, sampai akhirnya berhasil merdeka pada tahun 1945.‎

Pencetus Hadiah Nobel Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 10 Desember 1896, Alferd Bernhard Nobel, ahli kimia dari Swedia ‎meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan tahun 1833 dan pada usia remaja ia berhijrah ke ‎Rusia. Setelah bertahun-tahun melakukan riset dibidang kimia, akhirnya Nobel ‎pada tahun 1867 berhasil menemukan dinamit. Bahan ini tidak digunakan untuk ‎perdamaian, tapi digunakan sebagai peralatan militer untuk berperang. Oleh ‎karena itu Nobel mengusulkan untuk memberikan penghargaan kepada mereka ‎yang berusaha menciptakan perdamaian. Penghargaan ini diberikan setiap tahun ‎di bidang, Kimia, Fisika, Kedokteran, Sastra dan Perdamaian dunia kepada ilmuan ‎yang berusaha menciptakan perdamaian dan kemajuan sains. Penghargaan ini ‎diberi nama sesuai penggagas pertamanya yaitu Nobel. Maka terkenallah ‎penghargaan tersebut dengan nama Hadiah Nobel. Akibat tekanan sejumlah ‎kekuatan besar dunia, kini mekanisme penentuan pemenang hadiah nobel ‎ditentukan oleh mereka. Malah di sebagian kesempatan hadiah nobel telah jauh ‎dari tujuan utamanya.‎

Deklarasi HAM Disahkan PBB
Tanggal 10 Desember 1948, Deklarasi Hak Asasi Manusia disahkan oleh Majelis ‎Umum PBB. Ide tentang hak asasi manusia yang berlaku saat ini berakar sejak era ‎Perang Dunia II. Pembunuhan dan kerusakan dahsyat yang ditimbulkan Perang ‎Dunia II menggugah suatu kebulatan tekad untuk membangun sebuah organisasi ‎internasional yang sanggup meredakan krisis internasional serta menyediakan ‎suatu forum untuk diskusi dan mediasi. Organisasi ini adalah Perserikatan Bangsa-‎Bangsa (PBB), yang telah memainkan peran utama dalam pengembangan ‎pandangan kontemporer tentang hak asasi manusia.‎
Para pendiri PBB yakin bahwa pengurangan kemungkinan perang mensyaratkan ‎adanya pencegahan atas pelanggaran besar-besaran terhadap hak-hak manusia. ‎PBB kemudian menugaskan Komisi Hak Asasi Manusia untuk menulis sebuah ‎pernyataan internasional tentang hak asasi manusia. Deklarasi Universal Hak ‎Asasi Manusia ini diumumkan sebagai "suatu standar pencapaian yang berlaku ‎umum untuk semua rakyat dan semua negara" . Namun, dalam pelaksanaannya, ‎HAM malah dijadikan alat bagi negara-negara Barat untuk menekan negara-negara ‎independen dunia di bidang politik dan ekonomi dalam rangka memperluas ‎pengaruh imperialisme mereka. Kini banyak negara-negara yang menyuarakan ‎agar diadakan perubahan isi Deklarasi HAM yang tidak sesuai dengan keyakinan, ‎kebudayaan, dan adat istiadat mereka, demi mencegah penggunaan HAM untuk ‎menekan mereka.‎

11 Desember
Alfred De Musset Lahir

Tanggal 11 Desember 1810, Alfred De Musset, seorang penyair dan penulis ‎naskah drama terkenal Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. De Musset adalah penulis ‎drama modern pertama dalam bahasa Perancis. Alfred de Musset memulai ‎karirnya di bidang syair dan drama sejak tahun 1828 dan pada tahun 1829, ‎terbitlah kumpulan puisi pertamanya. Pada tahun berikutnya, ia menulis La Nuit ‎Venetienne, karya drama pertamanya namun karyanya ini mendapat penghinaan ‎ketika dipentaskan. Sejak tahun 1840-an, karya-karya dramanya meraih ‎kesuksesan di pentas-pentas drama Perancis. Atas karya-karyanya yang dianggap ‎bernilai tinggi, akhirnya pada tahun 1852, De Musset diangkat sebagai anggota ‎Akademi Perancis. De Musset meninggal dunia tahun 1857.‎

UNICEF Didirikan
Tanggal 11 Desember 1946, berdirilah United Nations Children's Fund atau ‎UNICEF. Pendirian Organisasi Dana Anak-Anak PBB ini awalnya bertujuan untuk ‎menggalang dana bagi menolong anak-anak Eropa yang kelaparan dan terkena ‎penyakit setelah Perang Dunia II, serta menyediakan makanan, pakaian, dan obat-‎obatan bagi mereka. Kini, UNICEF memperluas kegiatannya untuk memberantas ‎kemiskinan, kekerasan, penyakit, dan diskriminasi terhadap anak-anak sedunia. ‎UNICEF melakukan aktivitasnya di lebih 150 negara dunia dan berpusat di New ‎York.‎

Rusia Mulai Menyerang Chechen

Tanggal 11 Desember 1994, Rusia memulai serangannya terhadap Republik ‎Chechnya. Serangan ini dilancarkan Rusia karena proklamasi kemerdekaan yang ‎dilakukan oleh bangsa Chechnya atau Chechen ini. Etnis Chechnya adalah salah ‎satu di antara sekian banyak etnis di kawasan Kaukasus yang kemudian dikuasai ‎oleh Uni Soviet. Namun, setelah bubarnya Uni Soviet, Rusia berniat menguasai ‎daerah Chechnya yang kaya minyak itu dan menolak proklamasi kemerdekaan ‎bangsa itu. ‎
Bangsa Chechnya telah tertindas sejak lama. Pada era Perang Dunia II, bangsa ‎Chechnya dituduh oleh Stalin telah bekerja sama dengan Jerman. Pada 23 ‎Februari 1944, Tentara Merah masuk ke Chechnya dan memulai pembersihan ‎etnis. Negeri itu dikosongkan dan penduduknya dipindahkan ke berbagai penjuru ‎Asia Tengah. Di daerah-daerah permukiman baru yang suhunya bisa mencapai -‎‎400C, para pengungsi itu dibiarkan hidup papa. Mereka juga dituduh "menyebarkan ‎kegiatan Islam", "mendirikan masjid-masjid baru", dan "memelihara tradisi ‎reaksioner". Paling tidak 425.000 orang dipindahkan dan setiap anggota keluarga ‎hanya diizinkan membawa barang 20 kilogram, sisanya ditinggalkan begitu saja. ‎Sekitar separuh dari jumlah itu tewas di pengungsian. Tapi, ada juga yang lahir, ‎atau besar, di perantauan yang penuh azab itu. Di antaranya terdapat Ruslan ‎Khasbulatov, yang kelak menjadi ketua parlemen Chechnya. Satunya lagi adalah ‎Dzhokar Dudayev, yang sempat mencapai pangkat jenderal dalam Angkatan Udara ‎Soviet. Dudayev menjadi presiden Chechnya hingga November 1994. Ia terluka, ‎kemudian tewas, oleh roket Rusia. Setelah Dudayev tewas, perjuangan diteruskan ‎oleh Aslan Maskhadov, Ruslan Gelayev, Abu Movsayev, dan kini, oleh Shamil ‎Basayev.‎
Perang Chechnya pertama berlangsung sejak tahun 1994 hingga 1996. Rusia ‎kalah telak dalam perang ini dan secara memalukan keluar dari wilayah Chechnya. ‎Rusia pun sepakat memberikan status otonomi kepada Chechnya. Namun, pada ‎tahun 1999, Rusia kembali menyerang Chechnya dan hingga kini perang terus ‎berlangsung. Alexander Solzhenitsyin, seorang pengarang pembangkang Rusia ‎dan penerima anugerah Nobel, pernah berkata, "Hanya satu bangsa yang secara ‎utuh berhasil menolak psikologi ketaklukan dan itulah bangsa Chechen."‎

