Blast from Bob        
Bob gives me an update.  He is doing some interesting work with the car and taking it to the next level:
 I started to talk about the charger issue.  I had contacted the Zivan rep and got a cold shoulder from them.  I designed my own charger and got it working after a few blown transistors.  My goal was 135 volts max and 10 amps max and the charger achieved both of those goals.  The packaging was rather crude because I used a discarded chassis from some unknown piece of electronic gear.  It was so bulky that I was unable to close the hood while charging. Right after I got that thing working well, I stumbled upon the forum called diyelectriccar.  Under the heading about charging, I found other people unable to get Zivan to properly convert their chargers to lithium.  One person actually went to the extent of designing a bug to replace the existing processor.  He was willing to sell copies of this bug so I bought one.  He even included a sample program which he had used for his car.  I don't know much about programming, but since all I had to do was change a few lines of code to match my battery pack, I got the Zivan working for lithium! I put my design aside and just chalked it up to experience.  Another little problem I solved involved the lack of a reliable parking brake.  Using the chocks has been unhandy.  I lost one when I drove off without it.  The solution is a brake club.  Rather than describe it, I'll send a picture.  The club goes between the pedal and the base of the seat.  It goes over center and latches.  Another latch situation came up.  The 12v battery went down to the extent it wouldn't operate the relay to energize the main solenoid.  This is a situation which could leave you stranded.  This relay also connects the DC-DC converter from the main battery to the little one.  The emergency fix for this is to drill a small hole in the the side of the DC relay, turn on the key, and insert a toothpick into the hole against the relay armature and push.  The relay will hold because the small battery is being charged by the big battery.




I hope to get down there and film a ride sometime.  It would be quite a different ride, I think.
          Pyre CODEX-3DMGAME Torrent Free Download        


Pyre (c) Supergiant Games

Release Date :  07/2017              Protection : Steam
Discs        :  1                    Genre      : Action

Pyreis a party-based RPG in which  you lead  a band  of  exiles  to
freedom through ancient competitions spread across a vast, mystical
purgatory. Who shall return to glory, and who shall remain in exile
to  the  end  of  their  days?Key Features  A New  World  From  the
Creators of Bastion and Transistor Experience the biggest  and most
imaginative world yet fromSupergiant!

For more info go to : http://store.steampowered.com/app/462770/

- Extract
- Burn or mount the .iso
- Run setup.exe and install
- Copy crack from CODEX dir to installdir
- Play

General Notes:

- Block the game\'s exe in your firewall to prevent the game from
trying to go online ..
- If you install games to your systemdrive, it may be necessary
to run this game with admin privileges instead

Torrent Free Download Here

          Fungsi - Fungsi Komponen Pada Handphone         

Fungsi SETIAP KOMPONEN PONSEL


ANTENA

Fungsinya sebagai Penangkap dan Pemancar Gelombang Signal yang diterima oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


SWITCH ANTENA

Fungsinya sebagai Duplixer / Pemisah antara Signal RX (Penerimaan) dengan Signal TX (Pemancaran), dan bisa juga disebut sebagai Terminal pada Pesawat telepon Selular


FILTER RX

Fungsinya Sebagai penyaring / pembagi frekwensi yang diinginkan / yang akan diterima, agar sinyal menjadi lebih bersih yang akan diterima oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


PENGUAT RX (Transistor)

Fungsinya Sebagai penguat frekwensi penerimaan yang telah disaring oleh Filter RX sebelum diproses lebih jauh oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


IC RF PROCESSOR

Fungsinya Sebagai pengontrol sinyal RX (masuk) dan TX(keluar), agar setiap bagian dapat bekerja baik, Komponen ini terdiri dari beberapa bagian seperti : IF, MIXER, OSCILATOR, DETECTOR, ENCODER, DECODER, AFC, TONE FREQUENCY, SQUELCH


VCO (Voltage Control Oscilator)

Fungsinya : Sebagai Oscilator / Pembangkit frekwensi yang akan dikirim melalui bagian TX (Pemancaran) dan memeriksa Frekwensi yang masuk melalui bagian RX (Penerimaan) agar tetap sama dengan yang di pancarkan. Dan juga untuk mengatur tegangan pulsa dari RF Signal Processor.


FILTER TX

Fungsinya Sebagai penyaring / pembagi frekwensi yang diinginkan / yang akan diterima, agar sinyal menjadi lebih bersih yang akan diterima oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


IC P.A (Power Amplifier)

Fungsinya Sebagai penguat Akhir signal yang akan di pancarkan melalui komponen switch antena yang terdapat didalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


POWER DETECTOR

Adalah transistor yang mendeteksi, kuat lemahnya Signal dan mengirimkan data kepada CPU untuk diolah dan kemudian memberikan data keseluruh komponen terkait, Khususnya dengan Hardware yang berkaitan dengan Signal


IR T/R Dioda

Sebagai pemancar dan penerimaan frequency data dengan menggunakan cahaya infra merah, digunakan untuk mengiring dan menerima data aplikasi software, tanpa perlu kabel data.


Bluetooth

Komponen ini pemancar dan penerimaan frekuensi data dengan menggunakan gelombang radio atau gelombang frekuensi dengan fungsi-fungsi yang sama dengan infra red


SPEAKER

Suatu alat untuk keluarnya suara yang sebelumnya hanyalah getaran listrik dan diubah menjadi suara dengan melalui IC Audio, yang diterima oleh CPU untuk mengeluarkan suara yang terdapat dalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


MICROPHONE

Suatu alat untuk berbicara dan cara kerjanya ialah mengubah getaran suara menjadi getaran listrik agar suara yang diterima bisa diproses oleh komponen Pesawat Telepon Selular lainnya


SIM CARD

Identitas diri dari setiap Pesawat Telepon Selular yang sedang aktif tergantung dari provider sim card yang digunakan, dengan cara diproses oleh CPU yang terdapat dalam Pesawat telepon Selular


C.P.U

Pusat pengolahan data yang terdapat pada seluruh elemen atau komponen yang bekerja didalam Pesawat Telepon Selular seperti memerintah komponen terkait untuk bekerja sesuai kebutuhan dan dapat menerima informasi dari masing – masing komponen Contoh : Memerintahkan IC Power Supply untuk mensupply Tegangan/ arus keseluruh bagian Pesawat Telepon Selular, memerintahkan LCD untuk menampilkan Aktifitas pada Pesawat Telepon Selular, memerintahkan IC Flash untuk menyimpan data dan mengeluarkannya pada saat dibutuhkan, memeriksa data dari Sim Card yang masuk melalui IC Power Supply, menerima perintah data dari Keypad untuk di proses.


RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY)

Menyimpan data sementara dan membantu kinerja CPU.semakin besar kapasitas RAM semakin baik kinerja CPU.


IC FLASH

Adalah tempat penyimpanan Data pada Pesawat Telepon Selular, yang sifatnya sementara karena datanya dapat dirubah ataupun ditambah


EEPROM

Tempat penyimpanan data utama yang permanent atau data pabrik, dan bekerja tidak dengan ada atau tidak adanya arus listrik pada ponsel, karena mempunyai daya listrik tersendiri. Sedangkan letaknya terdapat pada IC AUDIO


IC REGULATOR

Untuk mengatur tegangan, agar dapat diatur sesuai kebutuhan masing-masing komponen terkait, dan juga sebagai pengkontrol dari IC Charging yang dikendalikan oleh CPU.


IC CHARGE

Komponen yang bekerja secara otomais pada saat pengisian dan kerjanya hanya untuk mengisi tegangan battry yang dikendalikan oleh CPU melalui IC Regulator


IC AUDIO

Fungsinya Sebagai pengolah sinyal suara yang masuk dari IC RF, diperkuat dan diteruskan ke Speaker, memperkuat getaran suara yang telah dirubah Mic menjadi getaran listrik kemudian diteruskan ke IC RF, menjalankan perintah dari CPU dan Pada IC Audio juga terdapat PCM ( Pulse Code Module ) dan EEPROM yang berfungsi membaca kode sinyal yang datang dari operator untuk disesuaikan dengan Imei Ponsel juga menyimpan data-data yang bersifat permanen seperti : Imei, Phone Code, Sec.Code


LCD (Liquit Cell Disply)

Komponen ini berfungsi sebagai alat yanga akan menampilkan semua kegiatan / aktifitas dari pada Pesawat Telepon Selular


Key Pad

Komponen ini berfungsi sebagai alat yang memberikan perintah data kepada CPU untuk di proses dan akan dikirimkan kepada komponen lain yang terkait dalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


IC Interface

Fungsinya sebagai pengontrol data yang diperintahkan oleh CPU untuk Vibrator, Buzzer, lampu dan bersifat sebagai saklar otomatis dalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


Battery

Fungsinya sebagai Sumber Arus listrik / Tegangan yang diperlukan untuk memberikan arus listrik kepada Pesawat Telepon Selular


FLEXIBLE

Fungsinya sebagai penghubung atau terminal antara perangkat atau komponen yang terdapat pada Pesawat Telepon Selular


          Transistor IRF3205 TRANS 64        

Preço Normal: R$6,80

Preço Promocional: R$6,46


          Transistor PNP Darlington BC516        

Preço Normal: R$1,20

Preço Promocional: R$1,14


          Big Blue shows off fastest graphene transistor        
ibm

55 billion cycles which is more than Bejing
IBM has been showing off its latest graphene transistor that can execute 155 billion cycles per second. It is about 50 percent faster than previous experimental transistors.

The new transistor has a cut-off frequency of 155GHz. The previous one could manage 100GHz  and it was shown off last year.

Top Big Blue boffin Yu-Ming Lin said that the research also shows that high-performance, graphene-based transistors can be produced at low cost using standard semiconductor manufacturing processes. In other words commercial production of graphene chips is not far away.

Graphene is a single-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms structured in a hexagonal honeycomb form. It could be used for high-performance RF (radio frequency) transistors.

Electrons move faster on graphene transistors than conventional transistors, which enables faster data transfers. Unfortunately they are not ideal for PCs yet, because they do not have the on-off ratio required for digital switching operations. But it is good at processing analog signals.



          Concerns over false messages spreading hatred through WhatsApp in India: Worries over impact on society, law-and-order and communal harmony        
Daily dose of false propaganda, communal messages, videos and hate can wreak havoc.

'The message is the medium' is an important article on this subject, which tells us how similar propaganda led to the genocide in Rwanda where 8 lakh people were killed in just 12 weeks.

Sushant Singh's powerful piece should wake us up about the situation that is arising because of such propaganda, false messages, unverified videos that are forwarded--incident of another country, termed as an incident here and blaming certain groups, even imaginary and absolutely false stories to spread communalism.

"From early 1990, anti-Tutsi articles and graphic cartoons had begun appearing in the Kangura newspaper. In June 1993, the RTLMC began broadcasting in Rwanda. The radio station was rowdy and used language of the street — like any other popular radio station, there were disc jockeys, pop music and phone-ins. It was designed to appeal to the unemployed, the delinquents and the gangs of thugs in the militia...", says the article.

READ: The Message Is The Medium

"The transcripts of RTLMC’s broadcasts are available in Duke University’s International Monitor Institute. A lot of attention has since been focused on the radio station’s efforts to direct the extermination — broadcasts told people to “go to work” and everyone knew that meant get your machete and kill Tutsis.

But what has escaped greater scrutiny is the manner — by demonising the Tutsis and encouraging hate and violence — in which the radio station prepared the ground among the people of Rwanda for genocide. The transcripts reveal RTLMC’s efforts to claim authority over the telling of Rwandan history whereby the hardline Hutu extremists exercised a monopoly over the truth".

"If radio was a powerful medium then, where you only needed a transistor and a few batteries, we have the smart phone and WhatsApp today. In the past few years, several instances have come to light where communal clashes are being planned or instigated through false videos circulating on WhatsApp."

"The police acknowledged that WhatsApp groups were used to incite the Muzaffarnagar riots in UP in the run-up to the 2014 elections. The gau rakshaks, the Jat agitators, and protestors in Kashmir also take advantage of WhatsApp groups to organise themselves."

"The government has responded by banning internet in such instances, making India the global leader in imposing internet blackouts. That is a tactical solution which prevents immediate violence. But the graver challenge of creating a fertile environment of hate, round-the-clock, by distorted story-telling continues unabated. It is not just the poor and semi-educated who are taken in by the alternative narrative of political propaganda on WhatsApp. The educated elite are equally guilty".

The complete article is available at the Indian Express website

          Comment on Ego Troopers (feat. Transistorcake) – Solo [Preview] by Transistorcake – Mr. Croissant Taker [Preview] «        
[...] Transistorcake, you might have heard his mind blowing remix for Sound Of Stereo on the “Volt” EP and his work in progress with Ego Troopers, “Solo”. [...]
          Comment on Sound of Stereo – Volt EP [Preview] by Transistorcake – Mr. Croissant Taker [Preview] «        
[...] you might have heard his mind blowing remix for Sound Of Stereo on the “Volt” EP and his work in progress with Ego Troopers, [...]
          Xbox 360 Controller ROL/Dome Mod with Automatic On/Off Switch        

This tutorial is meant to work if you use it just as it says. There are a lot of calculations involving the resistor values for the transistor. You must use four 3mm leds or a total of 80mA in leds if you would like it to work as we have intended it to in this tutorial. If you stray from this you will get varied results.

The first thing you need to do is take apart your controller so you have just the board. Please check the link below to do this if you do not already know how:

Disassemble Controller

Once this is done you will need the following items:

4 3mm LEDs of the same color
Wire
Solder
Soldering Iron
Hot Glue Gun
Resistors (make sure you have the correct values)
Transistor
Dremel or something similar

The next step is to get the leds into the Dome, this is by far the most difficult part of the entire mod. Once this is done you are smooth sailing.

In order to get the leds in there you must remove some of the plastic in the dome. We did this with a dremel like the one below.

Photobucket
Once it was removed the dome piece looked like this (make sure to leave the center post b/c this is what actually makes the button work when it is pressed):

Photobucket

Now it's time to wire up the leds to fit into the dome. We found that four 3mm leds will light it sufficiently and eliminate any 'hot spots'.

Before proceeding here is a picture of what the ending led 'cluster' will look like. Take a look at how close things are so that they will fit into the dome when you are done:

Photobucket

Take the first two leds and lay them next to each other and solder their negative legs together, like show:

Photobucket
Now bend the extra length up as show:

Photobucket

Now make another set like this with your other two leds and then join the ground points on each set of leds together so that it looks like this (you will have to trim the excess material away):

Photobucket
Now you need to connect all of the positive legs together along the outside of the cluster. You must be sure the (-) and (+) parts do not touch anywhere or you leds won't work. It should look like this now:

Photobucket
Once that is done you will need to solder on your (+) and (-) wires to the leds:

Photobucket
After that you need to put the leds into the dome. If they don't fit really well or 'drop' in like you might think then use a little force (not too much b/c you don't want to break them). Be careful because you have spent quite a bit of time to get to this point and you don't want to waste it all. Once it's in it should look like this:

Photobucket
Now solder them to the appropriate power and ground and power spots in the controller. Be sure to use the right resistors with them or you will burn out your leds. The voltage at the points in the controller that we use varies from 3.15-3.5v. Use this number to find your resistor value.

If you want to add a switch to the controller so that the lights don't waste your batteries when it is off then continue on with the tutorial.

We are going to use a transistor and make it act like a switch. Basically there is a switched voltage in the controller that will tell the transistor when it is on or off and then allow the current to flow through the leds when it is on. This is the basic concept.

Here is a picture of the transistor we will be using in this tutorial. Note that there is a curved surface on the plastic part of the transistor and it is facing you in the picture:

Photobucket
The next step is to solder a 180ohm (1/4w works) resistor to this point in a similar manner. We solder it from the backside (relative to where the resistor is mounted) as show.

Photobucket

Photobucket

Then you need to place the transistor as shown in the following picutre (be sure to note which way the curved surface of the transistor is facing. It is very important) . Place the 'bottom' leg through the first of the three holes, this is the ground we will use for this application. Then solder the middle leg to the other end of the resistor that you soldered a couple steps ago. Make sure your setup looks really similar to the one shown.

Photobucket

Photobucket

Once this is done then you will need to solder power to your leds. Take the appropriate resistor or the one given and solder it to this point and then solder your positive wire from your leds to the other end of the resistor. It should look like this:

Photobucket

Once this is done you only have to solder the negative wire from your leds to the last leg of the transistor (the one that hasn't been used yet). It should look like this:

Photobucket

Now you have finished. Test it out and watch it light up.

Photobucket


          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-24-2017 with Dj Swingsett        
Playlist:

Art Of Noise- Camilla - Ambient Collection
Shafiq Husayn- Twelve feat The Dove Society - Its Better For You Single
Soulstice- The Reason DJ Spinna Remix - Om Hip Hop Soul Sessions
DJ Wally- Stringsnthings feat DJ Swingset - Emulatory Whoredom
Skull- Destroy All Monsters - Snapz
Ruby Paraffin Wagon Christ Vocal Mix- Paraffin Wagon Christ Vocal Mix - Further Self Evident Truths 2
A Tribe Called Quest- Lost Somebody - We Got It From Here Thank You 4 Your Service
Mica Paris- Young Soul Rebels Remix - Young Soul Rebels
Fine Young Cannibals- Im Not The Man I Used To Be - The Raw And The Cooked
How Why Somebody- How Why Somebody - All Stars
Theo Parrish- Solitary Flight - Theo Parrish Solitary Flight
Alexi Delano- Round Round feat Robert Manos Charles Webster Mix - 10 Years Of Statra Vol 2 EP
Lazy Dog- Sade By Your Side Ben Watt Lazy Dog Remix - Volume 2
Stephane Attias Feat Vanessa Freeman- Travellers - Stephane Attias Feat Vanessa Freeman
Domu- Take Control - Archive Records Compilation
Shafiq Husayn- On Our Way Home feat Fatima Jimetta Rose - On Our Way Home feat Fatima Jimetta Rose Single
Mr Scruff- Mexicanos - Mr Scruff
The Notations- Superpeople - Hot Funky Soul Volume One
Earth Wind Fire- Moment Of Truth - Earth Wind Fire
Harvey Mandel- Baby Batter - Baby Batter
Tommy Stewart- Bump And Hustle Music - Tommy Stewart
Badder Than Evil- Tell That Man To Go To Hell - Gordons War Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Bonus Track Version
Frankie Beverly Maze- Joy And Pain - Live In Los Angeles
The Jones Girls- You Gonna Make Me Love Somebody Else - The Jones Girls
Dr Buzzards Original Savannah Band- Transistor Madness Future DJ - The Very Best Of Dr Buzzards Original Savannah Band
Dr Buzzards Original Savannah Band- An Organ Grinders Tale - The Very Best Of Dr Buzzards Original Savannah Band
Eddie Jefferson- Psychedelic Sally - Body And Soul
Ripple- Funky Song - But It Sure Is Funky
Steve Spacek- Follow Me - Follow Me Single
Peshay- Miles From Home - Miles From Home


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2017-01-24
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 02-19-2016 with Farrell Lowe        
Playlist:

Flying Lotus- Me YesterdayCorded - Until The Quiet Comes
Faust- Untitled - The Faust Tapes
HuunHuurTu- Chylandyk - If Id Been Born An Eagle
Nublu Orchestra- Downstairs - Nublu Orchestra
Evelyn Glennie- Attack Of The Glow Worm - Shadow Behind Iron Sun
- voicebreak -
David Thomas And Two Pale Boys- Spider In My Stew - Surfs Up
Evelyn Glennie- Battle Cry - Shadow Behind Iron Sun
Calexico Jim James- Goin To Acapulco - Im Not There Original Soundtrack Bonus Track Version
Albert Marcoeur- Comment Tu Tsens - MAR Et Coeur Comme Coeur
Deerhoof- Siriustar - The Runners Four
Ikue Mori- Abacus Blue Parrot - Garden
Carla Bley- Escalator Over The Hill - Escalator Over The Hill
Deerhoof- Fresh Born - Offend Maggie
HANS REICHEL- Alien Nipples - Coco Bolo Nights
JACK Quartet- The Boreal I Live - Elliott Sharp The Boreal
Brian Blade The Fellowship Band- Embers - Landmarks
Bill Frisell- Surfer Girl - Guitar In The Space Age
Karnak- Hymboraewqueyra - Karnak
The Beach Boys- Magic Transistor Radio - Holland
John Schott- The World Is Upside Down - Typical Orchestra
Carla Kihlstedt Matthias Bossi- Niagara Falling - Niagara Falling Tales For The Stage III EP
David Bowie- Segue Algeria Touchshriek - Outside
David Bowie- Ashes To Ashes - Scary Monsters Remastered
Tyondai Braxton- Boids - HIVE1
The Beach Boys- Radio King Dom - Holland
Alice Cooper- Changing Arranging - Pretties For You
Bill Frisell- Bryants Boogie - Guitar In The Space Age
Love- You Set The Scene - Forever Changes
Various Artists- Shantel Vs Taraf De Haidouks Duba Duba Si Hora - Electric Gypsyland 2
Bad Brains- I Against I - I Against I
David Simons- PicassoRossinrape II - Prismatic Hearing
Flying Lotus- Melt - Los Angeles
Spring Heel Jack- ChiaroScuro - Masses
Massacre- Legs - Killing Time
X- Nausea - Los Angeles


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2016-02-19
          Top Features of Spy Wireless Voice Transmitter        
Bugging have always remained a very difficult job to do. It requires so much secrecy and one has to very careful while doing some bugging jobs without anyone’s knowledge. It has been going on for a long time since the cold war between America and Russia when both the countries used to spy on each other’s secret activities. In some secret missions undertaken by private detectives, agents and security personal there are often some cases or situations when one cannot place a hidden camera to record video footages, so in these cases these bugs come into use.

While searching for evidence and clues that will lead you to a solution, one needs good quality audio and video footages. Even if the video is not clear but the audio should be clear enough so that one can easily recognize the voice of a person. It is often seen that a hidden camera gives a good visuals but due to lack of high quality audio output one has to get defeated so it is always important and necessary to carry a voice transmitter so that one don’t have to compromise on the sound quality. These devices give high quality sound output while in missions and often there are situations where you cannot install a camera.

Spy Wireless Voice Transmitter in India is gaining popularity very fast because of it’s out of the world features. It can collect wireless voice signals up to 300-500 meters. It consist of a pack of transistor and a receiver which will enable to listen to conversations from a far off area and its USP is that it can also record the audio so that you can be able to listen to it at a later time. And it’s another exiting feature is that it supports a memory card of 2 GB which will enable it to record audio for a long time.

If you are a entrepreneur and run an office with employees then you should keep an eye on them and know what they thinks about you and your office so the best part is place the transmitter where your staff sits and keep the receiver with you to listen to your staff member’s conversations and this will help you to know them better and if you are able to keep them happy then their productivity will be more. Spy Wireless Voice Transmitter in Delhi is available in selected online stores which will provide you in very low price and apart from them there are also some spy stores which will be able to satisfy your need of this covert audio device.


So, you can easily find these devices around your area and remain knowledgeable about the people around you by listening to their conversations without being with them, which will give you a better idea of their personalities.

          Learn to play guitar - Buying an electric guitar amp        

Having a great guitar amp might just be more important than having a great guitar. Sure both are important but you can sometimes plug a poor quality guitar into a great amp and have it sound good but a great guitar plugged into a terrible amp still won’t sound that good. There are basically four types of guitar amplifier and each has its own strengths and weaknesses.

Tube amps – The tube amp has been around the longest and is the amplifier that all others are modeled after. A tube amp uses glass vacuum tubes in its power section and preamplifier section. Because of the tubes, these amps have a warm tone that feels natural and offers a lot of sustain and power. The drawback to tube amps is that the tubes wear out over time and as they wear out, the sound of the amp changes. Tube amps also store a lot of voltage and therefore require a specially trained technician to change the tubes every few years.

Solid state – The solid state guitar amp has the benefit of sounding the same every time it’s switched on as it doesn’t rely on parts that wear out to create its tone. A solid state amp uses transistors in its preamp section rather than tubes. While this does make the amplifier slightly more reliable, the tone is generally grittier and more sterile especially on overdriven or lead tones. Solid date amps almost always cost less than tube amps.

Hybrid – The hybrid amp is a new breed of amplifier that blends a tube preamp section with a solid state power amp section to try to achieve the much desired tube tone. Marshall started this trend with their Valvestate line of amps and Line 6 has partnered with world renowned tube amp manufacturer Bogner to create a modern hybrid amp. A hybrid amp naturally costs a bit more than a solid state amp but are still less expensive than a high quality tube amp.

Modeling amp – These are amplifiers that have a digital processor built in that attempts to replicate the sounds of many different guitar amplifiers, cabinets, rooms and microphone placement. They are very flexible and usually have effects built in as well as a tuner, and a direct line out for recording. Most can be switched via a foot controller so that different sounds can be brought up on the fly. They are versatile amplifiers that can generate many different sounds and are getting closer to sounding like tubes amps all the time, but many are just not there yet.


          Moog Patents        
US Patent 3,475,623: Electronic High-pass and Low-pass Filters Employing the Base-to-Emitter Resistance of Bipolar Transistors “I have been collecting copies of Moog patents, those invented by Robert Moog and as well as those assigned to Moog Music, Inc., and the … Continue reading
          Building My Work Shop #15: Grizzly TS Repost & Updates        

Well one of the bitter angry little minds here at LJ’s reported me to The MAN fo posting my Grizzly resurrection story under the wrong section. So here we go again now in the proper area. It all just confirms my thoughts that the people on my banned aren’t worth my time. So sad that someone would have such a great amount of low self esteem. We can all just pray that one day that guys like Bently move out of their moms basement and maybe date a real flesh and blood woman.

LOL that should get somebody all sideways ;)

Ok so I got a heckuva a deal on the old CL for an old Grizzly 3HP Cabinet style TS, a G1023 to be exact. Now the poor machine had been relegated to being stored in a steel shed and a few months ago the temps around here plummeted overnight and the evil Condensation hit!

Here is what I purchased

After less than 2 hours of work the rust was gone.

Here is what I did to get rid of it.

First I sprayed it down with the last little bit of Top Saver I had in a bottle, maybe about just under a quarter of a bottle. Then I went to work with a power drill and a wire brush attachment for it I had on hand. It made quite the mess and about a roll of Paper Towels to wipe it all off but man did it work quickly. When I was done with all the rust it was a pretty ugly mess on the top so I took my bowl sanding kit to it and power sanded it with 80 grit, then 100, 120, 150, 180, 220, 320, 420, 600, & 800. That gave me a pretty good finish on the top. It didn’t take much with each grit just enough to flatten and even it out. I then took a new bottle of Top Save and sprayed it all over the top, I let it soak in for about a minute then took a piece of 1000 grit wet dry and “massaged” it in creating a dark mud like goop of liquid and metal dust. I wiped it all off with paper towels then hit is with more Top Saver and some 1200 grit Wet Dry. Wiped it all off again and once it was all dry I buffed it with a cloth bonnet I use for buffing bowls and such.

This is what appeared:

I thought that was it. I wired it up with a nice new plug stuck it in my 220V outlet and ….... well it made a buzzing noise then cut out :(

Luckily Grizzly has a top notch tech support. I call them up and let them listen and the guy says it’s the whatchamacallits or the other deals. Transistors or the pins. I’m gonna open it up later tonight and figure out what’s going in. The tech guy made it sound pretty simple so I am guessing it won’t take me more than 8 or 9 hours to fix it. ;)

I’ll check in later. Ok first step to repair is too plug to tool in, right?? bbbzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz IT


          Cliff Richard eller Elvis Presley        
hun husker . . . . . . .

Fra slutningen af 50erne og op igennem 60erne, var de to allerstørste navne Elvis Presley og Cliff Richard, der sammen med sin gruppe The Shadows gjorde pigerne svage i knæene.
Man mÃ¥tte være orienteret til enten den ene eller den anden og det var et meget vigtigt spørgsmÃ¥l, at have afklaret, hvem af de to idoler man var til. For mit eget vedkommende var jeg faktisk bÃ¥de til den ene og den anden med en svag overvægt til Cliff Richard. Hans musik var den blide slags og det appellerede til mig.




I 1960 oprette Danmarks Radio en ny musikradio, P3 og til at bestyre de unges programmer, ansatte man Jørgen Mylius med en alder af 16 år på bagen.
Vi teenagere hørte "Efter skoletid", "For de unge" og "Ugens top 20" med Jørgen Mylius i transistorradio, nÃ¥r vi om eftermiddagen kom fra skole. Det kunne godt være lidt af en kamp med ens forældre, nÃ¥r der bÃ¥de skulle læses lektier og høres musik samtidig. Disciplinen lød, "lektierne først og musikken bagefter". Til tider snød man nu, hvis det altsÃ¥ var muligt. Min forældre var meget strikse pÃ¥ det punkt og det var vanskeligt at omgÃ¥s.


Om aftenen lyttede vi til Radio Luxemburg, som spillede non stop, bl.a. med hitlisterne fra USA. Herfra var man leveringsdygtig i en stor del af tidens popmusik og navne.
Kært barn har mange navne, sÃ¥ledes ogsÃ¥ popmusikken, der bÃ¥de blev kaldt langhÃ¥ret musik, pigtrÃ¥dsmusik, beat og pop. Det var bestemt ikke musik, der faldt i vore forældres smag, sÃ¥ nÃ¥r vi skulle høre musik ,foregik det pÃ¥ værelset. Ofte havde man en veninde, til at lytte muik sammen med, pÃ¥ besøg.


En masse af tidens musik for de unge kom fra USA, England og sÃ¥gar Tyskland, der sidst i 50erne og frem diskede op med en stribe biograffilm med teenagestjernerne Conny Froboess, Peter Kraus og Rex Gildo. Conny og Peter var et begreb og  det var musik, der betog tidens unge. Der var trængsel i pladebutikkerne, hvor unge stod i kø for at købe single plader med bl. a. Conny og Peter. Men ogsÃ¥ Danmark havde navne som Otto Brandenburg, Gitte Hænning og ikke at forglemme de mange pigtrÃ¥dsorkestre, der dukkede op i tiden. Peter Belli & Les Rivals, The hitmakers, Sir Henry and the Butlers, The Rocking Ghost, The Defenders, The Beefeaters m.fl.

Peter Belli & Les Rivals


The Hitmakers


The Defenders

Little Eva, April Stevens, Pat Boone, Del Shannon, Poul Anka, Rolling Stones. - Rækken af amerikanske og engelske musikere fra 60ernes hitlister er næsten uendelig. Den vil vi komme ind pÃ¥ næste gang med smagsprøver af musikken.
          What IT Operations Can (and Should) Learn from the Electronics Industry        
  The state of New Jersey is home to some of the most significant electronics inventions in our history, including countless inventions by Thomas Edison and what became the modern transistor. Bell Labs ushered in a sustained period of innovation and along with it a robust and growing workforce. My own technology career also had […]
          MECANICA CUANTICA        

La mecánica cuántica1 2 es una de las ramas principales de la física, y uno de los más grandes avances del siglo XX para el conocimiento humano, que explica el comportamiento de la materia y de la energía. Su aplicación ha hecho posible el descubrimiento y desarrollo de muchas tecnologías, como por ejemplo los transistores que se usan más que nada en la computación. La mecánica cuántica describe en su visión más ortodoxa, cómo cualquier sistema físico, y por lo tanto todo el universo, existe en una diversa y variada multiplicidad de estados, los cuales habiendo sido organizados matemáticamente por los físicos, son denominados autoestados de vector y valor propio. De esta forma la mecánica cuántica explica y revela la existencia del Ã¡tomo y los misterios de la estructura atómica tal cual hoy son entendidos; lo que por otra parte, la física clásica, y más propiamente todavía la mecánica clásica, no podía explicar debidamente los fenómenos actualmente observados por los científicos.
De forma específica, se considera también mecánica cuántica, a la parte de ella misma que no incorpora la relatividad en su formalismo, tan sólo como añadido mediante teoría de perturbaciones.3 La parte de la mecánica cuántica que sí incorpora elementos relativistas de manera formal y con diversos problemas, es la mecánica cuántica relativista o ya, de forma más exacta y potente, la teoría cuántica de campos (que incluye a su vez a laelectrodinámica cuánticacromodinámica cuántica y teoría electrodébil dentro del modelo estándar)4 y más generalmente, la teoría cuántica de campos en espacio-tiempo curvo. La única interacción que no se ha podido cuantificar ha sido la interacción gravitatoria.
La mecánica cuántica es la base de los estudios del Ã¡tomo, los núcleos y las partículas elementales (siendo ya necesario el tratamiento relativista), pero también en teoría de la informacióncriptografía y química.
Las técnicas derivadas de la aplicación de la mecánica cuántica suponen, en mayor o menor medida, el 30 por ciento del PIB de los Estados Unidos

          Comentario en Display múltiple de 7 segmentos por Ariel        
Cuales son los transistores que se utilizan en estos circuitos?
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Vicente García        
Hola Geovany. Gracias por tus palabras.
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Geovany        
Muschisimas gracias por tan explicita explicación sobre los mosfet , es usted un excelente profesor.
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Vicente García        
Gracias Moisés por tus palabras.
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Moises        
Muschisimas gracias por su explicacion profesor, no sabe la gran ayuda que me ha sido su pagina web, es muy didactico y facil de entender, se ve que tiene vocacion para la enseñanza
          Comentario en Display múltiple de 7 segmentos por Carmen        
Buenas. Me pasa exactamente lo mismo. ¿Conseguiste arreglarlo? ¿Da igual el transistor que se monte mientras sea NPN? Yo soy ingeniero técnico pero mecánico, de construcciones maquinarias. Y sé lo mínimo de todo esto, prácticamente nada. Este verano me pondré las pilas, espero. Por favor, me urge para exponerlo en una feria, un contador digital hecho por los alumnos. Mil gracias
          Comentario en Control de motores CC por Ignacio        
Hola mi nombre es ignacio soy de uruguay, queria hacer una consulta por que quiero controlar un motor dc de induccion independiente de 160v 38A en el rotor y el estator 190v 0.85A que tipo de transistor o tiristor tendria que usar y como seria la conexion y por que gracias
          PEMBELAJARAN INTERAKTIF FISIKA SMA        
ALAT UKUR selengkapnya
AZAS BERNOULI selengkapnya
EFFEK DOPLER selengkapnya
EKIPARTISI ENERGI selengkapnya
ENERGI MEKANIK selengkapnya
GAYA selengkapnya
HUKUM NEWTON selengkapnya
GELOMBANG ELEKTROMAGNETIK selengkapnya
PERCOBAAN MELDE selengkapnya
INDUKSI ELEKTROMAGNETIK selengkapnya
ELASTISITAS BENDA selengkapnya
GERAK LURUS BERUBAH BERATURAN selengkapnya
GERAK MELINGKAR selengkapnya
JANGKA SORONG DAN MIKROMETER SEKRUP selengkapnya
KAPASITOR selengkapnya
GERAK ROTASI BENDA TEGAR selengkapnya
LENSA selengkapnya
LISTRIK STATIS selengkapnya
MEDAN MAGNET selengkapnya
GAYA LORENTZ selengkapnya
IMPULS dan MOMENTUM selengkapnya
MEMENTUM LINIER selengkapnya
PEMUAIAN selengkapnya
PERAMBATAN KALOR selengkapnya
RADIASI BENDA HITAM selengkapnya
RADIOAKTIFITAS selengkapnya
REAKSI INTI DAN REAKTOR ATOM selengkapnya
TEORI ATOM BOHR selengkapnya
TEROPONG selengkapnya
TITIK BERAT selengkapnya
TRANSISTOR selengkapnya
RANGKAIAN RLC selengkapnya
RANGKAIAN ARUS BOLAK BALIK selengkapnya
TUMBUKAN selengkapnya

          Intel announces 13 new quad-core Ivy Bridge processors        
Intel's next-generation Ivy Bridge processors will be the first to feature a "3D Tri-Gate transistor," The BBC reported on Sunday. The company plans to initially release 13 quad-core processors for desktop computers that it promises will offer more computational power while using less energy. Intel hopes its new transistors, which have been in development for 11 years, will help it challenge ARM's reputation for energy efficiency. "This is the world's first 22 nanometre product and we'll be delivering about 20% more processor performance using 20% less average power," the company said, adding that dual-core processors aimed at ultrabooks will be announced "later this spring." Intel promises that "there will be 50% more supply than we had early in the product cycle of our last generation, Sandy Bridge, a year ago. And we're still constrained based on the amount of demand we're seeing in the marketplace." Digitimes on Monday reported that shipments of the company's latest processors will still be lower than expected, however, and it will not be able to satisfy the strong demand anticipated from PC vendors. Read [BBC] Read [DigiTimes]
          Programa com datasheet de vários componentes         
Olá! nesse post vou apresentar e disponibilizar o programa semiconductor database, fabricado pela Burosch.
O Semiconductor database é um programa bastante simples, possui uma interface de fácil interpretação. Com ele é possível identificar as características de um componente como tensão de trabalho, corrente, pinagem, componente equivalente entre outras...
Entre esses componentes estão transistores, circuitos integrados, diodos, tiristores, triac, diac, fet, mos-fet, ram, rom, eeprom, eprom, microprocessadores, microchip, cpu, resistores e muito mais, são 95.300 semicondutores e circuitos integrados em sua base de dados!
Coloquei uma imagem para mostrar sua interface, fiz uma busca sobre o transistor BC548!
Veja a figura abaixo:



OBS: Clique na imagem para obter melhor visualização!

Como podemos ver na imagem além das características que citei, também é apresentado o tipo de invólucro que o componente possui, realmente é um ótimo programa!
O programa está dividido em três partes, segue abaixo o link para download!
Clique no botão abaixo para iniciar o download:





Quando iniciado o programa, aperte qualquer tecla, em seguida aperte a tecla Espaço, aparecerá o campo onde deve ser escrito o código do componente a ser pesquisado, após escrever o código apenas aperte enter e pronto os dados serão apresentados!
Na parte de baixo da tela, é apresentada uma legenda com as teclas utilizadas para cada finalidade do programa, como navegar no menu entre outras!

Seja um seguidor do blog, compartilhe conhecimento!

Cadastre seu e-mail gratuitamente e receba as atualizações do blog!

Abraços!

Att: Vando


          Quả Bóng Đá C60 và Ống Nano Carbon        
(Theo http://www.khoahoc.net/baivo/truongvantan/180506-ongnanocarbon.htm)

LTS: Tiến sĩ Trương Văn Tân là một cộng tác viên thường xuyên của mạng khoahoc.net. Được biết anh là một chuyên gia về vật liệu học (Materials Science) và polymer. Hơn mười năm qua anh nghiên cứu về polymer (plastic) dẫn điện và gần đây ống nano carbon. Trong bài viết nầy anh Tân giới thiệu sơ lược về nền công nghệ nano và vật liệu nano. Nhận thấy tầm quan trọng của nền công nghệ nano, Ban Biên Tập xin trân trọng giới thiệu bài viết nầy đến bạn đọc gần xa và nhất là đến các nhà khoa học tương lai của Việt Nam.

* * *

Cách đây mười năm cụm từ "công nghệ nano" (nanotechnology) ít được người biết đến, nhưng ngày hôm nay nó trở thành một thuật ngữ quen thuộc ở mọi giai tầng trong xã hội hiện đại. Người làm kinh tế hay chính trị cũng thường đề cập đến nano dù người nói lẫn người nghe lắm khi vẫn không biết đích xác là gì. Nano là tiếng gọi tắt của nanometer (ký hiệu nm, 1 nm = 10-9 m hay là 0.000000001 m) [1] là một đơn vị đo lường ở thứ nguyên nguyên tử hay phân tử. Công nghệ nano liên quan đến việc lợi dụng những hiện tượng ở đơn vị nanometer để thiết kế vật liệu và vật chất với những chức năng đặc biệt ngay từ thang (scale) nguyên tử hoặc phân tử. Người ta gọi đây là phương pháp thiết kế "từ dưới lên" (bottom-up method) khác với phương pháp thiết kế thông thường "từ trên xuống" (top-down method) đang được lưu dụng [2]. Nhà vật lý học nổi tiếng Richard Feynman đã từng tiên đoán phương pháp "từ dưới lên" trong một bài thuyết trình năm 1959 qua câu nói vừa nghiêm túc vừa hài hước "There's plenty of room at the bottom" (Có rất nhiều chỗ trống ở miệt dưới). Lời dự đoán thiên tài nầy cho biết vùng tận cùng "miệt dưới" của nguyên tử và phân tử vẫn còn là những vùng phì nhiêu bát ngát chờ đợi con người đến thao túng khai hoang!

Tuy nhiên con người phải chờ đến 40 năm mới nhìn thấy sự bùng nổ của nền công nghệ nano chủ yếu sử dụng phương pháp "từ dưới lên". Nền công nghệ nầy đang có tác động mạnh lên nền công nghệ "cổ điển" hiện tại và cũng là một động lực của những công trình nghiên cứu đa ngành (multi-discipline) bao gồm vật lý, hóa học, vật liệu học, sinh học, toán học, tin học v.v... Đây là một cuộc cách mạng kỹ nghệ của loài người ở thế kỷ 21. Nó sẽ mang lại cho nhân loại những thay đổi khoa học kỹ thuật mang tính đột phá và có tầm ảnh hưởng sâu xa trong sinh hoạt xã hội, văn hóa, kinh tế hơn cả cuộc cách mạng kỹ nghệ ở thế kỷ 18.

Đàng sau bức bình phong công nghệ nano là những vật liệu nano. Trong những vật liệu nầy xuất hiện hai dạng carbon: phân tử fullerene C60 có hình dạng trái bóng đá và ống nano carbon (carbon nanotube). Sự phát hiện của hai dạng carbon ở thập niên 80 và 90 ở thế kỷ trước có một trùng hợp thời điểm với sự ra đời và phát triển của công nghệ nano. Việc khám phá fullerene và ống nano carbon là tập hợp của nhiều sự kiện ngẫu nhiên. Gọi là ngẫu nhiên nhưng thật ra là những kết quả hết sức ngoạn mục phản ảnh một tinh thần làm việc miệt mài nhưng vẫn phóng khoáng lạc quan, một tư duy phân tích bén nhạy nhưng không xơ cứng giáo điều của nhà khoa học.

Hiện nay, hằng trăm trung tâm nghiên cứu lớn nhỏ về công nghệ nano được thành lập khắp nơi trên thế giới đứng đầu là Mỹ, Nhật Bản, Âu Châu, Trung Quốc với kinh phí toàn cầu trong vài năm tới sẽ tăng đến hằng chục tỷ USD mỗi năm. Đối với một số nước công nghệ nano và bộ môn fullerene/ống nanocarbon là ưu tiên quốc gia cho các đề án nghiên cứu và triển khai. Trong bài viết nầy chúng ta hãy nhìn xem có thật sự là con người đang đi vào một cuộc cách mạng khoa học kỹ thuật mở ra một thời đại hoàng kim công nghệ chưa từng có trong lịch sử nhân loại. Và có thật sự là nền công nghệ silicon của thế kỷ 20 đang từ giã "cuộc hí trường" để được thay thế bởi nền công nghệ carbon.

Quả bóng đá C60

Năm 1985, một nhóm nghiên cứu bao gồm Harold Kroto (University of Sussex, Anh Quốc) và Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl, Richard Smalley (Rice University, Texas, Mỹ) khám phá ra một phân tử chứa 60 nguyên tử carbon, viết tắt là C60. Giáo sư Kroto là một nhà nghiên cứu hóa học thiên văn. Vào thập niên 70, ông đã có một chương trình nghiên cứu những chuỗi dài các nguyên tử carbon trong các đám mây bụi giữa các vì sao (interstellar dust). Ông liên lạc với nhóm của Curl và Smalley và dùng quang phổ kế laser của nhóm nầy để mô phỏng điều kiện hình thành của các chuỗi carbon trong các đám mây vũ trụ. Họ không những có thể tái tạo những chuỗi carbon mà còn tình cờ khám phá một phân tử rất bền chứa chính xác 60 nguyên tử carbon. Sự khám phá C60 xoay hướng nghiên cứu của nhóm nầy từ chuyện tìm kiếm những thành phần của vật chất tối (dark matter) trong vũ trụ đến một lĩnh vực hoàn toàn mới lạ liên hệ đến khoa vật liệu (Materials Science). Năm 1996, Kroto, Curl và Smalley được giải Nobel Hóa học cho sự khám phá nầy.

Trước C60 người ta chỉ biết carbon qua ba dạng: dạng vô định hình (amorphous) như than đá, than củi, bồ hóng (lọ nồi), dạng than chì (graphite) dùng cho lõi bút chì và dạng kim cương (Hình 1). Sự khác nhau về hình dạng, màu mè, giá cả và cường độ yêu chuộng của nữ giới giữa than đá, than chì và kim cương thì quả là một trời một vực. Tuy nhiên, sự khác nhau trong cấu trúc hóa học lại khá đơn giản. Như cái tên đã định nghĩa, dạng vô định hình không có một cấu trúc nhất định. Trong than chì các nguyên tố carbon nằm trên một mặt phẳng thành những lục giác giống như một tổ ong. Cấu trúc nầy hình thành những mặt phẳng nằm chồng chất lên nhau mang những electron pi di động tự do. Than chì dẫn điện nhờ những electron di động nầy. Trong kim cương những electron pi kết hợp trở thành những nối hóa học liên kết những mặt phẳng carbon và làm cho chất nầy có một độ cứng khác thường và không dẫn điện.


Hình 1: Tám loại carbon theo thứ tự từ trái sang phải: (a) Kim cương, (b) Than chì, (c) Lonsdaleite, (d) C60, (e) C540, (f) C70, (g) Carbon vô định hình (h) Ống nano carbon (Nguồn: Wikipedia).

Sự khám phá của C60 cho carbon một dạng thứ tư. Sau khi nhận diện C60 từ quang phổ hấp thụ Kroto, Curl và Smalley bắt đầu tạo mô hình cho cấu trúc của C60. Trong quá trình nầy các ông nhanh chóng nhận ra rằng các nguyên tố carbon không thể sắp phẳng theo kiểu lục giác tổ ong của than chì, nhưng có thể sắp xếp thành một quả cầu tròn trong đó hình lục giác xen kẻ với hình ngũ giác giống như trái bóng đá với đường kính vào khoảng 1 nm (Hình 1d và 2). Phân tử mới nầy được đặt tên là buckminster fullerene theo tên lót và họ của kiến trúc sư Richard Buckminster Fuller. Ông Fuller là người sáng tạo ra cấu trúc mái vòm hình cầu với mô dạng lục giác (Hình 3). Cho vắn tắt người ta thường gọi C60 là fullerene hay là bucky ball.


Hình 2: Quả bóng đá phân tử C60 với đường kính vào khoảng 1 nm.


Hình 3: Kiến trúc sư Richard Buckminster Fuller và mái vòm hình cầu với mô dạng lục giác.

Trong việc quyết định trao giải Nobel, Viện Hàn Lâm Khoa Học Thụy Điển đã quên mất công lao của giáo sư Eiji Osawa. Ông là người đầu tiên đã tiên đoán sự hiện hữu của C60. Tôi tình cờ gặp ông tại một cuộc hội thảo khoa học chuyên ngành. Cũng như phần lớn các giáo sư người Nhật Bản khác, giáo sư Osawa là một người khả kính, điềm đạm và khiêm tốn. Khi tôi gợi chuyện C60 và giải Nobel, ông mở nụ cười hiền hòa tâm sự "Không được Nobel tôi tiếc lắm chứ vì C60 là đứa con khoa học của tôi mà. Tôi tiên đoán C60 vào năm 1970 khi tôi vừa mới được bổ nhiệm Giảng Viên tại Đại Học Hokkaido. Vì tôi viết bằng tiếng Nhật và đăng bài báo cáo của tôi trên tạp chí Kagaku (Hóa Học) năm 1970 [3] nên không được các đồng nghiệp quốc tế lưu ý đến. Một năm sau tôi viết lại thành một chương cho một quyển sách giáo khoa, cũng bằng tiếng Nhật". Tôi hỏi "Nếu thầy đã tiên đoán như vậy thì tại sao thầy không làm một thí nghiệm để kiểm chứng". Ông bộc bạch "Theo sự tính toán của tôi thì năng lượng hoạt tính của phản ứng tạo ra C60 rất cao. Tôi không thể hình dung được một chất xúc tác nào có thể hạ thấp năng lượng hoạt tính để phản ứng có thể xảy ra. Nhưng tôi đã hình dung được cấu trúc của nó trong một lần tôi nhìn đứa con trai của tôi đùa giỡn với trái bóng đá trong công viên gần nhà. Tôi cũng không nghĩ ra một phương tiện vật lý như dùng laser hoặc tia có năng lượng cao như nhóm Smalley đã làm để kích động phản ứng. Hơn nữa, ở thời điểm đó tôi mới vừa làm Giảng Viên nên cần phải tạo một dấu ấn nào đó trong phân khoa. Tôi cảm thấy việc tổng hợp C60 quá nhiều khó khăn nên đành chọn một hướng nghiên cứu khác". Có một điều làm cho ông được an ủi phần nào là trong bài diễn văn nhận giải Nobel Kroto, Curl và Smalley đã đề cập đến thành quả tiên phong của ông. Ông đã gởi tặng tôi bài báo cáo khoa học mang tính lịch sử nầy (Hình 4).



Hình 4: Tựa đề bài báo cáo "Họ chất thơm siêu đẳng" (Super-aromaticity) viết vào năm 1970 [3] và quả bóng đá C60 trong bài viết.

Như giáo sư Osawa đã trình bày, ở điều kiện và nhiệt độ bình thường việc tổng hợp C60 là một việc bất khả thi trên phương diện nhiệt động học (thermodynamics). Vì là một nhà hóa học thiên văn, Kroto tiếp cận vấn đề bằng một phương thức khác. Tháng 9 năm 1985, trong thời gian làm việc tại Rice University ông dùng tia laser của Curl và Smalley bắn vào than chì để tái tạo sự tương tác của các tia vũ trụ và carbon trong không gian. Trong phổ ký khối lượng (mass spectrography) của các sản phẩm tạo thành xuất hiện hai đỉnh rất to chỉ định C60 và C70. Một bất ngờ nhưng Kroto, Curl và Smalley biết ngay đây là một khám phá đổi đời "kinh thiên động địa". Khi tia laser bắn vào một vùng nào đó của vật chất thì sẽ nâng nhiệt độ vùng đó lên cao hằng ngàn độ, thậm chí hằng chục ngàn độ. Ở nhiệt độ cao những chướng ngại nhiệt động học không còn là vấn đề và sự tạo thành C60 trở nên rất thuận lợi.

Việc khám phá C60 đã làm chấn động hầu hết mọi ngành nghiên cứu khoa học. Đặc biệt đối với môn hóa học hữu cơ nó đã tạo ra một nguồn sinh khí mới cho ngành nghiên cứu quá cổ điển nầy. Sự khám phá có tầm quan trọng hơn sự khám phá cấu trúc vòng nhân benzene của Kekule gần 150 năm trước. Benzene đã mở ra toàn bộ ngành hóa học của hợp chất thơm (aromatic compounds). C60 đã mở ra ngành "Hóa học fullerene" đi song song với sự phát triển của ngành công nghệ nano hiện nay.

Kroto, Curl và Smalley chỉ cho biết sự hiện hữu của C60, nhưng tổng hợp C60 cho việc nghiên cứu và ứng dụng phải đợi đến năm 1990 khi Krätschmer và Huffman đưa ra phương pháp tổng hợp với một sản lượng lớn. Nhờ vào phương pháp nầy đến năm 1997 đã có hơn 9000 hợp chất dựa trên fullerene được tổng hợp, hơn 20 000 báo cáo khoa học đăng trên các tạp chí chuyên ngành. Những người nghiên cứu hóa hữu cơ thường có nhiều nỗi ám ảnh và niềm đam mê đối với những cấu trúc phân tử đối xứng và cấu trúc lồng (cage structure), nên fullerene trở thành một lĩnh vực nghiên cứu mầu mỡ trong bộ môn nầy. Họ tổng hợp những fullerene cao hơn C60 như C70 (70 nguyên tử carbon, hình bóng bầu dục), C84 (84 nguyên tử carbon, hình quả đậu phọng). Họ kết hợp những nhóm chức (functional group) để chức năng hóa (functionalization) fullerene, gắn fullerene vào polymer để tổng hợp những dược liệu hay vật liệu cho áp dụng quang điện tử.

Lịch sử fullerene lâu đời hay non trẻ tùy vào hai cách nhìn khác nhau. Nghiên cứu fullerene thật ra rất ngắn chỉ hơn 20 năm kể từ ngày phổ ký khối lượng của Curl và Smalley cho biết sự hiện diện của C60 và C70, nhưng sự hiện hữu của fullerene có lẽ còn sớm hơn sự xuất hiện của loài người. Nó có trong những đám mây bụi trong vũ trụ, mỏ than, bồ hóng từ những ngọn nến lung linh hoặc những nơi khiêm tốn hơn như ở lò sưởi than, cái bếp nhà quê đen đui đủi vì lọ nồi... Người ta không tìm được C60 vì hàm lượng rất nhỏ và thường bị than vô định hình phủ lấp.

Khi màn bí mật C60 được vén mở, người ta nghĩ ngay đến những áp dụng thực tiễn của C60. Người ta kết hợp C60 với potassium (K) để tạo ra chất siêu dẫn hữu cơ ở nhiệt độ 18 K (-255 °C). Một số nhà nghiên cứu sinh học hy vọng có thể dùng C60 điều chế dược phẩm trị liệu bịnh AIDS. Trong vật lý, rất nhiều đề nghị áp dụng C60 để chế tạo những trang cụ (device) quang điện tử trong công nghệ cao. Tuy nhiên, trên mặt áp dụng các nhà khoa học thường mắc phải một căn bệnh chung là "lạc quan quá độ". Cấu trúc tròn trịa, đối xứng của C60 đã được tạp chí Science tôn vinh là "phân tử của năm 1991", nhưng cái xinh đẹp hấp dẫn không phải lúc nào cũng đưa đến kết quả thực tiễn hoàn mỹ.

Hai yếu tố làm C60 giảm tính thực tế là: (1) giá cả quá cao (giá cho 1 gram là vài trăm USD hoặc cao hơn cho tinh chất, so với giá vàng vào khoảng $10/g) và (2) C60 không hòa tan trong dung môi rất bất lợi cho việc gia công. Những hồ hởi ban đầu trong cộng đồng nghiên cứu khoa học dành cho fullerene bị dập tắc nhanh chóng vì những trở ngại nầy. Thậm chí ngay trong công nghệ "thấp", chẳng hạn dùng C60 như một chất phụ gia (additives) cho dầu nhớt làm giảm độ ma xát vẫn không địch nổi về giá cả và hiệu quả của những chất phụ gia thông thường. Tuần báo The Economist có lần phê bình "Cái công nghệ duy nhất mà quả bóng bucky đã thực sự cách mạng là sản xuất những bài báo cáo khoa học" (The only industry the buckyball has really revolutionized is the generation of scientific papers)!

Nhưng viễn ảnh của C60 trong áp dụng công nghệ không đến nổi tăm tối như các nhà bình luận kinh tế đã hấp tấp dự đoán. Sự kiên trì của những người làm khoa học lúc nào cũng cho thấy một niềm lạc quan của "những tia sáng ở cuối đường hầm". Gần đây công ty Nano-C (Mỹ) tuyên bố khả năng sản xuất hằng tấn C60 cho giới công nghệ. Một nhà máy thí điểm tại Nhật đang có khả năng chế tạo 40 tấn hằng năm và sẽ lên đến vài trăm tấn khi nhà máy được nâng cấp. Phương pháp sản xuất hàng loạt sẽ làm giảm giá C60 đến mức $5/g và có thể $1/g trong một tương lai không xa. Đây là một bước nhảy vĩ đại so với những năm đầu ở thập niên 90 khi người ta chỉ thu lượm vài miligram C60 ở mỗi lần tổng hợp khó khăn và giá cho mỗi gram có lúc lên đến $1500/g. Nhà sản xuất dự đoán nhu cầu C60 sẽ tăng nhanh trong vài năm tới cho việc chế biến dược liệu, dầu nhớt cao cấp và mỹ phẩm trang điểm.

Câu chuyện cô bé Lọ Lem mãi mãi là một câu chuyện tình làm thổn thức nhiều con tim trẻ. Cô bé bị bà mẹ ghẻ hành hạ lúc nào cũng phải quét dọn lò sưởi nên mặt mũi dính đầy lọ nồi. Bà Tiên với chiếc đũa thần biến nàng thành một tiểu thư đài các được trang điểm cực kỳ diễm lệ để dự những buổi khiêu vũ của chàng hòang tử độc thân đa tình. Có lẽ nàng được trang điểm với những mỹ phẩm chứa C60, nàng sẽ đeo những chuỗi kim cương carbon vô giá. Nhưng sau nửa đêm nàng sẽ trở lại cô bé đầy lọ.... Nhìn từ quan điểm của hóa học carbon, chuyện tình khi đượm tính khoa học có thể làm thất vọng nhiều tâm hồn lãng mạn nhưng tất cả chỉ là câu chuyện carbon ở những trạng thái khác nhau!

Trở lại thực tế của thế kỷ 21. Khả năng áp dụng fullerene trong công nghệ cao liên quan đến quang học và quang điện tử đang được tích cực khảo sát ở nhiều cơ quan nghiên cứu trên thế giới. Tạp chí Journal of Materials Chemistry xuất bản một số đặc biệt tổng kết những thành quả mới nhất của nghiên cứu fullerene [4]. Một trong ứng dụng có tầm quan trọng đặc biệt là đặc tính photovoltaic của C60 tức là khả năng biến năng lượng mặt trời thành điện còn gọi là pin mặt trời. Loại pin nầy được chế tạo từ C60 và polymer dẫn điện (electrically conducting polymers). Mặc dù hiệu suất chuyển hoán năng lượng vẫn chưa bì kịp pin mặt trời silicon đang được phổ biến trên thương trường, loại pin mặt trời hữu cơ nầy sẽ cho những đặc điểm không có ở silicon như dễ gia công, giá rẻ, nhẹ, mỏng và mềm.



Ống Nano Carbon

Kroto vì niềm đam mê tái tạo những chuỗi carbon dài trong các đám mây bụi vũ trụ tình cờ phát hiện fullerene. Ngẫu nhiên nầy được nối tiếp với ngẫu nhiên khác. Sáu năm sau (1991), tiến sĩ Sumio Iijima một nghiên cứu viên của công ty NEC (Nhật Bản) cũng vì niềm đam mê tìm hiểu fullerene lại tình cờ phát hiện qua kính hiển vi điện tử ống nano carbon - "người em họ" của C60 [5]. C60 có hình dạng quả bóng đá, nhưng ống nano carbon (gọi tắt: ống nano) giống như một quả mướp dài với đường kính vài nanometer (nm) và chiều dài có thể dài đến vài trăm micrometer (10-6 m), vì vậy có cái tên gọi "ống nano" (Hình 1h và 5). Với đường kính vài nm ống nano carbon nhỏ hơn sợi tóc 100 000 lần. Chỉ trong vòng vài năm từ lúc được phát hiện, "người em họ" cho thấy có rất nhiều ứng dụng thực tế hơn C60. Cấu trúc hình ống có cơ tính (mechanical properties) và điện tính (electrical/electronic properties) khác thường và đã làm kinh ngạc nhiều nhà khoa học trong các cơ quan nghiên cứu, đại học và doanh nghiệp trên thế giới. Ống nano có sức bền siêu việt, độ dẫn nhiệt cao (thermal conduction) và nhiều tính chất điện tử thú vị. Với một loạt đặc tính hấp dẫn nầy nhiều phòng nghiên cứu đã phải chuyển hướng nghiên cứu từ C60 sang ống nano.


Hình 5: Ống nano carbon

Việc chế tạo ống nano có thể thực hiện bằng cách phóng điện hồ quang (arc discharge) hoặc dùng laser (laser ablation) trên một vật liệu gốc chứa carbon hoặc phun vật liệu nầy qua một lò ở nhiệt độ 800 - 1200 °C (chemical vapour deposition, CVD). Hình thành ống carbon không phức tạp nhưng tạo ra những ống nano giống nhau cùng đặc tính trong những đợt tổng hợp khác nhau và sau đó tinh chế để gạn lọc tạp chất đòi hỏi những điều kiện vận hành một cách cực kỳ chính xác. Tùy vào điều kiện chế tạo và vật liệu gốc người ta có thể tổng hợp ống nano một vỏ (single-wall carbon nanotube, SWNT), vỏ đôi (double-wall carbon nanotube, DWNT) và nhiều vỏ (multi-wall carbon nanotube, MWNT). MWNT là một tập hợp của SWNT giống như con búp bê Nga (Russian doll) (Hình 6). Ống nano được Iijima phát hiện đầu tiên thuộc loại MWNT. Richard Smalley (Rice University) một lần nữa đã phát huy tài năng của mình qua phương pháp laser để chế tạo SWNT với hiệu suất rất cao. Phương pháp nầy đã được thương mãi hóa để sản xuất SWMT cho công nghệ. Giá cho SWNT và DWNT tinh chế vẫn còn rất cao ở mức $500/g. MWNT dễ tổng hợp hơn SWNT nên giá ở mức $100/g. Gần đây Mitsui (Nhật Bản) có thể sản xuất 120 tấn MWNT/năm cho nhu cầu công nghệ với giá $75/kg.


Hình 6: Ống nano carbon nhiều vỏ (MWNT) chụp bằng kính hiển vi điện tử. Khoảng cách giữa hai vỏ là 0.34 nm và đường kính của vỏ ngoài cùng là 6.5 nm [5].

Người ta đã định được độ bền (strength) và độ cứng (stiffness, Young's modulus) của ống nano. Kết quả thí nghiệm cho thấy ống nano bền hơn thép 100 lần nhưng nhẹ hơn thép 6 lần. Như vậy, có thể nói là ống nano là một vật liệu có cơ tính cao nhất so với các vật liệu người ta biết từ trước đến nay. Tuy nhiên, một vấn đề lớn hiện nay cho các nhà vật liệu học (materials scientist) là làm sao xe những ống nano thành tơ sợi (nanotube fibres) cho những ứng dụng thực tế mà vẫn giữ được cơ tính tuyệt vời cố hữu của các ống nano tạo thành. Nhóm nghiên cứu của giáo sư Ray Baughman (University of Texas, Mỹ) [6] đã phát minh ra một quá trình xe sợi ống nano cho ra sợi với cơ tính cao hơn thép và tương đương với tơ nhện (spider silk). Tơ nhện được biết là một loại tơ thiên nhiên có cơ tính cao nhất trong các loại tơ sợi. Kinh nghiệm cho thấy một con ruồi bay với tốc độ cao nhất vẫn không bao giờ làm thủng lưới nhện. Nếu sự kiện nầy được phóng đại vài chục ngàn lần để sợi tơ nhện có đường kính bằng cây bút chì, sợi tơ có thể kéo ngừng lại chiếc phi cơ 747 đang bay trên không!

Mặc dù độ cứng của sợi ống nano do nhóm Baughman làm ra chỉ bằng 1/10 độ cứng của từng ống nano riêng lẻ, sợi Baughman vẫn chưa phải "siêu cứng" nhưng đã hơn hẳn Kevlar [7] về sức bền và nếu điều kiện sản xuất hàng loạt cho phép nó có thể thay thế Kevlar dùng trong những chiếc áo giáp cá nhân chống đạn trong tương lai. Quá trình xe sợi của nhóm Baughman chứng tỏ khả năng chế tạo sợi ống nano với những cơ tính vĩ mô càng lúc càng gần đến cơ tính ở thang phân tử. Quá trình nầy đã kích động nhiều nhóm nghiên cứu khác trong cuộc chạy đua chế tạo ra một loại sợi siêu cứng, siêu bền và siêu hữu ích chưa từng có trong lịch sử khoa học kỹ thuật.

Với dạng hình ống dài và cơ tính lý tưởng, ống nano carbon được cho vào các loại polymer (plastic) để tạo những sản phẩm nano-composite [8]. Thật ra, composite dùng những chất độn (filler) có hình dài để tăng cơ tính không phải là những gì mới lạ. Từ 6000 năm trước nhân loại đã trộn bùn với rơm để làm gạch. Ở những vùng sâu vùng xa người dân vẫn còn dùng đất sét và rơm để làm tường. Hiện tại, chất độn kim loại hay ceramic là những vật liệu phổ biến được dùng trong polymer để tăng cường cơ tính thay thế kim loại. Người ta tin rằng ống nano carbon sẽ là một chất độn "tối thượng" cho polymer nano-composite. Vài phần trăm ống nano carbon có thể gia tăng độ bền, độ cứng và độ dai (toughness) của polymer (plastic) lên nhiều lần. Các công ty chế tạo ô tô đang triển khai polymer nano-composite cho các bộ phận xe hơi. Đặc điểm của các composite nầy là nhẹ và bền chắc. Công ty ô tô GM (Mỹ) dự trù sẽ dùng 500 tấn ống nano/năm trong vòng vài năm tới. Một cơ tính khác của ống nano đang được khảo sát hiện nay là đặc tính làm giảm sốc (shock damping), chống rung [9]. Tính chất rất quan trọng nầy sẽ mang đến những ứng dụng dân sự lẫn quốc phòng.

Điện tính và đặc tính điện tử của ống nano đã thu hút nhiều sự chú ý của các nhà vật lý và thiết kế điện tử vi mạch. Nhờ ở dạng hình ống và các electron tự do pi trong ống, các electron tự do có thể tải điện nhưng ít chịu sự phân tán electron (gọi là ballistic conduction). Sự phân tán electron là nguyên nhân điện trở gây ra sự phát nhiệt thường thấy ở chất bán dẫn hay kim loại. Nói một cách khác, ống nano có khả năng tải điện hữu hiệu vì ít phát nhiệt.

Công nghiệp điện tử được xây dựng và phát triển dựa vào kỹ thuật thu nhỏ. Transistor là một linh kiện chính trong các mạch điện. Phương pháp "từ trên xuống" đã được áp dụng để thu nhỏ transistor có độ to khoảng vài cm ở thời điểm phát minh (năm 1947) cho đến ngày hôm nay thì đến bậc nanometer; vài triệu lần nhỏ hơn. "Định luật" Moore (Moore's law) cho biết rằng cứ mỗi hai năm mật độ của các transistor được nhồi nhét vào một silicon chip sẽ tăng gấp đôi nhờ vào kỹ thuật chế biến thu nhỏ và đặc tính của silicon. Định luật đã đúng hơn 40 năm qua kể từ năm 1965 và cũng sẽ tiếp tục đúng trong vòng 10 năm tới. Lúc đó đặc tính thu nhỏ của silicon sẽ đến một mức bảo hòa và dừng lại ở một kích thước nhất định nào đó. Độ nhỏ nhất có thể đạt được của một silicon chip là 180 nm và cũng là giới hạn trong kỹ thuật làm chip hiện nay. "Độ lớn" 180 nm rất nhỏ (nhỏ hơn sợi tóc 500 lần) và hiệu năng tải điện của silicon càng giảm vì càng nhỏ sự phát nhiệt càng cao. Tuy nhiên 180 nm vẫn còn rất to so với đường kính vài nm của ống nano. Ở kích thước nầy ống nano vẫn còn có thể tải điện mà không sợ phát nhiệt. Như vậy, đặc tính tải điện không phát nhiệt và khả năng tạo thành các linh kiện điện tử như diode và transistor của ống nano ở kích thước phân tử chỉ ra một hướng nghiên cứu mới là nano-điện tử (nano-electronics) nối tiếp vai trò thu nhỏ của vi đi
          SÆ¡ lược về cÆ¡ học lượng tá»­        
xem bài của Zạ Trạch trên từ điển bách khoa Wikipedia.

Cơ học lượng tử (tiếng Anh: Quantum mechanics) là một trong những lý thuyết cơ bản của vật lý học. Cơ học lượng tử là phần mở rộng và bổ sung vủa cơ học Newton (còn gọi là cơ học cổ điển) đặc biệt là tại các phạm vi nguyên tử và hạ nguyên tử. Nó là cơ sở của rất nhiều các chuyên ngành khác của vật lý và hóa học như vật lý chất rắn, hóa lượng tử, vật lý hạt. Khái niệm lượng tử để chỉ một số đại lượng vật lý như năng lượng (xem hình 1, bên phải) không liên tục mà rời rạc.

