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Bandzile, 19 years old, was born in Manzini, Swaziland and now lives in the Mpholi community and attends the Mpholi CarePoint. He grew up with an experience that is, unfortunately, very similar to many of the children whom our CarePoints serve. When he was a small boy, his father died, and his mother struggled to

The post Bandzile the Defender appeared first on Children's HopeChest.


          The Swaziland “Shepherds” Who Are Changing Lives        

Two weeks ago was Father’s Day–just on the heels of returning from my third trip to Bhalekane CarePoint in Swaziland. Father’s Day felt a bit different for me given my recent travels to Swaziland. This is the first time I have been in Swaziland since becoming a father myself. Returning home, I felt the natural feelings

The post The Swaziland “Shepherds” Who Are Changing Lives appeared first on Children's HopeChest.


          World: FPMA Bulletin #7, 10 August 2017        
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat rose further in July on quality concerns, particularly for higher protein wheat, although upward pressure was limited by prospects of ample global supplies. Export prices of maize remained generally unchanged, while a slowdown in demand capped gains in rice quotations.
  • In East Africa, prices of cereals in most countries declined signi cantly for the second consecutive month in July with the new harvests, but remained generally higher than a year earlier. However, in Ethiopia, prices of maize surged further and reached record levels, underpinned by uncertain prospects for the 2017 crops.
  • In the CIS, prices of staple potatoes declined sharply from the record or near-record highs of June in most countries of the subregion with the beginning of the new harvest. Prices, however, remained higher than in July last year after the sharp increases of the past months.

          Our ongoing commitment to support computer science educators in Europe        

The need for employees with computer science (CS) and coding skills is steadily increasing in Europe—by 4 percent every year between 2006 and 2016 according to DigitalEurope.  But educators are struggling to keep up with the demand, often because they lack the professional development, confidence and resources to successfully teach their students. 

Because of these challenges, we’re working to increase the availability of quality computer science education and access to CS skills by empowering CS teachers globally. We’ve recently launched new support in Europe, the Middle East and Africa through CS4HS, a program to fund universities and nonprofits designing and delivering rigorous computer science professional development for teachers.

We’re excited to be working with 79 organizations worldwide, and 28 in the EMEA region, who are committed to increasing the technical and teaching skills of educators, and building communities of ongoing learning. We believe that these organizations are committed to delivering high-quality teacher professional development programs with a deep impact in their local community and a strong potential to increase their reach.

Classroom image

Growing the community of computer science educators  

Over the past 10 years, CS4HS has contributed $10 million to professional development (PD) providers around the world to help develop and empower teachers—like Catrobat, a non-profit initiative based at Graz University of Technology in Austria who created a free online course for students and teachers, and the University of Wolverhampton, who created a free MOOC to empower teachers of computing to teach programming in the new computing syllabuses in England, among others.

We’re excited to support new and future CS educators around the world. Even though computer science is a relatively new discipline for most schools, the enthusiasm is growing and teachers have a critical role to play in fueling their students’ interest and participation. These grants will help universities and nonprofits reach educators with PD opportunities that enhance their CS and technical skills development, improve their confidence in the classroom, and provide leadership training so that they can be advocates for CS education in their communities.

2017 awardees in EMEA

Asociatia Techsoup Romania

Ideodromio, Cyprus

Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Informatica, Italy

Lithuanian Computer Society

Dublin City University, Ireland

Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

EduACT, Greece

Graz University of Technology, Austria

University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Asociatia Tech Lounge, Romania

Association Rural Internet Access Points, Lithuania

University of Wolverhampton, UK

Universidad de Granada, Spain

University UMK Toruń, Poland

Hasselt University, Belgium

Jednota školských informatiků, Czech Republic

University of Lille - Science and Technology, France

University of Roehampton, UK

University of Urbino, Italy

ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Vattenhallen Science Center, Lund University, Sweden

University College of Applied Sciences, Palestine

Hapa Foundation, Ghana

Let’s Get Ready, Cameroon

Swaziland Foundation for STEM Education

Laikipia University, Kenya

Mobile4Senegal

Peo Ya Phetogo in partnership with University of the Western Cape & Mozilla Foundation, South Africa

To discover more about CS opportunities near you, explore our educator resources, student programs and resources, and tools.



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Garden Africa is a wonderful charity that works with people in South Africa, Namibia, Swaziland and Zimbabwe training smallholders to grow crops to organic standards to improve their income and protect the environment. Whatever support you can give will be appreciated.
          Swaziland : Vers la fin du monopole de MTN ?        

Le gouvernement du Swaziland envisage de mettre fin au monopole que détient MTN sur le marché télécom du pays, depuis 1999, après la fermeture de la branche mobile de la société des postes et télécommunications de Swaziland (SPTC). Une kyrielle de lois (13 au total) viennent d’être mise par le gouvernement, sur la table du […]

Cet article Swaziland : Vers la fin du monopole de MTN ? est apparu en premier sur TechOfAfrica.


          TB Silent Killer: FRONTLINE Documentary and Panel Discussion        
The Kaiser Family Foundation convened a public forum to take stock of the global health challenge presented by TB, to examine the limitations and challenges of current treatment options, their limitations and challenges, and to discuss the search for new and better TB drugs and other tools. The event began with a screening of a short segment of a new FRONTLINE television documentary, TB Silent Killer, which focuses on the Southern African nation of Swaziland, the country with the world's highest incidence of TB, and delivers a portrait of the people living at the pandemic's epicenter.
          Nigeria and Ghana advance to CAF group stage in World Cup qualifying        
Ivory Coast players celebrate during their win against Liberia. Nigeria advanced to the third round of African qualifying for the 2018 World Cup with a 2-0 win over Swaziland on Tuesday. After a goalless first leg, the Super Eagles finally found a breakthrough in the 52nd minute when Moses Simon curled in a free kick. Nigeria allowed the visitors few chances from that point and doubled their advantage with Fefe Ambrose's free kick in the 87th minute. Phumlani Dlamini was sent off in stoppage time for Swaziland as Nigeria reached the group stage. Ghana also moved...
          Shopping for Christmas        
In Swaziland
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A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
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Winnipeg Free Press May 18, 2012

Queen’s Jubilee guest list draws criticism due to inclusion of Bahrain, Swaziland kings Raphael Satter, The Associated Press

Caption: Queen Elizabeth II, right, looks on as the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge chat with King Hussein and Queen Rania of Jordan as guests arrive at a lunch for sovereign monarchs of the world, held in honour of the queen’s Diamond Jubilee, at Windsor Castle, in Windsor, Friday May 18, 2012. Critics are aghast at the choice of some guests for the lunch _ among them a king whose Gulf nation has been engaged in a brutal crackdown on political dissent.(AP Photo/ Arthur Edwards, Pool)

LONDON – Britain has come under criticism for inviting the king of Bahrain, whose Gulf state has engaged in a brutal crackdown on political dissent, to a lunch Friday celebrating Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee.

The lunch in Windsor Castle was the largest gathering of foreign royals in Britain since Queen Elizabeth II’s grandson, Prince William, was married to Kate Middleton last year. Then, as now, the decision to extend an invitation to members of the Bahraini royal family has angered those who are upset [...]

          Summer Students Visit Development Organizations in DC        

DPMI visits OAS

Back row, l-r: Hawi Burka Kebede (Ethiopia), Bantu Mabaso (Swaziland), Miranda Meyer MAIEM/MPA ’18 (Graduate Assistant), Javier Monterroso Montenegro (Guatemala), Jhader Aguad (Peru), Jose Merlo (Ecuador). Front row, l-r: Allan Martinez Venegas (Costa Rica), Shanina van Gent (The Netherlands), Amita Ramachandran (India).

One of the added advantages the Institute’s Design Partnering, Management and Innovation (DPMI) program offers to students in its annual Washington DC session (sessions are also offered in Monterey and Rwanda) is the opportunity to take advantage of occasional mornings off during the three-week training to visit organizations involved in international development. On June 20, a group of Davis UWC Scholars enrolled in this summer’s DPMI in DC session had the opportunity to visit the Organization of American States (OAS).

Student Amita Ramachandran said she “really appreciated” the opportunity to visit OAS and “had a fantastic time with the amazing instructors and incredible cohort.”

Students in the intensive three-week DPMI program earn a certificate in international development and social change. Participants gain the program design, evaluation, strategic partnering, and facilitation skills needed to launch a career in international development, and become part of a global network of over 1,300 program alumni. Student Gabbie Santos (Midd '17) said “I’m grateful to DPMI for allowing me a close look at some of what international development work could involve. My interest in the field has been largely shaped and informed by my experiences at home in the Philippines.”

“Washington D.C. is a classroom in itself and our goal is to offer each cohort of DPMI in DC students both an intensive skill-building course and the chance to supplement it with invaluable networking opportunities,” added Director of Professional Immersive Learning and Special Programs Carolyn Taylor Meyer MAIPS ’05.

Each year since 2006, the DPMI in DC program admits eight Davis UWC scholars, who receive scholarships to attend the certificate program. The Davis UWC Scholars Program aims to build cross-cultural understanding by offering full scholarships to each United World College student who wishes to attend a participating university in the U.S. Since its founding in 2000, the program has provided scholarships to 7,686 scholars from 152 countries attending U.S. partner colleges and universities.

The Organization of American States considers itself to be “the world’s oldest regional organization,” dating back to the First International Conference of American States in 1889-90. The OAS was established in its current form in 1948 with goals including the promotion of collaboration, as well as the defense of the sovereignty and independence of the 35 independent member states.


          UN Women Announces 16 Steps Policy Agenda | Say NO - UNiTE        
UN Women Announces 16 Steps Policy Agenda | Say NO - UNiTE


In her first message for the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, since UN Women became operational earlier this year, Executive Director of UN Women, Michelle Bachelet outlines a comprehensive policy agenda to end violence against women globally. Focusing on the three critical pillars of prevention, protection and provision of services, Ms. Bachelet’s call for action, urges world leaders to mobilize political will and investment to ensure that women can live a life without violence.

16 Steps Policy Agenda to End Violence against Women

1. Ratify international and regional treaties …
that protect the rights of women and girls, and ensure that national laws and services meet international human rights standards.
2. Adopt and enforce laws…
to end impunity, bring perpetrators of violence against women and girls to justice and provide women with reparations and remedy for the violations perpetrated against them.
3. Develop national and local action plans…
for ending violence against women and girls in every country that bring the government, women’s and other civil society organizations, the mass media and the private sector into a coordinated, collective front against such human rights violations.
4. Make justice accessible to women and girls …
by providing free legal and specialized services, and increasing women in law enforcement and frontline services.
5. End impunity towards conflict-related sexual violence …
by prosecuting perpetrators in conflict and post-conflict contexts and fulfilling survivors’ right to comprehensive reparations programmes that are non-stigmatizing and have a transformative impact on women and girls’ lives.
6. Ensure universal access to critical services…
at a minimum, women’s and girls’ emergency and immediate needs should be met through free 24-hour hotlines, prompt intervention for their safety and protection, safe housing and shelter for them and their children, counseling and psycho-social support, post-rape care, and free legal aid to understand their rights and options.
7. Train providers of frontline services…
especially the police, lawyers and judges, social workers and health personnel to ensure that they follow quality standards and protocols. Services should be confidential, sensitive and convenient to women survivors.
8. Provide adequate public resources…
to implement existing laws and policies, recognizing the devastating costs and consequences of violence against women not only for the lives directly affected, but to society and the economy at large, and to public budgets.
9. Collect, analyze and disseminate national data…
on prevalence, causes and consequences of violence against women and girls, profiles of survivors and perpetrators, and progress and gaps in the implementation of national policies, plans and laws.
  • Gender-based violence study in Morocco reveals that approximately 60 percent of Moroccan women have experienced some form of violence recently, and violence against women is three times more likely in urban areas than in rural ones.
  • Together for Girls, a global effort to prevent sexual violence against girls, of which UN Women is a partner, makes an urgent call for national surveys. The alarming finding in Swaziland—one-third of girls have experienced sexual violence—spurred a national education campaign, strengthening of the capacity of police to respond to sexual violence, and the establishment of a child-friendly court. For more information about Together for Girls, click here.
  • Access data on prevalence, laws and more at Progress of the World’s Women and Violence against Women Prevalence Data: Surveys by Country.
10. Invest in gender equality and women’s empowerment…
to tackle the root causes of violence against women and girls. Strategic areas are girls’ secondary education, advancing women’s reproductive health and rights, addressing the inter-linkages of violence with HIV and AIDS, and increasing women’s political and economic participation and leadership. Gender equality and ending violence against women must be placed squarely at the heart of achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Up to three quarters of women and girls worldwide experience physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. The MDGs and Gender Series cautions, unless violence against women is curbed, meeting all of the eight Millennium Development Goals will be impossible.
11. Enhance women’s economic empowerment…
by ensuring women’s rights to own land and property, to inheritance, equal pay for equal work, and safe and decent employment. Women’s unequal economic and employment opportunities are a major factor in perpetuating their entrapment in situations of violence, exploitation and abuse.
  • In a land torn apart by years of bitter conflict, the daily struggle to survive is an ongoing battle. Feeding the family is a constant challenge. Bread Winner, Bread Maker tells the story of some inspirational women who are bringing hope to thousands in the occupied Palestinian territory.
  • Millions of women work overseas each year and endure abuse and exploitation. On the Move: Nepal’s Women Migrant Workersfight for their rights.
12. Increase public awareness and social mobilization…
to stop violence against women and girls, and to enable women and girls subjected to violence to break the silence and seek justice and support.
  • With over 2 million actions and 600 partners, Say NO – UNiTE to End Violence against Women offers a global platform for information, action and social mobilization. Visit www.saynotoviolence.org and post your action today!
13. Engage the mass media…
 in shaping public opinion and challenging the harmful gender norms that perpetuate violence against women and girls.
14. Work for and with young people as champions of change…
 to end violence against women, and ensure that educational systems empower girls and boys to transform and build gender relations based on harmony, mutual respect and non-violence.
15. Mobilize men and boys…
 of all ages and walks of life to take a stand against violence against women and girls, and foster equality and gender solidarity.
16. Donate to the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women..
 the only grant-making fund in the world exclusively dedicated to channeling expertise and financial support to national, local and grassroots efforts.
  • It’s the 15th anniversary of the UN Trust Fund—since its establishment, the UN Trust Fund has supported 339 programmes in 127 countries and territories, relying on voluntary contributions. Please help us make the world a safer place for women and girls by sending a donation today!

Related links: Download the 16 Steps to End Violence against Women.



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          Can Ethical Companies Do Business With Unethical Leaders?        

Coca-cola has been accused of "propping up a notorious Swaziland dictator" whose human rights abuses and bilking of the national wealth has long been criticized by human rights activists. According to Guardian UK reporter David Smith**, Swaziland's King Mswati III is Africa's last absolute monarch whose personal wealth is gleaned in part from taxes paid by companies like Coca-cola while his...

Read the full post here »

The post Can Ethical Companies Do Business With Unethical Leaders? appeared first on Everyday Ethics.


          Episode 2: Stop. Bunny Time!        

This week we take a turn around Kwa-Zulu Natal and visit Durban and Swaziland. There is food in the form of the Bunny Chow, weddings in the snow and a trip to Ngwenya Glass. There is the usual on and off the needles section in Wippin' Piccadilly and the South Africa section is spread across the whole episode. Finally, there is a review of the International Quilting Convention Africa before Marlaw plays us out with 'Missing My Baby (Pii Pii)'.

Full shownotes and links can be found, as always, at http://shinybees.wordpress.com.


          Major Transnet Freight Rail mineral mining, chrome maintenance shut         
Transnet Freight Rail will embark on a seven-day shutdown in the Mineral Mining & Chrome (MMC) area of operation from June 5 to 11. This year’s affected areas include Witbank, Nelspruit, Koedoespoort, Swaziland, Maputo, Empangeni and other lines tapping into Transnet Port Terminals and Transnet Engineering.
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauAfrica is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          RHR: Why You Need to Eat More Vegetables—and How To Do It, with Dr. Tom Cowan        

revolution health radio

In this episode, we cover: 04:33 Why focus on vegetables? 08:18 How did our ancestors incorporate plants into their diets? 12:58 The biggest difference between traditional and modern diets 20:44 The challenges of adding wild plants to your diet 24:42 How the idea for vegetable powders was born 28:00 Ideas for using vegetable powders 37:38 Where can we learn more? [smart_track_player url="http://traffic.libsyn.com/thehealthyskeptic/RHR_-_Why_You_Need_to_Eat_More_Vegetables_-_and_How_To_Do_It_with_Dr._Tom_Cowan.mp3" title="Why You Need to Eat More Vegetables—and How To Do It, with Dr. Tom Cowan" artist="Chris Kresser" social="true" social_twitter="true" social_facebook="true" social_gplus="true" ]  

Link we discuss:

Dr. Cowan's Garden Chris Kresser: Hey, everyone, it’s Chris Kresser. Welcome to another episode of Revolution Health Radio. This week I’m excited to welcome Dr. Tom Cowan as a guest on the show. Dr. Cowan discovered the work of two men who would have the most influence on his career while teaching gardening as a Peace Corps volunteer in Swaziland, South Africa. He read [easyazon_link identifier="0916764206" locale="US" tag="chrikres-20"]Nutrition and Physical Degeneration[/easyazon_link] by Weston Price, as well as [easyazon_link identifier="0880105402" locale="US" tag="chrikres-20"]Rudolf Steiner’s work on biodynamic agriculture[/easyazon_link], and these events inspired him to pursue a medical degree. He graduated from Michigan State University College of Human Medicine in 1984. After his residency in Family Practice at Johnson City Hospital in Johnson City, New York, he set up an anthroposophical medical practice in Peterborough, New Hampshire. Dr. Cowan then relocated to San Francisco in 2003. He served as the vice president of the Physicians Association for Anthroposophical Medicine and is a founding board member of the Weston A. Price Foundation. During his career, he has studied and written about many subjects in medicine, including nutrition, homeopathy, anthroposophical medicine, and herbal medicine. He’s the principal author of the book [easyazon_link identifier="0967089794" locale="US" tag="chrikres-20"]The Fourfold Path to Healing[/easyazon_link], which was published in 2004 by New Trends Publishing, and is the co-author of the [easyazon_link identifier="0982338317" locale="US" tag="chrikres-20"]Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby and Child Care[/easyazon_link] published in 2013.
          Kingdom of Swaziland achieves over 73% viral load suppression among adults living with HIV        
MBABANE/GENEVA, — UNAIDS has congratulated the Kingdom of Swaziland on the findings of the Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS 2) announced by Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini today in Mbabane, Swaziland that 73% of the adult population aged 15 years and older are virally suppressed—76% of adult women and 68% of adult men. The […]
          Au Swaziland, un SIG permet de cerner les zones propices à l’irrigation        
2010/09 - ICT Update

          Christmas Bells Sandersonia aurantiaca        
Sandersonia aurantiaca, known as christmas bells, is a climbing bulbous plant from South Africa with attractive orange-yellow, bell-shaped flowers. 

These beautiful and long-lasting flowers were once common in their wild habitat of Swaziland, but are now threatened due to the expansion of agricultural activities.
Sandersonia is a half hardy, perennial. Grow in a sheltered, sunny site with well-drained soil. As its name suggest, the flowers have a very unusual urn-like shape, and form at the tips of slender, bow-shaped stems. Highly prized and long lasting cut flower.


Named after John Sanderson, 19th century Scottish journalist and amateur botanist who in 1851 discovered the plant in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Available Seeds.... 


*
          Swaziland: Sugar Workers Pay the Cost of King Mswati’s Greed        
Thousands of workers in Swaziland’s sugar industry, which exports hundreds of thousands of tonnes of sugar to Europe and within Africa and is dominated by Swazi King Mswati III, face gruelling and unhealthy working conditions, poverty wages and violent suppression of effort to organise unions according to a new ITUC Report, King Mswati’s Gold released late last … Continue reading "Swaziland: Sugar Workers Pay the Cost of King Mswati’s Greed"
          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Mom, Comedian Kerri Pomarolli’s Laugh Break on Mingle Media TV        
To honor the children around the world in need and especially in Haiti, Kerri has asked us to have a replay of the video she took of a trip she and her husband went on to Swaziland Africa to support and volunteer in the orphanages run by "Heart for Africa" to help inspire viewers to reach out to their communities and to help the children in Haiti and other nations as they are able.
          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Africa and the cold beauty of Maths        

 

Africa TIMMS equipercentile

Things move fast. A published paper comes to the attention of Steve Sailer and suddenly a section of a puzzle gets completed.

http://www.unz.com/isteve/school-test-scores-in-africa/

Better still, the boundaries of ignorance get pushed backwards, which is always a good idea, and a fine Christmas present.

From the isolation of my study, and from the depths of my ignorance, I had always bemoaned the fact that poorer countries, particularly in Africa, avoided taking part in PISA and similar international assessments. The suspicion was that they were avoiding getting bad results, which would redound on their national pride, showing them to be dull and/or incapable of organising their schools properly. PISA has the capacity to spread embarrassment far and wide, in rich as well as poor countries, and I am all in favour of that. Let the over-paid educational authorities of the rich world be confounded by the wit of poorer nations, and may their cosy empires fall. Also, may badly organized countries stop blaming poverty and make sure they pay and support their teachers.

The problem with the lack of participation of these countries was that researchers lost a possible confirmation or disconfirmation of the IQ results obtained on those countries, which in the case of Africa seem to be too low to be believed. How to sort out this problem?

Justin Sandefur, Working Paper 444, December 2016, Center for Global Development.

Internationally Comparable Mathematics Scores for Fourteen African Countries

Abstract

Internationally comparable test scores play a central role in both research and policy debates on education. However, the main international testing regimes, such as PISA, TIMSS, or PIRLS, include very few low-income countries. For instance, most countries in Southern and Eastern Africa have opted instead for a regional assessment known as SACMEQ. This paper exploits an overlap between the SACMEQ and TIMSS tests—in both country coverage, and questions asked— to assesses the feasibility of constructing global learning metrics by equating regional and international scales. I compare three different equating methods and find that learning levels in this sample of African countries are consistently (a) low in absolute terms, with average pupils scoring below the fifth percentile for most developed economies; (b) significantly lower than predicted by African per capita GDP levels; and (c) converging slowly, if at all, to the rest of the world during the 2000s. While these broad patterns are robust, average performance in individual countries is quite sensitive to the method chosen to link scores. Creating test scores which are truly internationally comparable would be a global public good, requiring more concerted effort at the design stage.

http://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/math-scores-fourteen-african-countries0.pdf

This fine paper comes from the economic sphere of study, so does not reference much psychometric literature. A pity, because it contributes much to the debate on group differences. Economists often ignore the concept of intelligence. Sandefur also seems to accept African national economic statistics, though he probably realizes they are prone to wishful thinking.  The author is circumspect about the key issue of comparability of difficulty levels across tests, but seems to have made reasonable choices. I doubt that a re-working would change the picture very much.

The linkage is made possible by Botswana and South Africa having taken both the regional SACMEQ and the TIMSS international tests; and the 2000 and 2007 regional tests having used some of the TIMSS international test questions.

Whatever the linkage methods, the results are pretty grim:

Substantively, the results here are daunting for African education systems. Most of the national test-score averages I estimate for the thirteen African countries in my sample fall more than two standard deviations below the TIMSS average, which places them below the 5th percentile in most European, North American, and East Asian countries. In contrast, scores from the SACMEQ test administered to math teachers are much higher, but fall only modestly above the TIMSS sample average for seventh- and eighth-grade pupils, in line with earlier analysis by Spaull and van der Berg (2013). African test scores appear low relative to national GDP levels; in a regression of average scores on per capita GDP in PPP terms, average scores in the SACMEQ sample are significantly below the predicted value using all three linking methodologies. Furthermore, there is little sign that African scores were improving rapidly or converging to OECD levels during the 2000s.

Of course, readers of this blog will know that Richard Lynn’s personal collection of international intelligence test results, now in the Becker edition, puts Sub Saharan intelligence two standard deviations below the European mean, so it closely matches these results.

https://drjamesthompson.blogspot.co.uk/2016/10/richard-lynn-intelligence-database.html

The advantage of using Maths tests as a proxy for intelligence tests is that most intelligence tests have an Arithmetic subtest and/or number series tests, so one can follow some known correlations to estimate comparability's. Better still, Maths has a logic to it, so it is valid to talk about some operations being more complex than others. The same item is very much the same item whichever test you find it in, because the same steps are required to solve it. It has the cold beauty of which Bertrand Russell spoke:

“Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty — a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show. The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than Man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in mathematics as surely as poetry”.

More prosaically, maths opens the door to many other intellectual tasks, much as literacy supersedes the oral tradition.

What is to be done with African Maths teachers? Heiner Rindermann, trying to resolve the debate between Richard Lynn and Jelte Wicherts, put Sub-Saharan African IQ at 76. As to African Maths teachers’ results in this paper, he says: In some African countries teachers seem to have lower abilities than students in Europe or East-Asia!

If teachers are one standard deviation above the national mean, then they would have IQs of 91, if two standard deviations above the mean still only 106. This is not a level likely to inculcate in their students a passion for Maths, a subject which every schoolchild recognizes as being different conceptually from other language based subjects, and hard to master. What makes problems difficult? I digress. 