12 Desember
Marco Polo Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 12 Desember tahun 1323, Marco Polo, seorang petualang dan penulis ‎Italia, meninggal dunia. Ayahnya adalah seorang pedagang dan pada usianya ke-‎‎17, Marco Polo telah mengikuti ayahnya melakukan perjalanan bisnis ke berbagai ‎kawasan, di antaranya ke Cina. Marco Polo dan ayahnya tiba di Cina pada tahun ‎‎1275, dan mereka menjadi orang Eropa pertama yang datang ke wilayah itu. Marco ‎Polo tinggal di Cina hingga tahun 1292 dan bahkan diangkat sebagai gubernur ‎Yangchow selama tiga tahun. ‎
Karya tulis Marco Polo, yaitu "The Travels of Marco Polo" yang pertama kali ‎diterbitkan di Perancis, adalah buku catatan perjalanan yang paling terkenal dan ‎paling berpengaruh dalam sejarah. Buku ini secara amat detail memberikan ‎informasi pertama kepada bangsa Eropa abad pertengahan mengenai Cina, Siam, ‎Jepang, Jawa, Srilanka, Tibet, India, dan Burma. Selama kurun waktu yang cukup ‎lama, buku karya Marco Polo ini menjadi satu-satunya sumber rujukan bangsa ‎Eropa mengenai geografi dan kehidupan di Timur Jauh. Buku ini juga menjadi ‎basis dari penyusunan peta Asia akurat pertama yang dibuat di Eropa. Lebih jauh ‎lagi, buku ini memberi inspirasi kepada Columbus untuk bertualang ke timur ‎sampai akhirnya menemukan Amerika pada tahun 1442.‎

Pengiriman Pesan dengan Gelombang Radio Pertama
‎
Tanggal 12 Desember tahun 1901, untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah ‎komunikasi, berhasil dilakukan pengiriman pesan lewat gelombang radio dari dua ‎tempat berjarak 2000 kilometer. Keberhasilan ini terjadi berkat usaha seorang ‎pemuda Italia bernama Guglielmo Marconi, yang menciptakan sebuah alat ‎penerima dan pengirim pesan melalui gelombang radio. Marconi dilahirkan di Italia ‎dan di sana ia memulai eksperimennya. Dia berhasil memindahkan sinyal radio dari ‎rumah ke rumah. Kemudian ia pindah ke London dan meneruskan eksperimennya ‎itu. Penemuannya itu kemudian dipatenkan dan ia mendirikan perusahaan di ‎bidang komunikasi yang hingga kini terus berdiri. Marconi menerima hadiah Nobel ‎tahun 1909.‎

Kenya Merdeka

Tanggal 12 Desember 1963, Kenya meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris dan hari ‎ini dijadikan Hari Nasional Kenya. Sejak abad ke-8, Kenya sudah menjadi koloni ‎bangsa Arab. Portugis datang ke Kenya pada abad ke-15 dan kemudian sejak ‎tahun 1895, Inggris menjajah wilayah itu. Sejak tahun 1950-an, rakyat Kenya mulai ‎bangkit melawan penjajahan Inggris dengan dipimpin oleh Jomo Kenyatta. Setelah ‎Kenya berhasil merebut kemerdekaannya, Jomo Kenyatta terpilih sebagai perdana ‎menteri dan setahun kemudian dia diangkat sebagai presiden. Dalam ‎perkembangan selanjutnya, Kenya selalu didera perang dengan negara tetangga, ‎konflik internal, dan bencana alam. Negara ini memiliki hasil bumi yang kaya, di ‎antaranya minyak, emas, batu akik, dan safir.‎

13 Desember
Abel Tasman Menemukan Selandia Baru ‎

Tanggal 13 Desember 1642, Abel Tasman, seorang pelaut Belanda, berhasil ‎mendarat di sebuah kepulauan di Pasifik Selatan, yang sekarang dikenal sebagai ‎Selandia Baru. Beberapa minggu sebelumnya, Abel Tasman berhasil menemukan ‎pulau Tasmania yang terletak di sebelah tenggara pantai Australia. Awalnya, Abel ‎Tasman menamakan pulau itu sebagai pulau Van Diemen, namun kemudian untuk ‎mengenang Abel Tasman, pulau itu diberi nama Tasmania. Laut di antara Selandia ‎Baru dan Australia juga diberi nama Laut Tasmania. Nama Selandia Baru sendiri ‎berasal dari nama sebuah provinsi di Belanda, yaitu Zeeland. Pada tahun 1840, ‎Inggris secara formal menguasai pulau ini dan dimulailah pembangunan ‎pemukiman Eropa pertama di Wellington, ibu kota Selandia Baru. Penduduk asli ‎Selandia Baru, yaitu bangsa Maori awalnya melakukan perlawanan, namun dapat ‎ditlakukkan oleh para imigran Eropa. Bangsa Maori kini hidup terasing di negerinya ‎sendiri.‎

Invasi Perancis Ke Afrika Barat Dimulai

Tanggal 13 Desember tahun 1870, dimulailah operasi militer Perancis untuk ‎menduduki wilayah Afrika Barat. Dalam operasi militer yang berlangsung selama ‎sepuluh tahun ini, puluhan ribu tentara Perancis tewas atau terluka akibat ‎perlawanan dari suku-suku dan pemerintahan lokal di Afrika Barat. Namun, karena ‎terpencar-pencarnya lokasi suku-suku tersebut, tidak bersatunya antar suku, serta ‎lebih lengkapnya persenjataan Perancis, akhirnya sebagian besar bangsa-bangsa ‎Afrika Barat, seperti Senegal, Zambia, Guinea, dan Pantai Gading, jatuh ke tangan ‎Perancis. Negara-negara tersebut berada dalam penjajahan Perancis dalam waktu ‎yang sangat lama, yaitu hingga abad ke-19.‎