Cơ học lượng tử là một lý thuyết về cơ học, một nhánh của vật lý nghiên cứu về chuyển động của các vật thể và các đại lượng vật lý liên quan như năng lượng và mô men. Cơ học lượng tử được coi là cơ bản hơn cơ học Newton vì nó cho phép mô tả chính xác và đúng đắn rất nhiều các hiện tượng vật lý mà cơ học Newton không thể giải thích được. Các hiện tượng này bao gồm các hiện tượng ở quy mô nguyên tử hay nhỏ hơn. Cơ học Newton không thể lý giải tại sao các nguyên tử lại có thể bền vững đến thế, hoặc không thể giải thích được một số hiện tượng vĩ mô như siêu dẫn, siêu chảy. Các tiên đoán của cơ học lượng tử chưa bao giờ bị thực nghiệm chứng minh là sai sau một thế kỷ. Cơ học lượng tử là sự kết chặt chẽ của ít nhất ba lớp hiện tượng mà cơ học cổ điển không tính đến, đó là: (i) việc lượng tử hóa (rời rạc hóa) một số đại lượng vật lý, (ii) lưỡng tính sóng hạt, và (iii) vướng lượng tử. Trong các trường hợp nhất định, các định luật của cơ học lượng tử chính là các định luật của cơ học cổ điển ở mức độ chính xác cao hơn. Việc cơ học lượng tử rút về cơ học cổ điển được biết với cái tên nguyên lý tương ứng.

Cơ học lượng tử có thể được kết hợp với thuyết tương đối để tạo nên cơ học lượng tử tương đối tính, để đối lập với cơ học lượng tử phi tương đối tính khi không tính đến tính tương đối của các vật thể. Ta dùng khái nhiệm cơ học lượng tử để chỉ cả hai loại trên. Cơ học lượng tử đồng nghĩa với vật lý lượng tử. Tuy nhiên vẫn có nhiều nhà khoa học coi cơ học lượng tử có ý nghĩa như cơ học lượng tử phi tương đối tính, mà như thế thì nó hẹp hơn vật lý lượng tử.

Một số nhà vật lý tin rằng cơ học lượng tử cho ta một mô tả chính xác thế giới vật lý với hầu hết các điều kiện khác nhau. Dường như là cơ học lượng tử không còn đúng ở lân cận các hố đen hoặc khi xem xét vũ trụ như một toàn thể. Ở phạm vi này thì cơ học lượng tử lại mâu thuẫn với lý thuyết tương đối rộng, một lý thuyết về hấp dẫn. Câu hỏi về sự tương thích giữa cơ học lượng tử và thuyết tương đối rộng vẫn là một lĩnh vực nghiên cứu rất sôi nổi.

Cơ học lượng tử được hình thành vào nửa đầu thế kỷ 20 do Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli và một số người khác tạo nên. Một số vấn đề cơ bản của lý thuyết này vẫn được nghiên cứu cho đến ngày nay.

Mô tả lý thuyết
Có nhiều phương pháp toán học mô tả cơ học lượng tử, chúng tương đương với nhau. Một trong những phương pháp được dùng nhiều nhất đó là lý thuyết biến đổi, do Paul Dirac phát minh ra nhằm thống nhất và khái quát hóa hai phương pháp toán học trước đó là cơ học ma trận (của Werner Heisenberg) và cơ học sóng (của Erwin Schrödinger).

Theo phương pháp toán học mô tả cơ học lượng tử này thì các trạng thái lượng tử của một hệ lượng tử sẽ mã hóa xác suất mà các tính chất, hay quan sát có thể đo được. Các quan sát có thể là năng lượng, vị trí, mô men, mô men góc. Các quan sát có thể là liên tục (ví dụ vị trí của các hạt) hoặc rời rạc (ví dụ năng lượng của điện tử trong nguyên tử hydrogen).

Nói chung, cơ học lượng tử không cho ra các giá trị xác định các quan sát. Thay vào đó, nó tiên đoán một phân bố xác suất, tức là, xác suất để thu được một kết quả khả dĩ từ một phép đo nhất định. Các xác suất này phụ thuộc vào trạng thái lượng tử ngay tại lúc tiến hành phép đo. Tuy nhiên vẫn có một số các trạng thái nhất định liên quan đến một giá trị xác định của một quan sát cụ thể. Các giá trị đó được biết với cái tên là hàm riêng, hay còn gọi là trạng thái riêng của quan sát đó.

Ví dụ, chúng ta hãy xét một hạt tự do, trạng thái lượng tử của nó có thể biểu diễn bằng một sóng có hình dạng bất kỳ và có thể lan truyền toàn bộ không gian, được gọi là hàm sóng. Vị trí và mô men của hạt là hai đại lượng quan sát. Trạng thái riêng của vị trí là một hàm sóng có giá trị rất lớn tại vị trí x và bằng không tại tất cả các vị trí khác x. Chúng ta tiến hành đo vị trí của một hàm sóng như vậy, chúng ta sẽ thu được kết quả x với xác suất 100%. Mặt khác, trạng thái riêng của mô men lại có dạng một sóng phẳng. Bước sóng của nó là h/p, trong đó h là hằng số Planck và p là mô men của trạng thái riêng đó.

Thông thường, một hệ sẽ không ở trong trạng thái riêng của bất kỳ quan sát nào mà chúng ta đang quan tâm. Tuy nhiên, nếu chúng ta đo một quan sát, hàm sóng sẽ ngay lập tức trở thành một trạng thái riêng của quan sát đó. Việc này được gọi là sự suy sập hàm sóng. Nếu ta biết hàm sóng tại một thời điểm trước khi đo đạc thì chúng ta có thể tính được xác suất suy sập vào mỗi trạng thái riêng khả dĩ. Ví dụ, hạt tự do được đề cập ở trên thường có một hàm sóng ở dạng một bó sóng có tâm là một vị trí ở x0 nào đó, chứ không phải là trạng thái riêng của vị trí hay xung lượng. Khi ta đo vị trí của hạt, chúng ta không thể tiên đoán độ xác định của kết quả mà chúng ta sẽ thu được. Kết quả thu được có thể, chứ không chắc chắn, nằm gần x0, ở đó, biên độ hàm sóng là lớn. Sau khi thực hiện phép đo xong, kết quả thu được là x, hàm sóng suy sập vào trạng thái riêng của vị trí nằm tại x.

Các hàm sóng có thể thay đổi theo thời gian. Phương trình mô tả sự thay đổi của hàm sóng theo thời gian là phương trình Schrödinger, nó tương đương với định luật thứ hai của Newton trong cơ học cổ điển. Phương trình Schrödinger áp dụng cho hạt tự do của chúng ta sẽ tiên đoán tâm của bó sóng chuyển động trong không gian với vận tốc không đổi, giống như một hạt cổ điển khi không có lực nào tác dụng lên nó. Tuy nhiên, bó sóng sẽ trải rộng ra theo thời gian, điều này có nghĩa là vị trí của hạt sẽ trở nên bất định. Điều này cũng ảnh hưởng đến trạng thái riêng của vị trí làm cho nó biến thành các bó sóng rộng hơn không phải là các trạng thái riêng của vị trí.

Một số hàm sóng tạo ra các phân bố xác suất không đổi theo thời gian. Rất nhiều hệ mà khi xem xét bởi cơ học cổ điển thì được coi là động nhưng lại được mô tả bằng hàm sóng "tĩnh". Ví dụ một điện tử trong một nguyên tử không bị kích thích được coi một cách cổ điển là chuyển động trên một quỹ đạo hình tròn xung quanh hạt nhân nguyên tử, trong khi đó thì cơ học lượng tử lại mô tả điện tử này bằng một đám mây xác suất đối xứng cầu tĩnh xung quanh hạt nhân (hình 1).

Sự thay đổi của hàm sóng theo thời gian có tính nhân quả theo nghĩa là với một hàm sóng tại một thời điểm ban đầu có thể cho một tiên đoán xác định hàm sóng sẽ như thế nào tại bất kỳ thời điểm tiếp theo. Trong phép đo lượng tử, sự thay đổi của một hàm sóng thành một hàm sóng khác không xác định mà không thể đoán trước được, có nghĩa là ngẫu nhiên.

Bản chất xác suất của cơ học lượng tử nảy sinh từ việc thực hiện phép đo: vật thể tương tác với máy đo, và hàm sóng tương ứng sẽ bị vướng. Kết quả là vật thể cần đo không còn tồn lại như một thực thể độc lập nữa. Điều này sẽ làm cho kết quả thu được trong tương lai có một độ bất định nào đó. Đến đây, người ta có thể nghĩ rằng nếu chuẩn bị các máy đo thì những bất định đó có thể chỉ là những dữ liệu chưa biết. Nhưng vấn đề là ta không thể biết được các dữ liệu đó vì máy đo không thể vừa dùng để đo tính chất vật thể, vừa tự biết ảnh hưởng của nó đến vật thể đó cùng một lúc.

Do đó, vấn đề là về nguyên tắc, chứ không phải về thực tiễn, có một độ bất định có mặt trong các tiên đoán xác suất. Đây là một trong những ý tưởng khó hiểu nhất về bản chất của một hệ lượng tử. Đó từng là trung tâm của của tranh luận Bohr-Einstein, trong đó, họ nghĩ tìm cách làm sáng tỏ các nguyên lý cơ bản này bằng các thí nghiệm tư duy.

Có một vài cách giải thích cơ học lượng tử phủ nhận sự "suy sập hàm sóng" bằng cách thay đổi khái niệm về những thành phần thiết lập nên các "phép đo" trong cơ học lượng tử. Ví dụ, xem thêm giải thích trạng thái tương đối.
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Các hiệu ứng của cơ học lượng tử

Như đã nhắc ở trên, có một vài lớp hiện tượng xuất hiện trong cơ học lượng tử mà không có sự tương tự với cơ học cổ điển. Chúng được gọi là "hiệu ứng lượng tử".

Loại thứ nhất của hiệu ứng lượng tử đó là lượng tử hóa các đại lượng vật lý nhất định. Trong ví dụ về hạt mà ta đã xem xét, cả vị trí và mô men đều là các quan sát liên tục. Tuy nhiên nếu ta giới hạn hạt đó trong một vùng không gian gọi là bài toán hạt trong hố thế thì các quan sát đó sẽ trở nên rời rạc. Những quan sát như vậy được gọi là bị lượng tử hóa và nó có vai trò quan trọng trong các hệ vật lý. Ví dụ về các quan sát bị lượng tử hóa bao gồm mô men góc, năng lượng toàn phần của hệ liên kết, và năng lượng mà một sóng điện từ với một tần số đã cho.

Một hiệu ứng nữa là nguyên lý bất định đó là hiện tượng mà các phép đo liên tiếp của hai hay nhiều hơn hai quan sát có thể có các giới hạn cơ bản về độ chính xác. Trong ví dụ về hạt tự do, chúng ta không thể tìm thấy hàm sóng là trạng thái riêng của cả vị trí và mô men. Hiệu ứng này có nghĩa là không thể đo đồng thời vị trí và mô men với độ chính xác bất kỳ, ngay cả về mặt nguyên tắc: vì khi độ chính xác về vị trí tăng lên thì độ chính xác về mô men giảm đi và ngược lại. Các quan sát mà chịu tác động của nguyên lý này (gồm có mô men và vị trí, năng lượng và thời gian) là các biến giao hoán trong vật lý cổ điển.

Hiệu ứng tiếp là lưỡng tính sóng hạt. Dưới một số điều kiện thực nghiệm nhất định, các vật thể vi mô như là các nguyên tử hoặc các điện tử có thể hành xử như các hạt trong thí nghiệm tán xạ hoặc có thể hành xử như các sóng trong thí nghiệm giao thoa. Nhưng chúng ta chỉ có thể quan sát một trong hai tính chất trên vào một thời điểm mà thôi.

Hiệu ứng nữa là vướng lượng tử. Trong một số trường hợp, hàm sóng của một hệ được tạo thành từ nhiều hạt mà không thể phân tách thành các hàm sóng độc lập cho mỗi hạt. Trong trường hợp đó, người ta nói các hạt bị "vướng" với nhau. Nếu cơ học lượng tử đúng thì các hạt có thể thể hiện các tính chất khác thường và đặc biệt. Ví dụ, khi tiến hành một phép đo trên một hạt thì nhờ suy sập của hàm sóng toàn phần mà có thể tạo ra các hiệu ứng tức thời với các hạt khác thậm chí ngay cả khi chúng ở xa nhau.

Hiệu ứng đó có vẻ như mâu thuẫn với lý thuyết tương đối hẹp vì theo thuyết tương đối hẹp, không có gì có thể di chuyển nhanh hơn ánh sáng. Nhưng ở đây không có sự truyền thông tin nên không yêu cầu phải di chuyển một thực thể vật lý tức thời giữa hai hạt. Hiệu ứng ở đây có nghĩa là, sau khi nghiên cứu các thực thể bị vướng với nhau, hai người nghiên cứu có thể so sánh dữ liệu của họ và thu được các mối tương quan mà các hạt có.

Công thức toán học
Trong các công thức toán học rất chặt chẽ của cơ học lượng do Paul Dirac và John von Neumann phát triển, các trạng thái khả dĩ của một hệ cơ học lượng tử được biểu diễn bằng các véc tơ đơn vị (còn gọi là các véc tơ trạng thái) được thể hiện bằng các số phức trong không gian Hilbert (còn gọi là không gian trạng thái). Bản chất của không gian Hilbert này lại phụ thuộc vào hệ lượng tử. Ví dụ, không gian trạng thái của vị trí và mô men là không gian của các hàm bình phương khả tích, trong khi đó không gian trạng thái của các spin và điện tử cô lập chỉ là tích của hai mặt phẳng phức. Mỗi quan sát được biểu diễn bằng một toán tử tuyến tính Hermitian xác định (hay một toán tử tự hợp) tác động lên không gian trạng thái. Mỗi trạng thái riêng của một quan sát tương ứng với một véc tơ riêng (còn gọi là hàm riêng) của toán tử, và một giá trị riêng (còn gọi là trị riêng) tương ứng với giá trị của quan sát trong trạng thái riêng đó. Nếu phổ của toán tử là rời rạc thì quan sát chỉ có thể có được các giá trị riêng rời rạc.

Sự thay đổi theo thời gian của hệ lượng tử được mô tử bằng phương trình Schrodinger, trong phương trình này, toán tử Hamiltonian tương ứng với năng lượng toàn phần của hệ gây nên sự biến đổi theo thời gian.

Tích vô hướng giữa hai véc tơ trạng thái là một số phức được gọi là biên độ xác suất. Trong một phép đo, xác suất mà một hệ suy sập từ một trạng thái ban đầu đã cho vào một trạng thái riêng đặc biệt nào đó bằng bình phương của giá trị tuyệt đối của biên độ xác suất giữa trạng thái đầu và cuối. Kết quả khả dĩ của phép đo là giá trị riêng của toán tử đều là các số thực (chính vì trị riêng phải là thực mà người ta phải chọn toán tử Hermitian). Chúng ta có thể tìm thấy phân bố xác suất của một quan sát trong một trạng thái đã cho bằng việc xác định sự tách phổ của toán tử tương ứng. Nguyên lý bất định Heisenberg được biểu diễn bằng các toán tử tương ứng với các quan sát nhất định không giao hoán với nhau.

Phương trình Schrodinger tác động lên toàn bộ biên độ xác suất chứ không chỉ ảnh hưởng đến giá trị tuyệt đối của nó. Nếu giá trị tuyệt đối của biên độ xác suất mang các thông tin về xác suất, thì pha của nó mang các thông tin về giao thoa giữa các trạng thái lượng tử. Điều này làm tăng tính chất sóng của trạng thái lượng tử.

Thực ra, nghiệm giải tích của phương trình Schrödinger chỉ có thể thu được từ một số rất ít các Hamiltonian như trường hợp của các dao động tử điều hòa lượng tử và nguyên tử hydrogen là các đại diện quan trọng nhất. Thậm chí, ngay cả nguyên tử helium chỉ gồm hai điện tử mà cũng không thể giải bằng giải tích được. Chính vì thế mà người ta dùng một vài phép gần đúng để giải các bài toán phức tạp hơn một điện tử. Ví dụ như lý thuyết nhiễu loạn dùng nghiệm của các bài toán đối của các hệ lượng tử đơn giản sau đó thêm vào nghiệm đó một số hạng bổ chính do sự có mặt của một toán tử phụ, được coi như nhiễu loạn gây ra. Một phương pháp khác được gọi là phương trình chuyển động bán cổ điển được áp dụng cho các hệ vật lý mà cơ học cổ điển chỉ tạo ra một sai khác rất nhỏ so với cơ học cổ điển. Phương pháp này rất quan trọng trong hỗn loạn lượng tử.

Một phương pháp toán học thay thế cơ học lượng tử là công thức tích phân lộ trình Feynman, trong đó, biên độ cơ học lượng tử được coi là tổng theo tất cả các lịch sử giữa trạng thái đầu và cuối; nó tương được với nguyên lý tác dụng tối thiểu trong cơ học cổ điển.

Mối liên hệ với các lý thuyết khoa học khác
Các nguyên tắc cơ bản của cơ học lượng tử rất khái quát. Chúng phát biểu rằng không gian trạng thái của hệ là không gian Hilbert và các quan sát là các toán tử Hermitian tác dụng lên không gian đó. Nhưng chúng không nói với chúng ta là không gian Hilbert nào và toán tử nào. Chúng ta cần phải chọn các thống số đó cho phù hợp để mô tả định lượng hệ lượng tử. Một hướng dẫn quan trọng cho việc lựa chọn này đó là nguyên lý tương ứng, nguyên lý này phát biểu rằng các tiên đoán của cơ học lượng tử sẽ rút về các tiên đoán của cơ học cổ điển khi hệ trở lên lớn. "giới hạn hệ lớn" này được coi là "cổ điển" hay "giới hạn tương ứng". Do đó, ta có thể bắt đầu bằng một mô hình cổ điển với một hệ nào đó và cố gắng tiến đoán một mô hình lượng tử mà trong giới hạn tương ứng, mô hình lượng tử đó sẽ rút về mô hình cổ điển.

Ban đầu, khi thiết lập cơ học cổ điển, nó được áp dụng cho các mô hình mà giới hạn tương ứng là cơ học cổ điển phi tương đối tính. Ví dụ mô hình dao động tử điều hòa lượng tử sử dụng biểu thức phi tương đối tính tường minh cho động năng của dao động tử, và nó là phiên bản lượng tử của dao động tử điều hòa cổ điển.

Các cố gắng ban đầu để kết hợp cơ học lượng tử với lý thuyết tương đối hẹp là thay thế phương trình Schrödinger bằng một phương trình hiệp biến như là phương trình Klein-Gordon hoặc là phương trình Dirac. Khi các lý thuyết này thành công trong việc giải thích các kết quả thực nghiệm thì chúng lại có vẻ như bỏ qua quá trình sinh và hủy tương đối tính của các hạt. Lý thuyết lượng tử tương đối tính đầy đủ phải cần đến lý thuyết trường lượng tử. Lý thuyết này áp dụng lượng tử hóa cho trường chứ không chỉ cho một tập hợp cố định gồm các hạt (được gọi là lượng tử hóa lần thứ hai để so sánh với lượng tử hóa lần thứ nhất là lượng tử hóa dành cho các hạt). Lý thuyết trường lượng tử hoàn thành đầu tiên là điện động lực học lượng tử, nó mô tả đầy đủ tương tác điện từ.

Ít khi người ta phải dùng toàn bộ lý thuyết trường lượng tử để mô tả các hệ điện từ. Một phương pháp đơn giản hơn được người ta áp dụng từ khi khởi đầu của cơ học lượng tử, đó là coi các hạt tích điện như là các thực thể cơ học lượng tử chỉ bị tác dụng bởi trường điện từ cổ điển. Ví dụ, mô hình lượng tử cơ bản về nguyên tử hydrogen mô tả điện trường của nguyên tử hydrogen sử dụng thế năng Coulomb 1/r cổ điển. Phương pháp "bán cổ điển" này bị vô hiệu hóa khi thăng giáng lượng tử trong trường điện tử đóng vai trò quan trọng như là sự phát xạ quang tử từ các hạt tích điện.

Lý thuyết trường lượng tử cho lực tương tác mạnh và lực tương tác yếu đã được phát triển và gọi là sắc động học lượng tử. Lý thuyết mô tả tương tác của các hạt hạ hạt nhân như là các quark và gluon. Lực tương tác yếu và lực điện từ đã được thống nhất và lý thuyết lượng tử mô tả hai lực đó được gọi là lý thuyết điện yếu.

Rất khó có thể xây dựng các mô hình lượng tử về hấp dẫn, lực cơ bản còn lại duy nhất mà chưa được thống nhất với các lực còn lại. Các phép gần đúng bán cổ điển có thể được sử dụng và dẫn đến tiên đoán về bức xạ Hawking. Tuy nhiên, công thức của một lý thuyết hấp dẫn lượng tử hoàn thiện lại bị cản trở bởi sự không tương thích giữa lý thuyết tương đối rộng (lý thuyết về hấp dẫn chính xác nhất hiện nay) với một số giả thuyết cơ bản của lý thuyết lượng tử. Việc giải quyết sự không tương thích này là một nhánh của vật lý mà đang được nghiên cứu rất sôi nổi hiện nay. Một số lý thuyết như lý thuyết dây là một trong những ứng cử viên khả dĩ cho lý thuyết hấp dẫn lượng tử của tương lai.

Ứng dụng của cơ học lượng tử
Cơ học lượng tử đã đạt được các thành công vang dội trong việc giải thích rất nhiều các đặc điểm của thế giới chúng ta. Tất cả các tính chất riêng biệt của các hạt vi mô tạo nên tất cả các dạng vật chất đó là điện tử, proton, neutron,... chỉ có thể được mô tả bằng cơ học lượng tử.

Cơ học lượng tử còn quan trọng trong việc tìm hiểu các nguyên tử riêng biệt kết hợp với nhau để tạo nên các chất như thế nào. Việc áp dụng cơ học lượng tử vào hóa học được gọi là hóa học lượng tử. Cơ học lượng tử có thể cho phép nhìn sâu vào các quá trình liên kết hóa học bằng việc cho biết các phân tử ở các trạng thái có lợi về năng lượng như thế nào so với các trạng thái thái và làm sao mà chúng khác nhau. Phần lớn các tính toán được thực hiện trong hóa học tính toán dựa trên cơ học lượng tử.

Rất nhiều các công nghệ hiện đại sử dụng các thiết bị có kích thước mà ở đó hiệu ứng lượng tử rất quan trọng. Ví dụ như là laser, transistor, hiển vi điện tử, và ảnh cộng hưởng từ hạt nhân. Nghiên cứu về chất bán dẫn dẫn đến việc phát minh ra các đi-ốt và transistor, đó là những linh kiện điện tử không thể thiếu trong xạ hội hiện đại.

Các nhà nghiên cứu hiện đang tìm kiếm các phương pháp để can thiệp vào các trạng thái lượng tử. Một trong những cố gắng đó là mật mã lượng tử cho phép truyền thông tin một cách an toàn. Mục đích xa hơn là phát triển các máy tính lượng tử, có thể thực hiện các tính toán nhanh hơn các máy tính hiện này rất nhiều lần. Một lĩnh vực khác đó là di chuyển lượng tử có thể cho phép truyền các trạng thái lượng tử đến những khoảng cách bất kỳ.

Hệ quả triết học của cơ học lượng tử
Ngay từ đầu, các kết quả ngược với cảm nhận con người bình thường của cơ học lượng tử đã gây ra rất nhiều các cuộc tranh luận triết học và nhiều cách giải thích khác nhau về cơ học lượng tử. Ngay cả các vấn đề cơ bản như là các quy tắc Max Born liên quan đến biên độ xác suất và phân bố xác suất cũng phải mất đến hàng thập kỷ mới được thừa nhận.

Giải thích Copenhagen, chủ yếu là do Niels Bohr đưa ra, là cách giải thích mẫu mực về cơ học lượng tử từ khi lý thuyết này được đưa ra lần đầu tiên. Theo cách giải thích của trường phái này thì bản chất xác suất của các tiên đoán của cơ học lượng tử không thể được giải thích dựa trên một số lý thuyết tất định, và không chỉ đơn giản phản ánh kiến thức hữu hạn của chúng ta. Cơ học lượng tử cho các kết quả có tính xác suất vì vũ trụ mà chúng ta đang thấy mang tính xác suất chứ không phải là mang tính tất định.

Bản thân Albert Einstein, một trong những người sáng lập lý thuyết lượng tá»­, cÅ©ng không thích tính bất định trong các phép đo vật lý. Ông bảo vệ ý tưởng cho rằng có má
          One Kashmiri Youth's Memoir of His Love for the AK-47         

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It was a tense autumn day. We were playing cricket with a tennis ball at an abandoned industrial area, when the crackle of a transistor caught our attention. Delighted to see us, Shafi was brandishing a sleek radio, which set a new standard for Kashmiri rebels. I fantasized that someday I would get that radio too, which for me, at that moment, appeared to be the world’s most hyper-sophisticated gadget. Like Shafi, I would charm the juniors: “Roger that!”

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          LINEA DE TIEMPO DE LA EVOLUCIÓN DE LA COMPUTADORA.        
1793-1871.-Charles Babbage : Adelantó la situación del hardware computacional 1843 Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace : La primera programadora.
1896.-El Dr. Hollerith: formó una compañía para desarrollar una máquina que se conoce como IBM.
1937.-Atanasoff Y Berry: desarrolló la primera computadora digital electrónica.
1938.-Konrad Zuse: produce la primera computadora que utiliza código binario.
1941.-Konrad Zuse: Construyó la primera computadora programable.
1943.-se construyó la E.N.I.A.C; la primera computadora totalmente electrónica.
1944.- Comienza la construcción del primer computador americano.
1947.-Primer computador electrónico ENIGMA.
1949.-John Von Neumann construyó la (Computadora Automática Electrónica de Almacenamiento Diferido).
1956.-IBM desarrolla el primer disco duro llamado RAMAC.
1957.-Un equipo de IBM dirigido por John Backus, creo el primer lenguaje de programación llamado FORTRAN, formulado para el IBM
704.1959.-Digital Equipment Corporation desarrolla la PDP-1, la primera computadora comercial equipada con teclado y monitor.
1959-1964.-Transistor Compatibilidad Limitada.
1966.-Aparecen los discos floppies, mouse y uso de "ventanas".
1974.- EL PRIMER COMPUTADOR DE ESCRITORIO, comercializado con el microprocesador Intel 8080.
1975.- PRIMER COMPUTADOR APPLE.
1977.- MODELO I con periféricos externos y MODELO II con video incorporado.
1978.- COMMODORE INTERNATIONAL.
1980.-COMMODORE 64.1981.- IBM PC.
1985.-Microsoft lanza un nuevo sistema operativo con el nombre de WINDOWS.
1990.-Tim Berners-Lee ideó el hipertexto para crear el World Wide Web (www) una nueva manera de interactuar con Internet.
2000.-Se fabrica el procesador INTEL PENTIUM 4, uno de los mejores en ese año.
2006.-Lanzamiento de Windows Vista.
2009.-Microsoft lanza su nueva versión del sistema operativo llamado WINDOWS 7.
          Houses of the Future        
Sustainable Solar power in Sydney, home-generated electricity and green-housing developments go under the microscope this week as we explore the science of sustainable living. Meanwhile Dave goes for gold in water recycling by purifying and drinking water from urine, and we also find out how vitamin supplements can kill, discover an atom-thin transistor and hear how testosterone provoke boom and bust on the stock market. So join us as we become eco-estate agents and go through the keyholes of the Green Houses of Tomorrow!
          BSNL JE EXAM 2016 SYLLABUS AND DATE        

BSNL recruits 2700+  Junior Engineers. Attention to all Fresh Engineering Graduates as well as BSc(Eelectronics), BSc (Computer Science) and Diploma Holders.

  • What is the last date for application? starting date: 10.7.2016  last date is 10.8.2016.
  • How to apply? Go the BSNL website: http://www.externalbsnlexam.bsnl.co.in/ (Registration link will be active only from 10.7.2016 and upto 10.8.2016)
  • When is the exam? Exam will be conducted on 25.9.2016
  • How many vacancies are there? Total No.of vacancies for 2016 is  2700
  • What is the Salary? Starting salary is Rs.13,600 (which means take home salary is more than Rs.30,000)
  • Whether the exam will be easy? Yes, A simple preparation will do. It is worth a try. Dont miss the chance.
  • What is the qualification needed? BTech or BE or 3 year Diploma in one of the following 1. Electrical 2. Electronic  3. Telecom 4. Computer 5. IT 6. Instrumentation 7. Radio  b). BSc (computer Science) c) BSc(Electronics) d). MSc(Electronics)
  • What is the AgeLimit? 18 to 30 years (plus relaxation as applicable to SC/ST/OBC, 5 years for BSNL employees)
  • Whether JTO and JE are Same? No. Junior Engineer is different , Junior Telecom Officer is different. The Name of the Telecom Assistant has been changed to Junior Engineer. JE is lower cadre and JTO is a higher cadre.
  • How to apply? Where to get the application form?Registration and payment of fees are online. So sitting in your home you can apply.
  • Whether this exam will be there every year? Yes
  • What is the Syllabus? How many papers to be written?
  • A single exam for 3 hours. 200 Multiple choice questions will be there. Each question carries one mark:  General Ability 20 questions + Engineering  related 90 questions +Specialization 90 questions.  1/4 mark will be reduced for each wrong answer.
  • What is the application fees? OC/OBC: Rs.1000/- SC/ST: Rs.500/-\
  • How to make the Payment of Fees? via online method using Debit Card, Credit Card or Net Banking
  • Where to download the Original BSNL Recruitment notifications with details  such as Syllabus, exam date,etc ?
                                Click here for the PDF format of  BSNL Notification


   

What is the syllabus for BSNL JE Exam :
A single exam for 3 hours. 200 Multiple choice questions will be there. Each question carries one mark:  General Ability 20 questions + Engineering  related 90 questions +Specialization 90 questions.  1/4 mark will be reduced for each wrong answer.

PART-I:-GENERAL ABILITY TEST : 20 MARKS: The Candidate’s comprehension and understanding of General English shall be tested through simple exercises such as provision of antonyms and synonyms, FIll in the blanks and multiple-choice exercises etc. this shall also include questions on current events, general knowledge and such matters of everyday observation and experience as may be expected of Diploma holder.

PART -II: BASIC ENGINEERING: 90 MARKS :
 1. Applied Mathematics: Co-ordinate Geometry; Vector Algebras, Matrix ad Determinant; Differential calculus; Integral calculus, Differential equation of second order; Fourier series; Laplace Transformer; Complex Number; Partial Differentiion.

 2. Applied Physics: Measurement- Units and Dimensions; Waves, Afcoustics, Ultrasonics; Light; :azer and its Applications; Atomic Structure and Enerty Levels.

3. Basic Electricity: Electrostatics, coulomb’s law, Electric FIeld, Gauss’s theorem, concept of potential difference; concept of capacitance and capacitors; Ohm’s law, power and energy, Kirchoff’s voltage, current laws and their applications in simple DC circuits; Basic Magnetism; Electro Magnetism; Electromagnetic induction; Concept of alternating voltage & current; Cells and Batteries; Voltage and Current Sources; Thevenin’s theorem Norton’s theorem and their applications.


 4. Electronic Devices and Circuits: ClassiFIcation of materials into conductor, semi conductor, Insulator etc. electrical properties, magnetic materials, various types of relays, switches and connectors, Conventional representation of electric and electronic circuit elements. Active and passive components; Semi conductor Physics; Semi Conductor Diode; Bipolar Trnaistor & their circuits; Transistor Biassing & Stabilisation of operating pointl; Single stage transistor ampliFIer FIeld effect transistor, Mosfet circuit applications, Multistage Transistor AmpliFIer; Transistor Audio Power AmpliFIers; Feedback in AmpliFIer; Sinusoidal Oscillators; turned voltage AmpliFIers; Opto Electronics Devices and their applications; Operational AmpliFIer; wave shapping and switching circuits. Block diagram of I.C. timer (such as 555) and its working; Multivibrator circuits; Time base circuits; Thyristors and UJT; Regulated Power supply.

 5. Digital Technique: Applications and advantages of digital systems; number system(binary and hexadecimal); Logic Gates; Logic simpliFIcations; Codes and Parity; Arithmetic circuits; Decoders, Display Devices and Associated Circuits; Multiplexers and De-Multiplexers; Latches and Flip Flops; counters; Shift Register; Memories; A/D nad D/A converters.

PART -III SPECIALIZATION: 90 MARKS
The questions will be asked from the discipline chosen by the candidate according to their Specialized Degree.

1. Electrical :- 3 phase vs single phase supply, Star Delta connections, relation between phase & tine voltage, power factor and their measurements; construction and principles of working of various types of electrical measuring instruments, all types of motor and generator AC & DC transformers, starters, rectiFIers, Inverters, battery charges, batteries, servo and stepper motors, contactor control circuits, switchgear, relays, protection devices & schemes, substation, protective relaying, circuit breaker, generator protection, transformer protection, feeder & lightening protection, feeder & bus bar protection, lightening arrestor, earthing, voltage stabilizer 8 regulators, power control devices 8 circuits, phase controlled rectiFIers, inverters, choppers, dual converters, cycloconverters; power electronics application in control of drivers refrigeration 8 air conditioning.

2. Communication:–Modulation and demodulation- Principles and operator of various types of AM, FM and PM modulators / demodulator; pulse modulation- TDM, PAM, PPM, PWM: Multiplexing, principles and applications of PCM. Introduction of Basic block diagram of digital and data communication systems; coding error detection and correction techniques; Digital Modulation Techniques-ASK, ICW, FSK, PSK; Characteristics / working of data transmission circuits; UART: USART: Modems; Protocols and their functions, brief idea of ISDN interfaces, local area Network; Carrier Telephony- Features of carrier telephone system. Microwave Engineering: Microwave Devices; Waveguides; Microwave Components; Microwave antennas; Microwave communications Systems- Block diagram 7 working principles of microwave communications link.

3. Network, Filters and Transmission Lines:- Two points network; Attenuators; Filters; Transmission Lines and their applications; characteristic impedance of line; concept of re×ection and standing waves on a transmission line; Transmission line equation; Principle of impedance matching; Bandwidth consideration of a transmission lIne. Âš


4. Instruments and Measurements:- SpeciFIcations of Instruments- accuracy precision, sensitivity resolution range, Errors in measurement and loading effect; Principles of voltage, current and resistance measurements; Transducers, measurement of displacement a strain, force & torque measuring devices, pressure measuring devices, ×ow measuring devices power control devices & circuits. Types of AC mill-voltmeters-AmpliFIer rectiFIer and rectiFIer ampliFIer Block diagram explanation of a basic CRO and a triggerd sweep oscilloscope, front panel controls; Impedance Bridges and Q-Meters; Principles of working and speciFIcations of logic probes, signal analyzer and logic analyzer, signal generator, distortion factor meter, spectrum analyzer.


 5. Control system:- Basic elements of control system, open and closed loop system concepts of feedback, Block diagram of control system. Time lag, hysteresis lineartty concepts; Self regulating and non self regulating control systems. Transfer functions of simple control components, single feedback conFIguration. Time response of systems; Stability Analysier: Characteristic equation Routh’s table Nyquist Critereon, Relative stability, phase margin and gain margin. Routh Hurwitz criterion, Root Locus technique, Bode Plot, Polar plot, gain margin and phase margin.

6. Microprocessor- Typical organization of a microcomputer system & functions of its various block; Architecture of a Microprocessor; Memories and I/o interfacing; Brief idea of M/s assembly languages, machines & Mnemonic codes; Instructions format and Addressing mo0de;concept of Instruction set; programming exercises in assembly language; concept of interrupt; Data transfer techniques- sync data transfer, async data transfer interrupt driven data transfer, DMA serial output data, serial input data.

7. Computers:- Computer and its working, types of computers, familiarization with DOS and windowsconcept of FIle, directory, folder, Number systems; Data Communication. Programming Elements of a high level programming language. PASCAL, c; USE OF BASIS DATA STRUCTURES Fundamentals of computer architecture, Processor design, Control unit design; Memory organization. I/O system Organization. Microprocessor-microprocessor architecture; Instruction set and simple assembly level programming. Microprocessor based system design; typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses, data communication principles, types and working principles of modems, Network principles, OSI model, functions of data link layer and network layer, networking components; communications protocols-X-25, TCP/IP Database Management Systembasic concepts, entity relationship model, relational model, DBMS based on relational model

How many vacancies are there?
 State wise Circle Vacancies  for 2016 are given here. Once   :-
1. Andaman & Nicobar: 12 Posts
2. Andhra Pradesh: 76 Posts
3. Assam: 116 Posts
4. Bihar: 34 Posts
5. Chennai Telephones: 80 Posts
6. Chhattisgarh: 17 Posts
7. Gujarat: 206 Posts
8. Haryana: 160 Posts
9. Himachal Pradesh: 73 Posts
10. Jammu & Kashmir: 79 Posts
11. Jharkhand: 19 Posts
12. Karnataka: 120 Posts
13. Kerala: 100 Posts
14. Kolkata Telephones: 80 Posts
15. Madhya Pradesh: 78 Posts
16. Maharashtra: 224 Posts
17. North East – I: 132 Posts
18. North East – II: 34 Posts
19. NTR: 15 Posts
20. Odisha: 43 Posts
21. Punjab: 400 Posts
22. Rajasthan: 100 Posts
23. Tamil Nadu: 198 Posts
24. Uttar Pradesh (East): 80 Posts
25. Uttar Pradesh (West): 80 Posts
26. Uttaranchal: 29 Posts
27. West Bengal: 115 Posts

ORIGINAL ADVERTISEMENT OF BSNL

BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 1



BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 2


BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 3
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 4
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 5
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 6


          GenericThinker on Recursive Self-Improvement        

"The explosion in computing capability is a historical phenomenon that has been going on for decades. For "specific numbers", for example, look at the well-documented growth of the computer industry since the 1950s. Yes, there are probably limits, but they seem far away - so far away, we are not even sure where they are, or even whether they exist."

The growth you are referring to has a hard upper limit which is when transistors are measured in angstroms, at the point when they start playing by the rules of quantum mechanics. That is the hard upper limit of computing that you are referring to. Now if we take quantum computing that may or may not take us further there has been a lot of work done recently that casts doubt on quantum computing and its ability to solve a lot of our computing issues. There are a lot of other possible computing technologies it is just not clear which one will emerge at the top yet.


          My Year in Gaming 2014 - Shock the Monkey Edition        

Hi everybody! Looks like it's that time of year again. Where everyone and their mothers are writing overly thought out reviews and naming their game of the year in long winded blog posts. And this one is no different. Well, kind of. I'm sure some of you remember my review posts from past years.

My Year in Gaming - Broke as a Joke Edition (2011)

My Year in Gaming 2012 - Working for the Weekend Edition

My Year in Gaming 2013 - It was the best of times, it was the blurst of times

I'll doing the same again for this year. Keeping it simple with just a four word review scale. Easy peasy. So, here are the games I played (and didn't play) for the year of 2014.

 

JoseOmatic's Review Scale

Awesome Good Meh Crap

 

*Also note that I never count when I replay games, so HD releases and Vita version are out unless I haven't played them*

New Releases:

Games completed from this year.

  • (3DS) Tomodachi Life (July) Awesome
  • (PS3) Destiny (Sep.) Awesome
  • (PSN) The Wolf Among Us (Aug.) Awesome
  • (PSN) The Walking Dead: Season 2 (Aug.) Awesome
  • (PS3) The Lego Movie Videogame (Oct.) Awesome

Fashionably Late:

Old release, completed this year.

  • (3DS) The Legend of Zelda: A Link Between Worlds (Jan.) Awesome
  • (PS3) The Last of Us (Jan.) Awesome
  • (PS+/PS3) Brothers (Feb.) Good
  • (PS3) Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II (Mar.) Awesome
  • (Vita) Touch My Katamari (Mar.) Awesome
  • (PS+/Vita) Tales from Space: Mutant Blobs Attack (Mar.) Awesome
  • (PS+/Vita) Thomas Was Alone (Apr.) Awesome
  • (PS+/PS3) Rain (May.) Awesome
  • (PSN) Jurassic Park: The Game (May.) Awesome
  • (PS3) Sonic Generations (Jun.) Good
  • (Vita) Tearaway (Aug.) Awesome
  • (PS+/Vita) Proteus (Sep.) Good

It's About Time!:

Started one year, finished in this.

  • (Steam) Portal (Started Oct.2011 - Jan) Awesome
  • (PS+/PS3) Joe Danger 2: The Movie (Started Mar.2013 - Feb.) Good
  • (PS3) Puppeteer (Started Nov.2013 - Feb.) Awesome

Maybe Next Year:

Games I didn't complete this year.

  • (DS) Cooking Mama (Started Mar.) Awesome so far
  • (Vita) Final Fantasy IX (Started Mar.) Good so far
  • (PS+/PS4) Outlast (Started Apr.) Good so far
  • (PS+/Vita) Gravity Rush (Started Apr.) Good so far
  • (PS+/PS3) Braid (Started May) Good so far
  • (Wii U) Mario Kart 8 (Started Jun.) Good so far
  • (Wii U) Pikmin 3 (Started Jun.) Meh so far
  • (Steam) Papers, Please (Started Jun.) Awesome so far
  • (PS+/PS4) Resogun (Started Jul.) Awesome so far
  • (PS3) Lego Rock Band (Started Jul.) Meh so far
  • (Wii U) The Legend of Zelda: Minish Cap (Started in Aug.) Awesome so far
  • (PS+/Vita) Sonic & All-Stars Racing Transformed (Started Aug.) Good so far
  • (Steam) Surgeon Simulator (Started Aug.) Good so far
  • (Wii U) NES Remix (Started Aug.) Good so far
  • (PS+/Vita) FEZ (Started Aug.) Crap so far
  • (PS+/Vita) Muramasa Rebirth (Started Sep.) Good so far
  • (Vita) Bentley's Hackpack (Started Sep.) Meh so far
  • (Vita) Uncharted: Golden Abyss (Started Sep.) Awesome so far
  • (PS3) Lego Marvel Super Heroes (Started Nov.) Awesome so far
  • (Wii U) Super Smash Bros Wii U (Started Nov.) Good so far
  • (3DS) Pokemon Alpha Sapphire (Started Nov.) Good so far
  • (3DS) Super Smash Bros 3DS (Started Dec.) Good so far

Procrastination Gamin':

Games I haven't started yet.

  • (PS+/PS3) DmC: Devil May Cry (Got Jan.)
  • (PS+/PS4) Don't Starve (Got Jan.)
  • (PS+/PS3) Payday 2 (Got Feb.)
  • (PS+/PS3) Remember Me (Got Feb.)
  • (PS4) Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag (Got Feb.)
  • (PSP) Me & My Katamari (Got Mar.)
  • (PSP) Secret Agent Clank (Got Mar.)
  • (Xbox 360) Beautiful Katamari (Got Mar.) 
  • (PS+/PS3) Crysis (Got Aug.)
  • (PS+/PS4) Road Not Taken (Got Aug.)
  • (PS+/PS4) Pix the Cat (Got Oct.)
  • (PS+/Vita) Escape Plan (Got Nov.)
  • (PS+/Vita) The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth (Got Nov.)
  • (PS+/PS3) Hitman Trilogy HD (Got Dec.)
  • (PS+/PS4) Injustice: Gods Among Us (Got Dec.)
  • (PS3) Kingdom Hearts: Birth By Sleep Final Mix (Got Dec.)

Oh Well:

Games I didn't pick up

  • (PS3) South Park Stick of Truth
  • (PS4) Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes
  • (PS4) Infamous Second Son
  • (PS3/PS4) Lego: The Hobbit
  • (PS4) Octodad: Dadliest Catch
  • (PS4) Transistor
  • (PS4/Vita) Child of Light
  • (3DS) Cooking Mama 5: Bon Appetit
  • (Wii U) Hyrule Warriors
  • (PSN) Costume Quest 2
  • (PS3) Borderlands: The Pre-Sequel
  • (PS4) Call of Duty: Advance Warfare
  • (PS4) Peggle 2
  • (PS3/PS4) Lego Batman 3
  • (PS3/PS4) LittleBigPlanet 3
  • (PSN) Tales from the Borderlands
  • (PSN) Game of Thrones
  • (Wii U) Captain Toad Treasure Tracker
  • (PS4) Lara Croft and the Temple of Osiris

Platinumed / 100%(ed):

  • Brothers (Feb.8) Good
  • Ratchet & Clank: All 4 One (Feb.20) Awesome
  • Puppeteer (Mar.11) Awesome
  • Sound Shapes Vita (Mar.15) Awesome
  • Machinarium Vita (Mar.16) Awesome
  • Sly Cooper: Thieves in Time (Mar.16) Awesome
  • PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royal (Mar.30) Awesome
  • Thomas Was Alone (Apr.5) Awesome
  • Sound Shapes PS4 (Apr.19) Awesome
  • Rain (May8) Awesome
  • Jurassic Park: The Game (May11) Awesome
  • Sly Cooper Vita (Jul.1) Awesome
  • Sly 2: Band of Thieves Vita (Aug.16) Awesome
  • The Wolf Among Us (Aug.17) Awesome
  • Tearaway (Aug.26) Awesome
  • The Walking Dead: Season 2 (Aug.27) Awesome
  • Proteus (Sep.7) Good
  • Smart As (Oct.11) Awesome
  • The Lego Movie: Videogame (Nov.3) Awesome
  • Jak & Daxter: The Precursor Legacy Vita (Dec.5) Awesome
  • Minecraft Vita Edition (Dec.18) Awesome

My Games of the Year:

Released this year:

  • zilch
  • nada
  • bupkis

Played this year:

  • (Vita) Tearaway
  • (PS3) Puppeteer

Not So Fast 2014!:

Last minute buys on Dec. 31.

  • (IOS) - Hearthstone

And that's that! Happy New Year everyone!

-jose


          Faith-based Computing        
Anyone has ever worked in a computer-related job should recognize the affliction I'm about to describe. It is a terrible scourge, and despite the best efforts of educators and gurus across the planet, it seems to be growing. Few things are so vile, so noxious, so... irritating. I am referring, of course, to faith-based computing, or "voodoo computing" as it is sometimes called.

Allow me to briefly describe faith-based computing for the uninformed; perhaps even an example is in order. Imagine yourself being the Joe (or Jane) in charge of the company's network. You receive a phone call from an irrate user who says that his download speeds from the Internet are very slow. Of course, this isn't the run-of-the-mill user who knows how to use Microsoft Word and Excel only. No, as luck would have it, this is the user whose knowledge of all things networked is vast, by virtue of their addiction on online games at home. He is the one who shelled out an extra $50 for a 1000Mbps switch instead of a 100Mbps switch, just so his ping time to game servers would somehow be faster. He is the one who bought a $300 network card, thinking that something so expensive and with such a "killer" name must be faster. Yes, he is the user with whom you don't want to discuss networking at all.

After dragging yourself to his desk, you test things out for a minute and then declare that the problem is simply the site from which he is downloading; the server or its connection must be overloaded. You determine this using some simple yet clear procedures, such as trying a different download from another web site and testing the same site using your account through a different ISP. Despite your best efforts to explain the situation, he refuses to believe you. "I download stuff from this site at home all the time and they've never had a problem before. It must be your network!" You can explain it to him as many times as you like, but he always has the same response, "If you guys would just buy a gigabit-capable switch, everyone's downloads would be so much faster." In the end, you must simply walk away and allow him to persist in his fantasies; he has become so blinded by the glare of his ego that he cannot see anything else.

This strange disease is manifested in a couple of different ways. First, there are the people who are simply too tired, disinterested, or stupid to spend the time learning about how things really work. A good example of this kind of person is the IT manager who buys Celeron processors instead of Pentiums because they believe that the Pentium is only useful if you are "doing a lot of math equations". Or the poor guy in the accounting department who reboots his computer five times a day because it "makes it run fast again" after he does it. This group of people has little interest in actually learning about how things work or debugging problems; they completely rely on rumors and heresay, with circumstantial evidence reinforcing their beliefs.

Another type of faith-based computing is the person who gets one thing stuck in their head and just can't let it go. "Your so-called evidence be damned," is their commonly thought phrase. Unlike the previous class of people, this group isn't lazy or dumb but instead very proud. They have their tried-and-true rules and solutions, most of which have actually been useful at some point, and they will stick to those rules and solutions no matter what the situation may be. You can logically build a waterproof case that a user's overheating CPU is causing intermittent shutdowns, but they will ignore you and insist that "it's the motherboard -- we need to replace it." This is the kind of person that will never trust any piece of network equipment that doesn't carry the Cisco logo. They are typically more aggrevating than other types of faithers, mostly because of their tendancy to show up in managerial positions.

So what can be done about this problem? It is not an easy puzzle to solve, but I believe a massive reeducation program is necessary. We need to begin a missionary effort to spread the gospel of logical thinking to these heathens. Once you have made sure that you yourself have cleansed yourself of all voodoo computing beliefs, you are prepared to begin your ministry. Spend extra time with your friends, family, and coworkers, teaching them the paths of logical computing. Those places where conversion efforts are successful should proudly display their achievement with signs that declare their new alliance with logical computing. Companies should note in their mission statements and job postings that they refuse to practice faith-based computing and will not hire those who adhere to it.

With a strong and steady effort, we will eventually eradicate its evil vestiges from every corner of the transistor-based world. I call on everyone to join the battle to dismiss one of the last remnants of the Dark Ages from our hallowed halls of computing.
          Intel Boss on the Doubling of Computer Power Every Two Years         

I do not assume that silicon chips will always be used for the more complex challenges, because the technology for transistors is still in its infancy, relative to future developments. We live in an exciting era of accelerating technological innovation, which will not end of its own accord.

This item continues in the Subscriber’s Area, where a PDF of The Telegraph’s article is also posted.


          INTEL T7700 proci Core 2 Duo 2.4GHz CPU Socket P PBGA 479 PPGA 478 - Jelenlegi ára: 3 333 Ft        
Intel T7700 SLA7F Core 2 Duo processzor 2. 4Ghz 65nm 800 FSB SocketP PBGA479 PPGA478
azonnal raktárról (a készlet erejéig)!  
Személyes átvétel: Bp (I. ker Attila út, DunaPlaza, M3-as bevezető, keleti, nyugati, Allee Europark Lurdy Mammut) Fót, Felsőgöd, Sződliget az általam javasolt időpontban, amennyiben ez nem megfelelő akkor előrefizetéssel vagy utánvétteltudom küldeni
(utánvéttel csak legalább 10 pozitív és 95% feletti értékeléssel rendelkező vásárlóknak tudok csak küldeni.. )
Teljes termékspecifkáció:  
http: //download. intel. com/design/mobile/datashts/31674505. pdf
Product CollectionLegacy Intel® Core™ 2 Processor
Code NameProducts formerly Merom
Vertical SegmentMobile
Processor NumberT7700
StatusEnd of Interactive Support
Launch DateQ2'07
Lithography65 nm
Recommended Customer PriceN/A
Performance
# of Cores2
Processor Base Frequency2. 40 GHz
Cache4 MB L2
Bus Speed800 MHz FSB
FSB ParityNo
TDP35 W
Supplemental Information
Embedded Options Available No
DatasheetView now
Package Specifications
Sockets SupportedPBGA479, PPGA478
TJUNCTION100° C
Package Size35mm x 35mm
Processing Die Size143 mm2
# of Processing Die Transistors291 million
Low Halogen Options AvailableSee MDDS
Advanced Technologies
Intel® Turbo Boost Technology ‡ No
Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology ‡  No
Intel® Virtualization Technology (VT-x) ‡ Yes
Intel® 64 ‡  Yes
Instruction Set64-bit
Idle StatesYes
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology Yes
Intel® Demand Based Switching No
Intel® Platform Protection Technology
Trusted Execution Technology ‡  No
Execute Disable Bit ‡ Yes

INTEL T7700 proci Core 2 Duo 2.4GHz CPU Socket P PBGA 479 PPGA 478
Jelenlegi ára: 3 333 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2017-08-23 17:59
          INTEL T9400 proci Core 2 Duo 2.53GHz CPU Socket P BGA 479 PGA 478 - Jelenlegi ára: 3 599 Ft        
Intel T9400 SLB46 SLGE5 Core 2 Duo processzor 2. 53Ghz 45nm 1066 FSB SocketP BGA479 PGA478
azonnal raktárról (a készlet erejéig)!  
Személyes átvétel: Bp (I. ker Attila út, DunaPlaza, M3-as bevezető, keleti, nyugati, Allee Europark Lurdy Mammut) Fót, Felsőgöd, Sződliget az általam javasolt időpontban, amennyiben ez nem megfelelő akkor előrefizetéssel vagy utánvétteltudom küldeni
(utánvéttel csak legalább 10 pozitív és 95% feletti értékeléssel rendelkező vásárlóknak tudok csak küldeni.. )
Essentials
Product CollectionLegacy Intel® Core™ 2 Processor
Code NameProducts formerly Penryn
Vertical SegmentMobile
Processor NumberT9400
StatusLaunched
Launch DateQ3'08
Lithography45 nm
Recommended Customer Price$250. 00 - $331. 00
Performance
# of Cores2
Processor Base Frequency2. 53 GHz
Cache6 MB L2
Bus Speed1066 MHz FSB
FSB ParityNo
TDP35 W
VID Voltage Range1. 050V-1. 162V
Supplemental Information
Embedded Options Available Yes
DatasheetView now
Conflict FreeYes
Package Specifications
Sockets SupportedBGA479, PGA478
TJUNCTION105° C
Package Size35mm x 35mm
Processing Die Size107 mm2
# of Processing Die Transistors410 million
Low Halogen Options AvailableSee MDDS
Advanced Technologies
Intel® Turbo Boost Technology ‡ No
Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology ‡  No
Intel® Virtualization Technology (VT-x) ‡ Yes
Intel® 64 ‡  Yes
Instruction Set64-bit
Idle StatesNo
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology Yes
Intel® Demand Based Switching No
Intel® Platform Protection Technology
Trusted Execution Technology ‡  Yes
Execute Disable Bit ‡ Yes

INTEL T9400 proci Core 2 Duo 2.53GHz CPU Socket P BGA 479 PGA 478
Jelenlegi ára: 3 599 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2017-08-18 20:09
          Comment on Missing car parts we love by Transistor :        
i usually buy my car parts from a local auto parts seller and sometimes they sell those low quality made in china fakes--"
           Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistors—Ready for Prime Time?         
Morse, Jeffrey. National Nanomanufacturing Network. (2009) Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistors—Ready for Prime Time? NNN Newsletter, 2 (11).
          A Confederacy of Dunces        
A Confederacy of Dunces
author: John Kennedy Toole
name: Lawyer
average rating: 3.88
book published: 1980
rating: 5
read at: 2012/03/09
date added: 2017/07/02
shelves: 20th-century, boethius, the-consolation-of-philosophy, fortuna, popular-culture, comedy, humor, southern-literature, satire, john-kennedy-toole, new-orleans, 1960s, mothers-and-sons, sexuality, tragedy, tragi-comedy, 2012
review:
A Confederacy of Dunces: John Kennedy Toole's Novel of What it Means to Miss New Orleans

A Confederacy of Dunces was chosen as the first group read of On the Southern Literary Trail in March, 2012. Now, a few months after "The Trail's" FIFTH Anniversary, the readers have chosen this novel as one of it's group reads for July, 2017. Come join us!


"Miniver cursed the commonplace
And eyed a khaki suit with loathing;
He missed the mediæval grace
Of iron clothing.

Miniver scorned the gold he sought,
But sore annoyed was he without it;
Miniver thought, and thought, and thought,
And thought about it.

Miniver Cheevy, born too late,
Scratched his head and kept on thinking;
Miniver coughed, and called it fate,
And kept on drinking."
--Edward Arlington Robinson


After twenty-five years, I've closed my original Evergreen copy of A Confederacy of Dunces. I've reached the last page once more. It appears more battered than when I last read it. It's still good. I hated to see it end again.

Hmmmm...hang on. We've got company.

"Oooooweee. That dude down at the Levy Pant Fact-o-ree an' his wife with them funny blue glasses of hers done got me an A-WARD for doin' the Poleeces a favor cleanin' up this bar down on Bourbon called de Night of Joy. WHOA! An' dat Mrs. Levy done took me on as a projeck an send me back to school. Ooooweee! So I don't work for less than no minimal wage no more. I got air condition and a transistor radio an' I read this poem up there at the top o this page an I wrote it down in one of them tablets the big guy in that green hat like so much."

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"That sound jus like him. WHOA!"--Burma Jones, former porter and janitor, The Night of Joy Bar, Bourbon Street, New Orleans, Louisiana

Whatever happened to Burma Jones and all the other memorable character's ofA Confederacy of Dunces is anybody's guess. John Kennedy Toole committed suicide in 1969, never seeing his novel in print. The story of the publication of the book is as fascinating as the novel itself.

John Kennedy Toole was born in 1937, the son of John and Thelma Toole. Although a Catholic, he was educated in the public schools, as opposed to the parochial schools. Perhaps that's where Toole began to learn the dialect of New Orleans known as "Yat." He graduated high school at the age of sixteen, graduated with honors from Tulane in 1958, and had a Masters from Columbia in New York in 1959. He was working on his doctoral studies when called up for military service in 1961 and was stationed in Puerto Rico. It was there that he began the novel that would win him the Pulitzer Prize posthumously in 1981.

Toole returned from military service to his home city where he taught at St. Mary's Dominican College, Loyola's sister college, finishing his novel there. In 1964, Toole sent his manuscript to Simon and Schuster in New York. Senior Editor Robert Gottlieb worked with Toole through the year, resulting in many revisions. But Gottlieb ultimately told Toole by December the book was about nothing and dropped the project.

Until his death in 1969, Toole spiralled into alcoholism and depression. Towards the end of his life he became paranoid and delusional, believing that others were attempting to steal his book. At the age of 32, Toole committed suicide by sealing himself inside a garage, dying of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Toole's mother, Thelma submitted her son's novel to six publishing houses. All rejected the novel. She dogged Walker Percy's footsteps, literally pushing the manuscript into his hands, asking him to read her son's novel. Percy reluctantly agreed, but upon completing the read recognized that he had read something great. Through his efforts, the novel was published by LSU Press. The rest is history.

What is it that intrigues people about this book? What is it that makes some people despise it? Those readers familiar with New Orleans readily recognize that the city comes to life in Toole's novel. So do the myriad characters. The city districts, streets and stores are readily recognized. The unique accents of New Orleans multi-cultural population sing from the pages of this book. Those who have not been there cannot recognize the city and cannot believe such people exist. But, oh, they do.

Those readers who cannot abide the book inevitably find Ignatius Reilly the source of frustration. He is no hero. He has no ambition. He is content to be provided for by his mother and whatever Fate or Fortune brings. He is slothful, spoiled, and lazy. He rants at the perversion of modern society, but wants its conveniences.

His afternoons find him before the flickering screen of the television as he screams at...

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Each evening he attends the movies, eagerly awaiting his favorite film star's latest feature.

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He is banned from attending further screenings at the Old Prytania Theater after screaming the picture is an ABORTION!

But he returns to a downtown theater to catch her next feature and is HORRIFIED that she may end up in bed with her leading man!

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Ignatius Reilly is a man at odds with the modern world. He is drawn to it, but repelled by it. As was Miniver Cheevy, he was born too late. And he definitely called it fate, or at least the work of the fickle Goddess Fortuna, of whom Boethius, the last classical writer wrote in Ignatius's favorite book, The Consolation of Philosophy. As Walker Percy wrote in his foreword to the novel, Ignatius is an irascible Don Quixote jousting against the windmills of a world of which he would rather not be a part. He seeks to impose his own medieval philosophies on a city that would have it be Mardi Gras all year long. That's not going to happen in New Orleans.

Ignatius is forced into the outside world to get a job to pay off the costs of an automobile accident his mother had after a bit too much to drink in the Night of Joy bar that will figure prominently in the story. So Ignatius will find himself at work in the Levy Pant Factory in charge of filing, accompanied by Office Manager Gomez who doesn't manage much of anything, and Miss Trixie, long past retirement age, who would much rather be retired. Ignatius, a natural saboteur, soon finds himself unemployed. Next, he finds himself a street vendor of Paradise Hot Dogs, waddling along his appointed route, eating more of his ware than selling them.

Behind all the blare and bluster he exhibits, Ignatius is a bundle of insecurities, having left New Orleans only once in a traumatic trip to Baton Rouge where he might have had a teaching position but for his willful refusal to grade his students' papers. This gets him back home to the safety of his room, where he wiles away his time writing his magnum opus on his philosophy of life.

It is not that Ignatius hasn't had his chance at love, Myrna Minkoff, that "little minx" as he calls her, has attempted to bed him on more than one occasion, while they both attended college in New Orleans. However, Ignatius has firmly protected his virginity, taking matters in hand for necessary relief, but leaving himself celibate.

Myrna has gone back to New York and is constantly engaged in social protests of one form or the other. Her relationship with Ignatius continues by correspondence. She is relentless in her argument that he needs to free himself from his cloistered room, his mother to whom is too closely tied and find true freedom through just one cleansing natural orgasm. And his minx constantly hints that she is freed in this manner time and again through the interesting male individuals who attach themselves to her social causes.

Meanwhile, as Ignatius fails to bring home the bacon to pay off her accident costs, Irene, the doting mother is persuaded by her friend Santa Batagglia and her possible suitor Claude Robichaux that Ignatius has become insane. Irene begins to think that the only way to save Ignatius from himself is to have him committed to a hospital for the mentally ill.

Toole rolls to a tumultuous literary climax. All the characters with whom Ignatius has come into contact come together in a night of comedic chaos that may well determine Ignatius' fate. Will it be involuntary commitment to an asylum, or will it be freedom? Toole combines comedy and tragedy in an unforgettable novel that does make a reader laugh out loud and feel true pity for the man for whom Fortuna's wheel spins an unpredictable course.

Oooooweee! I'm all outta Dr. Nut. I got no Paradise Dogs. Just gonna have to pour me a Dr. Pepper and have me a Nathan's Dog. WHOA! All this writin's enough to turn a man into a vagran'.

FIVE FOR FIVE, Still crazy after all these years.

          ESP8266 - Projet d'indicateur de réveil pour enfant - zener        

J'ai avancé sur le calcul de ces résistances, et je me permets de poster ici ma réflexion pour savoir si mes calculs sont justes.
J'ai trouvé un courant dans la base des transistors de 0,27mA (3,3-0,6/10k=0,27mA). Ce qui donne un courant dans le collecteur de 27mA (gain de 100 du transistor).
La couleur rouge est obtenue avec une tension de 1.9V aux bornes de ma LED, 3,3V aux bornes de la led pour la couleur vert. Ce qui me donne une résistance de 70ohms pour la cathode rouge, 3 ohms poru la cathode vert.
Est-ce que mes valeurs semblent cohérentes avec celles que vous avez utilisées ?
Merci d'avance pour votre aide.