Convergence is a much desired trajectory where racial differences are concerned. Put in the educational resources and the slower countries will catch up with the faster ones. Makes sense. However, this sought-after outcome does not always materialize. Convergence will take place sometime between 40 years and never, according to Woodley and Meisenberg.

https://drjamesthompson.blogspot.co.uk/2013/08/original-paper-are-cognitive.html

Turning to the pressing issue of how to raise scholastic attainments, it is unlikely to be a simple question of investing money. Saudi Arabia has had plenty of money to spend on education for almost 50 years, and just look where it languishes in the table, in the company of far less wealthy Swaziland, Tanzania, Botswana and Uganda. Of course, given Saudi Arabia’s mean IQ of 78 that would be entirely as expected. No Africanist, I have nonetheless sung the praises of Botswana, a well run country which invests heavily in education (the Diamond Generation). Despite that, Botswana is not getting much bang for its buck. If Botswana cannot converge on other nations, despite having done so many things right, that should give pause for thought. Botswana’s mean IQ 73.

https://drjamesthompson.blogspot.co.uk/2013/12/the-wages-of-mandela.html

A summary of investment in education suggests that the pay-off is front-end loaded: the first $5000 has a big effect, and then it tends to plateau thereafter. Another way of looking at it is to note that once countries get to $16,000 GDP per capita then schooling in those countries accounts for only 10% of the variance of student attainment. So, poor countries (most of Africa is well below this level) should have plenty of scope for educational gains.

This paper completes a jigsaw puzzle, and extends the global scholastic attainment dataset by 14 countries. It confirms the Lynn assessments as likely to be correct, within a measurement error of roughly 4 IQ points. For these countries at least, it gives no hint of exceptional talents beyond that expected on the basis of intelligence testing.

I don’t do policy, so this is said more in hope than with any expectation of a good result, but if young Europeans school-leavers with good maths qualifications intending to do good works in Africa want to be most effective, instead of digging ditches they should concentrate on teaching Maths.


          In Swaziland, grandmothers shoulder the burden of AIDS        
UNICEF Regional Advisor on Orphans and Vulnerable Children discusses the AIDS crisis in Swaziland.
          Swaziland: A plan to care for orphans        
UNICEF Representative in Swaziland Alan Brody discusses the controversy surrounding the ‘Orphan City’ proposal, and what is the best way to assist children orphaned by AIDS.
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La legalización es dar fé de la firma del funcionario público que autoriza el documento, sin prejuzgar la forma y el contenido del mismo. La Legalización de los Documentos Extranjeros es imprescindible para que surta efectos en cualquier País de que se trate. Y salvo que exista Convenio, Tratado o Acuerdo internacional que exima de su legalización, la misma se hará conforme a uno de los dos procedimientos siguientes dependiendo del país que expida el documento:

A) Apostilla de La Haya. De acuerdo con el Convenio de La Haya, de 5 de octubre de 1961, la única formalidad que se exige para los documentos procedentes de los Estados parte de dicho Convenio es el sello de La Apostilla que coloca la autoridad competente del Estado del que emana el documento y surte efectos directamente ante cualquier autoridad en el País en el que se pretenda utilizar con validez.

B) La Vía Diplomática. Es el procedimiento a utilizar para la legalización de los documentos extranjeros de Registro Civil, Notariales y Administrativos expedidos en países no firmantes del Convenio de La Haya.

¿Qué es La Apostilla?
La Apostilla de La Haya es un método simplificado de legalización de documentos a efectos de verificar su autenticidad en el ámbito internacional. Físicamente consiste en una hoja que se agrega a los documentos que la autoridad competente estampa sobre una copia del documento público. Proviene del Convenio de La Haya del 5 de octubre de 1961, también conocida como la Convención de la Apostilla, firmado en La Haya, Países Bajos, que suprime el requisito de legalización de los documentos públicos extranjeros. Entró en vigor el 24 de enero de 1965. Sólo tiene validez entre los países firmantes de este tratado, por lo que si el país donde se necesita utilizar el documento no pertenece a él, entonces será necesaria una Legalización Diplomática.
De acuerdo con el artículo 6 del Convenio, Venezuela designo como autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores.
Todo documento que presente el sello de la apostilla, en Venezuela o en cualquier país parte del convenio, surte efectos legales sin necesidad de ser legalizado.  

¿En qué consiste?
Consiste en certificar que la firma y el sello de un documento público ha sido puesto por una autoridad competente. Al igual legalización, únicamente certifica que la firma o sello que muestra el documento fue emitido por un funcionario público en ejercicio de sus funciones, pero no certifica la validez del contenido del mismo. Sirve para que un documento nacional sea reconocido en un país extranjero. En principio, se reconoce en aquellos países que hayan firmado un tratado internacional, conocido como la Convención de la Haya, para disminuir así los trámites necesarios para el reconocimiento de estos en países diferentes al que fue emitido.

Documentos que se consideran Públicos:
Los documentos emanados de una autoridad o funcionario vinculado a una jurisdicción del Estado, incluyendo los provenientes del ministerio público, o de un secretario, oficial o agente judicial; b) los documentos administrativos; c) los documentos notariales; d) las certificaciones oficiales que hayan sido puestas sobre documentos privados, tales como menciones de registro, comprobaciones sobre la certeza de una fecha y autenticaciones de firmas. Pero la Convención no se aplica a los siguientes documentos: a) los documentos expedidos por agentes diplomáticos o consulares; b) los documentos administrativos que se refieran directamente a una operación mercantil o aduanera.

Miembros de la Convención de la Haya:
Actualmente existen 92 miembros de la Convención de la Apostilla: Albania, Alemania, Andorra, Antigua y Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bahamas, Barbados, Bielorrusia, Bélgica, Belice, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Islas Cook, Corea, Croacia, Chipre, República Checa, Dinamarca, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eslovaquia, España, Estados Unidos de América, Estonia, Fiji, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Granada, Honduras, Hungría, India, Islandia, Irlanda, Israel, Italia, Japón, Kazakstán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Malawi, Malta, Islas Marshall, Mauricio, México, Moldova, Mónaco, Montenegro, Namibia, Nueva Zelanda, Niue, Noruega, Países Bajos, Panamá, Polonia, Portugal, República Dominicana, Reino Unido, Rumania, Federación Rusa, Saint Kitts y Nevis, Santa Lucía, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Sudáfrica, Surinam, Swazilandia, Suecia, Suiza, Antigua República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Tonga, Trinidad y Tobago, Turquía, Ucrania y Venezuela.

MINISTERIO DEL PODER POPULAR PARA RELACIONES EXTERIORES
Es la autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores, de conformidad con el artículo 6 del Convenio de la Haya..

Los Documentos a ser legalizados ó apostillados por el M.P.P.R.E, deben previamente ser presentados ante las siguientes instituciones:

DOCUMENTOS DE ESTUDIOS:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Títulos
● Diplomas
● Programas
● Constancias
● Notas Certificadas
● Actas de Grado
● Documentos de Educación Básica, Media y Superior

1. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación


2. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior.

Los Títulos emitidos por Universidades Privadas en todo el Territorio Nacional que vengan debidamente refrendados por el Ministro del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior, o en su defecto por el funcionario en quien se haya delegado la firma, se legalizarán directamente ante este Despacho.

DOCUMENTOS CIVILES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Matrimonio
● Buena Conducta
● Carta de Soltería
● Actas de Nacimiento
● Antecedentes Penales
● Defunción Sentencias de Divorcio
● Otros Documentos inherentes al Registro Civil.
1. Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Interiores y Justicia


CERTIFICADOS DE SANIDAD ANIMAL O VEGETAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Traslados de Animales y Plantas.

1. Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
2. Servicio Autónomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria (SASA)

DOCUMENTOS LABORALES O DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Constancias de Trabajo.
● Cotizaciones del Seguro Social
1. Ministerio del Trabajo

DOCUMENTOS DE TRANSITO Y TRANSPORTE:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Registro Automotores
● Licencias de Conducir.
● Cartas Consulares
1. Ministerio de Infraestructura
2. Dirección de Transito Terrestres

DOCUMENTOS RELATIVOS A SALUD:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Certificados e Informes Médicos.
● Titulos de Postgrado realizados en centros Hospitalarios.
1. Ministerio de Salud

CERTIFICADOS COMERCIALES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Origen, antigüedad, envejecimiento de invención.
● Calidad y apto para el consumo humano.
Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
Ministerio de Salud

 BASE LEGAL
    * Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela.
    * Convenio para Suprimir la Exigencia de Legalización de los Documentos Públicos Extranjeros.
    * Código Civil.
    * Ley Orgánica para la Protección del Niño y del Adolescente.
    * Decreto con Rango y Fuerza de Ley sobre Simplificación de Trámites Administrativos.
    * Reglamento Orgánico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.




          Guatemala Quetzal(GTQ)/Swaziland Lilageni(SZL)        
1 Guatemala Quetzal = 1.74477 Swaziland Lilageni
          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niño ha de ser una consideración primordial en todas las medidas que se adopten en relación con los niños,
Reafirmando, la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño y el Plan de Acción para la aplicación de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño en el decenio de 1990, aprobados en la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que se celebró en Nueva York el 29 y 30 de septiembre de 1990 A/45/625, anexo., en particular el compromiso solemne de asignar alta prioridad a los derechos del niño, su supervivencia, su protección y su desarrollo, y reafirmando asimismo la Declaración y Programa de Acción de Viena que aprobó la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, celebrada en Viena del 14 al 25 de junio de 1993A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), cap. III., en que, entre otras cosas, se indica que deben reforzarse los mecanismos y programas nacionales e internaciona- les de defensa y protección de los niños, en particular de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles, con inclusión de medidas eficaces para combatir los casos de explotación y el maltrato de niños, como el infanticidio femenino, el empleo de niños en trabajos peligrosos, la venta de niños y de sus órganos, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de los niños en la pornografía, y en que se reafirma que todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales son universales,

Observando con profunda preocupación que la situación de los niños en muchas partes del mundo sigue siendo crítica como resultado de la pobreza, las dificultades sociales y económicas en una economía cada vez más mundializada, las pandemias, los desastres naturales, los conflictos armados, el desplazamiento de la población, la explotación, el analfabetismo, el hambre, la intolerancia, la discriminación y la protección jurídica inadecuada, y convencida de que es preciso adoptar medidas urgentes y eficaces en los planos nacional e internacional,
Destacando la necesidad de integrar la dimensión del género en todas las políticas y programas relacionados con los niños,
Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social del niño, así como de proporcionar un acceso universal a la enseñanza primaria en condiciones de igualdad,

Reconociendo también que la colaboración entre los gobiernos, las organizaciones internacionales y todos los sectores de la sociedad civil, en particular las organizaciones no gubernamentales, es importante para el ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Destacando la importancia del décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño para la movilización y adopción de nuevas medidas a fin de lograr el pleno ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Acogiendo con satisfacción los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General, dedicado al seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que ha de celebrarse en 2001,


I
Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
1. Insta una vez más a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que, como cuestión prioritaria, firmen y ratifiquen la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 o se adhieran a ella, a fin de lograr el objetivo de la adhesión universal para el décimo aniversario de la celebración de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y de la entrada en vigor de la Convención en el año 2000;
2. Reitera su preocupación por el elevado número de reservas a la Convención e insta a los Estados partes a que retiren las reservas que sean incompatibles con el objeto y propósito de la Convención y que revisen periódicamente sus reservas con el fin de retirarlas;
3. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que apliquen plenamente la Convención y subraya que la aplicación de la Convención contribuye al logro de los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia;
4. Insta a los Estados a que hagan participar a los niños y a los jóvenes en las actividades para lograr los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y la Convención;
5. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que cooperen estrechamente con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño y cumplan puntualmente la obligación de presentar informes que les impone la Convención, ateniéndose a las directrices elaboradas por el Comité, y alienta a los Estados partes a que tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones formuladas por el Comité en la aplicación de las disposiciones de la Convención;
6. Exhorta asimismo a los Estados partes a que promuevan la capacitación en materia de derechos del niño de quienes participan en actividades relacionadas con niños, por ejemplo, por conducto del programa de servicios de asesoramiento y cooperación técnica en materia de derechos humanos;
7. Pide al Secretario General que facilite el personal y los medios necesarios para que el Comité pueda cumplir de manera eficaz y rápida sus funciones, y toma nota del apoyo temporal proporcionado por el plan de acción de la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos para reforzar la importante función del Comité en la promoción de la aplicación de la Convención; y le pide que presente información sobre las medidas complementarias del plan de acción;
8. Exhorta a los Estados partes en la Convención a que adopten las medidas apropiadas para que la enmienda del párrafo 2 del artículo 43 de la Convención sea aceptada a la mayor brevedad posible por una mayoría de dos tercios de los Estados partes a fin de que entre en vigor y el número de miembros del Comité pueda aumentar de 10 a 18 expertos;
9. Invita al Comité a que siga intensificando su diálogo constructivo con los Estados partes y la transparencia y eficacia de su funcionamiento;
10. Acoge con satisfacción la atención que presta el Comité al logro de los niveles más altos posibles de salud y de acceso a la atención de la salud y a los derechos de los niños afectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y exhorta a los gobiernos a que, en cooperación con los órganos y las organizacio- nes de las Naciones Unidas, tomen todas las medidas que corresponda con el fin de hacer efectivos esos derechos;
11. Insta a los Estados a que protejan todos los derechos humanos de los niños migrantes, en particular los niños migrantes no acompañados, y que garanticen que el interés superior del niño sea, por tanto, la consideración principal, y alienta al Comité, al Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a otros órganos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que, en el marco de sus mandatos respectivos, presten especial atención a las condiciones de los niños migrantes en todos los Estados y, según convenga, formulen recomendaciones para fortalecer su protección;
12. Recomienda que, en el marco de sus mandatos, todos los mecanismos competentes de derechos humanos y otros órganos y mecanismos pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, así como los órganos de supervisión de los organismos especializa- dos, presten especial atención a las situaciones particulares que pongan a los niños en peligro y en que sus derechos sean violados y que tengan en cuenta la labor del Comité, y alienta a seguir desarrollando el criterio basado en los derechos del niño que ha adoptado el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a adoptar nuevas medidas a fin de incrementar la coordinación a nivel de todo el sistema y la cooperación interinstitucional para la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño;
13. Alienta al Comité a que, en su labor de supervisión de la aplicación de la Convención, siga prestando atención a las necesidades de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles;
14. Alienta a los gobiernos, a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas, a las organizaciones no gubernamentales competentes y a las personas dedicadas a las actividades en pro de la infancia a que, según corresponda, contribuyan a la base de datos que ha establecido en la red el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) a fin de continuar proporcionando información sobre leyes, estructuras, políticas y procesos adoptados a escala nacional con el objeto de llevar a la práctica la Convención;


II
Prevención y erradicación de la venta de niños y de su explotación y maltrato sexual, en particular la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía
1. Acoge con satisfacción el informe provisional de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía A/54/411. y expresa su apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial;
2. Pide al Secretario General que proporcione a la Relatora Especial toda la asistencia necesaria en materia de recursos humanos y financieros para que pueda cumplir plenamente su mandato;
3. Invita a que sigan aportándose contribuciones voluntarias por conducto de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y a que se preste apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial para que pueda cumplir su mandato con eficacia;
4. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 relativo a la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía e insta al grupo de trabajo a que concluya su labor antes de la celebración del décimo aniversario, en 2000, de la entrada en vigor de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
5. Reafirma la obligación de los Estados partes de impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma y de proteger al niño de todos los tipos de explotación o abuso sexual, de conformidad con los artículos 34 y 35 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
6. Insta a los Estados a que tipifiquen como delito y castiguen eficazmente todas las formas de explotación y abuso sexual de los niños, en particular dentro de la familia o con fines comerciales, la utilización de niños en la pornografía y la prostitución infantil, incluida la explotación de niños en el turismo sexual, garantizando al mismo tiempo que los niños víctimas de esas prácticas no sean penalizados; y a que adopten medidas eficaces para garantizar el procesamiento de los delincuentes, tanto locales como extranjeros, por las autoridades nacionales competentes, en el país de origen del delincuente o en el país de destino, respetando las garantías procesales;
7. Insta también a los Estados a que en los casos de explotación de niños en el turismo sexual aumenten la cooperación internacional entre las autoridades competentes, en particular las autoridades policiales, y a que compartan los datos pertinentes a fin de erradicar esa práctica;
8. Pide a los Estados que intensifiquen la cooperación y la acción concertada a nivel nacional, regional e internacional, incluido en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas, por parte de todas las autoridades e instituciones competentes, a fin de adoptar y aplicar medidas eficaces para la prevención y la erradicación de la venta de niños y su explotación y abuso sexual y para prevenir y desmantelar redes de trata de niños;
9. Destaca la necesidad de combatir la existencia de un mercado que fomenta ese tipo de prácticas delictivas contra los niños, incluso mediante la adopción de medidas preventivas y coercitivas dirigidas contra los clientes o las personas que explotan o maltratan sexualmente a los niños;
10. Insta además a los Estados a que promulguen, apliquen, examinen y revisen, según proceda, la legislación pertinente e implanten políticas, programas y prácticas para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de la explotación y abuso sexual, incluida la explotación sexual con fines comerciales, y eliminar esas prácticas, teniendo en cuenta los problemas específicos que plantea la utilización de la Internet en este sentido;
11. Alienta a los gobiernos a que faciliten la participación activa de los niños víctimas de explotación o abuso sexual en la formulación y aplicación de estrategias para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de explotación o abuso sexual;
12. Alienta a seguir tratando de determinar a nivel regional e interregional las mejores prácticas y las cuestiones que exigen una respuesta particularmente urgente para dar seguimiento a la aplicación de medidas acordes con las indicadas en la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo.;
13. Invita a los Estados y órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que asignen recursos suficientes para la rehabilitación de los niños víctimas de la explotación y el maltrato sexual y a que tomen las medidas correspondientes para promover su plena recuperación y reintegración social;


III
Protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados
1. Acoge con beneplácito el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre el efecto de los conflictos armados en los niñosA/54/430.;
2. Expresa su apoyo a la labor del Representante Especial del Secretario General, en particular sus esfuerzos por crear mayor conciencia de la cuestión en todo el mundo y por movilizar a la opinión oficial y pública en favor de la protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, a fin de promover el respeto de los derechos y las necesidades de los niños en los conflictos y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, y recomienda al Secretario General que prorrogue su mandato por un nuevo período de tres años, conforme a lo estipulado en los párrafos 35, 36 y 37 de la resolución 51/77 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996;
3. Insta al Secretario General y a todas las partes pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluido el Representante Especial y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, a que intensifiquen sus esfuerzos por elaborar un enfoque concertado de los derechos, la protección y el bienestar de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, incluso, según proceda, en los preparativos de las visitas al terreno del Representante Especial y en el seguimiento de dichas visitas;
4. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes interesadas a que sigan cooperando con el Representante Especial, cumplan los compromisos que han contraído, y examinen atentamente todas las recomendaciones del Representante Especial y se ocupen de las cuestiones señaladas;
5. Celebra el apoyo constante que se ofrece a la labor del Representante Especial y las contribuciones voluntarias efectuadas a ese respecto;
6. Insta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario, a poner fin a cualquier forma de agresión dirigida a los niños y a los ataques a lugares en los que suele haber un número considerable de niños, exhorta a los Estados Partes a que respeten plenamente las disposiciones de los Convenios de Ginebra de 12 de agosto de 1949 Naciones Unidas, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, Nos. 970 a 973. y los Protocolos Adicionales de 1977 Ibíd., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 y 17513., y exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a adoptar todas las medidas necesarias para proteger a los niños de los actos que constituyen violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario, incluso mediante el enjuiciamiento por los Estados, en el marco de la legislación nacional, de los responsables de dichas violaciones;
7. Reconoce, a ese respecto, que el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional contribuiría a poner fin a la impunidad de los perpetradores de ciertos crímenes cometidos contra los niños, tipificados en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional Véase A/CONF.183/9, art. 8., que incluyen, entre otros, los que entrañan violencia sexual o la utilización de niños soldados, y tendrá también un efecto preventivo;
8. Condena el secuestro de niños en situaciones de conflicto armado o con el fin de involucrarlos en conflictos armados e insta a los Estados, a las organizaciones internacionales y a otras partes interesadas a que adopten todas las medidas que sean apropiadas para obtener la liberación incondicional de todos los niños secuestrados, e insta a los Estados a someter a los perpetradores a la acción de la justicia;
9. Toma nota de la importancia del segundo debate público sobre los niños y los conflictos armados, celebrado por el Consejo de Seguridad el 25 de agosto de 1999 Véase S/PV.4037., y del compromiso del Consejo de prestar especial atención a la protección, el bienestar y los derechos de los niños, al adoptar medidas encaminadas al mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad Resolución 1261 (1999) del Consejo de Seguridad., y reafirma el papel fundamental que corresponde a la Asamblea General y al Consejo Económico y Social en la promoción y protección de los derechos y el bienestar de los niños;
10. Exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a que velen por que el personal humanitario tenga acceso seguro y sin restricciones a todos los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, y por que se preste asistencia humanitaria a esos niños;
11. Celebra la decisión del Consejo Económico y Social Documentos Oficiales de la Asamblea General, quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones, Suplemento No. 3 (A/54/3), cap. VI, párr. 5, conclusiones convenidas 1999/1, párr. 22. de exhortar a una acción interinstitucional sistemática, concertada y amplia a favor de los niños y pedir que se asignen recursos suficientes, en forma sostenible, para prestar a los niños asistencia inmediata de emergencia y financiar medidas a largo plazo a ese respecto durante todas las etapas de una emergencia;
12. Insta a los Estados y a todas las otras partes en los conflictos armados a poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados y asegurar su desmovilización y desarme efectivo, y a adoptar medidas eficaces para la rehabilitación, la recuperación física y sicológica y la reinserción en la sociedad de todos los niños que han sido víctimas de situaciones de conflicto armado; invita a la comunidad internacional a prestar asistencia en ese empeño; y subraya que no se debe prestar a quienes utilicen niños soldados ningún apoyo que haga posible o que facilite esa práctica;
13. Exhorta a los Estados y a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas a que continúen prestando apoyo a las actividades nacionales e internacionales de remoción de minas, incluso mediante contribuciones financieras, programas de información sobre el peligro de las minas y programas de asistencia a las víctimas y de rehabilitación dedicados especialmente a los niños, y celebra también los efectos positivos que tiene para los niños la adopción de medidas legislativas concretas respecto de las minas antipersonal;
14. Toma nota con preocupación del efecto de las armas pequeñas y ligeras sobre los niños en situaciones de conflicto armado, en particular como consecuencia de su producción y tráfico ilícitos, e insta a los Estados a ocuparse de ese problema;
15. Recomienda que, cada vez que se impongan sanciones, se evalúen y vigilen sus efectos en los niños, y que las exenciones por motivos humanitarios tengan especialmente en cuenta a los niños y se formulen con unas claras directrices de aplicación;
16. Exhorta a los Estados, a los órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y a las organizaciones regionales a que integren los derechos del niño en todas sus actividades durante los conflictos armados y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, incluidos los programas de capacitación y las operaciones de socorro de emergencia, los programas en los países y las operaciones sobre el terreno encaminadas a promover la paz y a prevenir y resolver conflictos, así como en la negociación y aplicación de los acuerdos de paz, y, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias a largo plazo para la sociedad, subraya la importancia de incorporar disposiciones específicas para los niños, incluso disposiciones relativas a la aportación de recursos, en los acuerdos de paz y en los acuerdos negociados por las partes en los conflictos;
17. Acoge con beneplácito las gestiones que realizan, entre otros, las organizaciones regionales, las organizaciones intergubernamentales y las no gubernamentales para poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados en los conflictos armados, y reafirma la necesidad urgente de aumentar la edad mínima límite establecida en el artículo 38 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 para el reclutamiento y la participación de cualquier persona en los conflictos armados, con el objeto de poner fin a la utilización de niños soldados;
18. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño relativo a la participación de los niños en los conflictos armados, y las consultas que dirige el presidente del grupo de trabajo para seguir avanzando con el fin de concluir su labor antes del décimo aniversario de la entrada en vigor de la Convención;


IV
Los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país
1. Insta a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de políticas y programas para la protección, el cuidado y el bienestar de los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país, con la cooperación internacional necesaria, en particular la de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Representante del Secretario General sobre los desplazados internos, en consonancia con las obligaciones contraídas en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
2. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados, así como a los órganos y organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, a que presten atención urgente a la protección y asistencia a los niños refugiados o desplazados en el interior del país, que están especialmente expuestos a riesgos relacionados con los conflictos armados, como los de ser reclutados forzosamente o ser objeto de violencia, maltrato o explotación sexual;
3. Expresa su profunda preocupación por el número cada vez mayor de niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados, y hace un llamamiento a todos los Estados y a los órganos y organismos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones pertinentes para que den prioridad a los programas para la búsqueda y reunificación de las familias y continúen supervisando las disposiciones en materia de cuidado de los niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados;


V
Eliminación progresiva del trabajo infantil
1. Reafirma el derecho del niño a la protección respecto de la explotación económica y la realización de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para él o constituir un obstáculo para su educación o que pueda resultar nocivo para su salud o su desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o social;
2. Acoge con satisfacción la aprobación por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en el 87° período de sesiones de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, celebrado en Ginebra del 1° al 17 de junio de 1999, del Convenio No. 182 sobre la prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación, y alienta a todos los Estados a considerar, como cuestión prioritaria, la posibilidad de ratificarlo, con miras a que entre en vigor lo antes posible;
3. Exhorta a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que consideren la posibilidad de ratificar los convenios de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo relativos al trabajo infantil, en particular el Convenio No. 29, de 1930, sobre la abolición del trabajo forzoso u obligatorio y el Convenio No. 138, de 1973, sobre la edad mínima de empleo, y los exhorta a que apliquen esos Convenios;
4. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a que traduzcan en medidas concretas su compromiso de eliminar progresiva y efectivamente las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas y los insta a que, como cuestión prioritaria, eliminen de inmediato las peores formas de trabajo infantil, enumeradas en el nuevo Convenio No. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo;
5. Exhorta además a todos los Estados a que evalúen y examinen sistemáticamente la magnitud, la naturaleza y las causas del trabajo infantil y a que elaboren y pongan en práctica estrategias para la eliminación del trabajo infantil que contravenga las normas internacionales aceptadas, prestando especial atención a los peligros concretos a que hacen frente las niñas, así como a la rehabilitación y la reinserción social de los niños afectados;
6. Reconoce que la educación primaria es uno de los principales instrumentos para reintegrar a los niños que trabajan e insta a todos los Estados a que reconozcan el derecho a la educación, haciendo obligatoria la enseñanza primaria y garantizando que todos los niños tengan acceso a la enseñanza primaria gratuita como estrategia fundamental para prevenir el trabajo infantil, y reconoce, en particular, la importante función que cumplen a este respecto la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia;