Pemerkosaan Nanking

Tanggal 13 Desember 1937, dalam era perang Cina-Jepang, Nanking, ibu kota ‎Cina jatuh ke tangan pasukan Jepang dan pemerintah Cina lari ke Hankow, sebuah ‎kawasan di dekat sungai Yangtze. Untuk menjatuhkan semangat perjuangan ‎bangsa Cina, Jenderal Matsui Iwane, komandan pasukan Jepang memerintahkan ‎agar kota Nanking dihancurkan dan menyiksa ratusan ribuan rakyat kota itu. ‎Diperkirakan, ada 200.000 laki-laki dibunuh dan 20.000 wanita dipekosa kemudian ‎dibunuh. Peristiwa sadis ini kemudian dikenal dengan nama "Pemerkosaan ‎Nanking". Tak lama setelah Perang Dunia II berakhir, Jenderal Matsui dijatuhi ‎hukuman mati oleh pengadilan militer internasional.‎

Hijrah Besar-besaran Para Ulama Teheran ke Qom
Tanggal 13 Desember tahun 1904, terjadi hijrah ‎besar-besaran para ulama Islam dan pejuang kebebasan Teheran ke kota ‎Qom, Iran. Hijrah ini merupakan protes atas tindakan represif Shah Iran ‎waktu itu, yaitu Shah Muhammad Ali Qajar. Ulama yang turut serta dalam ‎hijrah ini, antara lain Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Behbahani dan ‎Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Thabathabai. ‎

Aksi hjrah ke Qom ini bertujuan untuk mencegah bentrokan antara ‎masyarakat dan tentara pemerintah. Untuk menarik mereka kembali ke ‎Teheran, para ulama dan pejuang kebebasan tersebut memberikan syarat, ‎yaitu diberlakukannya hukum Islam di seluruh Iran dan didirikannya ‎lembaga pengadilan di Iran.‎

Perpindahan Kekuasaan Dinasti Qajar ke Dinasti Pahlevi
‎
Tanggal 13 Desember 1925, Majelis Muasesan sebuah ‎dewan yang dibentuk untuk mengatur perpindahan kekuasaan dari Dinasti ‎Qajar kepada Dinasti Pahlevi di Iran, menyelesaikan tugas mereka dalam ‎mengubah undang-undang dasar. Dengan demikian, masa pemeintahan ‎Dinasti Qajar yang telah berlangsung selama 153 tahun berakhir dan ‎dimulailah 53 tahun kekuasaan rezim Pahlevi di Iran. Kesamaan antara ‎dua rezim tersebut adalah aksi despotisme mereka di dalam negeri dan ‎kelemahan mereka dalam menghadapi kekuatan asing. Perpindahan ‎kekuasaan ini dimulai dengan kudeta yang dilakukan oleh Reza Pahlevi ‎yang didukung oleh Inggris pada tahun 1920. Rezim ini akhirnya ‎ditumbangkan oleh Revolusi Islam Rakyat Iran pada tahun 1978.‎

Ghulam Reza Saidi Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 13 Desember 1988, Ghulam Reza Saidi, ‎seorang penulis dan peneliti terkemuka Iran meninggal dunia. Setelah ‎menuntut ilmu di bidang ilmu alam, matematika, astronomi, bahasa Arab, ‎Perancis, dan Inggris, Ghulam Reza Saidi mengabdikan diri di bidang ‎pengajaran, penelitian, penulisan, dan penerjemahan. Dia juga melakukan ‎perjalanan ke Pakistan dan India yang kemudian membuatnya dipengaruhi ‎oleh pemikiran-pemikiran Iqbal. Ghulam Reza Saidi meninggalkan banyak ‎karya penulisan, di antaranya penerjemahan buku-buku Iqbal ke dalam ‎bahasa Persia, buku sejarah berjudul "Kehidupan Rasululah SAWW, " dan ‎‎"Ammar Yasir".‎

Saddam Husein ditemui di Irak Utara

Tanggal 13 Desember 2003, Saddam Husein, bekas diktator Irak ditangkap setelah ‎ditemukan bersembunyi di tempat persembunyiannya dekat Tikrit, Irak Utara. ‎Saddam Husein telah menyembunyikan diri sejak serangan AS dan Inggris ke Irak ‎pada bulan Maret 2003. Penangkapan diktator penumpah darah ini menyebabkan ‎kegembiraan besar di tengah rakyat Irak dan negara-negara seperti Iran dan ‎Kuwait, yang pernah merasakan kekejaman penguasa zalim ini. Sementara itu, ‎meski masyarakat dunia menunggu terungkapnya berbagai kejahatan diktator Irak ‎ini yang hingga saat itu masih belum terungkap, namun pihak AS tidak bersedia ‎melepas Saddam begitu saja dan terus mengawasinya agar berbagai kerjasama ‎negara ini dengan rezim tiran Irak ini tidak terungkap.‎

Saddam berhasil meraih kekuasaan di Irak melalui kudeta Partai Baath yang ‎beridiologi Marxist. Di sepanjang kekuasaannya yang otoriter di Irak, selain ‎membunuhi rakyatnya, ia juga mengagresi Iran dan Kuwait, serta melakukan ‎berbagai kejahatan yang sangat mengerikan di dua negara tersebut.‎

14 Desember
Dokter Mahmud Najm Abadi Lahir

Tanggal 14 Desember tahun 1903, Mahmud Najm Abadi, seorang ahli kedokteran ‎dan peneliti terkemuka Iran, terlahir ke dunia. Selain mengobati para pasiennya, ‎Dokter Mahmud Najm Abadi juga melakukan penelitian di bidang kedokteran, dan ‎mengajar di fakultas kedokteran. Dia banyak melakukan penerjemahan buku-buku ‎kedokteran klasik karya ahli-ahli kedokteran dunia Islam, di antaranya Muhammad ‎bin Zakaria Razi atau Ar-Razi. Dokter Mahmud Najm Abadi meninggalkan sekitar ‎‎45 karya penulisan, di antaranya berjudul, "Tinjauan Terhadap Kedokteran Islam", ‎‎"Sejarah Kedokteran Iran", dan "Muhammad Zakaria Razi: Dokter, Filsuf, dan ‎Kimiawan Iran".‎