          ESP8266 - Projet d'indicateur de réveil pour enfant - zener        

Super sympa votre montage, je suis preneur pour voir si je peux revivre quelques grasses mat :)
Est-ce que vous pourriez me donner la valeur des résistances que vous avez montées entre les collecteurs des transistors et les Kathodes des Leds ? Merci :)


          ARQUITECTURA DEL COMPUTADOR        
Componentes Del Computador
Es un sistema compuesto de cinco elementos diferenciados: una CPU (unidad central de Procesamiento), dispositivo de entrada, dispositivos de almacenamiento, dispositivos de salida y una red de comunicaciones, denominada bus, que enlaza todos los elementos del sistema y conecta a éste con el mundo exterior.
Ucp o cpu (central processing unit).
UCP o procesador, interpreta y lleva a cabo las instrucciones de los programas, efectúa manipulaciones aritméticas y lógicas con los datos y se comunica con las demás partes del sistema. Una UCP es una colección compleja de circuitos electrónicos. Cuando se incorporan todos estos circuitos en un chip de silicio, a este chip se le denomina microprocesador. La UCP y otros chips y componentes electrónicos se ubican en un tablero de circuitos o tarjeta madre.
Los factores relevantes de los chips de UCP son:
Compatibilidad: No todo el soft es compatible con todas las UCP. En algunos casos se pueden resolver los problemas de compatibilidad usando software especial.
Velocidad: La velocidad de una computadora está determinada por la velocidad de su reloj interno, el dispositivo cronométrico que produce pulsos eléctricos para sincronizar las operaciones de la computadora. Las computadoras se describen en función de su velocidad de reloj, que se mide en mega hertz. La velocidad también está determinada por la arquitectura del procesador, es decir el diseño que establece de qué manera están colocados en el chip los componentes individuales de la CPU. Desde la perspectiva del usuario, el punto crucial es que "más rápido" casi siempre significa "mejor".
El Procesador
El chip más importante de cualquier placa madre es el procesador. Sin el la computadora no podría funcionar. A menudo este componente se determina CPU, que describe a la perfección su papel dentro del sistema. El procesador es realmente el elemento central del proceso de procesamiento de datos.
Los procesadores se describen en términos de su tamaño de palabra, su velocidad y la capacidad de su RAM asociada.
  • Tamaño de la palabra: Es el número de bits que se maneja como una unidad en un sistema de computación en particular.
  • Velocidad del procesador: Se mide en diferentes unidades según el tipo de computador:
MHz (Megahertz): para microcomputadoras. Un oscilador de cristal controla la ejecución de instrucciones dentro del procesador. La velocidad del procesador de una micro se mide por su frecuencia de oscilación o por el número de ciclos de reloj por segundo. El tiempo transcurrido para un ciclo de reloj es 1/frecuencia.
MIPS (Millones de instrucciones por segundo): Para estaciones de trabajo, minis y macrocomputadoras. Por ejemplo una computadora de 100 MIPS puede ejecutar 100 millones de instrucciones por segundo.
FLOPS (floating point operations per second, operaciones de punto flotante por segundo): Para las supercomputadoras. Las operaciones de punto flotante incluyen cifras muy pequeñas o muy altas. Hay supercomputadoras para las cuales se puede hablar de GFLOPS (Gigaflops, es decir 1.000 millones de FLOPS).
Capacidad de la RAM: Se mide en términos del número de bytes que puede almacenar. Habitualmente se mide en KB y MB, aunque ya hay computadoras en las que se debe hablar de GB.
Dispositivos De Entrada
En esta se encuentran:
  • Teclado
  • Mouse o Ratón
  • Escáner o digitalizador de imágenes
El Teclado
Es un dispositivo periférico de entrada, que convierte la acción mecánica de pulsar una serie de pulsos eléctricos codificados que permiten identificarla. Las teclas que lo constituyen sirven para entrar caracteres alfanuméricos y comandos a una computadora.
En un teclado se puede distinguir a cuatro subconjuntos de teclas:
  • Teclado alfanumérico: con las teclas dispuestas como en una maquina de escribir.
  • Teclado numérico: (ubicado a la derecha del anterior) con teclas dispuestas como en una calculadora.
  • Teclado de funciones: (desde F1 hasta F12) son teclas cuya función depende del programa en ejecución.
  • Teclado de cursor: para ir con el cursor de un lugar a otro en un texto. El cursor se mueve según el sentido de las flechas de las teclas, ir al comienzo de un párrafo (" HOME "), avanzar / retroceder una pagina ("PAGE UP/PAGE DOWN "), eliminar caracteres ("delete"), etc.
Cada tecla tiene su contacto, que se encuentra debajo de, ella al oprimirla se " Cierra " y al soltarla se " Abre ", de esta manera constituye una llave " si – no ".
Debajo del teclado existe una matriz con pistas conductoras que puede pensarse en forma rectangular, siendo en realidad de formato irregular. Si no hay teclas oprimidas, no se toca ningún conductor horizontal con otro vertical. Las teclas están sobre los puntos de intersección de las líneas conductoras horizontales y verticales. Cuando se pulsa una tecla. Se establece un contacto eléctrico entre la línea conductora vertical y horizontal que pasan por debajo de la misma.
El Mouse O Ratón
El ratón o Mouse informático es un dispositivo señalador o de entrada, recibe esta denominación por su apariencia.
Para poder indicar la trayectoria que recorrió, a medida que se desplaza, el Mouse debe enviar al computador señales eléctricas binarias que permitan reconstruir su trayectoria, con el fin que la misma sea repetida por una flecha en el monitor. Para ello el Mouse debe realizar dos funciones:
Conversión Analógica -Digital: Esta generar por cada fracción de milímetro que se mueve, uno o más pulsos eléctricos.
Port serie: Dichos pulsos y enviar hacia la interfaz a la cual esta conectado el valor de la cuenta, junto con la información acerca de sí se pulsa alguna de sus dos o tres teclas ubicada en su parte superior.
Existen dos tecnologías principales en fabricación de ratones: Ratones mecánicos y Ratones ópticos.
Ratones mecánicos: Estos constan de una bola situada en su parte inferior. La bola, al moverse el ratón, roza unos contactos en forma de rueda que indican el movimiento del cursor en la pantalla del sistema informático.
Ratones ópticos: Estos tienen un pequeño haz de luz láser en lugar de la bola rodante de los mecánicos. Un censor óptico situado dentro del cuerpo del ratón detecta el movimiento del reflejo al mover el ratón sobre el espejo e indica la posición del cursor en la pantalla de la computadora.
El Escáner O Digitalizador De Imágenes
Son periféricos diseñados para registrar caracteres escritos, o gráficos en forma de fotografías o dibujos, impresos en una hoja de papel facilitando su introducción la computadora convirtiéndolos en información binaria comprensible para ésta.
El funcionamiento de un escáner es similar al de una fotocopiadora. Se coloca una hoja de papel que contiene una imagen sobre una superficie de cristal transparente, bajo el cristal existe una lente especial que realiza un barrido de la imagen existente en el papel; al realizar el barrido, la información existente en la hoja de papel es convertida en una sucesión de información en forma de unos y ceros que se introducen en la computadora.
En fin, que dejándonos de tanto formalismo sintáctico, en el caso que nos ocupa se trata de coger una imagen (fotografía, dibujo o texto) y convertirla a un formato que podamos almacenar y modificar con el ordenador. Realmente un escáner no es ni más ni menos que los ojos del ordenador.
Los escáneres captaban las imágenes únicamente en blanco y negro o, como mucho, con un número muy limitado de matices de gris, entre 16 y 256. Posteriormente aparecieron escáner que podían captar color, aunque el proceso requería tres pasadas por encima de la imagen, una para cada color primario (rojo, azul y verde). Hoy en día la práctica totalidad de los escáner captan hasta 16,7 millones de colores distintos en una única pasada, e incluso algunos llegan hasta los 68.719 millones de colores.
En todos los ordenadores se utiliza lo que se denomina sistema binario, que es un sistema matemático en el cual la unidad superior no es el 10 como en el sistema decimal al que estamos acostumbrados, sino el 2. Un BIT cualquiera puede, por tanto, tomar 2 valores, que pueden representar colores (blanco y negro, por ejemplo); si en vez de un BIT tenemos 8, los posibles valores son 2 elevado a 8 = 256 colores; si son 16 bits, 2 elevado a 16 = 65.536 colores; si son 24 bits, 2 elevado a 24 = 16.777216 colores, una imagen a 24 bits de color" es una imagen en la cual cada punto puede tener hasta 16,7 millones de colores distintos; esta cantidad de colores se considera suficiente para casi todos los usos normales de una imagen, por lo que se le suele denominar color real.
Dispositivos De Almacenamiento
En esta se encuentran:
  • Disco Duro
  • Diskettes 3 ½
  • Maletón-ópticos de 5,25
Disco Duro
Este esta compuestos por varios platos, es decir, varios discos de material magnético montados sobre un eje central sobre el que se mueven. Para leer y escribir datos en estos platos se usan las cabezas de lectura / escritura que mediante un proceso electromagnético codifican / decodifican la información que han de leer o escribir. La cabeza de lectura / escritura en un disco duro está muy cerca de la superficie, de forma que casi da vuelta sobre ella, sobre el colchón de aire formado por su propio movimiento. Debido a esto, están cerrados herméticamente, porque cualquier partícula de polvo puede dañarlos.
Este dividen en unos círculos concéntricos cilíndricos (coincidentes con las pistas de los disquetes), que empiezan en la parte exterior del disco (primer cilindro) y terminan en la parte interior (ultimo). Asimismo, estos cilindros se dividen en sectores, cuyo numero esta determinado por el tipo de disco y su formato, siendo todos ellos de un tamaño fijo en cualquier disco. Cilindros como sectores se identifican con una serie de números que se les asigna, empezando por el 1, pues el numero 0 de cada cilindro se reservan para propósitos de identificación mas que para almacenamientos de datos. Estos escritos / leídos en el disco deben ajustarse al tamaño fijado del almacenamiento de los sectores. Habitualmente, los sistemas de discos duros contienen mas de una unidad en su interior, por lo que el numero de caras puede ser mas de dos. Estas se identifican con un numero, siendo el 0 para la primera. En general su organización es igual a los disquetes. La capacidad del disco resulta de multiplicar el numero de caras por el de pistas por cara y por el de sectores por pista, al total por el numero de bytes por sector.
Diskettes 3 ½
Son disco de almacenamiento de alta densidad de 1,44 MB, este presenta dos agujeros en la parte inferior del mismo, uno para proteger al disco contra escritura y el otro solo para diferenciarlo del disco de doble densidad.
Maletón-Ópticos De 5,25
Este se basa en la misma tecnología que sus hermanos pequeños de 3,5", su ventajas: Gran fiabilidad y durabilidad de los datos a la vez que una velocidad razonablemente elevada Los discos van desde los 650 MB hasta los 5,2 GB de almacenamiento, o lo que es lo mismo: desde la capacidad de un solo CD-ROM hasta la de 8.
Dispositivos De Salida
En esta se encuentran:
  • Impresoras
  • Monitor
Las Impresoras
Esta es la que permite obtener en un soporte de papel una ¨hardcopy¨: copia visualizable, perdurable y transportable de la información procesada por un computador.
Las primeras impresoras nacieron muchos años antes que el PC e incluso antes que los monitores, siendo durante años el método más usual para presentar los resultados de los cálculos en aquellos primitivos ordenadores, todo un avance respecto a las tarjetas y cintas perforadas que se usaban hasta entonces.
La velocidad de una impresora se suele medir con dos parámetros:
  • Ppm : páginas por minuto que es capaz de imprimir;
  • Cps: caracteres (letras) por segundo que es capaz de imprimir
  • Ppp: puntos por pulgada (cuadrada) que imprime una impresora
Tipo De Impresoras
  • Impacto por matriz de aguja o punto
  • Chorro o inyección de tinta
  • Láser
Impacto Por Matriz De Aguja O Punto
Fueron las primeras que surgieron en el mercado. Se las denomina "de impacto" porque imprimen mediante el impacto de unas pequeñas piezas (la matriz de impresión) sobre una cinta impregnada en tinta y matriz de aguja por que su cabezal móvil de impresión contiene una matriz de agujas móviles en conductos del mismo, dispuestas en una columna (de 9 agujas por ejemplo) o más columnas. Para escribir cualquier cosa en color se tiene que sustituir la cinta de tinta negra por otro con tintas de los colores básicos (generalmente magenta, cyan y amarillo). Este método tiene el inconveniente de que el texto negro se fabricaba mezclando los tres colores básicos, lo que era más lento, más caro en tinta y deja un negro con un cierto matiz verdoso.
Chorro O Inyección De Tinta
Se le denomina "inyección" porque la tinta suele ser impulsada hacia el papel por unos mecanismos que se denominan inyectores, mediante la aplicación de una carga eléctrica que hace saltar una minúscula gota de tinta por cada inyector. Esta destaca por la utilización del color, incorporan soporte para el uso simultáneo de los cartuchos de negro y de color.
La resolución de estas impresoras es en teoría bastante elevada, hasta de 1.440 Ppp, pero en realidad la colocación de los puntos de tinta sobre el papel resulta bastante deficiente, por lo que no es raro encontrar que el resultado de una impresora láser de 300 Ppp sea mucho mejor que el de una de tinta del doble de resolución. Por otra parte, suelen existir papeles especiales, mucho más caros que los clásicos folios de papelería, para alcanzar resultados óptimos a la máxima resolución o una gama de colores más viva y realista.
Este tipo de impresoras es utilizado generalmente por el usuario doméstico, además del oficinista que no necesita trabajar con papel continuo ni con reproducciones múltiples pero sí ocasionalmente con color (logotipos, gráficos, pequeñas imágenes...) con una calidad aceptable.
Láser
Son las de mayor calidad del mercado, si entendemos por calidad la resolución sobre papel normal que se puede obtener, unos 600 Ppp reales. En ellas la impresión se consigue mediante un láser que va dibujando la imagen electrostáticamente en un elemento llamado tambor que va girando hasta impregnarse de un polvo muy fino llamado tóner (como el de fotocopiadoras) que se le adhiere debido a la carga eléctrica. Por último, el tambor sigue girando y se encuentra con la hoja, en la cual imprime el tóner que formará la imagen definitiva.
Las láser son muy resistentes, mucho más rápidas y mucho más silenciosas que las impresoras matriciales o de tinta, y aunque la inversión inicial en una láser es mayor que en una de las otras, el tóner sale más barato a la larga que los cartuchos de tinta, por lo que a la larga se recupera la inversión. Por todo ello, las láser son idóneas para entornos de oficina con una intensa actividad de impresión, donde son más importantes la velocidad, la calidad y el escaso coste de mantenimiento que el color o la inversión inicial.
El Monitor
Evidentemente, es la pantalla en la que se ve la información suministrada por el ordenador. En el caso más habitual se trata de un aparato basado en un tubo de rayos catódicos (CRT) como el de los televisores, mientras que en los portátiles es una pantalla plana de cristal líquido (LCD).
La resolución se define como el número de puntos que puede representar el monitor por pantalla, en horizontal x vertical. Así, un monitor cuya resolución máxima sea de 1024x768 puntos puede representar hasta 768 líneas horizontales de 1024 puntos cada una, probablemente además de otras resoluciones inferiores, como 640x480 u 800x600. Cuan mayor sea la resolución de un monitor, mejor será la calidad de la imagen en pantalla, y mayor será la calidad (y por consiguiente el precio) del monitor.
Red De Comunicaciones
Un sistema computacional es un sistema complejo que puede llegar a estar constituido por millones de componentes electrónicos elementales. Esta naturaleza multinivel de los sistemas complejos es esencial para comprender tanto su descripción como su diseño. En cada nivel se analiza su estructura y su función en el sentido siguiente:
Estructura: La forma en que se interrelacionan las componentes
Función: La operación de cada componente individual como parte de la estructura
Por su particular importancia se considera la estructura de interconexión tipo bus. EI bus representa básicamente una serie de cables mediante los cuales pueden cargarse datos en la memoria y desde allí transportarse a la CPU. Por así decirlo es la autopista de los datos dentro del PC ya que comunica todos los componentes del ordenador con el microprocesador. El bus se controla y maneja desde la CPU.
3. Funcionamiento Interno Del Computador
Al iniciar el arranque, en la mayoría de computadores, cualquiera sea su tamaño o potencia, el control pasa mediante circuito cableado a unas memorias de tipo ROM, grabadas con información permanente (datos de configuración, fecha y hora, dispositivos, etc.)
Después de la lectura de esta información, el circuito de control mandará a cargar en la memoria principal desde algún soporte externo (disco duro o disquete) los programas del sistema operativo que controlarán las operaciones a seguir, y en pocos segundos aparecerá en pantalla el identificador o interfaz, dando muestra al usuario que ya se está en condiciones de utilización.
Si el usuario carga un programa con sus instrucciones y datos desde cualquier soporte de información, bastará una pequeña orden para que dicho programa comience a procesarse, una instrucción tras otra, a gran velocidad, transfiriendo la información desde y hacia donde esté previsto en el programa con pausas si el programa es inactivo, en las que se pide al usuario entradas de información. Finalizada esta operación de entrada, el ordenador continuará su proceso secuencial hasta culminar la ejecución del programa, presentando sus resultados en pantalla, impresora o cualquier periférico.
Cada una de las instrucciones tiene un código diferente expresado en formato binario. Esta combinación distinta de unos y ceros la interpreta el <<cerebro>> del ordenador, y como está diseñado para que sepa diferenciar lo que tiene que hacer al procesar cada una de ellas, las ejecuta y continúa con la siguiente instrucción, sin necesidad de que intervenga el ordenador.
El proceso de una instrucción se descompone en operaciones muy simples de transferencia de información u operaciones aritméticas y lógicas elementales, que realizadas a gran velocidad le proporcionan una gran potencia que es utilizada en múltiples aplicaciones.
Realmente, esa información digitalizada en binario, a la que se refiere con unos y ceros, el ordenador la diferencia porque se trata de niveles diferentes de voltaje.
Cuando se emplean circuitos integrados, los niveles lógicos bajo y alto, que se representan por ceros y unos, corresponden a valores muy próximos a cero y cinco voltios en la mayoría de los casos.
Cuando las entradas de las puertas lógicas de los circuitos digitales se les aplica el nivel alto o bajo de voltaje, el
comportamiento muy diferente. Por ejemplo, si se le aplica nivel alto conducen o cierran el circuito; en cambio si se aplica nivel bajo no conducen o dejan abierto el circuito. Para que esto ocurra, los transistores que constituyen los circuitos integrados trabajan en conmutación, pasando del corte a la saturación.
Estructura Interna Del Computador
En ella la conforman cada uno de los chips que se encuentran en la plaqueta base o tarjeta madre, estos son:
  • Bios
  • Caché
  • Chipset
  • Puestos USB
  • Zócalo ZIF
  • Slot de Expansión
    • Ranuras PCI
    • Ranuras DIMM
    • Ranuras SIMM
    • Ranuras AGP
    • Ranuras ISA
  • Pila
  • Conector disquetera
  • Conector electrónico
  • Conector EIDE (disco duro)
Bios: "Basic Input-Output System", sistema básico de entrada-salida. Programa incorporado en un chip de la placa base que se encarga de realizar las funciones básicas de manejo y configuración del ordenador.
Caché: es un tipo de memoria del ordenador; por tanto, en ella se guardarán datos que el ordenador necesita para trabajar. Esta también tiene una segunda utilidad que es la de memoria intermedia que almacena los datos mas usados, para ahorrar mucho mas tiempo del tránsito y acceso a la lenta memoria RAM.
Chipset: es el conjunto (set) de chips que se encargan de controlar determinadas funciones del ordenador, como la forma en que interacciona el microprocesador con la memoria o la caché, o el control de los puertos y slots ISA, PCI, AGP, USB.
USB: En las placas más modernas (ni siquiera en todas las ATX); de forma estrecha y rectangular, inconfundible pero de poca utilidad por ahora.
Zócalo ZIF: Es el lugar donde se inserta el "cerebro" del ordenador. Durante más de 10 años ha consistido en un rectángulo o cuadrado donde el "micro", una pastilla de plástico negro con patitas, se introducía con mayor o menor facilidad; recientemente, la aparición de los Pentium II ha cambiado un poco este panorama.
Slot de Expansión: son unas ranuras de plástico con conectores eléctricos (slots) donde se introducen las tarjetas de expansión (tarjeta de vídeo, de sonido, de red...). Según la tecnología en que se basen presentan un aspecto externo diferente, con diferente tamaño y a veces incluso en distinto color. En esta se encuentran:
  • Ranuras PCI: el estándar actual. Pueden dar hasta 132 MB/s a 33 MHz, lo que es suficiente para casi todo, excepto quizá para algunas tarjetas de vídeo 3D. Miden unos 8,5 cm y generalmente son blancas.
  • Ranuras DIMM: son ranuras de 168 contactos y 13 cm. Originalmente de color negro.
  • Ranuras SIMM: los originales tenían 30 conectores, esto es, 30 contactos, y medían unos 8,5 cm. Hacia finales de la época del 486 aparecieron los de 72 contactos, más largos: unos 10,5 cm de color blanco.
  • Ranuras AGP: o más bien ranura, ya que se dedica exclusivamente a conectar tarjetas de vídeo 3D, por lo que sólo suele haber una; además, su propia estructura impide que se utilice para todos los propósitos, por lo que se utiliza como una ayuda para el PCI. Según el modo de funcionamiento puede ofrecer 264 MB/s o incluso 528 MB/s. Mide unos 8 cm y se encuentra bastante separada del borde de la placa.
  • Ranuras ISA: son las más veteranas, un legado de los primeros tiempos del PC. Funcionan a unos 8 MHz y ofrecen un máximo de 16 MB/s, suficiente para conectar un módem o una tarjeta de sonido, pero muy poco para una tarjeta de vídeo. Miden unos 14 cm y su color suele ser negro; existe una versión aún más antigua que mide sólo 8,5 cm.
Pila: se encarga de conservar los parámetros de la BIOS cuando el ordenador está apagado. Sin ella, cada vez que encendiéramos tendríamos que introducir las características del disco duro, del Chipset, la fecha y la hora...
Conectores internos: Bajo esta denominación englobamos a los conectores para dispositivos internos, como puedan ser la disquetera, el disco duro, el CD-ROM o el altavoz interno, e incluso para los puertos serie, paralelo y de joystick.
4. Conclusión
El ordenador recibe y envía la información a través de los periféricos por medio de los canales. La UCP es la encargada de procesar la información que le llega al ordenador. El intercambio de información se tiene que hacer con los periféricos y la UCP. s un sistema complejo que puede llegar a estar constituido por millones de componentes electrónicos elementales.
Esto que en le teoría parece tan fácil es bastante mas complicado en la práctica, ya que aparte de los bus de datos y de direcciones existen también casi dos docenas más de líneas de señal en la comunicación entre la CPU y la memoria, a las cuales también se acude. Dentro de la tecnología SCSI hay 2 generaciones y una tercera que está a la vuelta de la esquina. La primera generación permitía un ancho de banda de 8 bits y unos ratios de transferencia de hasta 5 MBps. El mayor problema de esta especificación fue que para que un producto se denominara SCSI solo debía cumplir 4 códigos de operación de los 64 disponibles por lo que proliferaron en el mercado gran cantidad de dispositivos SCSI no compatibles entre sí.
El microprocesador lo que hace es procesar ordenes sencilla, para procesar ordenes mayores deberemos construir un programa. Con un micro de 16 bits solo se puede direccionar hasta 64 k de memoria, pero ya sabemos que se debe acceder a más de ellas, esto lo logramos con el esquema de direccionamiento de 20 bits utilizado por el microprocesador Una vez seleccionada y analizada la instrucción deberá accionar los circuitos correspondientes de otras unidades, para que se cumplimente la instrucción, a través del secuenciador o reloj. El chip más importante de cualquier placa madre es el procesador
Las teclas están sobre los puntos de intersección de las líneas conductoras horizontales y verticales. Cuando se pulsa una tecla. Se establece un contacto eléctrico entre la línea conductora vertical y horizontal que pasan por debajo de la misma realizar las operaciones con los datos procesados por el ordenador. Puede realizar las operaciones aritméticas básicas: suma, resta, multiplicación y división, así como, controlada por la UC operaciones como la de desplazamiento. Este desplazamiento se puede realizar hacia la derecha o hacia la izquierda. La UAL utiliza un registro denominado acumulador donde almacena los resultados de las operaciones antes de ser enviados a la memoria.
Cuando vamos a acceder a la dirección de memoria especificada en el CP, esta dirección deberá transferirse al RDM, a través del cual accederemos a dicha dirección. Esto se realiza al iniciar cada ciclo de instrucción.
La memoria está compuesta de chips. Lo único que realizan estos chips es almacenar la información hasta que esta es requerida. El número de chips de que consta la memoria es el que determina la capacidad de la misma.




           The development of sub-25 nm III-V High Electron Mobility Transistors         
Bentley, Steven (2009) The development of sub-25 nm III-V High Electron Mobility Transistors. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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Get Apple iPhone 6 Plus Mobile Price in Pakistan. For more information on Apple iPhone 6 Plus Mobile see below. Apple iPhone 6 Plus Mobile Specs & Details: Dimensions: 158.1 x 77.8 x 7.1mm Processor: A8 64 bit (2billion transistors) 50x faster than original iPhone Display: 5.5″ Resolution: 1920 x 1080 Pixels Per Inch : […]
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          Sejarah PC        
Komputer pertama dari semua jenis, adalah kalkulator sederhana. Bahkan alat ini dikembangkan dari alat-alat mekanis ke alat digital elektronik. Berikut adalah sejarah singkat PC :


  • 1617 = John Napier menciptakan "Napier's Bones", balok kayu yang digunakan untuk menghitung.  
  • 1642 = Blaise Pascal memperkenalkan mesin penambahan digital, Pascaline.  
  • 1822 = Charles Babbage membuat Difference Engine dan berikutnya Analytical Engine, sebuah mesin komputasi yang sesungguhnya bersifat general-purpose.  
  • 1906 = Lee De Forest mematenkan vacuum tube (tabung hampa) triode, digunakan sebagai switch elektronik pada komputer elektronik yang pertama.  
  • 1937 = John V. Atanasoff mulai mengerjakan Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), yang nantinya secara resmi dinilai sebagai komputer elektronik yang pertama.  
  • 1943 = Alan Turing mengembangkan Colossus, sebuah komputer pemecah kode rahasia milik Inggris yang didesain untuk men-decode pesan-pesan rahasia Jerman.  
  • 1945 = John van Neumann menulis "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", dimana ia menjelaskan secara garis besar arsitektur komputer modern stored-program.  
  • 1946 = ENIAC diperkenalkan, sebuah mesin komputasi elektronik yang dibuat oleh John Mauchly dan J. Presper Eckert.  
  • 1947 = Pada tanggal 23 Desember, William Shockley, Walter Brattain, dan John Bardeen, dengan sukses menguji transistor point-contact, memperkuat adanya semikonduktor.  
  • 1949 = Maurice Wilkes merakit EDSAC, komputer stored-program praktikal yang pertama, di Cambridge University.  
  • 1950 = Engineering Research Associates of Minneapolis membuat ERA 1101, salah satu komputer yang pertama kali diproduksi secara komersial.  
  • 1952 = UNIVAC I yang dikirim ke Biro Sensus AS adalah komputer komersial yang pertama yang menarik perhatian publik.  
  • 1953 = IBM meluncurkan komputer elektronik pertamanya, 701.  
  • 1954 = Transistor junction berbasis silikon, disempurnakan oleh Gordon Teal dari Texas Instruments, Inc., membuat biaya produksi berkurang dengan cukup signifikan.  
  • 1954 = Kalkulator magnetik drum, IBM 650, mengokohkan diri sebagai komputer pertama yang dibuat secara massal, setiap tahunnya perusahaan menjual 450 unit.  
  • 1955 = Bell Laboratories mengumumkan komputer pertama yang fully transistorized, TRADIC.  
  • 1956 = Para peneliti MIT membuat TX-0, komputer pertama yang general-purpose dan dapat diprogram, yang disertai transistor.  
  • 1956 = Era penyimpanan disk magnetik menurun dengan dikeluarkannya 305 RAMAC oleh IBM, untuk Zellerbach Paper di San Francisco.  
  • 1958 = Javk Kilby menciptakan sirkuit pertama yang terintegrasi di Texas Instruments untuk membuktikan bahwa resistor dan kapasitor dapat tersedia di bagian yang sama dengan bahan semikonduktor.  
  • 1959 = Mainframe seri 7000 dari IBM adalah komputer perusahaan pertama yang transistorized.  
  • 1960 = Bell Labs mendesain Dataphone, modem komersial yang pertama, secara khusus untuk mengkonversi data komputer digital ke sinyal analog untuk transmisi jaringan jarak jauhnya.  
  • 1960 = Pelopor minikomputer, PDP-1 dari DEC, terjual dengan harga $120,000.  
  • 1961 = Menurut majalah Datamation, IBM memiliki 81,29% saham dari pasar komputer pada tahun 1961, tahun dimana IBM memperkenalkan 1400 series.  
  • 1964 = Superkomputer 6600 dari CDC, didesain oleh Seymour Cray, melakukan sampai tiga juta instruksi per detik - kecepatan pemrosesan tiga kali lebih cepat ketimbang pesaing terdekatnya, IBM Strech.  
  • 1964 = IBM mengumumkan System/360, keluarga dari enam komputer yang kompatibel dan 40 peripheral yang dapat bekerja bersama-sama.  
  • 1964 = Pemrosesan transaksi online membuat debutnya di sistem reservasi SABRE milik IBM, di-setup untuk American Online.  
  • 1965 = Digital Equipment Corp. memperkenalkan PDP-8, minikomputer yang pertama kali sukses secara komersial.  
  • 1966 = Hewlett - Packard memasuki bisnis komputer general-purpose dengan HP-2115nya untuk komputasi, menawarkan kekuatan komputasional yang sebelumnya ditemukan hanya di komputer yang jauh lebih besar.  
  • 1969 = Cikal bakal dari sesuatu yang nantinya menjadi Internet, mulai muncul ketika Departemen Pertahanan Amerika membangun empat node(titik koneksi yang dapat menciptakan, menerima, atau mengulang sebuah pesan) di ARPAnet: dua di kampus Universitas Kalifornia (Satu di Santa Barbara dan satunya lagi di Los Angeles), dan dua lainnya masing-masing di SRI Internasional dan Universitas Utah.  
  • 1971 = Sebuah tim di San Jose Laboratories milik IBM, menciptakan floppy disk 8.  
  • 1971 = Iklan pertama untuk mikroprosesor, Intel 4004, muncul di Electronic News.  
  • 1971 = Kembak-1, salah satu komputer personal yang pertama, diiklankan sebesar $750 di Scientific American.  
  • 1972 = Hewlett-Packard mengumumkan HP-35 sebagai komputer "cepat, dengan slide rule elektronik yang akurat dengan memory solid-state yang serupa dengan komputer.  
  • 1972 = Mikroprosesor 8008 milik Intel membuat debutnya.  
  • 1972 = Steve Wozniak membangun "blue box", sebuah generator bunyi untuk membuat panggilan telepon gratis.  
  • 1973 = Robert Metcalfe menemukan metode Ethernet untuk koneksi jaringan di Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.  
  • 1973 = TV Typewritter, didesain oleh Don Lancaster, memberikan display pertama untuk informasi alphanumerik di television set biasa.  
  • 1974 = Para peneliti di Xerox Palo Alto Research Center mendesain Alto, workstation pertama dengan mouse built-in untuk input.  
  • 1974 = Scelbi mengumumkan komputer 8H miliknya, komputer AS yang pertama kali diiklankan secara komersial berdasarkan mikroprosesor, Intel 8008.  
  • 1975 = Lahirnya Telenet, jaringan paket-switching komersial yang pertama dan ekuivalen publik dari ARPAnet.  
  • 1975 = Popular Electronik edisi bulan Januari, menyorot Altair 8800, yang didasarkan pada mikroprosesor Intel 8080.  
  • 1975 = Prototype visual display module (VDM), didesain oleh Lee Felsenstein, menandai implementasi pertama dari display video alphanumerik yang memory-mapped(Alokasi terhadap bagian dari suatu RAM komputer, yang menentukan area mana dari komputer yang dapat digunakan untuk tujuan-tujuan khusus), untuk komputer_komputer personal.  
  • 1976 = Steve Wozniak mendesain Apple I, sebuah komputer single-board.  
  • 1976 = Disk drive dan disk fleksible 5¼ diperkenalkan oleh Shugart Associates.  
  • 1976 = Cray I mengumumkan dirinya sebagai vector prosesor yang untuk pertama kalinya sukses secara komersial.  
  • 1977 = Tandy Radio Shack memperkenalkan TRS-80  
  • 1977 = Apple computer memperkenalkan Apple II  
  • 1977 = Commodore memperkenalkan PET(Personal Electronic Transactor)  
  • 1978 = VAX 11/780 dari Digital Equipment Corp. menonjolkan kapabilitas untuk menyimpan sampai 4,3GB memory virtual, memberikan ratusan kali kapasitas dari kebanyakan mikrokomputer.  
  • 1979 = Motorola memperkenalkan mikroprosesor 6800.  
  • 1980 = John Shoch di Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, menciptakan "worm" komputer, sebuah program pendek yang mencari sebuah jaringan untuk idle prosesor.  
  • 1980 = Seagate Technology menciptakan drive hard disk yang pertama untuk mikrokomputer, yaitu ST-506.  
  • 1980 = Disk penyimpanan data optik yang pertama memiliki kapasitas 60 kali lebih besar daripada floppy disk 5¼.  
  • 1981 = Xerox memperkenalkan Star, komputer personal yang pertama dengan GUI(Graphical User Interface).  
  • 1981 = Adam Osborne menyelesaikan komputer portabel pertama, Osborne I, yang beratnya 24lbs, dan biayanya $1,795.  
  • 1981 = IBM memperkenalkan PC-nya, memicu cepatnya pertumbuhan pasar komputer personal. IBM PC merupakan cikal bakal dari semua PC modern.

  •           2012 YAMAHA FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition gambar motor        
    2012 YAMAHA FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition
    Motorcycle wallpapers, insurance, accident lawyers information, review and specifications

    2012 YAMAHA FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition
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    2012 Yamaha FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition Review

    The FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition has a streetfighter attitude with sporkbike manners.

    This aggressively-styled naked bike has been developed using advanced YZF-R supersport technology, making it one of the most exciting mid-class models available today. The high-tech 779cc engine produces strong torque as well as a real rush of top-end power for serious sports performance. And for great all-round handling characteristics there’s a lightweight Deltabox frame together with high quality suspension and braking systems – with ABS available as an option. Its muscular no-nonsense styling is a guaranteed attention getter – and dressed in Yamaha's race-bred WGP 50th Anniversary colour scheme, the FZ8 commands respect

    YAMAHA WGP 50TH ANNIVERSARY MODELS

    Fifty years after Yamaha sent its first ever GP riders to compete in the World Championships, our newest factory rider Ben Spies helped to commemorate the occasion with his maiden MotoGP win at Assen in June 2011. Riding a YZR-M1 in Yamaha's specially-designed red and white WGP 50th Anniversary livery, Spies was continuing the strong tradition of winning that has enabled Yamaha to become one of the industry's most innovative and creative manufacturers.

    Ever since it made its first motorcycle, Yamaha has believed that racing improves the breed. From winning our first ever Grand Prix points at the Isle of Man TT in June 1961 through to this year's MotoGP victories by Jorge Lorenzo and Ben Spies, every single success on the track allows our engineers and designers to develop and refine tomorrow's cutting-edge street-bikes.

    Over the past fifty years Yamaha's racing programme has led to the development of some of the most innovative engine and chassis technologies -as well as the creation of the most ground-breaking race-developed models like the YZF-R1, whose crossplane crankshaft is a direct spin-off from the factory YZR-M1 racer.

    To celebrate half a century of success in Grand Prix racing, Yamaha will produce a limited quantity of exclusive 'WGP 50th Anniversary' motorcycles and scooters. Based on the classic colour schemes debuted on the YZR-M1 by Jorge Lorenzo and Ben Spies in 2011, this very special timeless livery is inspired by the famous red and white 'speedblock' design featured on Yamaha's pioneering Grand Prix racing machines.

    This desirable and exclusive WGP 50th Anniversary colour scheme will be available on limited quantities of YZF-R1, YZF-R6, YZF-R125, FZ8, Aerox and TZR50 for the 2012 model year. Owners of these exclusive new WGP 50th Anniversary models will receive a special certificate of authentication, and will also receive Yamaha's 'Insider' magazine which contains the latest news, interviews and new model information.

    Combining sports performance and agressive styling with all day riding comfort, the 2012 Yamaha FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition is a special breed of motorcycle. The word practical pops to mind, but don't confuse practical with dull. Most riders can only afford one machine and the 2012 FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition is worth a serious look. It delivers solid performance from its 779cc inline-four engine and excellent handling thanks to the 22012 FZ1 inspired twin spar aluminum frame. And when it comes to comfort, it's in the bag.

    The motorcycle world is becoming more highly specialized by the day.

    Special niche models are popping up everywhere. Unfortunately, most of us can only afford one bike. The FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition is a brilliant "all-rounder" that brings fun, excitement and adrenalin to each and every ride. It is ready to slice its way through the "twisties", cruise the backroads in comfort and style or make that daily commute a bunch more enjoyable. Attitude, power, handling and style, the FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition is the ultimate everyday sport bike.

    The 2012 Yamaha FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition is a do-it-all sport bike with amazing all around performance for both the urban commando and the weekend canyon carver. And at 800cc it splits the difference between a 600 and 1000cc litre bike so you get lightweight handling along with great torque... all in a stylish upright package.

    2012 Yamaha FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition Highlights and Key Features:
    • Fuel Consumption ± 16.5kpl/47mpg(Imp)
    • 779cc , 4-valve, inline 4
    • real world comfort & ergonomics

    Key Features:
    • The 779cc engine combines top end components, including ceramic-composite-coated cylinders and forged aluminum pistons, with a carefully optimized crankshaft to deliver the perfect power curve and torquey performance character for this category.

    • The FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition fills the gap for sport riders who feel a 600cc is too small and a 1000cc is too big.
    • Muscular, naked bike styling gives an aggressive, mass-forward stance. This bike screams attitude.
    • Comfortable, upright riding position with a compact design that contributes to the bike’s first-rate handling. This bike simply excels, both in the morning commute and on that spirited weekend ride on a twisty back country road.
    • Cast aluminum frame and Controlled-Fill aluminum swingarm is lightweight and provides the ideal rigidity balance for outstanding cornering performance.

    2012 Yamaha FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition Features and Benefits

    ENGINE

    • 779cc, DOHC, 16 valve (4-valves/cyl), liquid-cooled, 40 degree inclined, in-line four-cylinder engine. The engine has been tuned to provide plenty of low to mid range torque with strong yet linear throttle response. Redline is set at 11,500 rpm and features a "soft" rev limiter to protect the engine.
    • Pistons, cylinder, cylinder head, cams, valves and crankshaft are unique to the FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition. Most other engine components are shared with the FZ1.
    • Compact "Pent roof" combustion chamber design features 4-valves per cylinder and a 12:1 compression ratio for excellent torque feeling. Four valves per cylinder enhances the low to midrange torque.
    • Pistons, cylinder, cylinder head, cams, valves and crankshaft are unique to the FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition. Most other engine components are shared with the FZ1.
    • Intake valves are 26mm in diameter while the exhaust valves are 22mm. The valve angle is set at 26 degrees to keep the combustion chamber compact
    • Crankshaft inertial mass has been optimized to achieve strong torque over a broad rpm range as well as fast throttle response.
    • "Fracture split" connecting rods are carburized for extra strength and use a nut less design. The lower end "cap" of the rod is made from the same piece of material as the upper portion; this design is known as "fracture splitting". This design aids establishing true big end roundness and greater precision in con rod dimensions for excellent durability despite the high horsepower loads.
    • Ceramic composite cylinder "bores" are a "liner less" design with the ceramic coating sprayed directly on the aluminum block. This coating enhances the thin film of oil between the cylinder and piston which reduces friction and increases power. Other important benefits include; excellent heat dissipation for consistent power delivery and reduced weight since there are no heavy liners.
    • Short skirt, lightweight forged pistons. Lightweight design aids in fast engine response and reduced engine weight. During the forging process, the aluminum is heated to the point where it can be shaped under pressure in a die but not to the point that it melts. By not melting the aluminum, the material stays stronger and hence can be lighter with excellent durability.
    • Lightweight, hollow intake and exhaust camshafts provide incredible horsepower and fast engine response. Cam profiles and the cam timing are designed to enhance low to midrange power and torque.
    • Inline 4 cylinder crankshaft is based on the FZ1 design.
    • Automatic hydraulic cam chain tensioner reduces both maintenance and mechanical engine noise.
    • Mikuni "sub throttle valve" fuel injection system is based on the FZ1 design, featuring 35mm throttle bodies fitted with T.P.S. (Throttle Position Sensor). This style of fuel injection uses sub throttle valves in addition to the main valves to further control the intake airflow. The sub valves optimize the intake volumetric efficiency at all rpms and are powered by a stepping motor that is controlled by the ECU. The key benefit is excellent "ride ability" and throttle response.
    • The injectors are sequential high dynamic range type featuring 4 holes and a dual directional spray pattern for excellent power and a linear throttle response across the entire rev range.
    • The fuel injection's lightweight Electronic Control Unit (ECU) utilizes a powerful 32-bit processor for fast control of the injection process. The compact design also reduces weight.
    • 7.8 litre airbox features different intake funnel lengths for the inner (150mm) and outer (125mm) cylinders. The benefit is a wide torque curve. A high flow, paper type air filter is utilized.
    • R1 inspired "stacked" 3-axis gearbox / clutch design stacks input/output shafts to centralize mass and keeps overall engine size shorter front to back. As a result, the stacked design gives the engineers the freedom to place the engine in the frame for optimum front to rear weight balance and thereby maximizing handling performance.
    • Smooth shifting wide ratio 6-speed transmission features optimized gear ratios for maximum performance in the "real world". 5th and 6th ratios are "tall" for reduced engine rpms at highway speeds for excellent rider comfort.
    • Compact, heavy duty, multi-plate clutch ensures consistent, positive engagement. The clutch has been designed to provide a light lever pull for excellent rider comfort … especially during stop and go city use.
    • 4 into 2 into 1 exhaust system features 35mm diameter, stainless steel header pipes and a short design silencer / muffler. The header pipe length has been optimized for maximum power and torque. This system is fitted with a 3-way honeycomb catalyzer with an oxygen sensor to reduce harmful CO and HC exhaust emissions. The oxygen sensor monitors the amount of oxygen in the spent gases and adjusts the fuel -air mixture via the ECU and FI system for maximum performance with minimum emissions.
    • High-efficiency "curved" design radiator features compact dual ring-type fans for maximum cooling efficiency. This rad and fan design allows more airflow than conventional flat design rads to maintain optimum engine temperatures for consistent power output.
    • Large liquid-cooled oil cooler maintains stable lubricant temperatures for extended engine life.
    • Convenient cartridge style spin-on oil filter.
    • Convenient oil level sight glass means easy oil level inspection.
    • Maintenance-free transistor-controlled digital ignition ensures great performance at all rpms.
    • Air Induction System (AIS … not ram air) reduces harmful HC and CO emissions for a cleaner environment.

    CHASSIS / SUSPENSION

    • Gravity cast, lightweight aluminum twin spar frame provides an optimized rigidity balance for incredible sports performance combined with great stability. The engine is a stressed member of the chassis, allowing a lighter main frame design without sacrificing stability and light, agile handling qualities. The frame is the same spec and shape as the FZ1.
    • The riding position is one of the most important features of the FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition. Based on the FZ1 layout, it offers a balance between a sporty riding position and excellent rider comfort thanks to its upright design.
    • Key chassis geometry figures include: 1460mm (57.5") wheelbase 51% front and 49 % rear weight balance, 25 degrees of rake and 109 mm of trail. The 47 degree lean angle highlights the FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition sporty side.
    • Detachable steel rear sub frame allows easy access to rear suspension components and reduces costs in the event of a "loop-out".
    • C.F. (Controlled Filling) die cast aluminum truss-type rear swingarm offers great rear wheel control and traction for razor-sharp cornering and superb stability at speed. The 3-axis stacked engine design allows enough room for the engineers to use this long design (690mm) swingarm, which minimizes the effect of the chain tension on the bike's handling.
    • 43mm Kayaba inverted cartridge style fork offers 130mm (5.1") of wheel travel. Fork offset is 25 degrees. The benefits of the inverted design include, reduced "unsprung" weight and reduced fork flex since the larger diameter tubes are gripped in the triple clamps. Unsprung weight is weight or mass of the suspension and the components such as the wheels and other components that move with the suspension. A reduction in unsprung weight allows improved control of the suspension function.
    • Lightweight aluminum upper and lower triple clamps.
    • Link-type Monocross rear suspension features a preload adjustable shock that allows the rider to tailor spring preload to match load and/or road conditions. Adjustments include 9 - way spring preload. Rear wheel travel is 130mm or 5.1"
    • Dual 310mm front discs are squeezed by ultra rigid R6 inspired monoblock, 4-piston calipers which provide outstanding stopping power and feel. The master cylinder utilizes a 16mm piston for outstanding stopping power with less lever effort.
    • 267mm rear disc is squeezed by a lightweight single piston slide-type Nissin caliper with sintered metal brake pads.
    • Lightweight cast-aluminum 5-spoke wheels reduce unsprung weight for great handling characteristics. The front wheel is an MT3.50-17 and is fitted with a 120/70-ZR17 radial tire. The rear wheel is a MT5.50-17 fitted with a 180/55-ZR17 radial tire.
    • Aggressive single headlight provides plenty of illumination with its 60/55 watt halogen bulb. There is even a super small, colour matched "bikini" windshield mounted above the headlight to add even more style.
    • Conventional handlebar design features an upright positioning for maximum everyday riding comfort.
    • 17-liter fuel tank offers a slim design with great knee grip. The reserve portion of the tank is 3.4 litres.
    • Separate rider and passenger seats offers exceptional solo or two-up comfort. Seat width is narrower than the FZ1, making it easier to touch the ground. Seat height is 815mm (32.1")
    • One-piece race inspired instrument features analog tachometer, digital speedometer, odometer, dual tripmeters, fuel gauge, fuel reserve tripmeter (counts kilometres since the fuel went on reserve), clock, coolant temperature and a self diagnosis mode.

    ADDITIONAL DETAILS / FEATURES

    • Adjustable, 5-position front brake lever
    • Small storage compartment under the passenger seat
    • Excessive lean angle engine cut-out switch … if unit is on its side the engine will shut down
    • Extended idle cut-off … if engine idles for more than 20 minutes it will automatically shut down
    • Lockable steering
    • Durable "O"-ring-sealed drive chain
    • Lightweight, sealed low-maintenance battery
    • The FZ8 50th Anniversary Edition offers a significant level of power and performance. It is not intended for novice or inexperienced riders.


    Specifications

    ENGINE
    Type 779cc liquid-cooled inline 4-cylinder; DOHC, 16 valves
    Bore x Stroke 68.0 x 53.6mm
    Compression Ratio 12.0:1
    Fuel Delivery Fuel Injection
    Ignition Digital TCI: Transistor Controlled Ignition with 32-bit ECU
    Transmission 6-speed w/multiplate clutch
    Final Drive O-ring chain

    CHASSIS
    Suspension / Front 5.1-in travel
    Suspension / Rear 5.1-in travel
    Brakes / Front Dual 310mm hydraulic discs
    Brakes / Rear 267mm disc
    Tires / Front 120/70-ZR17
    Tires / Rear 180/55-ZR17

    DIMENSIONS
    Length 84.3 in
    Width 30.3 in
    Height 41.9 in
    Seat Height 32.1 in
    Wheelbase 57.5 in
    Ground Clearance 5.5 in
    Rake (Caster Angle) 25.0°
    Trail 4.3 in
    Fuel Capacity 4.5 gal
    Fuel Economy** 39.8 mpg
    Wet Weight*** 467 lb

    OTHER
    Warranty 1 Year (Limited Factory Warranty)



    Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer
    www.florida-lawyer.com
    Call or contact: 888 446 1999.
    Need a Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer and looking for an ethical, experienced and aggressive lawyer to figure out if you may be entitled to money compensation for your serious injury?

    In Florida, motorcycle accidents happen mostly because automobile drivers do not share the road. I frequently represent seriously injured motorcycle riders because a car fails to see the motorcycle and then the car pulls out into the intersection. Another common reason is that the car driver changes lanes without looking. The most frequent injuries are fractures of shoulder or wrists from going over the handlebars, or femur (long bone of the leg) fractures from laying the bike down or a side impact. Unfortunately, even at slower speeds and with a helmet, I have represented the family of fathers and sons who have died in motorcycle crashes.

    As a Florida Motorcycle accident lawyer, I understand that you may want to express you individuality and freedom on the road by making the decision as an adult not to wear a helmet. The insurance company in a brain injury case will argue that you are the cause of your own injury being worse because if you were wearing a helmet the injury would not have been so bad.

    I retain experts in biomechanics, who are engineers and if the evidence is available and in your favor, they can calculate the force of the impact and tell the insurance company that they are wrong. That wearing a helmet would not have made a difference. A helmet sometimes can actually make the injury worse. I am not advocating that you should not wear a helmet , it's just that wearing one does not always make a difference. It depends on the accident circumstances. Each Florida Motorcycle Accident claim will get my personal attention to detail and my 30 years of experience.

    If you would like to consult for free with a Florida civil trial lawyer who is board certified as an expert in civil trial then please call 888-446-1999

    There will be no charge for lawyer fees of representation or costs of representation if there is not money compensation recovery.



              Gambar motor YAMAHA FZ8 2012. Review, specifications        
    2012 YAMAHA FZ8
    Motorcycle wallpapers, insurance, accident lawyers information, review and specifications

    2012 YAMAHA FZ8
    Klik gambar untuk download ukuran 1600 x 1200





    2012 Yamaha FZ8 Review

    The FZ8 has a streetfighter attitude with sporkbike manners.

    Combining sports performance and agressive styling with all day riding comfort, the 2012 Yamaha FZ8 is a special breed of motorcycle. The word practical pops to mind, but don't confuse practical with dull. Most riders can only afford one machine and the 2012 FZ8 is worth a serious look. It delivers solid performance from its 779cc inline-four engine and excellent handling thanks to the 2012 FZ1 inspired twin spar aluminum frame. And when it comes to comfort, it's in the bag.

    The motorcycle world is becoming more highly specialized by the day.

    Special niche models are popping up everywhere. Unfortunately, most of us can only afford one bike. The FZ8 is a brilliant "all-rounder" that brings fun, excitement and adrenalin to each and every ride. It is ready to slice its way through the "twisties", cruise the backroads in comfort and style or make that daily commute a bunch more enjoyable. Attitude, power, handling and style, the FZ8 is the ultimate everyday sport bike.

    The 2012 Yamaha FZ8 is a do-it-all sport bike with amazing all around performance for both the urban commando and the weekend canyon carver. And at 800cc it splits the difference between a 600 and 1000cc litre bike so you get lightweight handling along with great torque... all in a stylish upright package.

    2012 Yamaha FZ8 Highlights and Key Features:
    • Fuel Consumption ± 16.5kpl/47mpg(Imp)
    • 779cc , 4-valve, inline 4
    • real world comfort & ergonomics

    Key Features:
    • The 779cc engine combines top end components, including ceramic-composite-coated cylinders and forged aluminum pistons, with a carefully optimized crankshaft to deliver the perfect power curve and torquey performance character for this category.
    • The FZ8 fills the gap for sport riders who feel a 600cc is too small and a 1000cc is too big.
    • Muscular, naked bike styling gives an aggressive, mass-forward stance. This bike screams attitude.
    • Comfortable, upright riding position with a compact design that contributes to the bike’s first-rate handling. This bike simply excels, both in the morning commute and on that spirited weekend ride on a twisty back country road.
    • Cast aluminum frame and Controlled-Fill aluminum swingarm is lightweight and provides the ideal rigidity balance for outstanding cornering performance.

    2012 Yamaha FZ8 Features and Benefits

    ENGINE

    779cc, DOHC, 16 valve (4-valves/cyl), liquid-cooled, 40 degree inclined, in-line four-cylinder engine. The engine has been tuned to provide plenty of low to mid range torque with strong yet linear throttle response. Redline is set at 11,500 rpm and features a "soft" rev limiter to protect the engine.

    Pistons, cylinder, cylinder head, cams, valves and crankshaft are unique to the FZ8. Most other engine components are shared with the FZ1.

    Compact "Pent roof" combustion chamber design features 4-valves per cylinder and a 12:1 compression ratio for excellent torque feeling. Four valves per cylinder enhances the low to midrange torque.

    Pistons, cylinder, cylinder head, cams, valves and crankshaft are unique to the FZ8. Most other engine components are shared with the FZ1.

    Intake valves are 26mm in diameter while the exhaust valves are 22mm. The valve angle is set at 26 degrees to keep the combustion chamber compact

    Crankshaft inertial mass has been optimized to achieve strong torque over a broad rpm range as well as fast throttle response.

    "Fracture split" connecting rods are carburized for extra strength and use a nut less design. The lower end "cap" of the rod is made from the same piece of material as the upper portion; this design is known as "fracture splitting". This design aids establishing true big end roundness and greater precision in con rod dimensions for excellent durability despite the high horsepower loads.

    Ceramic composite cylinder "bores" are a "liner less" design with the ceramic coating sprayed directly on the aluminum block. This coating enhances the thin film of oil between the cylinder and piston which reduces friction and increases power. Other important benefits include; excellent heat dissipation for consistent power delivery and reduced weight since there are no heavy liners.

    Short skirt, lightweight forged pistons. Lightweight design aids in fast engine response and reduced engine weight. During the forging process, the aluminum is heated to the point where it can be shaped under pressure in a die but not to the point that it melts. By not melting the aluminum, the material stays stronger and hence can be lighter with excellent durability.

    Lightweight, hollow intake and exhaust camshafts provide incredible horsepower and fast engine response. Cam profiles and the cam timing are designed to enhance low to midrange power and torque.

    Inline 4 cylinder crankshaft is based on the FZ1 design.

    Automatic hydraulic cam chain tensioner reduces both maintenance and mechanical engine noise.

    Mikuni "sub throttle valve" fuel injection system is based on the FZ1 design, featuring 35mm throttle bodies fitted with T.P.S. (Throttle Position Sensor). This style of fuel injection uses sub throttle valves in addition to the main valves to further control the intake airflow. The sub valves optimize the intake volumetric efficiency at all rpms and are powered by a stepping motor that is controlled by the ECU. The key benefit is excellent "ride ability" and throttle response.

    The injectors are sequential high dynamic range type featuring 4 holes and a dual directional spray pattern for excellent power and a linear throttle response across the entire rev range.

    The fuel injection's lightweight Electronic Control Unit (ECU) utilizes a powerful 32-bit processor for fast control of the injection process. The compact design also reduces weight.

    7.8 litre airbox features different intake funnel lengths for the inner (150mm) and outer (125mm) cylinders. The benefit is a wide torque curve. A high flow, paper type air filter is utilized.

    R1 inspired "stacked" 3-axis gearbox / clutch design stacks input/output shafts to centralize mass and keeps overall engine size shorter front to back. As a result, the stacked design gives the engineers the freedom to place the engine in the frame for optimum front to rear weight balance and thereby maximizing handling performance.

    Smooth shifting wide ratio 6-speed transmission features optimized gear ratios for maximum performance in the "real world". 5th and 6th ratios are "tall" for reduced engine rpms at highway speeds for excellent rider comfort.

    Compact, heavy duty, multi-plate clutch ensures consistent, positive engagement. The clutch has been designed to provide a light lever pull for excellent rider comfort … especially during stop and go city use.

    4 into 2 into 1 exhaust system features 35mm diameter, stainless steel header pipes and a short design silencer / muffler. The header pipe length has been optimized for maximum power and torque. This system is fitted with a 3-way honeycomb catalyzer with an oxygen sensor to reduce harmful CO and HC exhaust emissions. The oxygen sensor monitors the amount of oxygen in the spent gases and adjusts the fuel -air mixture via the ECU and FI system for maximum performance with minimum emissions.

    High-efficiency "curved" design radiator features compact dual ring-type fans for maximum cooling efficiency. This rad and fan design allows more airflow than conventional flat design rads to maintain optimum engine temperatures for consistent power output.

    Large liquid-cooled oil cooler maintains stable lubricant temperatures for extended engine life.

    Convenient cartridge style spin-on oil filter.

    Convenient oil level sight glass means easy oil level inspection.

    Maintenance-free transistor-controlled digital ignition ensures great performance at all rpms.

    Air Induction System (AIS … not ram air) reduces harmful HC and CO emissions for a cleaner environment.

    CHASSIS / SUSPENSION

    Gravity cast, lightweight aluminum twin spar frame provides an optimized rigidity balance for incredible sports performance combined with great stability. The engine is a stressed member of the chassis, allowing a lighter main frame design without sacrificing stability and light, agile handling qualities. The frame is the same spec and shape as the FZ1.

    The riding position is one of the most important features of the FZ8. Based on the FZ1 layout, it offers a balance between a sporty riding position and excellent rider comfort thanks to its upright design.

    Key chassis geometry figures include: 1460mm (57.5") wheelbase 51% front and 49 % rear weight balance, 25 degrees of rake and 109 mm of trail. The 47 degree lean angle highlights the FZ8 sporty side.

    Detachable steel rear sub frame allows easy access to rear suspension components and reduces costs in the event of a "loop-out".

    C.F. (Controlled Filling) die cast aluminum truss-type rear swingarm offers great rear wheel control and traction for razor-sharp cornering and superb stability at speed. The 3-axis stacked engine design allows enough room for the engineers to use this long design (690mm) swingarm, which minimizes the effect of the chain tension on the bike's handling.

    43mm Kayaba inverted cartridge style fork offers 130mm (5.1") of wheel travel. Fork offset is 25 degrees. The benefits of the inverted design include, reduced "unsprung" weight and reduced fork flex since the larger diameter tubes are gripped in the triple clamps. Unsprung weight is weight or mass of the suspension and the components such as the wheels and other components that move with the suspension. A reduction in unsprung weight allows improved control of the suspension function.

    Lightweight aluminum upper and lower triple clamps.

    Link-type Monocross rear suspension features a preload adjustable shock that allows the rider to tailor spring preload to match load and/or road conditions. Adjustments include 9 - way spring preload. Rear wheel travel is 130mm or 5.1"

    Dual 310mm front discs are squeezed by ultra rigid R6 inspired monoblock, 4-piston calipers which provide outstanding stopping power and feel. The master cylinder utilizes a 16mm piston for outstanding stopping power with less lever effort.

    267mm rear disc is squeezed by a lightweight single piston slide-type Nissin caliper with sintered metal brake pads.

    Lightweight cast-aluminum 5-spoke wheels reduce unsprung weight for great handling characteristics. The front wheel is an MT3.50-17 and is fitted with a 120/70-ZR17 radial tire. The rear wheel is a MT5.50-17 fitted with a 180/55-ZR17 radial tire.

    Aggressive single headlight provides plenty of illumination with its 60/55 watt halogen bulb. There is even a super small, colour matched "bikini" windshield mounted above the headlight to add even more style.

    Conventional handlebar design features an upright positioning for maximum everyday riding comfort.

    17-liter fuel tank offers a slim design with great knee grip. The reserve portion of the tank is 3.4 litres.

    Separate rider and passenger seats offers exceptional solo or two-up comfort. Seat width is narrower than the FZ1, making it easier to touch the ground. Seat height is 815mm (32.1")

    One-piece race inspired instrument features analog tachometer, digital speedometer, odometer, dual tripmeters, fuel gauge, fuel reserve tripmeter (counts kilometres since the fuel went on reserve), clock, coolant temperature and a self diagnosis mode.

    ADDITIONAL DETAILS / FEATURES

    • Adjustable, 5-position front brake lever
    • Small storage compartment under the passenger seat
    • Excessive lean angle engine cut-out switch … if unit is on its side the engine will shut down
    • Extended idle cut-off … if engine idles for more than 20 minutes it will automatically shut down
    • Lockable steering
    • Durable "O"-ring-sealed drive chain
    • Lightweight, sealed low-maintenance battery
    • The FZ8 offers a significant level of power and performance. It is not intended for novice or inexperienced riders.

    Specifications
    MSRP* $8,690 (Matte Gray/Matte Black) Available from October 2011

    ENGINE
    Type 779cc liquid-cooled inline 4-cylinder; DOHC, 16 valves
    Bore x Stroke 68.0 x 53.6mm
    Compression Ratio 12.0:1
    Fuel Delivery Fuel Injection
    Ignition Digital TCI: Transistor Controlled Ignition with 32-bit ECU
    Transmission 6-speed w/multiplate clutch
    Final Drive O-ring chain

    CHASSIS
    Suspension / Front 5.1-in travel
    Suspension / Rear 5.1-in travel
    Brakes / Front Dual 310mm hydraulic discs
    Brakes / Rear 267mm disc
    Tires / Front 120/70-ZR17
    Tires / Rear 180/55-ZR17

    DIMENSIONS
    Length 84.3 in
    Width 30.3 in
    Height 41.9 in
    Seat Height 32.1 in
    Wheelbase 57.5 in
    Ground Clearance 5.5 in
    Rake (Caster Angle) 25.0°
    Trail 4.3 in
    Fuel Capacity 4.5 gal
    Fuel Economy** 39.8 mpg
    Wet Weight*** 467 lb

    OTHER
    Warranty 1 Year (Limited Factory Warranty)





    Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer
    www.florida-lawyer.com
    Call or contact: 888 446 1999.
    Need a Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer and looking for an ethical, experienced and aggressive lawyer to figure out if you may be entitled to money compensation for your serious injury?

    In Florida, motorcycle accidents happen mostly because automobile drivers do not share the road. I frequently represent seriously injured motorcycle riders because a car fails to see the motorcycle and then the car pulls out into the intersection. Another common reason is that the car driver changes lanes without looking. The most frequent injuries are fractures of shoulder or wrists from going over the handlebars, or femur (long bone of the leg) fractures from laying the bike down or a side impact. Unfortunately, even at slower speeds and with a helmet, I have represented the family of fathers and sons who have died in motorcycle crashes.

    As a Florida Motorcycle accident lawyer, I understand that you may want to express you individuality and freedom on the road by making the decision as an adult not to wear a helmet. The insurance company in a brain injury case will argue that you are the cause of your own injury being worse because if you were wearing a helmet the injury would not have been so bad.

    I retain experts in biomechanics, who are engineers and if the evidence is available and in your favor, they can calculate the force of the impact and tell the insurance company that they are wrong. That wearing a helmet would not have made a difference. A helmet sometimes can actually make the injury worse. I am not advocating that you should not wear a helmet , it's just that wearing one does not always make a difference. It depends on the accident circumstances. Each Florida Motorcycle Accident claim will get my personal attention to detail and my 30 years of experience.

    If you would like to consult for free with a Florida civil trial lawyer who is board certified as an expert in civil trial then please call 888-446-1999

    There will be no charge for lawyer fees of representation or costs of representation if there is not money compensation recovery.



              gambar motor YAMAHA Super Tenere 2012 specifications        
    2012 YAMAHA Super Tenere
    Motorcycle wallpapers, insurance, accident lawyers information, review and specifications

    2012 YAMAHA Super Tenere
    Klik gambar untuk download ukuran 1600 x 1200



     

    The all-new ultimate adventure touring platform with a host of technological features and accessories.

    Yamaha has a long history of success at the famous Paris to Dakar Rally. In fact, Yamaha won the first ever event in 1978 and has since followed up with 8 other victories at this gruelling rally. The new and versatile 2012 Yamaha Super Ténéré is designed to be the most exciting next-generation adventure tourer, combining Yamaha's Dakar-bred toughness and reliability with light, easy handling and advanced rider assist technology.

    Intercontinental adventure awaits.

    All it takes is one look at the rally-inspired 2012 Yamaha Super Tenere and the wonder lust sets in. And there's no stopping it with a super compact parallel twin engine with a unique 270 degree firing order, a wide ratio 6-speed transmission, YCC-T (Yamaha Chip Controlled Throttle) - optimum throttle control and acceleration, Traction Control, Anti-lock Breaking System (ABS), adjustable seat height and the list goes on. Dream big because the 2012 Yamaha Super Ténéré will take you there.

    Adventure traveling takes skill, determination and endurance - as well as unwavering confidence in your machine.

    The lessons Yamaha learned during the Dakar Rallies, has been utilized in the development of the Super Ténéré. Lightweight, compact, and easy to handle, the Super Ténéré offers a host of rider assist technologies that make it the ideal adventure touring mount. But there is more, a lot more. The Super Ténéré is an ultra versatile performer that will turn any ride into an enjoyable adventure, including the commute to work. From pavement to gravel to dirt, the Super Ténéré is ready to provide an incredibly fun riding experience.

    2012 Yamaha Super Ténéré (Tenere) model Features

    = All new, 1199cc, fuel injected, inline twin
    = Traction control, ABS & Unified braking

    ENGINE
    All new, compact, lightweight, 1199cc, liquid-cooled, DOHC, 4-valve, inline twin pumps out over 80 foot pounds of torque, one of the key ingredients that makes adventure touring so exciting.

    Engine is slanted 26 degrees forward, allowing for the use of a very efficient downdraft intake system and at the same time lowering the centre of gravity for light, easy handling

    All new 4-valve cylinder head design. The DOHC valve train features 37mm intake and 31mm exhaust valves. Valve angles are 12.5 degrees for the intakes and 14 degrees from centre for the exhaust, creating a compact combustion chamber. The valves feature an Isonite coating for excellent durability.

    Automatic, hydraulic automatic cam chain tensioner reduces both maintenance and engine mechanical noise.

    4-valve cylinder head features 2 spark plugs per cylinder which shortens the flame diffusion time and speeds combustion for excellent torque character.

    High performance direct ignition coils (ignition coil is built into the spark plug cap) reduce weight while iridium spark plugs and high-output magneto deliver increased spark energy.

    High performance, short skirt, forged aluminium pistons are light weight for fast throttle response and also reduce reciprocating mass for less mechanical vibration. Compression ratio is 11:1

    Newly designed 270 degree crankshaft with uneven firing order (270 & 450 degrees) is used for superior traction and throttle control. This crank design and firing order reduces the "inertial torque" providing a more linear throttle response and improved rear wheel traction. The rider feels like he / she is connected directly to the rear wheel, an important benefit when riding on loose surfaces like gravel and dirt.

    The crank uses carburized connecting rods for excellent strength and durability. Carburizing is a heat treating process that increases the carbon content on the outer surface of the rod increasing its strength and durability.

    Ceramic composite cylinder "bores" are a "liner less" design with the ceramic coating applied directly to the aluminium block to ensure uniform heat dissipation for consistent power delivery, reduced oil consumption, reduced friction and reduced weight.

    Specially designed high lift intake and exhaust cams provide excellent torque and power characteristics well suited to adventure touring.

    Automatic decompression device makes starting the Super Tenere fast and easy. The benefit is the starter motor can be made smaller and lighter since the load on it is reduced.

    Dual, front and rear gear driven balancer shafts reduce engine vibration to a minimum for great rider and passenger comfort

    Single, side mounted (LHS) radiator with specially designed ring type cooling fan keeps engine temperatures under control. The side location helps lessen the overall length of the bike.

    Dry sump lubrication system eliminates the deep design oil pan on the bottom of the engine. The oil tank is integrated inside the engine cases. This design helps increase ground clearance since there is no oil pan under the engine. It also reduces weight and centralizes mass since there is no remote oil tank or oil lines.

    Easy access spin-type oil filter and drain plug make oil changes fast and easy.

    Newly designed air box optimizes air flow for excellent power & torque output and uses a high flow viscous paper filter element.

    Dual bore, 46mm throttle body fuel injection system with TPS (Throttle Position Sensor) and APS (Accelerator Position Sensor ). This is a "closed loop" system that utilizes oxygen sensors in both header pipes. The sensors "sniff" the spent exhaust gases and feeds info back to the ECU which in turn adjusts the fuel/air mixture for maximum power with minimum emissions. The oxygen sensor is located before the muffler, so the use of a slip-on muffler will not affect this system.

    Denso injectors utilize 12 holes and a 20 degree spray pattern for excellent fuel atomization, more complete combustion chamber filling and instant throttle response. One injector per cylinder. Fuel injection benefits include excellent fuel economy; choke-less operation, reduced emissions, and smoother running.

    Yamaha Chip Control Throttle (YCC-T) electronically controls the throttle valves for outstanding response and improved controllability at all rpms. The YCC-T is used to provide even more control of the intake air volume for a smoother torque character. Special main ECU actually features 3 internal ECUs to control ignition, fuel injection and the YCC-T. The ECU that controls the YCC-T is capable of responding to changes at a speed of 1000th of a second.

    The rider can "mechanically close" the throttles by simply closing the throttle twist grip.

    Traction control function is also part of the ABS system and works in conjunction with the YCC-T system. Utilizing front and rear wheel sensors, this system senses when the rear wheel begins to spin and modifies the ignition timing and fuel injection to reduce power and eliminate wheel spin. This traction control system features 2 operating modes; TCS1 the standard mode and TCS2 with slightly less effectiveness. The system can also be turned off for those occasions when rear wheel spin is desired.

    Yamaha D-Mode variable throttle control, also a function of the YCC-T, enables the rider to adjust the performance characteristics of the engine based on riding conditions or rider preferences. The "S mode" provides sporty engine performance while the "T mode" is well suited for touring or around town use. The D-Mode switch is located on the R.H.S. handlebar switch gear.

    Wide ratio 6-speed transmission utilizes optimized gear ratios suited for a wide variety of riding conditions. Top gear is an overdrive gear delivering reduced rpms at highway speeds for relaxed, long-distance comfort.

    High capacity, heavy duty clutch uses 9 friction and 8 steel plates. The clutch lever offers 4 positions of adjustment to suit a variety of hand sizes.

    Low maintenance, compact shaft drive system features a hypoid gear. The benefit of the hypoid gear is that it allows the ring gear to be smaller, thereby reducing the size and weight of the housing as well. Reducing unsprung weight enhances handling.

    2 into 1 exhaust system features a honeycomb style catalyser to reduce harmful exhaust emissions and a compact "elliptical" short design muffler. The "elliptical" design keeps the muffler thin, thereby maintaining a slim overall machine width. The muffler features a heat shield to protect the rider and passenger as well as providing a throaty exhaust note.

    Compact 600 watt (@ 5,000rpms) AC magneto provides lots of electrical power

    CHASSIS/SUSPENSION
    Backbone style high tensile steel frame uses the engine as a stressed member. Steel pipe is used since it offers an excellent strength - rigidity balance and more inherent softness than aluminium, for excellent rider and passenger comfort … especially on longer rides. The engine is mounted low in the frame and allows for a fuel tank designed to lower the centre of gravity too.

    Detachable rear sub frame is made of aluminium for reduced weight and good strength. This rear frame has been designed to withstand the rigors of rough adventure riding with a passenger and gear.

    Long design, low pressure cast steel swingarm. This casting method offers superior strength since it reduces the amount of gas / air trapped in the material … making it stronger. The long design contributes to stability and handling. The left side of the arm "houses" the drive shaft.

    Fully adjustable 43mm inverted fork. This fork has been designed to offer good compliance and stroke feeling. Adjustments include 8-way spring preload, 10-way rebound and 13-way compression damping. Front wheel travel is 190mm (7.5"). This adjustable design allows the rider to tailor suspension settings to match rider weight, load and terrain conditions.

    Link type Monocross rear suspension system features an adjustable, shock with conveniently located integrated "knob type" spring preload adjuster (no tools are required to adjust rear spring pre-load). Rear shock adjustments include: 6-way spring preload and 18-way rebound damping. Rear wheel travel is 190mm (7.5").

    ABS equipped dual 310mm "wave style" floating front discs are squeezed by ultra rigid 4-piston monoblock calipers. The master cylinder features a 16mm piston. Braking performance is excellent and offers good "feedback" to the rider. There are 5 positions of adjustability for the front brake lever to suit a variety of hand sizes

    ABS equipped "wave-style" 282mm rear disc is squeezed by a single piston, slide-type rear caliper. The rear master cylinder uses a 14mm piston to deliver strong, progressive stopping power with excellent control and feel.

    The ABS or Anti Lock Braking System features Yamaha's next generation independent linear controlled system with step-less, infinitely variable hydraulic pressure adjustment. The ABS unit, the ECU and the hydraulic unit are combined into a single compact unit that allows for mass centralization. This system uses the same wheel sensors as the traction control system, further reducing weight. When the ABS system senses impending wheel lock-up, the system regulates the hydraulic pressure to the point just before the wheel or wheels lock-up. The benefit of ABS is excellent control under hard braking or when braking on wet, slippery or loose surfaces. The ABS system helps prevents wheel lock up.

    Unified Brake System is combined with the ABS system. The Unified Braking System is a system whereby when the front brake is activated; an electronic control applies some rear wheel braking force as well. The amount of rear braking force is dependant upon how hard the front brake has been applied, unit speed and the amount of load on the unit. If the rear brake is applied prior to the front brake, it cancels the unified braking system temporarily (there may be times on difficult terrain when a rider does not want the unified system to activate).