7. Exhorta a todos los Estados y al sistema de las Naciones Unidas a que incrementen la cooperación internacional como medio de ayudar a los gobiernos a prevenir o a combatir las violaciones de los derechos de los niños y a alcanzar el objetivo de eliminar las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas;

8. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que fortalezcan la cooperación y coordinación en los planos nacional e internacional, para abordar efectivamente el problema del trabajo infantil, cooperando también estrechamente con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, entre otros organismos;


VI
La difícil situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle

1. Exhorta a los gobiernos a buscar soluciones amplias a los problemas que dan lugar a que los niños trabajen o vivan en la calle y a aplicar políticas y programas apropiados para la protección y la rehabilitación y reinserción de esos niños, teniendo en cuenta que son particularmente vulnerables a todo tipo de violencia, maltrato, explotación y abandono;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a velar por que se presten servicios a los niños para evitar que se dediquen a actividades que puedan acarrearles daño, explotación y maltrato y atender a las necesidades económicas apremiantes que motivan su participación en tales actividades;

3. Insta encarecidamente a todos los gobiernos a que garanticen el respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, en particular el derecho a la vida, a que adopten con carácter urgente medidas eficaces para evitar que se mate a los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle, combatir la tortura, el maltrato y los actos de violencia contra ellos y someter a los perpetradores de tales actos a la acción de la justicia;

4. Hace un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que, mediante una cooperación internacional eficaz, incluida la prestación de asesoramiento y asistencia técnicos, apoye la labor de los Estados encaminada a mejorar la situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle;


VII
Niños con discapacidad

1. Celebra que, de conformidad con la decisión del Comité de los Derechos del Niño, se haya establecido un grupo de trabajo con el fin de elaborar un plan de acción en favor de los niños con discapacidad, en estrecha colaboración con el Relator Especial sobre Discapacidad de la Comisión de Desarrollo Social y otros sectores pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas Véase CRC/C/84, párrs. 219 a 222.;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que adopten todas las medidas necesarias para asegurar que los niños con discapacidad gocen plenamente y en condiciones de igualdad de todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales y a que promulguen y hagan cumplir leyes contra la discriminación de esos niños;

3. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a promover para los niños con discapacidad una vida plena y decorosa, en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten la autosufi- ciencia y faciliten la participación activa del niño en la comunidad, incluido el acceso efectivo a la educación y los servicios de atención de la salud;


VIII

Decide:

a) Pedir al Secretario General que le presente en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones un informe sobre los derechos del niño que contenga información sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 y los problemas a que se hace referencia en la presente resolución;

b) Pedir al Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados que presente a la Asamblea General y a la Comisión de Derechos Humanos informes que contengan información pertinente sobre la situación de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, teniendo en cuenta los mandatos actuales y los informes de los órganos correspondientes;

c) Seguir examinando esta cuestión en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones en relación con el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño”.
***

13. La Comisión también recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe el siguiente proyecto de decisión:



Informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
La Asamblea General toma nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño A/54/265
Iraq: ONU califica de intolerable situación de niños



25 de abril, 2008 La representante especial de la ONU para Niños en Conflictos Armados, Radhika Coomaraswamy, consideró que la situación de los niños en Iraq es intolerable debido a la violencia.
Al concluir una visita de cinco días a ese país, la enviada dijo hoy que los menores son víctimas silenciosas del entorno violento que impera

en Iraq.




En este sentido, instó a los líderes religiosos, políticos, militares y comunitarios del país a enviar un mensaje claro a la niñez iraquí para que se mantengan el margen de las hostilidades y vuelvan a la escuela.

Coomaraswamy urgió a todas las partes en conflicto a apegarse estrictamente a los estándares humanitarios internacionales sobre la protección de los niños y a liberar de inmediato a los menores de 18 años que estén asociados a cualquier organización combatiente.

Señaló que más de la mitad de los desplazados y refugiados iraquíes son niños que afrontan grandes dificultades en los lugares donde llegan a asentarse ya sea en su propio país o en uno ajeno.

“La comunidad internacional debería asistir a los países anfitriones para garantizar que se protejan los derechos de los niños y que tengan acceso a servicios básicos como la educación y los servicios de salud”, enfatizó la representante especial.


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Kadhum Al-Sahir, nuevo Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, habla sobre las necesidades de los más pobres
BAGDAD, Iraq, 9 de mayo de 2011. Kadhum Al-Sahir, el cantante iraquí mundialmente reconocido como uno de los más grandes representantes de la música árabe contemporánea, se convirtió hoy en el primer Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq. Al regresar a su país tras 14 años de ausencia, Al-Sahir destacó la necesidad de luchar por la igualdad en pro de los niños más necesitados de Iraq.

VÍDEO (en inglés): 5 de mayo de 2011. El famoso cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir, recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, compuso una nueva canción, titulada "Juntos por los niños", en la que convoca a todos los segmentos de la sociedad de su país a que ayuden a poner fin a las penurias que afrontan los jóvenes y niños.
"Los niños y niñas de Iraq han sufrido penurias indescriptibles en las últimas dos décadas, en las que cientos de miles de menores sufrieron las consecuencias brutales de la violencia y las privaciones inhumanas", dijo. "Ha llegado la hora de poner fin a esa situación".
Al-Sahir es uno de los más destacados músicos en la historia de Iraq y uno de los artistas más populares de la región.
El cantante aboga por los niños y jóvenes desde hace mucho tiempo. Ese apoyo comenzó en 1998, cuando compuso e interpretó "Tathakkar" ("Recuerda"), una canción sobre los niños en las situaciones de conflicto. El tema recibió un premio de UNICEF por tratarse de una contribución sobresaliente al mejoramiento de las vidas de los niños en situación de necesidad. En 2004, Al-Sahir ofreció un concierto a beneficio de más de 50.000 niños y niñas de Oriente Medio.



Juntos por los niños
Continuando en la misma vena, Kadhum Al-Sahir presentó hoy "Juntos por los niños", una nueva canción que es también un llamamiento a la acción.



© UNICEF Iraq/2011/Arar
Kadhum Al-Sahir, el famoso cantante recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, regresa a su país tras una ausencia de 14 años.
La canción rinde homenaje al coraje de los niños de Iraq en versos que dicen, por ejemplo, "¿Hay alguien que haya sufrido las penurias que sufrieron ustedes? Porque ustedes han superado los límites del temor y las privaciones".
El cantante convocó a todos los segmentos de la sociedad iraquí a que ayuden a mejorar la situación de sus niños. "Unámonos a UNICEF, y marchemos juntos para poner fin a las muertes, las enfermedades, el abandono y la pobreza", añadió. "Ayudemos a los niños que son víctimas de las guerras. Vengan y hagamos algo para que sus penurias se conviertan en prosperidad. Vengan, trabajemos todos juntos".
Las cuestiones que afectan a los niños de Iraq
En el decenio de 1970, Iraq era uno de los mejores países de Oriente Medio y África septentrional si se era niño, pero tras varias décadas de guerra y abandono, hoy es uno de los peores. Entre las cuestiones más graves que afectan a los casi 15 millones de niños y niñas iraquíes figuran las siguientes:
 Unos 35.000 lactantes mueren anualmente durante su primer año de vida.
 Más de 1,5 millones de niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición.
 Unos 700.000 niños y niñas en edad escolar no asisten a clases, mientras que cientos de miles de niños que inician sus estudios no los terminan.
 Unos 2,5 millones de niños carecen de acceso al agua potable y unos 3,5 millones no cuentan con instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas.
 Unos 800.000 niños y niñas de 5 a 14 años de edad trabajan.


© UNICEF-Iraq/Arar/2011
El cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir se dirige a un grupo de periodistas tras el anuncio en Bagdad de su nombram
          UWC: Wilma Gademan        
Jag har nu varit i Swaziland och United World College Waterford i tre veckor och kan konstatera att livet här är mer annorlunda än man kan tänka sig, men det är en härlig stämning. Skolan är mycket större än vad jag … Läs mer ...
          Bulan September        
1 September
Menara Pisa Mulai Dibangun
Tanggal 1 September 1174, dimulai pembangunan menara Pisa di kota Italia. Tujuan pembangunan menara ini adalah untuk menempatkan sebuah jam besar di atas menara tersebut. Namun, beberapa lama setelah pembangunan dimulai, ternyata menara setinggi 55 meter itu melenceng dari garis lurus sepanjang 5 meter. Oleh karena itulah menara ini disebut sebagai menara miring Pisa. Hingga kini, atas usaha para insinyur dan para ahli berbagai negara, kemiringan menara ini telah diperbaiki sampai batas-batas tertentu.

Perang Dunia II Dimulai

Tanggal 1 September 1939, dengan serangan tentara Nazi Jerman ke Polandia, Perang Dunia Kedua dimulai. Hitler dalam masa kekuasaannya di Jerman, dengan memanfaatkan nasionalisme rakyatnya yang kalah dalam Perang Dunia Pertama, telah memperkuat pasukan dan persenjataan negara ini. Hitler menjustifikasi aksi perluasan kekuasaannya dengan bersandar kepada pemikiran rasialismenya. Dalam waktu singkat, tentara Jerman berhasil menguasai sebagian besar kawasan eropa dan sebagian utara Afrika.
Sementara itu, Italia dan Jepang, dua sekutu Jerman dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, juga menguasai wilayah lain di Afrika dan Asia. Namun, sejak awal tahun 1943, setelah tentara Jerman menghadapi pelawanan kuat rakyat Soviet, mereka mulai mengalami kekalahan beruntun sampai akhirnya menyerah tanpa syarat di bulan Mei 1945. Jepang masih meneruskan peperangan yang juga berakhir dengan penyerahan tanpa syarat setelah kota Hiroshima dan Nagasaki dibom oleh Amerika pada bulan Agustus 1945.Perang Dunia Kedua ini telah menyebabkan 40 juta orang tewas terbunuh dan mengakibatkan kerugian milyaran dolar di berbagai negara.

Konferensi Pertama GNB Diadakan
Tanggal 1 September 1961, diselenggarakan konferensi pertama para pemimpin negara-negara non-blok di Beograd, Yugoslavia. Konferensi yang dihadiri oleh 25 pejabat berbagai negara ini diadakan untuk membentuk organisasi non-blok yang bertujuan melindungi negara-negara dunia ketiga dari perseteruan antara Blok Barat dan Blok Timur. Syarat terpenting keanggotaan dalam organisasi ini adalah tidak memiliki keanggotaan tetap dalam perjanjian-perjanjian keterikatan dengan negara-negara superpower Barat atau Timur. Sejak awal, organisasi ini telah memiliki dua kelompok. Kelompok revolusioner yang dipimpin Tito, presiden Yugoslavia dan Ahmad Sukarno, presiden indonesia, menghendaki perjuangan yang konsisten melawan imperialisme. Kelompok ini juga didukung Nehru dari India. Sementara itu, kelompok lainnya cenderung konservatif dan masih menginginkan adanya hubungan baik dengan negara-negara superpower.
Hingga kini, perbedaan pendapat dalam organisasi non-blok masih terus berlangsung. Hal ini menyebabkan organisasi ini tidak mampu menjadikan diri sebagai kekuatan penentang kekuasaan-kekuasaan besar dunia yang konfrontatif.

Qaddafi Berkuasa di Libya
Tanggal 1 September 1969, dengan melakukan sebuah kudeta, Muammar Qaddafi meraih kekuasaannya di Libya. Sebelumnya, Libya adalah sebuah negara monarki. Pada saat Raja Idris Pertama menjalani pengobatan di Turki, sekelompok perwira muda yang dipimpin oleh Muammar Qadafi melakukan kudeta untuk menyingkirkan raja tersebut. Libya pun kemudian dijadikan negara sosialis yang pro Soviet. Pangkalan-pangkalan militer Inggris dan AS di Libya pun dibubarkan serta beberapa industri minyak dan perbankan Libya dinasionalisasi.

2 September
Perancis Kalah Perang Melawan Ustmani

Tanggal 2 September tahun 1801, setelah terjadi beberapa peperangan antara tentara Utsmani yang bersekutu dengan tentara Inggris melawan tentara Perancis, Perancis mengalami kekalahan besar. Setelah Napoleon menjajah Mesir, Inggris yang pada masa itu merupakan pesaing utama Perancis dalam bidang ekoonmi dan militer merasa kepentingannya terancam. Oleh karena itu, Inggris dengan tujuan mengeluarkan Perancis dari Mesir dan mencegah kemajuan tentara Perancis, bekerja sama dengan pemerintah Utsmani. Setelah kembalinya Napoleon ke Perancis, tentara Perancis yang ada di Mesir menjadi semakin lemah dan setelah mendapat serangan beruntun dari Inggris dan Utsmani, akhirnya mereka kalah dan terpaksa meningalkan Mesir.

Vietnam Merdeka
Tanggal 2 September 1945, Republik Demokratik Vietnam meraih kemerdekaannya dan hari ini dinyatakan sebagai hari nasional Vietnam. Vietnam pada pertengahan abad ke 19 berada di bawah penguasaan Perancis. Namun pada tahun 1940, dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, setelah kekalahan Perancis dari Jerman, Kaisar Jepang menggunakan kesempatan melemahnya Perancis ini dengan menguasai Vietnam. Vietnam pun berada di bahwa kekuasaan Jepang sampai Perang Dunia Kedua berakhir dengan kekalahan Jepang. Pada masa ini, organisasi perlawanan India dan China yang dipimpin Ho Chi Minh berhasil meraih kontrol atas Vietnam dan pada tanggal 2 September 1945 mendirikan republik Vietnam. Beberapa bulan kemudain Ho Chi Minh diangkat sebagai presiden.
Pada tahun 1946, Perancis menyerang Vietnam dan sejak saat itulah dimulai perang panjang antara rakyat Vietnam melawan Perancis dan kemudian agresor AS pun turut campur dengan alasan utnuk menjaga kemerdekaan dan persatuan Vietnam. Dengan perlawanan rakyat Vietnam, pada tahun 1954 Perancis berhasil dikalahkan dan pada tahun 1975, AS berhasil diusir sehingga Vietnam kembali menjadi negara independen.
Vietnam memiliki luas wilayah 329.566 kilometer persegi, terletak di Asia Tenggara, dan berbatasan dengan Laos, Cina, dan Kamboja.

Perang Dunia II Berakhir
Tanggal 2 September tahun 1945, dengan menyerah tanpa syaratnya Jepang, Perang Dunia Kedua dinyatakan berakhir. Setelah kekalahan susul-menyusul Jepang melawan pasukan Sekutu di perang dan dijatuhkannya bom atom di kota Hiroshima dan Nagasaki oleh AS, akhirnya pasukan Jepang terpaksa menyerah kalah. Kejadian ini terjadi empat bulan setelah menyerahnya Jerman. Kemudian, diadakan perjanjian Postdam yang berisi penyerahan Jepang kepada Sekutu. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, komandan umum militer Jepang diserahkan kepada Jenderal MacArthur dari AS. Pada tahun 1951, 49 negara dunia mengadakan perjanjian damai dengan Jepang dan setahun kemudian Jepang kembali memegang pemerintahannya sendiri.

3 September
Oliver Cromwell Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 3 September 1658, Oliver Cromwell seorang politikus dan presiden pertama Inggris meninggal dunia. Selepas mengeksekusi Raja Inggris, King Charles 1, Oliver akhirnya menghapus sistem kerajaan di negara ini. Sejak tahun 1649 Ia menjadi penguasa Inggris secara tidak resmi dan pada tahun 1653 dikukuhkan secara resmi. Dia memerintah Inggris secara despotik selama 9 tahun. Kemudian posisi jabatannya digantikan oleh putranya sebagai presiden Inggris. Tetapi dikarenakan ketidaklayakannya, dia pun disingkirkan dan sistem kerajaan kembali menguasai Inggris.

Rais Ali Delwari Gugur
Tanggal 3 September tahun 1915, Rais Ali Delwari pemimpin perjuangan melawan penjajahan Inggris di Iran, gugur syahid. Pada awal Perang Dunia Pertama, tentara Rusia dari utara dan tentara Inggris dari selatan, berusaha menduduki Iran. Pada masa itu, Rais Ali Delwari memimpin perlawanan rakyat atas fatwa para ulama yang mewajibkan jihad demi mempertahankan negara. Rais Ali dan pasukannya yang gagah berani berkali-kali berhasil mematahkan serangan tentara Inggris yang berniat menguasai pelabuhan Bushehr. Perjuangan rakyat Tanggestan yang terletak di dekat Bushehr itu, berlangsung hingga tujuh tahun.

Damaskus Diduduki Tentara Inggris
Tanggal 3 September tahun 1918, kota Damaskus yang merupakan kota tua dan bersejarah umat Islam, diduduki oleh tentara Inggris. Pada Perang Dunia Pertama, salah satu tujuan utama negara-negara Eropa adalah memecah-belah Imperium Utsmani. Satu persatu wilayah kekuasaan Imperium Utsmani akhirnya jatuh ke tangan Inggris dan Perancis, termasuk di antaranya kota Damaskus. Kemudian, berdasarkan perjanjian antara London dan Paris, kekuasaan di Suriah dan ibukotanya, Damaskus, diserahkan kepada Perancis.


Italia Kalah dalam Perang Dunia II

Tanggal 3 September tahun 1943, Italia menyerah kalah dalam Perang Dunia Kedua dengan ditandai oleh penandatanganan sebuah surat perjanjian antara pemerintah Italia dan Sekutu. Menurut surat perjanjian tersebut, Perdana Menteri Italia menyatakan bahwa Italia menyerah tanpa syarat. Dengan demikian, salah satu aliansi utama Nazi Jerman yang terpenting, telah keluar dari medan pertempuran. Paham Nazi dan paham fasisme Italia memiliki kesamaan dalam ambisi memperluas kekuasaan. Oleh karena itulah, Jerman dan Italia bersatu dalam Perang Dunia Kedua tersebut. Namun, setelah kekalahan susul-menyusul yang dialami Italia, Musolini terpaksa menyerah. Setelah ditandatanganinya surat perjanjian tersebut, Pasukan Sekutu menyerang dan mengusir pasukan Jerman yang ada di Italia.

Qatar Merdeka
Tanggal 3 September 1971, Qatar meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris dan hari ini ditetapkan sebagai Hari Nasional Qatar. Pada abad ke-19, Qatar berada di bawah kekuasaan Imperium Utsmani. Setelah melemahnya imperium besar tersebut, pada tahun 1882, Qatar jatuh ke tangan Inggris hingga tahun 1971. Pada tahun itu pula, dibentuklah Uni Emirat Arab dan Qatar bergabung di dalamnya. Namun, tak lama kemudian, yaitu pada bulan September 1971, Qatar keluar dari Uni Emirat Arab dan mengumumkan kemerdekaannya. Qatar berbentuk kerajaan dan merupakan negara penghasil gas alam terbesar ketiga di dunia.

4 September
Tentara Perancis Kudeta Kelompok Monarki

Tanggal 4 September tahun 1797, tentara Perancis melakukan kudeta menumbangkan kelompok monarkhi Perancis. Delapan tahun setelah revolusi Perancis, karena kinerja pemerintah dan para pemimpin revolusi yang buruk serta kekalahan yang dialami Perancis dalam berbagai pertempuran di Eropa, rakyat dalam pemilu parlemen memberikan suara kepada kelompok monarkhi. Namun, atas keinginan para komandan militer, diantaranya Napolean Bonaparte, kelompok militer melakukan kudeta di Paris dan 177 wakil kelompok monarkhi disingkirkan serta 65 orang lainya diasingkan. Para pelaku kudeta juga mengasingkan banyak orang pendukung monarkhi serta membredel 42 surat kabar. Akhirnya, kekuatan monarkhi menjadi kacau-balau dan terbuka jalan bagi Napolean untuk menguasai pemerintahan di tahun 1799.


Richard Nathaniel Wright Lahir

Tanggal 4 September 1908, Richard Nathaniel Wright penulis kulit hitam Amerika lahir di dunia. Selepas melalui kehidupan yang penuh kesulitan, dia mulai menulis pada usia 30 tahun. Di antara hasil karyanya yang memperlihatkan kehidupan miskin dan penderitaan warga kulit hitam Amerika ialah Black Boy dan Big boy leaves home. Wright meninggal dunia pada tanggal 28 November 1960.


Thomas Alpha Edison Ciptakan Motor Listrik

Tanggal 4 September 1882, diciptakan motor listrik pertama oleh Thomas Alpha Edison, seorang inventor Amerika. Motor listrik buatan Edison tersebut memiliki kekuatan 300 tenaga kuda. Dengan memanfaatkan motor listrik ini, Edison mendirikan pusat produksi listrik di kota New York yang hasilnya mampu menerangi sebagian kota tersebut. Sebelumnya, di tahun 1879, Edison telah menciptakan lampu listrik.


Demo Pertama Anti Syah
Tanggal 4 September 1978, dilaksanakan demonstrasi pertama rakyat Iran dalam menentang rezim Syah. Demonstrasi ini dilakukan setelah shalat Idul Fitri dan dimulai dari empat penjuru kota Tehran dan secara bertahap peserta demonstrasi semakin banyak memenuhi jalan-jalan kota Tehran. Mereka membawa foto besar Imam Khomeini dan meneriakkan yel-yel kebebasan, kemerdekaan, dan didirikannya pemerintahan Islam di Iran. Demonstrasi besar ini disusul oleh demonstrasi bersejarah yang dilakukan pada tanggal 8 September seusai shalat Jumat.

5 September
Banjir Besar di Cina

Tanggal 5 September 1887, air sungai besar Hwang Hu di Cina mulai meluap. Banjir besar akibat meluapnya sungai ini terus berlangsung hingga satu bulan. Korban jiwa yang jatuh sekitar 900 ribu orang. Beberapa kota, ratusan desa, serta kawasan pertanian yang luas juga hancur akibat banjir tersebut. Sungai Hwang Hu mengalir di bagian timur Cina dan memiliki panjang 5200 kilometer.

Ayatullah Ali Qudusi Gugur

Tanggal 5 September 1981, Ayatullah Ali Qudusi, pejabat tinggi pengadilan Republik Islam Iran, gugur syahid akibat ledakan bom yang dipasang oleh kelompok teroris Mujahidin Al-Khalk. Syahid Qudusi menimba ilmu dari ulama-ulama besar pada masa itu, di antaranya Ayatullah Burujerdi, Allamah Thabathabai, dan Imam Khomeini sampai akhirnya mencapai derajat mujtahid. Beliau kemudian aktif di bidang pendidikan agama dan mendirikan sekolah agama bernama "Haqqani". Sejak tahun 1952, Ayatullah Qudusi memulai perjuangannya melawan rezim Syah. Akibatnya, selama beberapa waktu, beliau dipenjarakan oleh rezim despotik itu. Tahun-tahun terakhir kehidupan Ayatullah Quddusi dibaktikan untuk memperkokoh pondasi negara Islam Iran yang baru berdiri.

Salah Satu Mesjid Terbesar di Dunia, Dibangun di Maroko

Tanggal 5 September 1993, salah satu mesjid terbesar di dunia, dibangun di kota Casablanca, Maroko. Bangunan mesjid ini menggunakan teknik modern dan menaranya memiliki aliran seni Islam. Bagian utama mesjid itu memuat 25 ribu pendiri sholat dan bagian sekitarnya bisa menampung 75 ribu orang. Dinding mesjid ini dihiasi dengan marmer indah yang berpola hindisi. Di dalam kompleks mesjid ini, dibangun pula sebuah perpustakaan dan sebuah hauzah ilmiah.

6 September
Perang Pharsalus Pecah

Tanggal 6 September tahun 48 sebelum Masehi, terjadi perang bersejarah Pharsalus antara Julius Caesar dan Pompey, dua anggota utama The First Triumvirate. The First Triumvirate adalah persatuan tiga ksatria dalam imperium Romawi, yaitu Julius Caesar, Pompey, dan Crassus. Dalam perang ini, Julius Caesar meraih kemenangannya dan Pompey tewas terbunuh. Sebelumnya, Crassus telah tewas dalam peperangan di Timur Tengah. Dengan kemenangan ini, Caesar meraih kekuasaannya di imperium Romawi. Caesar dilahirkan pada bulan Oktober tahun 101 SM dan pada mudanya bergabung dengan tentara Romawi. Secara bertahap, Caesar berhasil menjadi komandan angkatan bersenjata Romawi. Caesar memerintah kekaisairan Romawi dengan tiran sehingga akhirnya tewas dibunuh oleh para senator yang menentangnya.