Kutub Selatan Ditemukan

Tanggal 14 Desember 1911, beberapa pelaut Norwegia di bawah pimpinan Kapten ‎Roald Amundsen, berhasil mendaratkan kakinya di Kutub Selatan dan menjadi ‎manusia pertama yang mencapai wilayah itu. Pada saat yang sama, seorang ‎pelaut Inggris bernama Robert Scott, juga melakukan eskpedisi untuk mencapai ‎kutub selatan, namun sampai di sana sebulan lebih lambat dari Amundsen. ‎Bahkan, Robert Scott dan rombongannya tewas dalam perjalanan pulang.‎

Israel Menduduki Dataran Tinggi Golan

Tanggal 14 Desember 1981, Parlemen Rezim Zionis yang disebut Knesset, secara ‎resmi memasukkan wilayah Dataran Tinggi Golan ke dalam bagian Israel alias ‎Palestina pendudukan. Rezim Zionis dalam perangnya dengan bangsa-bangsa ‎Arab pada tahun 1967, menduduki Dataran Tinggi Golan yang merupakan bagian ‎dari wilayah Syria. Klaim Zionis atas Dataran Tinggi Golan mendapat penentangan ‎keras dari para penghuni wilayah tersebut, pemerintah Syria, dan bangsa Arab. ‎Hingga kini, perseteruan tentang masalah Dataran Tingggi Golan selalu merwanai ‎konflik Arab-Israel.‎

Perjanjian Dayton
‎
Tanggal 14 Desember 1995, ditandatanganilah perjanjian Dayton di Ohio, AS. ‎Dalam perjanjian ini, disepakati terbentuknya dua negara terpisah di Bosnia, yaitu ‎Republik Bosnia-Serbia dan Republik Bosnia-Croatia. Konflik di Yugoslavia berawal ‎dari tahun 1992 ketika Slovenia, salah satu dari enam negara bagian Yugoslavia, ‎memerdekakan diri. Dalam waktu 10 hari, Slovenia mendapat pengakuan dari ‎masyarakat internasional karena Slovenia hanya terdiri satu etnis yang beragama ‎Katolik. Negara Sosialis Yugoslavia didirikan oleh Marshall Tito pada tahun 1945 ‎dengan terdiri dari 6 negeri yaitu - Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia-‎Herzegovina, dan Macedonia. Di Serbia, dua mendapatkan kekuasaan otonomi ‎yaitu Kosovo dan Vojvodina. ‎
Menyusul kemudian Kroasia memisahkan diri. Bangsa Serbia menentang ‎kemerdekaan Kroasia ini dan meletuslah perang di sana. Namun akhirnya, Kroasia ‎berhasil menjadi negara merdeka. Bosnia Herzegovina yang mayoritas ‎penduduknya muslim, kemudian juga memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Bosnia ‎memiliki multietnik, yaitu etnik Bosnia yang muslim, Serbia yang ortodok dan ‎Kroasia yang Katholik. Etnis Serbia dengan dukungan pemerintah pusat ‎Yugoslavia melakukan pembersihan etnis di Bosnia. Tercatat 250 ribu bangsa ‎Bosnia tewas dan kaum perempuannya diperkosa massal. Satu juta dua ratus ribu ‎orang lainnya menjadi pengungsi. ‎

15 Desember
Sejarah Argentina

Tanggal 15 Desember 1516, dimulailah imigrasi pertama bangsa Eropa ke ‎Argentina yang dipimpin oleh Juan Diaz de Solis. Ekspedisi Spanyol yang pertama ‎ke Argentina dilakukan pada tahun 1502 dengan pimpinan Amerigo Vespuccio. ‎Pada saat itu, kawasan Argentina ditinggali oleh berbagai suku Indian, yang ‎terbesar di antaranya, suku Patagoni dan Andeans.‎
Orang-orang Spanyol kemudian mendirikan berbagai kota di Argentina, misalnya ‎pada tahun 1526, Sebastian Cabot mendirikan sebuah benteng di tepi sungai ‎Carcarañá yang menjadi pemukiman bangsa Eropa pertama di Argentina. Pada ‎tahun 1536, de Mendoza mendirikan Buenos Aires, namun kemudian kota ini ‎ditinggalkan pada 1541 setelah dihancurkan oleh penduduk pribumi. Kota ini ‎dibangun kembali pada tahun 1580, dan sejak abad ke-18 kota ini dijadikan ibu ‎kota seluruh koloni Spanyol di Argentina. ‎
Lambat laun, para imigran Eropa semakin banyak berdatangan ke Argentina dan ‎Amerika Latin pada umumnya. Mereka kemudian berniat mendirikan pemerintahan ‎sendiri yang terlepas dari penguasa koloni. Perjuangan para imigran Argentina ‎dimulai pada tahun 1810 dan pada tahun 1816, mereka memproklamasikan ‎kemerdekaan Argentina. Pada saat yang bersamaan, perjuangan mengusir ‎pemerintahan Spanyol bergolak di Amerika Latin, di antaranya dengan dipimpin ‎Simon Bolivar. ‎
Meskipun para imigran telah berhasil mendirikan pemerintahan independen di ‎Argentina, namun hak-hak penduduk pribumi telah diabaikan oleh para imigran ‎yang berkuasa di Argentina. Dalam UU pertama negara ini, tahun 1853, disebutkan ‎bahwa Kongres harus menjamin keamanan bangsa, menjaga perdamaian dengan ‎kaum Indian, dan menyuruh mereka masuk agama Katolik."‎
Selama seabad setelah kemerdekaan Argentina, kota Buenos Aires berkembang ‎pesat dan ramai didatangi imigran Eropa, khususnya dari Italia. Argentina menjadi ‎sebuah negara yang penuh kaum imigran Eropa dan merupakan rumah bagi ‎komunitas Yahudi terbesar di dunia. Kaum Indian pemilik asli tanah Argentina ‎sendiri telah punah pada abad ke-19. Yang kini tersisa adalah bangsa Indian ‎campuran yang tersisih ke pinggiran.‎

Henri Becquerel Lahir
Tanggal 15 Desember 1852, Antoine Henri Becquerel, seorang ilmuwan besar ‎Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Ayah dan kakeknya juga merupakan ilmuwan besar ‎pada zaman itu. Karya pertama Becquerel adalah mengenai polarisasi cahaya dan ‎penyerapan cahaya oleh kristal. Pada tahun 1896, dia menemukan fenomena ‎radioaktif alami. Pada tahun 1903, Becquerel berbagi hadiah Nobel di bidang fisika ‎dengan Pierre and Marie Curie untuk penemuan mereka di bidang radioaktivitas. ‎Henri Becquerel meninggal dunia tangga 25 Agustus tahun 1908.‎