    Large capacity 23 litre fuel tank is vertically elongated to help centralize mass and lower the centre of gravity. Parts of tank are positioned low, behind the air box and the cylinders to keep weight lower in the chassis. The reserve portion is 3.9 litres.

    "Double T" type rim is used on the front wheel. There are 2 raised "rails" that the spokes attach to, allowing the use of tubeless tires and providing the optimum spoke angle for excellent strength and durability. The rear rim, since it is wider, only uses a single raised rail design. Both front and rear tires are radials.

    Dual, cat-eye, projector type H7, 55 / 55 watt headlights provide a serious beam of light for extra confidence when riding after dark. A solenoid moves the shade that controls the projector headlight function.

    Touring focused rider and passenger seats. The rider portion (only) offers two different seat height settings. The low position is 845mm (33.3") off the ground while the tall position is 870mm (34.3"). The passenger seat is removable.

    Multi-function plastic resin rear rack. In standard form it is a conventional rack / carrier. It also functions as a mount for the accessory 30 litre top box. And finally, there is an additional carrier built in under the passenger seat. When the passenger seat is removed, it blends with the rear rack to make a longer platform, providing maximum rack area / space.

    Based on the Super Tenere being used for various types of riding conditions, the handlebar position and bend have been designed to be both versatile and comfortable whether the rider is standing or sitting. The handlebars are a rugged tapered design for excellent strength and durability.

    The combination rubber / steel rider footrests offer the best of two worlds. When sitting, the rider's foot is resting on the vibration damping rubber insets. When standing the rubbers compress and expose the serrated edges of the steel pegs providing additional grip for more technical riding.

    Compact, multi function, one-piece instrument features analog tachometer, digital speedometer, dual tripmeters, fuel tripmeter, fuel gauge, and clock. It also features traction control and D-mode indicators, average and instant fuel consumption readouts, coolant temperature, ABS warning light and self-diagnosis functions, plus more. Background illumination is adjustable. The button that operates the traction control system is conveniently located on the side of the instrument for easy access.

    ADDITIONAL FEATURES
    = Lightweight, magnesium cylinder head and clutch covers reduce weight
    = Adjustable front brake and clutch levers
    = Low maintenance 11 amp hour battery
    = Immobilizer ignition system is designed to reduce the possibility of "ride away" theft. This system must recognize the "coded ignition key" in order for the unit to start. If the immobilizer ignition does not recognize the key (or a thief's screwdriver or other type of "jimmy tool") the bike will not start even if the ignition is turned or forced into the on position. If the system does not recognize the coded chip in the ignition key, it will not allow the ignition system, fuel pump or starter motor to function.
    = Brilliant LED taillight reduces weight and power consumption
    = Rugged plastic handlebar mounted brush guards
    = Dash board mounted 12 volt DC outlet
    = Low maintenance, lightweight, sealed battery
    = Convenient centre and side stands


    Specifications

    MSRP:
    MSRP* $13,900 (Impact Blue) Priority Delivery Program - Delivery begins May 2011
    $13,900 (Raven) Priority Delivery Program - Delivery begins May 2011

    Engine
    = Type 1199cc, liquid-cooled, 4-stroke 2-cylinder DOHC
    = Bore x Stroke 98.0 x 79.5mm
    = Compression Ratio 11.0:1
    = Fuel Delivery Fuel Injection with YCC-T
    = Ignition TCI: Transistor Controlled Ignition
    = Transmission Constant mesh, 6-speed
    = Final Drive Shaft

    Chassis
    = Suspension / Front Telescopic fork, 43mm tube, adjustable preload, compression and rebound damping, 7.48-in travel
    = Suspension / Rear Monoshock, adjustable preload and rebound damping, 7.48-in of travel
    = Brakes / Front Dual 310mm hydraulic disc, ABS/Unified Brake System
    = Brakes / Rear 282mm single disc
    = Tires / Front 110/80R 19M/C
    = Tires / Rear 150/70R 17M/C

    Dimensions
    = Length 88.6 in
    = Width 38.6 in
    = Height 55.5 in
    = Seat Height 33.26 or 34.25 in
    = Wheelbase 60.6 in
    = Rake (Caster Angle) 28.0°
    = Fuel Capacity 6.0 gal
    = Fuel Economy** N/A
    = Wet Weight*** 575 lb

    Other
    = Warranty 1 Year (Limited Factory Warranty)



    Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer
    www.florida-lawyer.com
    Call or contact: 888 446 1999.
    Need a Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer and looking for an ethical, experienced and aggressive lawyer to figure out if you may be entitled to money compensation for your serious injury?

    In Florida, motorcycle accidents happen mostly because automobile drivers do not share the road. I frequently represent seriously injured motorcycle riders because a car fails to see the motorcycle and then the car pulls out into the intersection. Another common reason is that the car driver changes lanes without looking. The most frequent injuries are fractures of shoulder or wrists from going over the handlebars, or femur (long bone of the leg) fractures from laying the bike down or a side impact. Unfortunately, even at slower speeds and with a helmet, I have represented the family of fathers and sons who have died in motorcycle crashes.

    As a Florida Motorcycle accident lawyer, I understand that you may want to express you individuality and freedom on the road by making the decision as an adult not to wear a helmet. The insurance company in a brain injury case will argue that you are the cause of your own injury being worse because if you were wearing a helmet the injury would not have been so bad.

    I retain experts in biomechanics, who are engineers and if the evidence is available and in your favor, they can calculate the force of the impact and tell the insurance company that they are wrong. That wearing a helmet would not have made a difference. A helmet sometimes can actually make the injury worse. I am not advocating that you should not wear a helmet , it's just that wearing one does not always make a difference. It depends on the accident circumstances. Each Florida Motorcycle Accident claim will get my personal attention to detail and my 30 years of experience.

    If you would like to consult for free with a Florida civil trial lawyer who is board certified as an expert in civil trial then please call 888-446-1999

    There will be no charge for lawyer fees of representation or costs of representation if there is not money compensation recovery.



              2012 YAMAHA V-Star 950 Tourer gambar motor        
    2012 YAMAHA V-Star 950 Tourer
    Motorcycle wallpapers, insurance, accident lawyers information, review and specifications


    2012 YAMAHA V-Star 950 Tourer
    Klik gambar untuk download ukuran 1600 x 1200





    2012 Yamaha V-Star 950 Tourer Review
    Long low neostreamline style in a scaled down package with a windshield, leather-wrapped hard bags, and a passenger backrest.

    Destination: Wherever.

    Fully equipped with windshield, passenger backrest and leather-wrapped hard sidebags, the moment you pull your 2012 Yamaha V-Star 950 Tourer onto the on-ramp, the highway is yours.

    Power, handling, comfort and style. The V-Star 950 Tourer offers serious middleweight performance and in user friendly, confidence inspiring package. Lightweight, easy handling and a low seat height will appeal to new riders, while seasoned veterans will appreciate the comfort of the Tourer's windshield, locking saddlebags and passenger backrest. Discover your free spirit... whether commuting to work or exploring back roads.

    Check out our latest casual touring cruiser that is fun to ride, easy to operate and easy to afford.

    The V-Star 950 features a full size chassis, high quality fit and finish plus the most sought after touring items. A fuel injected 942cc V-Twin takes care of the "go" while a super low seat height, light agile handling plus windshield and saddlebags will appeal to veteran and "newbie" riders alike.

    * Fuel economy estimates are based on US EPA exhaust emission certification data obtained by Yamaha and converted into Canadian measurements. Your actual mileage will vary depending on road condition, how you ride, maintain your vehicle, accessories, cargo and operator/passenger weight.

    2012 Yamaha V-Star 950 Tourer Features and Benefits

    KEY POINTS
    • Fuel Consumption * 20kpl/57mpg(Imp)
    • Air-cooled, 942cc, SOHC, 4-valve, V-Twin power plant
    • Long, low, agile chassis with windshield, backrest & saddlebags
    • 1
    The V Star 950 Tourer rolls out with a windshield, leather-wrapped hard sidebags, and a passenger backrest all standard, ready for the open road or the commute to school or work.
    • 2
    V Star 950 is the benchmark in the entry cruiser touring class, appealing to seasoned riders as well as those looking for a friendly entry-level cruiser. The air-cooled V-twin delivers plenty of distinctive, big-cruiser character and pulsing torque feel. Seat height is an extra-low 26.6 inches. The full-sized chassis has a long, low look and provides spacious comfort. Handling is sporty and responsive, great for curvy back roads and commuting around town as well as open-highway cruising. No wonder V-Twin® Magazine named V Star 950 the 2009 “Metric of the Year”!
    • 3
    The 942cc 60° V-twin engine is both simple and sophisticated. Sure, there’s no-fuss air cooling for traditional looks. But inside you’ll find the reason for the surprisingly spirited performance: four-valve cylinder heads, ceramic-composite-lined cylinders, forged aluminum pistons, and fuel injection. The meticulously tuned 2-into-1 exhaust system has a throaty exhaust note, and also 3-way catalyst technology to reduce air pollution.
    • 4
    The carefully designed chassis contributes to an exceptionally light feeling riders are sure to appreciate. The double-cradle steel main frame offers an ideal rigidity balance in the longitudinal, lateral, and torsional directions, using the engine as a stressed member. With the engine mounting position slightly forward for optimum front-rear weight distribution and its large, 18-inch front wheel, V Star 950 Tourer has outstanding handling performance.
    • 5
    The V Star 950 Tourer achieves fuel economy up to an estimated 47 mpg* with a fuel tank that holds 4.5 gallons of gas.
    • 6
    Fenders are real steel, front and rear. That adds to the quality look and feel, and makes customization easier.


    ENGINE

    942cc, air-cooled, SOHC, 4-valves per cylinder, 60° V-twin produces outstanding low- and mid-range torque - maximum torque is reached at only 3,500 rpm - for exceptional cruising performance.

    One-piece cylinder heads feature 4-valves per cylinder to provide optimum volumetric or filling efficiency for maximum power output. More fuel / air mixture entering the combustion chamber means increased power output. Two smaller intake valves allow more air flow than a single large valve. Two smaller valves (lighter) also allow for higher rpms before valve float.

    Pent roof type combustion with optimized squish area forces the fuel / air mixture toward the centre of the combustion chamber (and the centrally located long reach spark plug) for faster, more complete combustion and in turn improved power and reduced emissions.

    Cylinder heads feature polished fins for a quality appearance, while the cylinder head covers are chromed.

    The SOHC valve train features 31.5mm intake and 28mm exhaust valves with single valve springs which reduce friction and power losses. Specially designed "Y" shaped roller rocker arms activate the valves. The roller rocker system features a needle bearing surface rotating against the camshaft allowing the lift of 2 valves at the same time without producing excessive camshaft wear and friction.

    Auto adjusting cam chain tensioners are used to reduce mechanical engine noise and maintenance

    Lightweight "liner-less" aluminium cylinders feature ceramic composite plating for superior heat dissipation for better cooling, less friction, reduced weight and longer engine life.

    Single pin style crankshaft is used to enhance engine character and exhaust note.

    Flat top, forged, lightweight aluminium pistons provide excellent durability while reducing reciprocating mass for fast throttle response.

    Wet sump oil delivery system features an easy access spin-on type oil filter. Traditional dipstick is used to check oil level.

    Classic side mounted, large capacity, 3 litre air box houses an easy access, high-flow viscous paper-type filter. Its design highlights and compliments the V-twin engine appearance. The outer cover is chromed.

    Dual bore, 35mm throttle body fuel injection system with TPS (Throttle Position Sensor) and ISC (Idle Speed Control). This is a "closed loop" system that utilizes a heated oxygen sensor. The oxygen sensor feeds back info to the ECU which in turn adjusts the fuel/air mixture for maximum power with minimum emissions. The oxygen sensor is located before the mufflers, so the use of slip-ons will not affect this system.

    4-hole, 2-directional spray, Denso injectors are used for excellent fuel atomization and more complete combustion chamber filling. There is one injector per cylinder.

    Fuel injection benefits include improved fuel economy; choke less starting, reduced emissions, and smoother drivability. The XVS950 has been tuned to provide a very "linear" throttle response for easy riding.

    Powerful 32 bit ECU controls the ignition and fuel injection process

    Stylish 2 into 1 exhaust system features a 3-way honeycomb-type catalyser at the entry point to the muffler. The catalyser reduces harmful exhaust emissions, while the "dual stage type" muffler produces a low, throaty V-Twin exhaust note.

    One-way clutch-type electric starter decreases mechanical noise during starting.

    Multi-plate "outer pull type'" wet clutch is used. Lever pull is light and easy.

    5-speed transmission features optimized gear ratios for excellent city and highway drivability. Transmission gears use "straight cut dogs" for smooth, positive shifting. 5th gear delivers outstanding cruising performance and reduced rpms at highway speed

    One piece classic heel-and-toe shifter adds versatility and enhances the overall cruising experience.

    Transistorized coil ignition provides a hot spark for sure starts and is maintenance-free.

    Clean, quiet belt drive system is extremely low maintenance and simplifies customization. The belt features "Aramid" cords for excellent strength and reduced stretching.

    Air Induction System (A.I.S.) reduces harmful CO and HC exhaust emissions.

    Numerous chromed engine parts reinforce this motorcycle's quality image.

    CHASSIS / SUSPENSION

    Double cradle steel frame offers roomy ergonomics, great handling and a low seat height. This frame utilizes a 4-point rigid engine mounting system to optimize the overall rigidity balance for superior handling. The engine is a stressed member of the frame. Rake is 32 degrees. The engine is mounted low in the chassis to provide a low center of gravity for a light, easy handling feel.

    "Box section" steel swingarm compliments the frame

    The V-Star 950 features one of the lowest seat heights in its class (675mm / 26.6"), making it very easy for most riders to place both feet flat on the ground, an important benefit for novice or shorter riders.

    The long (1685mm / 66") wheelbase provides very stable and precise handling at all speeds. Both of these benefits will help instil confidence in novice riders.

    "New Style Classic" body design is based on a single streamline running along the entire body surface. This stylish design highlights a low, lean, and lighter sportier image and feel than conventional old style cruisers. The long, low design means spacious ergonomics with lots of leg room, which maximizes both rider and passenger comfort.

    Beefy 41mm front fork features stylish large-diameter brushed-finished fork covers. Wheel travel is 135mm (5.3") for a smooth, comfortable ride.

    Monocross style, single-shock, bottom link rear suspension centralizes mass for light, agile handling. The linkage system provides a rising rate or progressive effect that provides excellent compliance on small bumps then increases in firmness for large bumps.

    Spring preload adjustable rear shock is vertically mounted behind the engine and is tucked out of sight for that clean, classic "hardtail" look. Rear wheel travel is 110mm (4.3"). The 9 positions of spring preload adjustment allows the rider to tailor spring preload to suit rider weight, load and road conditions.

    Single, large 320mm front disc brake features a pin slide - type caliper with twin pistons for strong, confidence-inspiring stopping power.

    298 mm rear disc brake is squeezed by single piston caliper mounted to the underside of the swingarm. This design not only helps to hide the caliper but also lowers the center of gravity for light handling.

    Pull back 1 inch diameter handlebars are easy to reach and enhance the riding position for excellent rider comfort. Chromed bar end weights reduce vibration for excellent rider comfort.

    17 litre teardrop shaped fuel tank compliments the long, low "New Style Classic" body line. The reserve portion of the tank is 3.7 litres.

    Separate rider and passenger seats offers excellent comfort and support for all day riding fun. Rider seat height is only 675mm or 26.6 inches off the ground. The front portion of the rider seat is narrow to make it even easier to touch the ground. The passenger portion of the seat can easily be removed if desired.

    Leather covered hard shell saddlebags feature a stylish tapered design and are lockable for extra security. The bags offer ample room for casual touring.

    Passenger backrest with embossed Star logo provides that extra peace of mind for a passenger.

    Medium height windshield features chrome accents and a central Star logo that enhances the unit's overall styling. This windshield offers excellent wind and weather protection and can be easily removed with only 4 bolts.

    Front and rear fenders are made of steel for easy customization and demonstrate the quality of build.

    Full-size, "floating-type" rider floorboards are roomy and comfortably positioned while also helping reduce vibration. There is a replaceable "scraper" area on the lower edge of the footboard.

    Lightweight 8-spoke cast aluminium wheels are fitted wide tubeless tires. These stylish wheels feature a "split" spoke design. The rear drive pulley matches the wheel. Front wheel is 3.50 inches wide fitted with a 130/70 -18 bias tire, while the rear is 4.5 inches wide fitted with a 170/70 -16 bias tire.

    Fuel tank mounted instrument features an analog speedometer, digital odometer, dual tripmeters, low fuel tripmeter, clock and low fuel warning light. The instrument illumination can adjusted to suit the rider's preference via the RHS switch gear.

    Handlebar switch gear allows the operator to change instrument meter functions via buttons on the RHS handlebar switch, thereby eliminating the need to take your hands off the bars to "tab through" the main instrument functions.

    60/55 watt high intensity halogen headlight emphasizes the "New Style Classic" body styling. The headlight is adjustable up and down plus left and right.

    Convenient pre-wired accessory plug-in for passing lamps inside the headlight shell.

    DETAILS
    • Industry-leading Star family fit and finish features rich, lustrous paint and extensive chrome accents creating a machine as stunning as it is powerful.
    • Extra wide brushed aluminium front brake and clutch levers provide a quality feel.
    • High output 460 watt generator.
    • Electric fuel pump.
    • Low-maintenance, lightweight, compact, sealed battery ensures fuss-free, dependable starting.
    • Steering lock is integrated into the main ignition switch for extra convenience.
    • Self-cancelling turn signals.
    • Conventional passenger foot pegs.
    • Excessive lean angle sensor will stop the engine in the event of a tip over.
    • Convenient under seat helmet holder bracket
    • Upper & lower belt covers help prevent debris from entering the belt and pulley areas.
    • Stylish clear signal lenses.
    • Convenient pre-wired accessory plug for passing lamps inside the headlight shell.

    2012 Yamaha V-Star 950 Tourer - USA Specifications/Technical Details
    US MSRP Price: $9,490 (Raven) Available from August, 2011
    $9,490 (Impact Blue) Available from August 2011

    ENGINE
    Type 57.5-cubic-inch (942cc) air-cooled 4-stroke, V-twin, SOHC, 4-valve
    Bore x Stroke 85.0mm x 83.0mm
    Compression Ratio 9.0:1
    Fuel Delivery Fuel injection
    Ignition TCI: Transistor Controlled Ignition
    Transmission 5-speed; multiplate wet clutch
    Final Drive Belt

    CHASSIS
    Suspension / Front Telescopic fork, 5.3-in travel
    Suspension / Rear Single shock, 4.3-in travel
    Brakes / Front Hydraulic disc, 320mm
    Brakes / Rear Hydraulic disc, 298mm
    Tires / Front 130/70-18M/C 63H
    Tires / Rear 170/70-16 M/C 75H
    Wheels 8-spoke cast

    DIMENSIONS
    Length 95.9 in
    Width 39.4 in
    Height 42.5 in
    Seat Height 26.6 in
    Wheelbase 66.3 in
    Rake (Caster Angle) 32.0°
    Trail 5.7 in
    Fuel Capacity 4.4 gal
    Fuel Economy** 47 mpg
    Wet Weight*** 657 lb

    OTHER
    Warranty 1 Year (Limited Factory Warranty)



    Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer
    www.florida-lawyer.com
    Call or contact: 888 446 1999.
    Need a Florida Motorcycle Accident Lawyer and looking for an ethical, experienced and aggressive lawyer to figure out if you may be entitled to money compensation for your serious injury?

    In Florida, motorcycle accidents happen mostly because automobile drivers do not share the road. I frequently represent seriously injured motorcycle riders because a car fails to see the motorcycle and then the car pulls out into the intersection. Another common reason is that the car driver changes lanes without looking. The most frequent injuries are fractures of shoulder or wrists from going over the handlebars, or femur (long bone of the leg) fractures from laying the bike down or a side impact. Unfortunately, even at slower speeds and with a helmet, I have represented the family of fathers and sons who have died in motorcycle crashes.

    As a Florida Motorcycle accident lawyer, I understand that you may want to express you individuality and freedom on the road by making the decision as an adult not to wear a helmet. The insurance company in a brain injury case will argue that you are the cause of your own injury being worse because if you were wearing a helmet the injury would not have been so bad.

    I retain experts in biomechanics, who are engineers and if the evidence is available and in your favor, they can calculate the force of the impact and tell the insurance company that they are wrong. That wearing a helmet would not have made a difference. A helmet sometimes can actually make the injury worse. I am not advocating that you should not wear a helmet , it's just that wearing one does not always make a difference. It depends on the accident circumstances. Each Florida Motorcycle Accident claim will get my personal attention to detail and my 30 years of experience.

    If you would like to consult for free with a Florida civil trial lawyer who is board certified as an expert in civil trial then please call 888-446-1999

    There will be no charge for lawyer fees of representation or costs of representation if there is not money compensation recovery.



               Growth and characterisation of pseudomorphic Si/SiGe/Si heterostructures for p-channel field-effect transistors         
    UNSPECIFIED (1997) Growth and characterisation of pseudomorphic Si/SiGe/Si heterostructures for p-channel field-effect transistors. In: Workshop on Molecular Beam Expitaxy-Growth Physics and Technology (MBE-GPT 96), WARSAW, POLAND, OCT 21-25, 1996. Published in: THIN SOLID FILMS, 306 (2). pp. 338-345.
               Study of Hall and effective mobilities in pseudomorphic Si1-xGex p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors at room temperature and 4.2 K         
    UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Study of Hall and effective mobilities in pseudomorphic Si1-xGex p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors at room temperature and 4.2 K. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 82 (10). pp. 5210-5216. ISSN 0021-8979
              By: beatsme        
    reminds me of a joke about the Soviet-era Russian Academy of Sciences...<br /> <br /> "come to Moscow, see the world's largest transistor..."
              Power Acoustik BLADE1-1200D        

    $69.98
    1200 Watt 1 Channel Car Amplifier
    General Features

    Product Highlights:

    • Compact 5” Chassis Design for Installation Versatility
    • Hybrid Aluminum Alloy Diecast Heatsink for Optimum Dissipation
    • MOSFET Power Supply w/ Audiophile Grade IRTM Transistors
    • Military Grade SMT PCB Maintains Dynamic Performance
    • 2-ohm Stereo & 4-ohm Bridged Full Range Operation
    • 2-Ohm Stable Class A/B Monoblock Operation
    • Direct Short, Thermal, & Overload Circuits Protect Ampllifier
    • 200mv-6V Low Level RCA Inputs
    • 12dB High Pass or Low Pass Crossovers
    • Quick Disconnect Speaker Output Harness
    • 8g Power/ Ground Wire Terminals
    • Dash Mount Gain Control Module Included (BLADE1-1200D)

              Comentário sobre Curso Transistor BJT por Claudio        
    Ótimo.
              Comentário sobre Curso Transistor BJT por Alexandre Goês Amorim        
    Renovei o que aprendi nos outros cursos da GV
              Comentário sobre Curso Transistor BJT por João Francisco de Sousa        
    Uma ótima visão básica no funcionamento do Transistor bipolar.
              Discounting asteroids, again        
    A while back, I wrote:
    It seems to me that history has a direction. For some good things to happen other good things needed to happen first. The transistor had to be invented before the computer could be (well pretty much). I want good things to happen sooner so the other good things that depend on those first good things might happens sooner so that those things can lay the ground work for subsequent good things and, well, you get the picture...


    (by the way, its exceedingly cool to quote myself)

    and I still believe that. John Quiggin argues that we only have time preferences because we're afraid to die. An excruciatingly perceptive commentator wrote:
    I think John’s substantive point regarding time preferences is that marginal benefits are discounted over time at the individual level because individuals fear they may die before they can consume in the future, but this reasoning doesn’t follow for the everlasting society, thus society shouldn’t have time preferences.

    But we should think carefully about what we mean buy ‘consume’. What is the thing that’s providing us the marginal benefits, today and tomorrow? What is the thing that we’d be giving up today in exchange for it in the future?

    That I value the marginal benefit of eating today higher than my marginal benefit from eating tomorrow (i.e. I’ve discounted my marginal benefit) seems to follow from my fear of death in the next 24 hours. I might not get the chance to eat tomorrow.

    That I value the marginal benefits of ‘consuming’ new knowledge today, on the other hand, doesn’t follow from my fear of death. Knowing something today means I can know more things tomorrow. I have a time preference for learning today versus tomorrow because my consumption of learning today determines my consumption of learning tomorrow.

    (The assumption of time separability has precluded my example, but it shouldn’t preclude it from the discussion… We, society, do and should have time preferences independent of our individual fears of death.)


    That bit about time separability needs explanation. In the models Quiggin uses, and most economist use, to get a grip on these ideas he assumes benefits in each period are conferred by consumption in that period and only in that period. So your happiness today only depends on your consumption today.

    This is a great assumption for two reasons. First, it seems true for most of the things we think about when we think about consumption. It seems right that me eating an apply today has little bearing on the happiness I'll get tomorrow from eating a banana.

    Secondly and perhaps more importantly for us that hate algebra, this assumption greatly simplifies the models we have to deal with.

    But there's lots of "consumption" that we do that does depend on how much was consumed in the past. That I learned stuff today means I can learn even more stuff tomorrow. That the PC was invented in the 70's meant the internet could flourish in the 90's. That DNA was mapped in the 90's means great genetic drugs will be invented in the next couple decades.

    It might be weird to think of these things as consumption, but in our models that's what they'd be.

    Who doesn't have a preference for these things to happen sooner? Does that preference have anything to do with our impending demise? I don't think so.

    In any case, to relate this to the discussion of discount rates... I think the discount rate might be a sort of fudge factor in the models were we assume time separability. If we were better at algebra, we'd directly model the positive effect consumption today has on consumption in the future. Our simple models, however, don't do this and they undervalue consumption today.

    Because we're not so good at the algebra, we discount future consumption to make up for this modeling error.
              KTDS-842 Hey Brother Today Also Try H Thing ◇ Transistor Glamor Shaved Sister Height 145cm        


    145 centimeter of minimum body! D cup of Breasts, Nice Ass with a lower body and the tension of Muchimuchi! Tiny even embrace comfort perfect score of Shaved sister Starring! We have to mischief in the ultra-sensitive body that Chau Bikubikushi just a little touch! Pants half off at Shaved check carefully, rubbed Shaved intercrural sex, leaked you too feel Ma, micro-bikini-sensitive massage, rubbed lotion massage

    248021
    KTDS842

              BTE HEARING AIDS        
    Behind the ear, also known as BTE, hearing aids are far and away the most commonly used type of hearing aid. These hearing aids are also what most people picture when hearing aids are mentioned. The electronics which make a BTE hearing aid function are housed in a plastic case which fits behind the ear and has a tube that connects it to an ear mold which fits in the ear canal.

    They are designed to accommodate the entire spectrum of hearing losses, from the mild to the severe. Although they are more conspicuous then hearing aids that fit entirely in the ear canal, they have a number of benefits that appeal to a wide variety of hearing impaired individuals. In addition, BTE hearing aids come in a number of sizes, shapes and colors. So some behind the ear models are much less conspicuous then others.

    Since behind the ear hearing aids are larger then their completely in the canal, or CIC, counterparts, they can more easily house a bigger amplifier and much stronger battery and therefore may be especially beneficial to individuals with a more severe hearing loss. BTE hearing aids are also rather versatile in that they come in the most traditional analog style as well as in the recently popularized digitally powered style of hearing aids.

    When budgetary constraints are an issue, behind the ear devices definitely win out over hearing aids which fit completely in the ear canal. Due to their larger size, other groups of people to whom BTE hearing aids have more appeal then CIC models include the elderly, arthritis sufferers and others with fine motor control disabilities and related issues.

    Finally since CIC models necessitate the wearing of a heavier device in the canal then just the lightweight ear mold attached to BTE hearing aids, there tends to be less ear canal irritation with the former.

    In the late 1800s the first commercially manufactured hearing aids were patented and became available to the public. The first behind the ear hearing aids came on the scene over fifty years ago.

    Prior to this, hearing aids were basically amplifiers worn somewhere on the body and these were heavy and expensive, due in part to rapid battery consumption. With the advent of the smaller junction transistor in 1952, widespread BTE hearing aid use became more of a reality.

    Due to improvements in the technology of circuitry,1964 saw another boom in use of BTE devices and the use of body worn hearing aids dropped to less then twenty percent. By 1972 prototypes for hearing aids which could be programmed to a variety of listening situations, were being created. The following twenty years showed continued improvements and advances in hearing aid technology.

    Volume controls were added to most behind the ear devices in the 1990s and digital hearing aids started appearing in the mid nineties. There has been continued new arrivals in the hearing aid world since then such as remanufactured hearing aids, disposable hearing aids and over the counter hearing aids. Who knows what the future of behind the ear hearing aid technology holds, the possibilities are endless.


    Hearing Aids Albuquerque NM
              HOW TO GET FREE PLAYSTATION STORE GAMES ON PS4 AND PS3 GLITCH!! (WORKS ON PS3 AND PS4)        

    Everyone make sure you checkout this amazing new glitch!!!
    (GLITCH STILL WORKS AS OF February-23-2015)
    (Glitch Works On PS4 And Ps3)
    (When leaving the store you do NOT have to only press circle)
    (THIS GLITCH WORKS ON THE NEW PLAYSTATION STORE FOR PS4 AND PS3)
    Step 1: Go to Playstation Plus in the Playstation Store
    Step 2: Go to full game trials (On ps4 demos/demos by genre)
    Step 3: Pick a game you want then download it in the background
    Step 4: After starting the download leave the Playstation Store
    Step 5: Now go to your downloads and cancel the download you just started.
    Step 6: Now go to games and find the (Full Version) of the game you just canceled the trial version of.
    Step 7: Now it should say that you have all ready bought the full version of the game so now you can download it for free!
    Thats how to get free games from the playstation store. You need (Playstation Plus) to do this glitch.

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    gepostet: 22 Januar 2016


              Tema 5.2- Procesadores de datos        
    El elemento central, el verdadero corazón de cualquier equipo informático, y uno de los elementos que mas ha determinado el avance es la CPU o unidad central de proceso.

    Este término, CPU, se empezó a acuñar a comienzos de los años sesenta. Aunque la forma, diseño eimplantación de las CPU ha cambiado, la forma fundamental de trabajar es en esencia la misma.
    La CPU es una máquina que puede ejecutar programas. Los programas están descritos en un lenguaje binario, código máquina, que los procesadores pueden entender.
    Los programadores suelen emplear lenguajes mucho más fáciles de entender. Éstos programas son traducidos a código máquina por programas que se llaman intérpretes o compiladores. Antes de haber procesadores, había que cambiar las conexiones de los cables para lograr que tuviese configurado un programa diferente.

    Después surgió la noción de programa almacenado. El programa se almacenaba en un medio externo como cintas o tarjetas, y era cargado en la memoria.
    Tecnológicamente, los ordenadores estaban basados inicialmente en tubos de vacío. Éstos eran muy poco fiables, normalmnete fallaban tras un promedio de 8 horas de uso.
    Un invento clave fue el transistor electronico, ya que permitía tener procesadores más pequeños que posibilitaban una ventaja economica y también en velocidad. Los transistores comenzaron a empaquetarse en forma de circuito integrado. Esto daría lugar más adelante al desarrollo de los microprocesadores.
    La ley de Moore describe que al numero de transistores de cada procesador se duplica cada 2 años y esto se ha cumplido durante los ultimos 40 años.


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              Pyre Review – Magical Sports League        
    Pyre is fantastical take on the kind of drama you would find in a sports movie, only with more magical creatures and epic voiceovers. Supergiant Games, the team behind indie games Bastion and Transistor, once again give players a unique world and soundtrack to become mystified with. But while Pyre features some interesting characters and […]
              

    Trans people react to the opening of a new clinic for trans kids and teens.

       
         

    Life-saving and life-changing health care.


    A new clinic geared toward St. Louis transgender teens hopes to be a sort of one-stop shop for supporting trans youth.

    After opening the first week of August, St. Louis' Transgender Center of Excellence is already booked through mid-September. It's one location complete with mental health, hormones, and other essential services, and it's getting rave reviews from patients already.

    "Having support and acceptance is extremely important for this patient population," Dr. Christopher Lewis, physician and founder of the clinic, told WGN News. "Transgender patients already deal with harassment and discrimination within the medical community and that is a barrier to them accessing care."

    A supportive medical environment is a big win for trans kids — take it from others, like myself, who wish those resources existed when we were growing up.

    On Twitter, I reached out to my trans followers to find out what this type of clinic would have meant to them when they were younger. A few common themes emerged.

    For many, it would have meant help and support for themselves and their parents.

    Others remarked on how a supportive environment would have encouraged them to stop hiding, sidestepping some traumatic early-life experiences.

    It would have provided a sense of identity for those who felt alone and isolated, who never saw accurate reflections of themselves in the media.

    Then, the emails started rolling in. "If I'd had the words, if I'd known the concepts, if I had a supportive and professional environment to turn to. I would have been able to live without a dysphoria that came close to killing me, repeatedly," writes Alvhild Sand, a trans woman from Norway, about what a difference a resource like this would have made for her.

    "It would have been fantastic if such a place had existed," writes Gwyn Ciesla, another trans woman, who grew up in a "highly Catholic town in the 1980s" where she was "not exposed to LGBTQ ideas or openly LGBTQ people."

    "The only tools available were in the context of education, religion, and mental health, and were ineffective because they were incomplete," Ciesla explains. "If I had known then what I know now, and a clinic like this had been available, it would have been life-changing."

    "Given what I did and didn't know at the time, I might not have been able to get to the point where I could take advantage of the clinic's services," Ciesla admits, expressing hope that "the presence of the clinic might have at least increased the information available to me and helped me to understand and begin to accept myself years earlier."

    "I only survived my youth by a narrow margin, and I think this clinic might have widened that margin a lot. I hope this clinic can do that for youth now and in the future."

    The new clinic in St. Louis joins a handful of other trans-specific children's medical programs across the country.

    One of the most notable is the gender development services at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago. The sad fact is that even though the Affordable Care Act effectively banned discriminating against people on the basis of their gender identity, many trans people continue to face either discrimination or confusion from their health care providers.

    According to the National Center for Transgender Equality's 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, 33% of trans people who saw a health care provider in the previous year had at least one negative experience, were denied care, or had to actually teach their provider about trans patients. In other words, there's a lot of work to be done, and taking steps to ensure trans people have competent, knowledgeable medical care is a work in progress.

    The new clinic in St. Louis is a big step in the right direction, providing care and benefits for years to come.



              Hal Sepele yang bikin komputer bermasalah        
    10 Hal Sepele yang Bikin Komputer Bermasalah 1. Kipas Kipas berfungsi sebagai pengalir hawa panas yang disebabkan oleh komponen komputer, terutama Processor, IC dan Transistor. Kipas biasanya bekerjasama dengan Heatsink yang berfungsi menyerap panas. Panas yang diserap oleh Heatsink dibuang oleh kipas. Akibat tidak bekerjanya kipas, menyebabkan hawa panas yang seharusnya dibuang jadi mengendap yang […]
              Whatever You Do, Do Not Take Your Eye Off Trump’s War on Science        

    Over the past 50 years, the U.S. standard of living has benefited dramatically from active and open government support of scientific inquiry. But three unrelated recent news stories, two out of Washington and one from China, together strike an ominous warning about a very different future.

    In Washington, President Trump nominated talk radio host Sam Clovis to occupy the Department of Agriculture’s top science post—undersecretary for research, education, and economics. The position involves overseeing a budget of $2 billion for research and $1 billion for education. Clovis has no scientific training, but he does have a long history of denying the science demonstrating the reality of climate change.

    Want to listen to this article out loud? Hear it on Slate Voice.

    Meanwhile, Joel Clement—who as director of the Department of the Interior’s Office of Policy Analysis oversaw such things as helping endangered communities in Alaska prepare for and adapt to climate change—blew the whistle the Washington Post about goings-on in his corner of the government. Clement writes that he was one of 50 senior employees reassigned to unrelated jobs. Clement, a scientist and policy expert, was shuffled into an accounting job in the office that collects royalty checks from fossil fuel companies. Clement had previously spoken publicly about the dangers of climate change in Alaska, and as he discusses in his Washington Post op-ed, he has filed a whistleblower complaint arguing the reassignment was retaliation against him for his speaking out publicly about possible impacts of global warming.

    Finally, out of Beijing comes the story that China has created a development plan to become the world leader in A.I. by 2030. It hopes to “build a domestic industry worth almost $150 billion,” according to the New York Times. This comes at the same time as the Trump administration has proposed severe cutbacks in various government agencies that traditionally support A.I. research, and in high-performance computing that is an essential ingredient in much A.I. work. While it is impossible to predict what breakthroughs will come from this research, A.I. is likely to have a dramatic impact upon the future world economy, much as the internet has had over the past 25 years, and the development of transistors 25 years before that.

    Muting or censoring government scientists, appointing unqualified senior government officials to scientific posts, and underfunding scientific research programs are all part of an insidious and worrisome trend. It is insidious because the impacts of such decisions are not immediate. Rather, they will affect the health and welfare of the country a generation from now.

    Government should rely on the best and brightest to provide advice and leadership of the nation’s technological base. Government scientists who enter into public service could often gain significantly higher incomes by remaining in the private sector. But instead they help develop a national infrastructure that raises the economic tide for everyone. Or they provide crucial advice that helps direct government resources to support research that may result in significant breakthroughs, eventually aiding the nation and the world.

    Instead, existing government scientists are leaving their posts and potential new young scientists will almost surely becoming disenchanted. As a result, the country will lose a valuable resource, and the investment in time and education that helped train these individuals.

    When government appoints unqualified people to leadership positions in science and technology policy, the end result is bad advice and missed opportunities. The country can urgently benefit from support of new high-tech research in areas associated with renewable energy production and storage, for example. In the case of the Department of Agriculture, we need proactive research aimed at mediating the impacts of climate change in the coming century. The economic cost of ignoring these challenges will far exceed any immediate savings that may come from cutting existing programs.

    The U.S. is already retreating from engaging the rest of the world in diplomacy and trade. It cannot afford to cede its leadership role in science and technology, too. The best young minds are attracted to our graduate schools by the opportunities to engage in exciting, cutting-edge research. Many of these individuals will return to their own countries, providing leadership that helps make those nations more economically stable, which itself benefits the international order. Many other students will remain here, making ground-breaking discoveries, training a new generation of young people, and sometimes going out into the private sector to create companies that bring immense wealth to the nation.

    Short-sighted attempts to censor and distort science in the public domain, ideologically based efforts to ignore scientific advice, and efforts to cut support for long-term fundamental research for near-term gain all have the same effects. They may not be noticeable today, or tomorrow, and they may not stop a misguided administration from carrying out its agenda, or even getting re-elected. But they mortgage the future for our children. Good science is the basis of good public policy. We ignore that connection at our peril.


              PENGERTIAN KOMPUTER DAN SEJARAHNYA        
    PENGERTIAN KOMPUTER

    Komputer adalah alat yang dipakai untuk mengolah data menurut perintah yang telah dirumuskan. Kata komputer semula dipergunakan untuk menggambarkan orang yang perkerjaannya melakukan perhitungan aritmatika, dengan atau tanpa alat bantu, tetapi arti kata ini kemudian dipindahkan kepada mesin itu sendiri. Asal mulanya, pengolahan informasi hampir eksklusif berhubungan dengan masalah aritmatika, tetapi komputer modern dipakai untuk banyak tugas yang tidak berhubungan dengan matematika.
    Secara luas, Komputer dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu peralatan elektronik yang terdiri dari beberapa komponen, yang dapat bekerja sama antara komponen satu dengan yang lain untuk menghasilkan suatu informasi berdasarkan program dan data yang ada. Adapun komponen komputer adalah meliputi : Layar Monitor, CPU, Keyboard, Mouse dan Printer (sbg pelengkap). Tanpa printer komputer tetap dapat melakukan tugasnya sebagai pengolah data, namun sebatas terlihat dilayar monitor belum dalam bentuk print out (kertas).
    Dalam definisi seperti itu terdapat alat seperti slide rule, jenis kalkulator mekanik mulai dari abakus dan seterusnya, sampai semua komputer elektronik yang kontemporer. Istilah lebih baik yang cocok untuk arti luas seperti "komputer" adalah "yang memproses informasi" atau "sistem pengolah informasi."
    Saat ini, komputer sudah semakin canggih. Tetapi, sebelumnya komputer tidak sekecil, secanggih, sekeren dan seringan sekarang. Dalam sejarah komputer, ada 5 generasi dalam sejarah komputer.

    SEJARAH KOMPUTER

    Generasi pertama

    Dengan terjadinya Perang Dunia Kedua, negara-negara yang terlibat dalam perang tersebut berusaha mengembangkan komputer untuk mengeksploit potensi strategis yang dimiliki komputer. Hal ini meningkatkan pendanaan pengembangan komputer serta mempercepat kemajuan teknik komputer. Pada tahun 1941, Konrad Zuse, seorang insinyur Jerman membangun sebuah komputer, Z3, untuk mendesain pesawat terbang dan peluru kendali.
    Pihak sekutu juga membuat kemajuan lain dalam pengembangan kekuatan komputer. Tahun 1943, pihak Inggris menyelesaikan komputer pemecah kode rahasia yang dinamakan Colossus untuk memecahkan kode rahasia yang digunakan Jerman. Dampak pembuatan Colossus tidak terlalu memengaruhi perkembangan industri komputer dikarenakan dua alasan. Pertama, Colossus bukan merupakan komputer serbaguna(general-purpose computer), ia hanya didesain untuk memecahkan kode rahasia. Kedua, keberadaan mesin ini dijaga kerahasiaannya hingga satu dekade setelah perang berakhir.
    Usaha yang dilakukan oleh pihak Amerika pada saat itu menghasilkan suatu kemajuan lain. Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), seorang insinyur Harvard yang bekerja dengan IBM, berhasil memproduksi kalkulator elektronik untuk US Navy. Kalkulator tersebut berukuran panjang setengah lapangan bola kaki dan memiliki rentang kabel sepanjang 500 mil. The Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, atau Mark I, merupakan komputer relai elektronik. Ia menggunakan sinyal elektromagnetik untuk menggerakkan komponen mekanik. Mesin tersebut beropreasi dengan lambat (ia membutuhkan 3-5 detik untuk setiap perhitungan) dan tidak fleksibel (urutan kalkulasi tidak dapat diubah). Kalkulator tersebut dapat melakukan perhitungan aritmatik dasar dan persamaan yang lebih kompleks.
    Perkembangan komputer lain pada masa kini adalah Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), yang dibuat oleh kerjasama antara pemerintah Amerika Serikat dan University of Pennsylvania. Terdiri dari 18.000 tabung vakum, 70.000 resistor, dan 5 juta titik solder, komputer tersebut merupakan mesin yang sangat besar yang mengonsumsi daya sebesar 160kW.
    Komputer ini dirancang oleh John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) dan John W. Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC merupakan komputer serbaguna (general purpose computer) yang bekerja 1000 kali lebih cepat dibandingkan Mark I.
    Pada pertengahan 1940-an, John von Neumann (1903-1957) bergabung dengan tim University of Pennsylvania dalam usaha membangun konsep desain komputer yang hingga 40 tahun mendatang masih dipakai dalam teknik komputer. Von Neumann mendesain Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) pada tahun 1945 dengan sebuah memori untuk menampung baik program ataupun data. Teknik ini memungkinkan komputer untuk berhenti pada suatu saat dan kemudian melanjutkan pekerjaannya kembali. Kunci utama arsitektur von Neumann adalah unit pemrosesan sentral (CPU), yang memungkinkan seluruh fungsi komputer untuk dikoordinasikan melalui satu sumber tunggal. Tahun 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) yang dibuat oleh Remington Rand, menjadi komputer komersial pertama yang memanfaatkan model arsitektur Von Neumann tersebut.
    Baik Badan Sensus Amerika Serikat dan General Electric memiliki UNIVAC. Salah satu hasil mengesankan yang dicapai oleh UNIVAC dalah keberhasilannya dalam memprediksi kemenangan Dwilight D. Eisenhower dalam pemilihan presiden tahun 1952.
    Komputer Generasi pertama dikarakteristik dengan fakta bahwa instruksi operasi dibuat secara spesifik untuk suatu tugas tertentu. Setiap komputer memiliki program kode biner yang berbeda yang disebut "bahasa mesin" (machine language). Hal ini menyebabkan komputer sulit untuk diprogram dan membatasi kecepatannya. Ciri lain komputer generasi pertama adalah penggunaan tube vakum (yang membuat komputer pada masa tersebut berukuran sangat besar) dan silinder magnetik untuk penyimpanan data.

     Generasi kedua

    Pada tahun 1948, penemuan transistor sangat memengaruhi perkembangan komputer. Transistor menggantikan tube vakum di televisi, radio, dan komputer. Akibatnya, ukuran mesin-mesin elektrik berkurang drastis.
    Transistor mulai digunakan di dalam komputer mulai pada tahun 1956. Penemuan lain yang berupa pengembangan memori inti-magnetik membantu pengembangan komputer generasi kedua yang lebih kecil, lebih cepat, lebih dapat diandalkan, dan lebih hemat energi dibanding para pendahulunya. Mesin pertama yang memanfaatkan teknologi baru ini adalah superkomputer. IBM membuat superkomputer bernama Stretch, dan Sprery-Rand membuat komputer bernama LARC. Komputer-komputer ini, yang dikembangkan untuk laboratorium energi atom, dapat menangani sejumlah besar data, sebuah kemampuan yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh peneliti atom. Mesin tersebut sangat mahal dan cenderung terlalu kompleks untuk kebutuhan komputasi bisnis, sehingga membatasi kepopulerannya. Hanya ada dua LARC yang pernah dipasang dan digunakan: satu di Lawrence Radiation Labs di Livermore, California, dan yang lainnya di US Navy Research and Development Center di Washington D.C. Komputer generasi kedua menggantikan bahasa mesin dengan bahasa assembly. Bahasa assembly adalah bahasa yang menggunakan singkatan-singakatan untuk menggantikan kode biner.
    Pada awal 1960-an, mulai bermunculan komputer generasi kedua yang sukses di bidang bisnis, di universitas, dan di pemerintahan. Komputer-komputer generasi kedua ini merupakan komputer yang sepenuhnya menggunakan transistor. Mereka juga memiliki komponen-komponen yang dapat diasosiasikan dengan komputer pada saat ini: printer, penyimpanan dalam disket, memory, sistem operasi, dan program.
    Salah satu contoh penting komputer pada masa ini adalah 1401 yang diterima secara luas di kalangan industri. Pada tahun 1965, hampir seluruh bisnis-bisnis besar menggunakan komputer generasi kedua untuk memprosesinformasi keuangan.
    Program yang tersimpan di dalam komputer dan bahasa pemrograman yang ada di dalamnya memberikan fleksibilitas kepada komputer. Fleksibilitas ini meningkatkan kinerja dengan harga yang pantas bagi penggunaan bisnis. Dengan konsep ini, komputer dapat mencetak faktur pembelian konsumen dan kemudian menjalankan desain produk atau menghitung daftar gaji. Beberapa bahasa pemrograman mulai bermunculan pada saat itu. Bahasa pemrograman Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) dan Formula Translator (FORTRAN) mulai umum digunakan. Bahasa pemrograman ini menggantikan kode mesin yang rumit dengan kata-kata, kalimat, dan formula matematika yang lebih mudah dipahami oleh manusia. Hal ini memudahkan seseorang untuk memprogram dan mengatur komputer. Berbagai macam karier baru bermunculan (programmer, analis sistem, dan ahli sistem komputer). Industr piranti lunak juga mulai bermunculan dan berkembang pada masa komputer generasi kedua ini.

     Generasi ketiga

    Walaupun transistor dalam banyak hal mengungguli tube vakum, namun transistor menghasilkan panas yang cukup besar, yang dapat berpotensi merusak bagian-bagian internal komputer. Batu kuarsa (quartz rock) menghilangkan masalah ini. Jack Kilby, seorang insinyur di Texas Instrument, mengembangkan sirkuit terintegrasi (IC : integrated circuit) pada tahun 1958. IC mengkombinasikan tiga komponen elektronik dalam sebuah piringan silikon kecil yang terbuat dari pasir kuarsa. Pada ilmuwan kemudian berhasil memasukkan lebih banyak komponen-komponen ke dalam suatu chip tunggal yang disebut semikonduktor. Hasilnya, komputer menjadi semakin kecil karena komponen-komponen dapat dipadatkan dalam chip. Kemajuan komputer generasi ketiga lainnya adalah penggunaan sistem operasi (operating system) yang memungkinkan mesin untuk menjalankan berbagai program yang berbeda secara serentak dengan sebuah program utama yang memonitor dan mengkoordinasi memori komputer.

    Generasi keempat

    Setelah IC, tujuan pengembangan menjadi lebih jelas: mengecilkan ukuran sirkuit dan komponen-komponen elektrik. Large Scale Integration (LSI) dapat memuat ratusan komponen dalam sebuah chip. Pada tahun 1980-an, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) memuat ribuan komponen dalam sebuah chip tunggal.
    Ultra-Large Scale Integration (ULSI) meningkatkan jumlah tersebut menjadi jutaan. Kemampuan untuk memasang sedemikian banyak komponen dalam suatu keping yang berukurang setengah keping uang logam mendorong turunnya harga dan ukuran komputer. Hal tersebut juga meningkatkan daya kerja, efisiensi dan keterandalan komputer. Chip Intel 4004 yang dibuat pada tahun 1971membawa kemajuan pada IC dengan meletakkan seluruh komponen dari sebuah komputer (central processing unit, memori, dan kendali input/output) dalam sebuah chip yang sangat kecil. Sebelumnya, IC dibuat untuk mengerjakan suatu tugas tertentu yang spesifik. Sekarang, sebuah mikroprosesor dapat diproduksi dan kemudian diprogram untuk memenuhi seluruh kebutuhan yang diinginkan. Tidak lama kemudian, setiap piranti rumah tangga seperti microwave, oven, televisi, dan mobil dengan electronic fuel injection (EFI) dilengkapi dengan mikroprosesor.
    Perkembangan yang demikian memungkinkan orang-orang biasa untuk menggunakan komputer biasa. Komputer tidak lagi menjadi dominasi perusahaan-perusahaan besar atau lembaga pemerintah. Pada pertengahan tahun 1970-an, perakit komputer menawarkan produk komputer mereka ke masyarakat umum. Komputer-komputer ini, yang disebut minikomputer, dijual dengan paket piranti lunak yang mudah digunakan oleh kalangan awam. Piranti lunak yang paling populer pada saat itu adalah program word processing dan spreadsheet. Pada awal 1980-an, video game seperti Atari 2600 menarik perhatian konsumen pada komputer rumahan yang lebih canggih dan dapat diprogram.
    Pada tahun 1981, IBM memperkenalkan penggunaan Personal Computer (PC) untuk penggunaan di rumah, kantor, dan sekolah. Jumlah PC yang digunakan melonjak dari 2 juta unit pada tahun 1981 menjadi 5,5 juta unit pada tahun 1982. Sepuluh tahun kemudian, 65 juta PC digunakan. Komputer melanjutkan evolusinya menuju ukuran yang lebih kecil, dari komputer yang berada di atas meja (desktop computer) menjadi komputer yang dapat dimasukkan ke dalam tas (laptop), atau bahkan komputer yang dapat digenggam (palmtop).
    IBM PC bersaing dengan Apple Macintosh dalam memperebutkan pasar komputer. Apple Macintosh menjadi terkenal karena memopulerkan sistem grafis pada komputernya, sementara saingannya masih menggunakan komputer yang berbasis teks. Macintosh juga memopulerkan penggunaan piranti mouse.
    Pada masa sekarang, kita mengenal perjalanan IBM compatible dengan pemakaian CPU: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (Serial dari CPU buatan Intel). Juga kita kenal AMD k6, Athlon, dsb. Ini semua masuk dalam golongan komputer generasi keempat.
    Seiring dengan menjamurnya penggunaan komputer di tempat kerja, cara-cara baru untuk menggali potensial terus dikembangkan. Seiring dengan bertambah kuatnya suatu komputer kecil, komputer-komputer tersebut dapat dihubungkan secara bersamaan dalam suatu jaringan untuk saling berbagi memori, piranti lunak, informasi, dan juga untuk dapat saling berkomunikasi satu dengan yang lainnya. Jaringan komputer memungkinkan komputer tunggal untuk membentuk kerjasama elektronik untuk menyelesaikan suatu proses tugas. Dengan menggunakan perkabelan langsung (disebut juga Local Area Network atau LAN), atau [kabel telepon, jaringan ini dapat berkembang menjadi sangat besar.

    Generasi kelima

    Mendefinisikan komputer generasi kelima menjadi cukup sulit karena tahap ini masih sangat muda. Contoh imajinatif komputer generasi kelima adalah komputer fiksi HAL9000 dari novel karya Arthur C. Clarke berjudul 2001: Space Odyssey. HAL menampilkan seluruh fungsi yang diinginkan dari sebuah komputer generasi kelima. Dengan kecerdasan buatan (artificial intelligence atau AI), HAL dapat cukup memiliki nalar untuk melakukan percapakan dengan manusia, menggunakan masukan visual, dan belajar dari pengalamannya sendiri.
    Walaupun mungkin realisasi HAL9000 masih jauh dari kenyataan, banyak fungsi-fungsi yang dimilikinya sudah terwujud. Beberapa komputer dapat menerima instruksi secara lisan dan mampu meniru nalar manusia. Kemampuan untuk menterjemahkan bahasa asing juga menjadi mungkin. Fasilitas ini tampak sederhana. Namun fasilitas tersebut menjadi jauh lebih rumit dari yang diduga ketika programmer menyadari bahwa pengertian manusia sangat bergantung pada konteks dan pengertian ketimbang sekedar menterjemahkan kata-kata secara langsung.
    Banyak kemajuan di bidang desain komputer dan teknologi yang semakin memungkinkan pembuatan komputer generasi kelima. Dua kemajuan rekayasa yang terutama adalah kemampuan pemrosesan paralel, yang akan menggantikan model non Neumann. Model non Neumann akan digantikan dengan sistem yang mampu mengkoordinasikan banyak CPU untuk bekerja secara serempak. Kemajuan lain adalah teknologi superkonduktor yang memungkinkan aliran elektrik tanpa ada hambatan apapun, yang nantinya dapat mempercepat kecepatan informasi.
    Jepang adalah negara yang terkenal dalam sosialisasi jargon dan proyek komputer generasi kelima. Lembaga ICOT (Institute for new Computer Technology) juga dibentuk untuk merealisasikannya. Banyak kabar yang menyatakan bahwa proyek ini telah gagal, namun beberapa informasi lain bahwa keberhasilan proyek komputer generasi kelima ini akan membawa perubahan baru paradigma komputerisasi di dunia.

              Comment on [Raspberry Pi] Thermostat pour radiateur Pass Program by ecaheti        
    J'ai peut-être été confus dans mes explications. Je ne joue qu'avec le mode jour et le mode nuit, avec une consigne quasi nulle pour le mode nuit. Donc en gros, c'est presque a off. D'après la doc du site, le montage est fait pour un arduino et ses gpio en 5V. Le Raspberry, lui possède des gpio en 3,3V, ce qui aurait pu poser un problème pour le pilotage du transistor. Cependant le choix de la résistance sur la base du transi fonctionne pour du 3,3 ou du 5V. Ça va faire 5 jours que le truc et en fonctionnement, et ça marche bien pour le moment ! :-)
              BTE HEARING AIDS        
    Behind the ear, also known as BTE, hearing aids are far and away the most commonly used type of hearing aid. These hearing aids are also what most people picture when hearing aids are mentioned. The electronics which make a BTE hearing aid function are housed in a plastic case which fits behind the ear and has a tube that connects it to an ear mold which fits in the ear canal.

    They are designed to accommodate the entire spectrum of hearing losses, from the mild to the severe. Although they are more conspicuous then hearing aids that fit entirely in the ear canal, they have a number of benefits that appeal to a wide variety of hearing impaired individuals. In addition, BTE hearing aids come in a number of sizes, shapes and colors. So some behind the ear models are much less conspicuous then others.

    Since behind the ear hearing aids are larger then their completely in the canal, or CIC, counterparts, they can more easily house a bigger amplifier and much stronger battery and therefore may be especially beneficial to individuals with a more severe hearing loss. BTE hearing aids are also rather versatile in that they come in the most traditional analog style as well as in the recently popularized digitally powered style of hearing aids.

    When budgetary constraints are an issue, behind the ear devices definitely win out over hearing aids which fit completely in the ear canal. Due to their larger size, other groups of people to whom BTE hearing aids have more appeal then CIC models include the elderly, arthritis sufferers and others with fine motor control disabilities and related issues.

    Finally since CIC models necessitate the wearing of a heavier device in the canal then just the lightweight ear mold attached to BTE hearing aids, there tends to be less ear canal irritation with the former.

    In the late 1800s the first commercially manufactured hearing aids were patented and became available to the public. The first behind the ear hearing aids came on the scene over fifty years ago.

    Prior to this, hearing aids were basically amplifiers worn somewhere on the body and these were heavy and expensive, due in part to rapid battery consumption. With the advent of the smaller junction transistor in 1952, widespread BTE hearing aid use became more of a reality.

    Due to improvements in the technology of circuitry,1964 saw another boom in use of BTE devices and the use of body worn hearing aids dropped to less then twenty percent. By 1972 prototypes for hearing aids which could be programmed to a variety of listening situations, were being created. The following twenty years showed continued improvements and advances in hearing aid technology.

    Volume controls were added to most behind the ear devices in the 1990s and digital hearing aids started appearing in the mid nineties. There has been continued new arrivals in the hearing aid world since then such as remanufactured hearing aids, disposable hearing aids and over the counter hearing aids. Who knows what the future of behind the ear hearing aid technology holds, the possibilities are endless.


    BTE Hearing Aid St Louis MO
              Hearing Aids        

    Do you know someone who has a hard time hearing what you say to them? Do you have to talk very loudly, almost screaming at them, and repeat what you say several times before they understand what you are trying to tell them? Maybe you have even started to write little notes back and forth to communicate with each other. If so, you know how frustrating that can be.

    Where did hearing aids come from? The earliest aids were crude horns placed in the ear to amplify sound. When Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, he was also working on a way to develop a hearing device. His work on the telephone did help to improve the progress he made on hearing amplifiers, but they were not portable. At that time he was using a carbon transmitter for both the electric telephone and hearing aid.

    Then in the early part of the twentieth century, a precursor to the modern hearing aid was developed. It amplified sound through a wire placed in the ear. In the 1920s, the carbon transmitter was replaced by a vacuum tube. Though still not portable, it was an important improvement. The first portable hearing device was finally devised in the mid 1930s. It could be carried in your pocket and taken with you anywhere.

    The invention of transistors in the 1950s allowed electric hearing aids to become smaller and much more efficient. The revolution had begun! The progress from those first crude horns, to today's tiny miracles has been tremendous. It did not happen over night, though, it was a long gradual process that included the work of many dedicated scientists, inventors and engineers working many long hours to assist those with this particular need. Their efforts contributed so much to the well being, attitude and happiness of so many in need.

    Hearing aids do not need to break the budget. Compare prices here:
    usedhearingaids.net/


    Hearing Aids Albuquerque NM
              Introducing the 25mm Can-Stack Linear Actuator        

    Integrated Switch Increases Versatility of the 25mm Can-Stack Linear Actuator

    Alongside precision couplings, gears and intelligent motion control, Reliance Precision Mechatronics, the UK distributor for Haydon Kerk Motion Solutions Inc., a leading manufacturer of precision linear motion products, now offers an integrated end-of-stroke proximity sensor available on the 25mm 25000 Series captive linear actuators. The proximity sensor utilises miniature hall effect technology in an IC package mounted directly on the actuator. The hall effect is an ideal technology with a virtually unlimited on-off cycle life due to the non-contact operation of the switch. The Can-Stack linear actuator with the integrated proximity sensor is perfect for limited space applications.

    A highly repeatable on/off signal is accomplished using a rare earth magnet embedded directly on the end of the internal screw. As the screw moves in and out of the actuator, the magnet moves towards and away from the sensor face causing the device to switch states. The proximity sensor is designed to operate in a digital switch mode using an open-collector output through an integrated NPN transistor switch. The proximity switch is a 3 wire device and requires a supply voltage of 3.8 VDC minimum to 24 VDC maximum with a…

              JBL-Nano Patch+ Monitor Controller        
    Plug the new JBL Nano Patch+ between your audio interface and active monitors, for passive volume attenuation. The Nano Patch + delivers a clean, transparent signal because it requires no power, no buffering or transistors, and helps you to maintain maximum audio resolution because you donEURt have to change the level from your software.
    Product Price: £63.00
    Product ID: 120110
    Product SKU: 1692
              Moon Duo (USA) at WOODLAND        


    Pretty excited about this one!

    MOON DUO
    plus guests (tbc)


    Saturday, 1st October

    Presale $20 plus booking fee
    https://tickets.oztix.com.au/Default.aspx?event=22596


    FACEBOOK EVENT -HERE-

    MOON DUO
    Formed in San Francisco in 2009 by Wooden Shijps guitarist Ripley Johnson and his partner, Sanae Yamada, Moon Duo’s first two critically acclaimed EPs, Killing Time (2009) and Escape (2010), fused the futuristic pylon hum and transistor reverb of Suicide or Silver Apples with the heat-haze fuzz of American rock ‘n’ roll to create tracks of blistering, 12-cylinder space rock. Now their debut album Mazes, recorded in San Francisco and mixed in Berlin during 2010 as the band prepared to move to the mountains of Colorado, explores a far broader, lighter, sound.

    That’s most clear on the dreamy organ and skipping riff of the title track, which recalls the Velvet Underground, or the handclaps and swinging organ bloops over the potent shredding and guttural riff delivered by Johnson in When You Cut: “He is an incredible guitar player,” enthuses Yamada, “He is one of those musicians who has the ability to elicit a guttural, corporeal response in the listener.” Throughout, Mazes is the sound of Moon Duo carving out their own identity, looking to the horizon, and moving forward.

    Ripley says that, as a guitarist and songwriter, delineating between Moon Duo and Wooden Shijps “happens naturally. I focus on one project at a time, and the way the two bands operate is very different. And there are certain limitations that Moon Duo is forced to accept, not having a drummer for example, and I really like that. I like the creative challenge of working with limitations. Having done so much home recording cultivates that. Working with one other person is much different from working with four.”


    “We wanted to do something in a more ‘rock 'n' roll band’ style, something a bit fuller than our previous recordings.” In terms of recording this meant that Moon Duo “used more tracks on this record, in order to get a denser, layered sound to make this our ‘rock band’ record. I grew up a huge Stones fan, so I've always liked that dense sound, with multiple guitar tracks, percussion, piano, organ - anything you can squeeze into the mix.”

    This meant a vastly different recording process to Moon Duo’s first two EPs, which were recorded fast and at home. Mazes was a more drawn-out process, involving proper recording studios for the first time including the trip to Berlin to mix and re-record certain parts and the track ‘Run Around’. “The working title was Die Blumen [the flowers], so going into the mix sessions we kind of felt like it was becoming our ‘Berlin record’, but in the end it retained the stamp of San Francisco and we liked Mazes title better anyway.” And ultimately, Mazes is a definably American record, recorded against the backdrop of the Johnson and Yamada’s move from the Californian coast to the heights of Colorado. “I think a lot of our music has something to do with the mythology of the road,” muses Moon Duo’s Sanae Yamada. And if Mazes is a quest, a journey through American landscape and music, Johnson concludes that its key is “finding one's place in the world; moving forward, and the different paths one takes moving through life, trying to reach various goals, literally moving; love; pain; change. Or just getting by, and making sense of things”.




              Baterai Magnet Berteknologi Nano        
    Tak sejalan dengan teknologi elektronika yang jauh berkembang, ternyata teknologi baterai yang disematkan pada perangkat-perangkat tersebut masih tertinggal. Hal inilah yang kemudian membuat para ahli mencoba berbagai alternative yang dapat dijadikan sumber energi pengganti baterai yang ada sekarang.

    Diantara penelitian-penelitian tersebut, muncul sebuah temuan baru yang disebut baterai spin (berputar) yang dikembangakan oleh para peneliti dari Universitas Miami, Amerika Serikat serta Universitas Tokyo dan Tohoku, Jepang. Baterai spin merupakan baterai yang dapat diisi ulang dengan menerapkan sistem ladang magnit menjadi nano-magnit pada sebuah perangkat yang disebut ‘magnetic tunnel junction’ (MTJ).


    Teknologi baru ini merupakan sebuah langkah maju dimana diyakini akan menghasilkan baterai dengan lebih cepat, lebih murah dan menggunakan sedikit energi dari arus yang telah ada sebelumnya. Dimasa depan baterai baru ini dapat dikembangkan untuk menghidupkan sebuah mobil atau perangkat lainnya.
    Rahasia dari teknologi ini terletak pada penggunaan magnet nano untuk mempengaruhi kekuatan elektromotif. Sebenarnya teknologi ini menggunakan prinsip yang sama seperti halnya baterai konvensional. Bedanya, bila pada baterai konvensional energi yang disimpan menggunakan bentuk energi kimia dimana ketika dijalankan reaksi kimia akan terjadi dan mengahasilkan energi listrik. Sedangkan teknologi baru ini mengkonversikan energi magnetic menjadi energi listrik tanpa adanya reaksi kimia. Arus listrik yang dibuata dalam proses ini disebut ’arus polarisasi spin’ dan disebut sebagai teknologi baru dengan nama ‘spintronik’.



    Dengan menggunakan teknologi spintronik, energi disimpan bukan melalui reaksi kimia melainkan pada sebuah magnit. Jadi tidak ada reaksi kima yang terjadi karena baterai spin akan membuat ladang magnit yang besar. Teknologi ini dianggap lebih potensial dibanding teknologi apapun yang pernah ditemukan sebelumnya. Bahkan menurut salah satu peneliti, mereka telah mengantisipasi efek yang ditimbulkan dengan penerapan teknologi ini. Hanya saja dengan teknologi ini, voltase yang dihasilkan menjadi seratus lebih besar dalam waktu puluhan menit dan mengahasilkan voltase yang berbeda dalam waktu milidetik. Ini diluar dari perhitungan teoritis yang saat ini dipahami.



    Namun setidaknya temuan baru ini dapat menjelaskan lebih jauh bagaimana cara ekrja magnet dan aplikasinya dalam hal penggunaan MTJ sebagai elemen elektronik yang bekerja dengan cara yang berbeda dibandingkan dengan transistor konvensional. Meski perangkat aktualnya memiliki diameter seperti halnya rambut manusia, namun energi yang disimpan secara potensial mampu menjalankan sebuah mobil sampai beberapa mil jauhnya.



    Belum diketahui kapan teknologi baterai ini akan diterapkan pada perangkat elektronik komerial.




              Menerapkan Teknik Elektronika Analog dan Digital Dasar        

    Menerapkan Teknik Elektronika Analog dan Digital Dasar

    DASAR ELEKTRONIKA ANALOG DAN DIGITAL merupakan modul bahan
    ajar praktikum berisi pengetahuan, pengenalan, penggunaan tentang dasar
    macam dan karakteristik komponen-komponen elektronika serta sistem
    pembilangan dan gerbang dasar maupun kombinasional.
    Modul ini menekankan pada penguasaan ilmu elektronika analog dan digital
    yang mencakup tentang pengetahuan dasar teori atom; bahan penghantar,
    isolator dan semikonduktor, serta sistem pembilangan dan gerbang dasar
    maupun kombinasional meliputi : Kegiatan Belajar 1 berisi pengetahuan
    dasar teori atom. Kegiatan belajar 2 berisi pengetahuan sifat dan macam
    bahan penghantar, isolator dan semikonduktor. Kegiatan Belajar 3 berisi
    pengetahuan dasar penyearah. Kegiatan belajar 4 berisi tentang sistem
    bilangan dan Kegiatan belajar 5 berisi tentang gerbang dasar dan kombinasi.
    Dengan menguasai modul ini peserta diklat mampu menguasai konsep dasar
    teori atom sebagai dasar pembuatan komponen-komponen elektronika dan
    aplikasi komponen elektronika seperti dioda, transistor berdasar karakteristik
    masing-masing komponen. Selain itu juga peserta diklat memahami tentang
    sistem bilangan dan gerbang logika dasra dan kombinasi.