Perang II India vs Pakistan Pecah
Tanggal 6 September 1965, setelah lebih satu bulan terjadi kekacauan di perbatasan India dan Pakistan, tentara India memulai serangannya ke Pakistan. Ini adalah perang kedua yang terjadi di antara kedua negara akibat memperebutkan wilayah Kashmir. Perang ini berlangsung selama tiga minnggu dan atas perantaraan Soviet, dilakukan gencatan senjata. Pada tanggal 10 Januari 1966, para pemimpin India dan Pakistan memulai perundingan mereka di Tashkent ibukota Uzbekistan dengan mediator Perdana Menteri Uni Soviet. Di akhir perundingan Tashkent itu, dikeluarkan sebuah pernyataan bersama mengenai penyelesaian masalah Khasmir antara India dan Pakistan.

Swaziland Merdeka
Tanggal 6 September 1968, Swaziland yang terletak di selatan Afrika, meraih kemerdekaannya dari tangan Inggris dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional negara ini. Sejarah Swaziland berawal sejak abad ke-19. Pada masa itu, pengaruh imperialisme Eropa meluas di Afrika dan Swaziland pun termasuk kawasan yang menjadi jajahan Eropa. Selama beberapa waktu, negara ini diatur secara bersama-sama oleh Inggris dan Transvaal, sebuah bagian di Afrika selatan saat ini. Tak lama setelah kemerdekaan Afsel di awal abad ke-20, Swaziland secara penuh menjadi jajahan Inggris. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1968, negara ini berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya. Swaziland adalah negara berbentuk kerajaan, memiliki luas 17.364 kilometer persegi, terletak di di bagian selatan benua Afrika, dan berbatasan dengan Mozambik dan Afsel.

Demonstrasi Besar Besaran Terjadi di Seantero di Iran

Tanggal 6 September 1978, menyusul meningkatnya perlawanan rakyat terhadap rezim Syah Iran yang despotik, terjadi berbagai demonstrasi besar-besaran di hampir seluruh penjuru Iran. Syah Pahlevi kemudian mengeluarkan larangan segala bentuk demonstrasi. Namun, pada saat itu pula, Imam Khomeini dari pengasingannya di kota Najaf, Irak memberikan seruan agar perjuangan rakyat terus dilanjutkan. Beliau menyatakan, "Dengan nama Allah yang Mahakuasa, saya meminta agar kebangkitan rakyat terus ditingkatkan dan demonstrasi dilakukan sebanyak mungkin agar rezim yang zalim dan kejam bisa segera dikalahkan."

7 September
Reamur Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 7 September 1683, Reamur, fisikawan dan matematikawan Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Pada usianya ke 20, Reamur telah merilis karya di bidang teknin dan pada usianya ke 25 tahun, dia telah menjadi anggota akademi Perancis. Pada waktu yang relatif bersamaan dengan Fahrenheit, dia melakukan penelitian mengenai suhu udara dan pada tahun 1730, dia berhasil menciptakan sebuah alat pengukur suhu. Reamur meninggal dunia pada tahun 1757.


Brazil merdeka
Tanggal 7 September 1822, Brazil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Portugis dan hari ini dijadikan Hari Nasional negara ini. Portugis menjajah Brazil sejak tahun 1494 dan menjadikan rakyat kulit merah negara ini menjadi budak. Portugis bahkan juga mendatangkan jutaan budak kulit hitam dari Afrika untuk dijadikan pekerja di bidang pertanian. Pada awal abad ke 19, setelah Portugis diduduki oleh Napoleon Bonaparte, Kaisar Portugis dan keluarganya melarikan diri ke Brazil dan sejak itu situasi di negara ini semakin tidak tenteram.
Setelah kekalahan Napoleon, Kaisar Portugis kembali ke negerinya namun, anak laki-lakinya tetap tinggal dan menjadi raja pengganti di Brazil. 14 tahun kemudian, raja pengganti ini mengumumkan kemerdekaan Brazil dari tangan Portugis dan menjadikan dirinya sebagai kaisar Brazil.
Pada tahun 1889, sistem pemerintahan Brazil diubah menjadi republik.
Brazil yang memiliki luas wilayah 8,5 juta kilometer persegi ini merupakan kawasan yang luas di bagian tengah dan timur Amerika Selatan. Negara ini terletak di tepi samudera Atlantik dan berbatasan dengan Argentina, Paraguay, dan Uruguay.

Kaum Boxer Lancarkan Perlawanan di Cina

Tanggal 7 September 1899, terjadi gerakan perlawanan boxer di Cina. Kaum boxer adalah julukan bagi sekelompok militer Cina yang bernama "Ay Hu Chuan" atau pukulan bersama yang telak. Kelompok ini bangkit untuk menentang campur tangan Barat dan Jepang yang kian meningkat di Cina. Kaum boxer menduduki kedubes-kedubes Barat di Beijing dan terjadi bentrokan yang keras dengan para misionaris Eropa. Namun, perlawanan ini bisa ditumpas secara bersama oleh pasukan Eropa, Amerika, dan Jepang. Cina pun terpaksa membayar ganti rugi kepada para imperialis itu dalam jumlah yang sangat besar.

Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Baqir Ashtiani Wafat

Tanggal 7 September 1984, Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Baqir Ashtiani, seorang ulama kontemporer Iran, meninggal dunia. Beliau dilahirkan pada tahun 1905 di Teheran, Iran dan setelah melewati pendidikan dasarnya, beliau melanjutkan pendidikan ke hauzah ilmiah di kota Najaf, Irak. Setelah mencapai derajat mujtahid, beliau kembali ke Teheran dan mengajar agama di kota ini. Karya-karya Ayatullah Ashtiani di antaranya berjudul, "Irsyad az Nazar-e Islam" dan "Malikiyat dar Islam."

8 September
Kanada Merdeka

Tanggal 8 September tahun 1763, Kanada berhasil memerdekakan diri dari kekuasaan Perancis. Kemerdekaan itu diperoleh rakyat Kanada melalui berbagai pertempuran yang memakan waktu cukup lama. Akan tetapi, meskipun telah merdeka, Kanada masih terus dirundung konflik antara orang-orang Kanada keturunan Perancis dan orang-orang Inggris yang tinggal di negeri itu. Meskipun secara resmi menyatakan diri merdeka, secara politik Kanada masih berada di bawah pemerintahan Inggris. Selama beberapa waktu, sejak tahun 1867, Kanada diperintah oleh seorang gubernur jenderal yang diangkat oleh ratu Inggris.


Tentara Nazi Kepung Leningrad

Tanggal 8 September tahun 1941, tentara Nazi Jerman berhasil mengepung kota Leningrad, Uni Soviet. Akan tetapi, berbeda yang dibayangkan oleh Hitler, kota ini tidak juga bisa dijatuhkan. Rakyat kota itu bahkan mampu melakukan perlawanan hingga bulan Januari tahun 1944, padahal warga Leningrad sama sekali tidak memiliki fasilitas militer yang cukup. Selama tiga tahun bertempur, mereka hanya memiliki sedikit cadangan makanan yang dikirim dari Iran. Selama masa perlawanan it, lebih dari satu juta warga sipil tewas. Akhirnya setelah warga Leningrad mendapatkan bantuan militer langsung dari tentara Uni Soviet, serta akibat faktor cuaca yang sangat dingin, tentara Jerman terpaksa mundur.

Richard Strauss Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 8 September 1949, Richard Strauss, seorang komposer Jerman meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1864 dan sudah mengenal musik sejak usia kanak-kanak. Cukup banyak karyanya yang dibuat ketika ia masih muda. Banyak orang menyebut dia sebagai peletak dasar musik romantis baru pada abad ke-19 dan 20. Karya Strauss yang paling terkenal adalah "Waltz" dan "Danau Biru"

Pakta SEATO Diteken di Manila
Tanggal 8 September 1954, sebuah pakta pertahanan bernama SEATO yang merupakan perjanjian keamanan Asia Tenggara ditandatangani di kota Manila, Philipina. Pakta ini ditandatangani oleh AS, Inggris, Australia, Pakistan, Thailand, Perancis, Selandia Baru, dan Philipina. Berdasarkan perjanjian SEATO ini, para anggota perjanjian akan memberikan bantuan militer kepada negara anggota lainnya yang diserang oleh pihak luar. Pada tahun 1975, SEATO dibubarkan setelah terjadinya perubahan besar di kawasan Asia Tenggara, khususnya yang terkait dengan kekalahan AS dalam perang Vietnam.

Demo Akbar Anti Syah Pecah di Teheran

Tanggal 8 September 1978, sebuah demonstrasi besar-besaran dalam rangka menentang Rezim Syah Pahlevi yang despotik, berlangsung di Teheran. Demontrasi ini sebenarnya adalah kelanjutan dari berbagai demonstrasi yang dilakukan beberapa hari sebelumnya. Akan tetapi, demonstrasi hari itu mencapai puncaknya dengan pembantaian massal yang dilakukan para tentara Syah terhadap para demonstran. Hanya dalam satu hari, lebih dari 4000 warga Teheran gugur syahid. Peristiwa tanggal 8 September 1978 itu kini dikenang sebagai hari Jumat Berdarah.

9 September
Imperium Romawi Bertempur Dengan Imperium Persia

Tanggal 9 September tahun 571, terjadi pertempuran sengit antara dua kekuasaan besar besar dunia saat itu, yaitu pasukan kekaisaran Romawi melawan kekaisaran Persia atau Iran. Perang yang dikenal dengan "Pertempuran Tujuh Tahun" itu dimulai dengan serangan yang dilakukan pasukan Romawi terhadap kawasan barat Iran.
Setelah berlangsung pertempuran selama tujuh tahun, pasukan Iran yang dipimpin oleh Raja Anushiravan berhasil memukul mundur tentara Romawi. Akibatnya, Kaisar Romawi Zusti Nin disingkirkan dan Romawi diharuskan membayar ganti rugi peperangan kepada Iran sebesar 45 ribu keping mata uang emas.

Hirohito Istruksikan Peletakan Senjata Tentara Jepang di Cina

Tanggal 9 September tahun 1945, Kaisar Jepang Hirohito mengeluarkan instruksi agar satu juta tentara Jepang yang ada di daratan Cina dan sedang melakukan aksi penjajahan meletakkan senjatanya. Dengan dikeluarkannya instruksi ini, maka berakhirlah peperangan bersejarah antara Jepang dan Cina. Kemenangan Cina ini tidak telepas dari kuatnya persatuan yang dibangun antara tentara nasional Cina dan tentara komunis. Hanya saja, setelah terusirnya Jepang, justru terjadi konflik internal di antara tentara nasional dan tentara komunis. Setelah berlangsuing pertempuran sengit di antara keduanya, pasukan komunis berhasil menguasai seluruh daratan Cina.

Mao Zedong Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 9 September tahun 1976, pemimpin Cina Mao Zedong meninggal dunia. Ia lahir tahun 1893. Pada tahun 1921, atas ia secara aklamasi diangkat rekan-rekannya menjadi pemimpin Partai Komunis Cina. Dengan berbekal propaganda-propaganda pemihakan kepada para rakyat di pedesaan, Mao dengan segera mampu memperoleh banyak pengikut.
Pada tahun 1934, Mao memimpin peristiwa bersejarah Long March 100 ribu pasukan Cina dari kawasan selatan ke utara Cina. Peristiwa ini dikenang sebagai perjuangan nyata kaum komunis terhadap kelompok nasionalis dukungan Barat.
Pada tahun 1949, Mao berhasil mengusir pemimpin kelompok nasional Cina Chiang Kai-shek yang kemudian mendirikan pemerintahan Taiwan. Saat itulah Mao memproklamasikan Republik Rakyat Cina yang berhaluan komunis. Karena perbedaan haluan komunisnya dibandingkan faham-faham komunis yang dianut Lenin dan Marx, fahamnya itu kemudian dikenal dengan nama Maoisme.

Tajikistan Merdeka

Tanggal 9 September tahun 1991, Tajikistan memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Enam abad sebelum masehi, Bangsa Tajikistan telah berada di bawah kekuasaan Kekaisaran Khahamaneshian, Iran. Kemudian, pada abad ke-9 Masehi, pasukan muslimin datang ke kawasan negara itu untuk membebaskan rakyat Tajikistan. Pada abad 19, intervensi pasukan Rusia mulai terasa di kawasan itu. Akhirnya, meskipun terdapat perlawanan sengit rakyat setempat, Tajikistan dimasukkan ke dalam wilayah Uni Sovyet pada tahun 1917. Selama penguasaan Sovyet , Tajikistan menjadi kawasan yang paling tertinggal dibandingkan kawasan-kawasan lainnya.
Pada akhir dekade 1980, terjadi transformasi politik di Moskow. Yang mengakibatkan runtuhnya Uni Sovyet. Berbagai kawasan Uni Soyet, termasuk Tajikistan, rama-ramai memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Hanya saja, proses kemerdekaan yang berlangsung di Tajikistan tidaklah semulus kawasan-kawasan lainnya. Di kawasan ini, terjadi konflik internal yang sangat serius. Akan tetapi, berkat campur tangan PBB serta bantuan Iran dan Rusia, kelompok-kelompok yang bertikai mau menandatangani kesepakatan perdamaian pada tahun 1997.
Tajikistan terletak di kawasan tengah Asia. Negara ini memiliki luas lebih dari 142 ribu km. Persegi. Tajikistan bertetangga dengan Cina, Kirgistan, Uzbekistan dan Afghanistan.

Ahmad Shah Masoud diteror

Tanggal 9 September 2001, Ahmad Shah Masoud seorang komandan mujahidin Afghanistan dan menteri pertahanan Burhanuddin Rabbani, presiden pemerintahan sementara Afghanistan diteror. Ahmad Shah Masoud lahir pada tahun 1952. Saat komunis memasuki ke Afghanistan dan pendudukan negara ini oleh militer bekas Uni Soviet pada tahun 1979, beliau tinggal di kawasan pergunungan utara Afghanistan dalam memerangi penjajah. Dia memperlihatkan kepakarannya dalam memimpin tentaranya sehingga kawasan yang berada di bawah penguasaannya Dareh Panjshir tidak pernah dapat ditembusi oleh tentara Russia maupun pihak penentangnya yang lain termasuklah Taliban. Sehingga beliau dikenali dengan gelaran Singa Panjshir. Pada tahun-tahun akhir usianya, dia memimpin koalisi utara Afghanistan dan berjuang menentang tentara Taliban yang mendapat dukungan dari Pakistan dan Amerika serta beberapa kali mengalahkan Taliban. Selepas teror ke atas Ahmad Shah Masoud, Taliban tidak berusia panjang dan tentara koalisi utara dengan menggunakan kesempatan serangan Amerika ke Afghanistan untuk mengalahkan Taliban secara total.

10 September
Simon Bolivar Menjadi Presiden Peru

Tanggal 10 September, Simon Bolivar diangkat menjadi presiden Peru. Simon Bolivar dilahirkan pada tahun 1783 di Venezuela. Sejak awal tahun 1800-an, ia bergabung dengan kelompok pejuang untuk membebaskan Venezuela dari penjajahan Spanyol. Dalam perjuanangan itu, pasukan Bolivar dipaksa mundur hingga ke Kolombia. Bolivar kemudian menduduki Kolombia, namun kemudian karena kekurangan pasukan, dia terpaksa mundur ke Jamaika. Ia kemudian berhasil mengumpulkan pasukan di Haiti, dan kembali menyerang tentera pendudukan Spanyol di Venezuela.

Akhirnya, perjuangan rakyat Amerika latin di bawah pimpinan Simon Bolivar mencapai hasilnya pada tahun 1819 dan didirikanlah Republik Kolombia yang terdiri dari Ekuador, Kolombia, panama, dan Venezuela. Simon Bolivar berhasil mengusir Spanyol dari Peru dan iapun diangkat menjadi presiden di sana. Sebagian kawasan Peru, yaitu Upper Peru, kemudian memisahkan diri menjadi negara terpisah dengan nama Bolivia, untuk mengenang jasa Simon Bolivar yang dijuluki El Liberator atau Sang Pembebas, meninggal dunia pada tahun 1830.

Perang Jerman vs Rusia di Sekitar Danau Masurian

Tanggal 10 September tahun 1914, meletus perang antara Jerman dan Rusia di seputar Danau Masurian. Perang ini dimulai akibat pecahnya Perang Dunia Pertama dan bergabungnya Rusia ke dalam kekuatan Sekutu. Dalam Perang Masurian, pasukan Jerman di bawah komando Hindenburg dan dengan menggunakan taktik serta senjata modern, berhasil menang. Sekitar 20 ribu tentara Rusia terbunuh dan 45 ribu lainnya ditawan. Akhirnya, setelah terjadinya Revolusi Oktober 1917 di Rusia, negara ini mundur dari medan Perang Dunia Pertama.

Penekenan Perjanjian Saint Germain
Tanggal 10 September tahun 1919, ditandatangani perjanjian Saint Germain antara negara-negara pemimpin Perang Dunia Pertama dengan kaisar Austria. Menurut perjanjian ini, wilayah imperium Austria dibagi menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu Austria, Hongaria, dan Chekoslovakia. Beberapa bagian dari wilayah Austria juga diserahkan kepada Italia, Yugoslavia, Soviet, Polandia, dan Romania. Dalam perjanjian ini juga disebutkan bahwa perjanjian antara Austria dan Jerman yang telah ditandatangani sebelumnya, dibatalkan dan Austria dilarang mengikat perjanjian apapun dengan Jerman. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk mencegah Austria dan Jerman membentuk kembali sebuah kekuatan besar.

Gempa Bumi Dahsyat di Aljazair
Tanggal 10 September tahun 1945, sebuah gempa bumi dahsyat terjadi di Aljazair. Kota Orleansville yang terletak di barat laut Aljazair mengalami rusak total dan 10.000 orang dari 30.000 warga kota itu tewas. Warga yang selamat kehilangan tempat tinggal mereka dan Aljazair juga mengalami kerugian ekonomi yang cukup besar.

Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Taleqani Wafat
Tanggal 10 September tahun 1979, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Taleqani, seorang ulama besar Iran, meninggal dunia akibat serangan jantung. Beliau dilahirkan pada tahun 1905. Pada tahun 1963, Ayatullah Taleqani dipenjarakan oleh Rezim Syah karena ikut serta dalam peristiwa Kebangkitan Berdarah tanggal 5 Juni. Selanjutnya, beliau berkali-kali keluar masuk penjara. Setelah kemenangan Revolusi Islam Iran yang dipimpin oleh Imam Khomeini, Ayatullah Taleqani ditunjuk menjadi pimpinan Dewan Revolusi dan Imam Jumat kota Teheran. Dalam pemilu pertama anggota Majelis Ahli, beliau juga terpilih sebagai wakil rakyat Teheran. Di antara karya-karya Ayatullah Taleqani adalah buku tafsir yang berjudul "Partu-e Quran" yang ditulisnya semasa beliau di penjara dan buku berjudul "Sistem Kerajaan dalam Islam."

11 September
Muhammad Ali Jinah Wafat

Tanggal 11 September tahun 1948, Muhammad Ali Jinah yang dijuluki "Qaid A'dzam", pendiri negara Pakistan, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1876 di kota Karachi. Ali Jinah merupakan salah satu pendiri Liga Muslim pada tahun 1906. Awalnya, partai ini aktif di bidang budaya dan agama, namun secara bertahap mulai beralih ke kegiatan politik dan menyuarakan keinginan untuk mendirikan negara muslim yang independen. Dengan kepemimpinan Jinah, banyak kaum muslimin yang bergabung dalam Liga Muslim dan partai ini menjadi sangat besar dan kuat. Dalam pemilu anggota parlemen yang diselenggarakan pasca Perang Dunia Kedua, partai Liga Muslim menang di semua daerah muslim di India. Pada tahun 1947, Pakistan berhasil mencapai kemerdekaannya dengan bentuk pemerintahan gubernur jenderal dan Muhammad Ali Jinah menjadi gubernur jenderal pertama negara ini. Untuk menghormati jasa-jasanya, rakyat Pakistan menggelarinya sebagai Bapak Bangsa.

Augusto Pinochet Lakukan Kudeta di Chili

Tanggal 11 September tahun 1973, Jenderal Augusto Pinochet komandan angkatan laut Chili dengan dukungan Amerika, melakukan kudeta terhadap pemerintahan Salvador Allende. Allende adalah pemimpin Partai Sosialis Chili dan terpilih sebagai presiden pada tahun 1970. Dia kemudian menjalankan program nasionalisasi perbankan, pertambangan, dan industri Chili. Hal ini membuat kepentingan perusahaan-perusahaan Amerika menjadi terganggu. Amerika kemudian mendalangi kudeta untuk menjatuhkan Allande dengan menggandeng beberapa perwira Chili dan dipimpin oleh Pinochet. Setelah meraih kekuasaan, Pinochet memimpin Chili dengan tangan besi dan represif. Pada tahun 1990, atas tekanan dari dalam dan luar negeri, Pinochet terpaksa menyelenggarkan pemilu presiden secara bebas. Dalam pemilu ini, terbentuk sebuah pemerintahan sipil. Namun, karena Pinochet masih memegang posisi sebagai komandan umum angkatan bersenjata Chili, pengaruhnya masih beasar. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1998, Pinochet turun dari jabatannya tersebut. Sejak saat itu, tuntutan para korban HAM selama masa pemerintahan Pinochet semakin menguat.


Ayatullah Sayyid Asadullah Madani Gugur

Tanggal 11 September tahun 1981, Ayatullah Sayyid Asadullah Madani, Imam Jum'at kota Tabriz, gugur syahid akibat serangan kelompok teroris Mujahidin Al-Khalk di saat sedang melaksanakan shalat Jumat.
Ayatullah Madani dilahirkan pada tahun 1914 dan menempuh pendidikan di kota Qom dan Najaf hingga mencapai derajat mujtahid. Selama masa pendidikannya, beliau sudah aktif dalam perjuangan politik. Beliau juga turut serta dalam Kebangkitan 5 Juni 1963 yang mengakibatkannya harus masuk penjara. Setelah kemenangan Revolusi Islam Iran, Ayatullah Madani ditunjuk oleh Imam Khomeini sebagai Imam Jumat kota Tabriz.

Doktor Muhamad Ramyar Wafat
Tanggal 11 September tahun 1994, Doktor Muhammaad Ramyar, peneliti dan ahli Quran kontemporer Iran, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan di kota Mashhad, Iran dan di kota itulah dia menimba ilmu keislamannya. Dia kemudian melanjutkan pendidikan di bidang hukum dan filsafat. Gelar doktornya di bidang filsafat diraihnya di universitas Edinburgh. Selama beberapa waktu, Doktor Ramyar menjabat sebagai Dekan Fakultas Teologi Universitas Teheran. Di antara karya-karyanya adalah buku berjudul "Tarikh Quran" dan "Kasyful Matalib".

Tragedi Teror Dahsyat di New York dan Washington
Tanggal 11 September 2001, dua dari empat pesawat AS yang telah dibajak, menabrak gedung kembar WTC di New York dan sebuah pesawat lainnya menabrak gedung Pentagon di Washington. Pesawat keempat jatuh karena ditembak oleh radar penangkis udara. Dalam serangan terorisme terbesar abad ini, gedung pusat perdagangan internasional WTO hancur berkeping-keping dan sebagian bangunan Pentagon hancur. Jumlah korban tewas mencapai 3200 orang.
Setelah serangan ini, pemerintah dan media massa Barat terutama Amerika menuduh kelompok Al-Qaida dengan pimpinannya Usama bin Laden sebagai pelaku aksi teroris ini dan dengan alasan ini pula seluruh kaum muslimin dituduh sebagai pelaku kekerasan dan terorisme. George W. Bush presiden AS dengan memanfaatkan kesempatan ini dan menggunakan alasan memerangi terorisme, melancarkan aksi konfrontatif dan perluasan kekuasaannya terhadap negara-negara Islam. Dengan alasan memerangi teroris, AS menduduki Afganistan pada tahun 2001 dan Irak pada tahun 2003 serta membunuhi dan melukai ribuan rakyat sipil.

12 Septembe
Pertempuran di Austria

Tanggal 12 September 1683, terjadi pertempuran antara pasukan Kaisar Utsmani dengan tentara Austria dan Polandia. Wina, ibu kota Austria, selama dua bulan dikepung oleh tentara Utsmani dan kemenangan sudah hampir jatuh ke tangan mereka. Namun, kaisar Austria kemudian mendapat bantuan dari Polandia sehingga kepungan tentara Utsmani bisa dilawan dan mereka terpaksa mundur dari medan pertempuran.

Lahirnya Ilmuwan Penemu Radioaktif

Tanggal 12 September 1897, Irene Curie, ahli kimia dan fisika Perancis, terlahir ke dunia di kota Paris. Ibunya adalah Marie Curie, dan ayahnya adalah Pierre Curie, dua fisikawan terkenal yang berhasil menemukan radioaktif. Irene Curie kemudian meneruskan penelitian di bidang radioaktif tersebut bersama dengan salah satu asisten ibunya. Dia berhasil menemukan cara pembuatan radioaktif buatan. Irene Curie meninggal dunia tahun 1958.

Gugurnya Ayatullah Khiyabani

Tanggal 12 September 1920, Syaikh Muhammad Khiyabani, seorang pejuang pada periode revolusi konstitusional Iran, gugur syahid. Setelah menuntut ilmu-ilmu agama, Syaikh Khiyabani memulai perjuangannya untuk melawan kekejaman penguasa Iran saat itu, yaitu dinasti Qajar. Setelah disingkirkannya Syah Muhammad Ali pada tahun 1908, Syaikh Khiyabani terpilih sebagai wakil rakyat Tabriz di Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Iran. Kemudian, beliau kembali berjuang melawan pemerintahan Wutsuqud-Daulah yang merupakan penandatangan perjanjian kerjasama antara Iran dan Inggris. Syaikh Khiyabani sempat berhasil merebut kekuasaan pemerintahan di kota Tabriz, namun kemudian dalam pertempuran yang tidak seimbang melawan pasukan pemerintah, beliau gugur syahid. Dengan gugurnya Syaikh Khiyabani, gerakan kebangkitan di Tabriz telah ditaklukkan oleh rezim Wutsuqud-Daulah.