Spanyol Meninggalkan Sahara Barat
Tanggal 15 Desember 1975, Spanyol mengumumkan untuk meninggalkan Sahara ‎Barat, daerah jajahannya sejak tahun 1884. Dengan demikian, berakhir sudah ‎perjuangan kaum gerilyawan Sahara Barat yang tergabung dalam gerakan ‎pembebasan Polisario. Polisario kemudian memproklamirkan berdirinya Republik ‎Demokratik Arab Sahara.‎
Namun, kemudian Maroko menganeksasi Sahara Barat dan mengklaim bahwa ‎kawasan itu adalah bagian dari wilayahnya. Meskipun Mahkamah Internasional di ‎Den Haag, Belanda, menyatakan bahwa invasi Maroko itu melanggar hukum, ‎namun Maroko tetap tidak bersedia mundur dari wilayah itu. Akhirnya kembali ‎pecah perang di Sahara Barat. Puluhan ribu orang melarikan diri dari kekerasan ‎perang. 170 ribu Sahrawi, yaitu penduduk asli Sahara Barat sampai kini masih ‎tinggal di kamp pengungsi di Aljazair dalam kondisi buruk. Direncanakan, akan ‎diadakan referendum dengan pengawasan PBB untuk menentukan nasib masa ‎depan bangsa ini. Sahara Barat terletak di barat laut Afrika di tepi pantai Atlantik, ‎luas 284.000 km2 dan berbatasan dengan Mairitania, Maroko, dan Aljazair.‎

16 Desember
Perjuangan Siprus (Cyprus) Melawan Penjajahan Inggris Dimulai

Tanggal 16 Desember 1950, dimulailah kebangkitan rakyat Siprus untuk melawan ‎penjajahan Inggris. Siprus adalah sebuah pulau seluas 9251 kilometer persegi di ‎laut Mediterania. Pada abad ke-16 pulau ini dikuasai oleh Imperium Ottoman dan ‎pada tahun 1925, Inggris secara resmi menjadikan pulau ini sebagai wilayah ‎jajahannya. Sejak itu, terjadi perang saudara antara penduduk Siprus etnis Turki ‎dengan penduduk etnis Yunani yang menghendaki penyatuan Siprus dengan ‎Yunani. Pada tahun 1959, diadakan konferensi Yunani-Turki di Zurich dan London ‎yang menyetujui kemerdekaan Siprus. Pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1960, Siprus ‎resmi merdeka dengan pemerintahan berbentuk republik.‎

Kazakhstan Merdeka
Tanggal 16 Desember 1991, Kazakhstan memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. ‎Bangsa Kazakh adalah etnis terbesar yang menempati wilayah Kazakhstan dan ‎merupakan keturunan dari kabilah Turki dan Mongol. Pada awal abad ke-18, ‎Kazakhstan dikuasai oleh Rusia. Pada abad ke-19, bersama dengan kawasan lain ‎di Asia Tengah, penduduk Kazakhstan mengenal dan memeluk agama Islam. ‎Ketika revolusi komunis menang di Rusia dan Uni Soviet berdiri, sejak tahun 1920 ‎Kazakhastan dijadikan salah satu dari 15 negara yang tergabung dalam Uni Soviet. ‎Seiring dengan bubarnya Uni Soviet, Kazakhstan pun memerdekakakan diri dan ‎menjadi negara berbentuk republic dengan Nur Sulthan Nazharboyev sebagai ‎presiden pertamanya.‎

Roger Garaudy Dipenjara

Tanggal 16 Desember 1998, Pengadilan Banding Paris menjatuhi Roger Garaudy ‎hukuman penjara dan denda sebesar 40.000 dolar atas tulisannya yang berjudul ‎‎"The Founding Myths of Israeli Politics" (Mitos Dasar Politik Israel). Dalam buku itu, ‎berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dilakukannya, Garaudy menyodorkan bukti ‎bahwa NAZI dan Yahudi bekerja sama dalam PD II. Dalam buku ini, Garaudy ‎menyatakan bahwa kisah tentang kamar gas Auschwitz yang digunakan Nazi untuk ‎membunuh kaum Yahudi adalah rekaan belaka yang bertujuan untuk menarik ‎simpati masyarakat dunia tehadap bangsa Yahudi agar mau menyetujui berdirinya ‎negara Zionis di Palestina. Lebih jauh, Garaudy menyatakan bahwa klaim adanya ‎‎6 juta warga Yahudi yang tewas dibunuh Nazi adalah klaim bohong karena pada ‎zaman itu, populasi total Yahudi tidak mencapai jumlah enam juta. ‎
Atas tekanan dari kaum Yahudi, Roger Garaudy diseret ke pengadilan dan dijatuhi ‎hukuman penjara dengan tuduhan "mengingkari kejahatan anti kemanusiaan". ‎Anehnya, tidak satupun orang Yahudi yang pernah dijatuhi tuduhan mengingkari ‎kejahatan anti kemanusiaan yang terjadi di Qana, Lebanon pada tanggal 18 April ‎‎1996, ketika tentara Israel membunuh massal 100 pengungsi Arab yang berlindung ‎di markas PBB.‎

17 Desember
Napoleon Mengeluarkan Dekrit Milan ‎

Tanggal 17 Desember 1807, Kaisar Perancis, Napoleon Bonaparte, mengeluarkan ‎dekrit yang dikenal dengan nama Dekrit Milan. Dekrit ini dikeluarkan sebagai reaksi ‎atas blokade laut terhadap pelabuhan-pelabuhan Perancis yang dilakukan Inggris ‎sejak bulan Mei di tahun yang sama. Sebelumnya, pada tanggal 21 November ‎‎1806, Napoleon telah mengeluarkan dekrit atau "Komando Berlin" yang berisi ‎larangan bagi semua negara-negara Eropa yang berada di bawah kekuasaan ‎Perancis untuk melakukan perdagangan dengan Inggris. Dalam Dekrit Milan pasal ‎‎3, disebutkan bahwa pulau-pulau Inggris dinyatakan sebagai kawasan yang ‎diblokade. Setiap kapal, milik negara manapun, yang berlayar dari pelabuhan ‎Inggris, atau koloni Inggris, atau negara-negara yang diduduki oleh tentara Ingg
          FIFA Under 20s World Cup: Italy 3-2 Zambia        

The post FIFA Under 20s World Cup: Italy 3-2 Zambia appeared first on Twohundredpercent.


          African prisoners seek correspondents        
Len Clark

As a result of my having corresponded with inmates in an African prison over recent years I have been asked by three of those unfortunates to try to locate other Christians who may be interested in writing to prisoners on a regular basis.

These people exist in the most squalid situations - no clothes, no bed, no bedding, no chance to appeal, not enough food, not even any money with which to buy a postage stamp, no medical assistance, yet all have come to Christ since being sentenced.

If some of your readers would like to make the life of these Christian brothers a little easier please write to me at the address shown and include a couple of International Reply Paid Coupons from the post office. I will forward your letters to Zambia, and the prisoners at Kabwe will reply to you by air mail.