    Teori Atom dan Molekul
    Operasi komponen elektronika benda padat seperti dioda, LED,
    Transistor Bipolar dan FET serta Op-Amp atau rangkaian
    terpadu lainnya didasarkan atas sifat-sifat semikonduktor.
    Semikonduktor adalah bahan yang sifat-sifat kelistrikannya
    terletak antara sifat-sifat konduktor dan isolator. Sifat-sifat
    kelistrikan konduktor maupun isolator tidak mudah berubah
    oleh pengaruh temperatur, cahaya atau medan magnit, tetapi
    pada semikonduktor sifat-sifat tersebut sangat sensitive.
    Elemen terkecil dari suatu bahan yang masih memiliki sifat-sifat
    kimia dan fisika yang sama adalah atom. Suatu atom terdiri
    atas tiga partikel dasar, yaitu: neutron, proton, dan elektron.
    Dalam struktur atom, proton dan neutron membentuk inti atom
    yang bermuatan positip, sedangkan elektron-elektron yang
    bermuatan negatip mengelilingi inti. Elektron-elektron ini
    tersusun berlapis-lapis. Struktur atom dengan model Bohr dari
    bahan semikonduktor yang paling banyak digunakan adalah
    silikon dan germanium.
    Seperti ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1 atom silikon mempunyai
    elektron yang mengorbit (mengelilingi inti) sebanyak 14 dan
    8
    atom germanium mempunyai 32 elektron. Pada atom yang
    seimbang (netral) jumlah elektron dalam orbit sama dengan
    jumlah proton dalam inti. Muatan listrik sebuah elektron
    adalah: - 1.602-19 C dan muatan sebuah proton adalah: +
    1.602-19 C.
    Elektron yang menempati lapisan terluar disebut sebagai
    elektron valensi. Atom silikon dan germanium masing
    mempunyai empat elektron valensi. Oleh karena itu baik atom
    silikon maupun atom germanium disebut juga dengan atom
    tetra-valent (bervalensi empat). Empat elektron valensi
    tersebut terikat dalam struktur kisi-kisi, sehingga setiap
    elektron valensi akan membentuk ikatan kovalen dengan
    elektron valensi dari atom-atom yang bersebelahan.
              Silicon Spintronics        
    "Electronics" uses our ability to control electrons with electric fields via interaction with their fundamental charge. Because we can manipulate the electric fields within semiconductors, they are the basis for microelectronics, and silicon (Si) is the most widely-used semiconductor for integrated microelectronic circuits. The electron's magnetic moment, called spin, has been known for over eighty years, and its existence explains (among other things) the static magnetic field of permanent magnets. Our understanding of electron spin manipulation has led to information-storage applications such as high-sensitivity magnetic field sensors for hard-drives (Giant Magneto-Resistance - or GMR - devices), and devices for non-volatile random-access memory called Tunnel Magneto-Resistance (TMR) devices; however, it has not yet found use in information-processing circuits. To enable spin-based integrated circuits, long spin lifetimes are necessary to enable multiple logic operations before depolarization and decoherence sets in. In addition, long spin transport coherence lengths are needed to enable integration of multiple devices in a circuit. Silicon has been broadly viewed as the ideal material for spintronics due to its low atomic weight, lattice inversion symmetry, and near lack of nuclear spin. Despite this appeal, however, the experimental difficulties of achieving coherent spin transport in silicon were overcome only recently (in our lab here at Delaware), by using unique spin-polarized hot-electron injection and detection techniques with nano-scale ferromagnetic metal spin "polarizers".[1] Using these methods, we have observed unprecedented coherence in spin precession measurements, and extracted very long spin lifetimes of conduction electrons traveling over macroscopic distances.[2] Whereas transistor scaling limits will soon suppress progress in microelectronics using Si, its favorable spintronics properties may secure this semiconductor's dominance for the future.
              This one is for all the EXCITEABLE ones!        
    Time to get back to my ROOTS. 311, they are the best five guys I have ever had the pleasure to know! You guys have given SO much to me, that today it is a pleasure to share you with everyone! Happy 311 day all!


    It was a warm September 8th 1996 when I unwrapped my present to see the Blue album staring back at me. It was exactally what I wanted thanks to my mom and the clerk at Media Play. I was mezmorized by the song Down, as my sister and I watch the music video OVER and OVER and OVER again. In fact we recorded it on VHS so we could watch it on comand (this is pre YouTube). This one album was just the begining. I memorized all the lyrics, and listen to the cd over and over. Later I purchased Transistor, and my amazing sister bought be Grassroots when she saw it at a used cd store. Grassroots took my by storm until that Christmas when the same amazing sister bought me Music. I listen to it 100 times before I did anything else.

    The music was me, it ran in my bones. It took a while for the follow up, Soundsytem, to come out but that didn't stop my stalking googling them! This is where most of my current 311 knowledge comes from. Like Nick's middle name is Lofton. The album came out and so did my FIRST concert.

    April 1, 2000 3pm, I could hear the sound check. Unusually cold as my sister and I was the 7th person in line. I snuck in a 35mm camera through my baggy sweatshirt and chose to take the balcony view. Through osmosis we ended up back stage but were so freaked and worried about getting kicked out (this is after the show) that we didn't even notice Chad Sexton standing right next to me. I did notice the elusive Yanni (please watch ETSD to know who I am talking about)tour manager and was so start struck. That show was amazing!

    They returned shortly after, June 2, 2000 and rocked my socks. They came again in Nov but due to college and living on my own I couldn't afford it. I was practically in tears thinking of every song I missed. Later when I read that at that show the band attack Zebra Head with Silly String I vowed NEVER to miss a show again. (I've come close...)

    You need to understand when I hated life, when I was fired from my job, when NOBODY understood me, 311 did, and they were there for me. No matter what condition I was in, they were there for me. When I couldn't trust anyone, I trusted them. Partly because they couldn't let me down. When I'm hurting, they healed me, this is why you see I'm such a FANATIC. They were the best gift to me. All I want to do is share it.

    Since 2000 I have seen them 21....times live, including the goal to see them 3 times in a row (Vegas, SLC, Red Rocks) two 311 day shows (Memphis 06, NO 08) and 5 surrounding states. My only other goals to complete would be a halloween show, a cali show and an Omaha show. You might have heard that at 311 day 2008 I cried during the concert. It is true. I agreed with myself that the only feeling that would surpass the feelings at the show would be the birth of my first child (possibly marriage but I'm not sure). I was emotionally touched that after 2 decades of them giving their all to their fans, and the fans giving everything back, that this was the moment, the moment the two meet! So selfless, so positive so unconditional.

    I have made some random 311 friends and will continue to make more. This is my legacy to give to you and may you fullfill other people's life as 311 has done for me!


    Regards,


    Dre








              Richard Matheson, ahora es leyenda        


    Hoy ha muerto Richard Matheson, uno de mis escritores favoritos, a los 87 años. Me encanta toda su obra, pero especialmente sus relatos cortos, que me parecen una pasada. Así que que mejor homenaje que recordarle con una de sus maravillosas historias?

    BOTÓN,BOTÓN - Richard Matheson
    El paquete estaba junto a la puerta —una caja de cartón sellada con cinta, la dirección y sus nombres escritos a mano: Señor y Señora Lewis, 217 E. calle 37, Nueva York, Nueva York, 10016. Norma lo levantó, abrió la puerta y entró al apartamento. Apenas empezaba a oscurecer.
    Después de haber puesto los trozos de cordero en la parrilla, se sentó y abrió el paquete.
    Dentro de la caja de cartón había una unidad provista de un botón y sujetada a una pequeña arca de madera. Una cúpula de vidrio cubría el botón. Norma intentó levantarla pero estaba sellada. Volteó la unidad y vio un papel doblado y pegado con cinta adhesiva a la parte inferior de la caja. Lo desprendió: El señor Steward los visitará a las 8 p.m.
    Norma colocó la unidad del botón a su lado, sobre el sofá. Releyó el mensaje impreso, sonriendo.
    Unos minutos después regresó a la cocina para hacer la ensalada.
    El timbre sonó a las ocho en punto. —Yo abro —gritó Norma desde la cocina. Arthur estaba en la sala, leyendo.
    Había un hombre pequeño en la entrada. Se quitó el sombrero cuando Norma abrió la puerta. —¿Señora Lewis? —preguntó cortésmente.­
    —¿Sí?
    —Soy el señor Steward
    —Ah, cierto. Norma reprimió una sonrisa. Ahora estaba segura de que se trataba de un truco para vender algo.
    —¿Puedo pasar? —preguntó el señor Steward.
    —Estoy bastante ocupada —dijo Norma—, pero le traeré su paquete. Le dio la espalda.
    —¿No quiere saber lo que es?
    Norma se volteó. El tono del señor Steward fue ofensivo. —No, creo que no —contestó ella.
    —Podría resultar muy provechoso —le dijo.
    —¿Económicamente? —lo cuestionó.
    El señor Steward asintió. —Económicamente —dijo.
    Norma frunció el ceño. No le gustó la actitud del hombre. —¿Qué está intentando vender? —preguntó ella.
    —No estoy vendiendo nada —respondió él.
    Arthur salió de la sala. —¿Pasa algo?
    El señor Steward se presentó.
    —Ah, el … —Arthur señaló hacia la sala y sonrió—. ¿Y qué es ese aparato, a todo esto?
    —No me tomará mucho tiempo explicarlo —contestó el señor Steward—. ¿Puedo pasar?
    —Si está vendiendo algo… —dijo Arthur.
    El señor Steward negó con la cabeza. —No, no vendo nada.
    Arthur miró a Norma. —Como quieras —le dijo ella.
    Dudó un poco. —Bueno, ¿por qué no? —dijo él.
    Entraron a la sala y el señor Steward se sentó en la silla de Norma. Metió la mano en el bolsillo de dentro de su abrigo y sacó un pequeño sobre sellado. —Aquí dentro hay una llave para abrir la cúpula del timbre —dijo y colocó el sobre encima de la mesa auxiliar—. El timbre está conectado a nuestra oficina.
    —¿Para qué sirve? —preguntó Arthur.
    —Si oprime el botón —le dijo el señor Steward— en alguna parte del mundo alguien que usted no conoce morirá. A cambio, recibirá un pago de 50.000 dólares.
    Norma se quedó mirando al hombrecillo. Estaba sonriendo.
    —¿De qué habla? —le preguntó Arthur.
    El señor Steward pareció sorprendido. —Pero si lo acabo de explicar —dijo.
    —¿Es esto una broma de mal gusto?
    —De ningún modo. La oferta es completamente genuina.
    —Eso que usted dice no tiene sentido —dijo Arthur—. Usted espera que creamos…
    —¿A quién representa? —inquirió Norma.
    El señor Steward se notó apenado. —Me temo que no estoy autorizado para revelarle eso —dijo—. Sin embargo, le aseguro que la organización es de talla internacional.
    —Creo que es mejor que se vaya —dijo Arthur poniéndose de pie.
    El señor Steward se levantó. —Por supuesto.
    —Y llévese la unidad con usted.
    —¿Está seguro de que no le interesaría pensarlo hasta mañana, quizás?
    Arthur levantó la unidad del botón y el sobre y los tendió bruscamente en las manos del señor Steward. Caminó por el pasillo y abrió la puerta.
    —Dejaré mi tarjeta —dijo el señor Steward. La colocó encima de la mesilla que estaba cerca de la puerta.
    Cuando se había ido, Arthur rompió la tarjeta por la mitad y arrojó los pedazos sobre la mesa.
    Norma permanecía sentada en el sofá. —¿Qué crees que era? —preguntó.
    —No me interesa saber —contestó él.
    Ella intentó sonreír pero no pudo. —¿No te da ni un poco de curiosidad?
    —No —negó con la cabeza.
    Después de que Arthur había retomado su libro, Norma regresó a la cocina y acabó de lavar los platos.
    —¿Por qué no quieres hablar de eso? —preguntó Norma.
    Los ojos de Arthur se movían constantemente mientras se cepillaba los dientes. Miraba el reflejo de Norma en el espejo del baño.
    —¿No te intriga?
    —Me ofende —dijo Arthur.
    —Ya sé, pero —Norma colocó otro rulo en su pelo— ¿no te intriga también?
    —¿Crees que es una broma de mal gusto? —preguntó ella cuando entraban a la habitación.
    —Si lo es, es una broma asquerosa.
    Norma se sentó en la cama y se quitó las pantuflas. —Tal vez sea algún tipo de investigación psicológica.
    Arthur se encogió de hombros. —Podría ser.
    —Tal vez algún millonario excéntrico la está realizando.
    —Tal vez.
    —¿No te gustaría saber?
    Arthur negó con la cabeza.
    —¿Por qué?
    —Porque es inmoral —le dijo.
    Norma se deslizó bajo las cobijas. —Bueno, yo creo que es intrigante —dijo. Arthur apagó la lámpara y se agachó para besarla. —Buenas noches —le dijo.
    —Buenas noches —Norma le dio palmaditas en la espalda.
    Norma cerró los ojos. «Cincuentamil dólares», pensó.
    En la mañana, cuando iba a salir del apartamento, Norma vio las dos mitades de la tarjeta sobre la mesa. Impulsivamente, las arrojó dentro de su cartera. Cerró la puerta y alcanzó a Arthur en el ascensor.
    Mientras estaba en su descanso sacó las dos partes de la tarjeta y juntó los pedazos rasgados. Solamente el nombre del señor Steward y un número telefónico estaban impresos en la tarjeta.
    Después del almuerzo volvió a sacar las dos mitades y unió los bordes con cinta adhesiva. «¿Por qué estoy haciendo esto?», pensó.
    Poco antes de las cinco marcó el número.
    —Buenas tardes —dijo la voz del señor Steward.
    Norma por poco cuelga, pero se contuvo. Aclaró la garganta.
    —Habla la señora Lewis —dijo.
    —Sí, señora Lewis —el señor Steward se escuchó complacido.
    —Tengo curiosidad.
    —Es natural —dijo el señor Steward.
    —No es que crea una sola palabra de lo que nos dijo.
    —Sin embargo, es la pura verdad —contestó el señor Steward.
    —Bueno, como sea —Norma tragó saliva—. Cuando manifestó que alguien en el mundo moriría, ¿qué quiso decir?
    —Exactamente eso —contestó—. Podría ser cualquier persona. Todo lo que garantizamos es que usted no la conoce. Y, por supuesto, que usted no tendría que verla morir.
    —Por 50.000 dólares—dijo Norma.
    —Es correcto.
    Ella hizo un sonido de burla.
    —Eso es una locura.
    —Pero esa es la propuesta —dijo el señor Steward—. ¿Desea que le lleve de nuevo la unidad?
    Norma se puso tensa.
    —Claro que no â€”colgó malhumorada.
    El paquete estaba junto a la puerta principal, Norma lo vio al salir del ascensor. «Bueno, ¡qué frescura!», pensó. Fijó la mirada en el paquete mientras abría la puerta. «Simplemente no lo entraré», se dijo. Entró y empezó a preparar la cena.
    Más tarde, salió al pasillo principal. Abriendo la puerta, levantó el paquete y lo trasladó hasta la cocina, dejándolo sobre la mesa.
    Se sentó en la sala, mirando a través de la ventana. Después de un rato, fue a la cocina para colocar las chuletas en la parrilla. Colocó el paquete en la alacena inferior. Lo tiraría en la mañana.
    —Tal vez algún millonario excéntrico está jugando con la gente —dijo ella.
    Arthur levantó la mirada de su plato. —No te entiendo.
    —¿Qué quieres decir?
    —Olvídalo â€”le dijo a ella.
    Norma comió en silencio. De repente bajó su tenedor. —Supón que es una oferta real —dijo ella.
    Arthur se quedó mirándola.
    —Supón que es una oferta real.
    —Está bien, supón que lo es —él se veía incrédulo—. ¿Qué querrías hacer? ¿Volver a tener el botón y oprimirlo? ¿Asesinar a alguien?”
    Norma pareció disgustada. —Asesinar.
    —¿Cómo lo definirías?
    —¿Si ni siquiera conoces a la persona? —dijo Norma.
    Arthur quedó estupefacto. —¿Estás diciendo lo que creo que estás diciendo?
    —¿Si es algún viejo campesino chino a diez mil millas de distancia? ¿Algún aborigen enfermo en el Congo?
    —¿Qué tal un bebé en Pennsylvania? —Arthur replicó—. ¿Alguna hermosa niña en la otra cuadra?
    —Ahora estás exagerando las cosas.
    — Norma, el hecho es—continuó—, no importa a quién matas sigue siendo asesinato.
    —El hecho es —interrumpió Norma—, si es alguien a quien nunca has visto en la vida y a quien nunca verás, alguien de cuya muerte ni siquiera tendrás que saber aun así Â¿no apretarías el botón?
    Arthur se quedó mirándola, horrorizado. —¿Quieres decir que tú lo harías?
    —Cincuenta mil dólares, Arthur.
    —¿Qué tiene que ver la cantidad…
    —Cincuenta mil dólares, Arthur —interrumpió Norma—. Una oportunidad para hacer ese viaje a Europa del que siempre hemos hablado.
    —Norma, no.
    —Una oportunidad para comprar esa cabaña en la isla.
    —Norma, no â€”su cara había palidecido.
    Ella se encogió de hombros. —Está bien, tranquilízate —dijo ella—. ¿Por qué te enojas tanto? Sólo estamos hablando.
    Después de la cena, Arthur fue a la sala. Antes de abandonar la mesa dijo:
    —Preferiría no discutirlo más, si no te importa.
    Norma levantó los hombros. —Está bien.
    Ella se levantó más temprano que de costumbre para preparar panqueques, huevos y tocino para el desayuno de Arthur.
    —¿Qué estamos celebrando? —preguntó Arthur con una sonrisa.
    —No, no se trata de ninguna celebración —Norma se mostró ofendida—. Quise hacerlo, es todo.
    —Bueno —dijo él—, me alegro de que lo hayas hecho.
    Ella volvió a llenar la taza de Arthur. —Quería demostrarte que no soy… —se encogió de hombros.
    —¿Que no eres qué?
    —Egoísta.
    —¿Dije que lo eras?
    —Pues —ella gesticuló vagamente—, anoche…
    Arthur permaneció callado.
    —Toda esa charla acerca del botón —dijo Norma—. Creo que… pues, me malinterpretaste.
    —¿En qué sentido? —su voz fue cautelosa.
    —Creo que pensaste —gesticuló de nuevo— que yo sólo estaba pensando en mí.
    —Ah.
    —No lo hacía.
    —Norma…
    —Pues no lo hacía. Cuando hablé de Europa, la casa en la isla…
    —Norma, ¿por qué te estás involucrando tanto en esto?
    —De ninguna manera lo estoy haciendo —respiró nerviosamente—. Sólo intento decir que…
    —¿Qué?
    —Que quisiera un viaje a Europa para nosotros. Que quisiera una cabaña en la isla para nosotros. Quisiera un apartamento mejor para nosotros, mejores muebles, mejor ropa, un auto. Me gustaría que nosotros por fin tuviéramos un bebé, a decir verdad.
    —Norma, ya lo haremos —dijo él.
    —¿Cuándo?
    Se quedó mirándola, consternado. —Norma…
    —¡¿Cuándo?!
    —¿Estás… —pareció retractarse un poco—, estás diciendo en serio…?
    —Estoy diciendo que probablemente lo están haciendo para un proyecto investigativo —lo interrumpió—. Que quieren saber qué haría la gente común frente a tal circunstancia, que sólo están diciendo que alguien moriría para estudiar las reacciones, para ver si hay sentimiento de culpa, ansiedad, ¡lo que sea! No crees que en realidad matarían a alguien, ¿verdad?”
    Él no contestó. Ella vio que a Arthur le temblaban las manos. Después de un rato él se levantó y se fue.

    Cuando se había ido a trabajar, Norma permaneció en la mesa, mirando fijamente su café. «Voy a llegar tarde», pensó. Se encogió de hombros. ¿Qué importaba?, ella debería estar en casa y no trabajando en una oficina.
    Mientras acomodaba los platos, se volvió abruptamente, se secó las manos y sacó el paquete de la alacena inferior. Lo abrió y colocó la unidad del botón sobre la mesa. Se quedó mirándola un rato antes de sacar la llave del sobre y retirar la cúpula de vidrio. Fijó su mirada en el botón. «Qué ridículo», pensó. «Todo este alboroto por un botón sin importancia».
    Estiró la mano y lo oprimió. «Por nosotros» —se dijo con rabia.
    Se estremeció. ¿Estaría sucediendo? Un escalofrío aterrador la recorrió.
    En un momento ya todo había terminado. Hizo un ruido desdeñoso. «Ridículo», pensó. «Exaltarse tanto por nada».
    Tiró la unidad del botón, la cúpula y la llave a la caneca de la basura y se apresuró a vestirse para ir al trabajo. Acababa de dar vuelta a los filetes para la cena cuando sonó el teléfono. Levantó la bocina. —¿Aló?
    —¿Señora Lewis?
    —¿Sí?
    —Este es el hospital Lenox Hill.
    Se sintió irreal cuando la voz le informó del accidente en el subterráneo: los empujones de la multitud, Arthur había sido arrojado de la plataforma cuando el tren pasaba. Era consciente de que estaba negando con la cabeza pero no podía parar.
    Cuando colgó, recordó la póliza de seguro de vida de Arthur por 25.000, con doble indemnización por…
    — Â¡No! Parecía que no podía respirar. Se incorporó con gran dificultad y caminó atontada hasta la cocina. Algo helado presionaba su cráneo mientras sacaba la unidad del botón de la caneca de la basura. No había clavos ni tornillos a la vista. No podía ver cómo estaba ensamblada.
    De repente, comenzó a estrellarla contra el borde del lavaplatos, golpeándola cada vez con más violencia hasta que la madera se quebró. Separó las partes, cortándose los dedos sin darse cuenta. No había transistores en la caja, ni cables, ni tubos. La caja estaba vacía.
    Se volvió con un grito ahogado cuando el teléfono sonó. Tropezándose para llegar hasta la sala, levantó la bocina.
    —¿Señora Lewis? —preguntó el señor Steward.
    No era su voz la que chillaba de tal manera, no podía ser. â€”¡Usted dijo que yo no conocería al que muriera!
    —Mi querida señora —dijo el señor Steward—, ¿en verdad cree que usted conocía a su esposo?




    Para los que sabéis inglés aquí os dejo un enlace para que leáis su primer relato: "Born of a man and a woman"

              Blue Lantern Transistor Pyramid Core TPCVCO Eurorack module        
    $295.00
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              Signal Boost: Manitoba Music News Roundup        

    Beloved rock venue The Zoo closing after one last Halloween blowout. - Winnipeg Free Press

    A fond farewell to The Zoo. - The Winnipeg Sun

    Manitoba Music crosses boarders with Living Hour and Mise en Scene. - The Current

    The Lytics reflect on an opportunity of a lifetime. - WRG Magazine

    Mike D and The Lytics talk about the culture of creativity. - WRG Magazine

    Transistor 66's happily dysfunctional family is going strong. - Beatroute

    Well Sister's music is a spiritual autobiography. - The Uniter

    Autumn Still is easy to enjoy. - Grayowl Point FREE download

    Slow Leaves talks Allan Slaight Master Class, new album, and more... - Rudy Blair

    William Prince's voice is perfect for Danny Schur's ode to Winnipeg. - Metro

    New book on local '90s underground excavates a vivid world of dive bars. - Beatroute

    Greg Rekus joins the Halloween festivities in Orlando. - The Examiner

    Keith Price talks touring, catching the jazz bug, and more. - Ottawa Citizen

    An unexpected treat from Kindest Cuts and Ghost Twin. - Silent Shout

    Chic Gamine's Light A Match burns bright - KEXP

    Chic Gamine's got Motown souls, French pop spirits, and rock'n'roll hearts. - Lansing State Journal

    The Mariachi Ghost to play Dead of the Dead party. - NewCa

    Fred Penner will help send away the winter blues in Regina. - The Province

    French Press gears up for career expansion with upcoming release. - Meridian Booster

    It's still festival season for The Small Glories. - American Towns

    Romi Mayes is a voice that's here to stay. - Great Falls Tribune

    An inside look at AudioOpera's new album. - The Uniter

    A Mariah Carey cover by The Bros. Landreth is still on the table. - Edmonton Examiner

    Red Moon Road goes Rogue this weekend. - The Georgia Straight


              Signal Boost: Manitoba Music News Roundup        

    Transistor 66 keeps it in the family. - Metro News FREE download

    Transistor 66 helps get the noise heard. - The Uniter

    Chic Gamine goes "All Night". - 99.1 Fresh Radio

    Light a Match shows Chic Gamine's striking evolution. - Huffington Post

    William Prince and Danny Schur show some Winnipeg pride. - Winnipeg Free Press

    High marks for Lindsey White's latest release, Renegade . - The Manitoban

    Feel the heart in Holly Ruth and the Greyjays' album. - The Uniter

    Futurekids keep things interesting and fresh. - The Earology Dept

    New Canadiana from Basic Nature. - Weird Canada

    History of '90s Winnipeg underground music scene recounted in new book. - Winnipeg Free Press

    JP Hoe lands in CBC Radio 2's top 20. - CBC Music

    A+ for JP Hoe's Hideaway. - Terrorverlag

    10/10 for Federal LightsCoeur de Lion. - Terrorverlag

    Federal Lights lays down a The Weakerthans fave. - In Bed With - Live Sessions

    Yet another opportunity to practice German courtesy of Federal Lights. - Paperblog

    Check out Greek Riots for an adrenaline rush. - The Earology Dept

    Take a peek inside the home of Stefanie from Mise en Scene. - The Uniter

    Dub Ditch Picnic builds on a global community of weirdness. - Beatroute

    Discover Rayannah's archery skills and more. - Unis TV

    Red Moon Road is its own best advertisement. - The Star Phoenix

    Red Moon Road gets a little help from its friends. - Vancouver Sun

    Doc Walker rides the Holiday Train through Minnesota. - Waseca County News

    The Bros. Landreth take the stage in Regina. - Prairie Dog Mag

    Catch The Bros. Landreth in Edmonton. - Gig City

    And if you're so inclined, follow The Bros. Landreth all the way west to Vancourver. - The Westender

    The Wailin' Jennys make an appearance on this German soundtrack. - Sixx

    Fubuki Daiko celebrates 20 years. - Metro News

    Dauphin's Countryfest releases all-Canadian Canada Day lineup. - Brandon Sun

    Royal Canoe looks for common ground across partisan lines. - Noisey

    Royal Canoe is a time signature nerd's collaboration dream. - Ottawa Life Magazine

    Fred Penner on the election: #duediliganceandvote. - CBC

    So... what does Fred Penner have in common with a sexy perogy? - CBC

    KEN mode returns to Windsor with a new sound. - Our Windsor

    Winnipeg man opens record store featuring live music. - CTV


              In The News: Manitoba Music News Stories from Around the Web        

    Boats brings chairs and tables to the Loft Sessions. - CBC Scene

    Union Sound Hall is the new kid on the block. - Winnipeg Free Press

    Federal LightsRoyal Canoe, and  Imaginary Cities top the charts. - CBC Music

    Oshima gets personal. - Exclaim!

    Madame Diva, Marie-Claude, and marijo give the kids a laugh. - Huffington Post

    Les 3M take on young crowds at Just For Laughs. - Info Culture

    Shotgun Jimmie will make you feel good with this ditty. - Exclaim!

    Sierra Noble makes herself at home in the strangest place. - CBC Scene

    This Hisses narrowly escapes the floods. - CBC Scene

    The Treble says good morning to Ottawa. - CTV Ottawa

    The Treble DIYs on a cross-Canada tour. - The Peterborough Examiner

    Del Barber gets trendy at the Vancouver Folk Fest. - Straight.com

    Brooke Palsson is a double threat. - Winnipeg Free Press

    JP Hoe hits Wheat City. - Westman Journal

    Brandon Folk Music & Arts Festival showcases local music. - CBC Scene

    The Bros. Landreth set a date for their album release. - ChrisD.ca

    Forty folkin' years gone by for the Winnipeg Folk Fest. - The Manitoban

    KEN mode wants it all in New Orleans. - Best of New Orleans

    KEN mode tours across our home and native land. - Exclaim!

    Red Moon Road wakes Winnipeg up with an early morning performance. - BT Winnipeg

    Manitoba gets a jolt of electronic music. - The Uniter

    Imaginary Cities wouldn't change a thing. - The Which and the Wardrobe

    Watch Imaginary Cities perform "Chasing The Sunset". - BT Winnipeg

    Chic Gamine kicks up a storm on stage. - Le Metropolitain

    Sharing is caring for Clipwing, even on a 7". - Skate Punkers

    One release party won't do for Royal Canoe. - Painting Over Silence

    Royal Canoe is a must-see Calgary Folk Festival. - Calgary Sun

    If you haven't seen it, watch Royal Canoe's video for "Bathtubs". - Musique Plus

    The Weakerthans makes this mopey playlist. - XO Jane

    Don Amero among others to play Calgary flood relief show. - CTV Calgary

    Ghost Twin is one of the locals to watch. - The Manitoban


              App note: Gate drive characteristics and requirements for HEXFET power MOSFETs        
    App note from International Rectifier on driving their Power MOSFETs. Link here (PDF) The conventional bipolar transistor is a current-driven device. A current must be applied between the base and emitter terminals to produce a flow of current in the collector. The amount of a drive required to produce a given output depends upon the […]
              Screenings: New Music Videos from Manitoba Artists        

    It's cold out. Let's watch some new videos together! We've got brand new ones from Sierra Noble, This Hisses, JP Hoe, Sweet Alibi, and the latest edition of Pocketgigs with Federal Lights.  

    Singer/songwriter/fiddler Sierra Noble premiered her new single, "I Can See", on New York's Decca Records via Vevo on January 22....

    This Hisses will unleash its sophomore album, Anhedonia, on February 5 via local label Transistor 66 Recording Co. The band debuted its new video for "Blacksmith" courtesy of Exclaim! last week... 

    See more videos after the jump!


              Ruth Moody and Scott Nolan Land Top Spots in Songwriting Competition        

    Two Manitoba singer/songwriters have taken top prizes in this year's International Songwriting Competition.

    Ruth Moody's  "Storm Comin'", off The Wailin' Jennys JUNO Award-nominated album Bright Morning Stars, took the top spot in the Gospel/Christian Music category. Her song "Cold Outside", off her JUNO-nominated solo release, The Garden, landed a semi-final spot in the Folk/Singer-songwriter category. Bright Morning Stars was also just names Acoustic Ensemble Album of the Year by the Indie Acoustic Project.

    Scott Nolan took third prize in the Americana category for his song, "You Rock, We Roll" off his 2011 release on Transistor 66 Record Co., Montgomery Eldorado.


              Transistor 66 + 10 Years + 3 Nights + 11 Bands = 1 Mean Birthday Bash        

    Another local record label is celebrating a big birthday this weekend. Transistor 66 Record Co. turns 10 and they kick off their three night rock and roll weekender tonight at Club 60 in Osborne Village with The High Thunderers, Ultra Mega, and The Vibrating Beds. The Angry Dragons, The Thrashers, The Gunness, and out-of-towner Bloodshot Bill will be at The Park Theatre on April 27. The debauchery continues with Miesha and the Spanks, This Hisses, Les Sexy, and Microdot hitting The Park Theatre's stage on April 28.


              Manitoba Songwriters Up for International Songwriting Honours        

    Several Manitoba singer/songwriters are finalists and semi-finalists in this year's prestigious International Songwriting Competition (ISC).

    Ruth Moody's "Storm Comin'", which can be heard on The Wailin' Jennys JUNO Award-nominated album Bright Morning Stars, is a finalist in the Gospel/Christian Music category. Her song "Cold Outside", off her JUNO-nominated solo release, The Garden, landed a semi-final spot in the Folk/Singer-Songwriter category.

    Jaylene Johnson's "When It All Goes South," co-written with Halifax-based sister act The Keats, is a finalist in the country category. Johnson was an ISC finalist last year, and also had a couple of co-writes in the semi-finals.

    Also a finalist last year, Scott Nolan is up for the Americana category, this time for his song, "You Rock, We Roll" off his 2011 release on Transistor 66 Record Co., Montgomery Eldorado.

    Manitoba is also well-represented in the list of semi-finalists, which includes Abstract Artform, Avery Eramchuck, Desiree Dorion, Arun Chaturvedi, The Details, Ken Pinchin, Keri Latimer, Carjackmatt, Owen Dacombe Street, Chris Freeman, and Tom Racine.


              The 2017 Steam Summer Sale is live — here are the best deals        
    The day that every PC gamer has been awaiting (and the day that their wallets have been dreading) has finally arrived. Valve kicked off the 2017 Steam Summer Sale on Thursday, cutting prices on hundreds of games across the digital platform. If you're a fan of PC games, it's worth heading to Steam and looking through the entire sale, but we've also rounded up the best deals we could find below. Starting with the franchise sales, you can pick up any Final Fantasy game on Steam for 50% off right now. That includes Final Fantasy VII, Final Fantasy XIII, Final Fantasy X/X-2 Remaster and Final Fantasy Type-0 HD. The same is true for the Call of Duty franchise sale, in which Infinite Warfare, Black Ops III, every Modern Warfare entry and the original Call of Duty for 50% off. There's also a sale on the Ghost Recon franchise, and you can get up to 66% off on Future Soldier and the first Ghost Recon ever made. Beyond the franchise sales, there are a few individual sales that stand out on Steam: That's ten great games for less than $100 right there. As long as you have an iota of self control, you can make it out of the Steam Summer Sale without having to dip into your life savings. It's worth noting that the sale lasts until July 5th though, which means you'll have to stare at all of those deals for two more weeks. I know it doesn't mean much, but I just want you to know that I believe in you.
              ECE 606 Lecture 30: Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors I        
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              ECE 606 Lecture 31: Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors II        
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              ECE 606 Lecture 27: Introduction to Bipolar Transistors        
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              Fotorivelatori personalizzati        

    Marktech Optoelectronics inizia la collaborazione con Digi-Key per dare la possibilità di ottenere fotorivelatori personalizzati, progettati e ottimizzati espressamente in base ai requisiti dei clienti. I rivelatori personalizzati possono essere realizzati sulla base delle seguenti linee di prodotti Marktech: fotodiodi fotoconduttivi o fotovoltaici al silicio, fotodiodi a valanga, fototransistori o fotodiodi InGaAs PIN. Anche i contenitori possono essere personalizzati, o su specifica del cliente o sulla base delle raccomandazioni di Marktech atte a rispondere al meglio all’applicazione di destinazione.

    L'articolo Fotorivelatori personalizzati è un contenuto originale di Elettronica News.


              Jack Spicer        
    Sporting Life

    The trouble with comparing a poet with a radio is that radios don't
              develop scar tissue. The tubes burn out, or with a transistor, which
              most souls are, the battery or diagram burns out replaceable or
              not replaceable, but not like that punchdrunk fighter in the bar.
              The poet
    Takes too many messages. The right to the ear that floored him in
              New Jersey. The right to say that he stood six rounds with a 
              champion.
    Then they sell beer or go on sporting commissions, or, if the scar
              tissue is too heavy, demonstrate in a bar where the invisible
              champions might not have hit him. Too many of them.
    The poet is a radio. The poet is a liar. The poet is a counterpunching
              radio.
    And those messages (God would not damn them) do not even know
              they are champions.
              Tetrahedral Transition Metal Chalcogenides as Functional Inorganic Materials, Aug 25        
    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have resurfaced as functional inorganic materials for their diverse applications including transistor-type devices, sensors, and hydrogen evolution catalysis. We present a more recent category of layered materials we term tetrahedral transition metal chalcogenides (TTMCs) that display different functional behavior from TMDs. These layered TTMCs are built of square metal lattices with electron rich transition metals such as Fe(II) and Co(II) in tetrahedral coordination. Due to the weak van der Waals interactions that hold the chalcogenide layers together, intercalation chemistry in aqueous solutions can be utilized to prepare new phases with interesting magnetic and electronic properties including ferromagnetism and superconductivity. Our group’s strategy has been to incorporate guest species into the TTMC hosts to tune the physical properties. We construct a simple bonding model to interpret the electronic structure of the square metal lattice in TTMCs, and use it to predict the properties of future phases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these layered metal chalcogenides could be made into novel two-dimensional (2D) materials either as single layers or as heterostructures with other 2D motifs.
              Sejarah PTIK................        
    Sejarah Teknologi Informasi

    Perkembangan peradaban manusia diiringi dengan perkembangan cara penyampaian informasi (yang selanjutnya dikenal dengan istilah Teknologi Informasi). Mulai dari gambar-gambar yang tak bermakna di dinding-dinding gua, peletakkan tonggak sejarah dalam bentuk prasasti sampai diperkenalkannya dunia arus informasi yang kemudian dikenal dengan nama INTERNET.
    Informasi yang disampaikan pun berkembang. Dari sekedar menggambarkan keadaan sampai taktik bertempur.

    Masa Pra-Sejarah (...s/d 3000 SM)
    Pada awalnya Teknologi Informasi yang dikembangkan manusia pada masa ini berfungsi sebagai sistem untuk pengenalan bentuk-bentuk yang mereka kenal, mereka menggambarkan informasi yang mereka dapatkan pada dinding-dinding gua, tentang berburu dan binatang buruannya.

    Masa Pra-Sejarah (...s/d 3000SM)
    Perkembangan selanjutnya adalah diciptakan dan digunakannya alat-alat yang menghasilkan bunyi dan isyarat, seperti gendang, terompet yang terbuat dari tanduk binatang, isyarat asap sebagai alat pemberi peringatan terhadap bahaya.

    Masa Sejarah (3000 SM s/d 1400-an M)
    Teknologi informasi masih digunakan oleh kalangan-kalangan terbatas saja, digunakan pada saat-saat khusus, dan mahal!!

    3000 SM
    Untuk yang pertama kali tulisan digunakan oleh bangsa sumeria dengan menggunakan simbol-simbol yang dibentuk dari pictograf sebagai huruf. Simbol ini juga mempunyai bentuk bunyi yang berbeda(penyebutan), sehingga mampu menjadi kata, kalimat dan bahasa.

    2900 SM
    Penggunaan Huruf Hierogliph pada bangsa mesir kuno. bentuk tulisan dan bahasa hierogliph ini lebih maju dibandingkan dengan tulisan bangsa sumeria. Hierogliph merupakan bahasa simbol dimana setiap ungkapan diwakili oleh simbol yang berbeda, yang ketika digabungkan menjadi satu akan mempunyai cara pengucapan dan arti yang berbeda.

    500 SM
    Kertas yang terbuat dari serat pohon papyrus yang tumbuh disekitar sungai nil ini menjadi media menulis/media informasi yang lebih kuat dan fleksibel.

    105 M
    Bangsa Cina menemukan Kertas
    Kertas yang ditemukan oleh bangsa cina pada masa ini adalah kertas yang kita kenal sekarang, kertas ini dibuat dari serat bambu yang dihaluskan, disaring,dicuci kemudian diratakan dan dikeringkan.

    MASA MODERN (1400-an M s/d sekarang)

    Tahun 1455
    Mesin Cetak yang menggunakan plat huruf yang terbuat dari besi yang bisa diganti-ganti
    dalam bingkai yang terbuat dari kayu dikembangkan untuk pertama kalinya oleh Johann Gutenberg.

    Tahun 1830
    Augusta Lady Byron Menulis program komputer yang pertama didunia bekerjasama dengan Charles Babbage menggunakan mesin Analyticalnya. Yang didesain mampu memasukan data,mengolah data dan menghasilkan bentuk keluaran dalam sebuah kartu.

    Tahun1837
    Samuel Morse mengembangkan Telegraph dan bahasa kode Morse bersama Sir William Cook dan Sir Charles Wheatstone yang dikirim secara elektronik antara 2 tempat yang berjauhan melalui kabel yang menghubungkan kedua tempat. Penemuan ini memungkinkan informasi dapat diterima dan dipergunakan secara luas oleh masyarakat tanpa dirintangi oleh jarak dan waktu.

    Tahun 1861
    Gambar bergerak yang peroyeksikan kedalam sebuah layar pertama kali digunakan sebagai cikal bakal film sekarang.

    Tahun 1876
    Melvyl Dewey mengembangkan sistem penulisan Desimal.

    Tahun 1877
    a. Alexander Graham Bell menciptakan dan mengembangkan Telepon yang dipergunakan pertama kali secara umum.
    b. Fotografi dengan kecepatan tinngi ditemukan oleh Edward Maybridge.

    Tahun 1899
    Dipergunakan sistem penyimpanan dalam Tape (pita) Magnetis yang pertama.

    Tahun 1923
    Zvorkyn menciptakan tabung TV yang pertama.

    Tahun 1940
    Dimulainya pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan dalam bidang informasi pada masa Perang Dunia 2 yang dipergunakan untuk kepentingan pengiriman dan penerimaan dokumen-dokumen militer yang disimpan dalam bentuk magnetic tape.

    Tahun 1945
    Vannevar Bush mengembangkan sistem pengkodean menggunakan Hypertext.

    Tahun 1946
    Komputer digital pertama didunia ENIAC I dikembangkan.

    Tahun 1948
    Para peneliti di Bell Telephone mengembangkan Transistor.

    Tahun 1957
    -Jean Hoerni mengembangkan transistor planar.Teknologi ini memungkinkan pengembangan jutaan bahkan milyaran transistor dimasukkan kedalam sebuah keping kecil kristal silikon.
    -USSR (Rusia pada saat itu) meluncurksn sputnik sebagai satelit bumi buatan yang pertama yang bertugas sebagai mata-mata.

    Tahun 1962
    Rand Paul Barand, dari perusahaan RAND,ditugaskan untuk mengembangkan suatu sistem jaringan desentralisasi yang mampu mengendalikan sistem pemboman dan peluncuran peluru kendali dalam perang nuklir.

    Tahun 1969
    Sistem jaringan yang pertama dibentuk dengan menghubungkan 4 nodes (titik), antara University of California,SRI (stanford),University California of Santa Barbara,dan University of Utah.dengan kekuatan 50Kbps.

    Tahun 1972
    Ray Tomlinson menciptakan program e-mail yang pertama.

    Tahun 1973-1990
    Istilah INTERNET diperkenalkan dalam sebuah paper mengenai TCP/IP kemudian dilakukan pengembangan sebuah protokol jaringan yang kemudian dikenal dengan nama TCP/IP yang dikembangkan oleh grup dari DARPA, 1981 National Science Foundation mengembangkan Backbone yang disebut CSNET dengan kapasitas 56 Kbps untuk setiap institusi dalam pemerintahan.Kemudian pada tahun 1986 IETF mengembangkan sebuah Server yang berfungsi sebagai alat koordinasi diantara:DARPA,ARPANET,DDN,Internet Gateway.

    Tahun 1991-Sekarang
    Sistem Bisnis dalam bidang IT,pertama kali terjadi ketika CERN dalam menanggulangi biaya operasionalnya memungut bayaran dari para anggotanya. 1992 pembentukan komunitas Internet, dan diperkenalkannya istilah World Wide Web oleh CERN. 1994,pertumbuhan Internet melaju dengan sangat cepat dan mulai merambah kedalam segala segi kehidupan manusia dan menjadi bagian yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari manusia.
              272 RR Game Development and RubyMotion with Amir Rajan        

    01:42 - Amir Rajan

    02:24 - A Dark Room (ADR); Revenue and Downloads

    09:16 - Quality, Heart and Soul, and Putting Yourself Into a Product

    14:31 - Choosing RubyMotion

    17:43 - Objective-C vs Ruby

    21:51 - Cross-platform Availability

    23:53 - ADR => Watch/TV Capability with RubyMotion

    26:17 - The Ecosystem in iOS and RubyMotion

    28:11 - Code Structure

    29:58 - Testing; UI Automation

    31:29 - Open Source and Proprietary

    33:15 - Other Components

    34:07 - Going on a Sabbatical

    40:58 - .NET => Ruby

     

    Picks


              New Method to Pattern Nanomaterials Expands Horizons in Manufacturing        
    Nanomaterials are emerging as a promising avenue for next-generation electronics devices, but ways to patterns them still elude scientists. A new patterning method recently discovered by a team of researchers at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory is poised to help manufacturers fabricate them into a wide range of useful consumer devices including LED displays, cellular phones, transistors, and solar cells. The details of the method was published in Science Magazine on July 28, 2017. The precise patterning is expected to open up new avenues for moving nanomaterials from proof-of-concept experiments to real-life applications of the technology, contends one of the researchers. Currently Available Fabrication Techniques Based on Laying Down Stencils The currently available methods of fabricating computing devices relies on the use of transistor, and tens of thousands of them are made at a time by a patterning method called ‘photolithography’. This method fundamentally involves carving a stencil out of a layer of organic polymer and using UV rays to endow patterns. The current method originally discovered for pattering silicon is, however, fraught with limitations, since the method is useful for only a few materials. New Method for Patterning Common Materials Expands Electronics Manufacturing The newly discovered method, which the scientists call DOLFIN, overcomes the limitation arising due to laying down stencils. The team of investigators designed chemical coatings for individual nanoparticles, which can react with light. The light when shone into a patterned mask can transfer the design directly into the layer of nanoparticles below, thus helping the fabrication of numerous everyday-useful devices. The quality of patterns formed was similar to those formed using currently available advanced methods. Furthermore, the technique is viable for fabricating a variety of commonly used materials in electronics manufacturing such as semiconductors, magnetic materials, and metals. 

    Original Post New Method to Pattern Nanomaterials Expands Horizons in Manufacturing source Twease
              Weekend Reads - Sep 10 2016        

    Google is working on a way for artificial intelligence to compress your photos -- Quartz

    A compression method invented by the spoof HBO show Silicon Valley can actually work in real life to reduce image sizes.

    The bizarre true story behind the "this is a work of fiction" disclaimer

    The real reason movies have disclaimers at the end.

    Roadie Wrap - YouTube [video]

    The proper way to wrap cables.

    For first time, carbon nanotube transistors outperform silicon

    A big breakthrough in carbon nanotube technology just as Moore's Law is approaching the end for silicon.

    HypeVR's Volumetric VR Video Rig Uses 14 Epic Red Cameras

    HypeVR creates a "volumetric" camera rig offering limited movement through a VR video.

              Sejarah komputer        

    Sejarah komputer dan perkembangannya

    Sejarah Komputer dan Perkembanganya – Sejak dahulu, proses pengolahan data telah dilakukan oleh manusia. Manusia juga menemukan alat-alat mekanik dan elektronik untuk membantu manusia dalam penghitungan dan pengolahan data supaya bisa mendapatkan hasil lebih cepat. Komputer yang kita temui saat ini adalah suatu evolusi panjang dari penemuan-penemuan manusia sejak dahulu kala berupa alat mekanik maupun elektronik
    Saat ini komputer dan piranti pendukungnya telah masuk dalam setiap aspek kehidupan dan pekerjaan. Komputer yang ada sekarang memiliki kemampuan yang lebih dari sekedar perhitungan matematik biasa. Diantaranya adalah sistem komputer di kassa supermarket yang mampu membaca kode barang belanja, sentral telepon yang menangani jutaan panggilan dan komunikasi, jaringan komputer dan internet yang menghubungkan berbagai tempat di dunia.

    Sejarah komputer menurut periodenya adalah:
    • Alat Hitung Tradisional dan Kalkulator Mekanik
    • Komputer Generasi Pertama
    • Komputer Generasi Kedua
    • Komputer Generasi Ketiga
    • Komputer Generasi Keempat
    • Komputer Generasi Kelima
    1. Komputer Generasi Pertama (1946­ – 1959)
    Dengan terjadinya Perang Dunia II, negara­negara yang terlibat dalam perang tersebut berusaha mengembangkan untuk mengeksploit potensi strategis yang dimiliki komputer.
    Hal ini meningkatkan pendanaan pengembangan komputer serta mempercepat kemajuan teknik komputer.
    (1) Colassus
    (2) Mark I
    (3) ENIAC
    (4) EDVAC
    (5) UNIVAC I
    Ciri komputer generasi pertama adalah:
    - Penggunaan tube vakum (yang membuat komputer pada masa tersebut berukuran sangat besar)
    - Adanya silinder magnetik untuk penyimpanan data.
    - Instruksi operasi dibuat secara spesifik untuk suatu tugas tertentu.
    - Setiap komputer memiliki program kode­biner yang berbeda yang disebut “bahasa mesin” (machine language). Hal ini menyebabkan komputer sulit untuk diprogram dan membatasi kecepatannya.
    2. Komputer Generasi Kedua (1959­ – 1964)

    Stretch dan LARC
    Mesin pertama yang memanfaatkan teknologi baru ini adalah superkomputer. IBM membuat superkomputer bernama Stretch, dan Sprery­ Rand membuat komputer bernama LARC. Komputer­komputer ini,yang dikembangkan untuk laboratorium energi atom, dapat menangani sejumlah besar data, sebuah kemampuan yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh peneliti atom. Mesin tersebut sangat mahal dan cenderung terlalu kompleks untuk kebutuhan komputasi bisnis, sehingga membatasi kepopulerannya.
    Hanya ada dua LARC yang pernah dipasang dan digunakan: satu di Lawrence Radiation Labs di Livermore, California, dan yang lainnya di US Navy Research and Development Center di Washington D.C. Komputer generasi kedua menggantikan bahasa mesin dengan bahasa assembly. Bahasa assembly adalah bahasa yang menggunakan singkatan­singakatan untuk menggantikan kode biner.
    Pada awal 1960­an, mulai bermunculan komputer generasi kedua yang sukses di bidang bisnis, di universitas, dan di pemerintahan. Komputer generasi kedua ini merupakan komputer yang sepenuhnya menggunakan transistor. Mereka juga memiliki komponen­komponen yang dapat diasosiasikan dengan komputer pada saat ini: printer, penyimpanan dalam disket, memory, sistem operasi, dan program.

    Ciri-ciri komputer pada generasi kedua:
    - Penggunaan transistor sehingga ukurannya lebih kecil
    - Adanya pengembangan memori inti­magnetik membantu pengembangan komputer generasi kedua yang lebih kecil, lebih cepat, lebih dapat diandalkan, dan lebih hemat energi dibanding para pendahulunya
    - Penggantian dari bahasa mesin menjadi bahasa Asembly
    - Muncul bahasa pemrograman COBOL dan FORTRAN
    3. Komputer Generasi Ketiga (1964­ – 1970)

    Walaupun transistor dalam banyak hal mengungguli tube vakum, namun transistor menghasilkan panas yang cukup besar, yang dapat berpotensi merusak bagian­bagian internal komputer. Batu kuarsa (quartz rock) menghilangkan masalah ini. Jack Kilby, seorang insinyur di Texas Instrument, mengembangkan sirkuit terintegrasi (IC : integrated circuit) di tahun 1958. IC mengkombinasikan tiga komponen elektronik dalam sebuah piringan silikon kecil yang terbuat dari pasir kuarsa.
    Pada ilmuwan kemudian berhasil memasukkan lebih banyak komponen­komponen ke dalam suatu chiptunggal yang disebut semikonduktor. Hasilnya, komputer menjadi semakin kecil karena komponen­komponen dapat dipadatkan dalam chip. Kemajuan komputer generasi ketiga lainnya adalah penggunaan system operasi (operating system) yang memungkinkan mesin untuk menjalankan berbagai program yang berbeda secara serentak dengan sebuah program utama yang memonitor dan mengkoordinasi memori komputer.
    Ciri-ciri komputer pada generasi ketiga:
    - Penggunaan IC(Intregrated Circuit)
    - Ukuran komputer menjadi lebih kecil
    - Ditemukannya Sistem Operasi
    4. Komputer Generasi Keempat (1979­ – sekarang)

    Setelah IC, tujuan pengembangan menjadi lebih jelas: mengecilkan ukuran sirkuit dan komponen­komponen elektrik. Large Scale Integration (LSI) dapat memuat ratusan komponen dalam sebuah chip. Pada tahun 1980­ an, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) memuat ribuan komponen dalam sebuah chip tunggal. Ultra­Large Scale Integration (ULSI) meningkatkan jumlah tersebut menjadi jutaan. Kemampuan untuk memasang sedemikian banyak komponen dalam suatu keping yang berukurang setengah keping uang logam mendorong turunnya harga dan ukuran komputer. Hal tersebut juga meningkatkan daya kerja, efisiensi dan keterandalan komputer.
    Chip Intel 4004 yang dibuat pada tahun 1971 membawa kemajuan pada IC dengan meletakkan seluruh komponen dari sebuah komputer (central processing unit, memori, dan kendali input/output) dalam sebuah chip yang sangat kecil. Sebelumnya, IC dibuat untuk mengerjakan suatu tugas tertentu yang spesifik. Sekarang, sebuah mikroprosesor dapat diproduksi dan kemudian diprogram untuk memenuhi seluruh kebutuhan yang diinginkan. Tidak lama kemudian, setiap perangkat rumah tangga seperti microwave oven, televisi, dan mobil dengan electronic fuel injection dilengkapi dengan mikroprosesor.
    Perkembangan yang demikian memungkinkan orang­orang biasa untuk menggunakan komputer biasa. Komputer tidak lagi menjadi dominasi perusahaan­perusahaan besar atau lembaga pemerintah. Pada pertengahantahun 1970­an, perakit komputer menawarkan produk komputer mereka ke masyarakat umum. Komputer­komputer ini, yang disebut minikomputer, dijual dengan paket piranti lunak yang mudah digunakan oleh kalangan awam. Piranti lunak yang paling populer pada saat itu adalah program word processing dan spreadsheet. Pada awal 1980­an, video game seperti Atari 2600 menarik perhatian konsumen pada komputer rumahan yang lebih canggih dan dapat diprogram.
    Pada tahun 1981, IBM memperkenalkan penggunaan Personal Computer (PC) untuk penggunaan di rumah, kantor, dan sekolah. Jumlah PC yang digunakan melonjak dari 2 juta unit di tahun 1981 menjadi 5,5 juta unit di tahun 1982. Sepuluh tahun kemudian, 65 juta PC digunakan. Komputer melanjutkan evolusinya menuju ukuran yang lebih kecil, dari komputer yang berada di atas meja (desktop computer) menjadi komputer yang dapat dimasukkan ke dalam tas (laptop), atau bahkan komputer yang dapat digenggam (palmtop).
    IBM PC bersaing dengan Apple Macintosh dalam memperebutkan pasar komputer.Apple Macintosh menjadi terkenal karena mempopulerkan system grafis pada komputernya, sementara saingannya masih menggunakan komputer yang berbasis teks. Macintosh juga mempopulerkan penggunaan piranti mouse.
    Pada masa sekarang, kita mengenal perjalanan IBM compatible dengan pemakaian CPU: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (Serial dari CPU buatan Intel). Juga kita kenal AMD k6, Athlon, dsb. Ini semua masuk dalam golongan komputer generasi keempat. Seiring dengan menjamurnya penggunaan komputer di tempat kerja, cara­ cara baru untuk menggali potensial terus dikembangkan. Seiring dengan bertambah kuatnya suatu komputer kecil, komputer­komputer tersebut dapat dihubungkan secara bersamaan dalam suatu jaringan untuk saling berbagi memori, piranti lunak, informasi, dan juga untuk dapat saling berkomunikasi satu dengan yang lainnya. Komputer jaringan memungkinkan komputer tunggal untuk membentuk kerjasama elektronik untuk menyelesaikan suatu proses tugas. Dengan menggunakan perkabelan langsung (disebut juga local area network, LAN), atau kabel telepon, jaringan ini dapat berkembang menjadi sangat besar.
    Ciri-ciri komputer pada generasi keempat:
    • Digunakannya LSI, VLSI, ULSI
    • Digunakannya mikroprosesor
    Banyak kemajuan di bidang disain komputer dan teknologi semakin memungkinkan pembuatan komputer generasi kelima. Dua kemajuan rekayasa yang terutama adalah kemampuan pemrosesan paralel, yang akan menggantikan model von Neumann. Model von Neumann akan digantikan dengan sistem yang mampu mengkoordinasikan banyak CPU untuk bekerja secara serempak. Kemajuan lain adalah teknologi superkonduktor yang memungkinkan aliran elektrik tanpa ada hambatan apapun, yang nantinya dapat mempercepat kecepatan informasi.
              Is the Global Neuromorphic Chip Market Hindered by Moore’s Law?        
    Neuromorphic chips are supposed to be the perfect integration of VLSI systems with analog designs to create what science fiction movies have been showing for a long, long time. The birth of artificial intelligence was inevitable, as humankind’s drive to develop smarter technologies is on a rapid rate of increase. Ideally, a neuromorphic chip is a copy of the human brain. These are hardware chips that contain oxide-based memristors, transistors, and threshold switches, which are together capable of showing a real time learning curve when exposed to knowledge and external data. We can, therefore, imagine that the demand for the global neuromorphic chip market is high and will continue to increase. Recent Developments in the Global Neuromorphic Chip Market Darwin: Spiking neural networks are supposed to be an advanced aspect of the global neuromorphic chip market and artificial neural networks in general. Biologically speaking, they are more realistic than classic neuromorphic chips and can even perform better than them at lower power consumption rates. A group of Chinese researchers has recently created the neural processing unit called Darwin. It is a neuromorphic hardware co-processor which uses SNN and is created with the help of CMOS tech. DARPA Synapse Program: In 2008, the DARPA Synapse program helped create the True North chip with IBM. This was a device which mimicked 256 programmable neuron-like architectures and are very much similar to the human brain’s synapses. Use of New Materials: Researchers, including those at IBM, are considering the implementation of silicon photonics and carbon nanotubes. These materials could theoretically give the neuromorphic chips a much needed boost in speed without needing the use of advanced quantum mechanics. Traditional computing systems employ a processor, a storage system, and a memory system, with all three connected by a bus. This conventional architecture is showing signs of bottlenecking, as the growth of the amount of data that needs to be handled is overtaking the current rate of development in conventional chip designs and hardware architecture. Industries are therefore looking to the global neuromorphic chip market for answers which can help resolve the critical issue of data management in a smart, efficient, and accurate manner.

    Original Post Is the Global Neuromorphic Chip Market Hindered by Moore’s Law? source Twease
              Semiconductor Chipmakers Closely Following Research Studies on Active Electronic Components        
    The active electronic components market is witnessing a number of developments lately. Neuromorphic chips constitute of a network of transistors that interact in a way similar to that of neurons, thereby allowing them to process analog input such as visual information. Neuromorphic chips process the analog inputs more accurately and faster than silicon chips. Processors designed to mimic neurons and neural circuits offer great advantages in terms of scalability and power consumption. Optoelectronic components have emerged as a suitable solution for building such processors as photons are faster than electricity moving along a trace. Researchers from Princeton University have demonstrated the usage of graphene as an optical capacitor. An optical capacitor stabilizes the function of laser transistors across optical neuromorphic circuits.  Intel Invested US$12 bn on Research Related to Semiconductor Devices in 2015 Taking a keen interest in the recent research studies on active electronic components, the global semiconductor chipmakers are investing massively in research and development activities.  In 2015, Intel Corp., the U.S.-based industry giant made an investment worth US$12.1 bn on semiconductor research.  It was followed by Qualcomm Inc. with an investment value of US$3.7 bn.  Samsung Electronics took the third position with US$3.13 bn spent on semiconductor R&D. The investment value of Samsung is 5% more from the previous year’s investments worth US$2.97 bn.  Asia Pacific to Dominate Active Electronics Components Market in Near Future It is interesting to note that how the presence of industry giants such as Intel and Qualcomm has boosted the growth of the active electronic components market in North America. In 2014, North America dominated the overall market. However, in the coming years, growing demand for active electronic components from the rapidly growing electronic manufacturing industry across China, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea will propel the growth of the market in the Asia Pacific region. 

    Original Post Semiconductor Chipmakers Closely Following Research Studies on Active Electronic Components source Twease
              Gallium Nitride Poised to Replace Silicon in Electronics        
    It is a well-known fact that power semiconductor devices form the core of almost all commonly used electronic products and the electricity distribution infrastructure. Electronic devices rely on them for controlling or converting electrical energy. As technology advances, highly complex products are being introduced in the market that are pushing incumbent technologies to severe performance. In this scenario, owing to several material limitations of the currently most preferred semiconductor – silicon – a great deal of attention is being given to materials with high efficiency and physical properties than silicon. Silicon is still the most preferred semiconductor in the field of electronics as it has proved to be much more reliable and easier to use than other semiconductors such as germanium and selenium. However, with silicon transistors, some part of energy consumed in an electronic circuit is wasted in the form of heat. As a replacement to silicon, gallium nitride (GaN) is being intensely researched in the past few years. The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) invested nearly half of the US$140 mn funds given to a research institute for power electronics to the research of GaN. GaN has many desirable properties such as the high current density, dielectric strength, speed switching, operating temperature, and low on-resistance as compared to silicon. Electronics based on GaN are expected to lead to significant reduction in the amount of power consumed. Many companies are increasingly venturing in the field of GaN-based electronics and the market for these products is expected to propel significantly over the near future. Cambridge Electronics Inc., the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout company has recently released a line of GaN-based power electronics circuits and transistors, which are expected to cut-down on the amount of energy consumed by electronic products across the globe by as much as 10-20% by 2025. A major restraint in the larger adoption of GaN is still the high cost. But as production capabilities improve and advanced GaN circuits and transistors are developed at the cost of silicon, the adoption of such energy-efficient devices will significantly rise in the future.

    Original Post Gallium Nitride Poised to Replace Silicon in Electronics source Twease
              New Technology from ST Promising Superior Performance with High Data Rates        
    STMicroelectronics latest technology called BiCMOS55 SiGe has now been chosen by the European initiative called E3NETWORK R&D in order to develop high capacity and energy efficient transmission systems for next generation mobile wireless networks. STMicroelectronics is one of the key companies operating in the global semiconductor market that serves consumers across the spectrum of power and automotive products and also several embedded processing solutions. Currently, ST products are found everywhere microelectronics tend to make an innovative contribution. Networks that support higher data rates at greater capacities are required for the rapidly rising mobile data usage. This has placed new hurdles for backhaul infrastructure by elevating the transition to modern network architecture, for example, the Cloud Radio Access Network, Heterogeneous Network, and more spectrum is available to support faster data rate channels. In order to construct these highly efficient mobile networks, manufacturers demand for high performance electronic components. These components offer large scale chip integration, optimized cost, and reduced power consumption. The initiative in Europe called E3NETWORK leverages this integration and advantages this new technology from STM. This technology is capable of providing Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor with around Ft of 320 GHz in the 55nm lithography. Furthermore, the technology enables the integration of a high frequency analog section along with the superior performing, dense digital blocks such as memories, AD/DA converters, and logic. The European E3NETWORK project is designing currently an integrated E-band transceivers by leveraging the STM new technology for front haul and backhaul infrastructure. This will allow highly focused transmission called pencil beams, digital multiple level modulations, and data rates that are above 10 Gigabytes. By integrating the RD, digital and analog parts on an individual chip, the new technology from the STMicroelectronics will dramatically decrease the number of external components at the same it will optimize the power consumption.

    Original Post New Technology from ST Promising Superior Performance with High Data Rates source Twease
              New Process for Developing Crystals from IBM could cut Down Cost and Size        
    Researchers at IBM have come up with a process that grows crystals from semiconductor materials. According to the researchers, these crystals can be integrated in silicon chips. This is a crucial step in the future development of computing. The IBM’s Zurich research team thinks that its work will let integrated circuits to continue in cutting down on the size and cost and boosting the performance of the ICs simultaneously. This will allow an extension of the Moore’s Law, which was observed by the co-founder of Intel, Graham Moore in the year 1965. The observation was that the number of transistors in per square inch on ICs doubles every year. Though the co-founder contemplated this trend would continue forever, there have been rising concerns about the existing technology which are reaching limits of their potential. According to the researcher Heinz Schmid at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, the whole semiconductor industry wants this Law to continue. He further stated that they need better performing transistors and as the industry continues towards the down-scaling trend and transistors that are based on silicon will not improve any further. To answer this challenge, the team has created single crystal nanostructures composed using III-V materials that include the alloys of arsenide, gallium, and indium. The III-V semiconductors are expected to be a potential key material for computer chips, however, their integration onto silicon has proven unsuccessful up till now. The method used to grow the crystals is called TASE or template assisted selective epitaxy. This technique uses metal organic chemical vapor deposition. This method enabled the team to create defect free crystals and to successfully lithographically define oxide templates and to make them full using epitaxy, and make cross junctions, nanowires, nanostructures that feature constrictions along with the 3D stacked nanowires. According to the Heinz Schmid, more research is required prior to exerting the same level of control over these materials.

    Original Post New Process for Developing Crystals from IBM could cut Down Cost and Size source Twease
              Researchers Constructed Atomically Chemical Sensors and Thin Gas        
    A bit recent innovation of Graphene, a two-dimensional layered material having unusual and attractive electronic, and thermal, and optical properties, had led scientists to find for other atomically thin materials with exclusive properties. Molybdenum disulfide is considered as to be one of the most promising thin materials.  The UC Presidential Chair and professor of electrical and computer engineering at UC Riverside, Mr. Alexander Balandin, who is the lead researcher on the project, stated, that the sensors are everywhere as of now, which include in smart-phones and other portable electronic gadgets. The sensors they innovated are small, highly selective and sensitive, thin, making them ideal for many applications. Mr. Balandin and the graduate students in his laboratory created the atomically chemical vapor sensors and thin gas from molybdenum disulfide and had tested them in partnership with the researchers at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute situated in Troy, New York. The devices possess two-dimensional channels that are great for sensor applications due to the high surface-to-volume ratio and largely tunable concentration of electrons. The researchers showed that the sensors that they call molybdenum disulfide thin-film field-effect transistors (TF-FET), can especially detect acetonitrile, ethanol, toluene, methanol vapors, and chloroform.

    Original Post Researchers Constructed Atomically Chemical Sensors and Thin Gas source Twease
              Comment on Erik Wollo: Different Spaces (2-CD) by Reviews Editor        
    From <a href="http://www.starsend.org/DifferentSpaces.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Star's End</a> Erik Wøllo takes the future wherever he goes. Transporting us far and fast to a tomorrow that never got here, he gives us <strong>Different Spaces</strong> - his double CD set of high flying dreams. In a pageant of surpassing interest, Wøllo has realized 22 thoroughly imagined pieces across the two discs. Within this psychological recreation the listener will certainly become captivated by his beautiful vision. <strong>Different Spaces</strong> moves with determined speed, electrifying the space into which it is played. Rising to the astral layers we moonstruck wanderers may hear his melodic certainty. Sustaining electric guitar notes travel through shaping and shifting digital treatments, emerging as tones blurred smooth by worn circuits and warm transistors. Soft electronic percussion ticks eagerly beneath the deployment of plush synthesizer strings - in the endless variation of Wøllo's signature contemporary style. Further out, slowed down thought zones fascinate in swarms of glittering points and gradations of timbre - showing us that the most powerful works may be those sent to us in a whisper. With Different Spaces this extraordinary musician provides open, thoughtful, honest, wandering explorations of harmony, melody and rhythm - rendered in the sigh of metal strings and rising electro-choirs. As each track opens, breathes and develops, in the stirring rhapsody of notes, and pauses, sustaining tones, and slow snaking leads, clean, clear sounds resound into reverberant space. When subtly driven swells emerge, Wøllo plucks, holds, strums and loops his six strings in perfect placement around elegant synthetic touches, dabs and strokes. Then, just as easily, these emanations draw us down into dark ideas. Out there in the vacant future approaches the early light of the awakening dawn. Somewhere in this distance shines our tomorrow. Erik Wøllo takes his music to this place - to a world that knows better. -Chuck van Zyl
              ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM, Sekarang Hadir Dalam Warna Silver Lho!        


    Di awal kuartal ketiga tahun ini, ASUS meresmikan kehadiran notebook gaming terbarunya yang dinamakan dengan ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM. Perangkat tersebut hadir dengan balutan warna silver yang berani, lebih futuristis sekaligus menantang dari varian notebook Republic of Gamers 15 inci sebelumnya.