Perjanjian AS, Inggris, dan Sovyet
Tanggal 12 September 1944, ditandatangani perjanjian antara Amerika, Inggris, dan Soviet di London yang berisi kesepakatan untuk menduduki Jerman. Kemudian, pasukan Sekutu menyerang Jerman dari barat dan timur sampai akhirnya kekuatan Nazi Jerman berhasil ditaklukkan pada bulan Mei 1945.

13 September
Perang Manshuriah Meletus

Tanggal 13 September 1250, terjadi perang Manshuriah yang merupakan salah satu perang dalam peperangan Salib antara kaum Kristen dan umat Islam. Perang yang terjadi sebuah kawasan bernama Manshuriah di Mesir ini, dimulai oleh St, Louis, raja Perancis. Pasukan muslim yang dipimpin oleh Salahuddin Al-Ayubi berhasil mengalahkan pasukan Kristen dan St Louis ditawan oleh pasukan muslim.

Oliver Cromwell Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 13 September 1658, Oliver Cromwell, seorang pemimpin revolusi Inggris tahun 1940-1960, meninggal dunia. Setelah mengeksekusi raja Charles Pertama, pada tahun 1648, Cromwell membekukan bentuk kerajaan di Inggris dan menggantikannya dengan persemakmuran. Sejak tahun 1953, Cromwell menjadi penguasa Inggris atau Lord Protector dan memerintah dengan despotik selama sembilan tahun. Setelah kematiannya, pemerintahan di Inggris kembali berbentuk kerajaan.

Ujicoba Elevator Pertama di Dunia

Tanggal 13 September 1780, elevator pertama di ujicoba di kota Chicago. Elevator pertama ini diciptakan oleh seorang berkebangsaan Amerika bernama John Binkley. Pada tahun 1889, elevator listrik pertama diciptakan dan pada tahun 1915, diciptakan elevator otomatis.

Penandatanganan Perjanjian Gaza-Jericho

Tanggal 13 September 1993, nota kesepakatan damai "Gaza-Jericho" ditandatangani oleh Yaser Arafat dan Yitzak Rabin di Washington. Yaser Arafat adalah pemimpin Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) dan Yitzak Rabin adalah perdana menteri Israel waktu itu. Dalam kesepakatan damai yang didahului dengan berbagai perundingan dan proses perdamaian antara Arab dan Zionis itu, kedua pihak, yaitu PLO dan Rezim Zionis, saling mengakui keberadaan masing-masing. Selain itu, setelah mendapat banyak konsesi dari pihak Yaser Arafat, Israel bersedia mundur dari 90 persen wilayah Tepi Barat dan berjanji akan menandatangani perjanjian akhir pada tahun 1990 mengenai pembentukan pemerintahan Palestina di kawasan antara jalur Gaza hingga kota Jericho di Tepi barat.
Berdasarkan perjanjian Gaza-Jericho ini, pembangunan kota-kota pemukiman Israel di kawasan pendudukan harus dihentikan, tawanan Palestina dibebaskan, dan pembicaraan mengenai pengembalian pengungsi Palestina dan penetapan garis perbatasan akan dimulai. Namun, rezim Zionis hingga kini tidak menepati satupun dari isi perjanjian itu. Sebaliknya, Yaser Arafat dipaksa memberikan sejumlah konsesi kepada Israel. Akibat lain dari kesedian Yaser Arafat menandatangani perjanjian ini adalah terpecah-pecahnya persatuan kubu bangsa Arab dalam perundingan damai dengan Tel Aviv.

14 September
Imperium Utsmani Menyerbu Serbia

Tanggal 14 September 1389, imperium Utsmani dalam awal usahanya untuk menaklukkan Eropa, menyerang dan menduduki Serbia. Kemenangan ini diraih pada masa Sultan Murad Pertama, raja ketiga dari Imperium Utsmani. Selama hampir lima abad kemudian, Serbia berada dalam jajahan Utsmani, meskipun berkali-kali melakukan perlawanan rakyat. Pada akhir abad ke-19, Serbia dan Rusia bersatu melawan Utsmani dan berhasil mencapai kemenangan. Pada Kongres Berlin tahun 1878, Serbia dinyatakan sebagai negara merdeka.

Alexander von Humboldt Lahir
Tanggal 14 September 1769, Wilhelm von Humboldt, seorang sosialog dan ahli pendidikan dan pengajaran Jerman, terlahir ke dunia. Dia dikenal sebagai reformator kurikulum pengajaran dan pendidikan baru di Jerman. Humboldt mendirikan Pusat Pendidikan Berlin yang kemudian berubah menjadi Universitas Berlin. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1859.

Percobaan Pertama Balon Gas untuk Penelitian Cuaca
Tanggal 14 September 1804, untuk pertama kalinya, balon gas digunakan dalam penelitian cuaca. Balon yang diisi dengan berbagai gas yang lebih ringan daripada gas-gas yang ada di udara ini diciptakan oleh seorang fisikawan dan kimiawan Perancis. Balon tersebut terbang hingga ketinggian 460 meter.

Kebakaran Besar di Moskow

Tanggal 14 September 1812, salah satu kebakaran terbesar dalam sejarah yang dilakukan dengan sengaja, terjadi di kota Moskow. Sehari setelah Moskow diduduki oleh tentara Napoleon Bonaparte, atas perintah penguasa Moskow, kota itu dibakar agar pasukan Perancis tidak memiliki fasilitas apapun untuk tinggal di sana. Dalam kebakaran besar ini, tiga perempat kota Moskow hancur terbakar.

OPEC Berdiri

Tanggal 14 September 1960, piagam pendirian organisasi produsen minyak (OPEC) ditandatangani oleh lima negara, Iran, Arab Saudi, Irak, Kuwait, dan Venezuela. Organisasi ini didirikan dengan tujuan menghadapi perusahaan-perusahaan minyak besar milik Barat yang memonopoli penemuan, eksplorasi, dan penjualan minyak di tingkat dunia. Perusahaan Barat tersebut juga menentukan harga minyak sesuai dengan kepentingan mereka dan hal ini merugikan para produsen minyak. Meskipun pada awalnya, OPEC tidak memiliki banyak kekuatan, namun kemudian secara bertahap setelah bergabungnya Al-Jazair, Libya, Nijeria, Qatar, Emirat, Gabon, Indonesia, dan Ekuador, OPEC semakin kuat. Oleh karena itu, pada krisis minyak akibat perang antara Mesir dan Zionis dan embargo minyak di Barat oleh negara-negara Arab, harga minyak naik hingga tiga kali lipat. Peran OPEC di pasar minyak dunia dan penentuan harga minyak selama dekade 70-an hingga kini, sangat besar. Kini, meskipun Ekuador dan Gabon keluar dari OPEC dan saham OPEC dalam produksi dunia telah menurun, organisasi ini masih memiliki peran besar dalam penentuan harga minyak dunia.

15 September
Lima Negara Benua Amerika Merdeka

Tanggal 15 September 1821, Nikaragua , Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, dan Costarica, memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya dari Spanyol. Kemerdekaan ini diraih setelah Napoleon menguasai Spanyol sehingga pemerintah negeri ini menjadi lemah. Kelima negara tersebut kemudian mendirikan Persatuan Amerika Tengah. Dengan bubarnya persatuan ini pada tahun 1838, negara-negara tersebut menjadi negara yang terpisah-pisah. Pada pertengahan abad ke-19, seorang Amerika bernama Wiliam Walker dengan dukungan tentara AS, menduduki kelima negara ini. Namun, dengan persatuan di antara mereka, pasukan AS itu berhasil diusir. Kelima negara Amerika Latin ini, ditambah Meskio, Panama, dan Belize, merupakan negara-negara yang terletak di Amerika tengah dan berada di tepi Lautan Teduh dan Laut Karibia.

Dr. Zamenhof Lahir
Tanggal 15 September 1859, Doktor Zamenhof, seorang dokter, sastrawan, dan ahli bahasa dari Polandia terlahir ke dunia. Dia berusaha menemukan kesamaan di antara berbagai bahasa dunia dan percaya bahwa melalui jalan ini, bangsa-bangsa di dunia bisa saling bersahabat. Zamenhof dengan pengetahuannya yang mendalam terhadap akar bahasa Eropa kemudian menciptakan sebuah bahasa yang dinamakan bahasa Esperanto yang berarti "harapan". Dalam bahasa ini tidak ditemukan masalah dalam penulisan, karena apa yang dibaca sama dengan apa yang dituliskan. Dengan mempelajari 278 huruf dan 16 kaidah, semua orang dengan mudah bisa menggunakan bahasa ini. Namun demikian, bahasa ini tidak begitu berkembang sesuai yang diharapkan Zamenhof dan tidak berhasil menjadi sebuah bahasa internasional.

Penulis Terkenal W. Georgio Lahir
Tanggal 15 September 1916, W. Georgio, penulis dan peneliti Romania, di kota Rusbani, terlahir ke dunia. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, dia melakukan penelitian di berbagai bidang, di antaranya tentang agama Islam. Buku "Muhammad Nabi Islam yang Harus Dikenal Lagi dari Dasar" adalah salah satu karya utama W. Georgio yang diterima luas oleh dunia Islam, terutama di Iran.

Virus Trachoma Ditemukan
Tanggal 15 September 1958, untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah ilmu kedokteran, ditemukan sebuah virus penyakit yang berbahaya yang bernama trachoma. Dengan ditemukannya virus ini, terbuka jalan untuk mengobati penyakit yang hingga saat itu, telah membuat ribuan orang di seluruh dunia kehilangan penglihatannya. Virus ini ditemuka oleh dua dokter Inggris bernama Kulir dan Swa.

Makedonia Merdeka
Tanggal 15 September 1991, Makedonia di tenggara Eropa mencapai kemerdekaannya dari Yugoslavia. Makedonia pada pertengahan abad ke-15 dijajah oleh imperium Utsmani dan pada akhir abad ke-19, menjadi bagian dari Bulgarian. Pada Perang Balkan Kedua di tahun 1914, Serbia menduduki Makedonia dan pada akhir Perang Dunia Pertama, bersama dengan Kroasia dan Slovenia, Makedonia mendirikan sebuah negara merdeka. Namun, rakyat Makedonia menentang persatuan tersebut dan melakukan perlawanan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Makedonia kembali bergabung dengan Yugoslavia dan menjadi sebuah pemerintahan otonomi. Menyusul perkembangan yang terjadi di Soviet dan Eropa Timur pada dekade 1980-an, dan terpisahnya Kroasia dan Slovenia dari Yugoslavia, Makedonia dengan dukungan Barat juga memisahkan diri dan memproklamirkan kemerdekaannya.
Makedonia memiliki luas wilayah hampir 26 ribu kilometer persegi dan berbatasan dengan negara-negara Yugoslavia, Albania, dan Bulgaria.

Dr. Zarrin Kub Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 15 September 1999, Doktor Abdul Husain Zarrin Kub, sejarawan dan peneliti terkemuka Iran meninggal dunia karena penyakit jantung. Pada tahun 1922, dia terlahir ke dunia di kota Burujerd, Iran. Doktor Zarrin meraih gelar doktornya di bidang sejarah dan banyak melakukan penelitian dan penulisan di bidang ini. Di antara karya-karyanya adalah buku berjudul "Kemunculan Islam" dan "Catatan Keberhasilan Islam".

16 September
Joseph Garibaldi Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 16 September 1882, Joseph Garibaldi, komandan militer Italia yang nasionalis, meninggal dunia. Pemimpin peperangan dalam mempersatukan Italia ini dilahirkan pada tahun 1807. Di masa mudanya, dia menjalani berbagai pekerjaan, sampai akhirnya dia bergabung dengan militer. Setelah Garibaldi diangkat sebagai komandan militer, dia berusaha keras untuk mewujudkan persatuan Italia. Atas jasanya tersebut, Garibaldi dikenang sebagai pahlawan nasional oleh rakyat Italia.

Umar Mukhtar Dihukum Gantung
Tanggal 16 September 1931, Umar Mukhtar, pemimpin perjuangan bangsa Libya dalam melawan penjajahan Italia, dihukum gantung. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1859 dan merupakan seorang alim agama. Pada tahun 1895, Umar Mukhtar pergi ke Sudan dan ikut serta dalam kebangkitan Mahdi Sudani melawan penjajahan Inggris. Setelah kekalahan perjuangan Madhi Sudani, Mukhtar kembali ke Libya. Pada tahun 1911, Italia dengan tujuan untuk menguasai Libya berperang dengan Utsmani dan meraih kemenangan. Umar Mukhtar dengan dukungan kabilah-kabilah Lybia melakukan perlawanan terhadap Italia dan menjatuhkan banyak korban di pihak lawan. Akhirnya, Italia dengan mengerahkan pasukan yang sangat banyak dan senjata canggih, mengepung Umar Mukhtar dan pasukannya. Umar Mukhtar pun kemudian tertangkap dan dihukum gantung.

Kota Warsawa Polandia Dikepung Tentara Jerman
Tanggal 16 September 1939, kota Warsawa Polandia dikepung oleh tentara Jerman pada bulan pertama Perang Dunia Kedua. Serangan tentara Nazi Jerman ke Polandia itu telah dimulai 15 hari sebelumnya. Meskipun Polandia diserang dari dua arah oleh Jerman dan Soviet, tetapi, rakyat Polandia berjuang sekuat tenaga mempertahankan kota Warsawa. Namun, akhirnya setelah 11 hari bertempur, pada tanggal 28 September, kota ini jatuh ke tangan Jerman. Berdasarkan nota kesepakatan antara Jerman dan Soviet yang ditandatangani sebelum penyerangan itu, Polandia dibagi dua oleh kedua negara itu.

Papua Nugini Merdeka

Tanggal 16 September 1975, Papua Nugini meraih kemerdekaannya. Pada abad ke-16, Belanda menjajah kawasan tersebut, pada tahun 1884, Inggris berkuasa di Papua. Pada tahun 1906, sebagian wilayah Papua dikuasai oleh Australia. Sebagian wilayah Papua lainnya dikuasai oleh Jerman. Kemudian, Papua dibadi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu Papua di bawah kekuasaan Australia dan Nugini yang berada di bawah pengawasan PBB. Pada tahun 1949, kedua wilayah itu bersatu. Baru pada tahun 1975 Papua Nugini menjadi sebuah negara merdeka. Papua Nugini bagian barat berbatasan dengan Indonesia dan bagian selatannya berbatasan dengan Australia. Negara ini memiliki luas wilayah 462 ribu kilometer persegi.

Gempa Bumi Dahsyat di Iran
Tanggal 16 September 1978, terjadi gempa bumi dahsyat sebesar 7,7 skala Richter di timur laut Iran. Gempa ini menghancurkan kota Tabas dan daerah sekitarnya. Dalam peristiwa ini lebih dari 25 ribu orang tewas dan puluhan ribu lainnya terluka. Rezim Syah berusaha memanfaatkan situasi ini untuk menghalangi berlanjutnya gerakan revolusi Islam, namun Imam Khomeini memberikan pesan kepada rakyat Iran untuk menolong para korban bencana dan melanjutkan gerakan revolusi Islam.

17 September
Bernadotte Terbunuh

Tanggal 17 September 1848, Count Bernadotte, mediator PBB dalam masalah Palestina dan perang pertama antara Arab dan Israel terbunuh dalam sebuah serangan teroris. Pembunuhan yang dilakukan oleh kelompok Zionis bernama "Stern" ini dilakukan di kawasan pemukiman Israel di Baitul Maqdis. Bernadotte mengemban tugas untuk mencari jalan keluar dari permasalahan Palestina dan menghentikan perang Arab-Israel. Bernadotte mengakui keberadaan Rezim Zionis namun juga menekankan bahwa bangsa Palestina adalah penduduk asli kawasan tersebut. Hal inilah yang menimbulkan kemarahan kelompok ekstrim Zionis dan menyebabkan dia terbunuh.

Emil Ludwig Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 17 September 1948, Emil Ludwig, seorang penulis biografi Jerman, meninggal dunia. Dia terlahir ke dunia pada tahun 1881 dan terkenal atas karya biografinya mengenai Bismarck, Kanselir Jerman pertengahan abad ke-19. Selama Perang Dunia Kedua, Ludwid sebagai seorang wartawan, mewawancarai beberapa tokoh terkenal dunia, seperti Roosevelt, Churchill, dan Stalin dan kemudian menulis biografi mereka. Selain itu, Ludwig juga menulis naskah drama dan novel. Di antara karya-karya Ludwig yang paling penting berjudul "Napoleon", "Goethe", "Dunia yang Aku Lihat", dan "Kehidupan Sebuah Sungai."

Pembunuhan Massal Rakyat Palestina

Tanggal 17 September 1970, dimulai pembunuhan massal rakyat Palestina oleh tentara Yordania. Menyusul kehadiran angkatan bersenjata Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) di Yordania dan terjadinya perlawanan gerilyawan Palestina terhadap tentara Zionis, Raja Husain bin Thalal merasa kepentingannya terancam. Oleh karena itu, sejak awal September tahun 1970, terjadi berbagai bentrokan sporadis antara tentara Yordania dan kelompok gerilyawan Palestina, khususnya di kota Amman.
Pada tanggal 16 September, pemerintahan militer terbentuk di Yordania, dan sehari kemudian atas perintah Raja Husain, tentara Yordania menyerbu berbagai posisi gerilyawan dan warga sipil Palestina yang mengungsi di Yordania. Ribuan rakyat Palestina terbunuh atau terluka dalam kejadian ini. Pada tanggal 28 September 1970, ditandatangani perjanjian gencatan senjata antara Yaser Arafat dan Raja Husain,. Namun, pada akhir tahun itu pula, kembali terjadi bentrokan antara tentara Yordania dan gerilyawan Palestina. Akhirnya, Raja Husain melarang total para gerilyawan Palestina untuk menyerang tentara Zionis di dalam kawasan Yordania dan kemudian, ratusan ribu pengungsi Palestina diusir keluar dari negeri itu.

Saddam Merobek-Robek Perjanjian Aljazair

Tanggal 17 September 1980, Rezim Irak secara sepihak membatalkan perjanjian perbatasannya dengan Iran, yaitu perjanjian Aljazair yang ditandatangani pada tahun 1975. Pada hari itu, Saddam Husain, presiden Irak dan pemimpin Partai Ba'ats merobek-robek surat perjanjian itu di depan kamera televisi yang disiarkan ke seluruh Irak. Beberapa hari kemudian, tentara Irak memulai invasinya ke Republik Islam Iran dan berlangsung perang selama delapan tahun. Berdasarkan perjanjian Aljazair, garis perbatasan Iran dan Irak telah ditentukan. Pada tahun 1990, Saddam Husain terpaksa kembali mengakui secara resmi perjanjian tersebut.

Pembunuhan Massal Kamp Shabra dan Shatila
Tanggal 17 September 1982, terjadi pembunuhan massal terhadap warga sipil Palestina yang menghuni kamp penampungan Shabra dan Shatila di Libanon oleh kelompok Phalang yang didukung oleh tentara Zionis. Sebelumnya pada bulan Juni 1982, tentara Zionis menyerang Libanon dan setelah mengusir angkatan bersenjata Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) keluar dari Beirut, ibu kota Libanon, kota inipun diduduki oleh tentara Zionis. Dengan persetujuan Menachem Begin, Perdana Menteri Israel dan atas perintah Ariel Sharon, Menteri Perang Israel pada waktu itu, pada dini hari tanggal 17 September, tentara Zionis mengepung kamp pengungsi Shabra dan Shatila. Lalu, kelompok Phalang memasuki kamp tersebut dan memperkosa serta membunuh warga sipil Palestina yang umumnya wanita, anak-anak, dan orang tua. Pembunuhan massal ini berlangsung selama 40 jam dan 3300 orang telah terbunuh.

18 September
Samuel Johnson lahir

Tanggal 18 September 1709, Samuel Johnson, penulis drama, syair, dan novel Inggris, terlahir ke dunia. Johnson memulai aktivitas sastranya dengan menulis kritik sastra dan beberapa lama kemudian mulai menulis syair. Dia kemudian menulis buku "Kehidupan Penyair". Karyanya yang lain berjudul "Kehidupan Sastra di Inggris" dan "Kamus Bahasa Inggris". Samuel Johnson meninggal dunia pada tahun 1784.

Chili Merdeka
Tanggal 18 September 1818, negara Chili berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Spanyol dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional negara tersebut. Chili pada tahun 1536 dijajah oleh Spanyol dan dijadikan bagian dari wilayah Peru yang juga dijajah oleh Spanyol. Pada tahun 1788, Raja Spanyol Charlos III memisahkan Chili dari Peru. Perjuangan kebebasan pertama rakyat Chili dimulai pada tahun 1814. Namun, pejuang Chili kalah dalam melawan tentara pemerintah Spanyol. Pada tahun 1817, Jose San Martin , komandan Argentina bersama beberapa ribu pasukannya menyerbu beberapa sejumlah wilayah jajahan Spanyol, di antaranya Peru dan chili. Dengan dukungan rakyat Chili, Jose San Martin berhasil mengusir tentara Spanyol dan pada tahun 1818, Chili berhasil menjadi negara merdeka.
Chili memiliki luas wilayah 756.626 kilometer persegi dan terletak di bagian barat Amerika selatan. Negara Chili berbatasan dengan Argentina, Bolivia, dan Peru.

Manchuria Diduduki Jepang
Tanggal 18 September 1931, kawasan Manchuria di timur laut Cina, diduduki oleh tentara Jepang. Pendudukan Manchuria yang memiliki luas wilayah lebih dari satu juta kilometer persegi itu ditengarai sebagai permulaan perang antara Cina dan Jepang. Setelah menduduki Manchuria, Jepang menempatkan pemerintahan boneka Mancheko. Sampai tahun-tahun awal perang Dunia Kedua, sebagian besar wilayah timur dan selatan Cina diduduki oleh Jepang. Pada peristiwa perang Dunia Kedua, Cina mendapat dukungan sekutu dalam melawan Jepang. Menyusul kekalahan Jepang dalam Perang Dunia Kedua tersebut di tahun 1945, tentara Jepang pun meninggalkan seluruh wilayah Cina, termasuk Manchuria.

Sekjen PBB Dag Hammarskjold Tewas
Tanggal 18 September 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, politikus Swedia dan sekjen PBB yang kedua tewas dalam kecelakaan pesawat. Saat itu, dia sedang dalam menjalankan misi untuk menyelesaikan perang Kongo. Hammasrkjold pada tahun 1952 dipilih sebagai sekjen PBB dan tak lama setelah kematiannya, dia dianugerahi hadiah Nobel Perdamaian.

Husein Syahriar Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 18 September 1988, Muhammad Husain Syahriar, seorang penyair terkenal Iran meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan di kota Tabriz Iran pada tahun 1904. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan menengahnya di madrasah Darul Funun Teheran, dia memasuki sekolah kedokteran. Namun, di tengah jalan, ia meninggalkan sekolah ini dan kembali ke kota kelahirannya. Pada usianya ke 33 tahun, Syahriar sudah merilis buku syair pertamanya. Syahriar adalah seorang penyair yang dikenal merakyat dan memiliki perasaan yang lembut. Dalam syair-syair Syahriar juga tercermin perasaannya dan reaksinya mengenai rezim yang berkuasa di Iran pada saat itu. Pada masa revolusi Islam Iran, Syahriar mengiringi perjuangan rakyat Iran dengan syair-syairnya yang memberi semangat kepada rakyat. Dia juga menulis syair-syair relijius yang menunjukkan kecintaannya kepada Rasulullah dan ahlul baitnya.
Di antara karya-karya Syahriar yang paling terkenal adalah "Diwan-e Asy'ar" dan "Haydar Baba" yang ditulisnya dalam bahasa Turki. Pemimpin Besar Revolusi Islam Iran Ayatullah Khamanei pernah menyampaikan komentarnya mengenai Syahriar sebagai berikut.
"Kecintaannya terhadap Al-Quran dan spiritualitas merupakan salah satu keistimewaan Syahriar selama tiga dekade terakhir kehidupannya. Hal ini bisa terlihat dengan jelas dalam syair-syair Syahriar. Dia menyambut revolusi Islam dengan jiwa relijius dan pikirannya yang lurus dan lembut. Dia juga memiliki peran yang berpengaruh pada periode-periode sensitif revolusi Islam."

19 September
Minyak buatan Ditemukan

Tanggal 19 September 1907, untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah, usaha manusia untuk menciptakan materi yang bisa menciptakan panas dan energi, mencapai hasilnya dengan ditemukannya minyak buatan. Materi baru ini ditemukan oleh James Yong, seorang ahli kimia Skotlandia. James Yong memiliki sebuah pertambangan batu arang dan sebuah laboratorium lengkap. Melalui penyulingan batu arang tersebut, dia berhasil menciptakan minyak buatan.

Kudeta Militer di Argentina

Tanggal 19 September 1955, Presiden Argentina saat itu, Juan Domingo Peron, tersingkir dari posisinya oleh sebuah kudeta militer. Peron yang telah memerintah selama satu dekade itu, meraih kekuasaannya di tahun 1946 dengan dukungan kelas buruh. Penasehat politiknya yang paling besar adalah istrinya sendiri, yaitu Evita Peron. Pada tahun 1952, Evita Peron meninggal dunia dan disusul dengan pecahnya koalisi nasional yang selama ini mendukung Peron. Setelah diusir dari negerinya, ia menetap di Spanyol dan dari sana, ia memimpin Faksi Peronists yang merupakan faksi yang sangat kuat di Argentina.Juan Domingo Peron dilahirkan pada tahun 1895 dan memulai karirnya di bidang militer.