To help ease the boredom of their existence at night they also seek others who may like to donate small battery radio cassette/recorders with headphones (or walkmans) with Christian tapes - especially Christian teaching tapes.

Quoting from their letters, Geoffrey C. writes, 'Will you help me by circulating my humble request in your magazine my situation here is very terrible no one brings me food or toilet items I draw your attention on the miserable life through which we are passing ... please come to our aid before we die from starvation ... and ... by faith I say as much as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren you have done it unto me'.

Davies M: 'Here in prison malaria has claimed a lot of lives ... Our prayer group are always praying for you ... please help with supportive Scriptures on how we can draw on (Jesus) for His healing payment as Christians here get no medical help'.

Tanasias Y: 'Our conditions in prison are poor, not sleeping well on concrete floors without bedding, no bathing buckets, bare feet, no means on how to lodge an appeal ... without your help nothing good can come of us ... the morning prayer group pray for the drought to end. Proverbs 25: 25 says as cold water is to a weary soul, so is good news from a far country'.

If this request for pen pals touches your heart and you want to help your brothers in their hour of need, please contact me at Curries Road MS6, Dubbo 2830. I am a pensioner and not on the Internet.

LEN CLARK
Dubbo, NSW


          Elections in Zambia        
While we were all on break from school, things in Zambia certainly haven’t been quiet! Following the death of Michael Chilufya Sata last October, Zambia held elections for a new president a few weeks ago. On January 24, our partner community elected Edgar Lungu, the candidate from the Patriotic Front party, to be their new […]
          Muli Buti to Zambia Night 2014        
      What an amazing night for Engineers without Borders at BU! On November 13th, EWB held our first ever Zambian Cultural Night, complete with a dance performance by Afrithms, authentic food, and drum circle. With over 150 attendees, this celebration proved to be the highlight of EWB at BU’s year so far! We […]
          A Look into Zambian Culture        
       Beyond traveling to Zambia to implement EWB at BU’s cell signal amplification system and Biosand water filtration system this past August, the travel team experienced a culture much different from our own. The first main difference between life in Naluja and life in Boston is the environment itself. Naluja has two main […]
          2014 Trip to Zambia        
Our travel team of three students and two mentors recently returned to the United States after our 2014 Implementation Trip in Naluja, Zambia. Students Lauren Etter, Scott Nickelsberg and Donovan Guttieres along with mentors Josh Das and Balaji Kamakoti successfully implemented the cell signal amplification system we developed and tested at BU this past year.  […]
          Summer for Progress        
This summer marks the third trip to Naluja, Zambia, our partner community, and exciting progress for our chapter of Engineers Without Borders at BU. As we approach our August 2014 Implementation Trip, the travel team begins their preparation in anticipation of spending over two weeks in Zambia. This trip provides an invaluable opportunity to immerse […]
          Our Impact on Changing Statistics        
Guest Blog Writer: Abigail Rendos, Secretary-elect          Global health improvement: three powerful words that embody EWB USA’s main goal and our focus, as EWB’s BU student Chapter, while we work towards improving health standards in Zambia. Often, these goals become a guideline of our responsibilities as BU engineers as we attempt to […]
          Year-End Campaign: A Powerful Start to a new year of development in Naluja, Zambia        
Entering the new year of 2014 has given us a chance to re-evaluate the progress of our student chapter and development of our program in Naluja, Zambia. Recounting the successes of 2013, we were fortunate to send a travel team to Zambia during the month of August in order to implement the Cell Phone Signal […]
          Blanket Collection for Give Life!        
We are helping collect blankets for Give Life!
They will be donated to Won's Orphanage in Zambia, Africa.


If you have any new or gently used blankets that you would like to donate,
please email us at sealillie@gmail.com or givelifeproject@gmail.com.

Please help us spread the word too! :)




          New Year Wishes!        
We would like to wish all of you a wonderful new year; and encourage you to make new dreams and have the courage to pursue them!


We are busily working on new designs for the new year. We're most excited about the new pieces we have designed to benefit the Give Life Project in Zambia, Africa.
Our #1 seller last year was our Hope Elephant Necklace, which 100% of the proceeds are donated directly to Give Life. Check back soon for more details!




          The Commonwealth Of Nations!!        

In less than a fortnight’s time Glasgow welcomes the Commonwealth Games. They were formally called the ‘British Empire Games’, then the British Empire and Commonwealth Games and then the British Commonwealth Games but it dropped the British bit in 1978 to become just The Commonwealth Games.
I hope you followed that!

71 teams are participating. Six countries have been at every games - Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland, and Wales. Australia have the best record so far.

Reading Wikipedia about the games and their history is well… history. Here are some highlights -
“Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe competed from 1958–1962 as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.  Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore federated as Malaysia in 1963, then Singapore left in 1965. Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949. Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha were dependencies of Saint Helena, so the territory was officially called "Saint Helena and Dependencies" until 2009. Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha became equal parts of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in 2009. Western Samoa was renamed Samoa in 1997. Zanzibar and Tanganyika federated to form Tanzania in 1964. Zimbabwe withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2003.”
I hope you got that.

Others eligible include Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (territories of Australia), Nevis (a federal entity of the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis), Rodrigues (outer islands of Mauritius), and Zanzibar (a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania).

And Cornwall are now arguing that they should have separate representation.  The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and south Sudan have now made applications to send teams. The Pitcairn Islands' are discriminated against due to their tiny population- about 54. Lack of permanent population seems to prevent South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory, the New Zealand territory of Ross Dependency and the Australian external territories of Australian Antarctic Territory, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Coral Sea Islands and Heard Island and McDonald Islands from competing.
                                      
                                                            Nauru

But then Nauruan weightlifter Marcus Stephen who won twelve medals between 1990 and 2002 ( 7 golds) ended up being elected President of Nauru in 2007. Nauru is the smallest independent state in the Commonwealth, 21 sq k yet it is 19th on the all-time Commonwealth Games medal table.
                                      
                                                         I had to look it up

This week, the outfit to be worn by the Scottish athletes was unveiled. They shouldn’t have bothered. The first medal to be awarded is for the worst outfit. Scotland and Australia are battling it out – we are winning.
It is awful.
This is Australia's and ours is much worse..
                                 