    Selain membawa penyegaran dalam hal tampilan, komponen penting yang bertugas untuk mengolah
    sistem komputasinya pun ikut diperbarui. Terkini, ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM yang sudah dilengkapi dengan sistem operasi Windows 10 ini telah mendapatkan prosesor terbaru generasi ke-7 dari Intel.


    Galip Fu, Country Marketing Manager, ASUS Indonesia, mengatakan ASUS telah menanamkan dukungan prosesor terbaru Intel Core i7-7700HQ agar notebook dapat beroperasi dengan lebih kencang dan gegas. Prosesor tersebut dapat bekerja dengan sangat cepat karena memiliki frekuensi aksimumyang dapat berjalan pada frekuensi 3,8GHz.

    Sebelum ini, Galip menambahkan, versi ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM menawarkan performa gaming dengan dukungan prosesor Intel generasi ke-7. Melalui GL502VM, ASUS meningkatkan kembali performa prosesor pada notebook gaming 15 incinya menjadi lebih mumpuni.

    Sementara pada sisi kartu grafis, perangkatnya memiliki dukungan kartu grafis tambahan dari Nvidia
    yakni GTX1060. Kartu grafis berkemampuan monster ini mampu bekerja dengan sangat baik untuk mengolah game bertipe AAA sekalipun.

    Dalam beberapa pengujian, kartu grafis berbasis arsitektur Nvidia Pascal ini mampu menghasilkan performa gaming yang baik antara lain frame per detik yang tinggi dalam resolusi Full HD, konsumsi daya yang tetap rendah sekaligus tingkat kebisingan yang minim. Karena itu tentu saja chip grafis ini menjadi rekomendasi terbaik bagi para gamer yang ingin mendapatan kepuasan bermain secara maksimal.

    Sebagai informasi, grafis berbasis Pascal merupakan GPU pertama yang dibuat dengan 16 nanometer FinFET fabrication technology. Di dalamnya, terdapat 150 miliar transistor yang akan menghasilkan performa tertinggi namun di saat yang sama juga menawarkan efisiensi energi yang sangat baik untuk berbagai kebutuhan komputasi.

    Galip menambahkan, teknologi chip grafis berarsitektur Pascal mampu memberikan performa grafis yang sangat mumpuni pada sebuah notebook. Bahkan, lanjut Galip, kekuatannya mampu mengalahkan Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) sebelumnya yakni GTX980 yang diperuntukkan bagi dekstop.

    Selain prosesor Intel generasi terbaru, notebook gaming futuristis ini dipersenjatai oleh RAM sebesar 16GB DDR4. ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM menggunakan media penyimpanan berbasis NVMe SSD PCIe x4 berukuran 256GB. Ini akan memberikan kenyamanan bagi pengguna karena akan membuat proses loading, booting, hingga membantu multitasking aplikasi yang lebih cepat dan mulus.

    Galip juga mengatakan jika masih terasa kurang, notebook tersebut juga dilengkapi dengan memori penyimpanan berbasis HDD berukuran hingga 1000GB.

    Jika dilihat dari beberapa sudut yang berbeda, panel aluminium pada cover notebook ini memberikan pantulan cahaya berkilau yang sangat mewah. Dengan ketebalan 23,5mm dan bobot hanya 2,2Kg ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM merupakan salah satu notebook gaming tertipis di kelasnya.

    Keyboard Lengkap dan Sistem Pendingin Ganda

    ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM menggunakan full-size chicklet keyboard yang dilengkapi dengan backlight dan jarak tekan sebesar 1,6mm yang memastikan kenyamanan pengguna dalam bermain. Tak hanya itu, ASUS juga memperhatikan kebutuhan para gamers, oleh karena itu, ASUS menambahkan tanda khusus di tombol WASD untuk memudahkan pengguna saat bermain dalam suasana ruangan yang redup.

    Yang menarik, keyboard yang digunakan pada notebook seri Strix ini sudah mendukung 30 keys anti-ghosting keyboard. Dengan fitur ini, para gamers dapat memainkan game sambil menekan berbagai kombinasi tombol di keyboard sekaligus untuk menjalankan instruksi atau melakukan gerakan tertentu di dalam game tanpa masalah.

    Pengguna juga tidak perlu khawatir akan suhu berlebih. ASUS yang merupakan produsen utama motherboard di dunia telah mempersiapkan teknologi Hyper Cool duo-copper thermal solution yang diletakkan pada CPU dan GPU notebook ASUS ROG STRIX GL502VM untuk menghasilkan pendinginan maksimal. Di samping itu, ASUS juga menyertakan fitur IceCool Technology yang menjaga bagian notebook yang tersentuh telapak tangan tetap dingin.

    Pengalaman Multimedia Bertenaga

    Kartu grafis Nvidia GeForce GTX1060 pada notebook ini memiliki sepsifikasi antara lain dengan memori 6GB GDDR5 128-bit, yang didesain untuk menunjang game berat. Dengan spesifikasi kartu grafis kelas menengah keatas, tentu saja berbagai game berat dengan teknologi terbaru bisa dijalankan dengan resolusi dan detail yang tinggi.

    Selain performanya yang memukau, kartu grafis ini juga sudah mendukung port HDMI 4K2K output jika anda ingin menggabungkan dengan monitor atau bermain di layar yang lebih besar dengan resolusi maksimal. Sebagai tambahan, ASUS turut melengkapi teknologi terbaru pada notebook ini dengan port USB Type-C (USB 3.1 Gen 2) dengan kecepatan transfer data yang tinggi hingga 20Gbps. Port USB Type-C ini pun memiliki bentuk yang kecil dan simetris, sehingga mempermudah pemasangan ke port USB tanpa khawatir terbalik.

    Di Indonesia, perangkat gaming kelas elit yang portable ini ditawarkan dengan harga Rp 26.299.000, sudah termasuk ROG mouse serta headset gaming di dalamnya.


              Transistor - Review        

    By: Steven Santana

     

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    Transistor doesn’t disappoint with its visuals, and also packs combat mechanics to bring depth to what could have been a shallow experience. Red and her tale aren’t particularly engaging, but that didn’t stop me from being sucked into Transistor and enjoying almost every minute of it.

     

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    The overarching story is simply about an underground group, the Camerata, attempting to detach the population from their advanced way of living. The Camerata do this by picking out highly regarded and beloved citizens of Cloudbank to add to the Transistor, and Red is chosen by their spy, Sybil. The assassination attempt goes wrong however as the sword impales Red’s lover and he becomes the voice of the sword. Their relationship isn’t revealed at first, as you aren’t exactly told whether he was a secret lover or an openly known boyfriend. Over the course of the campaign you learn that the two were indeed in a relationship and the ending has Red saving the city from the Process, a force created by the Camerata that has expanded outside of their control.

     

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    The game is narrated by the titular Transistor, a powerful sword being pursued by both the Camerata and Process. Over the course of the short story you’ll find terminals which give tidbits of information and help with establishing the overall world Red lives in. Cloudbank is a city of advanced technology catering to people’s every need, one where entire sections are redesigned to fit the fading interest of the populace. However you might never comprehend this because of the way the narrative is delivered. The story relies heavily on the player piecing the puzzle together, which I appreciated.

     

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    Something that is not explained very well is how Red lost her voice. The Transistor strikes her love, killing him, and the two are teleported outside of the concert hall on the far side of town. It’s never explained how that caused her voice to disappear and how they escaped.

     

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    The game does not hold your hand when it comes to the narrative, and the same amount of explanation is given to combat. After the opening cutscene you are given a very short tutorial on how pausing combat and planning moves works, and then left to fend for yourself. Coming out of games like Infamous: Second Son, with overly long inescapable tutorial sections, I really liked how quick you are thrown into the main game. The Transistor sword, and by extension, Red, can have four active functions, mapped to the face buttons. Each of these abilities can have two upgrade slots and Red can have up to four passive functions equipped. You gain a total of sixteen functions, all of which have different active, upgrade, and passive effects. Breach, an early favorite of mine, is a laser attack which can pierce targets. I can equip Mask and Load in the upgrade slots to give Breach bonus backstab damage and an explosive effect that negates the piercing ability. While there are sixteen unique functions, you can gain two of the same ability as you level up, meaning you can stack the same ability on top of itself or have two of the same attack but with very different effects. This amount of variety with abilities can be overwhelming to comprehend, leading to relying on one combination you like and sticking with it.

     

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    Combat itself is a mix of real time turn based RPG’s. At any time in a fight you can stop the action and move around planning out attacks. Each function will take up a certain amount of the action bar; restricting you from going full out on the most powerful attacks. During the planning phase, everything from movement to functions take up a certain amount of time on the action bar. The amount of time can also be trimmed by equipping passive functions. Disappointingly, it is not until the end game that you encounter a foe that can also stop time and plan out attacks like you, which introduces new strategies I wish wasn’t restricted to the finale.

     

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    Experimentation isn’t necessary to complete the game; instead there are backdoor areas where various test doors await. Some give you prearranged function sets to work with which force you to use abilities you may have never touched before. The tests may also simply modify familiar attacks in new ways. My favorite combination of attacks was only created thanks to these test doors. Every ability is a former citizen of Cloudbank, and can be inspected to reveal their backstory. When you come across checkpoints you are given the opportunity to swap out functions and form new combinations. You can also inspect a function and see that characters profile. You’re given a wonderfully painted image and small details about their life, mostly how that specific character fell into the Camerata’s plan. To unlock the full profile you are required to use the ability in battle in all three slots available (active, upgrade and passive) which also helps force the player to experiment with combinations.

     

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    There is no difficulty level and instead you gain access to Limiters as you level up. These Limiters provide gameplay restrictions or boosts to the process as well as offering you XP bonuses for succeeding. The bonus isn’t very impactful though, as even with all ten limiters activated I didn’t feel the gain justified the challenge. They are there however for those who want a more difficult game. Another small complaint is that you can’t travel very far off the beaten path. You progress in a very linear fashion and very rarely are there any opportunities to explore a bit on the side, and even when you can it’s not very far and the only thing awaiting you is a terminal that generally holds a news report and an opportunity for Red to respond not only the report but the world at large.

     

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    Immediately upon starting the game I was struck with how beautiful the game looks: the still images that make up cutscenes to the general isometric view of Cloudbank, with all its colors and neon lights reflecting off the cold concrete floor and eccentric architecture. The visuals meld perfectly with the audio to deliver a great sense of place within this strange future. Not all the tracks are highlights but overall the soundtrack is strong, and in the area where you can enter the test doors you can access every track unlocked at will for your pleasure. The backgrounds were always gorgeous and characters have a great mix of old fashion adapted for the far future setting. Red is a beauty and it is a shame they decided to strip her of her voice, which takes away her ability to be a character. Instead she is simply the avatar you control, though you catch glimpses of her personality when she pushes her hair back when observing landmarks or when typing responses into the various terminals.

     

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    Transistor overall is pretty short, taking less than five hours when I blazed through it on New Game+, which allowed me to continue to level up and gain access to more function variety. However this is a game in which you want to take your time and admire the world SuperGiant created. As you advance further into the tests they become very challenging, and you can lose quite some time by attempting to advance through all of them if you haven’t been participating as the backdoor access pops up.

     

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    Transistor is a very fun game that drew me in with its beauty but had a deep combat system to back it up. While it’s a shame the story didn’t deliver anything beyond a satisfying mystery, I liked that it was up to me to put the story together. New Game+ was immediately started upon completing the game the first time and I’m reluctant to walk away from it. A longer story would have been welcome, as well as some more variety when it came to enemy types.

     

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    Overall I would give Transistor a 9 out of 10.

     

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              MedBunker Classic: Ipnotizzati dall'autorità.         


    [originariamente pubblicato il 23 agosto 2011]

    Quante volte nei miei articoli avete letto: "questo rimedio non serve a nulla perché lo dico io che sono medico"? Mai.
    Ritengo fondamentale evitare a tutti costi il principio di autorità. Ammetto il rispetto: un'opinione che proviene da un "addetto ai lavorideve essere ritenuta più credibile rispetto a quella di un profano o un improvvisato (in tutti i campi), questo non vuol dire che debba per forza essere vera o necessariamente corretta, ma che chi fa un lavoro ha probabilmente molta più esperienza nel suo ambito professionale di chi non lo fa e forma le sue opinioni su altre opinioni che a loro volta chissà dove si sono formate, diciamo che l'addetto ai lavori è fino a prova contraria più adatto a fornire opinioni sul suo campo di interesse rispetto a chi non ne ha titolo.
    Il principio d'autorità (la parola del professionista è sacra) era un pilastro culturale del passato.
    Un medico era considerato un semidio, ogni sua parola era verità, così un magistrato o un uomo di chiesa. Qualsiasi autorità nel proprio campo era considerata attendibile e difficilmente smentibile. Questo accadeva per due motivi fondamentali, la mancanza di cultura, l'ignoranza era diffusissima e colpiva tutti gli strati sociali ed il concetto di "onorabilità", una personalità importante non poteva mentire o dire cose poco corrette, sarebbe stato coperto da disonore vita natural durante, lui e la sua discendenza.

    Oggi non è così per vari motivi. La cultura è in generale molto più diffusa, anche le fasce più deboli hanno accesso a mezzi di scambio culturale, ad internet o ad informazioni continue per esempio tramite la televisione. Non esiste quasi più il concetto di "onorabilità": l'individuo colto, professionista e rispettato era probabilmente anche benestante, molto di più della maggioranza della gente che lo circondava, non aveva bisogno di ricorrere a mezzucci o accettare compromessi per vivere bene, era richiesto dalle università, dalle scuole, da importanti enti pubblici e dalla gente.
    Con la sola onorabilità infatti non si mangia e soprattutto non si vive da benestante, così molti "colti" hanno negli anni accettato compromessi, si sono venduti per pochi soldi o hanno prestato il loro nome per cause più convenienti economicamente che dal punto di vista scientifico.
    Qualche anno fa, diciamo quando erano piccoli i nostri genitori, fare il maestro era un lavoro poco remunerato ma molto rispettato, così fare l'avvocato o il medico. Molti professionisti si accontentavano di una minestra in cambio di una prestazione ma vivevano già bene con i proventi del loro lavoro ed un gesto di magnanimità era sempre un bel gesto.
    Oggi no. Un insegnante sbarca il lunario con uno stipendio ridicolo, un professionista (non parlo del caso particolare) deve spesso barcamenarsi per arrivare a fine mese e scendere a compromessi è una tentazione spesso irresistibile se non inevitabile.
    Scendere a compromessi non vuol dire commettere un reato o compiere atti violenti, vuol dire tradire il proprio mandato, la missione, la correttezza o il buon senso. Spesso vuol dire calpestare i diritti degli altri o peggio non guardare al bene del prossimo ma solo al proprio.
    Per questo oggi è praticamente scomparso il principio d'autorità. Un mio vecchio insegnante dava la colpa alla politica che aveva "appiattito" i livelli sociali senza rendersi conto che così si entrava in una pericolosa spirale di "uguaglianza" intellettuale che era solo teorica ma nella pratica si rivelava un disastro.
    Io non credo sia un problema politico o sociale. Se non sei medico e vuoi informazioni su una malattia rarissima la trovi su internet e magari riesci a fare una domanda al medico on line. In un giorno sai già "tutto": sintomi, cause, diagnosi e terapia. Quando mai è stata possibile una cosa del genere?
    Se non sei avvocato, non c'è bisogno di rivolgersi ad un principe del foro, un'altra ricerca su internet e scopri tutto su una legge, sul condono o sulla pratica che sei costretto a seguire.
    Non sai cos'è un processoreCerca su Wikipedia o Google.
    Hai difficoltà a capire cos'è la recessione? Clicca qui.
    Una lettura, un po' di riflessione e sappiamo "più cose" dell'ingegnere informatico e dell'economista, in fondo i concetti generali sono sempre quelli e può capitare che un commerciante assolutamente ignorante in medicina, informandosi, approfondendo e studiando, conosca molto più profondamente un argomento di uno specialista che per motivi professionali si occupa di altro e quell'argomento lo ha studiato solo all'università. Mancano però i concetti di base, l'esperienza sul campo, l'applicazione delle nozioni, si ha alla fine sempre un'idea generale, meccanica, piatta dell'argomento che approfondisci "per diletto". Che la cultura abbracci sempre più persone è un bene assoluto e fondamentale ma sta alle persone saperla usare o diventa un fiore in mano ad un orango.

    Ma per qualcuno lo scopo non è farsi un'idea generale sull'argomento: dopo la lettura della pagina di Wikipedia o del sito preso a caso, si pensa di avere abbastanza informazioni su quel tema.
    Ci si potrebbe chiedere allora perché studiare o andare all'università per capire bene cosa vuol dire "architettura multicore" oppure "rallentamento del tasso di inflazione", concetti che richiederebbero oltre ad una buona teoria anche la pratica, la conoscenza sul campo dei loro effetti e di ciò che cambia al cambiare delle loro caratteristiche. In realtà per colmare queste lacune servono proprio gli "esperti", l'autorità in quel campo: un informatico per i microprocessori o un economista per la recessione, sanno quello che noi non possiamo sapere leggendo solo una pagina su internet.
    Questa necessità a prima vista evidente, non è accettata volentieri da tutti. Spesso si tratta di semplice frustrazione, il chiedere lumi a qualcuno è percepito come un'ammissione di ignoranza ma se solo riflettessimo che è normale essere ignorante in molti campi della vita quotidiana saremmo molto più rilassati.
    Non è sempre così.
    La cosa è talmente evidente che spesso anche davanti "all'autorità" ci permettiamo di "dire la nostra", siamo pure convinti di avere ragione.
    Impensabile fino a pochi anni fa.

    Il concetto di "autorità" è comunque molto aleatorio. Un esperto è sicuramente la persona più adatta quando si discute di un determinato argomento, ma è sempre attendibile?
    Tutto ciò che dice o propone è corretto?
    No, non può esserlo, perché anche l'esperto e l'autorità possono sbagliarsi, quasi sempre in buona fede ma succede. Capita di frequente che l'autorità in un determinato campo diventi per "osmosi" attendibile anche in un altro e questa è una trappola frequente. Un grande fisico può dire castronerie imbarazzanti quando si occupa di medicina ed un grande medico può prendere cantonate storiche quando si discute di ambiente (ed è successo anche di recente in Italia).
    Cosa bisogna fare quindi? Se non ci fidiamo dell'autorità di chi potremmo fidarci?
    Nulla di grave, fino a prova contraria l'esperto è la persona più adatta a cui chiedere lumi su un argomento ma non facciamoci mai ipnotizzare dall'autorità.
    Se servisse qualche esempio di "grandi uomini di scienza" diventati esempi di inattendibilità potrei scrivere uno dei miei articoli chilometrici ma basta qualche riferimento per ricordare come anche uno scienziato promettente e addirittura un premio Nobel, possano essere, per motivi non sempre chiari ed immediati da comprendere, fonte di ilarità, superstizione ed inattendibilità.

    Uno degli esempi più recenti è proprio un premio Nobel per la medicina, Luc Montagnier, diventato "mito" per le sue ricerche sul virus dell'HIV e giunto recentemente nei pressi del limite tra scienza e pseudoscienza.
    Peccato che Montagnier, ultimamente sembra aver sorpassato questo limite.
    Se ha iniziato vendendo estratto di papaia fermentata per prevenire l'influenza, ha dichiarato che l'AIDS può essere curato con l'alimentazione (e sperimenta l'uso della minestra d'avena con patate e verdure per la cura dell'AIDS) e poi ha "scoperto" come con una radiolina si possano intercettare i segnali elettromagnetici di batteri ultradiluiti in una soluzione (una sorta di teletrasporto insomma), ora va dritto verso le terapie alternative sull'autismo.
    È impazzito?
    È invecchiato male? Oppure è solo un cambiamento "di comodo"?

    Non si sa, la sola cosa certa è che non è l'unico caso di valido scienziato che ad un certo punto della sua vita fa una virata strettissima e si butta nell'abisso dell'ignoto.

    Due associazioni alternative di terapie per l'autismo (non scientifiche) hanno annunciato che in collaborazione con il Prof. Montagnier inizieranno uno studio.

    Volete partecipare ad una ricerca su una teoria indimostrata? Pagate e vi sarà permesso.
    In genere partecipare ad uno studio è una cosa molto delicata, soprattutto se si tratta di provare nuovi rimedi, può essere anche pericoloso. In questo caso invece basta pagare 1800 dollari, più qualche altro centinaio per gli esami di controllo e vostro figlio farà parte dei pochi fortunati che proveranno gli antibiotici contro l'autismo, parola di Montagnier, premio Nobel per la medicina.
    Poco importa se non esiste alcun sospetto che l'autismo possa essere causato da batteri, che lo studio in progetto vada contro diversi criteri etici che regolano gli studi medici, che i soggetti che subiranno la sperimentazione non dovrebbero pagare ma al limite essere pagati e che nessuno abbia mai provato che un antibiotico possa curare sintomi autistici, c'è Montagnier, sarà una cosa seria.
    Come può uno scienziato prestigioso e giunto al culmine della propria carriera diventare improvvisamente un paladino della superstizione e del paranormale?
    Montagnier non è l'unico.

    Il più noto dei premi Nobel convertitosi all'incredibile è stato Linus Pauling, due volte premio Nobel (per la chimica e per la pace) che da brillante e prezioso scienziato cominciò ad un certo punto della sua vita a pubblicizzare l'uso di megadosi di vitamina C per curare praticamente tutte le malattie, dall'influenza al cancro. Pauling si lanciò testardamente in questo tipo di attività nonostante egli stesso non fosse mai riuscito a dimostrare la correttezza delle sue ipotesi e nonostante in tanti gli facessero notare che le sue uscite lo rendevano palesemente ridicolo. La prova della sua assoluta inattendibilità fu fornita dal fatto che lo scienziato non pubblicò mai un esperimento o uno studio attendibile che potesse dargli ragione mentre continuava ad applicare teoremi e teorie che non avevano alcun nesso con la realtà. Fu chiamato ciarlatano ed in pochi ebbero il coraggio di contraddire questo appellativo che si guadagnò, purtroppo, alla fine della sua carriera. Ancora oggi c'è chi segue le strambe idee del chimico statunitense che diventò anche un paladino della cosiddetta medicina ortomolecolare, ulteriore inutile e pseudoscientifica disciplina che riempie la bocca di ciarlatani ed imbonitori di tutti i tipi.

    Pensate sia un'eccezione? Ma no, no...c'è di peggio.

    William Shockley fu insignito del premio Nobel per la fisica (nel 1956) perché fu tra gli inventori del transistor (praticamente la base dell'elettronica di oggi). Un genio. Subito dopo quel prestigioso premio però iniziò per lui un periodo di assoluto buio della ragione. Propose ad esempio di sterilizzare tutti i bambini con quoziente intellettivo inferiore a 100 o di creare una banca del seme di individui particolarmente intelligenti perché secondo lui propagare i geni della gente (a suo dire) "poco intelligente" avrebbe degenerato la razza umana. Diventò così un paladino dell'eugenetica, della selezione della razza e del mito del superuomo.
    Propose di applicare la scienza per migliorare l'uomo. In realtà il suo pensiero era francamente e poco velatamente razzista considerata per esempio la sua opinione sugli uomini di colore da lui considerati "meno intelligenti dei bianchi".
    Altro insigne scienziato che è riuscito a rovinare tutto diventando un paladino del razzismo e dell'antisionismo è stato Phillipp Lenard, premio Nobel per la fisica nel 1905 per i suoi studi sui raggi catodici, scoperta che poi ci ha permesso di godere di invenzioni quali la televisione, le videocamere ma anche di strumenti di ricerca fondamentali in fisica.
    Lo scienziato contribuì con i suoi studi anche a sviluppare la meteorologia.
    Lenard era un convinto leader nazionalista e decise che la Germania doveva dotarsi di una "fisica nazionale" diffidando dai condizionamenti di altre nazioni e soprattutto degli ebrei, primo tra tutti quell'Albert Einstein che è molto più noto e carismatico del Nobel tedesco. Nazismo, antisemitismo e palese razzismo resero Lenard un personaggio tanto geniale quanto odioso e da biasimare, morì solo ed isolato ad 85 anni.
    Cosa trasforma un genio della scienza in un diabolico genio del male o in un ridicolo ciarlatano?
    Non si sa e gli esempi non si fermano qui.

    Kary Mullis Ã¨ l'inventore della PCR (anche la paternità di questa scoperta è ancora oggi discussa): chiedete ad un biologo cosa rappresenta la PCR nel mondo della ricerca biomedica. È un metodo senza il quale la maggioranza delle ricerche odierne sarebbero improponibili, è anche vero che oggi esistono altri metodi di studio e che la PCR è ricca di possibili errori e falsi risultati ma si tratta sempre di un pilastro della ricerca scientifica in campo medico-biologico. Lo studio del DNA si può praticare anche grazie a questo metodo. Ebbene, il suo inventore, descritto come personaggio eccentrico ed anticonformista, dichiara in tutta tranquillità di credere agli oroscopi e che l'HIV non causa l'AIDS. Si professa complottista e nel 1992 lanciò l'idea di vendere a prezzi altissimi dei gioielli con incastonata una particella di DNA di personaggi famosi ormai deceduti. Secondo Wikipedia inglese nella sua autobiografia racconta dell'incontro con un extraterrestre che aveva le sembianze di un procione fosforescente. Mullis ha fatto largo uso di LSD e molti reputano sia questa la causa del suo carattere, come dire, eccentrico e pure dell'incontro con il procione alieno.

    Un tempo era la figura stessa dello scienziato o del medico a rappresentare un esempio di ragionevolezza, cultura, equilibrio ed attendibilità, oggi questo concetto sembra essere sparito. Girando su internet ci possiamo imbattere in schiere di medici ormai rimbambiti da terapie alternative, fisici che credono alle teorie più improbabili, ingegneri che si vendono alle teorie del complotto, tutti fanno leva sul loro titolo ma nessuno riesce a dimostrare che la sua idea del mondo possa essere qualcosa di diverso da una fantasia. La spiegazione può essere una sola: la psiche e l'equilibrio mentale sono dei processi sottilissimi e molto influenzabili e l'età che avanza non risparmia nessuno. Che poi ci possano essere anche degli interessi (spesso economici) dietro questi "cambi di rotta" è innegabile.

    Tutte queste storie servano a comprendere come non sempre l'autorità sia per forza sintomo di correttezza o ragionevolezza, non per niente il principio di autorità è un artificio retorico tra i più utilizzati ma considerato scorretto e fallace. Affermare che una cosa è giusta perché "lo dice Pinco Pallino, famoso scienziato" è assolutamente inutile: un concetto è corretto o sbagliato a prescindere da chi lo formula.
    Per questo è vero anche il contrario: se un individuo senza alcun titolo o alcuna esperienza formula un'ipotesi o un'idea innovativa o che va contro le conoscenze attuali non è da scartare a prescindere ma da ascoltare, è chiaro che l'onere della prova e l'obbligo di dimostrare come reali le sue parole spettano ad egli stesso e non a chi ascolta.
    Capita anche che questi scienziati diventino con il tempo più noti per le loro stravaganze che per ciò che li ha portati sull'Olimpo scientifico ed è triste ma educativo trarre da queste storie la lezione che spesso un po' di umiltà e senso della realtà fanno l'uomo più grande. È anche vero che il detto "genio e sregolatezza" potrebbe rispecchiare la realtà ma a volte, come abbiamo visto, si va ben oltre la realtà, il buon senso e la ragione e la sregolatezza sfocia in follia.

    Alla prossima.

    Grazie a verduz per la revisione dell'articolo.

              Terminos Informaticos        
    1- ¿Qué es Software?
    Bajo esta definición, el concepto de software va más allá de los programas de cómputo en sus distintos estados: código fuente, binario o ejecutable; también su documentación, datos a procesar e información de usuario es parte del software: es decir, abarca todo lo intangible, todo lo “no físico” relacionado.
    El término «software» fue usado por primera vez en este sentido por John W. Tukey en 1957. En las ciencias de la computación y la ingeniería de software, el software es toda la información procesada por los sistemas informáticos: programas y datos. El concepto de leer diferentes secuencias de instrucciones desde la memoria de un dispositivo para controlar los cálculos fue introducido por Charles Babbage como parte de su máquina diferencial. La teoría que forma la base de la mayor parte del software moderno fue propuesta por vez primera por Alan Turing en su ensayo de 1936, “Los números computables”, con una aplicación al problema de decisión.
    2- Diferencias entre Programa y Software.
    Programa es una secuencia de instrucciones que se le da a una computadora para que haga determinadas cosas, hay programas que van desde lo más simple hasta los muy complejos, un programa que te pregunte tu nombre y te dé una respuesta ya se puede considerar como programa. Y software es aquello que es intangible, lo que no puedes tocar, es la parte lógica de un programa, entre el software están videos, imágenes, sonidos, textos, bases de datos, etc.
    3- Evolución del Programa.
    Los programas de computación nacen en 1950 junto con el diseño de las primeras computadoras y estaban escritos en lenguaje de máquina. Es decir, estaban formados por una sucesión de instrucciones, cada una de las cuales era un grupo de 1’s y 0’s. El usuario codificaba estos 1’s y 0’s directamente usando interruptores pare codificar cada instrucción. Posteriormente, fue creada la primera máquina que habría de funcionar con un programa almacenado en 1943. Esta máquina recibió el nombre de EDSAC y fue fabricada en la Universidad de Cambridge. Sus autores Wilker, Wheeler y Gill fueron también los primeros en elaborar un texto de programación. Los programas almacenados diferían de los anteriores en que la sucesión de instrucciones se codificaban en una cinta de papel mediante perforaciones. La cinta era leída por la computadora y de esta manera si el usuario deseaba ejecutar el programa una segunda vez, no tenia que codificarla nuevamente, sino que solo alimentaba la cinta.
    El codificar en lenguaje de maquina resultaba difícil para el usuario; así que se comenzaron a desarrollar programas en lenguaje de máquina que interpretaban instrucciones inteligibles pare la mayoría de los usuarios y que eran traducidos a lenguajes de máquina. A este tipo de programas se les denomino lenguajes de “alto nivel”, mismos que subsisten hasta la fecha.
    En 1951, surge la primera computadora disponible comercialmente a gran escala, la UNIVAC I, la cual estaba diseñada para ser fácilmente programada en su propio código. Era una maquina decimal alfanumérica con instrucciones mnemónicas fáciles de recordar y utilizar. La aparición de las computadoras en el ámbito comercial es crucial en la historia de los lenguajes, ya que entonces se vuelve importante la facilidad de programación y la posibilidad de transportar programas. A partir de aquí comienzan a surgir una serie de lenguajes de programación cada vez más lejanos al lenguaje de máquina y más cercanos al usuario.
    Por ejemplo, la UNIVAC I de 1951 tiene los lenguajes AT3 y B-0 que tuvieron gran influencia en el diseño de otros lenguajes de maquina más avanzados como son el FORTRAN y el COBOL respectivamente, ambos de difusión mundial.
    En la segunda mitad de la década de los 50’s y basados en las ideas de los lenguajes anteriores, surge con gran rapidez la primera generación de lenguajes de “alto nivel”, mismos que siguen vigentes veinticinco años después. Dichos lenguajes son:
    1. FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslating) resultado de un proyecto encabezado por John Backus y que llevo 25 años hombre esfuerzo. Se utiliza principalmente pare resolver problemas científicos y técnicos. En ocasiones, sin embargo, se emplea en aplicaciones comerciales.
    2. ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language; lenguaje algorítmico) se desarrollo con el propósito de contaron un lenguaje común pare diversas computadoras. Este lenguaje se parece al FORTRAN y es de aplicación particular en los problemas matemáticos y numéricos, Este lenguaje es popular en las universidades, y en la actualidad es utilizado en los Estados Unidos pare fines pedagógicos y la comunicación de algoritmos.
    3. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) el propósito de este lenguaje es el de contar con un lenguaje que resultara común pare las diversas computadoras en el mercado para el procesamiento de información comercial. Es un lenguaje que se utiliza principalmente para la programación de problemas de proceso de datos comerciales, por su naturaleza descriptiva y su adaptabilidad pare resolver los problemas de proceso de ficheros que entraña el proceso de datos comerciales.

    4- Lenguaje Maquina.
    Los circuitos microprogramables son sistemas digitales, lo que significa que trabajan con dos únicos niveles de tensión. Dichos niveles, por abstracción, se simbolizan con el cero, 0, y el uno, 1, por eso el lenguaje de máquina sólo utiliza dichos signos. Esto permite el empleo de las teorías del álgebra booleana y del sistema binario en el diseño de este tipo de circuitos y en su programación.
    Una visión típica de la arquitectura de computadores como una serie de capas de abstracción: hardware, firmware, ensamblador, kernel, sistema operativo y aplicaciones
    Claude Elwood Shannon, en su Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, y con sus experiencias en redes de conmutación, sentó las bases para la aplicación del álgebra de Boole a las redes de conmutación.
    Una red de conmutación es un circuito de interruptores eléctricos que al cumplir ciertas combinaciones booleanas con las variables de entrada, define el estado de la salida. Este concepto es el núcleo de las puertas lógicas, las cuales son, por su parte, los ladrillos con que se construyen sistemas lógicos cada vez más complejos.
    Shannon utilizaba el relé como dispositivo físico de conmutación en sus redes. El relé, a igual que una lámpara eléctrica, posee dos estados: 1 ó 0, esto es, está activado, encendida, o está desactivado, apagada.
    5- Lenguaje Ensamblador.
    El lenguaje ensamblador es un tipo de lenguaje de bajo nivel utilizado para escribir programas informáticos, y constituye la representación más directa del código máquina específico para cada arquitectura de computadoras legible por un programador.
    Fue usado ampliamente en el pasado para el desarrollo de software, pero actualmente sólo se utiliza en contadas ocasiones, especialmente cuando se requiere la manipulación directa del hardware o se pretenden rendimientos inusuales de los equipos.
    6- Lenguaje de Programación.
    Un lenguaje de programación es un lenguaje que puede ser utilizado para controlar el comportamiento de una máquina, particularmente una computadora. Consiste en un conjunto de símbolos y reglas sintácticas y semánticas que definen su estructura y el significado de sus elementos y expresiones.
    Aunque muchas veces se usa lenguaje de programación y lenguaje informático como si fuesen sinónimos, no tiene por qué ser así, ya que los lenguajes informáticos engloban a los lenguajes de programación y a otros más, como, por ejemplo, el HTML (lenguaje para el marcado de páginas web).
    Un lenguaje de programación permite a uno o más programadores especificar de manera precisa: sobre qué datos una computadora debe operar, cómo deben ser estos almacenados, transmitidos y qué acciones debe tomar bajo una variada gama de circunstancias. Todo esto, a través de un lenguaje que intenta estar relativamente próximo al lenguaje humano o natural, tal como sucede con el lenguaje Léxico. Una característica relevante de los lenguajes de programación es precisamente que más de un programador puedan tener un conjunto común de instrucciones que puedan ser comprendidas entre ellos para realizar la construcción del programa de forma colaborativa.

    7- Herramientas de Programación.
    Las herramientas de programación, son aquellas que permiten realizar aplicativos, programas, rutinas, utilitarios y sistemas para que la parte física del computador u ordenador, funcione y pueda producir resultados.
    Hoy día existen múltiples herramientas de programación en el mercado, tanto para analistas expertos como para analistas inexpertos.
    8- Lenguaje Orientado a Objetos.
    Se le llama así a cualquier lenguaje de programación que implemente los conceptos definidos por la programación orientada a objetos.
    Cabe notar que los conceptos definidos en la programación orientada a objetos no son una condición sino que son para definir que un lenguaje es orientado a objetos. Existen conceptos que pueden estar ausentes en un lenguaje dado y sin embargo, no invalidar su definición como lenguaje orientado a objetos.
    Quizás las condiciones mínimas necesarias las provee el formalismo que modeliza mejor las propiedades de un sistema orientado a objetos: los tipos de datos abstractos.
    9- Encapsulación.
    En programación modular, y más específicamente en programación orientada a objetos, se denomina encapsulamiento al ocultamiento del estado, es decir, de los datos miembro, de un objeto de manera que sólo se puede cambiar mediante las operaciones definidas para ese objeto.
    Cada objeto está aislado del exterior, es un módulo natural, y la aplicación entera se reduce a un agregado o rompecabezas de objetos. El aislamiento protege a los datos asociados a un objeto contra su modificación por quien no tenga derecho a acceder a ellos, eliminando efectos secundarios e interacciones.
    De esta forma el usuario de la clase puede obviar la implementación de los métodos y propiedades para concentrarse sólo en cómo usarlos. Por otro lado se evita que el usuario pueda cambiar su estado de maneras imprevistas e incontroladas.


    10- Análisis y Diseño Orientado a Objetos.
    Análisis y diseño orientado a objetos (ADOO) es un enfoque de la ingeniería de software que modela un sistema como un grupo de objetos que interactúan entre sí. Este enfoque representa un dominio en términos de conceptos compuestos por verbos y sustantivos, clasificados de acuerdo a su dependencia funcional.
    En éste método de análisis y diseño se crea un conjunto de modelos utilizando una notación acordada como, por ejemplo, el lenguaje únificado de modelado (UML). ADOO aplica técnicas de modelado de objetos para analizar los requerimientos para un contexto - por ejemplo, un sistema de negocio, un conjunto de módulos de software - y para diseñar una solución para mejorar los procesos involucrados. No está restringido al diseño de programas de computadora, sino que cubre sistemas enteros de distinto tipo. Las metodologías de análisis y diseño más modernas son casos de uso guiados a través de requerimientos, diseño, implementación, pruebas, y despliegue.
    El lenguaje unificado de modelado se ha vuelto el lenguaje de modelado estándar usado en análisis y diseño orientado a objetos.
    11- Interfaz del Usuario.
    La interfaz de usuario es la forma en que los usuarios pueden comunicarse con una computadora, y comprende todos los puntos de contacto entre el usuario y el equipo. Sus principales funciones son:
    Manipulación de archivos y directorios
    Herramientas de desarrollo de aplicaciones
    Comunicación con otros sistemas
    Información de estado
    Configuración de la propia interfaz y entorno
    Intercambio de datos entre aplicaciones
    Control de acceso
    Sistema de ayuda interactivo.
    12- Lenguaje Poliformico.
    El polimorfismo es la presencia de dos o más variantes heredables para una misma característica que coexisten dentro de una población. Esta característica puede ser apreciable tanto a nivel morfológico, como el número de cerdas en Drosophila melanogaster (mosca común de la fruta), como a nivel molecular, tal es el caso de las alozimas.
    13- Polimorfismo.
    Polimorfismo es la presencia de dos o más variantes heredables para una misma característica que coexisten dentro de una población. Esta característica puede ser apreciable tanto a nivel morfológico, como el número de cerdas en Drosophila melanogaster (mosca común de la fruta), como a nivel molecular, tal es el caso de las alozimas.
    14- Gestión de Proyectos Orientados a Objetos.
    Las técnicas modernas de gestión de proyectos de software se pueden dividir e as siguientes actividades:
    • Establecimiento de un marco de proceso común para el proyecto.
    • Uso del marco y de métricas históricas.
    • Especificación de productos de trabajo y avances.
    • Definición de puntos de comprobación.
    • Gestión de los cambios que ocurren invariablemente.
    • Seguimiento.
    Para aplicar estas actividades hay que tomar en cuenta que todas hay que enfocarlas usando un modelo propio.
    Marco de proceso común para OO. (Orientado a objeto)
    Este tópico define un enfoque organizativo para el desarrollo y mantenimiento del software. Identifica el paradigma de Ing. De software aplicado para construir y mantener software. Tiene la cualidad de ser adaptable, de forma que cumpla con las necesidades individuales del equipo de proyecto.
    Para el desarrollo de proyectos de esta naturaleza no se pueden aplicar modelos lineales (ciclo de vida), sino que es necesario aplicar un modelo que contemple un desarrollo iterativo. Iterativo significa que el software evolucione a través de un número de ciclos. El software OO debe ser evolutivo por naturaleza. Existen autores que sugieren un modelo recursivo/paralelo para el desarrollo orientado a objeto.
    15- Productividad de Programación.
    La productividad de programación se refiera al rendimiento de un programador en un proyecto de programación, este tipo de productividad se mide por las horas que el programador aplica a la programación del proyecto, comparado por la evolución del programa en sí.
    16- Tiempo de Programación.
    El tiempo de desarrollo del proyecto es indefinido, puede mantenerse durante el período que se considere necesario, la ventaja que tiene es que se pueden involucrar distintas comunidades donantes y receptoras, el objetivo inicial sería lograr la capacitación de los mediadores en los aspectos técnicos necesarios para llegar a una instalación de computadores con software Libre.
    17- Cantidad de Código.
    Es la medición del tamaño en líneas de código, generalmente se utiliza en programación lineal y en lenguajes de programación antiguos.
    18- Protocolo.
    Protocolo de red o también Protocolo de Comunicación es el conjunto de reglas que especifican el intercambio de datos u órdenes durante la comunicación entre las entidades que forman parte de una red.

    19- ¿Quién es George Boole?
    George Boole, (2 de noviembre de 1815 - 8 de diciembre de 1864) fue un matemático y filósofo irlandés.
    Como inventor del álgebra de Boole, la base de la aritmética computacional moderna, Boole es considerado como uno de los fundadores del campo de las Ciencias de la Computación. En 1854 publicó “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought” en él desarrollaba un sistema de reglas que le permitía expresar, manipular y simplificar, problemas lógicos y filosóficos cuyos argumentos admiten dos estados (verdadero o falso) por procedimientos matemáticos.
    20- ¿Quién es Norbert Wiener?
    Norbert Wiener (26 de noviembre de 1894, Columbia, Missouri - 18 de marzo de 1964, Estocolmo, Suecia) fue un matemático estadounidense, conocido como el fundador de la cibernética. Acuñó el término en su libro Cibernética o el control y comunicación en animales y máquinas, publicado en 1948.
    Su padre, Leo Wiener, fue profesor en lenguas eslavas en la Universidad de Harvard. Norbert se educó en casa hasta los siete años, edad a la que empezó a asistir al colegio, pero durante poco tiempo. Siguió con sus estudios en casa hasta que volvió al colegio en 1903, graduándose en el instituto de Ayer en 1906.
    En septiembre de 1906, a la edad de once años, ingresó en la Universidad Tufts para estudiar matemáticas. Se licenció en 1909 y entró en Harvard. En Harvard estudió zoología, pero en 1910 se trasladó a la Universidad de Cornell para empezar estudios superiores en filosofía. Volvió a Harvard al año siguiente para continuar sus estudios de filosofía. Wiener obtuvo el doctorado por Harvard en 1912 con una tesis que versaba sobre lógica matemática.
    21- API
    Una API (del inglés Application Programming Interface - Interfaz de Programación de Aplicaciones) es el conjunto de funciones y procedimientos (o métodos si se refiere a programación orientada a objetos) que ofrece cierta biblioteca para ser utilizado por otro software como una capa de abstracción.
    22- Aristóteles
    Aristóteles (en griego clásico Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs; Estagira, Macedonia 384 a. C. – Calcis Eubea, Grecia 322 a. C.) es uno de los más grandes filósofos de la antigüedad y acaso de la historia de la filosofía occidental. Fue precursor de la anatomía y la biología y un creador de la taxonomía.

    23- Lógica
    La Lógica es un término que deriva del griego “Λογικός” (logikê-logikós), que a su vez es “λόγος” (logos), que significa razón.1
    Se considera que Aristóteles fue el que fundó la Lógica como Propedéutica, herramienta básica para todas las Ciencias.2
    La Lógica es una ciencia formal. Esto quiere decir que no tiene contenido, porque estudia las formas válidas de inferencia.3
    La lógica tradicional se basaba en el silogismo como razonamiento basado en el juicio categórico aristotélico. Hoy día la lógica utiliza como unidad básica la proposición y las reglas de inferencia en la argumentación discursiva.4
    24- Lógica de Aristóteles.
    Como su nombre lo indica, el padre de la lógica aristotélica es el filosofo griego Aristóteles; primer pensador en formalizar el sistema lógico de tan acertada manera que sus propuestas han trascendido hasta nuestros días. Aristóteles planteó sus ideas en varias obras, para difundir su conocimiento sobre las leyes del razonamiento, argumentando que estas eran vitales para adentrarse en el mundo de la filosofía.
    La lógica aristotélica supone que la mente reproduce sólo la realidad, la existencia de las cosas tal y como son, por ello es una ciencia objetiva que se dedica a estudiar conceptos, desglosándolos en predicables y predicamentos. La lógica analiza juicios y formas de razonamiento y su manera de expresar resultados es el silogismo o razonamiento deductivo categórico. Concepto: Este representa un objeto en la mente del hombre de manera que no pueda ser afectado por los sentidos, la memoria o la mente. Un concepto tiene comprensión (características del objeto) y extensión (hace alusión la cantidad de sujetos a los que el concepto puede aplicarse). Cucharón (siglo III d.c.), en los que se clasifican los conceptos estableciendo entre ellos una relación de jerarquía y subordinación, de mayor a menor extensión.
    La que es conocida como lógica clásica (o tradicional) fue enunciada primeramente por Aristóteles, quien elaboró leyes para un correcto razonamiento silogístico. Un silogismo es una proposición hecha de una de estas cuatro afirmaciones posibles: “Todo A es B” (universal afirmativo), “Nada de A es B” (universal negativo), “Algo de A es B” (particular afirmativo) o “Algo de A no es B” (particular negativo). Las letras sustituyen a palabras comunes como “perro”, “animal de cuatro patas” o ‘cosa viviente’, llamadas “términos” del silogismo. Un silogismo bien formulado consta de dos premisas y una conclusión, debiendo tener cada premisa un término en común con la conclusión y un segundo término relacionado con la otra premisa. En lógica clásica se formulan reglas por las que todos los silogismos bien construidos se identifican como formas válidas o no válidas de argumentación.
    25- Lógica Difusa
    La lógica borrosa o difusa se basa en lo relativo de lo observado. Este tipo de lógica toma dos valores aleatorios, pero contextualizados y referidos entre sí. Así, por ejemplo, una persona que mida 2 metros es claramente una persona alta, si previamente se ha tomado el valor de persona baja y se ha establecido en 1 metro. Ambos valores están contextualizados a personas y referidos a una medida métrica lineal.
    26- OLAP
    OLAP es el acrónimo en inglés de procesamiento analítico en línea (On-Line Analytical Processing). Es una solución utilizada en el campo de la llamada Inteligencia empresarial (o Business Intelligence) cuyo objetivo es agilizar la consulta de grandes cantidades de datos. Para ello utiliza estructuras multidimensionales (o Cubos OLAP) que contienen datos resumidos de grandes Bases de Datos o Sistemas Transaccionales (OLTP). Se usa en informes de negocios de ventas, marketing, informes de dirección, minería de datos y áreas similares.
    La razón de usar OLAP para las consultas es la velocidad de respuesta. Una base de datos relacional almacena entidades en tablas discretas si han sido normalizadas. Esta estructura es buena en un sistema OLTP pero para las complejas consultas multitabla es relativamente lenta. Un modelo mejor para búsquedas, aunque peor desde el punto de vista operativo, es una base de datos multidimensional.
    La principal característica que potencia a OLAP, es que es lo más rápido a la hora de ejecutar sentencias SQL de tipo SELECT, en contraposición con OLTP que es la mejor opción para operaciones de tipo INSERT, UPDATE Y DELETE.
    27- Trivial
    En matemática, el término trivial se usa frecuentemente para los objetos (por ejemplo, cuerpos o espacios topológicos) que tienen una estructura muy simple. Para los no matemáticos, son a veces más difíciles de visualizar o entender que otros objetos más complicados.
    Algunos ejemplos incluyen:
    conjunto vacío - el conjunto que no contiene elementos
    grupo trivial - el grupo matemático que contiene solo el elemento identidad
    También, trivial se refiere a soluciones (a una ecuación) que tienen una estructura muy simple, pero que por completitud no pueden ser ignoradas. Estas soluciones se denominan soluciones triviales. Por ejemplo, considérese la ecuación diferencial.


    28- Digital
    Se dice que una señal es digital cuando las magnitudes de la misma se representan a través de valores discretos en lugar de variables continuas. Por ejemplo, el interruptor de la luz sólo puede tomar dos valores o estados: abierto o cerrado, o la misma lámpara: encendida o apagada (véase circuito de conmutación).
    Los sistemas digitales, como por ejemplo el ordenador, usan lógica de dos estados representados por dos niveles de tensión eléctrica, uno alto, H y otro bajo, L (de High y Low, respectivamente, en inglés). Por abstracción, dichos estados se sustituyen por ceros y unos, lo que facilita la aplicación de la lógica y la aritmética binaria. Si el nivel alto se representa por 1 y el bajo por 0, se habla de lógica positiva y en caso contrario de lógica negativa.
    Cabe mencionar que además de los niveles, en una señal digital están las transiciones de alto a bajo o de bajo a alto, denominadas flanco de subida o de bajada, respectivamente. En la siguiente figura se muestra una señal digital donde se identifican los niveles y los flancos.

    Señal digital: 1) Nivel bajo, 2) Nivel alto, 3) Flanco de subida y 4) Flanco de bajada.
    Es conveniente aclarar que, a pesar de que en los ejemplos señalados el término digital se ha relacionado siempre con dispositivos binarios, no significa que digital y binario sean términos intercambiables. Por ejemplo, si nos fijamos en el código Morse, veremos que en él se utilizan, para el envío de mensajes por telégrafo eléctrico, cinco estados digitales que son:
    punto, raya, espacio corto (entre letras), espacio medio (entre palabras) y espacio largo (entre frases)
    Referido a un aparato o instrumento de medida, decimos que es digital cuando el resultado de la medida se representa en un visualizador mediante números (dígitos) en lugar de hacerlo mediante la posición de una aguja, o cualquier otro indicador, en una escala
    29- Análogo
    Se refiere a las magnitudes o valores que varían con el tiempo en forma continua (distancia, temperatura, velocidad, voltaje, frecuencia, amplitud, etc.) y pueden representarse en forma de ondas.
    Las computadoras emplean lo digital y, por lo tanto, si entra información analógica, se debe convertir; este es el caso de la conexión a Internet por Dial up, donde un módem convierte la señal analógica (el sonido) en digital.
    30- Neurona.
    La neurona es uno de los tipos de las células nerviosas que se encuentran por todo el cuerpo; son el elemento fundamental de la estructura del sistema nervioso. Son células excitables especializadas en la recepción de estímulos y conducción del impulso nervioso. Una neurona está formada por un cuerpo celular y diferentes prolongaciones. Está encargada principalmente de trasmitir el flujo nervioso. Un cerebro humano contiene aproximadamente 100.000 millones1 de neuronas (1011). Las neuronas se hallan en el encéfalo, la médula espinal y los ganglios nerviosos; forman una red de contacto en todo el cuerpo. Se unen entre ellas a través de una unión discontinua llamada sinapsis. Si dicha sinapsis ocurre por contacto físico se trata de una sinapsis eléctrica, y si es a través de una hendidura, se le llama sinapsis química.
    31- Claude Elwood Slawnon
    Claude Elwood Shannon (30 de abril de 1916, Michigan - 24 de febrero de 2001), ingeniero eléctrico y matemático, recordado como “el padre de la teoría de la información”.
    32- Algebra Booleana.
    Álgebra de Boole (también llamada Retículas booleanas) en informática y matemática, son estructuras algebraicas que rigorizan las operaciones lógicas Y, O y NO, así como el conjunto de operaciones unión, intersección y complemento.
    Se denomina así en honor a George Boole, matemático inglés que fue el primero en definirla como parte de un sistema lógico a mediados del siglo XIX. Específicamente, el álgebra de Boole fue un intento de utilizar las técnicas algebraicas para tratar expresiones de la lógica proposicional. En la actualidad, el álgebra de Boole se aplica de forma generalizada en el ámbito del diseño electrónico. Claude Shannon fue el primero en aplicarla en el diseño de circuitos de conmutación eléctrica biestables, en 1938.
    33- Lenguaje de Alto Nivel
    Los lenguajes de programación de alto nivel se caracterizan por expresar los algoritmos de una manera adecuada a la capacidad cognitiva humana, en lugar de a la capacidad ejecutora de las máquinas. En los primeros lenguajes de alto nivel la limitación era que se orientaban a un área específica y sus instrucciones requerían de una sintaxis predefinida. Se clasifican como lenguajes procedimentales. Otra limitación de los lenguajes de alto nivel es que se requiere de ciertos conocimientos de programación para realizar las secuencias de instrucciones lógicas. Los lenguajes de muy alto nivel se crearon para que el usuario común pudiese solucionar tal problema de procesamiento de datos de una manera más fácil y rápida.
    La programación en un lenguaje de bajo nivel como el lenguaje de la máquina o el lenguaje simbólico tiene ciertas ventajas:
    Mayor adaptación al equipo.
    Posibilidad de obtener la máxima velocidad con mínimo uso de memoria.
    Pero también tiene importantes inconvenientes:
    Imposibilidad de escribir código independiente de la máquina.
    Mayor dificultad en la programación y en la comprensión de los programas.
    Por esta razón, a finales de los años 1950 surgió un nuevo tipo de lenguajes de programación que evitaba estos inconvenientes, a costa de ceder un poco en las ventajas. Estos lenguajes se llaman “de tercera generación” o “de alto nivel”, en contraposición a los “de bajo nivel” o “de nivel próximo a la máquina”.
    34- Lenguaje de Bajo Nivel.
    Un lenguaje de programación de bajo nivel es el que proporciona poca o ninguna abstracción del microprocesador de un ordenador. Consecuentemente es fácilmente trasladado a lenguaje de máquina.
    La palabra “bajo” no implica que el lenguaje sea inferior a un lenguaje de alto nivel; se refiere a la reducida abstracción entre el lenguaje y el hardware.
    35- Ciencia Real
    Una prueba segura de cualquier afirmación verdaderamente científica es su capacidad de predecir el futuro: de decir qué sucederá bajo circunstancias dadas. Cuando se la somete a medidas válidas y objetivas de predicción, la pseudociencia no obtiene mejores resultados que la mera adivinación, en contraste con la ciencia real. Piense en la historia tal como la predijo la astrología, comparada con la gravedad y la certeza experimental y verificable de la ley del cuadrado inverso.
    36- Ciencia Fisión
    La ciencia ficción (también fue conocida en su origen como literatura de anticipación) es la denominación popular con que se conoce a uno de los géneros derivados de la literatura de ficción (junto con la literatura fantástica y la narrativa de terror). Nacida como subgénero literario distinguido en la década de 1920 (aunque hay obras reconocibles muy anteriores) y exportada posteriormente a otros medios, el más notable de ellos el cinematográfico, gozó de un gran auge en la segunda mitad del siglo XX debido al interés popular acerca del futuro que despertó el espectacular avance tanto científico como tecnológico alcanzado durante esos años.
    Entre los estudiosos del género no se ha podido llegar a un consenso amplio sobre una definición formal, siendo éste un tema de gran controversia. En general se considera ciencia ficción a los cuentos o historias que versan sobre el impacto que producen los avances científicos, tecnológicos, sociales o culturales, presentes o futuros, sobre la sociedad o los individuos.
    37- Inteligencia Artificial
    Se denomina inteligencia artificial a la rama de la informática que desarrolla procesos que imitan a la inteligencia de los seres vivos. La principal aplicación de esta ciencia es la creación de máquinas para la automatización de tareas que requieran un comportamiento inteligente.
    Algunos ejemplos se encuentran en el área de control de sistemas, planificación automática, la habilidad de responder a diagnósticos y a consultas de los consumidores, reconocimiento de escritura, reconocimiento del habla y reconocimiento de patrones. Los sistemas de IA actualmente son parte de la rutina en campos como economía, medicina, ingeniería y la milicia, y se ha usado en gran variedad de aplicaciones de software, juegos de estrategia como ajedrez de computador y otros videojuegos.
    El matemático sudafricano, Seymour Papert, es considerado pionero en esta ciencia
    38- Programas Tradicionales
    Los programas tradicionales se denominan a todas aquellas aplicaciones que los usuarios normales utilizan, tales como paquete para oficinas, email, en general todo lo que se denomina programas de utilería.
    39- Generación de los Programas.
    Los equipos (el hardware) han pasado por cuatro generaciones, de las que las tres primeras (ordenadores con válvulas, transistores y circuitos integrados) están muy claras, la cuarta (circuitos integrados a gran escala) es más discutible.
    Algo parecido ha ocurrido con la programación de los ordenadores (el software), que se realiza en lenguajes que suelen clasificarse en cinco generaciones, de las que las tres primeras son evidentes, mientras no todo el mundo está de acuerdo en las otras dos. Estas generaciones no coincidieron exactamente en el tiempo con las de hardware, pero sí de forma aproximada, y son las siguientes:
    Primera generación Los primeros ordenadores se programaban directamente en código binario, que puede representarse mediante secuencias de ceros y unos sistema binario. Cada modelo de ordenador tiene su propio código, por esa razón se llama lenguaje de máquina.

    Segunda generación Los lenguajes simbólicos, asimismo propios de la máquina, simplifican la escritura de las instrucciones y las hacen más legibles.

    Tercera generación Los lenguajes de alto nivel sustituyen las instrucciones simbólicas por códigos independientes de la máquina, parecidas al lenguaje humano o al de las Matemáticas.

    Cuarta generación Se ha dado este nombre a ciertas herramientas que permiten construir aplicaciones sencillas combinando piezas prefabricadas. Hoy se piensa que estas herramientas no son, propiamente hablando, lenguajes. Algunos proponen reservar el nombre de cuarta generación para la programación orientada a objetos.
    Quinta generación Se llama así a veces a los lenguajes de la inteligencia artificial, aunque con el fracaso del proyecto japonés de la quinta generación el nombre ha caído en desuso.
    40- Que es Case.
    Las herramientas CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering, Ingeniería de Software Asistida por Ordenador) son diversas aplicaciones informáticas destinadas a aumentar la productividad en el desarrollo de software reduciendo el coste de las mismas en términos de tiempo y de dinero. Estas herramientas nos pueden ayudar en todos los aspectos del ciclo de vida de desarrollo del software en tareas como el proceso de realizar un diseño del proyecto, calculo de costes, implementación de parte del código automáticamente con el diseño dado, compilación automática, documentación o detección de errores entre otras.
    41- Programas Compactadores.
    Son programas que permiten comprimir o compactar un archivo y/o descomprimirlo o descompactarlo . El objeto de estos programas es reducir el tamaño de los archivos que se transmiten o se transportan en disquetes, al reducir su tamaño se reduce también el tiempo de conexión. Este software se basa en el algoritmo de compresión ZIP, que ya se usaba antes del windows con programas como PKZIP y PKUNZIP.

    Muchos archivos en la Web están Compactados. Y es Fundamental para el acarreo de grandes volúmenes de información que pueden viajar “zipeados” en lugar de ocupar demasiado tamaño en su formato original. Entre las ventajas que posee esta la de ser posible su uso como herramienta para ejecutar y realizar BACKUPS de archivos y productos, la opción de utilizar claves de seguridad para que solo quienes estén autorizados puedan descompactar y acceder a los datos comprimidos.
    42- Lenguaje SQL
    El Lenguaje de consulta estructurado (SQL [/esekuele/ en español, /ɛskjuːˈɛl / en inglés] Structured Query Language ) es un lenguaje declarativo de acceso a bases de datos relacionales que permite especificar diversos tipos de operaciones sobre las mismas. Una de sus características es el manejo del álgebra y el cálculo relacional permitiendo lanzar consultas con el fin de recuperar -de una forma sencilla- información de interés de una base de datos, así como también hacer cambios sobre la misma. Es un lenguaje de cuarta generación (4GL).

    Interface
    Como principio, el Diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española define interfaz como una palabra derivada del término inglés “interface”(superficie de contacto) y la define de la siguiente manera: 1. f. Inform. Conexión física y funcional entre dos aparatos o sistemas independientes.
    Por confusión con el término anglosajón “interfazear”, “interfasear”, “interfacear” suele utilizarse en muchos manuales de motherboard, pero no debe tomarse esto como correcto ya que existe una palabra muy simple de referencia de este artículo.
    43- ABI
    En los programas informáticos, un interfaz de aplicación binaria (ABI) describe el bajo nivel de interfaz entre un programa de aplicación y el sistema operativo, o la interfaz entre una aplicación y sus bibliotecas, o que entre los componentes de una aplicación. Un ABI es similar a una interfaz de programación de aplicaciones (API), sin embargo, este último define una interfaz de código fuente. [1] En pocas palabras, abis permitir la compatibilidad binaria, mientras que las API de permitir la compatibilidad de código fuente.
    44- Loger Susana Catherine

    45- OLP
    OLP (Open License Program) lo cual es un programa de licenciamiento por volumen en el cual una empresa puede adquirir sus licencias con un solo contrato, entre estos programas esta el Open Business y Open Value.
    46- OLTP
    OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) es un tipo de procesamiento de transacciones a través de una red de computadoras. Algunos tipos de aplicaciones OLTP pueden ser banca electrónica, procesamiento de pedidos o comercio electrónico. Es un programa que facilita y administra aplicaciones transaccionales, usualmente para data entry y transacciones en empresas, incluyendo bancos, aerolíneas, etc.
    47- Data Ware House
    Es un repositorio de datos de muy fácil acceso, alimentado de numerosas fuentes, transformadas en grupos de información sobre temas específicos de negocios, para permitir nuevas consultas, análisis, reportador y decisiones.
    48- Data Monts
    Los Data Marts son las bases de datos locales o departamentales basadas en subconjuntos de la información contenida en el Data Warehouse central o maestro.
    49- Lisp
    Lisp es el segundo lenguaje de programación, después de Fortran, de alto nivel. Lisp es de tipo declarativo y fue creado en 1958 por John McCarthy y sus colaboradores en el MIT.
              Inside Four Decades of Breakthroughs at IBM Research        
    American industry has a rich heritage of top-notch corporate labs. Bell Labs created not only the transistor, but also other fundamental breakthroughs, such as the laser and information theory. PARC, developed much of the technology we associate with modern computers, such as the mouse and the graphical user interface. Both labs have attained mythical status ...
              Single-Ended GaN Power Transistors Spawn New System-Level Capabilities        
    Engineers tasked with building next-gen L-band systems can now take advantage of new single-ended transistors based on gallium-nitride (GaN), which offer better performance across the board.
              Problem Free Renter Insurance        
    The insurance your land lord or condo association may have, but only the building structure is protected and not the personal items inside it. In disaster renters insurance is the insurance which comes to help and protect your personal things.

    What standard policy cover is to be known by the people? Residential policies are of various types. The HO-four type is exclusively designed for the renters and condo owners have the benefit of HO-six losses the cover from personal property of yours from sixteen types of perils;

    Contact our Insurance Broker for more details on Allied Insurance and Travelers Insurance.

    Fire or lightning or fire, explosion, windstorm or hail, damaged cause by vehicle or aircraft, smoke, civil or riot commotion, theft, falling objects ,eruptions of volcano, malicious mischief weight of snow, ice or sleet. other then this it could be a house home appliance overflow of water or steam discharged accidental within a plumbing, heating, air conditioning, or automatic fire - protective sprinkle system. Suddenly or with mistake caused damage from artificially generated electric current (loss to a tube, transistor, or similar electronic component is not included)

    Earthquakes and floods are not in the list. And if you stay in an area prone to either earthquake or floods then you need to buy a separate policy or rider to cover wind damage you might need to buy a separate rider or a policy, when hurricane might pose a threat, in some coastal regions.

    Actual cash value or a replace value is the next step in renter insurance. One should always tell the agent of the valuables we have .one important thing to be noted is that the company will offer you the actual cash value (acv) or replacement cost coverage for our thing as the name specifies. In ACV coverage you will get the amount of the product which is lost or damage, of the property worth at the time of stolen. if a television brought today then it would be of less price tomorrow .while you still need to spend the same amount more amount for a new television. The insurance company will pay you only the amount of the old television worth minus your deductible price.

    Replacement cost coverage, on the other side will pay you the amount what will actually cost to replace the item you lost or been damaged minus the deductible in most regions they write ACV coverage. Otherwise the coverage will quote you the replacement cost coverage by default. Replacement cost coverage will cost the individual cost more in premium. But it can also pay you more if ever you need to file a claim your agent should be informed about the expensive and valuable items you have antiques, jewelry electronics are items that are not paid fully as in they are paid only to an amount and not for there replacement amount. Your expensive items like a diamond ring you will appropriately want to purchase a separate rider.

    Meet our Insurance Agent for further information on Dental Insurance California and SR22 Insurance California

              TRIK REPARASI TV UNTUK PEMULA        
    TRIK REPARASI TV & TUTORIAL
    Berikut ini adalah daftar isi dari Tutorial saya :

    WORKSHOP8080.WORDPRESS.COM

    Daftar isi :
    1. 1. Diagram Blok Televisi dan Fungsi masing-masing bagian

    1. 2.Cara Kerja TV

    2. 3.Persiapan Sebelum Mereparasi TV

    1. 4. Bagian-Bagian Mesin TV Lengkap Dgn Photo & Penjelasan
    2. – Bagian Power Supply
    3. – Bagian Program
    4. – Bagian Osilator (Osc Horizontal & Osc Vertikal)
    5. – Cara Mencari Bagian Osilator
    6. – Bagian Driver Horizontal
    7. – Bagian Output Horizontal
    8. – Bagian Flyback
    9. - Cara Mengukur Flyback
    10. – Bagian Chroma / Pembangkit Warna
    11. – Bagian RGB
    12. – Bagian Vertikal Out put
    13. – Bagian Tuner
    14. - Cara Mengecek Penguat IF & Tuner
    15. – Bagian Audio
    16. – Defleksi / Yoke
    17. _ Cara merubah yoke vertikal
    18. – Gelang Konfergensi

    1. 5. Langkah-Langkah Mereparasi TV
    2. -Cara Mengukur Tegangan Bagian-Bagian Penting.
    3. -Cara Memperbaiki Regulator
    4. -Cara Memperbaiki TV Mati Total

    1. 6. Mengatasi Berbagai Masalah Televisi Yang Umumnya Terjadi :
    1. Layar tidak penuh atas bawah
    2. Gambar menggulung keatas atau kebawah
    3. Layar hanya menampilkan garis mendatar saja
    4. Layar hanya menampilkan garis tegak lurus saja
    5. Gambar tidak ada warnanya atau menjadi hitam putih
    6. Salah satu warna tidak ada,Entah merah,biru atau hijau
    7. Layar hanya menampilkan putih polos tidak ada gambar dan suara
    8. Layar menampilkan putih saja (Gambar tidak ada) tetapi suara ada
    9. Layar gelap suara ada
    10. Gambar tidak ada,raster ada
    11. Suara ada gambar tidak ada,layar garis-garis blanking {garis diagonal}
    12. Gambar ada tetapi beberapa menit gambar hilang
    13. Gambar ada tetapi kadang gambar geser atau lari
    14. Televisi mati tetapi ada bengingnya pada rangkaian mesin
    15. Televisi dihidupkan tetapi kembali stand by (proteksi)
    16. Gambar naik turun tidak berhenti
    17. Gambar normal suara tidak ada
    18. Gambar/Layar tidak penuh kanan dan kiri
    19. Gambar normal tetapi cahaya pada layarnya redup
    20. Tombol televisi beralih fungsi atau fungsinya berubah tidak sesuai aslinya
    21. Menu program untuk mencari gambar tidak jalan
    22. Televisi dihidupkan,volume langsung keras
    23. Gambar & suara tidak ada,Layar hanya menyala hijau saja/merah saja/biru saja
    24. Gambar terlihat seperti kelis photo/bayangan hantu
    25. Gambar bergerak terus kekanan kiri dan keatas bawah,terlihat berantakan
    26. Televisi kalau dihidupkan munculnya gambar agak lama
    27. Televisi dihidupkan tetapi beberapa menit mati lagi,lalu digebrak bodinya hidup lagi,kadang sudah hidup lama tiba-tiba mati sendiri dan di gebrak hidup lagi
    28. Warnanya kabur-kabur di tepi gambar
    29. Gambar dan tulisan tidak fokus
    30. Gambarnya menjadi panjang keatas dan bawah
    31. Gambar dan suara normal,tetapi tampilan pada layarnya tidak penuh atas bawah dan kanan kiri,jadi hanya kotak saja
    32. Suara normal tetapi gambar galer-galer
    33. Televisi kalau dihidupkan listrik langsung mati (jeglek)

    1. 7. Menu Servis Mode Berbagai Merk Televisi

    1. 8. Tips Melihat Penyebab Protek Pada Televisi

    1. 9. Memory / EEPROM
    2. -Tips mengisi IC memory tanpa alat programer
    3. -Cara kerja IC memory


    1. 10. CRT / Tabung
    - Nama-nama komponen dalam tabung / CRT
    - Berbagai model PIN Tabung / CRT
    11. Cara Mengukur Tabung Dengan Multitester Serta Contohnya

    12. Mengatasi Beberapa Masalah Pada Layar CRT
    - Jalan Alternatif Membuat Tegangan Screen
    - Alat Menembak Tabung Yang Lemah
    -Memodifikasi fokus Tabung SONY
    13. Cara Mengganti Tabung Yang Berbeda PIN

    14. Berbagai Kasus Televisi

    15. Contoh-Contoh Kasus Televisi & Ditunjukkan Letak Komponen Yang Rusak

    16. Cara Merakit Komputer
    - Pengenalan komponen serta penjelasnnya dengan gambar
    - Langkah-langkah merakit komputer
    - Cara pemasangan komponen beserta gambarnya
    17. Cara Menginstal Windows XP
    Bagi anda yang ingin belajar elektronik tetapi belum mengerti sama sekali komponen elektronika dan dasar-dasar elektronika,jangan berkecil hati.Di tutorial saya juga ada dasar-dasar elektronika mulai dari pengenalan komponen,fungsi komponen,kegunaan komponen serta cara mengukur komponen.Jadi bagi para pemula yang ingin sekali belajar elektronika mulai dari dasar bisa di awali dgn memiliki Tutorial dari saya ini.Mudah,Cepat & Praktis.Semoga bisa membantu anda semua.
    Berikut ini daftar isi Tutorial Dasar-Dasar elektronika :

    1. Macam-Macam Komponen Elektronika
    2. Transistor
    3. Cara Mengukur Transistor
    4. Kondensator / Kapasitor
    5. Cara Mengukur Kondensator Elko
    6. Mengukur Kondensator Keramik / Milar
    7. Cara Membaca Nilai Kapasitor Keramik & Milar
    8. Resistor
    9. Tabel Warna Resistor Biasa
    10. Tabel Warna Resistor Metal
    11. Cara Membaca Resistor Biasa
    12. Cara Membaca Resistor Metal
    13. Dioda
    14. Macam-Macam Dioda
    15. Cara Mengukur Dioda
    16. Cara Mengukur Dioda Kuprok
    17. Transformator / Trafo
    18. Cara Mengukur Trafo
    19. Proses Pembuatan Trafo
    20. Adaptor / Regulator
    21. Contoh-Contoh Rangkaian Regulator Sederhana
    22. Rangkaian Seri & Paralel
    Daftar isi di atas adalah isi semua tutorial yang saya buat dan disertai penjelasannya dgn lengkap.Cara mengukur tegangan,langkah-langkah reparasi,cara reparasi dgn benar,cara mengukur tabung,cara mengukur komponen dan lain sebagainya anda bisa lihat sendiri daftar isinya.Semua disertai gambarnya.Bisa anda buktikan.
    Dibawah ini salah satu contoh isi tutorial pada halaman pertama,jika anda ingin belajar lebih lengkap dan jelas bisa pesan langsung ke saya.Blog ini adalah asli buatan saya sendiri.Pada contoh photo-photo yang ada di blog ini adalah asli photo saya dan kalimat penjelasanannya juga asli hasil uraian saya sendiri.Karena berdasarkan pengalaman.