Perjanjian Militer AS dan Kuwait

Tanggal 19 September 1991, Kuwait dan Amerika menandatangani sebuah nota kesepakatan militer. Nota kesepakatan ini dibuat enam bulan setelah berakhirnya pendudukan Irak di Kuwait. Menurut para pejabat Kuwait, kesepakatan ini dibuat untuk mencegah kembalinya agresi Irak. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, Amerika memiliki hak untuk menggunakan pelabuhan-pelabuhan Kuwait dan mendirikan pangkalan militer di negara itu, serta kedua negara akan melakukan latihan militer bersama.
Pada tahun 1992, Kuwait juga membuat perjanjian serupa dengan Inggris dan Perancis. Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, and Uni Emirat Arab juga mengadakan perjanjian militer dengan Amerika, Inggris, dan Perancis. Namun, di luar yang dibayangkan oleh negara-negara itu, kehadiran militer Barat di wilayah mereka justru mendatangkan masalah di dalam negeri dan meningkatkan ketidakamanan di Teluk Persia.

Tentara AS Menyerbu Haiti
Tanggal 19 September 1994, 20 ribu tentara AS menyerbu Haiti, sebuah negara kecil di Laut Karibia, dari laut dan udara dan kemudian menduduki negara tersebut. Alasan Washington dalam serangannya tersebut adalah untuk mengembalikan Jean Bertrand Aristide, mantan presiden Haiti, ke kursi kepresidenan. Sebelumnya, pada tahun 1991, Jenderal Raol Cedras melakukan kudeta terhadap Aristide yang delapan bulan sebelumnya terpilih sebagai presiden Haiti. Namun, atas desakan internasional, terutama Amerika, para pelaku kudeta bersedia menyerahkan kembali kekuasaan keapda Aristide. Di luar kesepakatan, tiba-tiba AS menyerang Haiti dan tetap tinggal di negara itu dengan kedok sebagai pasukan penjaga perdamaian. Tindakan AS ini merupakan bukti lain dari pelanggaran undang-undang internasional yang berkali-kali dilakukan oleh negara ini.

20 September
Bus Bertenaga Uap Diciptakan

Tanggal 20 September 1831, untuk pertama kalinya diciptakan bus pertama yang menggunakan tenaga uap. Bus uap ini diciptakan oleh seora
          SERIO PANORAMA EN EL SUR POR CONSUMO MASIVO EN EL NORTE        

• Advierten que Latinoamérica se encuentra en una encrucijada, a punto de ingresar en un espiral descendente de más contaminación, más pobreza y menos calidad de vida.
• Si no se revierte el hiper-consumismo de las economías del norte, no habrá solución posible para el cambio climático, el agotamiento de los recursos vitales como el agua y el aumento descontrolado de la pobreza.

Buenos Aires, 6 septiembre 2007 (Agencia RENA).- Con Botnia como último antecedente, se espera que Sudamérica se convierta en importante productora de papel y cartón para satisfacer el enorme crecimiento del consumo de los países del norte. La voracidad de los estados más ricos de la Tierra demandaría, según informes de Greenpeace, la construcción de dos plantas como la de Fray Bentos por año hasta 2020, con crecientes impactos ambientales y socioeconómicos.

En la actualidad, los grandes consumidores ya no producen su propia celulosa. En los últimos 15 años comenzaron a definirse zonas de consumo y otras que se perfilan como enormes productoras de papel y pulpa. En su búsqueda de áreas con mejores condiciones climáticas y económicas, la industria se expandió hacia Asia y América Latina. Y Sudamérica se convirtió en un espacio “prioritario”.

Según un documento difundido en 2006, si bien en Argentina no se verifica un crecimiento importante de la capacidad productiva de celulosa, para antes de 2010 “las ampliaciones serán motorizadas por el crecimiento del mercado interno y por la exportación”.

De acuerdo con el Movimiento Mundial por los Bosques Tropicales, ese consumo excesivo “genera graves impactos sobre la vida de millones de personas en el sur”: para el papel se necesita madera, esta proviene de enormes monocultivos de árboles instalados donde la tierra es fértil y barata, la mano de obra menos costosa, se otorgan subsidios y apoyos estatales, y el control ambiental es escaso.

El resultado es el mismo para cada país. “Latifundización y extranjerización de la tierra, concentración del poder, expulsión de la población rural, pérdida neta de empleos locales, agotamiento de suelos y recursos hídricos, pérdida de biodiversidad”. Y el problema “se agrava aún más cuando se instalan fábricas de celulosa para exportación en la cercanía de las áreas plantadas, con los consiguientes impactos socioambientales”.

“Botnia en Uruguay, Celco en Chile y Aracruz en Brasil, no son más que la punta de lanza de lo que se viene aquí. Hay que estar también atentos a lo que se haga sobre el río Paraná, donde el abundante caudal ‘diluye’ falazmente la contaminación. Una vez instaladas una, dos o tres megapasteras, inevitablemente se creará un polo de industrias sucias en la región, se expulsarán las industrias y servicios amigables con el medio ambiente y las que necesitan agua y suelos de alta calidad, generando una ola de migración y desempleo”, aseveró Jorge Cappato, director general de la Fundación PROTEGER y coordinador nacional del Comité Argentino de la Unión Mundial para la naturaleza (UICN), en diálogo con RENA.

Según el experto de PROTEGER, con la excusa de que “el río ya está contaminado”, y con la luz verde de controles políticos endebles, “las industrias sucias –y de producción masiva y barata, porque comparativamente generan poco empleo y porque poco les importa el ambiente-, vendrán como moscas a la miel. Entraremos en un espiral descendente de más contaminación, más pobreza y menos calidad de vida. Esta es la encrucijada y el punto de inflexión en que nos encontramos precisamente en este momento en el Cono Sur”.

Un crecimiento insostenible

En su informe de 2006, Greenpeace Argentina asegura que el índice de consumo de papel en el mundo a comienzos del siglo XXI se calculaba en 300 millones de toneladas anuales, mientras que en 2005 ascendió a 366 millones y se espera que para 2020 alcance los 566 millones. Del 9 por ciento de la producción global en 2005, se prevé que Latinoamérica expanda su producción al 25 por ciento para 2010.

Según el trabajo, la demanda mundial de pulpa de celulosa blanqueada en el mercado crecerá de 45 millones de toneladas en 2005 a 74 millones de toneladas en 2020. Ese incremento de 29 millones de toneladas implicará una ampliación del mercado en 1,9 millones por año hasta 2020, equivalente a dos plantas como la de Botnia por año.

Para abastecer una papelera con una capacidad de producción de 300 mil toneladas son necesarias 50 mil hectáreas de plantaciones de monocultivos. Plantas como las previstas en Fray Bentos (1,5 millón de toneladas al año) requieren superficies cultivables de más de 250 mil hectáreas.

En su trabajo presentado en agosto del año último, la organización se refiere a la escalada de la producción de celulosa en Latinoamérica y a la posibilidad que tienen las empresas y los gobiernos de transformar esa industria contaminante en otra limpia, al fijar criterios ambientales que se sostengan en el tiempo y promover el reciclado en los países del norte, que son los máximos consumidores.

“Durante las próximas décadas habrá una importante presión para ampliar las zonas de plantaciones y la radicación de fábricas de pulpa de celulosa en gran escala. Uruguay y Argentina aparecen como dos países con gran potencial para el desarrollo de ambas necesidades”, comenta el informe, titulado “La escalada de la celulosa en la región; industria sucia o producción limpia”.

El documento propone, como alternativa para un desarrollo sostenible de la industria en una región en la que avanzan las inversiones extranjeras, un Plan de Producción Limpia, con un conjunto de criterios para que Uruguay y Argentina incluyan límites a la escala productiva, certificación para las plantaciones forestales y sistemas de producción libre de cloro y contaminante.

“En particular, en Argentina no se verifica una ampliación importante de la capacidad productiva de celulosa para antes de 2010; las ampliaciones serán motorizadas principalmente por el crecimiento del mercado interno y en menor medida por las exportaciones”, anticipa el informe.

“Considerando la llegada de capitales chilenos en los últimos años y el potencial existente, es de esperar que hasta el 2010 la actividad se centre en ampliar la superficie de plantaciones, y sólo a partir de ese año se procure la radicación de plantas de fabricación de celulosa destinada principalmente al mercado internacional”, alerta.

El informe de Greenpeace sigue la línea del documento europeo “Una visión común para transformar la industria europea del papel”, acordado en la reunión del Movimiento Forestal Europeo (FME,) el 2 de octubre de 2005.

El documento, signado por 48 organizaciones, establece: “queremos ver una Europa que reduzca radicalmente su consumo de papel, que éste sea fabricado por una industria que dependa menos de la fibra virgen de árboles, maximice el uso de los materiales reciclados, respete los derechos territoriales de la población local, ofrezca empleo y tenga impactos sociales que sean beneficiosos, no tengan conflictos y sean justos”.

“Queremos ver que todo el papel de Europa se fabrique de fibras de fuentes responsables y sostenibles utilizando energía completamente renovable, con agua que esté igual de limpia antes y después de la producción del papel y que no produzca ningún desecho ni emisión”, agrega el texto.

Unos en exceso, otros casi nada

Según datos del Instituto para los Recursos Mundiales, el consumo anual per cápita mundial de papel y cartón fue de 52 kilos en 2004. Pero, como sucede con todos los promedios, “éste esconde la desproporción entre quienes consumen mucho y quienes consumen poco”, explica el Movimiento Mundial por los Bosques Tropicales (World Rainforest Movement).

“En efecto, los ciudadanos de los llamados países ‘desarrollados’ consumieron en promedio 175 kilos, en tanto que los de los llamados ‘en vías de desarrollo’, consumieron apenas 20”, revela la organización.

Y continúa: “esos promedios esconden la realidad de que en algunos países del norte el consumo es muy superior -como en los casos de Finlandia (334 kgs), Estados Unidos (312) y Japón (250)- y que un consumo supuestamente ‘bajo’ –por ejemplo, de 20 kilos- puede alcanzar perfectamente para cubrir las necesidades básicas de papel”.

Ese consumo excesivo, agrega, genera graves impactos sobre la vida de millones de personas en el sur. “Ese papel y cartón se produce a partir de celulosa, para cuya elaboración se requiere madera, que crecientemente proviene de enormes monocultivos de árboles, en particular eucaliptos, pinos y acacias”.

Esos monocultivos se instalan en regiones que reúnen varias condiciones: rápido crecimiento de los árboles, acceso a amplias áreas de tierra fértil y barata, bajo costo de mano de obra, disponibilidad de subsidios y apoyos estatales, escaso control ambiental. “Es decir: básicamente en el Sur”.

“El resultado es el mismo en país tras país: latifundización y extranjerización de la tierra, concentración de poder, expulsión de la población rural, pérdida neta de empleos a nivel local, agotamiento de suelos y recursos hídricos, pérdida de biodiversidad. Pese a las promesas de ‘desarrollo’ que acompañan a las plantaciones, los impactos no hacen más que agravarse a medida que se incrementa el área plantada, como es fácilmente percibido en países con millones de hectáreas de plantaciones como Sudáfrica, Brasil, Chile e Indonesia”.

“El problema se agrava aún más cuando se instalan fábricas de celulosa para exportación en la cercanía de las áreas plantadas, con los consiguientes impactos socioambientales. Aracruz y Veracel en Brasil, Arauco en Chile y Argentina, Sappi y Mondi en Sudáfrica y Swazilandia, Advance Agro en Tailandia, Asia Pulp and Paper en Indonesia son ejemplos conocidos de los graves impactos de esta industria”.

¿Y todo para qué? “Para que la industria del papel pueda disponer de celulosa abundante y barata para seguir ampliando sus mercados y aumentando sus ganancias mediante la permanente invención de nuevas ‘necesidades’”, responde el World Rainforest Movement.

“El resultado –en particular en el norte pero también replicado crecientemente en el sur- es la imposición de un consumo desmedido de papel. Los ejemplos abundan. Existe una cantidad impresionante de artículos descartables de papel y cartón como vasos, platos, bandejas, servilletas y hasta manteles que están sustituyendo -a nivel masivo- a sus similares duraderos”.

Esa realidad, por ejemplo, se ve cuando una persona adquiere un par de zapatos. Este viene envuelto en papel, dentro de una caja de cartón y es entregado al comprador en una bolsa de papel. O en la publicidad por correspondencia no solicitada que cada mañana invade los hogares de la gente. “En definitiva, toda persona es forzada a consumir una dosis diaria de papel y cartón que nunca pidió ni quiso consumir”.

“El tema trasciende entonces a la responsabilidad del consumidor individual y se enmarca en el plano más amplio de la sociedad de consumo. Por tanto, no se resuelve simplemente culpabilizando al individuo, sino que se trata de un tema que debe ser resuelto a nivel de la sociedad en su conjunto”.

En ese plano, “las sociedades del Norte deben llegar a comprender que su estilo de vida -en el que el consumo ocupa un lugar exagerado- está afectando las posibilidades de supervivencia de personas con sus mismos derechos en otras partes del mundo. Al mismo tiempo, deben entender que ese consumo desmedido está llevando al planeta al desastre ambiental, que ya se evidencia en el cambio climático, el agotamiento y contaminación del agua, la pérdida de biodiversidad, entre otros”.

Consumo, consumismo, Norte y Sur

“No hay solución posible a las tres grandes amenazas para la supervivencia de la civilización actual (el cambio climático global, el agotamiento de los recursos vitales y el crecimiento irrefrenable de la pobreza) sin que se revierta el hiper-consumismo de las sociedades y las economías del hemisferio norte”, dijo Jorge Cappato, titular de PROTEGER, a RENA.

Y dio un ejemplo: “Mientras China y Europa sigan demandando soja para su industria o para alimentar a los cerdos será muy difícil terminar con la deforestación causada por el avance de la frontera agrícola. Esto es lo que llamamos ‘convertir nuestros bosques en jamón’”, sentenció.

“¿Hasta cuándo se podrá resistir la presión sobre los ecosistemas naturales y sus recursos cuando la demanda de los mercados mundiales crece en todos los órdenes?”, se preguntó. “Hoy, la producción mundial se ha acelerado tanto que se produce en 10 días lo que hace un siglo tardaba un año; y esto no es un eufemismo”.

“Imagínense el impacto brutal que esto tiene en la atmósfera y en los sistemas ecológicos agrarios y urbanos que -justamente- son los que deben asegurar los recursos esenciales para la gente y para la producción misma: como el agua, el suelo, los peces, los bosques, la calidad del aire y la estabilidad del clima”.

Para Cappato, un cambio en el actual furor consumista hacia hábitos responsables y sustentables de consumo en los países centrales “es imposible sin una fuerte alianza y una sana pero creciente presión desde los países pobres o en desarrollo del sur hacia las sociedades, gobiernos y sectores políticos lúcidos de los países ricos del norte”.

“La tendencia hiper-consumista del norte y su correlato en el sur con su paquete tecnológico insustentable nos llevan a un punto de no retorno, de colapso ambiental, de agotamiento, de tensión social en aumento, de ingobernabilidad. La vida se vuelve insegura en todos los órdenes, basta prestar atención al top ten de los noticieros”.

Según su visión, “vamos camino de la inestabilidad y el caos global. Aunque mucha gente consciente parece mirar al costado, los indicadores de hacia dónde vamos son contundentes, incontrastables. Cuando esta clase dirigente entregue el poder a la generación que viene, ésta no podrá manejar el huracán social de la indigencia, ni afrontar el costo impagable de los ‘desastres naturales’. ¿Cuántos Katrinas más hacen falta para que el Norte reaccione?”, volvió a preguntarse.

En el caso específico del papel, “se sabe muy bien lo que hay que hacer: reducir el consumo superfluo y el derroche, reciclar, implementar una producción efectivamente limpia”, dijo.

“También se sabe que el crecimiento ilimitado del consumo de papel en los países ricos tiene como contrapartida inevitable la instalación de decenas de nuevas megaplantas pasteras y papeleras en los países del sur. Botnia en Uruguay, Celco en Chile y Aracruz en Brasil no son más que la punta de lanza de lo que se viene aquí”, aseguró.

“Hay que estar atentos a lo que se haga sobre el Paraná, donde el abundante caudal ‘diluye’ falazmente la contaminación. Una vez instaladas una, dos o tres megapasteras, inevitablemente se creará un polo de industrias sucias en la región, se expulsarán las industrias y servicios amigables con el medio ambiente y las que necesitan agua y suelos de alta calidad, generando una ola de migración y desempleo”, anticipó.

“Con la excusa de que ‘el río ya está contaminado’ y con la luz verde de controles políticos endebles las industrias sucias –y de producción masiva y barata, porque comparativamente generan poco empleo y porque poco les importa el ambiente-, vendrán como moscas a la miel. Entraremos en un espiral descendente de más contaminación, más pobreza y menos calidad de vida. Esta es la encrucijada y el punto de inflexión en que nos encontramos precisamente en este momento en el Cono Sur”, finalizó.

por Juan Ignacio Manchiola

Fuente:
Agencia de noticias RENA - www.renanews.com.ar
Fundación PROTEGER - miembro de la Unión Mundial para la Naturaleza (UICN)
Web: http://www.proteger.org.ar
          SWA welcomes Swaziland        

The post SWA welcomes Swaziland appeared first on SWA.


          That Feathered Thing        
This fall I finally visited the Storm King Art Center, an enormous rambling sculpture park north of New York City I have driven past many times, on my way to somewhere else, wishing I had time to stop. 
It is debatable whether some of the gigantic pieces enhance the landscape - or detract from the rolling hills and forest...
...but some were thought provoking, and powerful -  conjuring thoughts about deep time and our place in the universe.
It was the last day of a special exhibit of whimsical fountains.
Even though these are made of petroleum-derived plastic, I admired the bright, garish color flaming against the natural backdrop - and the playful organic moldings.
This gravity defiance was breathtaking, and I’m sorry I can’t supply the movement and sound of the water, or the wonderful clear sky and sunshine on that windy afternoon.
One permanent installation is a memorial, a lovely tribute to someone the sculptor must have cared deeply about.  Every time a visitor rings the bell, it is a vibrating resonant reminder of a life that once existed but is now over.  Of course I never knew the man this iron poem was dedicated to, nor do any others who pass by.  But, this sort of profound gesture of love reaches each of us, even when we can't have ever known the individual the artwork commemorates.  This expression of love is one of many that make humans unique in the animal kingdom, and very much part of the theme for my latest Dispatch From the Endocene on Extinction Radio.  You can listen to it online, and/or read the transcript below. Links follow the text:

Thanks Gene, and welcome listeners, to the 17th Dispatch From the Endocene.

It seems a natural and common reaction when people encounter the certainty that the sixth mass extinction has begun - and the likelihood that the human species will not be spared - to wonder why and how this has been allowed to happen.  The concept of mass extinction, especially our own, challenges the deepest cherished faith we nourish - in progress, in the ultimate perfectibility of fallible humanity, in divine forgiveness of our sins and foibles.  It is the end of all that.  It requires confronting our worst enemy, ourselves.

Even the few people who are able to understand that our species is doomed by our own actions often remain in denial that, sooner or later, it was inevitable.  Instead of accepting the immutability our self-imposed destruction, it is comforting to turn to the illusion that things might have turned out differently.   This is a tempting fallacy because embedded within this rationalizing is an implicit desire, that we might yet change and improve our fortunes, perhaps even avert our untimely demise as a species.  To truly accept our role in the 6th mass extinction, it is essential to understand the human propensity to deny and to hope, and how such delusions arose, inextricably and genetically entwined, in tandem with a consciousness of our individual selves, language, symbolism, and the foreknowledge of death.

One pertinent indication of our inability to overcome the primal instinctual behavior that developed over countless generations is the tendency of populations to become obese and develop related diseases once the supply of fatty, salty, sweetened food, scarce for most of our evolution, becomes readily available and inexpensive.  Usually the notion of free will is invoked and industrial civilization is blamed, along with individuals for their “life-style choices”, while our evolved imperatives are overlooked.  Similarly, we compulsively binge on power from cheap energy and on the products that derive from it.

Present-day culture is frequently reviled as overly preoccupied with status, as expressed by rampant consumerism - but like culinary excesses, the urge to flaunt possessions is simply an extension of behavior that evolved long ago.  Humans began bargaining with fate as soon as they started to bury their dead, something no other species does, entombing remains with offerings starting with simple bones, shells, then clay figurines, and ultimately fantastic, elaborate and ostentatious objects such as are found in the ancient pyramids of Egypt.  Rituals and ceremonies arose as religions and worship of spirits permeated cultures from primitive to the most complex and are always accompanied  by tangible objects of value. 
It’s amusing that current obsessions with fancy watches and cars, body sculpting and plastic surgery are denounced as a shallow fetish, when the same impulses in native tribal cultures are lauded as “indigenous spirituality” and considered sacred “ethnic traditions”.  Among some of the more outlandish practices have been crippling and painful bodily re-configurations such flattened heads, bound feet, corsets, the insertion of enormous lip plates from as long ago as 8700 bc, requiring the removal of teeth, earlobe gauging and let’s not forget some horrible genital mutilations.   More often relatively benign self-ornamentation has been used to denote membership in a tribe, and one’s position within it, such as tattoos, piercings, jewelry, headdresses and clothing style.  To expect that people in today’s society eschew such symbolic displays of reproductive fitness, or to forsake totemic possessions that defy death, is to ask humans to stop being humans.  We have brains big enough to understand how meaningless and futile it is to appease mythical gods in hopes of immortality…but not big enough to stop us doing it.

We have driven species to extinction not just for the necessities of life, but because they were collected purely for trivial decorative purposes, such as tree-dwelling snails in Hawaii, sea turtles, horns from animals of all sorts, ivory, abalone, coral.  The enchanting nautilus has been depleted in the Philippines by 80 percent since 1980.  Thanks, US, for importing more than 100,000 a year!  But this frivolous collecting began at dawn of time.  When people blame civilization, or capitalism, or the neolithic revolutionary turn to agriculture for the trashing of the natural world, they forget that it was civilization that finally enabled people, albeit too late, to deem our behavior wrong and attempt to ameliorate prior and ongoing damage.  Modern people have deliberately set aside large tracts of land for wilderness, and designated species endangered in an attempt to protect them.  Our ancestors thoughtlessly took until there was nothing left, and then resorted, when they could, to some other resource or location.
Shells aside, there is probably no finer illustration of the phenomenon I am describing than to trace the use of feathers.  Recently my daughter informed me with a fine sense of outrage that down comforters and pillows are an evil indulgence, because the feathers are cruelly yanked from living geese and ducks.  I checked and unfortunately, she’s right.  But this atrocity isn’t an invention of contemporary manufacturing.  It has been a world-wide habit.  Nobody can know how long ago it started, because it began before records were kept.
The following is some history from BirdLife International.  It may seem a tedious recounting, but I feel like it is important to acknowledge the scale and ubiquity of the carnage, to honor the unique and dazzling creatures we have mercilessly exploited for tens of thousands of years.
“Feathers have always been part of human self-adornment, betokening status, wealth, vitality, ardour and defiance (Diamond 1986). Across the world, tribal peoples had used the most colourful and extravagant plumes of the birds they hunted to decorate themselves. Zulus once wore turaco feathers as headdresses. The King of Swaziland and traditional Masai men still do. In West Africa, a porcupine quill and red flight feather from Bannerman’s Turaco in a man’s black hat indicate his position as a traditional council member.”
“In the Palas valley in northern Pakistan, people wear the colourful plumes of the near-endemic Western Tragopan  in their caps. In Borneo the tail-feathers of the largest hornbills are used in ceremonial dances and rituals. In New Guinea the birds of paradise were (and again still are) the chief targets, and dried skins were used in trade as far east as mainland South-East Asia and as long ago as 3000 BC; but cassowaries are used more completely—their feathers used in ceremonial headdresses, their bare quills carved into nose-pins and ear-rings, their leg-bones fashioned into implements and their sharp claws fitted to arrow-tips (on top of all this, they furnish a spectacular amount of food).”
“In New Caledonia, Kagu feathers were used in the war headdresses of chiefs, and their calls mimicked in war-dances. Polynesians trapped Red-tailed Tropicbird on the nest, plucked their long red streamers to wear in their hair or nose, and—with admirable self-restraint and forethought—let the birds go.
“Rulers in Hawaii made capes out of now-extinct drepanid finches, and probably contributed heavily to their demise: the ceremonial cloak made for Kamehameha, the first king of all the islands, is composed—to the most exacting of standards and to memorised incantatory rituals—of nearly half a million yellow feathers from an estimated 80,000 birds belonging to one species, the Hawaiian Mamo.”
“In North America the feathers of the Bald Eagle formed the almost legendary headdresses of native Indians, but they also made necklaces and tiaras from the feathers of Red-headed Woodpecker, quails and hummingbirds, with one surviving cape being made entirely of the red head-plumes of Acorn Woodpeckers, several thousands of which would have been needed for the purpose. In Central America, the extraordinary blue-green iridescent snaking back-plumes of the Resplendent Quetzal were woven into royal gowns; besides quetzal plumes, the gown belonging to the Aztec king Moctezuma had many hundreds of trochilid feathers, interspersed with tiny platelets of gold.”
“In South America, many kinds of exquisite feathers were used by native tribes, notably from cotingas, hummingbirds, toucans and parrots: certain tribes made headdresses from the wings of the Hyacinth Macaw, and the Emperors of Brazil had cloaks made from Channel-billed Toucan plumes and mantles made of Guianan Cock-of-the-rock feathers.”
“At the height of the Aztec empire, five provinces which contained cloud-forest were compelled to furnish tributes in the form of as many as 2,480 “bunches” or “handfuls” of mostly tail-streamers from Resplendent Quetzals. If it is assumed that each “handful” contained 10–50 such feathers (four from each bird), this would have meant a harvest of 6,200–31,000 Resplendent Quetzals per year! Even if the lives of the birds were spared (and despite the edict of death on those who killed them, it seems inevitable that a large proportion might have been seriously injured in the capture/plucking process), the figure is still astonishing, and indicates that the species must have been very much more abundant in pre-Columbian times than it is today.”
Elsewhere I learned that Plains Indians obtained feathers for their war bonnets by capturing young eagles from the nest.  Once the bird reached maturity they could pluck tail feathers three times, until they no longer grew back, yielding a total of thirty-six feathers.  The same nest could be raided annually.  I could find no information on the fate of the thrice-plucked birds that could no longer fly but I doubt it was auspicious.
Feathers are still somewhat popular, but nothing today approaches the absolute mania around the turn of the 20th century for exotic feathers - to adorn hats, as well as for fans and other accessories.
For that history a wonderful resource can be found at a blog that highlights a traveling museum exhibit, titled “Fashioning Feathers”, which was a collaboration between several artists and scholars.
That global massacre was only possible because indigenous people were already skilled at trapping or killing birds to obtain their feathers.  The hunt for bird of paradise plumage in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and New Guinea was described in 1869 by naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace, who, like Darwin - to whom he proposed the concept of natural selection  - was searching for the origin of species.  Over eight years he traveled 14,000 miles collecting 125,660 specimens, mainly insects but also birds, plants and animals.   Following is an excerpt from the book that chronicled his findings, “The Malay Archipelago: The Land of the Orang-utang and the Bird of Paradise”:
“…the males assemble early in the morning to exhibit themselves in the singular manner already described…This habit enables the natives to obtain specimens with comparative ease. As soon as they find that the birds have fled upon a tree on which to assemble, they build a little shelter of palm leaves in a convenient place among the branches, and the hunter ensconces himself in it before daylight, armed with his bow and a number of arrows terminating in a round knob. A boy waits at the foot of the tree, and when the birds come at sunrise, and a sufficient number have assembled, and have begun to dance, the hunter shoots with his blunt arrow so strongly as to stun the bird, which drops down, and is secured and killed by the boy without its plumage being injured by a drop of blood. The rest take no notice, and fall one after another till some of them take the alarm…The indigenous mode of preserving them is to cut off the wings and feet, and then skin the body up to the beak, taking out the skull. A stout stick is then run up through the specimen coming out at the mouth.”