The blue shirt has white speckles on it which looks as though a pigeon with a bowel issue has flown overhead. The tartan is supposed to represent heather at dusk, I presume this is a woman called heather, not the plant, and that heather is suffering from  homeochromocytosis.
 And the colour of the socks? Wit?
 Scottish sports presenter Dougie Donnelly said: “Team_Scotland Seriously ? The team are going OUT like that ? !!”
Others have commented the miracle of inventing a colour that clashes with itself.
Others speculate that Chris Hoy got wind of it and retired.
“Somewhere in Aucherader a tea room is missing its curtains," wrote Stephen Daisley at STV. "The shirts and dresses are not blue, not quite lapis lazuli, but the psycho-cerulean hue of a particularly vivid Smurfs doll. The kilts and shawls carry an amber, fuchsia, and aquamarine tartan, a curious mixture of the psychedelic and the twee. This is what the Sixties must have looked like in Ecclefechan."
People have described it as  "humiliating", "embarrassing" and "truly horrific "wrong on so many levels" and "the worst kit ever".
I liked the comment that ‘those Scotland uniforms look like something from the Eurovision Song Contest-1980.’
 Simon Ricketts said ‘They look like they're in a fancy dress episode of a Spanish soap opera.’
                                 
We say that Irn Bru is made from girders.
The new uniform, is made from curtains.

All getting a bit plaid out!  So I had better show you, don't say you were not warned...

                               

It is officially described as a  vibrant blue shirt  with a  pink, caramel and blue tartan kilt for men. The women  are just as bad- a blue wraparound dress with a tartan shawl. The uniform for women was made complete with a stone-coloured leather bag.  The bag might serve the same purpose as the wee bag you find in the netted compartment of the seat in front of you on a long and bumpy flight. Rugby 7s player Lee Jones described the outfit as “very comfortable and eye-catching”.
Is that the rugby seven’s for the visually impaired…
 The designer Jilli Blackwood , a  graduate of Glasgow School of Art said: “There will be no mistaking that this is the Scottish Team as they proudly step out at the opening ceremony.”
Indeed.


However the games have given us great moments
                                       

The 'Miracle Mile' in Vancouver 1954  England’s Roger Bannister and Australia’s John Landy.  The only two sub-four-minute milers in history at the time. They were under the four minute barrier again, Bannister won by a narrow margin. He said that last lap was ‘one of most intense and exciting moments of my life.’

                               
                                 
And that famous piece of film of Jim Peters collapsing in the marathon, same year. He had lead by three miles earlier in the race, pushing himself to heat exhaustion and then collapsed time and again. Eventually his masseur  managed to hold onto him and stop him mid stagger 200 yards short of the finish.
He had actually covered the marathon distance, the course was later measured at 27 miles!

                         

                           
                              
And in Christchurch 1974, that famous 1,500m. maybe the greatest  ever at that distance.  Filbert Bayi  ran three minutes, 32.16 seconds. He was 12 metres clear at the halfway stage, however on the last lap local stars Rod Dixon and John Walker – the two black shadows   closed down forcing him to kick away.  Nearly everybody who crossed the line that day broke a record of some sort, it was so fast.

 


In Edmonton 1978, the  17 year old Clones Cyclone ‘Barry McGuigan boxed to victory in the bantamweight class, aged just 17. He  could not stop crying as he received his medal.


                            

Edmonton 1978 I have no idea why my granddad was a fan of ‘Precious McKenzie’ but he was.   The queen was too!
She was late for an official function because she wanted  to witness him get his third gold medal for weight lifting. He was only 4' 9".




                      

And the dead heat? Allan Wells and Mike McFarlane tying in the 200m, Brisbane 1982. Not an inch between them, it remains the only time a dead-heat for a gold medal has been ratified in a major championship.


                             

In Kuala Lumpur 1998 a 15 year old swimmer called Ian Thorpe won four gold medals! The Australian coach famously said  â€œYou can't believe he's 15. It's genetics gone bloody crazy!”

I am not too chuffed at the games, the road race cycling coincides with my book launch. Crime writers in lyrca? Anybody?
Caro      

          JUCE TV “Power Source” Show on How to Renew Your Mind With Dr. Gershom Sikaala        

Recently, on the JUCE TV network web series The Power Source, I interviewed guest Dr. Gershom Sikaala from Zambia, South Africa. He is an author, speaker, evangelist, humanitarian and founder of Zambikes. The subject of the interview was “The Power of Renewing Your Mind.” Sikaala recently wrote a book called Breakthrough Thinking, and he discussed the importance of listening to God’s voice and walking in your calling.

[Source: gershomsikaala.org]...


          USAID Global Health Fellowship Program (GHFP) Senior HIV Financing Advisor in Zambia 2017        

The Global Health Fellows Program (GHFP-II) is a cooperative agreement implemented and managed by the Public Health Institute in partnership with Global Health Corps, GlobeMed, Management Systems International and PYXERA Global. 

Application Deadline: 21st August 2017

To Be Taken At (Country): Lusaka,

 » Continue reading about: USAID Global Health Fellowship Program (GHFP) Senior HIV Financing Advisor in Zambia 2017  »
          Fires across Zambia        

          Fires across Zambia (false color)        

          Forest foods, Africa's secret ingredients        
Sheila Dillon explores Africa's forest foods, both an emergency larder and source of wonderful flavours. With the support of Comic Relief and funds raised through Red Nose Day work is underway to tap into the potential of this neglected food source. From Shea butter to Maringa, Sheila tastes her way through this story with Tony Hill of the charity Tree Aid, and Malcolm Riley, "the African Chef", whose cooking career started in Zambia. On the menu, prawns stir-fried in an ingredient from the baobab tree, and as Malcolm explains, it's "modern African cuisine". Producer: Dan Saladino.
          Lingsoft licenserar rättstavningsprogram för swahili till Microsoft        

Lingsoft licenserar högklassigt rättstavningsprogram för swahili till Microsoft Corporation

Åbo, 5.6.2007 – Lingsoft AB har licenserat sitt rättstavningsprogram för swahili till Microsoft Corporation. Enligt det avtal som företagen ingÃ¥tt är Microsoft Corporation berättigad att utnyttja rättstavningsprogrammet för kiswahili i Microsoft Office. Det nya korrekturprogrammet utgör en del av Microsofts Local Language Program.

"Microsoft vill förse Microsoft Office med högklassiga korrekturverktyg för en rad språk som hittills saknat dem", konstaterar Jason Redford, Senior Program Manager på Microsoft Proofing Tools, Dublin. "Vi har samarbetat med Lingsoft sedan 90-talet, och de förfogar över en lång och imponerande erfarenhet av att utveckla korrekturverktyg för de nordiska språken i Microsoft Office."

Korrekturprogrammet för swahili är ett rättstavningsverktyg med hög täckning och precision. Det är baserat på Lingsofts teknologi som blivit branschstandard, och det utvecklades i samarbete med världens främsta experter på östafrikanska språk.

"Det är en fascinerande upplevelse att få leverera denna viktiga ordbehandlingsfunktion för swahili till Microsoft. Det här är första gången vi tillämpat vår Lingsoft-teknologi på ett afrikanskt språk. Resultaten är mycket positiva och utvecklingen från koncept till kommersialisering gick snabbt", berättar utvecklingschef Simo Vihjanen på Lingsoft.