    Gambar 1A. Diagram Blok Televisi Warna

    Gambar 1B. Diagram Blok Bagian Warna

    Gambar 2. Diagram Blok Televisi Hitam Putih

    Diagram blok diatas (Gambar 1 & 2) adalah diagram blok televisi berwarna dan hitam putih.Diantara kedua gambar tsb pada dasarnya sama,bagian-bagiannya,fungsinya,serta cara kerjanya semua sama.Untuk televisi berwarna hanya ada tambahan bagian warna saja (Gambar 1B).Bagian yang lainnya sama persis tak ada bedanya,jadi anda tidak perlu bingung kalau memperbaiki televisi berwarna.Oleh karena itu diagram tersebut penting untuk di ingat-ingat sebagai pedoman anda.Karena diagram tersebut adalah proses / urutan cara kerja televisi mulai dari tuner sampai munculnya gambar pada layar.Maka diagram ini sangat penting untuk dasar dan menjadi petunjuk anda mereparasi televisi.Berarti anda mengerti betul proses kerjanya televisi dari bagian ke bagian.Jadi kalau anda mereparasi televisi tidak asal asalan tetapi tepat pada sasarannya.Kalau anda tidak mengerti urutan bagian dan fungsinya,maka anda akan mengalami kesulitan dan tidak tepat pada bagian yang rusak.Dan blok ini penting anda hafal serta fungsinya walaupun tidak secara mendetail.
    Pada gambar 1B adalah skema blok bagian warna.Untuk proses terjadinya warna bagaimana,anda tak perlu menghafalkan skemanya dan teorinya,karena kalau dihafalkan sangat banyak sekali dan membuat anda tambah pusing.Yang penting adalah skema dasarnya saja (gambar 1A) dan fungsi masing-masing bagian (berulang kali saya sebutkan).Intinya anda bisa cara mereparasi televisi berwarna dengan langkah-langkah yang tepat dan cepat tak perlu bertele-tele menghafalkan proses pewarnaan.Karena kalau dipelajari secara mendetail mengenai proses terjadinya warna mungkin bisa satu buku sendiri dan anda belum tentu paham.Oleh karena itu anda pelajari praktisnya saja,teorinya diambil yang poin poin penting saja dan langkahnya mereparasi dengan cepat dan tepat.
    Berikut ini penjelasan mengenai fungsi dari masing-masing bagian :
    Antena : berfungsi untuk menangkap sinyal RF dari pemancar televisi.
    Tuner : berfungsi untuk memilih gelombang pemancar yang akan diterima.
    Didalam tuner terdapat rangkaian penguat RF,mixer dan osilator.
    Penguat RF bertugas memilih pemancar yang akan diterima kemudian diberikan ke mixer.
    Mixer akhirnya menghasilkan frekuensi baru,kemudian difilter menjadi 2 frekuensi saja yang keluar yaitu 38,9 MHZ dan 33,4 MHZ.
    Frekuensi 38,9 MHZ adalh frekuensi pembawa gambar
    Frekuensi 33,4 MHZ adalah frekuensi pembawa suara.
    Kedua frekuensi tersebut kemudian diteruskan ke penguat video IF.
    Video IF : berfungsi menguatkan sinyal-sinyal yang diterima dari mixer,kemudin diteruskan ke video detektor.
    Video detektor :berfungsi mendeteksi sinyal gambar dan suara kemudian diteruskan ke video driver.Sinyal pembawa gambar dideteksi hingga keluar sinyal gambar yang frekuensinya 15 KHZ-5 MHZ,sinyal pembawa suara dideteksi hingga keluar sinyal pembawa suara baru 5,5 MHZ (FM).
    Video driver berfungsi memisahkan sinyal pembawa suara,sinyal gambar dan sinyal sincronisasi.
    Sinyal gambar diteruskan ke video output.
    Sinyal suara diteruskan ke sound IF amplifier.
    Sinyal sinkronisasi diteruskan ke sinkronisasi separator.
    Video output berungsi menguatkan sinyal gambar lalu diteruskan ke katoda tabung.
    Sound IF amplifier berfungsi menguatkan sinyal suara kemudian diteruskan ke detektor FM,detektor FM mendeteksi sinyal 5,5 MHZ hingga tinggal frekuensi audio,kemudian ke penguat audio terus ke loudspeaker.Untuk bagian sound IF sampai penguat audio ini seperti penguat amplifier biasa.
    Syncronisasi separator berfungsi untuk menyesuaikan gambar yang dipancarkan dari pemancar.
    Osilator vertikal berfungsi membangkitkan frekuensi 50 Hz kemudian diteruskan driver vertikal lalu ke output vertikal,selanjutnya ke defleksi vertikal dan defleksi vertikal ini membuka gambar secara vertikal (atas bawah).
    AFC berfungsi mengoreksi frekuensi horizontal 15,625 Khz dan diteruskan ke osilator horizontal.
    Osilator horizontal berfungsi untuk membangkitkan frekuensi 15,625 Khz kemudian diteruskan ke driver horizontal lalu ke output horizontal selanjutnya ke defleksi horizontal dan defleksi horizontal ini membuka gambar secara horizontal (kanan kiri).
    Horizontal output juga membangkitkan tegangan tinggi sekitar 10-20 kv untuk anoda tabungnya.
    Bab 2 : LANGKAH-LANGKAH MEREPARASI TELEVISI

    Gambar diatas adalah contoh cara membuang tegangan yang masih tersisa pada kop flyback.

    Dalam mereparasi televisi,apabila mesin televisi perlu dilepas maka buanglah dahulu tegangan yang masih tersisa pada kop flyback dan tabung ( seperti contoh diatas).Walaupun TV sudah mati total tetapi kop flyback dan tabung masih menyimpan tegangan yang cukup besar.


    Gambar diatas adalah contoh cara melepas kop flyback dgn aman.
    Walaupun tegangan sudah terbuang,jika mau melepas kop flyback maka untuk lebih aman gunakan tespen.Apabila masih ada sedikit tegangan yang tersisa maka akan terbuang pada lampu tespen tsb.

    Contoh melepas blok RGB
    Gambar diatas adalah contoh melepas bagian RGB dari katoda tabungnya.Yang warna putih tsb adalah soket katoda.Anda harus hati-hati sekali bila melepas soketnya,karena apabila tidak benar cara melepasnya bisa menyebabkan patahnya katoda tabung atau pecah leher tabung.
    Gambar dibawah ini adalah contoh mesin TV merk JVC model lama yang sudah dilepas dari tabung yang akan diperbaiki dalam kondisi Mati Total.Agar lebih leluasa dalam mereparasi bila membolak balik mesin tsb.

    Gambar diatas adalah mesin televisi merk JVC model lama.
    Langkah ini saya ketik secara urut,mulai dari buka box sampai selesai mereparasi.Tujuannya agar bagi teknisi pemula yang baru mulai mempelajari reparasi televisi bisa lebih memahami.Jadi harap maklum bagi teknisi yang sudah senior.Terimakasih.
    Langkah-langkah :
    1. Pertama,buka box tutup belakang.Apabila memperbaiki televisi keadaan mati total seperti ini,lebih baik mesin televisi dilepas saja dari tabungnya.Seperti contoh pada gambar diatas.Agar lebih leluasa jika membolak-balik mesin televisi tsb.Disamping itu,akan lebih mudah dalam pengecekan komponen dan pengukuran tegangan.Tabungnya juga aman tidak resiko kena benda-benda keras yang tidak sengaja selama reparasi,misalnya obeng,tang atau alat-alat lain.Hati-hati melepas mesin,kabel yang berhubungan dengan tabung harus dilepas dahulu seperti kop flyback (jangan dipegang kopnya sebelum dibuang tegangannya).Dan jangan langsung dilepas,buang dahulu tegangan yang masih tersimpan pada kop flyback,biasanya masih ada.Caranya yaitu ambil kabel multitester salah satu, kemudian hubungkan colok multi tsb ke ground tabung.Dan colok yang lancip untuk menusukkan ke dalam kop flyback.Maka akan terbuang tegangan yang masih tersisa dalam kop dan tabung tersebut.Setelah terbuang kemudian lepas kop tsb dari tabung dengan menggunakan tespen.Kenapa menggunakan tespen? Tujuannya apabila masih sedikit tegangan yang ada,maka akan terbuang pada lampu tespen,andapun lebih aman.Setelah kop terlepas,kemudian melepas rangkaian blok RGB yang menancap pada leher tabung,hati-hati sekali dalam melepas soketnya,karena kalau kaki katoda tabung ada yang sampai patah atau kaca leher tabung pecah,maka anda menggantinya tabung.Lihatlah contoh diatas.
    2. Langkah kedua yaitu membersihkan debu-debu yang ada sampai bersih dan bersihkan juga kotoran yang menempel pada jalur-jalur pcb dengan menggunakan bekas sikat gigi dan tiner yang cepat menguap atau bisa juga alkohol.Caranya,teteskan tiner atau alkohol pada sikat gigi dan pcb yang akan dibersihkan,lalu gosok dengan sikat sampai bersih dari kotoran.Mengapa kotoran yang menempel pcb harus dibersihkan? Tujuannya adalah agar solderan yang retak-retak kelihatan dan memudahkan pengecekan atau penyolderan.Selanjutnya adalah melepas dahulu Transistor panel horizontal yang ada pendinginnya didekat flyback.Untuk menghindari kelalaian anda jika mesin televisi hidup.Karena jika mesin televisi hidup,maka flyback akan menyemprotkan tegangan tinggi sebesar 20-25KV.Coba anda bayangkan kalau terkena tegangan sebesar itu.Tetapi jika Transistor panel sudah dilepas maka anda sudah aman.Karena hal ini penting,saya mengingatkan saja.Tapi anda jangan terus takut,entar setelah membaca petunjuk ini anda takut.Jadi seorang teknisi jangan takut yang penting anda hati-hati dan selalu perhatikan letak kop flyback setiap akan mencoba menghidupkan mesin televisi,jangan sampai terletak diatas/dibawah mesin.Kop flyback tsb harus letakkan jauh sepanjang kabel kop dan menghadap keatas atau dimasukkan dalam gelas saja lebih amannya(posisi ini jika Tr panel horizontal sudah terpasang,jika tidak terpasang tidak apa-apa).
    3. Langkah ketiga adalah mengecek tegangan listrik 220V dan sekringnya.Apabila tegangan 220V normal & sekring normal,maka cek tegangan pada elko 400VDC,jika tidak ada tegangannya maka cek dioda bridg_nya atau 4 dioda penyearahnya,mungkin ada yang rusak.
    4. Langkah empat,jika tegangan pada elko 400V sudah ada (tegangannya hanya sekitar 250-300VDC saja,bukan 400VDC persis) kemudian ukur tegangan sekundernya 110-115 VDC.
    5. Apabila tegangan 110VDC tidak ada,maka kita cek satu persatu daerah sekunder power supply saja.Atau anda lakukan penyolderan ulang dahulu pada bagian yang dicurigai,lalu coba hidupkan.Jika belum keluar tegangan B+ 110V,maka lakukan pengecekan komponen satu persatu didaerah sekunder power supply.Gambar dibawah ini adalah contoh blok sekunder power supply.
    6. Demi keamanan jika anda memperbaiki power supply,biasakan transistor panel horizontal dilepas dahulu,diatas sudah dijelaskan.Hal ini penting untuk menghindari kelalaian anda,karena kalau power supply sudah hidup,dan osilator sampai output horizontal juga hidup maka flyback akan menyemprotkan tegangan tinggi 20-25KV.Dibawah ini contoh transistor horizontal output ( Panel ) yang harus dilepas yaitu D1877.

    7. Cabut/sedot dahulu solderan B+ pada kaki flyback yang ada hubungannya dengan elko B+ 160V agar tidak terbeban oleh flyback dalam memperbaiki power supply.Apabila tidak dilepas solderannya juga tidak apa-apa,flyback tidak akan menyemprotkan tegangan selama transistor panel horizontal belum terpasang.Namun hal tersebut penting juga,karena apa? Untuk mengetahui kaki B+ flyback tsb konslet atau tidak.Jika konslet,maka tegangan B+ dari power supply akan mati setelah dihubungkan dengan kaki B+ flyback.Maka secara langsung anda mengetahui bahwa flyback sudah konslet.
    Pada gambar dibawah ini contoh pin B+ yg perlu dilepas.
    8. Apabila tegangan B+ belum keluar,maka langkah selanjutnya mengukur komponen aktiv dahulu,seperti transistor{Tr},semua diukur satu persatu,jika menemukan ada yang rusak maka gantilah yang baru.

    9. Langkah kesembilan,jika B+ power supply belum keluar juga tetapi Transistor semua normal,maka cek dioda Zener 110V.Dioda Zener tersebut bentuknya besar,seperti dioda 3A.Nah..,biasanya zener ini putus,karena dioda ini adalah zener pembatas B+ 110 VDC.

    10. Langkah kesepuluh,misalnya B+ belum keluar juga,padahal komponen aktiv seperti Transistor,dioda semua sudah dicek normal.Maka cek Resistor{R},biasanya R yang menuju Basis Transistor Panel power supply dari elko 400V putus,nilainya sekitar 100k-150k ada 2 buah,ganti kedua Resistornya.

    11. Pada Power supply televisi untuk panelnya/transistor output tidak semua memakai Transistor,ada yang memakai STR atau SMR.STR adalah IC {Integrated Circuit} tapi didalamnya juga transistor 2 buah dan ada Resistor.Jika STR ini rusak maka R disekitar biasanya rusak,putus atau mulur,kalau kita mengganti STR,maka sekalian R_nya diganti agar kerja STR sempurna.Nah,jika ada televisi dihidupkan tapi listrik langsung mati atau jeglek maka power supply pasti rusak,yaitu bagian primernya.Ada 4 faktor penyebab diantaranya panel regulator rusak/konslet (Transistor,STR),dioda bridg_nya konslet,bisa juga kapasitor milar 250V konslet atau Elko 400V konslet.
    Seperti gambar dibawah ini adalah regulator bagian primer :

    12. Jika tegangan sekunder sudah ada,lalu anda ukur dan atur trimpot B+,tegangan rata-rata 110-115 Vdc.Dan ukurlah tegangan keluaran B+ yang lain sesuai standard.

    13. Syarat agar mesin televisi bisa hidup harus ada tegangan pwr supply,osilator horizontal,driver horiz,output horiz,B+vertikal dan output vertical,lalu tegangan heater,tegangan screen(G2),teg video output dan tegangan RGB.Diantara bagian-bagian tersebut peran paling penting adalah bagian power supply dan Horizontal,kedua bagian ini adalah ibarat orang jantungnya,harus hidup duluan,nanti baru yang lainnya.Berapa saja tegangan diantara bagian-bagian tsb,berikut ini penjelasannya : -power supply : 110V-115Vdc
    -osilator horizontal : 8-12Vdc {Teg untuk IC osc}
    -driver horizontal : 50Vdc {pada kaki collector Tr driver horz}
    -output horizontal (H-Out) : 0,2Vdc {dari IC osc ke Basis Tr driver Ho}
    -Basis TR output horizontal : 0,5 VAC
    -IC vertical : 24Vdc {teg B+ IC vertikal tsb}
    -output vertical : 12V-16Vdc {dari IC vert menuju defleksi vert}
    -heater : 6VAC
    -screen (G2) : 250V-500Vdc
    -RGB {katoda} : 90V-125Vdc
    -video output : 180Vdc {dari flyback}
    -program : 5Vdc {teg B+ untuk IC program}
    14. Jika tegangan dari power supply semua normal,selanjutnya yang penting adalah harus menghidupkan bagian horizontal dahulu.Mulai dari osilator,driver dan output horizontal.Untuk bagian yang lain belakangan.Anda lihat datanya pada langkah tiga belas,sesuaikan tegangannya.Secara cepat dan praktisnya,langsung ukur tegangan basis pada Transistor output horizontal ( dari trafo IT yg menuju basis TR horizontal out) harus ada sekitar 0,5VAC,kecil sekali (wajib ada).Kalau tegangan basis ini sudah ada berarti mesin tsb sudah hidup,dan anda tidak perlu mengukur mulai dari osilator.Gambar berikut ini adalah tegangan 0,5VAC yg wajib ada dari trafo IT ke basis TR horizontal.

    Jika tegangan dari trafo IT yang menuju Basis TR horizontal out tidak ada,maka mesin televisi tidak mungkin hidup,kemudian baru anda urutkan pengecekannya.Mulai dari osilator sampai output horizontal.Kalau tegangannya sudah ada berarti mesin TV ini sudah bisa hidup dan pasang transistor output horizontal yang dilepas tadi,tetapi diukur dahulu Transistor tersebut bagus atau tidak dan mesin TV siap dicoba.
    15. Cukup jelas dari rangkuman diatas mengatasi TV mati total,mulai dari pengecekan power supply sampai menghidupkan TV,berarti anda sudah bisa menservis TV sendiri tanpa minta bantuan bengkel lain.
    Dibawah ini adalah contoh IC osilator TA8690AN dan data pin :
    IC ini biasa di pakai pada mesin TV Goldstar dan Akari:

    Gambar dari balik PCB

    Gambar diatas yang tulisan kuning adalah data pin IC osilator poin-poin penting yang sering di cek oleh para bengkel TV.Ada V-Out,H-Out,H-Vcc,RGB Out,Chroma dan Vcc.Karena poin-poin tsb adalah peran yang terpenting dalam IC tsb.Anda harus tau maksudnya kode-kode IC itu dan besarnya tegangan pada bagian tsb.Karena pin-pin tsb adalah yang terpenting dalam IC.Bila anda ingin lebih jelas lagi dan mempelajari dari bagian perbagian,maka milikilah tutorial tsb untuk dipelajari lebih dalam.Karena yang ada di blog ini baru contoh saja belum seberapa,masih banyak lagi yang harus di pelajari.Oleh karena itu kejarlah ilmu jika anda ingin lebih maju.

    Sekarang anda sudah bisa memperbaiki mesin televisi keadaan mati total,tetapi bagaimana caranya mengetahui bahwa mesin TV tsb sudah menampilkan gambar tanpa harus memasang tabung terlebih dahulu? Caranya mudah,bisa anda baca lebih lanjut bila memiliki tutorial dari saya. Selanjutnya cara melacak gangguan-gangguan TV,cara menangani masalah gambar,cara mengukur tabung,cara mengatasi tabung yang bermasalah dan lain-lain.Untuk itu bila anda memiliki tutorialnya bisa anda pelajari lebih lanjut.
    Melihat dari daftar isi tersebut,dengan rendah hati saya kira sangat bermanfaat bagi siapapun,khususnya bagi orang yang suka otak atik elektronika dan komputer.Bagi orang yang ingin belajar merakit komputer sendiri dan cara menginstal komputer sendiri,maka anda tak perlu kursus kemana-mana.Karena dengan membaca tutorialnya maka anda tinggal mengikuti langkah demi langkah.Mungkin ilmu dari saya bisa anda jadikan modal untuk membuka servis televisi dan komputer,karena untuk servis televisi berkisar 50-100ribu,itu baru servis satu televisi.Bayangkan jika anda dalam sehari bisa mereparasi televisi 5 unit saja sudah berapa.Kemudian komputer misalnya sekali menginstal satu unit komputer saja sudah 5orb.Apakah anda tidak berminat untuk mencari uang yang lebih mudah dan halal.Mudah-mudahan ilmu dari saya ini berguna bagi anda yang telah memiliki tutorialnya.
    Apabila anda punya niat untuk mencari ilmu janganlah ditunda-tunda,karena anda akan rugi dengan waktu yang terbuang sia-sia.Segeralah menuntut ilmu demi masa depan anda sendiri.
    Maka dari itu,apabila tutorial saya sangat berguna bagi anda,silakan anda merelakan uang cukup 150 rb saja sebagai ongkos lelah selama mengetik berhari-hari bahkan sampai berbulan-bulan.Apabila anda kursus tidak mungkin dengan uang 150rb bisa mendapatkan banyak ilmu,bahkan baru pendaftaran saja sudah mahal,belum transportasi anda,buku-buku penunjang lainnya,belum biaya praktek anda dan lain sebagainya sampai jutaan rupiah.
    Saya membuat tutorial ini karena saya ingin saling membagi ilmu kepada anda.Oleh karena itu janganlah sia-siakan kesempatan ini,karena saya tidak selamanya membuka blog ini,hanyalah terbatas waktu.Semoga semua ilmu yang saya berikan ini akan sangat berguna bagi anda dan anak cucu anda.Karena ilmu tidak bakal hilang selama hidup dan bisa turun temurun.Maka dengan saya memberikan kesempatan ini janganlah anda sia-siakan,manfaatkan betul kesempatan anda bisa mengakses blog ini.Tutorial saya ini dalam bentuk CD dan bisa dibaca dikomputer atau laptop anda.

    Cara pemesanannya cukup gampang & tidak repot.Anda tinggal telp saja atau sms ke nomor saya untuk konfirmasi langsung.Lalu anda tranfer uang ke rekening saya,kemudian CD tutorialnya langsung saya kirimkan ke alamat rumah anda lewat kantor pos kilat khusus.Anda jangan ragu jika berminat.Blog saya ini bukan penipuan,jangan dibandingkan dgn blog-blog lain yang menawarkan berbagai ebook tetapi tidak bisa konfirmasi langsung dgn pemiliknya.Dengan blog saya ini anda bisa langsung konfirmasi dan bertanya melalui sms atau telp.Tutorial yang saya tawarkan ini telah berlaku dan terbukti membantu bagi para pemula yang belajar reparasi TV.Jika anda telah memiliki tutorial dari saya,maka anda boleh bertanya jika ada kesulitan reparasi TV.
    Oleh karena itu jika anda ingin bisa reparasi TV,jangan ragu untuk mengeluarkan uang 150rb demi ketrampilan anda.Pikirkan jika anda kursus berapa juta. Tutorial ini cukup lengkap saya sediakan dalam bentuk kepingan CD dan bisa dibaca di komputer anda.Isinya sesuai daftar isi di atas.Di manapun anda cari,tidak ada buku reparasi TV yang isinya lengkap ,jelas dan mudah seperti tutorial dari saya ini.Karena tutorial ini membahas langsung poin-poin penting teknik reparasi,tidak banyak teori saja.Tetapi cara mereparasi televisi.Walaupun anda baru mulai belajar TV,maka anda akan cepat paham.Karena dijelaskan dari bagian per bagian dan di lengkapi contoh photonya.Sekali lagi anda jangan ragu,yakinlah anda pasti bisa.
              Komputasi Modern        

    Komputasi Modern

    1. Definisi Komputasi

    Secara umum ilmu komputasi adalah bidang ilmu yang mempunyai perhatian pada penyusunan model matematika dan teknik penyelesaian numerik serta penggunaan komputer untuk menganalisis dan memecahkan masalah-masalah ilmu (sains). Dalam penggunaan praktis, biasanya berupa penerapan simulasi komputer atau berbagai bentuk komputasi lainnya untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah dalam berbagai bidang keilmuan, tetapi dalam perkembangannya digunakan juga untuk menemukan prinsip-prinsip baru yang mendasar dalam ilmu.
    Bidang ini berbeda dengan ilmu komputer (computer science), yang mengkaji komputasi, komputer dan pemrosesan informasi. Bidang ini juga berbeda dengan teori dan percobaan sebagai bentuk tradisional dari ilmu dan kerja keilmuan. Dalam ilmu alam, pendekatan ilmu komputasi dapat memberikan berbagai pemahaman baru, melalui penerapan model-model matematika dalam program komputer berdasarkan landasan teori yang telah berkembang, untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah nyata dalam ilmu tersebut.

    2. Pengertian Komputasi Modern
    Komputasi modern --> sebuah konsep sistem yang menerima intruksi-intruksi dan menyimpannya dalam sebuah memory, memory disini bisa juga dari memory komputer.
    Oleh karena pada saat ini kita melakukan komputasi menggunakan komputer maka bisa dibilang komputer merupakan sebuah komputasi modern. Konsep ini pertama kali digagasi oleh John Von Neumann (1903-1957). Beliau adalah ilmuan yang meletakkan dasar-dasar komputer modern. Von Neumann telah menjadi ilmuwan besar abad 21. Von Neumann memberikan berbagai sumbangsih dalam bidang matematika, teori kuantum, game theory, fisika nuklir, dan ilmu komputer yang di salurkan melalui karya-karyanya . Beliau juga merupakan salah satu ilmuwan yang terkait dalam pembuatan bom atom di Los Alamos pada Perang Dunia II lalu. Kegeniusannya dalam matematika telah terlihat semenjak kecil dengan mampu melakukan pembagian bilangan delapan digit (angka) di dalam kepalanya.

    Von Neumann dilahirkan di Budapest, ibu kota Hungaria, pada 28 Desember 1903 dengan nama Neumann Janos. Dia adalah anak pertama dari pasangan Neumann Miksa dan Kann Margit. Di sana, nama keluarga diletakkan di depan nama asli. Sehingga dalam bahasa Inggris, nama orang tuanya menjadi Max Neumann dan Margaret Kann. Max Neumann memperoleh gelar dan namanya berubah menjadi Von Neumann. Max Neumann adalah seorang Yahudi Hungaria yang bergelar doktor dalam ilmu hukum. Dia juga seorang pengacara untuk sebuah bank. Pada tahun 1903, Budapest terkenal sebagai tempat lahirnya para manusia genius dari bidang sains, penulis, seniman dan musisi.

    Von Neumann juga belajar di Berlin dan Zurich dan mendapatkan diploma pada bidang teknik kimia pada tahun 1926. Pada tahun yang sama dia mendapatkan gelar doktor pada bidang matematika dari Universitas Budapest. Keahlian Von Neumann terletak pada bidang teori game yang melahirkan konsep seluler automata, teknologi bom atom, dan komputasi modern yang kemudian melahirkan komputer. Kegeniusannya dalam matematika telah terlihat semenjak kecil dengan mampu melakukan pembagian bilangan delapan digit (angka) di dalam kepalanya.

    Setelah mengajar di Berlin dan Hamburg, Von Neumann pindah ke Amerika pada tahun 1930 dan bekerja di Universitas Princeton serta menjadi salah satu pendiri Institute for Advanced Studies.

    Dipicu ketertarikannya pada hidrodinamika dan kesulitan penyelesaian persamaan diferensial parsial nonlinier yang digunakan, Von Neumann kemudian beralih dalam bidang komputasi. Sebagai konsultan pada pengembangan ENIAC, dia merancang konsep arsitektur komputer yang masih dipakai sampai sekarang. Arsitektur Von Nuemann adalah komputer dengan program yang tersimpan (program dan data disimpan pada memori) dengan pengendali pusat, I/O, dan memori.


    Dalam kerjanya komputasi modern menghitung dan mencari solusi dari masalah yang ada, dan perhitungan yang dilakukan itu meliputi:
    1. Akurasi (big, Floating point)
    2. Kecepatan (dalam satuan Hz)
    3. Problem Volume Besar (Down Sizzing atau pararel)
    4. Modeling (NN & GA)
    5. Kompleksitas (Menggunakan Teori big O)

    3. Sejarah Komputasi
    Penggunaan pertama dari kata "komputer" dicatat pada 1613, mengacu pada seseorang yang melakukan perhitungan, atau perhitungan, dan kata terus digunakan dalam pengertian itu sampai pertengahan abad ke-20. Dari akhir abad ke-19 dan seterusnya. Namun, kata mulai mengambil makna yang lebih akrab, menggambarkan sebuah mesin yang melakukan perhitungan.

    Sejarah komputer modern dimulai dengan dua teknologi yang terpisah –perhitungan otomatis dan permrograman– tapi tidak ada satu perangkat yang dapat diidentifikasi sebagai komputer yang paling awal, sebagian karena penerapan yang tidak konsisten istilah tersebut. Contoh awal perangkat penghitung mekanis termasuk sempoa, slide aturan dan agrueable astrolabe dan mekanisme antikythera (yang berasal dari sekitar 150-100 SM). Pahlawan Iskandariyah (sekitar 10-70 AD) membangun sebuah teater mekanis yang digelar sebuah drama yang berlangsung 10 menit dan dioperasikan oleh sebuah sistem yang kompleks tali dan drum yang mungkin dianggap sebagai sarana untuk memutuskan bagian mana dari mekanisme yang dilakukan tindakan dan kapan. ini adalah inti dari kemampuan pemrograman.

    "Jam benteng (castle clock)", sebuah jam astronomi yang ditemukan oleh Al-Jazari pada 1206, dianggap paling awal komputer analog yang dapat diprogram. menampilkan zodiak, matahari dan bulan mengorbit, yang berbentuk bulan sabit pointer untuk melakukan perjalanan di sebuah gateway menyebabkan pintu otomatis untuk membuka setiap jam, dan lima robot musisi yang memainkan musik ketika diserang oleh tuas yang dioperasikan oleh Camshaft menempel pada roda air. Sepanjang siang dan malam bisa kembali diprogram untuk mengimbangi perubahan
    panjang siang dan malam sepanjang tahun.

    Renaissance melihat invigoration ulang dari matematika dan teknik orang Eropa. 1623 perangkat Wilhelm Schickard's merupakan yang pertama dari sejumlah kalkulator mekanik european dibangun oleh insinyur, tetapi tidak ada yang sesuai dengan definisi modern dari sebuah komputer, karena mereka tidak bisa diprogram. pada tahun 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard membuat perbaikan untuk tekstil alat tenun dengan memperkenalkan serangkaian menekan kartu kertas sebagai template yang membiarkan alat tenun menenun secara otomatis pola-pola rumit. Alat tenun Jacquard yang dihasilkan merupakan langkah penting dalam pengembangan komputer karena penggunaan kartu menekan untuk menentukan pola-pola anyaman dapat dilihat sebagai suatu awal, meskipun terbatas bentuk kemampuan pemrogramannya.

    Itu adalah perpaduan dari perhitungan otomatis dengan kemampuan pemrograman yang memproduksi komputer pertama yang dikenali. Pada tahun 1837, Charles Babbage adalah orang pertama yang konsep dan desain mekanisnya dapat diprogram penuh komputer, mesin analitis. Babbage dengan keuangan yang terbatas dan ketidakmampuan untuk menolak mengotak-atik desain berarti bahwa perangkat tidak pernah selesai.

    Pada akhir 1880-an, Herman Hollerith menemukan rekaman data pada mesin yang dapat dibaca menengah. Sebelum mesin yang dapat dibaca menggunakan media di atas, telah bisa untuk kontrol bukan data. "Setelah beberapa percobaan awal dengan kertas pita, ia menetap di kartu menekan ..." memproses kartu menekan ini ia menemukan tabulator, dan mesin keypunch. Penemuan ketiga adalah dasar dari industri pengolahan informasi modern. Skala besar pengolahan data otomatis dari kartu menekan dilakukan untuk tahun 1890 sensus amerika serikat oleh perusahaan Hollerith, yang kemudian menjadi inti dari IBM. pada akhir abad ke-19 sejumlah teknologi yang nantinya akan berguna dalam realisasi praktis komputer telah mulai muncul: yang menekan kartu, aljabar boolean, tabung vakum (thermionic valve) dan teleprinter.

    Pada paruh pertama abad 20, banyak kebutuhan komputasi ilmiah bertemu dengan semakin canggih komputer analog, yang menggunakan mekanis atau listrik langsung model masalah sebagai dasar perhitungan. Namun, ini tidak dapat diprogram dan umumnya tidak memiliki fleksibilitas dan keakuratan komputer digital modern.

    Alan Turing secara luas dianggap sebagai bapak ilmu komputer modern. Pada tahun 1936 turing memberikan formalisasi berpengaruh konsep algoritma dan perhitungan dengan mesin turing. dari perannya dalam komputer modern, waktu turing majalah dalam penamaan salah satu dari 100 orang paling berpengaruh dari abad ke-20, menyatakan: "kenyataan tetap bahwa setiap orang yang keran di keyboard, membuka spreadsheet atau program pengolah kata, adalah bekerja pada inkarnasi dari mesin turing. "

    Penemu program komputer yang dikendalikan Konrad Zuse, yang membangun komputer kerja pertama pada tahun 1941 dan kemudian pada tahun 1955 komputer pertama berdasarkan penyimpan yang bersifat magnetis.george stibitz secara internasional diakui sebagai ayah dari komputer digital modern. sementara bekerja di laboratorium bel di November 1937, stibitz menciptakan dan membangun sebuah relay berbasis kalkulator ia dijuluki sebagai "model k" (untuk "meja dapur", di mana dia telah berkumpul itu), yang adalah orang pertama yang menggunakan sirkuit biner untuk melakukan operasi aritmatika. kemudian model menambahkan kecanggihan yang lebih besar termasuk aritmatika dan kemampuan pemrograman kompleks.

    serangkaian mantap lebih kuat dan fleksibel perangkat komputasi yang dibangun di tahun 1930-an dan 1940-an, secara bertahap menambahkan fitur utama yang terlihat pada komputer modern. penggunaan digital elektronik (sebagian besar ditemukan oleh claude Shannon pada tahun 1937) dan lebih fleksibel kemampuan pemrograman langkah yang sangat penting, tetapi mendefinisikan satu titik di sepanjang jalan ini sebagai "komputer elektronik digital pertama" adalah prestasi terkemuka difficult.shannon 1940 meliputi:

    • Konrad Zuse’s electromechanical “Z mesin”.Z3 (1941) sebuah mesin pertama menampilkan biner aritmatika, termasuk aritmatika floating point dan ukuran programmability. Pada tahun 1998, Z3 operasional pertama di dunia komputer itu di anggap sebagai Turing lengkap.
    • Berikutnya Non-programmable Atanasoff-Berry Computer yang di temukan pada tahun 1941 alat ini menggunakan tabung hampa berdasarkan perhitungan, angka biner, dan regeneratif memori kapasitor.Penggunaan memori regeneratif diperbolehkan untuk menjadi jauh lebih seragam (berukuran meja besar atau meja kerja).
    • Selanjutnya komputer Colossus ditemukan pada tahun 1943, berkemampuan untuk membatasi kemampuan program pada alat ini menunjukkan bahwa perangkat menggunakan ribuan tabung dapat digunakan lebih baik dan elektronik reprogrammable.Komputer ini digunakan untuk memecahkan kode perang Jerman.
    • The Harvard Mark I ditemukan pada 1944, mempunyai skala besar, merupakan komputer elektromekanis dengan programmability terbatas.
    • Lalu lahirlah US Army’s Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC ditemukan pada tahun 1946, komputer ini digunakan unutk menghitung desimal aritmatika dan biasanya disebut sebagai tujuan umum pertama komputer elektronik (ENIAC merupaka generasi yang sudah sangat berkembang di zamannya sejak komputer pertama Konrad Zuse ’s Z3 yang ditemukan padatahun 1941).
    Beberapa pengembang ENIAC, mengakui kesalahannya, datang dengan yang jauh lebih fleksibeldan desain elegan, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai "arsitektur program yang tersimpan" atau arsitektur von Neumann. Desain ini secara resmi pertama kali dideskripsikan oleh John von Neumann di koran Draft Pertama Laporan di EDVAC, didistribusikan pada tahun 1945. Sejumlah proyek untuk mengembangkan komputer berdasarkan arsitektur program yang disimpan dimulai ekitar waktu ini, yang pertama yang selesai di Britania Raya. Yang pertama harus diperlihatkan bekerja adalah Manchester Skala Kecil Experimental Machine (SSEM atau "Baby"), sementara EDSAC, selesai setahun setelah SSEM, praktis pertama pelaksanaan rancangan program yang tersimpan. Tak lama kemudian, mesin awalnya dijelaskan oleh von Neumann kertas-EDVAC-selesai tapi tidak melihat penuh waktu digunakan untuk tambahan dua tahun.
    Hampir semua komputer modern mengimplementasikan beberapa bentuk dari
    arsitektur program yang tersimpan, sehingga sifat tunggal dengan mana kata "komputer" sekarang didefinisikan. Sementara teknologi yang digunakan pada komputer telah berubah secara dramatis sejak pertama elektronik, komputer tujuan umum dari tahun 1940-an, kebanyakan masih menggunakan arsitektur von Neumann. Komputer yang menggunakan tabung vakum sebagai elemen-elemen elektronik digunakan sepanjang tahun 1950-an, tapi tahun 1960 sebagian besar telah digantikan oleh mesin berbasis transistor, yang lebih kecil, lebih cepat, lebih murah untuk menghasilkan, diperlukan lebih sedikit daya, dan lebih dapat diandalkan.
    Komputer transistorised pertama telah didemonstrasikan di University of Manchester
    pada tahun 1953. Pada 1970-an, teknologi rangkaian terpadu dan penciptaan selanjutnya mikroprosesor, seperti Intel 4004, menurun lebih lanjut ukuran dan biaya dan semakin meningkatkan kecepatan dan kehandalan komputer. Pada akhir 1970-an, banyak produk seperti video recorder berisi komputer khusus yang disebut Microcontrollers, dan mereka mulai muncul sebagai pengganti mekanik peralatan kontrol di dalam negeri seperti mesin cuci. 1980-an menyaksikan rumah komputer dan sekarang komputer pribadi di mana-mana. Dengan evolusi internet, komputer pribadi menjadi yang biasa seperti televisi dan telepon dalam rumah tangga.
    Smartphone modern sepenuhnya-programmable komputer dalam hak mereka
    sendiri, dan ketika tahun 2009 bisa jadi bentuk yang paling umum dari komputer tersebut ada.


    Sumber :
    http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komputasi
    http://www.beritanet.com/Education/John-Von-Neumann.html
    http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teknologi_komputasi
    http://www.scribd.com/doc/24593215/SEJARAH-KOMPUTASI
    http://mochamdyoga.blogspot.com/2010/03




              Mix by Chamonix        
    Alinhamento: 1. Antoine Claraman ft Sugarhillgang - Rapper's Deligh (2006 Bootleg Club Mix) 2. Korn - Twisted Transistor (Dummies Club Mix) 3. Anastasia - Left Outside Alone (Jason Nevins Mix) 4. Scissor Sisters - I Don't feel Like Dancing (Paper Faces Mix) 5. Mousse T - Horny As A Dandy (So Phat Mix)
              Easy learning physics        



              CB 150R STREETFIRE        
    SPESIFIKASI
    • : 2.008 x 719 x 1.061 mm
    • : 1.288 mm
    • : 148 mm
    • : 129 kg
    • : Diamond Steel (Truss Frame)
    • : Teleskopik
    • : Lengan Ayun dengan Suspensi Tunggal (Sistem Suspensi Prol-Link)
    • : 80/90 � 17M/C 44P (Tubeless)
    • : 100/80 � 17M/C 52P (Tubeless)
    • : Cakram Hidrolik, dengan Piston Ganda
    • : Cakram Hidrolik, dengan Piston Tunggal
    • : 12 liter
    • : 4-Langkah, DOHC, 4-Katup, Silinder Tunggal
    • : 63,5 x 47,2 mm
    • : 149,48 cm�
    • : 11.0 : 1
    • : 12,5 kW (17,0 PS)/ 10.000 rpm
    • : 13,1 Nm (1,34 kgf.m)/ 8.000 rpm
    • : 1,0 Liter pada Penggantian Periodik
    • : -
    • : 6-Kecepatan
    • : 1 � N � 2 � 3 � 4 � 5 � 6
    • : Pedal & Elektrik
    • : MF 12 V � 5 Ah
    • : -
    • : Full Transistorized 
     HARGA : Rp 22,350,000 

     

              CÁC MẠCH ĐIỆN CÆ  BẢN CỦA NGUỒN ATX        

     Các mạch điện cÆ¡ bản Của nguồn

    ·  - Transistor trên nguồn ATX thường được sá»­ dụng làm các mạch công tắc,
    ·  khi nhìn vào các mạch này bạn có thể nhầm lẫn đó là mạch khuếch đại.- Ở mạch công tắc, các Transistor hoạt động ở một trong hai trạng thái là “dẫn bão hoà” hoặc “không dẫn”

    Các Transistor trong mạch bảo vệ của nguồn ATX, hoạt động ở trạng thái dẫn bão hoà hoặc tắt.
    ·  IC khuếch đại thuật toán OP-AMPLY1) Ký hiệu của IC khuếch đại thuật toán – OP-Amply


    OP-Amply – IC khuếch đại thuật toán
    • Cấu tạoOP-Amply có các chân nhÆ° sau:- Vcc – Chân điện áp cung cấp- Mass – Chân tiếp đất- IN1 – Chân tín hiệu vào đảo- IN2 – Chân tín hiệu vào không đảo- OUT – Chân tín hiệu ra
    • Trên
    sơ đồ nguyên lý, OP-Amly thường ghi tắt không có chân Vcc và chân Mass,
    hai chân IN1 và IN2 có thể tráo vị trí cho nhau.
    2) Nguyên lý hoạt động của OP-Amply
    OP-Amply hoạt động theo nguyên tắc: Khuếch đại sự chênh lệch giữa hai điện áp đầu vào IN1 và IN2
    - Khi chênh lệch giữa hai điện áp đầu vào bằng 0 (tức IN2 – IN1 = 0V)
    thì điện áp ra có giá trị bằng khoảng 45% điện áp Vcc
    - Khi điện áp đầu vào IN2 > IN1 => thì điện áp đầu ra tăng lên bằng Vcc
    - Khi điện áp đầu vào IN2 < IN1 => thì điện áp đầu ra giảm xuống bằng 0V

    Sơ đồ bên trong của OP-Amply
    3) Ứng dụng của OP-Amply
    3.1 – Mạch khuếch đại đảo dùng OP-Amply

    - Nếu ta cho tín hiệu vào đầu vào đảo (cực âm) và đầu vào không
    đảo (cực dương) đem chập xuống mass ta sẽ được một mạch khuếch đại đảo.
    - Hệ số khuếch đại có thể điều chỉnh được bằng cách điều chỉnh giá trị
    các điện trở Rht và R1, hệ số khuếch đại bằng tỷ số giữa hai điện trở
    này.
    K = Rht / R1 trong đó K là hệ số khuếch đại của mạch
    3.2 – Mạch khuếch đại không đảo dùng OP-Amply


    Đây là sơ đồ của mạch khuếch đại không đảo, về hệ số khuếch đại thì
    tương đương với mạch khuếch đại đảo nhưng điểm khác là điện áp ra Vout cùng pha với điện áp đầu vào Vin
    3.3 – Mạch khuếch đại đệm (khuếch đại dòng điện) dùng OP-Amply.

    Khi đem đầu ra đấu với đầu vào âm (hay đầu vào đảo) rồi cho tín hiệu
    vào cổng không đảo ta sẽ thu được một mach khuếch đại có hệ số
    khuếch đại điện áp bằng 1, tuy nhiên hệ số khuếch đại về dòng lại rất
    lớn, vì vậy mạch kiểu này thường được sử dụng trong các mạch khuếch đại
    về dòng điện.
    3.4 – Mạch so sánh dùng OP-Amply


    • Khi V2 = V1 thì điện áp ra Vout = khoảng 45% Vcc và không đổi
    • Khi V2 > V1 hay V2 – V1 > 0 thì Vout > 45% Vcc
    • Khi V2 < V1 hay V2 – V1 < 0 thì Vout < 45% Vcc
    • Khi V1 không đổi thì Vout tá»· lệ thuận với V2
    • Khi V2 không đổi thì Vout tá»· lệ nghịch với V1
    ·  IC so quang (Opto)1 – Cấu tạo: – IC so quang được cấu tạo bởi một đi ốt phát quang và một đèn thu
    quang, hai thành phần này cách ly với nhau và có thể cách ly được điện
    áp hàng trăm vol, khi đi ốt dẫn nó phát ra ánh sáng chiếu vào cực Bazơ
    của Transistor thu quang làm cho đèn này dẫn, dòng điện qua đi ốt thay
    đổi thì dòng điện qua đèn cũng thay đổi theo


    IC so quang thực tế
    2 – Nguyên lý hoạt động
    - Khi có dòng điện I1 đi qua đi ốt, đi ốt sẽ phát ra ánh sáng và
    chiếu vào cực B của đèn thu quang, đèn thu quang sẽ dẫn và cho dòng I2
    - Dòng I1 tăng thì dòng I2 cũng tăng
    - Dòng I1 giảm thì dòng I2 cũng giảm
    - Dòng I1 = 0 thì dòng I2 = 0
    Đi ốt phát quang và đèn thu quang được cách ly với nhau và có thể
    có điện áp chênh lệch hàng trăm Vol
    Hoạt động của IC so quang
    3 – Ứng dụng của IC so quang
    - IC so quang thường được ứng dụng trong mạch hồi tiếp trên các bộ nguồn xung.
    - Chúng có tác dụng đưa được thông tin biến đổi điện áp từ thứ
    cấp về bên sơ cấp nhưng vẫn cách ly được điện áp giữa sơ cấp và thứ
    cấp.
    - Sơ cấp của nguồn (thông với điện áp lưới AC) và thứ cấp của nguồn (thông với mass của máy)

    ·  IC tạo điện áp dò sai- Người ta thường dùng IC tạo áp dò sai KA431(hoặc TL431) trong các mạch nguồn để theo dõi và khuếch đại những biến đổi điện áp đầu ra thành dòng điện chạy qua IC so quang, từ đó thông qua IC so quang nó truyền được thông tin biến đổi điện áp về bên sÆ¡ cấp.

    Cấu tạo và ký hiệu của IC tao áp dò sai KA 431


    Hình dáng IC – KA 431 




    ·  Đi ốt kép- Trong nguồn ATX người ta thường sá»­ dụng Đi ốt kép để chỉnh lÆ°u điện áp đầu ra- Hình dáng đi ốt kép trông tÆ°Æ¡ng tá»± nhÆ° đèn công suất và có ký hiệu nhÆ° ảnh trên- Đi ốt kép thường cho dòng lớn và chịu được tần số cao

    ·  Cuộn dây lọc gợn cao tần. Cuộn dây lọc nhiễu hình xuyếnTrong nguồn ATX ta thường nhìn thấy cuộn dây nhÆ° trên ở đầu ra gần các
    bối dây cấp nguồn xuống Mainboard, tác dụng của cuộn dây này là để chặn
    các nhiễu cao tần, đồng thời kết hợp với tụ lọc để tạo thành mạch lọc
    LC lọc cho các điện áp ra được bằng phẳng hơn.




              T29G Yealink Enterprise HD IP Phone        

    T29G Yealink Telefone IP

     

     

     

    O que é?

    T29G Yealink Telefone IP é o modelo mais avançado da série de terminais IP Yealink T2x.

    Ele tem um display TFT colorido de alta resolução e oferece um visual rico tecnologia experience.

    Suporta Gigabit Ethernet, uma variedade de conexões de dispositivos, incluindo EHS fone de ouvido e USB.

    Acesse o blog da Lojamundi e saiba tudo sobre Telefones IP

    SIP-T29G-IP-Phone

    Qualidade de Imagem

    T29G Yealink  tem um display TFT colorido de alta resolução e oferece um visual rico tecnologia experience.

    SIP-T29G-IP-Phone


    Versatilidade

    T29G Yealink  Suporta Gigabit Ethernet, uma variedade de conexões de dispositivos, incluindo EHS fone de ouvido e USB.


     
     

    Especificações Técnicas

     HD voice: 
     

    HD handset, HD speaker

    Codecs:
    G.722, G.711(A/μ), G.723, G.729AB, 
    G.726, iLBC
    DTMF:

    In-band, Out-of-band(RFC 2833) and SIP INFO 

     

     

     

    Características

    Yealink Optima HD voice 
    Dual-port Gigabit Ethernet
    4.3" 480 x 272-pixel color display with backlight
    Built-in a USB port, support Bluetooth headset (Through 
    USB Dongle) 
    Up to 16 SIP accounts
    Paper label free design
    PoE support
    Headset, EHS support
    Supports expansion modules
    Stand with 2 adjustable angles
    Wall mountable
    Simple, flexible and secure provisioning options

     

    Preço: R$999,00

    Preço Promocional: R$882,31


              Cabo-Plantronics U10P-S Adaptador        

    Cabo-Plantronics U10P-S Adaptador 

      

     

    O que é?

    O Cabo-Plantronics U10P-S Adaptador conecta os fones de ouvido Plantronics diretamente a telefones Cisco, modelos 7940, 7960 e 7970, que não utilizam Power Cube


    Você conhece a Plantronics?

    No início dos anos 1960, os fones de ouvido da companhia aérea eram tão grandes e pesados que muitos pilotos haviam trocado de volta para o uso de microfones de mão para comunicações. A velocidade e a complexidade dos aviões a jato causaram a necessidade de introdução de fones de ouvido pequenos e leves no cockpit.

    Em 1961, a United Airlines solicitou novos desenhos a qualquer pessoa interessada. Courtney Graham, um piloto da United Airlines, foi um dos muitos que pensaram que os fones de ouvido pesados deveriam ser substituídos por algo mais leve. Ele colaborou com seu amigo-piloto Keith Larkin para criar um projeto pequeno e funcional que fosse robusto o suficiente para passar as normas das companhias aéreas. (Larkin estava trabalhando para uma pequena empresa chamada Plane-Aids, uma empresa de importação japonesa que oferecia óculos e óculos de sol que continham rádios de transistor em suas peças de templo.) [2] O projeto final, incorporando dois transdutores de pequeno estilo, uma faixa de cabeça foi submetida à aprovação da United Airline.

    A aprovação da UAL do design inovador causou Graham e Larkin para incorporar como Pacific Plantronics (agora chamado Plantronics, Inc.) em 18 de maio de 1961. Eles introduziram o primeiro headset leve de comunicações, o MS-50, para o mercado comercial em 1962.

    Em meados da década de 1960, a Agência Federal de Aviação selecionou a Plantronics como o único fornecedor de fones de ouvido para controladores de tráfego aéreo e, posteriormente, foi selecionada para fornecer fones de ouvido aos operadores da Bell Telephone Company.


     

    cabo-plantronics-u10p-s-adaptador

    Flexibilidade

    Cabo-Plantronics U10P-S Adaptador conecta os fones de ouvido Plantronics diretamente a telefones Cisco, modelos 7940, 7960 e 7970, que não utilizam Power Cube

    cabo-plantronics-u10p-s-adaptador

    Qualidade

    Cabo-Plantronics U10P-S Adaptador conta com a qualidade Plantronics 


     
     

    Especificações Técnicas

    Fabricante:
     

    Plantronics

    Cor:
    Preto
    Compatibilidade:

    Conecta os fones de ouvido Plantronics diretamente a telefones Cisco, modelos 7940, 7960 e 7970, que não utilizam Power Cube

     

     
    R$105,00

              T46S Yealink Telefone IP        

    T46S Yealink 

     

     

    O que é?

    O telefone IP T46S Yealink é a melhor ferramenta de comunicação para executivos e profissionais ocupados. Além de oferecer um melhor desempenho geral do que o T46G, este dispositivo possui uma interface mais rápida com um display colorido TFT colorido e de alta resolução.

    Construído com tecnologia Yealink Optima HD e codec de banda larga da Opus, T46S Yealink permite comunicações cristalinas.

    O T46S Yealink também é construído com tecnologia Gigabit Ethernet, para manipulação rápida de chamadas e uso com acessórios como um Dongle USB Bluetooth e um Dongle USB Wi-Fi. A nova série T4S oferece a mesma aparência elegante da linha T4, mas com melhorias para maior interoperabilidade e colaboração.

    Acesse o blog da Lojamundi e saiba tudo sobre Telefones IP

     
    t46s-yealink

    T46S Yealink - Comunicação de voz real e nítida

    Construído com tecnologia Yealink Optima HD e codec de banda larga da Opus, T46S Yealink permite comunicações cristalinas.

    t46s-yealink


    T46S Yealink - Rica experiência visual

    Além de oferecer um melhor desempenho geral do que o T46G, este dispositivo possui uma interface mais rápida com um display colorido TFT colorido e de alta resolução.


     
     





    HD voice:
     

    HD handset, HD speaker

    Codecs:
    Opus*, G.722, G.711(A/µ), G.723.1,G.729AB, G.726, iLBC
    DTMF:
    In-band, Out-of-band (RFC 2833) and SIP INFO
    Contas: 16 contas VOIP
    7 features keys: message, headset, hold, mute, transfer, redial, hands-free speakerphone





    Especificações Técnicas

    4.3" 480 x 272-pixel color display with backlight
    Opus* codec support
    USB 2.0 
    T4S Auto-P template unified 
    T4S firmware unified 
    Up to 16 SIP accounts 
    Dual-port Gigabit Ethernet 
    PoE support
    Paperless label design
    Headset, EHS support
    Wi-Fi via WF40
    Bluetooth via BT40
    USB recording
    Supports expansion modules
    Stand with 2 adjustable angles
    10 line keys with LED
    10 line keys can be programmed up to 27 paperless DSS keys (3-page view)
    4 context-sensitive “soft” keys
    6 navigation keys
    Volume control keys
    Illuminated mute key
    Illuminated headset key
    Illuminated hands-free speakerphone key
    Dual-port Gigabit Ethernet
    Power over Ethernet (IEEE 802.3af), class 3
    1 x USB port (2.0 compliant)
    1 x RJ9 (4P4C) handset port
    1 x RJ12 (6P6C) EXT port: Supports up to 6 Expansion Modules for an attendant console application
    Stand with 2 adjustable angles
    Wall mountable
    External Yealink AC adapter (optional): AC 100~240V input and DC 5V/2A output
    Power consumption (PSU): 1.92-4.93W
    Power consumption (PoE): 2.68-7.57W
    Dimension (W*D*H*T): 244mm*213mm*185mm*54mm
    Operating humidity: 10~95%
    Operating temperature: -10~50°C
    Configuration: browser/phone/auto-provision
    Auto provision via FTP/TFTP/HTTP/HTTPS for mass deploy
    Auto-provision with PnP
    Broadsoft device management
    Zero-sp-touch, TR-069
    Phone lock for personal privacy protection
    Reset to factory, reboot
    Package tracing export, system log

     

    R$1.102,89

              Tactics of Bettering the Circuit Board Format in Digital Product or service Style        
    Tactics of Bettering the Circuit Board Format in Digital Product or service Style Electrical factors design and style has advanced from valves to transistors, to integrated circuits (ICs) and eventually to micron sized VLSI. As these elements progress, their measurements have greatly minimized and also the methods of connecting them within a circuit has also…
              Transistor - Mosfet BS170, Small Signal        

    MOSFET BS170 N-Channel Transistor. Used in MOD® Kits.

    Note - this is a fragile component! Use caution not to overheat or break leads.


              Transistor - 2N5088TAR, Bipolar, General Purpose        

    2N5088 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor in TO-92 package


              Transistor - MJ15016, PNP, Complementary High-Power        

    Transistor MJ15016, TO-3 Case, PNP

    PowerBase complementary transistors designed for high power audio, stepping motor and other linear applications. These devices can also be used in power switching circuits such as relay or solenoid drivers, dc–to–dc converters, inverters, or for inductive loads requiring higher safe operating areas.

    Safe Operating Area - Rated to 60V


              Transistor - MJ15022, NPN, Power Transistor        

    Transistor MJ15022, TO-3 Case, NPN

    PowerBase power transistors designed for high power audio, disk head positioners and other linear applications.

    Features

    • High Safe Operating Area (100% Tested) −2 A @ 80 V
    • High DC Current Gain − hFE = 15 (Min) @ IC = 8 Adc

              Transistor - Kustom, LM340-15, Fixed-Voltage Regulator        

    LM340-15, regulator.

    This family of fixed voltage regulators are monolithic integrated circuits capable of driving loads in excess of 1.0 A. These three–terminal regulators employ internal current limiting, thermal shutdown, and safe–area compensation.

    Although designed primarily as a fixed voltage regulator, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. This series of devices can be used with a series–pass transistor to boost output current capability at the nominal output voltage.

    • Output Voltage 15V
    • Output Current in Excess of 1.0 A
    • No External Components Required
    • Internal Thermal Overload Protection
    • Internal Short Circuit Current Limiting
    • Output Transistor Safe–Area Compensation

              Transistor - TIP42C, PNP Epitaxial Transistor        

    Transistor TIP42C, TO-220 Case.

    PNP Epitaxial Silicon Transistor

    Complementary to TIP41 (P-QTIP41C)

    Max ratings:

    • Collector-Base voltage = -100V
    • Collector-Emitter Voltage = -100V
    • Emitter-Base Voltage = -5V
    • Collector current (DC) = -6A
    • Collector current (Pulse) = -10A
    • Base current = -2A

              Transistor - TIP41C, NPN Epitaxial Transistor        

    Transistor TIP41C, TO-220 Case.

    NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor

    Complementary to TIP42 (P-QTIP42C)

    Max ratings:

    • Collector-Base voltage = 100V
    • Collector-Emitter Voltage = 100V
    • Emitter-Base Voltage = 5V
    • Collector current (DC) = 6A
    • Collector current (Pulse) = 10A
    • Base current = 2A

              Transistor - TIP32C, PNP Epitaxial transistor        

    Transistor TIP32C, TO-220 Case. PNP Epitaxial Silicon Transistor

    Complementary to TIP31

    Max ratings:

    • Collector-Base voltage = -100V
    • Collector-Emitter Voltage = -100V
    • Emitter-Base Voltage = -5V
    • Collector current (DC) = -3A
    • Collector current (Pulse) = -5A
    • Base current = -3 A

              Transistor - MJ15015, NPN, Complementary High-Power        

    Transistor MJ15015, TO-3 Case, NPN

    PowerBase complementary transistors designed for high power audio, stepping motor and other linear applications. These devices can also be used in power switching circuits such as relay or solenoid drivers, dc–to–dc converters, inverters, or for inductive loads requiring higher safe operating areas.

    Safe Operating Area - Rated to 60V


              Transistor - MJ15023, PNP, Power Transistor        

    Transistor MJ15023, TO-3 Case, PNP

    PowerBase power transistors designed for high power audio, disk head positioners and other linear applications.

    Features

    • High Safe Operating Area (100% Tested) −2 A @ 80 V
    • High DC Current Gain − hFE = 15 (Min) @ IC = 8 Adc

              Integrated Circuit - TL074, Quad Op-Amp        

    Low noise JFET quad operational amplifier. Incorporates well matched, high-voltage JFET and bipolar transistors in a monolithic integrated circuit. Features high slew rates, low input bias and offset currents, and low offset voltage temperature coefficients.

    Features:

    • Wide common-mode and differential voltage range
    • Low input bias and offset current
    • Low noise en = 15 nV/HZ
    • Output short-circuit protection
    • High input impedance JFET input stage
    • Low harmonic distortion: 0.01%
    • Internal frequency compensation
    • Latch up free operation
    • High slew rate: 16 V/us (typical)

              Transistor - MJ15025, TO-3 Case        

    Transistor MJ15025, TO-3 Case

    The MJ15025 is a power transistor designed for high-power audio, disk head positioners, and other linear applications

    Features:

    • High Safe Operating Area: -2A @ 80 V
    • High DC Current Gain hFE = 15 (Min) @ IC = 8 Adc

              Transistor - Peavey, SJE 5332, 120V, 3A        

    SJE 5332, 120V, 3A, Case-77.


              Transistor - Peavey, SJE 5331, 120V, 3A        

    SJE 5331, 120V, 3A, Case-77.


              Transistor - Peavey, SJ6465, NPN Audio Output        

    SJ-6465, VTX marked 81140, NPN tube driver, TO-3 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, SDS 7204, 300V, 10MA        

    SDS 7204, 300V, 10 mA, Case-30.


              Transistor - Peavey, PNP Darlington, SJE 2153, 80V, 3A        

    SJE 2153 (TIP107), PNP Darlington, 80V, 3A, TO-3 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, PNP 200V Output, SJ-74200, 200V, 4A        

    SJ-74200, PNP output, 200V, 4A, TO-3 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, PNP 180V Output, SJ-73180, 180V, 3A        

    SJ-73180 (MJ21193), PNP output, 180V, 3A, TO-3 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, NPN Darlington, SJE 2152, 80V, 3A        

    SJE 2152 (TIP102), NPN Darlington, 80V, 3A, TO-220 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, NPN 200V Driver, SJ-81200, 200V, 1A        

    SJ-81200, NPN driver, 200V, 1A, TO-3 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, NPN 140V Driver, SJ-81180, 180V, 1A        

    SJ-81180, NPN driver, 180V, 1A, TO-3 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, MPS 6533, PNP Amplifier, 40V, TO-92        

    MPS 6533, PNP general purpose amp, 40V, TO-92 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, MPS 6531, NPN Amplifier, 40V, TO-92        

    MPS 6531, NPN general purpose amp, 40V, TO-92 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, MJE15032, Complementary Silicon Power        

    MJE 15032, Complimenary silicon power, TO-220AB Case.


              Transistor - Kustom, MJE15029 PNP Bipolar Power        

    MJE15029 PNP bipolar power transistor (TO-220 package). Designed for use as high-frequency drivers in audio amplifiers.

    • Max collector to emitter voltage = 120 V
    • Max collector to base voltage = 120 V
    • Max emitter to base voltage = 5 V
    • Max collector current (continuous) = 8 A

              Transistor - Peavey, 2N5462, P-Channel Amp, TO-92 Case        

    2N5462 (NTE326), P-Channel General Purpose Amp, TO-92 Case.


              Transistor - Peavey, 2N5400, PNP Amp, 120V, 20MA, TO-92        

    2N5400 (761), PNP general purpose amp, 120V, 10mA, TO-92 case.


              Transistor - Fender®, A18937        

    A18937 Transistor - Fender


              Transistor - JFET N-Ch Transistor Lo Freq/Lo Noise, PF5102        

    PF5102 N-Channel Switch (TO-92 package) - designed for low level analog switching, sample and hold circuits and chopper stabilized amplifiers. (See J111 for characteristics).

    • Max drain to gate voltage = 40 V
    • Max gate to source voltage = -40 V
    • Max forward gate current = 50 m

              Transistor - MPSA13, Darlington 500mA 30V NPN        

    NPN Darlington transistor (TO-92 package) - designed for applications requiring extremely high current gain at collector currents to 1.0A.