I’ve put an etching from the book of that scene on my blog, Wit’s End ~
The website describes the extent of the “harvest”.  The market was worldwide, but the industry centered in the UK:

“At the height of the ‘Plume Boom’ in the early part of the 20th century the business of killing birds for the millinery trade was practiced on a large scale, involving the deaths of hundreds of millions of birds in many parts of the world…around 1901-1910, 14,362,000 pounds of exotic feathers were imported into the United Kingdom at a total valuation of £19, 923, 000…The overwhelming majority of egret plumes (at their finest during the breeding season) were obtained by shooting the birds as they nested, with the inevitable result that the young slowly starved to death.”
Eventually the obscene carnage inspired protest, leading to the formation of the first Audubon Societies and legislation in the US and UK protecting wild birds.

And so we read on the website:  “W. H. Hudson, a representative of the Society for the Protection of Birds (SPB,) recoiled with horror as he witnessed the sale of 80,000 parrot and 1,700 Bird of Paradise skins late in 1897:  Spread out in Trafalgar Square they would have covered a large proportion of that space with a grass-green carpet, flecked with vivid purple, rose and scarlet.”
It also quotes W. T. Hornaday, author of Our Vanishing Wildlife, published in 1913.

“From the trackless jungles of New Guinea, round the world both ways to the snow-capped peaks of the Andes, no unprotected bird is safe. The humming-birds of Brazil, the egrets of the world at large, the rare birds of paradise, the toucan, the eagle, the condor and the emu, all are being exterminated to swell the annual profits of the millinery trade. The case is far more serious than the world at large knows, or even suspects. But for the profits, the birds would be safe; and no unprotected wild species can long escape the hounds of Commerce.”

But it was not noble efforts at conservation that finally spared surviving species.  A sad footnote records the reason that millionaire ostrich farmers in Australia lost their mansions, some driven to suicide by the bubble collapse:
“Yet, as absurd as it may sound, it was really a fashionable new hairstyle that ultimately saved the birds. In 1913, the bob and other short hairstyles were introduced—cuts which would not support large extravagant hats. Plain slouch hats and ‘cloches’ became very popular, and it was for this reason that most plume-hunters were forced to abandon their trade.”
Feathers have been symbols of eternal life, ascension, and wisdom in many cultures.  An inscription on a Egyptian tomb from nearly 3500 years ago is translated “May I walk every day unceasing on the banks of my water, may my soul rest on the branches of the trees which I have planted, may I refresh myself in the shadow of my sycamore.”  But in those days, it was believed that after death, the Goddess Ma’at would weigh the purity of a soul’s heart, and only those lighter than the white feather of truth would reach the afterlife.

One of Emily Dickinson’s most beloved poems begins with the line, “Hope” is the thing with feathers - that perches in the soul.
It was very disappointing to me to find that so many reviews, even very sophisticated critiques, take it to be a childlike affirmation of the value of hope in the human experience.   Almost without exception readers depict her portrayal of hope as sentimental, if not saccharin trope.  But, it seems to me that her self-imposed exile from society was at least partly related to her refusal to accede to the strong familial pressure to accept the religious fervor of her time.  She eschewed hope and eternal salvation through a deity in favor of a devout pagan worship of nature, and instead embraced a stubborn delight in the natural world, and a felicitous desire to experience life as it is.   As a subtle but profound sense of irony wends through her oeuvre, and a playful mockery of dogmatism, I imagine her reflection on “Hope” was intended to be sardonic.  When it is unrealistic, which it so often is, hope is an inescapable, stifling trap that humanity can never escape - and I suspect that Emily was shrewd enough to know that.
I thought I was alone in this interpretation until finally I came across author Derek Murphy, who wrote the following on his unique and intriguing blog, Holy Blasphemy:  “Emily Dickinson strikes me very much like Camus’ character in The Stranger. Facing death for murder, a preacher comes to save him, and he yells, “leave me alone! I don’t have much time left, I want to focus on this life, not the next!” (Or something like that, I’m paraphrasing and it’s been awhile since I’ve read it.) A common mistake is to take each of her poems separately and tug out a stand-alone meaning. In this way the body of work Emily produced can mean anything to anybody. But taken at face value, and read collectively, Emily’s anti-organized religion stance and outspoken blasphemy is clear.”

I will leave a link to that post with the only others I located that venture into the darker side of Dickinson, on my blog for anyone interested to read more.  Thanks for listening to this Dispatch from the Endocene.


snails

nautilus shells


funny - appropriating native headressess


BirdLife International:
quetzetl, Aztec:  

Museum Exhibit on feathers:


photos:  https://www.pinterest.com/thefeatherplace/vintage-feathers/

more on Emily:

A 2010 post from me, about Emily Dickinson and her poems about the garden and nature:
http://witsendnj.blogspot.com/2010/06/emily-dickinson-and-language-of-flowers.html





          Now Open! Rhodes Trust Scholarships for African/International Students at University of Oxford 2018        

The Rhodes Trust offers Postgraduate Scholarship Program for international students from select countries including Africans, to study at University of Oxford (See country list below).

Application Deadlines:

  • Kenya: 31st August, 2017
  • Southern Africa (including Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia and Swaziland): 15th August,
 » Continue reading about: Now Open! Rhodes Trust Scholarships for African/International Students at University of Oxford 2018  »
          Can Africans get along (with each other that is)?        
My beloved mother, God bless her, raised me as a World citizen. Regardless of whether she always abided by this herself, she made a point of inculcating in me the fact that all humans were created equal in rights, duties and worth, and that differences between humans were to be treated as a common wealth, because the exploration of those differences was what would ultimately bond us together. Hence I grew up with people I called uncle and aunt and cousin (very close-friends of my parents, and their children), who were black, white, brown, yellow, green, blue... you get the picture. So it really never occured to me until... about High-school that there was such a big problem with race.

What I knew however, were the problems between Africans, and differnt ethnic groups in Congo. And that was also interesting because my mother, God bless her, also inculcated me with a love and loyalty to Congo as a whole, and a very strong sense of panafricanism. Yet, I could always - and can - sense was/is some of the disdain by Congolese people, for the West Africans, which were nicknamed "waras" (in refernce tothe fact that many of them are Muslim, using the term "Wal'lahi" to say "I swear to God"). I could sense the issues between the Hutus and the Tutsi (and we saw where that ended). I have seen the clivages between French-Speaking and English-Speaking Africans, between light-skinned/mixed Africans and darker ones, between Igbos and Yorubas, Balubakats and other Katangans, Mbutis abd bantus, Muslims and Christians (and animists) in Nigeria, Ivory Coast; And later on, yes, between White and Black Africans. One often wonders whether these multiple - often VERY artificially created - will ever allow Africans to prosper harmoniously. For someone with my Panafricanism, it is often really... depressing!!!

But then, you have those moments that just re-energize me, and give me more hope for the motherland. 5 years ago, while I was a sophomore student at Earlham College, I initiated - at the request of the elder Africans on campus - the "Pan African Society at Earlham" (PASE), to unite the very few Africans, Afro-Carribeans, potentially African-Americans, and friends of Africa from other continents, on campus. PASE started-off great, with a lot of optimism, and bright ideals. But in the following years, those petty, artificial divisions - as well as some interpersonal misunderstandings - made the group go to the deep end. I was worried that after I graduated, the group would simply... disappear. Well it did NOT!! In fact, they kept going, with the organization of "Africa Fest" (Earlham's African Festival) last year, despite the straining tensions that internal disagreements were creating.

And this year, the young PASE members have outdone themselves, with a nearly flawless Africa Fest, with great advertising, and a cohesive, communal and harmonious organization that would shame even the African Union. I was impressed to see the joy and the smiles on the faces of all these students, from Zimbabwe, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Lesotho, Swaziland, Sudan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Liberia, Haiti, Jamaica, Fiji and the United States (and Congo, with me), all working together without unnecessary complaints, and annoying noises, and useless bickering... all working - even those that were not of African descent - for the motherland to be represented with dignity and quality - at least to the best of their ability. This are the small initiatives that give me hope in the future. If these students represent what the future of Africa and the world will be made of, I have hope. The synergy they displayed was a delight to watch, and observe, and participate in, and it was resounding rejection of all the apocalyptic views of Africa and its prospects.

The current PASE members and all their friends lead me to state boldly: Africans can - and WILL - get along, when given the chance. There are forces intent on us never getting that chance. Let them be warned: Their final hour is not far! Let those that have ears...

Bayete PASE!! Longonya na Afrika!!


                  

          University A Capella Shares Music with South Africa        

After three weeks of singing, dancing, praying, and sight-seeing, the University A Cappella is back in the United States from an international tour of South Africa May 7–27, 2017.

“This place has been on our hearts and minds for more than two years,” said Dr. Kurt von Kampen, conductor. “We didn’t know what God had in store for us but we were prepared to serve Him through our singing and interactions with the people of South Africa. It was hard to leave a country we've come to love. The people were kind, humble and gracious.”

The internationally acclaimed choir performed concerts at churches and schools in eight cities on their 20-day tour. Concert sites include Atlanta, Georgia, Johannesburg, Middelburg, Kruger, Swaziland, St. Lucia, Durban, Lesotho and Pretoria.

During their travels, they were able to experience safaris and tour the city of Durban, as well as visit the Nelson Mandela museum. They also performed with a Swazi Tribal Choir and visited Krueger National Park.

“Seeing the students’ world view expand right before my eyes was the most fulfilling part of the tour,” said von Kampen. “Their ability to share music back-and-forth with the South Africans and the care they took was most satisfying.”

Because of the unique style of the South Africans, the choir seldom performed complete concerts as they are accustomed to in the United States. They would begin a concert and after a few songs, someone would shout out a call and there would be a response from the audience with a refrain. Then a soloist would begin another section – all in their native Zulu. The natives would then begin dancing in the aisles while pulling the students in and teaching them the verses and dances.

The students adapted quickly, picking up on the verses and bits of the language while also sharing their own blessings and benedictions.

“Like most trips, it's easy to wonder how the time flew by so quickly,” von Kampen said. “One thing that will always stick with us is the incredibly warm reception we have enjoyed at each stop along the way. I suspect there will always be a part of each of us that will remain in Africa.” 


          Concordia University's A Cappella Choir to perform throughout South Africa        
The University A Cappella Choir from Concordia University, Nebraska will travel to South Africa for its international tour May 7–27, 2017. The University A Cappella Choir from Concordia University, Nebraska will travel to South Africa for its international tour May 7–27, 2017.

The University A Cappella Choir from Concordia University, Nebraska, will travel to South Africa for its international tour May 7–27, 2017. The 74 voice choir was auditioned to get the number of students to 44, which is the optimum number to travel with internationally.

“This place has been on our hearts and minds for more than two years,” said Dr. Kurt von Kampen, conductor. “We don’t know what God has in store for us but we are prepared to serve Him through our singing and interactions with the people of South Africa. We know that will be blessed as much as those who come to hear us perform.”

The internationally acclaimed choir will perform concerts at churches and schools in eight cities on their 20-day tour. Concert sites include Atlanta, Georgia, Johannesburg, Middelburg, Kruger, Swaziland, St. Lucia, Durban, Lesotho and Pretoria.

During their travels, the choir will get to experience a safari and tour the city of Durban, as well as visit the Nelson Mandela museum. They will also get to perform with a Swazi Tribal Choir and visit Krueger National Park.

The choir performs full-length concerts, high school assemblies and church worship services.  The repertoire of sacred and secular choral compositions spans all historical periods and is representative of many cultures. This year’s concert features the works of Paul Manz, Johann Sebastian Bach, Franics Poulenc, Austin Theriot, Robert Shaw and Alice Parker, among others. 

The A Cappella Choir has toured the U.S. each year and internationally approximately every four years since its inception in 1939, performing throughout Europe, the Middle East, Australia, Asia and Mexico. It also has participated in international choral festivals in Australia and Austria, placing first and third respectively while under the direction of Dr. von Kampen.

Von Kampen earned a bachelor’s degree in music from Concordia University, Nebraska, a master’s degree in choral conducting from Oakland University and a doctorate in choral music education from the University of Nebraska.

Members of the A Cappella Choir traveling to South Africa include:

SOPRANO I

  • Vanessa Marsh, sophomore, Concordia, Mo.
    • B.A. Music and Communication
  • Kayleah Moravec, sophomore, Seward, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology (Pre-Med)
  • Emily Sievert, junior, Frankenmuth, Mich.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) English, Music Minor
  • Meredith Locke, junior, Winter Haven, Fla.
    • B.A. Music, Performance

SOPRANO II

  • Corrianne Cain, freshman, Cedarburg, Wis.
    • B.S. Education (Middle/Secondary) LTD
  • Sarah Krause, junior, Rockford Ill.
    • B.S. Education (Elementary), B.A. Music; violin
  • Sarah Mueller, sophomore, Hemlock, Mich.
    • B.A. Theology, Psychology, Behavioral Sciences
  • Mallory Parrish, junior, Auburn, Neb.
    • B.S. Business Administration, B.S. Business Communications
  • Paige Stadler, sophomore, Columbus, Neb.
    • B. Mus. Music Education
  • Lauren Wilcox, junior, Seward, Neb.
    • B.S. Education (Elementary)

ALTO I

  • Kaitlyn Christensen, sophomore, Kenosha, Wis.
    • B.Mus. Vocal Music Education, LTD
  • Hannah Davis, sophomore, Coon Rapids, Minn.
    • B.S. Education (Early Childhood), LTD
  • Emily Jensen, senior, Sioux City, Iowa
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) Vocal Music; Drama
  • Emily Kollbaum, senior, Concordia, Mo.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) Theatre, English
  • Jennifer Reynolds, senior, Ft. Wayne, Ind.
    • B. Mus. Music Education
  • Clara Rich, senior, Lincoln, Neb.
    • B.A. Music, B.S. Biology
  • Ann Spilker, Junior, Ashland, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology (Organismal)

ALTO II

  • Emma Gremmer, sophomore, New Braunfels, Texas
    • B.S. Accounting
  • Laura Hedstrom, junior, Lakefield, Minn.
    • B.Mus. Church Music
  • Sophie Hoelz, freshman, Milwaukee, Wis.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) Spanish
  • Audrey Rich, sophomore, Lincoln, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology, B.A. Psychology
  • Megan Sparling, senior, Columbus, Neb.
    • B.A. Music; Business Minor

TENOR I

  • Albert Boldt, sophomore, Hewitt, Minn.
    • B.A. Music; Vocal Performance
  • Matthew Gerhold, sophomore, Atkins, Iowa
    • B.Mus. Vocal Music Education, LTD
  • Nathanael Patron, sophomore, North Newton, Kan.
    • B.A. Biology: Optometry
  • Jeramy Willis, junior, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
    • B.A. Psychology, CEL, DCE

TENOR II

  • David Dieckhoff, sophomore, Seward, Neb.
    • B.A. Physics
  • Micah Holten, junior, Nicollet, Minn.
    • B.M. Church Music
  • Micah Most, sophomore, Ogallala, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology/Chemistry, Pre-Veterinary
  • Jonathan Rippe, sophomore, Gretna, Neb.
    • B.A. Music; Psychology and Accounting Minors

BASS I

  • Isaiah Armbrecht, sophomore, Williamsburg, Iowa
    • B.A. History, Pre-Seminary
  • Joshua Brumm, sophomore, Seward, Neb.
    • B.A. Theology, DCE
  • Jacob Fink, junior, Long Beach, Calif.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary), History and Theology
  • Jacob Henson, junior, Herrin, Ill.
    • B.S. Computer Science; B.A. Music
  • Brandon Holmes, freshman, Waconia, Minn.
    • B.Mus. Music Education
  • Alex Kaldahl, freshman, Spencer, Iowa
    • B.S. Education (Secondary)
  • Mason Koeritz, senior, Northrop, Minn.
    • B.A. Music, B.S. Chemistry
  • Benjamin Leeper, junior, Denver, Colo.
    • B.A. Theater, Communications; Pre-Seminary

BASS II

  • Cameron Christiansen, senior, Palmer, Ala.
    • B.A. Psychology and Behavioral Science
  • Tyler Miles, senior, Omaha, Neb.
    • B.A. Psychology, CEL
  • Timothy Rasch, sophomore, Jos, Nigeria
    • B.S. Math, Computer Science
  • Aaron Strackbein, junior, San Antonio, Texas
    • B.A. Theology, DCE
  • Austin Theriot, junior, Lake Charles, La.
    • B.M. Church Music
  • Caleb Worral, junior, Fargo, N.D.
    • B.A. English, Pre-Seminary

          Rich pickings for travelling teams        

Kenya, Niger, Botswana and Swaziland were among the big winners over the weekend in CAF qualifying for Russia 2018 as the first round heads into the second leg this week.


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          Expectantly planning for the unknown         
I look at things sometimes and wonder why I love to over complicate things...?

Other times I wonder why I make things so simple it almost lacks beauty....

Some days its a test of my brain and hands....

Some days its me being lazy or procrastinating....

Either way for some reason it seems to work and I don't ask why....



I needed a vacation because I have been hammering non stop on projects this would be my first vacation since the week before at Autodesk University ! ha really its all work but I love my work....


For my break over Christmas and New Years I decided to help a friend on his newest project.. My buddy Greg Minnaar ( known as the fastest dude on a downhill Mountain bike with a stack of world champs to prove it) has 2 bikes shops now in his home town of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

One of the shop locations a existing bike shop business his parents have run for 20 plus years and the other shop dealing with high end stuff being brand new that just opened up about 4 months ago near the base of the mountain bike world cup track ( perfect location for high end riders)

First class style... AKA using up miles...
I went to London for a day to party then off to South Africa 

The project Greg had me come to South Africa was to add some new style to the new high end shop and make those expensive mountain bikes look fancy and well displayed without making it a pain to access them or causing a risk of them falling over.
Arriving for my first cup of coffee at the new shop... as you can see in the background it was a bit bland
It was opened in a flash because of World Cup races so little was done on displays because it almost didn't even get opened during the race weekend.

The trip was almost a month exactly from mid Decemeber until Mid January and having never seen the shop it was kind of a freestyle mission of what I was going to come up with. I had a slight idea what I wanted to build but it was far from being locked in.

Christmas was cool in South Africa, just like the good old USA they eat a ton of food and wait for the fat dude to slide down the smoke stack and dump presents under some sort of tree.... I didn't feel out of place at the Minnaar family party as well, between the crazy aunt telling stories and everyone drinking beers it wasn't far off from my family.

New Years was really cool and we traveled up the coast towards the north eastern part of South Africa on the boarder of Swaziland, where we stayed for a week on a Rhino Reserve and game park called Hluhluwe. The place blows your mind and seeing how hard it is to protect the animals from poachers and just the day to day life is pretty crazy.

Either heart racing and almost scary to extremely dull.... but nothing really in the middle !
This place the game rangers had built up for themselves and others was so cool...
Perfect place to go hide and just think

Even had a visitor on New Years day!
Good luck !
I can't say I was not enjoying it but 
when you want to get your hand dirty and your far from the shop, 
you start to get a little crazy...

 I hadn't really spent any time at the shop looking at what I was going to build, I had some ideas in my head but I just needed to get back to really get rolling on it. 

People always ask me if I just sit around and dream up ideas.... I wish... I am a person that really needs to have something in front of me and sometimes a problem, if its not there in front of me or I am not dealing with an issue or on a mission my brain thinks theres nothing wrong, anything to do or change

I wish I had that ability to sit and look out in the horizon and dream up things that have never been even thought of with nothing to base them off of... that person is truly a special person and if they have the ability to make those things in their head a reality they are truly a unique creature that is extremely lucky.

Once we returned to the shop after all the holiday fun, it was time to work
about a week left in my trip..
I had some sort of idea to do something using all the fallen trees in the back yard of the shop
So, I just started cutting, my Minnesota heritage came out with my grace on the chainsaw.
I can't say I carved any bears or eagles but I handled doing the cutting.
I started thinking about the style of water pipes because its kinda like welding doing all the fit up and connections but without all the tools that I required, 

This was one of my early prototypes to show Greg's world Champ Santa Cruz bikes.

Some true mountain biking history sitting on those finely chainsawed logs... 
With that idea it was back on the scooter down to the water pipe store called Valverite in Pietermaritzburg and the man John behind the counter... 

If he reads this he will remember the long lost faces I made as I mentally cut and tread the pipes in my head and assembled the in my brain and then as if possessed by demented plummer I yell---

quantity 12 of 240mm threaded both ends 25mm..
quantity 54 threaded 75 mm nipples 
quantity 11 of 2000 threaded both end 32 mm pipe
and on and on as his pen runs out of ink...
Sorry John... we did it but it sucked...

These were the next displays I designed and built
The little aluminum rocker wheel holders I made in the USA and flew with them but didn't know how I was going to use them or where I would use them... I designed the geometry of that rocker for another company to use and found that it works really well so I just made a whole bunch of them at my shop in Oakland before leaving. 
This was using the 32mm water pipe and logs I cut down in the back yard 
The main thing with these displays was to keep the bikes neat and in order but also not to tight that you couldn't really see the high end bikes...
With the main focus on expensive bikes being in the back, the other plus is that the most expensive bike don't get messed with and adding to the risk of damage. 

I did a bunch of displays in different sizes and really focused on the racks and displays for products using the water pipes and flanges with wood. 
Really simple really neat looking...
I can't wait to see once all the other stuff on the walls is all adjusted for the new layout what the shop will look like. 
Over all it went super quick like under a few days to hammer out everything...
Put my first MLS stamp on it that says....


Met some really cool people in South Africa and even got met at the Johannesburg airport during one of my layovers on my return back home, one of them was a dude named Dylan - 4 year MLS blog follower/master mind RC airplane builder/R&D wild man and we burned away some hours drinking beers at the airport and chattin about building. Perfect way to get back on the plane...
 Hammered and lighter due to the unloading of MLS t-shirts on Dylan for himself and his buddies. 

 Greg took this picture because he wanted to make fun of me for taking back scrap from Waynes Scrap metal in South Africa.... "Dude thats a perfectly good cast hand wheel... You don't get it..." 
I not only told him that a few times but also airport security all the way across the world... 


Remember you don't always need to weld to build neat stuff...
You can do it with water pipe !
I can't believe I said that..
I take that back ... ok its pretty neat maybe half credit


 Back to the good old RED WHITE AND BLUE  USA ...
Enjoy... 










          ZIMBABWE'S PROBLEMS EXAGGERATED????? by MUTUMWA MAWERE!        
LINK!!!!!!!!

Zimbabwe problems exaggerated



Mon, 20 Aug 2007 00:05:00


The SADC Chairman, Zambian President Levy Mwanawasa, summed up the position of the regional grouping's political leadership on Zimbabwe at last week's summit by saying: "We also feel that the problems in Zimbabwe have been exaggerated. We feel they will solve their economic problems."

The summit provided a unique forum for leaders of SADC and their social partners to explore some of the most pressing issues of the day and Zimbabwe was one such issue.  The position taken at the summit on Zimbabwe is reflection of a widely held view that the root cause of the political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe is the unresolved colonially generated asset ownership structure. 
 
It is evident that there is consensus among many African leaders that issues related to economic democracy in the continent necessarily attracts a negative response from the former colonial masters and their alleged puppets. 
 
To this end, if one accepts that the root cause of the Zimbabwean crisis is the position taken by Mugabe to democratise land ownership, then the Zimbabwean crisis with attendant targeted sanctions is seen as a necessary price to pay for the complete emancipation of the country.
 