Swahili talas i ett stort område som sträcker sig från Tanzania och Kenya över Uganda, Rwanda och Burundi ända till de nordliga och östra provinserna av Demokratiska Republiken Kongo, de nordliga delarna av Malawi, Moçambique och Zambia, Komorerna och Somalias gränser. Enligt uppskattningar kan över 100 miljoner människor kommunicera på swahili. I Tanzania, Kenya och Uganda har språket en officiell ställning.

Vad är Microsoft® Local Language Program? Det är ett världsomspännande initiativ med syfte att erbjuda privatpersoner programvara för hemdatorer på deras eget språk. Mer information finns här.

Lingsoft AB:
Lingsoft är ett fullserviceföretag inom språkteknologi med ett omfattande utbud av produkter och tjänster för tal- och skriftspråk. Lingsofts lösningar är baserade på företagets egen teknologi för analys av meningar, en teknologi som numera blivit standard inom branschen.

Med Lingsofts språklösningar presterar du mera. Vi erbjuder allt från översättningar och termsamlingar till korrekturverktyg, text mining, utbildningsapplikationer och talstyrda tjänster.

Mer information: Simo Vihjanen, Chief Development Officer, +358 2 279 3318, +358 44 290 1673.


          Meanwhile        
...MasterM is playing Rugby in Zambia...


Yes, you did read that correctly, Zambia not Tanzania.

MasterM is playing for the Dar-Es-Salaam Leopards in Lusaka

which makes him an International Rugby player - no?

MrsM diffidently suggests to MasterM that if he is planning to travel around Africa he should keep an eye on the news. MasterM knows exactly what MrsM is worried about and points out that the Ebola virus outbreak is closer to London than it is to Zambia or Tanzania. MrsM checks the map of Africa and sees that he is correct - which is one less thing to worry about so she can concentrate on crocodiles, malaria and mad taxi drivers.

          Food: trading away our future - Part III        


Because of productivity gains in developed countries, agriculture prices dropped by some 60% in the period 1960-2000. As the productivity of the poorest farmers remained much the same, it is obvious that they have lost out. Their value of production, regardless if they eat it themselves or sell it, has gone down considerably, making them poorer both in relative and absolute terms.

In two previous posts I discussed the impact of the rapid growth of international trade in food and agriculture commodities. This globalization of food commodities has led to, or enabled, an increasing disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. The increase in trade has big environmental repercussions as well as a big social and cultural impact. Trade is not only a response to market demand, it creates demand and therefore recreates the need for it; trade becomes its own justification.

In this post I will discuss the impact on producers from the global competition.

According to economic theory, poor countries should compete in trades that require a high labor input and have low capital require­ments. Histori­cally, agriculture has been such a sector. But today’s agriculture, in the rich countries at least, is characterized by a low labor input and very high capital input. Mechanization has crushed the comparative advantage of poor countries and poor producers. Poor farmers can only be competitive in crops which have not yet been successfully mechanized, such as coffee, tea, flowers, avocadoes and green beans. At the beginning of the 1960s developing countries had a trade surplus in agricultural produce of around US$7 billion, but by the beginning of the new millennium that balance had shifted to a deficit of around US$20 billion and, if we exclude Brazil this figure is much higher, at US$27 billion.[i] [ii] It is not only the money flow that has drastically changed direction, but also the flows of calories. In the late 1960s developed and developing countries were more or less producing their own calorific needs, but in 2009, many more develop­ing countries had become net importers of food. Sub-Saharan Africa went from a four­teen percent surplus of calories to a thirteen percent deficit.[iii]

In 2012, I visited two very different farmers; Bob Stewart in Illinois and Susan Mkandawire in Zambia. Bob farms in the Corn Belt, south of Chicago and Susan farms not far from the international airport in Zambia. They are both maize growers, and as farmers they shared worries over the weather, prices, access to labor and many other things. They were also very different, or at least they operate under very different conditions. Bob’s yields of maize are regularly more than 10,000 kg per hectare while Susan, in a good year, gets around 2,000 kg per hectare, i.e. Bob harvests more than five times as much per area unit. That is remarkable. But what is much more remarkable is how much land they farm; Bob’s farm is 3,200 hectares while Susan manages less than half a hectare.  

Bob grows maize in Pana, Illinois
Bob works the farm with a brother and three full time employees, their father and Bob’s wife are also involved in the operation. In peak season they have four more helpers; each person thus manages more than 400 hectares, i.e. they spend less than five hours of work to manage the total land area that Susan farms with her husband, Fred. Because they are very poor, Fred takes on other jobs outside the farm when he finds them; at the time of my visit he was occasionally working as a watchman. Apart from the maize they also grow vege­tables which are sold in the market in Zambia’s capital Lusaka. But let’s focus on the maize. Together they spend some 266 hours per year tending their 0.4 hectares of maize. They hire a team of oxen to do the land preparation; which saves them 120 hours on land prepara­tion by hand, still the dominant method in Sub-Saharan Africa. 
Susan grows maize in Zambia


Through the ease of transportation and storage (mainly driven by the fossil fuel economy), there is more or less a global market for grains, pulses and oil crops, with similar prices all over the world, tariffs or other government interventions being the only other factor of importance. These prices are determined by the producers who can combine large areas with mechanization, i.e. those than can use a lot of resources and a lot of external energy. The dramatic increase in labor productivity we have seen in the farm sector is linked to the increased use of external energy sources, be it for pumping water, driving tractors and combine harvesters or making chemical fertilizers. It is almost self-evident that Susan in Zambia has not a chance in hell of competing with Bob in Illinois. This example begs the question of whether global food markets really work to our advantage. Poor people and poor countries are supposed to get a comparative advan­tage from low labor costs. But this mechanism is totally broken when the cost for labor is depressed far below sustenance levels, not to speak about reproduction, that is raising a family. Because of productivity gains in developed countries, agriculture prices dropped by some 60% in the period 1960-2000. As the productivity of the poorest farmers remained much the same, it is obvious that they have lost out. Their value of production, regardless if they eat it themselves or sell it, has gone down considerably, making them poorer both in relative and absolute terms.

(this post is almost entirely drawn from my book Global Eating Disorder)



[i]                   Regmi, A. and M. Gehlhar (editors) 2005 ‘New Directions in Global Food Markets’, USDA Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 794.
[ii]                   FAO 2007 The State of Food and Agriculture 2007 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
[iii]                  FAO 2012 Statistical Yearbook 2012. FAO Statistics Division Metalink: P2.HUN.FAO.TFS.SSCAL, p. 165
[iv]                  National Cotton Council of America 2013 US and World Cotton Outlook September 2013 NCCA.

          Af