    • Max collector to emitter voltage = 30 V
    • Max collector to base voltage = 30 V
    • Max emitter to base voltage = 10 V
    • Max collector current = 1.2 A (continuous)

              Embedded System - SmartBrains Engineers & Technologist Pvt Ltd , Gujrat         

    COURSE CONTENT 

    Course 1: C Language & Embedded C

    • Why C in EmbeddedOverview
    • ANSI standardCharacteristics
    • Function of CFunction Overloading
    • Conditional StatementsScope Resolution Operator
    • LoopsClasses in C++
    • FunctionAccess Specifiers
    • ArraysConstructor, Destructor
    • StringsStatic Members, Function
    • Storage ClassesFriend Classes, Friend functions
    • Structure & UnionsOperator Overloading
    • Enumerated Data Types 
    • Bit OperationCourse 5: RTOS (Real Time Operating System)
    • Pointer 
    • Dynamic Memory AllocationIntroduction to RTOS with Architecture 
    • File handling ConceptMonolithic and Micro Kernel
    • Raw Data HandlingBooting Vx-Works
    • Low Level ProgrammingTornado Wind River IDE & simulator
    • Command Line ArrangementsSource debugging (cross-wind)
    • Compiler in PracticalPerformance monitoring tools
    • Data StructuresMemory Management
    • Sorting & Searching TechniquesInter-task Communication 
    • Concepts & Real Time Exposure Semaphores 
    Course 2: Microcontroller 8051/AVR/PIC/ARDUINO

    •  Introduction Introduction to ARM Family
    •  Overview of Architecture of 8051/AVR/PIC                        
    •  Low-Level Programming Concept                                
    •  Middle Level Programming PIN connect block 
    • Concepts GPID Programming
    •  Cross Compiler Timer Programming
    •  Embedded C/C++ Programming A/D Converter
    •  Embedded C/C++ DebuggingUART Programming
    •  Memory Models I2C & SPI Protocol
    •  Library ReferencePIC
    •  #Pragma Directive  VIC (Vector Interrupt Controller)
    • ON Chip Peripherals CAN Conceptualization
    •  Ports: I/P & O/PI2C Enabled EEPROM Conceptualization
    •  Timer & Counter 
    •  Interrupts, ADC, PWMCourse 7: Linux & Device Driver Programming
    • External Interfaces 
    •  LEDS, LCD, SWITCHESLinux Architecture
    •  Seven Segment & Multiplexing 7-segment display Kernel Description
    •  Keypad Matrix Terminal Commands
    •  LED Matrix File Management System
    •  AC/DC relays Process Management System
    •  Motor: DC Motor/ Stepper Motor/ Servo Motor VI Editor
    •  Wireless RF Modules GCC Complier
    •  Zig Bee (Programming + Communication)Shell Scripting
    • PROTOCOLSUse of make File
    • SPI, I2C, UART, CANCompile & Debugging
    •  Char Driver Conceptualization
    Course 3: ROBOTICS ENGINEER
      
    • Robotics IntroductionIntroduction to Internet of Things 
    • Chip Level & Component Level ElectronicsIntroduction to Raspberry Pi 
    • Various Motor for Robot DevelopmentTools: Win 32 image write & SD Formatter
    • Power Supply DesigningWading Raspbrion OS image on SD Card 
    • Robotic Sensor Designing & InterfacingDemo Programming using C 
    • Robotic Motor Controller CircuitBacking up Updating SD card & OS Image 
    • Embedded C ProgrammingInstalling Wiring Pi Package
    • I/O FunctionsControlling the Raspberry Pi GPIO by Command
    • PWMNetworking with Pi 
    • ADCClient-Server Programing for Automating Device/Sniffing Device state
    • Inter Robot CommunicationIOT-Cloud Installing   
    • Practical Electronics & Sensor DevelopmentInstalling & configuring PubNub SDK for C Language
    • Practical working with Electronic ComponentsCreating credentials with PubNub  Cloud Server 
    • Resistor, Capacitor, Diodes, Transistor, RelayEnd to End IOT Programming demonstrations
    • Designing of Logic gate & Power Supply 
    • Development of Sensor like Light, Surface etc  
    • Sensors
    • Gyro & Accelerometer, Ultrasonic sensors, RFID, GPS, PIR Sensor, Temperature Sensor
    • Touch Pad, Gas Sensor, DTMF, RTC, Finger Print Sensor, RS 232, Alcohol Sensor, Humidity Sensor, Sound Sensor, Surface Sensor, Flex Sensor, Buzzer, Relay

    Cost:

    Certified


              Analog IC Design Engineer - Milpitas        
    Location: Milpitas, CA Salary: Competitive This firm designs, manufactures and markets a broad line of standard high performance integrated circuits. Applications for the Company\s products include telecommunications, cellular telephones, networking products, notebook and desktop computers, video/multimedia, industrial instrumentation, automotive electronics, factory automation, process control, and military and space systems. The Company\s principal product categories include amplifiers, battery management, data converters, high frequency, interface, voltage regulators and voltage references. OVERVIEW Responsibilities: Detailed, transistor-level design of analog and digital integrated circuits for new and derivative Voltage Reference and Comparator products. Architecture and transistor-level design and simulation, layout supervision and silicon evaluation. Collaboration with test, product and applications engineering to develop new products from initial concept through release to manufacturing. Interaction with customers and field personnel. Requirements: BS or MS in Electrical Engineering 5-7 years of relevant industry experience with a strong background in analog IC design. Experience with various amplifier and voltage reference architectures and design techniques. Experience with high precision, low noise design techniques for DC and AC applications. In-depth understanding of transistor-level analog integrated circuit design. Effective project management skills with proven track record of taking personal ownership of product development. Good communication skills to drive support groups to meet shared objectives and schedules. Must be able to work independently with limited supervision Willing to travel occasionally Must Have Experience with full cycle products (concept to release) Be a high caliber engineer & known in the field of IC engineering Has successfully released a minimum of 5 parts To Apply: For prompt consideration, contact CTR's Bob Gagnon about: [link removed] Analog IC Design Engineer
              Staff Analog Design Engineer (Ethernet) - San Jose        
    Job Responsibilities/Requirements: The candidate must have good analog transistor level circuit analysis skill and experience with Cadence artist front end tool. Hand-on circuit and board debugging experience a plus. MSEE with two years related experience required. Designs, develops, modifies and evaluates electronic parts, components or integrated circuitry for electronic equipment and other hardware systems. Determines design approaches and parameters. Analyzes equipment to establish operating data, conducts experimental tests and evaluates results. Selects components and equipment based on analysis of specifications and reliability. May also review vendor capability to support product development. Educational Requirements: MSEE
              Sr Process Development Engineer - San Jose        
    Provides technical and sustaining engineering support of a wafer fabrication area in a semiconductor company. Establishes operating equipment specifications, improves manufacturing techniques and production yields, and introduces new process equipment to improve production efficiencies. Interacts with product design and development personnel to ensure that processes and designs are compatible. Requirements: (1)Knowledge of semiconductor physics, bipolar and CMOS. Characterize HV DMOS, CMOS, and Bipolar transistors. (2)BSEE candidate or better (MSEE or PHD). (3)Experience with SQL, Reedholm tester, Flash technology.
              Electrical Equipment and Safety: Operation, Control, Maintenance and Troubleshooting - PLUS Specialty Training , Dubai         

    Why Attend

    This course covers the theoretical and practical operation of common electrical equipment and components, as well as provides participants with the necessary knowledge and skills to perform electrical maintenance and troubleshooting.

    Participants will gain an understanding of the relationship between voltage and current to work on and troubleshoot electrical systems. The course will also cover Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) circuit concepts, transformers' types of uses and their interaction in an electrical circuit, as well as the necessary knowledge to work on and fix motor control circuits.

    As electrical hazards can result in serious injury to personnel that work on or around electrical equipment, the course will also focus on international safety requirements, including OSHA standards, and best practices.  Participants will learn the steps needed for the prevention of electrical injuries. 

    Course Methodology

    This course will be highly interactive and include group discussions, case studies and syndicate work. It will include practical exercises that will allow all participants to use the knowledge they gained to demonstrate their skills in troubleshooting electrical problems, and apply it to their work scenarios.

    Course Objectives

    • Apply tools and techniques to perform electrical maintenance and troubleshooting on various types of electrical equipment
    • Demonstrate a basic current, voltage and resistance relationships in electrical systems
    • Describe how inductors and capacitors work and interact with electrical circuits
    • Explain the theory of a generator and how a sine wave is produced
    • State the difference between a power and a distribution transformer and explain the cooling methods used for transformers
    • Minimize risks by identifying the hazards associated with electrical energy and by complying with safety guidelines
    • Describe and apply the requirements in EN 500110, the most widely used standard for the protection of individuals from the effects of electrical hazard

    Target Audience

    This course covers essential skills necessary for electrical maintenance personnel including electrical managers and supervisors, electrical professionals, electrical engineers, controls technicians and other professionals responsible for the operation, maintenance and safety functions. It will also be beneficial for anyone working with electrical contractors.

    Target Competencies

    • Operating electrical equipment
    • Performing electrical maintenance
    • Using motor control circuits
    • Troubleshooting electrical equipment
    • Understanding electrical safety regulations and protective measures
    • Leading electrical hazards assessments

    Course Outline

    • Electrical concepts
      • Basic atomic structure
      • Voltage / current / resistance
      • Inductance / magnetism / capacitance
      • Direct Current (DC)
      • Alternating Current (AC)
    • Electrical terminology
      • Understanding Volts / Amperes / Ohms
      • Defining Henry / Farads
      • Applying Ohm's Law
      • Kirchhoff's Law
    • Electrical components: operation, control and maintenance
      • Direct Current (DC)
      • Alternating Current (AC) circuits
      • Motor fundamentals
      • P/N junction semi-conductors
      • Rectifiers
      • Transistors
      • Test equipment
      • Transformers
      • Switchgear
      • Circuit breakers
      • Protective relaying
      • Motor control center
    • Electrical maintenance planning
      • Definition of planned maintenance
      • Recommended maintenance periodicities
      • Factors that affect periodicities
      • Scheduling tips
    • Electrical hazards & protective measures
      • Electrical terminology
      • Electric shock
      • Arc flash
    • Hazard assessment concerns for live electrical work
      • Determining what hazards are involved
      • Identifying the risks involved
      • Developing measures to reduce the risks
      • Implementing the measures
      • Documenting the process
      • Reviewing process

    Cost:

    Discount: Summer Discounts Available!

    Next Session:

    Duration: 5 Days


              MOGWAI REGRESA A CHILE        
    Tuvieron que pasar diez años para que Mogwai regrese a Chile, y en mayo, la banda escocesa viene a presentarnos su séptimo disco Hardcore Will Never Die, But You Will, lanzado en febrero del año 2011, considerado por los expertos como uno de los mejores discos de la banda, figurando además en los rankings mundiales como el mejor disco del año en su estilo (post rock).

    Oriundos de Glasgow, en sus dieciséis años de vida se han caracterizado por mantener una línea de producción coherente a su estilo, siempre fieles a su sonido e intentando alcanzar la máxima calidad en todas sus melodías, Mogwai es el gran representante del estilo post-rock y vuelve a Chile para deleitar a toda su fanaticada.

    Mogwai, banda compuesta por: Stuart Braithwaite, Dominic Aitchison, Martin Bulloch, John Cummings y Barry Burns, se presentará el 17 de Mayo en el Teatro La Cúpula y promete ser una noche inolvidable.

    Las entradas estarán a la venta a partir del miércoles 28 de Diciembre por:
    -          Sistema PuntoTicket: Tiendas Ripley y Cinemark habilitados.
    -          Sin recargo en tienda SoldOut (Av. Providencia 2198 – Portal Lyon, local 79).
    VALOR:
    Entrada General: $20.000 (primeras 500)
                                 $25.000 (más recargo por sistema)

    Decarga de Afiche: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/35399537/AFICHE_2.pdf
     

     

              TECNOLOGIA E HISTORIA DA TECNOLOGIA        
    História da tecnologia, a tecnologia da revolução, nanotecnologia, computadores, avanços tecnológicos, telecomunicações, tecnologia na medicina, informática

    Introdução:

    O ser humano, dotado de sua inteligência, buscou formas, durante toda a história, de vencer os obstáculos impostos pela natureza. Desta forma, foi desenvolvendo e inventando instrumentos tecnológicos com o objetivo de superar dificuldades. Podemos dizer que a necessidade é a mãe das grandes invenções tecnológicas.

    Acompanhe abaixo um histórico da evolução tecnológica:

    1291 - Na Itália surgem os primeiros espelhos.
    1454 - O alemão Johann Gutenberg. inventa a máquina chamada de Imprensa. Com está máquina o homem passou a produzir de forma mais rápida e eficiente, os livros. Esse invento causou uma revolução na cultura da época.
    1590 - O holandês Zacharias Janssen (1580-1638?) fabrica o microscópio, utilizando técnicas usadas na fabricação de lentes para óculos.
    1592 - O astrônomo e inventor italiano cria o primeiro termômetro utilizando o sistema de água para a medição de temperatura.
    1643 - O cientista italiano Evangelista Torricelli inventa o barômetro para medir a pressão atmosférica.
    1707 - O físico inglês John Floyer inventa o relógio de pulso.
    1712 - O engenheiro inglês Thomas Newcomen inventa a máquina a vapor.
    1800 - O físico italiano Alessandro Volta cria a bateria elétrica.
    1839 - O artista e pesquisador francês Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre tira a primeira fotografia, com sua máquina chamada daguerreótipo.
    1860 - O inventor belga Jean-Joseph-Etienne Lenoir desenvolve o primeiro motor a explosão.
    1876 - O americano Alexander Graham Bell inventa o telefone, possibilitando a comunicação entre pessoas situadas a longas distâncias.
    1879 - O americano Thomas Alva Edison inventa a lâmpada elétrica.
    1901 - É criado o rádio pelo italiano Guglielmo Marconi.
    1903 - Os irmãos Wright pilotam o primeiro avião.
    1904 - Criadas pelo engenheiro inglês John Ambrose Fleming surgem as válvulas eletrônicas.
    1906 - O brasileiro Alberto Santos Dumont voa em paris no 14 bis e passa também a ser considerado um dos pais da aviação junto com os irmãos Wright.
    1941 - O engenheiro inglês Frank Whittle desenvolve o avião a jato.
    1943 - A empresa japonesa Motorola lança no mercado o walkie-talkie.
    1945 - Os EUA detonam no deserto do Novo México a primeira bomba atômica.
    1946 - O engenheiro americano Vannevar Bush desenvolve um computador usando válvulas de rádio.
    1947 - A televisão começa a chegar nos lares de pessoas de todo o mundo.
    1948 - Começam a ser utilizados os chips de silício e as válvulas eletrônicas.
    1956 -O pager é lançado nos Estados Unidos.
    1961 - Lançada a Vostok, a primeira nave espacial tripulado por ser humano a sair da atmosfera terrestre.
    1965 - Lançados os primeiros satélites de comunicação. Inaugura uma nova era na transmissão de dados eletrônicos.
    1972 - Os discos laser são lançados revolucionando a indústria fonográfica.
    1977 - Lançado nos Estados Unidos o primeiro telefone celular.
    1981 - Primeira viagem de um ônibus espacial.
    1995 - Dave Wineland e Chris Monroe desenvolvem o primeiro transistor do tamanho de um átomo.
    1998 - Lançado no Brasil os primeiros DVDs.
    1999 - A Internet cresce no mundo todo em velocidade impressionante. Os arquivos de MP3 começam a ser usados e transmitidos pelas ondas da Internet.

    http://www.suapesquisa.com/tecnologia/


              Introducing the MP2014 Two-Channel Rotary Mixer        

    Successful artists demand purity—purity of sound most importantly, but also purity of style, controls, movement and art. Rane’s answer to this demand is the MP2014 two-channel rotary mixer with a pristine signal path that provides everything needed with nothing else added.

    It is a new musical instrument for the discerning perfectionist DJ who only needs two channels but requires the utmost in technology, simplicity, reliability and portability. The MP2014 is built for DJs who love the classic rotary mixer experience yet refuse to compromise cutting edge features.

    Different DJ styles require different instruments. The MP2014 is uniquely tailored for the artist seeking the fluidity and smooth transitions provided by silky-smooth rotary controls. Like its four-channel big brother this definitive mixing instrument is realized through a combination of powerful and unique features, classic elegance, rugged design and intuitive simplicity.

    Rane redefined the rotary DJ mixer by bridging the gap between classic rotary mixers and modern DJ tools. The MP2014 represents the perfect marriage of a high-quality rotary control-surface, with state-of-the-art digital signal processing and dual 16-channel USB sound cards. An essential assortment of analog and digital I/O supports mixing vinyl, CDs and USB streaming audio in any combination.

    Featuring exceptional phono preamps, three-way swept-filters and a three-band, steep 24dB/octave main mix Isolator—with adjustable crossover points—the MP2014 provides the same quality, aesthetics and high-resolution audio as the MP2015 in an elegant and portable design.

    Rane’s Secret Sauce

    The two-channel MP2014 uses the same platform as Rane’s MP2015, which is the new worldwide standard for four-channel rotary mixers. This means it is a no-compromise music-mixing machine.

    With a world standard to work with, creation of the MP2014 was straightforward: remove two input channels and the Submix channel; leave everything else alone and voilà, you have a MP2014—okay, not quite that simple, but in the critical pristine signal path, it is.

    Designed for high-end, hi-res audio systems—whether club or studio, personal or downtown. Control, sound, reliability, durability and portability differentiate theMP2014 from all other rotary mixers.

    There are no compromises in the design. It has the best sound, the best features, the best feel, and the best reliability, durability and portability, and is supported by the best customer service on the planet.

    Hi-Res Sources
    A world-class leader in performance, the MP2014 is designed for playback of High-Resolution Audio (HRA)[1] 24-bit studio master quality sources. Its sonic signature has no equal, satisfying the most stringent vinyl purists. And the dynamics are perfect for DJs preferring the uncompressed sound of WAV and FLAC files.

    Ergonomics
    Strikingly different and beautiful to look at with its laser-etched Rane-logo wood side panels, classic spun-aluminum knob caps, 16-segment level peak-hold meters and back-lit push switches, the MP2014 sports a new compact size and shape for a rotary mixer, with all controls selected, designed and located for effortless professional performance playback. Its size makes it portable and easy to move about.

    Sound Quality
    Professional high-end sound quality begins and ends with the audio signal converters. The MP2014 uses AKM[2] Premium Audio Device™ delta-sigma modulator converters that meet the highest sound quality standards of recording studios. The balanced differential audio input converters deliver 116 dB dynamic range,utilizing a built-in modified FIR architecture that minimizes group delay, allowing excellent linear phase response. The 24-bit audio output converters have the same 116 dB dynamic range and sport AKM’s proprietary 24-bit digital filter for better sound quality achieving low distortion characteristics and wide dynamic range. The differential outputs eliminate the need for AC coupling capacitors further increasing performance.Input and output converters support sample rates of 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, or 96 kHz. Overall Digital/USB in to Line-out, or Line-in to Digital/USB out dynamic range is 116 dB (A-weighted), while Line-input to Line-output dynamic range is a remarkable 113 dB (A-weighted) with vanishingly low THD+N of 0.001%.

    Durability
    The all steel chassis is fabricated in Seattle, WA, USA, using the same equipment and people who make Boeing airplanes. Rane uses heavy 0.048” (1.22 mm) thick cold-rolled steel, electroplated with an aluminum-zinc alloy that makes the chassis rugged and rust proof. The front panel is the same material but extra thick at 0.075”(1.905mm) to accommodate those moments of DJ exuberance. All metal is finished with a baked-on polyester powder coating. This finish complies with EU directive 2011/65/EU and contains no Pb, Cd, CrVI, PBB, or PBDE. Additionally it complies with EU directive 2005/717/EC and contains no Deca-BDE. If that is not enough it also complies with EU directive 2006/122/EC and contains no PFOS. What does all that mean? Actually we have no idea but we are told that you can safely lick and kiss the metal until your tongue and lips blister.

    All the fancy, exotic, expensive parts in the world won’t guarantee performance unless they are assembled onto a proper circuit board. The MP2014 uses FR4[3] material compliant with IPC 4101/24 specification. This is a heavy glass-resin material 0.062” (1.575 mm) thick and in some cases with 8 layers of gold-plated copper traces connecting components.

    Front panel legends are not silk screened on the surface of the metal but are printed on the reverse side of a Lexan™ polycarbonate overlay. This prevents wear that eventually would make the printing unreadable. The rugged Lexan is 0.012” (0.305 mm) thick to survive a lifetime of abuse, having a matte surface to prevent glare and enhance readability in low or bright lights.

    Studio-Quality Phono Preamps
    The Phono-CD (or any line-level source) analog input stages feature gold RCA connectors and are true studio-quality preamplifiers providing EMI[4], RFI[5] and transient overvoltage protection against ESD[6]. The circuitry provides low noise, high gain-bandwidth, low harmonic distortion, fast slew rate and high output current. The phono RIAA filter accuracy measures+0.1/-0.2 dB from perfect. Included are 18 Hz high-pass infrasonic (rumble) filters with steep 18 dB/octave slopes and ultrasonic filters beginning rolloff at 50 kHz at a 12 dB/octave rate. A zero-distortion relay selects between CD and Phono operation.

    Pro Audio I/O Stages
    All analog source input stages have gold RCA connectors along with buffered circuitry that provides EMI, RFI and transient overvoltage protection.

    All unbalanced analog outputs have gold RCA connectors along with line-driving circuitry with EMI, RFI and ESD protection as well as on/off transient noise muting transistors.

    The differential balanced main outputs exit via the highest quality Neutrik® XLR connectors, while the differential balanced booth outputs leave through high-quality Neutrik ¼” TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) connectors. Both outputs have EMI, RFI and ESD as well as on/off transient noise muting transistors.

    All line-level analog input and output stages utilize an amplifier design exhibiting very low input voltage noise with high gain-bandwidth-product and high slew rate. The line-driving output stage exhibits no deadband crossover distortion, large output voltage swing, excellent phase-and gain-margins, low open-loop high frequency output impedance and symmetrical source and sink AC frequency performance. 

    Filters
    Each of the input channels feature a unique and exclusive three-position toggle selector-switch. Choose between LP (low-pass), HP (high-pass) or L-H (low-pass, high-pass combo). All have steep 24 dB/octave (4th-order) slopes and are sweepable.

    In the LP position the Filter knob sweeps the low-pass frequency from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. The 12:00 middle position is 635 Hz. 

    In the HP position the Filter knob sweeps the high-pass frequency from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. The 12:00 middle position is 635 Hz.

    In the L-H position the Filter knob sweeps either the LP or HP filter depending upon rotation direction from center. The 12:00 middle position bypasses both filters giving a flat unaffected response. Rotating the knob from fully counterclockwise to center sweeps the LP filter from 20 Hz to 18 kHz. Rotating the knob from center to fully clockwise sweeps the HP filter from 35 Hz to 20 kHz. 

    The single Resonance (Q) knob controls the shape of the filters. The range is from flat (Q=0.707) to max peaking (Q=12). 

    These filters are high-resolution, fast and artifact free, with all filter coefficients accurately calculated for the selected sample rate.

    Channel Tone Controls
    The input channels have exceptional three-band tone controls characterized by being 12 dB/octave (2nd-order) Linkwitz-Riley, full-cut filters (kill) with selectable crossover points of 150 Hz/6.0 kHz or 300 Hz/3.0 kHz. The crossover points are selected in the user control panel when connected to a computer via one of the USB ports.

    Like the Filters section above, the Tone Control filters are extremely accurate, high-resolution, fast, and artifact free, with all filter coefficients accurately calculated for the selected sample rate.

    Isolator Section
    The proprietary three-band output Isolator is a steep 24 dB/octave (4th-order) phase-compensated Linkwitz-Riley design with continuously adjustable low-mid and mid-high crossover points. Like the Tone Controls, these filters are extremely accurate, high-resolution, fast, and artifact free, with all filter coefficients accurately calculated for the selected sample rate.

    Adjustable crossovers allow the artist to match the Isolator to the music being played. Low-mid crossover is adjustable from 80 Hz to 640 Hz. Mid-high crossover is adjustable from 1 kHz to 8 kHz.

    Mic Preamp
    The superior microphone preamplifier is a high-performance current-feedback instrumentation design manufactured by the world leader in pro audio analog circuits, THAT Corporation, having lower noise at low gains, wider bandwidth, higher slew rate, lower distortion, and lower supply current than other designs. Transient overvoltage protection is provided.

    Headphone Amps
    The stereo headphone amplifiers use a unique Maxim Integrated DirectDrive® architecture that eliminates the need for large DC-blocking capacitors. The amplifiers deliver up to 70mW per channel into a 16 Ω load or 130 mW into a 32 Ω load and have low 0.009% THD+N. The design includes ESD protection on the headphone outputs along with short-circuit and thermal-overload protection. Comprehensive anti-click-and-pop circuitry suppresses audible clicks and pops on startup and shutdown. Complementing the headphone amplifiers is the versatile cueing system utilizing Rane’s proprietary Split Cue™[7] technology.

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
    All digital computations are done by a Texas Instruments 32-bit floating point digital signal processor running at 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz or 96 kHz.

    The S/PDIF transceiveris a Texas Instruments pro audio device with exceptional receiver sample rate converter.

    Dual USB Ports
    Dual USB ports provide for simultaneous connection of two computers, enabling back-to-back sets between laptop DJs running different software without compromise or interruption—no easy feat.

    The USB ports are 100% class compliant, allowing hook-up to any Mac OSx device without the need for an additional driver.

    The included high-performance ASIO driver runs most Windows DAW and DJ software.

    MIDI end points are class compliant with both OSx and Windows devices.

    Each port supports 6 playback and 14 records channels. This lets most DAW programs simultaneously record two decks, the Session input, Mic input and the Main mix.

    Control Panel App

    A Control Panel app is downloadable from Rane's website for Mac and Windows computers. This provides access to options and settings affecting inputs, outputs, headphones, tone controls, mic, record, MIDI, USB, and buffer size.

    Custom Level Pots
    Unable to find suitable level control pots with the required feel, life and reliability, custom pots were designed that exhibit superior durability, long service life, and repeatable accuracy. These conductive plastic rotary potentiometers are fully sealed with an extraordinary long life expectancy of one million cycles with special viscous damping to give the desired feel. 

    Worldwide Use
    Properly tested and certified safe and non-interfering the MP2014 enjoys international use.

    The internal power supply accommodates line voltages from 100 to 240 VAC and either 60 Hz or 50Hz and is fitted with a detachable universal IEC-320-C13 power cord. This combined with international agency approvals allows the MP2014 worldwide usage.

    The MP2014’s robust construction means dropping it on your toe is going to hurt; however it is designed to be safe when used as intended. A federally registered testing laboratory certified that it meets or exceeds all applicable electrical and mechanical safety requirements for its product class and intended use.

     


    [1]HRA (High-Resolution Audio)is an initiative by the Digital Entertainment Group (joined by CEA, AES, et al.) to define and mark file- or physical-media based sources of digital audio that qualify as true high-fidelity products. HRA is the mark describing sources with the best sound possible.

    [2] Asahi Kasei Microdevices Corporation

    [3]FR4 is a grade designation assigned to glass-reinforced epoxy laminate printed circuit boards (PCB). "FR" stands for flame retardant, and denotes that safety of flammability of FR4 is in compliance with the standard UL94V-0.

    [4]EMI (electromagnetic interference) A measure of electromagnetic radiation from equipment.

    [5]RFI (radio frequency interference) A measure of radio frequency (RF) radiation from equipment. 

    [6] ESD (electrostatic discharge)Electrical discharges of static electricity that build up on personnel or equipment, generated by interaction of dissimilar materials. 

    [7]Headphone cueing system utilizing a pan control to choose between what is cued and what is playing. In its normal mode the cued program feeds one ear and the master, or program (what is playing) feeds the other ear. This makes beat matching easy and convenient since you listen to both turntables (or CDs, or MP3 files, or any combination) at the same time. Rotating the pan control fully CW, or CCW, puts a monoed signal into one ear with no signal going to the other, and vice-versa. Rotating the pan control to its center position routes equal amounts of cue signal to one ear and program signal to the other ear. Pioneered in 1986 by Rane with the introduction of the MP 24 DJ Mixer.

     

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              Introducing the MP2015 Rotary Mixer        

    Rane worked with some of the World’s best DJs and clubs to redefine the Rotary DJ Mixer. With help from Doc Martin, Steffi, Dixon, Ata, Oliver Hafenbauer, Anthony Parasole, Martyn, Gerd Janson, Mano Le Tough, Ben UFO, Derrick Carter, Mark Farina, Efdemin, Brian BeeZwax, James Patrick, a handful of Seattle's best DJs and many more, Rane is proud to introduce the MP2015.

    The Rane MP2015 is a no-compromise music-mixing performance instrument.

    Control, sound, reliability and durability distinguish Rane’s new techno house club mixer for high-end audio systems.

    Born from a legacy of rotary club mixers beginning in 1971 with Rudy Bozak’s CMA-10-2DL, on to 1982 and UREI’s 1620, then in 1999 Rane’s MP2016/XP2016 combo, and now in 2015, the MP2015 represents the next revival and evolution.

    With over 40 years of rotary mixer experience to draw on, along with collaboration and input from the world’s best techno house DJs, the MP2015 is the best mixer produced by Rane—ever. There are no compromises in the design. It has the best sound, the best features, the best feel, and the best reliability and durability.

     

    Hi-Res Sources
    A world-class leader in performance, the MP2015 is designed for playback of High-Resolution Audio (HRA)[1] 24-bit studio master quality sources; its sonic signature has no equal, satisfying the most stringent vinyl purists. And the dynamics are perfect for DJs preferring the uncompressed sound of WAV and FLAC files.

    Ergonomics
    Strikingly different and beautiful to look at with its laser-etched Rane-logo wood side panels, classic spun-aluminum knob caps, 16-segment level peak-hold meters and back-lit push switches, the MP2015 sports a new compact size and shape for a rotary mixer, with all controls selected, designed and located for effortless professional performance playback. Its size makes it portable and easy to move about.

    Sound Quality
    Professional high-end sound quality begins and ends with the audio signal converters. The MP2015 uses premium performance Audio 4 Pro™ delta-sigma modulator converters by AKM[2] that meet the highest sound quality standards of recording studios. The balanced differential audio input converters deliver 116 dB dynamic range, utilizing a built-in modified FIR architecture that minimizes group delay, allowing excellent linear phase response. The 24-bit audio output converters have the same 116 dB dynamic range and sport AKM’s proprietary 24-bit digital filter for better sound quality achieving low distortion characteristics and wide dynamic range. The differential outputs eliminate the need for AC coupling capacitors further increasing performance.  Input and output converters support sample rates of 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, or 96 kHz. Overall Digital/USB in to Line out, or Line in to Digital/USB out dynamic range is 116 dB (A-weighted), while Line input to Line output dynamic range is a remarkable 113 dB (A-weighted) with vanishingly low THD+N of 0.0009%.


    [1] HRA (High-Resolution Audio) is an initiative by the Digital Entertainment Group (joined by CEA, AES, et al.) to define and mark file- or physical-media based sources of digital audio that qualify as true high-fidelity products. HRA is the mark describing sources with the best sound possible.

    [2] Asahi Kasei Microdevices Corporation

     

    Submix Channel
    This unique input channel provides grouping any number of inputs for easy multi-source mixing. It allows one set of controls for all functions verses having to deal with multiple knobs and buttons on multiple channels. Plus this becomes another input simply by activating the SUB button found on the Session In section.  

    Filters
    Each of the four Input channels and the Submix channel feature a unique and exclusive three-position toggle selector-switch. Choose between LP (low-pass), HP (high-pass) or L-H (low-pass, high-pass combo). All have steep 24 dB/octave (4th-order) slopes and are sweepable.

    In the LP position the Filter knob sweeps the low-pass frequency from 20 Hz to 20 kHz (CCW to CW). The 12:00 middle position is 635 Hz. 

    In the HP position the Filter knob sweeps the high-pass frequency from 20 Hz to 20 kHz (CCW to CW). The 12:00 middle position is 635 Hz.

    In the L-H position the Filter knob sweeps either the LP or HP filter depending upon rotation direction from center. The 12:00 middle position bypasses both filters giving a flat unaffected response. Rotating the knob from fully counterclockwise to center sweeps the LP filter from 20 Hz to 18 kHz. Rotating the knob from center to fully clockwise sweeps the HP filter from 35 Hz to 20 kHz. 

    The single Resonance (Q) knob controls the shape of all Input and Submix filters. The range is from flat (Q=0.707) to max peaking (Q=12). 

    These filters are high resolution, fast and artifact free, with all filter coefficients accurately calculated for the selected sample rate.

    Channel Tone Controls
    All input channels and the Submix channel have exceptional three-band tone controls characterized by being 12 dB/octave (2nd-order) Linkwitz-Riley, full-cut filters (kill) with selectable crossover points of 150 Hz/6.0 kHz or 300 Hz/3.0 kHz. The crossover points are selected in the user control panel when connected to a computer via the USB ports.

    Like the Filters section above, the Tone Control filters are extremely accurate, high resolution, fast and artifact free, with all filter coefficients accurately calculated for the selected sample rate.

    Isolator Section
    The proprietary three-band output Isolator is a steep 24 dB/octave (4th-order) phase-compensated Linkwitz-Riley design with continuously adjustable low-mid and mid-high crossover points. Like the Tone Controls, these filters are extremely accurate, high resolution, fast and artifact free, with all filter coefficients accurately calculated for the selected sample rate.

    Adjustable crossovers allow the artist to match the Isolator to the music being played. Low-mid crossover is adjustable from 80 Hz to 640 Hz. Mid-high crossover is adjustable from 1 kHz to 8 kHz.

     

    Durability
    The all steel chassis is fabricated in Seattle, WA, USA, using the same equipment and people who make Boeing airplanes. Rane uses heavy 0.048” (1.22 mm) thick cold-rolled steel, electroplated with an aluminum-zinc alloy that makes the chassis rugged and rust proof. The front panel is the same material but extra thick at 0.075” (1.905 mm) to accommodate those moments of DJ exuberance. All metal is finished with a baked-on polyester powder coating. This finish complies with EU directive 2011/65/EU and contains no Pb, Cd, CrVI, PBB, or PBDE. Additionally it complies with EU directive 2005/717/EC and contains no Deca-BDE. If that is not enough it also complies with EU directive 2006/122/EC and contains no PFOS. What does all that mean? Actually we have no idea but are told you can safely lick and kiss the metal until your tongue and lips blister.

    All the fancy, exotic, expensive parts in the world won’t guarantee performance unless they are assembled onto a proper circuit board. The MP2015 uses FR4[1] material compliant with IPC 4101/24 specification. This is a heavy glass-resin material 0.62” (15.75 mm) thick and in some cases with 8 layers of gold-plated copper traces connecting components.

    Front panel legends are not screen screened on the surface of the metal but are printed on the reverse side of a Lexan overlay. This prevents wear that eventually would make the printing unreadable. The rugged Lexan is 0.012” (0.305 mm) thick to survive a lifetime of abuse, and it has a matte surface to prevent glare and enhance readability in low or bright lights.

    Studio-Quality Phono Preamps
    The Phono-CD (or any line-level source) analog input stages feature gold RCA connectors and are true studio-quality preamplifiers providing EMI[2], RFI[3] and transient overvoltage protection against ESD[4]. The circuitry provides low noise, high gain-bandwidth, low harmonic distortion, fast slew rate and high output current. The phono RIAA filter accuracy measures +0.1/-0.2 dB from perfect. Included are 18 Hz high-pass infrasonic (rumble) filters with steep 18 dB/octave slopes and ultrasonic filters beginning rolloff at 50 kHz at a 12 dB/octave rate. A zero-distortion relay selects between CD and Phono operation.  

    Pro Audio I/O Stages
    All analog source input stages have gold RCA connectors along with buffered circuitry that provides EMI, RFI and transient overvoltage protection.

    All unbalanced analog outputs have gold RCA connectors along with line-driving circuitry with EMI, RFI and ESD protection as well as on/off transient noise muting transistors.

    The differential balanced main outputs exit via the highest quality Neutrik XLR connectors, while the differential balanced booth outputs leave through high-quality Neutrik ¼” TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) connectors. Both outputs have EMI, RFI and ESD as well as on/off transient noise muting transistors.

    All line-level analog input and output stages utilize an amplifier design exhibiting very low input voltage noise with high gain-bandwidth-product and high slew rate. The line-driving output stage exhibits no deadband crossover distortion, large output voltage swing, excellent phase and gain margins, low open-loop high frequency output impedance and symmetrical source and sink AC frequency performance. 


    [1] FR4 is a grade designation assigned to glass-reinforced epoxy laminate printed circuit boards (PCB). "FR" stands for flame retardant, and denotes that safety of flammability of FR4 is in compliance with the standard UL94V-0.

    [2] EMI (electromagnetic interference) A measure of electromagnetic radiation from equipment. 

    [3] RFI (radio frequency interference) A measure of radio frequency (RF) radiation from equipment. 

    [4] ESD (electrostatic discharge) Electrical discharges of static electricity that build up on personnel or equipment, generated by interaction of dissimilar materials. 

     

     

    Mic Preamp
    The superior microphone preamplifier is a high-performance current-feedback instrumentation design manufactured by the world leader in pro audio analog circuits, THAT Corporation, having lower noise at low gains, wider bandwidth, higher slew rate, lower distortion, and lower supply current than other designs. Transient overvoltage protection is provided along with selectable +48 volt phantom power.

    Headphone Amps
    The stereo headphone amplifiers use a unique Maxim Integrated DirectDrive® architecture that eliminates the need for large DC-blocking capacitors. The amplifiers deliver up to 70mW per channel into a 16 Ω load or 130 mW into a 32 Ω load and have low 0.009% THD+N. The design includes ESD protection on the headphone outputs along with short-circuit and thermal-overload protection. Comprehensive anti-click-and-pop circuitry suppresses audible clicks and pops on startup and shutdown. Complementing the headphone amplifiers is the versatile cueing system utilizing Rane’s proprietary Split Cue™[1] technology.

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
    All digital computations are done by a Texas Instruments 32-bit floating point digital signal processor running at 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz or 96 kHz.  

    All S/PDIF transceivers are Texas Instruments pro audio devices with exceptional receiver sample rate converters.

    Dual USB Ports
    Dual USB ports provide for simultaneous connection of two computers, enabling back-to-back sets between laptop DJs running different software without compromise or interruption—no easy feat.

    The USB ports are 100% class compliant, allowing hook-up to any Mac OSx device without the need for an additional driver.

    The included high-performance ASIO driver runs most Windows DAW and DJ software.

    MIDI end points are class compliant with both OSx and Windows devices.

    Each port supports 10 playback and 14 records channels. This lets most DAW programs simultaneously record all four decks, the Submix, the Session input and the Main mix.

    Custom Level Pots

    Unable to find suitable level control pots with the required feel, life and reliability, custom pots were designed that exhibit superior durability, long service life, and repeatable accuracy. These conductive plastic rotary potentiometers are fully sealed with an extraordinary long life expectancy of one million cycles and special viscous damping to give the desired feel.


    [1] Headphone cueing system utilizing a pan control to choose between what is cued and what is playing. In its normal mode the cued program feeds one ear and the master, or program (what is playing) feeds the other ear. This makes beat matching easy and convenient since you listen to both turntables (or CDs, or MP3 files, or any combination) at the same time. Rotating the pan control fully CW, or CCW, puts a monoed signal into one ear with no signal going to the other, and vice-versa. Rotating the pan control to its center position routes equal amounts of cue signal to one ear and program signal to the other ear. Pioneered in 1986 by Rane with the introduction of the MP 24 DJ Mixer.

     

     

     

    Quickstart Guide

     

     

     

     Welcome to the rotary mixer revival

     

     

    Subscribe to our Rane DJ mailing list to stay up to date with whats new at Rane!


              ECE 612 Lecture 27: Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors        
    none
              Memorias        
    Memoria RAM.

    ¿Qué es la memoria RAM?
    La memoria principal o RAM (Random Access Memory, Memoria de Acceso Aleatorio) es donde el computador guarda los datos que está utilizando en el momento presente. El almacenamiento es considerado temporal por que los datos y programas permanecen en ella mientras que la computadora este encendida o no sea reiniciada.

    Se le llama RAM porque es posible acceder a cualquier ubicación de ella aleatoria y rápidamente.
    Físicamente, están constituidas por un conjunto de chips o módulos de chips normalmente conectados a la tarjeta madre. Los chips de memoria son rectángulos negros que suelen ir soldados en grupos a unas plaquitas con "pines" o contactos.
    La diferencia entre la RAM y otros tipos de memoria de almacenamiento, como los disquetes o los discos duros, es que la RAM es mucho más rápida, y que se borra al apagar el computador, no como los Disquetes o discos duros en donde la información permanece grabada.


    Tipos de RAM.

     DRAM: Dinamic-RAM, o RAM DINAMICA, ya que es "la original", y por tanto la más lenta. Usada hasta la época del 386, su velocidad típica es de 80 ó 70 nanosegundos (ns), tiempo éste que tarda en vaciarse para poder dar entrada a la siguiente serie de datos. Por ello, es más rápida la de 70 ns que la de 80 ns.

    Físicamente, aparece en forma de DIMMs o de SIMMs, siendo estos últimos de 30 contactos.

    SRAM: Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), o Memoria Estática de Acceso Aleatorio es un tipo de memoria basada en semiconductores que a diferencia de la memoria DRAM, es capaz de mantener los datos (mientras esté alimentada) sin necesidad de circuito de refresco (no se descargan). Sin embargo, sí son memorias volátiles, es decir que pierden la información si se les interrumpe la alimentación eléctrica.

    No debe ser confundida con la SDRAM (Syncronous DRAM).
    A six-transistor CMOS SRAM cell.


    PSRAM: Otras formas de RAM son la RAM pseudo estática (PSRAM – Pseudo Static RAM) y la RAM no volátil (NVRAM – NonVolatile RAM). La PSRAM es una DRAM con un controlador refrescador de memoria embebido. La NVRAM es una variación especial de la RAM que es capaz de mantener datos, incluso luego de que se remueve la alimentación de poder. Esto se logra almacenando los valores en una memoria EEPROM (explicada en la siguiente sección), justo antes de perder la alimentación.




    Memoria ROM

    Una memoria de sólo lectura (ROM – Read Only Memory) contiene un patrón permanente de datos que no puede alterarse. Una ROM es no volátil. Además suele ser utilizada para almacenar subrutinas de bibliotecas para funciones de uso frecuente, programas del sistema, etc.

    Existen varios tipos de memoria ROM, entre los cuales se encuentran:
    Mask ROM: Llegan del fabricante ya grabadas. El proceso de grabación se hace en el mismo momento de la producción de la memoria por medio de unas mascaras litográficas. La máscara es muy costosa. Cada dato que se quiere cambiar requiere fabricar nuevamente todas las memorias.

    PROM: La grabación de la memoria se realiza después de la fabricación de la misma, pero una vez grabada ya no puede ser modificada.

    EPROM: (Erasable Programmable ROM). Este dispositivo usa un transistor como componente programable. Esta se lee y escribe electrónicamente, pero para el borrado de la misma es necesario exponerla a radiación ultravioleta para reasignar carga negativa a todas las celdas.

    EAPROM: se puede borrar y reprogramar eléctricamente.

    EEPROM: (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM). En esta memoria se puede escribir en cualquier momento sin borrar todo el contenido anterior, ya que permite actualizaciones a nivel de byte. El borrado de los datos se realiza mediante un voltaje específico a los bytes de memoria direccionados.

    PIC.

    PIC: Los PIC son una familia de microcontroladores tipo RISC fabricados por Microchip Technology Inc. y derivados del PIC1650, originalmente desarrollado por la división de microelectrónica de General Instrument.

    El nombre actual no es un acrónimo. En realidad, el nombre completo es PICmicro, aunque generalmente se utiliza como Peripheral Interface Controller (controlador de interfaz periférico).

    El PIC original se diseñó para ser usado con la nueva CPU de 16 bits CP16000. Siendo en general una buena CPU, ésta tenía malas prestaciones de E/S, y el PIC de 8 bits se desarrolló en 1975 para mejorar el rendimiento del sistema quitando peso de E/S a la CPU. El PIC utilizaba microcódigo simple almacenado en ROM para realizar estas tareas; y aunque el término no se usaba por aquel entonces, se trata de un diseño RISC que ejecuta una instrucción cada 4 ciclos del oscilador.

    PLD.

    Los PLD son dispositivos digitales que se pueden configurar por el usuario para implementar una amplia variedad de funciones lógicas en sistemas. Estos dispositivos tienen pines de entrada, un arreglo lógico programable y pines de entrada y salida. Muchos PLD's tienen salidas programables que incrementan su flexibilidad haciéndolos útiles para una gran variedad de aplicaciones. 


    SPLD: Simple Dispositivos Lógicos Programables (SPLD) Sencillo dispositivo de lógica programable (SPLD) chips son el tipo más simple, más pequeño y menos costoso de dispositivo de lógica programable (PLD). Fichas SPLD se pueden utilizar en tablas para reemplazar la serie 7400-lógica transistor-transistor (TTL) de los componentes. También se utilizan en una variedad de aplicaciones comerciales, industriales, y la comunicación.

    CPLD: Un CPLD (del acrónimo inglés Complex Programmable Logic Device) es un dispositivo electrónico. Los CPLD extienden el concepto de un PLD (del acrónimo inglés Programmable Logic Device) a un mayor nivel de integración ya que permite implementar sistemas más eficaces, ya que utilizan menor espacio, mejoran la fiabilidad del diseño, y reducen costos. Un CPLD se forma con múltiples bloques lógicos, cada uno similar a un PLD. Los bloques lógicos se comunican entre sí utilizando una matriz programable de interconexiones, lo cual hace más eficiente el uso del silicio, conduciendo a una mejor eficiencia a menor costo.

    Procesador de un CPLD de la marca Altera.



    FPGA.

    Una FPGA (del inglés Field Programmable Gate Array) es un dispositivo semiconductor que contiene bloques de lógica cuya interconexión y funcionalidad se puede programar. La lógica programable puede reproducir desde funciones tan sencillas como las llevadas a cabo por una puerta lógica o un sistema combinacional hasta complejos sistemas en un chip.

    Las FPGAs se utilizan en aplicaciones similares a los ASICs sin embargo son más lentas, tienen un mayor consumo de potencia y no pueden abarcar sistemas tan complejos como ellos. A pesar de esto, las FPGAs tienen las ventajas de ser reprogramables (lo que añade una enorme flexibilidad al flujo de diseño), sus costes de desarrollo y adquisición son mucho menores para pequeñas cantidades de dispositivos y el tiempo de desarrollo es también menor.

    Las FPGAs fueron inventadas en el año 1984 por Ross Freeman y Bernard Vonderschmitt, co-fundadores de Xilinx, y surgen como una evolución de los CPLDs.
    Tanto los CPLDs como las FPGAs contienen un gran número de elementos lógicos programables. Si medimos la densidad de los elementos lógicos programables en puertas lógicas equivalentes (número de puertas NAND equivalentes que podríamos programar en un dispositivo) podríamos decir que en un CPLD hallaríamos del orden de decenas de miles de puertas lógicas equivalentes y en una FPGA del orden de cientos de miles hasta millones de ellas.

    Aparte de las diferencias en densidad entre ambos tipos de dispositivos, la diferencia fundamental entre las FPGAs y los CPLDs es su arquitectura. La arquitectura de los CPLDs es más rígida y consiste en una o más sumas de productos programables cuyos resultados van a parar a un número reducido de biestables síncronos (también denominados flip-flops). La arquitectura de las FPGAs, por otro lado, se basa en un gran número de pequeños bloques utilizados para reproducir sencillas operaciones lógicas, que cuentan a su vez con biestables síncronos. La enorme libertad disponible en la interconexion de dichos bloques confiere a las FPGAs una gran flexibilidad.

              RE: DAC 2014 Keynote: Qualcomm VP Outlines Mobile Computing Challenges        

    Many of Karim Arabi's requests for innovation are achievable now, if the right methodology and tools are lined up.  The cycle time requirements have to be achieved by a focus on more optimal results, a so-called 'shift to the left' that many including Frank Schirrmeister of Cadence have written and spoken on.  Get things right at a higher system level in order to have a tighter focus downstream to transistors.  The virtual prototyping technology at Cadence (models and IP; simulation and emulation technologies) is a major shift to the left.  Going further left, further upstream, the 'seamless hardware/software co-design' can be found outside of Cadence in Space Codesign's next generation ESL technology that can retarget functions in your application for either hardware or software implementation.  As a design creation front-end, promising candidates with optimal hw/sw partitions can (in theory, on the back of a napkin so to speak!) be mapped into the Cadence environment for more detailed analysis and verification, and onward in the ASIC flow.


              Comment #953        
    I am way past the point of thinking your a idiot, I am sure now. I don't consider using a backhoe to replace the shovel

    a job killer. I also don't think that workers would be able to place billions of transistors on a integrated circuit board by

    hand. Any process that can be automated should be automated. I don't think that you understand much of anything.

    Production is the key to creating jobs. Lets see, a new company needs to ship it's product so this is good news for the

    shipping... [ More ]
              opti-switch keppe        
    there is a on-line schematic for a opti switch, it is listed as free energy circuit. digi-key has the parts for this pretty cheap. the parts are a led p/n 897-1069-1-nd a photo-transistor p/n 160-1985-nd and a mosfet n-channel p/n irf640pbf-nd. use a 10k ohm resistor in series with the led,use a 5600 ohm resistor in series with the photo-transistor and bias the mosfet with a 1m ohm resistor. the mosfet gate is sentive to voltage and will short the junction and be none operiatable. good idea have ...
              100 años de ‘Materialismo y empiriocriticismo’        
                                                                                       Publicado en el año 2008. Antorcha

    Sumario:

    — Introducción
    — El estilo leninista
    — En el periodo de las dudas
    — La infinitud de la materia
    — Reacción política, reacción ideológica
    — La influencia del empiriocriticismo en el movimiento obrero
    — Los trileros de la filosofía
    — La teoría leninista del reflejo
    — Crítica de la semiología idealista
    — Bogdanov, los ‘otzovistas’ y la liquidación
    — El partidismo en filosofía
    — Notas

    En febrero de 1908, hace 100 años, Lenin comenzó a redactar Materialismo y empiriocriticismo, que contiene su principal estudio filosófico, una obra extraordinaria sobre materialismo dialéctico. Hay muy pocos libros de nuestros clásicos dedicados específicamente a la filosofía, y éste es uno de ellos. Su subtítulo es Notas críticas sobre una filosofía reaccionaria porque en él Lenin combate en sus múltiples aspectos la filosofía mística burguesa, que corre paralela a la bayoneta en lo político, es decir, una tendencia a la involución propiciada por la incursión del capitalismo en su etapa imperialista.

    El empiriocriticismo fue una ideología burguesa de alcance internacional. Surgido a finales del siglo XIX por impulso de los filósofos Ernst Mach (1838-1916) y Richard Avenarius (1843-1896), el empiriocriticismo fue una variedad del positivismo, con ingredientes kantianos, que tuvo la pretensión de convertirse en la única filosofia científica que, supuestamente, superaba la unilateralidad tanto del materialismo como del idealismo, aunque en realidad tras ella se ocultaba una teoría idealista subjetiva y reaccionaria. Como su propio nombre indica, se trataba de una ideología que volvía a refundir el empirismo de Hume con el criticismo de Kant. Su influencia fue enorme, tanto sobre la ideología burguesa como sobre determinadas corrientes del movimiento obrero internacional. Además, su penetración fue duradera en el tiempo. A través del Círculo de Viena, después de la II Guerra Mundial, Mach y Avenarius inspiraron a las corrientes neopositivistas anglosajonas del siglo XX, convirtiéndose en una tendencia ideológicamente dominante en el mundo entero.

    Es muy posible que Lenin nunca hubiera entrado a refutar el empiriocriticismo si previamente éste no se hubiera infiltrado en el seno del movimiento obrero europeo. Esa infiltración tiene una relación inmediata con el revisionismo que entonces se abría camino en la II Internacional. Por medio de Bernstein y los austromarxistas, el empiriocriticismo pretendió refundar el socialismo para el nuevo siglo XX ya que –según ellos- Marx y Engels se habían quedado desfasados en el siglo anterior. Los dirigentes reformistas de la II Internacional trataron de hacer pasar el empiriocriticismo no como la última palabra de la burguesía sino como la última palabra de la ciencia. A través de lamodernización y la revisión del marxismo, buscaron influenciar la lucha del movimiento obrero en un sentido liquidacionista. No lo lograron gracias al contrataque de Lenin. Por tanto, Materialismo y empiriocriticismo continúa hoy, cien años después, al servicio del combate contra la ideología burguesa, contra el revisionismo y el dogmatismo, al servicio de la ciencia y de la transformación revolucionaria del mundo. Es un modelo de partidismo bolchevique en la batalla contra los enemigos del marxismo en el que se conjugan la pasión revolucionaria con una profunda comprensión de los últimos avances científicos.

    El estilo leninista

    Los comunistas no sólo nos diferenciamos de los demás por lo que decimos sino también porque sabemos lo que decimos (de lo contrario permaneceríamos callados). La superficialidad no tiene nada que ver con nuestro estilo de trabajo. En el libro que comentamos Lenin dice que si quieres conocer a tu enemigo tienes que ir al campo enemigo (1); es una metáfora para insistir en que no se pueden lanzar invectivas gratuitas y frívolas y que al adversario, antes de atacarle, hay que estudiarle a fondo, conocer su pensamiento. Una crítica superficial es genérica y, en consecuencia, no puede ser creíble porque la verdad es siempre concreta. Cuando no se ha leido a fondo o no se ha comprendido exactamente aquello que se pretende criticar, uno se critica a sí mismo, se aferra a las frases sueltas y ve gigantes donde sólo hay molinos de viento. El leninismo, como se demuestra en Materialismo y empiriocriticismo, es otra cosa diferente: un conocimiento completo de aquello que está combatiendo. Nuestros clásicos nos enseñan que en las luchas militares puede haber heridos y presos, pero en las luchas ideológicas no hay treguas, ni concesiones, ni medias tintas, y la única manera de lograrlo es informarse bien y exhaustivamente de aquello contra lo que estamos luchando. Por eso después del libro de Lenin el empiriocriticismo quedó bien enterrado dentro del movimiento obrero, de una vez y para siempre. Una crítica a fondo, implacable, impide que ese tipo de errores se reproduzcan una y otra vez, que se siembre la confusión y no haya manera de salir del pantano de las tertulias estériles.

    Además, hay otras razones para proceder de esa forma. El proletariado, llamado a liberar de la explotación a toda la humanidad, es el legítimo heredero de todo el legado cultural de la historia, incluyendo el creado por la sociedad burguesa. No puede prescindir de la asimilación de la cultura del pasado: La misión de los marxistas -escribe Lenin- es la de saber asimilar y reelaborar las adquisiciones de esos ‘comisionados’... saber rechazar de plano su tendencia reaccionaria, saber seguir una pauta propia y luchar contra toda la tendencia de las fuerzas y clases enemigas nuestras.

    Lenin realizó una vasta labor de investigación para detectar cada uno de los flancos de la lucha contra el empiriocriticismo. Previo estudio exhaustivo de todos los materiales publicados, empezó a escribir el libro en las bibliotecas de Ginebra: Me emborracho de filosofía, le escribió a Gorki. En mayo, para conocer detalladamente la bibliografía moderna sobre filosofía y ciencia, se desplazó a Londres, donde estuvo cerca de un mes entero estudiando en la biblioteca del Museo Británico. Consultó más de 200 libros y artículos de diversos autores, releyó las obras de Marx y Engels, así como los trabajos de Plejanov. Utilizó los estudios originales de autores ingleses, franceses y alemanes en sus propios idiomas; la mayoría de las fuentes que cita datan de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX; pero hay también algunas anteriores, por ejemplo un libro de Fichte, editado en 1801. Además de los numerosos volúmenes de las obras de Hegel, Feuerbach, Fichte y Chernishevski, menciona muchos artículos publicados en distintas revistas. Por supuesto, leyó las principales obras de Mach y Avenarius, algunas de las cuales conocía desde 1904. En su libro cita las opiniones de otros autores sobre el empiriocriticismo y utiliza las más recientes publicaciones sobre ciencia de la época.

    A finales de septiembre de 1908 el manuscrito estaba terminado en lo fundamental. El prólogo del libro tiene esa fecha. Lenin consideraba urgente editarlo cuanto antes: Es importante que el libro salga lo antes posible. Tengo no sólo importantes compromisos literarios, sino también políticos, que están vinculados con la aparición del libro. Apremiaba para que se editara el libro porque en junio de 1909 estaba convocada una conferencia de la redacción ampliada del periódico Proletari que, de hecho, constituía entoces la dirección del Partido bolchevique, en la que debía librarse el combate decisivo con los empiriocriticistas. En diciembre de 1908 se mudó de Ginebra a París, debido a que la edición de Proletari se había trasladado allí. En París trabajó hasta abril de 1909 en la corrección de las pruebas del libro.

    Pero su publicación tropezó en Rusia con grandes dificultades. Tras la Revolución de 1905 algunas editoriales habían sido clausuradas a causa de la reacción del gobierno zarista y otras habían interrumpido su actividad. La censura conocía a Lenin y era difícil encontrar un editor que publicara su obra en medio de la represión policíaca.

    Lenin escribió a Bonch-Bruevich, que trabajaba en la Editorial Zhizn i Znanie (Vida y Saber), fundada en 1907, pero como la situación de la editorial aún no se había consolidado no pudo hacer nada. Debido a dificultades financieras, tampoco pudo ayudarle Daugue, que había editado algunos libros filosóficos, entre ellos la traducción al ruso de las cartas de Marx a Kugelmann revisadas y prologadas por Lenin y los estudios de Dietzgen, entre otros.

    Por último, gracias a la mediación de Skvortsoc-Stepanov, la editorial particular de Krumbügel, Zvenó, aceptó la obra.Lenin dio su conformidad a la editorial, aunque tenía pocas esperanzas de que el libro se publicara pronto, debido a la difícil situación existente. En las cartas a su hermana Ana le pedía que le enviara las pruebas de imprenta para corregirlas, introducir adiciones y evitar omisiones o errores. Le pidió también que formalizara cuanto antes el contrato y acelerara la publicación. Aconsejó a su hermana que, para evitar verse comprometida a causa de la censura, hiciese el contrato a nombre de él, pero el contrato fue firmado finalmente por ella.

    Lenin autorizó al editor para que decidiera el seudónimo con el que debía aparecer el nombre del autor de la obra entre los tres conocidos en esa época: Lenin, Tulin e Ilin. Krumbügel optó por el último y explicó su elección con el argumento de que los dos primeros eran demasiado conocidos: un artículo firmado por Tulin (Contenido económico del populismo y su crítica en el libro del señor Struvé) había sido prohibido por la censura. Además, Ilin era el nombre más familiar para los lectores y el más adecuado para evitar la censura, ya que con esa firma se habían publicado las recopilaciones El problema agrario y En doce años, y se había editado dos veces el libro El desarrollo del capitalismo en Rusia.

    Krumbügel destacó en sus memorias la preocupación de la hermana de Lenin por todo lo relacionado conMaterialismo y empiriocriticismo, fundamentalmente por su rápida impresión. Lenin, que criticaba con dureza en su obra a los revisionistas, pidió a su hermana que no atenuara sus expresiones y sólo a regañadientes aceptó algunas enmiendas. Leyó con cuidado las pruebas, lo que resulta evidente en las cartas a su hermana, a las que adjuntaba las listas de erratas y enmiendas; tenía en cuenta las observaciones de Ana, quien atendía las pruebas e insistió en que se apresurara la publicación del libro. Por fin Materialismo y empiriocriticismo vio la luz en Moscú en mayo de 1909, con una tirada de 2.000 ejemplares y Lenin quedó satisfecho con la edición.

    El libro contribuyó a difundir en las filas del Partido bolchevique la filosofía marxista y ayudó al movimiento comunista internacional y a los obreros de vanguardia a asimilar el materialismo dialéctico. Fue reeditado por primera vez después de la Revolución de Octubre, en 1920, con una tirada 30.000 ejemplares. La edición no difería de la anterior, salvo algunas correcciones hechas en el texto.

    En el periodo de las dudas

    Desde los primeros tiempos del positivismo, aproximadamente a mediados del siglo XIX, el rechazo a la filosofía, con la excusa de un rechazo a la metafísica, es una constante del pensamiento burgués que se mantiene en nuestros días. Por ejemplo, escribe Carnap: Las diferentes ciencias han alcanzado actualmente muy desiguales niveles en el proceso de descontaminación de metafísica. Debido principalmente a los esfuerzos de Mach, Poincaré, y Einstein, la física se halla, en general, prácticamente libre de metafísica (2). El empiriocriticismo sigue al positivismo en este empeño que, en definitiva, es una renuncia a la concepción misma del saber como conocimiento de la esencia de las cosas. Ya hemos expuesto en otro artículo (Las 50 primeras páginas de ‘El Capital’) que el pensamiento burgués moderno se atiene a las apariencias, lo que el empirismo califica como sensaciones. Aparentemente el rechazo burgués de la filosofía se hacía en nombre de la ciencia, de la depuración de la ciencia de contaminantes ajenos a ella. Este rechazo también se maquilla como un rechazo del dogmatismo, si bien, como también es habitual, el positivismo rechazó la metafísica para sustituirla por otra de la peor especie.

    Sobre todo en situaciones problemáticas, la ciencia no puede prescindir de las hipótesis y teorías filosóficas sobre la esencia de los fenómenos concretos estudiados. Estas hipótesis tienen un carácter filosófico y ponen de manifiesto el papel avanzado y pronosticador de la filosofía. En la Dialéctica de la naturaleza Engels observa que la filosofía llegó mucho antes que la ciencia a la comprensión de que la materia no puede ser creada. En los trabajos de Engels hay enunciados que anticiparon algunas concepciones de la ciencia. La dialéctica materalista ha criticado y critica la hipótesis de Einstein acerca de un espacio no infinito sino ilimitado (3), del mismo modo que critica la del big-bang, es decir, la hipótesis de un tiempo no infinito. Por lo demás, el estudio de esos conceptos generales (materia, infinito, movimiento) no corresponde a ninguna ciencia en particular sino que han sido desde siempre asunto de la filosofía.

    A comienzos del siglo XX la pretensión de renunciar a la filosofía llegaba en el peor momento, cuando más se necesitaba de ella, a causa de la crisis de la física clásica. Como había escrito Engels, la física se transformó de ciencia empírica en ciencia teórica (4); además del cómo tuvo la pretensión de investigar el por qué. Cuando los filósofos renegaban de su saber, los científicos necesitaban de ella y esa necesidad les obligó a entrar en la filosofía, en la peor de las filosofías posibles. Algunos científicos (Poincaré, Einstein) cayeron bajo la influencia del empiriocriticismo y otros, como Ernst Mach, lo crearon. Refiriéndose a esos científicos metidos a filósofos, Leninescribió: Pero cuando se trata de filosofía, no se puede creer ni una sola palabra de ninguno de esos profesores, capaces de realizar los más valiosos trabajos en campos especiales de la Química, de la Historia, de la Física. Por esoLenin habla en su obra de un idealismo físico aludiendo a este fenómeno y recita todo un listado de grandes científicos que se convirtieron en desastrosos filósofos: Poincaré (gran físico y débil filósofo), Ostwald (gran químico y mediocre filósofo), Helmholtz (tan inconsecuente en filosofía como la mayoría de los naturalistas), Pearson (matemático y racista a la vez)...


    Las condiciones de trabajo del científico en la sociedad capitalista lo empujaron hacia el idealismo. En el transcurso del siglo XIX al XX se crearon los grandes laboratorios científicos y la actividad científica saltó de la universidad a la industria, del aficionado al profesional, del artesano al obrero, de la vocación al profesionalismo. A veces se habla mucho de la aplicación de la ciencia a la industria, pero poco de la industria (y por tanto del capitalismo) a la ciencia. Los laboratorios Bell en Estados Unidos fueron creados por el gigantesco monopolio de las telecomunicaciones; en 1909 General Electric creó su propio laboratorio de investigación; el laboratorio criogénico de Leyden lo financió la industria frigorífica en 1884; el instituto Kaiser Guillermo de Berlín fue fundado en 1911 por la industria pesada alemana. Para Edison la ciencia aplicada era un negocio y había que inventar cosas nuevas que tuvieran utilidad comercial. Se fabrican conocimientos como se empezaban a fabricar vehículos: en cadena. Lo importante no era el descubrimiento sino la patente, por lo que también se inaugura entonces una nueva rama jurídica que es la denominada propiedad intelectual, el colmo de la propiedad privada, que ha dado lugar a litigios científicos, como el del láser, que se iniciaron en 1960 y aún no han terminado. Son muy numerosas las ocasiones en que los premios Nóbel de ciencia no reconocen la investigación sino el invento industrial, yendo a manos de ingenieros, como en el caso del transistor.

    Al secreto industrial se le sumó el secreto militar. Con el imperialismo la tecnología y la ciencia aplicada empezaron a jugar un papel decisivo dentro del andamiaje del Estado monopolista, tanto en las empresas privadas como en los proyectos belicistas de las grandes potencias. El ejemplo más claro de ello fue aquella carta colectiva promovida por Leo Szilard y firmada por Einstein y muchos otros científicos, en la que se llamaba a establecer una relación permanente entre el Estado y los físicos nucleares para fabricar la bomba atómica. El proyecto Manhattan introdujo un nuevo tipo de científico a sueldo, con actividad planificada, medición de rendimientos y una administración al estilo de los grandes monopolios.

    Estamos en el periodo de las dudas, dice Lenin en la obra. Es la época en la que surgen nuevas ciencias, como la genética, o están a punto de aparecer teorías tan renovadoras como la mecánica cuántica. La teoría de conjuntos y el formalismo se imponen en la matemática. Pero quizá la señal más clara de la crisis de la física fue la publicación por Einstein de sus dos artículos sobre la teoría de la relatividad, el primero de los cuales apareció en 1905 y el segundo en 1916. Lenin redactó Materialismo y empiriocriticismo justo entre ambas fechas, es decir, en medio de esa crisis teórica que, al mismo tiempo, debe comprenderse como una auténtica revolución científica.

    Antes de la teoría de la relatividad se había descubierto que los átomos no eran indivisibles como había supuesto la física desde los tiempos de la Grecia antigua. En 1897 J.J.Thomson demostró que de ellos se pueden obtener otras partículas más pequeñas, que ahora se denominan electrones. Pero fue el descubrimiento de la radiactividad lo que de manera más concluyente acabó con la idea de indivisibilidad del átomo, porque llegó a su mismo interior, al núcleo. La radiactividad no dependía de la naturaleza de los átomos sino sólo de su núcleo. Cuando éstos son inestables, cambian o se desintegran emitiendo radiaciones, en forma de partículas o de ondas electromagnéticas. En 1895 Röntgen descubrió los rayos X y al año siguiente Becquerel observó que las sales de uranio emitían unas radiaciones que eran capaces de velar placas fotográficas en la oscuridad e incluso atravesar placas de aluminio y cobre. El matrimonio Curie descubrió otros elementos que también eran emisores radiactivos, aún más activos que el uranio, como el polonio y el radio. En 1900 Ernest Rutherford y Paul U. Villard identificaron en las radiaciones emitidas tres componentes distintos: unas partículas positivas (alfa), otras negativas (beta), los electrones que ya había descubierto Thomson, así como una radiación electromagnética neutra con una corta longitud de onda (rayos gamma).

    El átomo parecía descompensado. La dimensión del núcleo es 100.000 veces menor que el diámetro de todo el atómo, por lo que éste parecía vacío o hueco. Por eso Poincaré hablaba de agujeros del éter como antes Newton había hablado del sensorio de dios. La materia no era compacta o maciza, como se había imaginado, ya que el núcleo es muy denso, concentrando casi toda la masa del átomo. El electrón tenía una enorme carga eléctrica en proporción a su masa y se podía mover con una rapidez mucho mayor, a velocidades fantásticas, que pueden llegar a aproximarse a la de la luz.

    Pero la hipótesis de Poincaré sobre la desaparición de la materia se basaba, más que en la división de los átomos (radiactividad y electrones), en la elevada velocidad con que se desplazaban las partículas resultantes de esa división y, más concretamente, de los electrones, lo cual modificaba su masa (4). Sin embargo, la mecánica tradicional se había edificado sobre el principio general de la conservación de la masa, otro de los conceptos físicos seculares que se venía abajo. Newton había impuesto una concepción doble de masa creando una confusión que permanece en la actualidad:

    — por un lado, la masa expresaba las propiedades inerciales y gravitatorias de los cuerpos
    — por el otro, definió la masa como una medida de la cantidad de materia.

    Esta última definición se viene arrastrando desde entonces, de modo que la materia, una categoría filosófica abstracta, se equipara con sus manifestaciones concretas y con una de sus propiedades físicas, la masa. Además, una vez identificada con la masa, la materia se opuso a la energía, concebida como inmaterial. Por ejemplo, Poincaré imaginaba que el atributo esencial de la materia es su masa (5), de modo que, si así fuera, tendríamos que considerar que lo que no tiene masa es algo distinto, espiritual o inmaterial. Pero de modo equivalente también podríamos imaginar que lo que no tiene aceleración, momento angular o espín, también es un espíritu, lo cual es absurdo. Una partícula de masa igual a cero es tan material como otra de carga eléctrica igual a cero.

    Con su teoría de la relatividad especial, Einstein explicó en 1905 que a velocidades próximas a la de la luz, la masa no permanece constante y, con esta relatividad de la masa, la materia parecía perder otro sólido punto de anclaje. Pero, como dijo Einstein, el principio general de la conservación de la masa debía fundirse con el de la conservación de la energía y, por tanto, la masa inercial de un sistema de cuerpos cabe contemplarla precisamente como una medida de su energía (6). Ambos constituyen dos formulaciones del mismo principio físico, expresado en la ecuación E=mc2 según la cual hay una proporción entre la masa y la energía que permanece constante. A veces se interpreta esta ecuación diciendo que la masa es equivalente a la energía (y a la inversa), una formulación que no es muy exacta porque conduce a imaginar que la masa y la energía son idénticos, lo cual es falso.

    Como la distancia es inversamente proporcional a la energía, a medida que nos adentramos en las profundidades del átomo, cuando las distancias se reducen, la energía aumenta, de manera que fuerzas que a escala ordinaria no son operativas, adquieren un relieve decisivo en los núcleos atómicos y, a la inversa. Así, las fuerzas gravitatorias, que son fundamentales a escala planetaria, carecen de incidencia en los movimientos nucleares y, por su parte, las fuerzas nucleares no resultan apreciables a una escala may