Mugabe's views are shared by many in Africa and the developing world for different reasons.  They argue that anyone who takes a fight against Anglo American hegemony can never be wrong and, if anything, he deserves support. 
 
People, who believe in pan-Africanism, see in Mugabe the fighting spirit that is missing in many post-colonial states that still face the challenge of eradicating the enduring economic legacies of colonialism. 
 
The standing ovation Mugabe received in Lusaka is no different from the treatment he has enjoyed at many conferences.  In fact, the only thing that seems to unite Mwanawasa and his political nemesis, Michael Sata, is their common and shared position on the origins of the Zimbabwean crisis.
 
The success of the Lusaka summit in the eyes of Harare demonstrates that the message from Zimbabwe's opposition has failed to resonate with Africa's critical players. 
 
This raises the following questions: "Is the Zimbabwean opposition misinformed or misdirected?  To the extent that the opposition believes that Mugabe is the problem, why is it that they seem to fail to communicate this?  If Zimbabwe faces a leadership crisis, does SADC have any locus to intervene let alone pronounce an opinion?
 
If there is a common theme that characterises the Zimbabwean crisis, it is leadership: what constitutes good leadership, how (and, indeed, whether) the lack of it is responsible for the Zimbabwean crisis, what criteria should be applied when assessing it in the context of a post-colonial state. 
What should be the role of the opposition and how should citizens weigh the various indicators – from maximising national wealth (poverty eradication) to brand-building and longer term considerations such as nation building?
 
And given the emergence of China, India, UAE and other nations as global players and the pace of globalisation, can one expect to apply one set of criteria to what makes for good leadership in very different cultural contexts? 
 
Anglo-Saxon models have dominated the theory and practice of leadership for so long that it may be difficult to accept that other models may be relevant and appropriate.
 
When there remains immense differences of perceived leadership qualities between Africans and Anglo Americans, how much do we as Africans have to start investing in understanding this important variable in nation building?  Does Africa need democracy to progress?  If so, what kind of leadership should it have?  What interests ought to inform it?
 
It is more than 27 years since Zimbabwe became an independent and sovereign state.  It is salutary, looking back, to remember the illusions which were commonplace at the time. 
 
Some Zimbabweans believed that independence accompanied by eloquent speeches about how Europe underdeveloped Africa would quickly solve the country's problems. 
 
In the West, the grant of an Anglo Saxon type of constitution was considered as a necessary and sufficient condition by itself to institutionalise a functioning constitutional democracy underpinned by a scrupulous respect of the Rule of Law, human rights, accountability and transparency. 
 
The euphoria that characterised the independence atmosphere in Zimbabwe was well founded in Mugabe's reconciliatory speeches and approach to nation building. 
 
Many were convinced that a new dawn had visited Zimbabwe and the country had the leadership it deserved to rid itself of the negative vestiges of colonialism.  That was then and now the illusions have largely evaporated. 
 
Zimbabwe under Mugabe has lived through some challenges from the construction of a post-colonial dispensation in which all citizens were allowed to assert their sovereign right to makes laws and regulate their lives as they wish to the well acknowledged investment in the social and physical infrastructure of the country using a small tax base inherited from the colonial state. 
 
Regrettably the post colonial state did not address issues related to the democratisation of the economy resulting in the current state of affairs where the population has grown accompanied by a decaying national economy.
 
The financing of the post-colonial state investments was largely done from borrowed sources and not from taxes.  Any rational leader would have known that the relationship between the state, the protector of collective interests and the market, the protector of individual interests, is critical for economic growth.  In assessing whether Mugabe has been a good leader for Zimbabwe, one has to look at how his administration has balanced the interests of the market with that of the state. 
 
The failure of the post-colonial economic model was already evident in the late 1980s to the extent that the IMF, ordinarily a fire brigade, was invited by none other than Mugabe to intervene with balance of payments support. 
 
The Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP) or euphemistically referred to as The Extended Suffering of African People was adopted and implemented not by the opposition but by a ZANU-PF government.  The program was abandoned by the government of Zimbabwe because the hard policy choices that needed to be made could not find leaders with the courage to make them. 
 
While the SADC leaders have accepted that targeted economic sanctions have a causal link with the Zimbabwean crisis, they surely must be aware that the economic objectives of growth for any nation must be harmonised with the objectives associated with the political order. 
 
The designing of growth strategies must necessarily include the promotion of factors that support the democratisation of society, the defence of sovereignty and the self determination of citizens. 
 
What is evident is that no growth strategy will succeed if it is underpinned by an ideology that is premised on the state as the referee and player. 
 
Yes, SADC may have endorsed the Zimbabwean rescue plan like the multilateral institutions have done in the past but the success of such plans have to deal with the leadership question without any equivocation. 
 
Anyone who thinks seriously about Africa and indeed Zimbabwe's future will value a conversation on the leadership question.  Can Mugabe reinvent himself and make the choices that he has failed to make over the last 27 years?  Is Mugabe's world view on issues of governance, rule of law, and leadership consistent with a view that is required for a progressive nation? 
 
Some have argued that when the Emperor is naked it is difficult for friends and foes to inform him.  Could any rational person have expected SADC leaders to tell Mugabe where the root cause of the Zimbabwean crisis is?  Does SADC have such a mandate anyway? 
 
What is evident to many and I am sure to Africa's leaders is that the course of nation building in Zimbabwe has encountered serious set backs.  Zimbabweans' hope for a free democratic existence as the background for stable national development has been dashed. 
 
Over and over as in many numerous other African states, civilian and military dictatorships accompanied by rampant abuse of human rights and the undermining of the Rule of Law leading to political chaos, have ushered in the darkest period in Zimbabwe's history.  Huge treasuries of material resources and opportunities for development have been dissipated.  And more worrying is that the current leadership does not seem to have what it takes to motivate citizens to recover sufficient strength to resume the fight to build a future for themselves (rather than worrying about daily existence) and their families. 
 
Morale is at its lowest in Zimbabwe for justifiable reasons.  A rescue package from SADC will not rescue the injury to the psyche of citizens who legitimately had a right to expect better from their leaders.  Will Mugabe's re-election next year change the climate of hopelessness that is evident in Zimbabwe?  Even if sanctions were lifted today, how would that address the leadership credibility issue? 
 
The 2008 elections have been dubbed the economic emancipation elections.  President Mugabe is convinced that a fresh mandate will allow him to use the state to empower the majority economically.  While this may be exciting news to the naïve, how is this going to be done against a background of a bankrupt state and economically vulnerable citizens?  Even if all the economic assets were transferred to the state/selected individuals, would that promote growth and prosperity?
 
Someone said a long time ago you cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong.  No government in the world has managed to come up with an instrument where the fear of being arrested induced favourable supply response. 
 
While the government of Zimbabwe may believe that arresting businesspersons will arrest inflation and restore economic order, I am not sure whether SADC leaders (who incidentally are not pursuing such policies in their own countries) seriously believe that Zimbabwe is a candidate for economic surgery. 
 
When Margaret Thatcher became big headed and a stumbling block to progress, the Conservative Party managed to remove her.  Equally, Tony Blair got the same medicine.  In Zimbabwe it appears that some people believe that only one man can solve the colonial injury however defined and that person has no obligation to explain how he will be able to implement the new ideas of empowerment when he has failed to do the same for agriculture. 
 
I believe that Mwanawasa may be cynically encouraging Mugabe to hang in there so that he can benefit from the contribution of Zimbabwean settler farmers.  If Mugabe goes, I have no doubt what is in Mwanawasa's mind about the sustainability of the agrarian revolution that is underpinned by Zimbabwean skills in his country.  Would the farmers elect to remain in Zambia or return to Zimbabwe?
 
Leadership plays a central role in managing perceptions.  Today Zimbabwe is less confident that it was 27 years ago.  It is now a confident member of the class of nations that can be classified as failed states.  The frightening economic indicators have escaped the attention of the SADC leaders. 
 
Apart from the expected anti-imperialist rhetoric, the current political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe is testament to wrong, irresponsible and backward looking policies and weak core values of democracy, freedom and the Rule of Law. 
 
Many democratic nations would find it difficult to trust a leader that has been at the helm of a crumbling state to continue experimenting with the nation building project.
 
While the world waits for signals that Zimbabweans will take ownership of their problems, the tragedy is that Zimbabweans expect change to come from without.  The message from the SADC summit is that only Zimbabwean leaders can lead and shape Zimbabwe. 
 
A committed and accountable leadership that is forward looking can find the world and indeed SADC a reliable partner in delivering a better future for Zimbabwe and its people. 
 
The world is anxiously waiting for Zimbabweans in general to have an opportunity to genuinely express their choice about who should govern them notwithstanding the privatisation of the state and implications thereof on freedom of choice.  The illusions of independence have been sufficiently exposed to allow Zimbabwean citizens to use the ballot as the instrument for change. 
 
In the final analysis the responsibility must lie with those who have dedicated their lives to the change agenda to demonstrate that bad leadership has a lot to do with the Zimbabwean crisis. 
 
Zimbabwe needs a smart system and not necessarily a smart leader.  History has shown that the risk of intelligent leaders taking their principals i.e. sovereign citizens for granted is higher if citizens fail to invest materially and otherwise in the change they want to see. 
 
Many who are critical of the opposition in Zimbabwe and its lack of leadership depth are the same people who are not willing to make a sacrifice to make Zimbabwe the country that it deserves to be. 
 
It is important to point out that while President Mwanawasa believes that the problems of Zimbabwe are exaggerated, President Mugabe has accepted that the titanic has sunk and it needs a rescue plan. 
 
Even the captain of the titanic has recognized that the status quo ante is no longer acceptable save for the fact that he wants to remain at the helm without a destination in mind. 
 
For any new captain to be credible he must demonstrate that he knows where compass is and at least it will not take another 27 years to discover that Zimbabwe was going nowhere slowly.  Finally they say that if you do not know where you are going any road takes you there.        

   
4.5 / 5 (6 Votes)

 
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Takuda ways of how to take zim out of its crisis
Varume vanyore timavo muzimbabwe but what we are lacking as a nation is people who can give us the direction on how to steer zim from its crisis. I call upon opposition to have unity of purpose and lets all dig deep to resolve our crisis. Those who were hoping on Sadc or Mbeki to help its clear that NO useful help will come from there. Hatibatanei every zimbo who wants a better future lets put aside all our differences and come up with ways to stop this excessive bleeding of our economy. Mawere in your next article give us suggestions on what we should do because everyone knows nyika yarohwa netsunami so we need all writers to put us on the right track to start discussing ways out of this fix.
Posted By akl , : Aug 20 2007 01:04 AM
We need new age freedom fighters
Guys what we need is new age freedom fighters. Mugabe and his gang when they were under supression they went to war. I call upon all zimbos to start strong movements to topple this ruthless and cruel regime. People in the diaspora now its our timw to regang and lets chat the way forward. Its clear that opposition in zim have no capacity because the ruthless secret agency are disabling their movements. Those in SA, UK, USA lets form movement gangs and seriously think what we should do next. At this rate i can bet you that Zanu is rigging next year's elections and they are not going out of office. Musha urikutsva time yekuswera tukana pano pamaforumn with no real substance being discussed is long gone. We need to meet outside these online forumns because we can not discuss any detail because we will just let the secret agents aware. Dont we have people who work in those governments offices who are MDC or opposition. We need to start talking with them to make the process to be transparent and make things work for the opposition's favour. Come on MT and AGO pull some strings on those government officials to make sure you get the best chance to topple Mugabe. Lets not just wait for Zanu to penetrate in opposition be on the offensive and start building relationships with election officials. You know most of these people who work right on the ground are suffering too and they want chnge as well so MDC's star to get those to work for you. Ndapedza
Posted By uae , : Aug 20 2007 01:17 AM
we have new age fighters
M mawere is one of these.I want him now to translate what he says into a movement. the man talks sense
Posted By mike pashata , oz : Aug 20 2007 03:44 AM
Shut up
Mutumwa just shut up and you who is talking about forming movement in uk,USA and SA you need to go back home stop kuwawata kwauri kuita the are lots of movements in zimbabwe
Posted By , : Aug 20 2007 03:54 AM
Mawere wabaya dede nemukanwa
Mawere pointedly identified our Zim problem.Armchair critics who attack MDC and yet expect ZANU to gift us our freedom.Do not expect SADC to fight for us.They do not have the mandate to critisise Mugabe.We Zimbos must take the next and only viable option :that is take up arms and fifgt Mugabe
Posted By Mbozha , Calgary,Canada : Aug 20 2007 03:55 AM
GONO
Yes tonobvumirana newe though uchiti Mutambara is out of the issue nokuti akadzidza but l think you are repeating what Mutambara had been saying kubva paaka pinda mupolitics achiti iye Mbeki is bonus to our crisis the solution iri matiri ma zimbos.I respect your opinion of smart leaders can you tell us how smart are those vasina kudzidza vacho nokuti kuzoitika kwatika problem iri ku oposition kune vamwe vaiti so and so they are not smart saka if you no some one who is smart tell us and we will rally behind smart people.I remember sometime ago FORMER UK PM JOHN MAJOR vakamboti kudzidza hakuna basa chatinoda kukurumidza kufunga chete asi hazvina kuvatorera kunga kuti vabviswe.Iwewe you are able to do that analysis nokuti wakadzidza so l dont belieave kuti kudzidza hakuna basa . A nd l think that is the reason why opposition yedu ichitora nguva kubvisa mugabe when he is commiting political suicide everyday and gettting away with it.
Posted By fio , fio zim : Aug 20 2007 05:46 AM
Mawere and all writers
For the sake of the many misinformed people out there,in one of your articles may you draw a graph with time(years) on the x-axis and inflation on the y-axis.Highlight on that graph the introduction of ESAP,DRC war,war vets $50 000 rewards,land reform,targeted sanctions,POSA/AIPPA,Gideon Gono etc.That will go a long way in educating people how Mugabe has failed
Posted By BetterZim , : Aug 20 2007 06:18 AM
mawere cannot go back to zimbabwe
mawere cannot go back to zimbabwe - he carries a south african passport & so cannot live in zimbabwe - he would have to complete a tax return if he went back to zimbabwe & pay some tax which he appears reluctant to do - or talk about and finally gideon (triple zero tea man)gono would like to talk to him about a few alleged exchange control matters - like not remitting export proceeds back to him (gideon ) in time !! ??
Posted By tommy taxman , harare zimbabwe : Aug 20 2007 06:41 AM
MAWERE
VERY GOOD ANALYSIS OF ZIMBABWE'S SITUATION FROM MAWERE. SUCH ARE THE ANALITICAL BRAINS WE WANT IN ZIMBABWE. NOT THE MIOPIC MANHERU'S AND THE CREW.
Posted By NESHITO NESHITO , HARARE ZIMBABWE : Aug 20 2007 07:23 AM
zimbabwe's problems and sadc
honest if anyone has been to zambia what do you expect them to think of zimbabwe?zambia with decades of independence before zimbabwe has refused to develop beyond what kaunda inherited.apa ndiri kutaura development capital development kwete zvokunzi panga pana buyatinapangana stores pava nashoprite.there is nothing happening in zambia and their literacy rate is 83% compared to zimbabwe's 91%.other economic indicators besides inflation are just as comparable. the same applies tunyika twaakaita sana malawi mocambique and the namibias.they have practically an illiterate citizenry copared to zim.schools in most of those countries are more miles away from the pupils than zimbabwe.zambia still has just the university of zambia and the university of copperbelt.compare that with zimbabwe's unis.the zambian infrastructure is so run down you would aptly call it the zambian ruins. south africa the giant of southern africa has an infrastracture deficience itself.some of the houses people live in are nothing compared to zim.true me and you as zimbabweans certainly understand the extent of our suffering.this is because we have never experienced any worse.our neighbours on the other hand have always known deep rooted suffering.while i would wish to work in botswana or south africa and earn their strong currences and advance myself maybe, but on the other hand i am not surprised by their view that zimbabwe is ok.in malawi some towns water is available from an individual supplier with his own borehole for a fee.whats that?this century a nation is failing to put water into its people's taps.talking of rights is another area these rogue africans would rather they dont say a thing.in this era batswana still believe in whipping criminals at a kangaroo court.many other countries like namibia south africa mocambique tanzania congo angola swaziland have unimagineable rights abuses.the girl child issues in swaziland are a can of worms .the township justice of south africa is shamefully evil.the criminal delivery system of tanzania and namibia is grossly non compliant with human rights laws.angola and drc can as well have no legal system.mocambique abuses prisoners.saka vangati chii chaizvo kana vakatarisa zimbabwe.its like being asked to accuse the face you see evrytime you look into the mirror.
Posted By jongwe remhashu , masvingo : Aug 20 2007 07:36 AM
In the words of Mahatma Ghandi
In the words of Mahatma Ghandi, "the roots of violence and underdevelopment are a result of wealth without work, pleasure without conscience, knowledge without character, commerce without morality, science without humanity, worship without sacrifice and politics without principles"
Posted By Taneta , RSA : Aug 20 2007 08:01 AM
REALISTIC GUSHUNGO
"I believe that Mwanawasa may be cynically encouraging Mugabe to hang in there so that he can benefit from the contribution of Zimbabwean settler farmers". Not only Zambia is benefiting from the Zim crisis. South Africa is the major benefactor of the Zim crisis in terms of human capital, industry
Posted By Ruth , Mutare Zimbabwe : Aug 20 2007 09:09 AM
Mutumwa
Mutumwa must stop bleating. He is not a Zimbabwean Citizen. He belongs to South Africa and thus is not privy to the suffering people in Zimbabwe. He has had a good run of complaining and has even sued the Zimbabwean Government in South Africa. I find his contributions a potpourri of confused messages. He is a businessman and should restrict his interests there. I see from his contributions that he is bitter about his lost businesses. He is justified. Leave politics to the politicians MUTUMWA!
Posted By Stargazer , Melbourne, Australia : Aug 20 2007 09:13 AM
ZImbabwe Yaora
Thanks Mawere, but I have a few comments to make. The majority of people in ZANU PF know that their leadership has destroyed the country.They still support it for fear, gain or some other reason. I belong to this party, if one becomes to open,or a catalyst for change, one is eliminated/ left in the cold.For example children for most ZANU PF wigs are not attending university in Zimbabwe beacuse they know that the education system has been destroyed, the same is similar to the health system. Secondly I do not believe the opposition has been too weak as alleged, look this regime beats, detains, kills, arrests innocent people with a different political agenda. It does not want challenge.It is a brutal regime, look what they did to Joshua Nkomo, humiliate him, attempts on his life, this is despite his massive contribution. Where on earth do you hear a President of a country congratulating the police for brutalising the
          CAF World Cup Qualifying Review: Nigeria and Ghana held        
Ghana have left themselves with work to do in the return leg of their second-round World Cup qualifying tie after being held to a 0-0 draw in Comoros. Comoros struck the post and had an effort ruled out for offside, while the visitors' best efforts came late in the game as Emmanuel Agyemang-Badu and Andre Ayew rattled the woodwork. Nigeria will empathise with Ghana after failing to beat Swaziland in a disappointing encounter in Lobamba as neither side managed to find the net. Kenya recorded a narrow home win over Cape Verde Islands, with Michael Olunga's ninth-minute strike making the difference. Senegal, meanwhile, pulled off a superb comeback to get a 2-2 draw against Madagascar after falling two goals behind. Faneva Andriatsima opened the scoring in the 27th minute before Njiva Rakotoharimalala made it two at the hour mark, but Moussa Konate and Sadio Mane eventually salvaged a draw for the visitors. Libya proved to too strong for Rwanda at the Stade Olympique in Sousse, Tunisia, with Faisal Saleh deciding the game from the spot early in the second half. Elsewhere, South Africa recorded a 3-1 win over Angola at the Ombaka National Stadium in Benguela. Gelson gifted the hosts an early lead, but Tokelo Rantie and Thamsanqa Gabuza helped South Africa to a 2-1 lead at half-time, with Andile Jali putting the match from 12 yards in the 80th minute. Niger stood no chance against Cameroon as three goals in the space of five minutes before the break effectively decided the match in Niamey. Stephane M'Bia opened the scoring in the 36th minute, before Vincent Aboubakar and Edgar Salli made it 3-0. Ivory Coast did just enough to record a vital away win over Liberia, with former Anderlecht striker Gohi Bi Zoro Cyriac scoring the only goal of the game in the dying minutes of the first half. Finally, Tunisia came from behind to beat Mauritania 2-1 on their own turf. Oumar N'Diaye gifted Mauritania the lead halfway through the first half, yet Wahbi Khazri and Yasin Chikhaoui turned things around after the interval.
          CAF World Cup Qualifying Review: Djibouti hit for six by Swaziland        
Swaziland comfortably dispatched Djibouti 6-0 at the Stade El Hadj Hassan Gouled on Friday to all-but seal their place in the second qualifying round for the World Cup in 2018. The hosts were on course to get to half-time level but Mthunzi Mkhontfo broke the deadlock shortly before the interval, with Swaziland then turning on the style in the second half. Sabelo Ndzinisa, Phumlani Dlamini, Sandile Hlatjwako, Tony Tsabedze and Mcolisi Lukhele were all on target as Swaziland put one foot in the second round of qualification. Niger will also fancy their chances of progression after their 2-0 win over Somalia in Addis Ababa. Conflict in the region meant the game was staged in Ethiopia rather than Somalia, with Niger returning home two goals to the good thanks to Moussa Maazou's second-half double. In the late kick-off, Gambia salvaged a 1-1 draw with Namibia as Demba Savage cancelled out Petrus Shitembi's opener. All three ties conclude with second legs on Tuesday.
          Nigeria v Niger: Oliseh seeking first win after Tanzania setback        
Nigeria host Niger in a friendly on Tuesday with new coach Sunday Oliseh hoping his side can show improvements following a disappointing performance in Africa Cup of Nations qualifying. Oliseh was appointed as coach in July this year, but his presence did not have an inspiring effect on his players against Tanzania on Saturday, with the Super Eagles fortunate to claim a 0-0 draw away from home in qualifying for the AFCON finals in Gabon in 2017. Despite that below-par performance, Oliseh was upbeat and is hopeful his team can use the display in Dar es Salaam as a learning experience. "We came here with the objective of earning the three points, but that didn't happen," Oliseh said after the stalemate. "It was my first match in charge of the team and I have learnt a few things which will definitely help us going forward." The draw with Tanzania was a dent to Nigeria's hopes of automatic qualification for the AFCON after failing to reach this year's edition of the tournament, particularly with seven-time champions Egypt providing strong competition in their group. A friendly against inferior opposition in front of their home fans should provide Nigeria with the opportunity to build continuity and confidence under Oliseh heading into a busy period of fixtures. Nigeria take on Burkina Faso in the African Nations Championship over two legs in October prior to a World Cup qualifying tie with Djibouti or Swaziland in November and home and away games with Egypt next March. But Nigeria's last meeting with their west African neighbours did not go exactly to plan. They were held to a 0-0 draw in 2012 and a similar result this time around would be cause for concern. Niger have played in the AFCON finals twice in their history, doing so in back-to-back years in 2012 and 2013, only to be eliminated in the group stages on both occasions. A meeting with one of the continent's traditional powers will give Francois Zahoui's men a strong test of where they stand going into their World Cup qualifying tie, which will see Niger pitted against Somalia. However, after suffering a 2-0 loss to Burundi on Saturday, Niger's hopes of keeping Oliseh winless appear slim at best.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualification Preview: Egypt, Nigeria target AFCON return        
Hector Cuper's first key assignment as Egypt coach begins on Sunday as the seven-time continental champions begin qualification for the Africa Cup of Nations. Egypt were absent from the most recent AFCON after bowing out in qualification, with the former Inter boss appointed in March. Cuper's men are at home to Tanzania, while the other fixture in Group G sees 2013 champions Nigeria host Chad. Stephen Keshi's men also failed to qualify for this year's competition and the Super Eagles' qualification build-up has been marred by reports of a bust-up between the coach and midfielder John Obi Mikel. "I don't have a problem with Mikel," Keshi responded this week. "I spoke with him before I invited his fellow players for this game. We don't need him at this moment. In September we might need his services if he is available." Ghana will be heavy favourites to move into the next round from Group H as this year's beaten finalists welcome Mauritius while group rivals Mozambique and Rwanda meet in Maputo. Holders Ivory Coast travel to hosts and automatic qualifiers Gabon for a friendly without influential midfielder Yaya Toure with Sierra Leone and Sudan looking to get some early momentum in the only three-team group. George Weah junior - son of the legendary Liberia striker - could make his international debut for James Debbah's men when they face Togo in Lome. Elsewhere in Group A, Africa's lowest-ranked side Djibouti will hope to pull off a surprise result against Tunisia while Aliou Cisse takes charge of his first competitive Senegal match against Burundi in Dakar. The former Senegal international has been keen to play down his side's favourites tag, but will nonetheless be confident following March's friendly win over Ghana. Group K's other fixture sees COSAFA Cup winners Namibia travel to Niger, while there are also away trips for Libya, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, who travel to Morocco, Guinea and Malawi. Group M favourites Cameroon and South Africa face Mauritania and Gambia, with Cape Verde Islands hosting Sao Tome e Principe and Guinea-Bissau taking on Zambia. Elsewhere, Uganda and Burkina Faso entertain Botswana and Comoros, and Congo and Congo DR take on Kenya and Madagascar. In Group C, Equatorial Guinea - hosts of 2015's competition - welcome Benin as Mali face South Sudan. Guinea-Bissau meet Zambia in Ndola with Algeria taking on Seychelles and Lesotho travelling to Ethiopia.
          Swazi Pi to empower Swaziland kids through microcomputers — Be part of it        

Raspberry pi swaziland projectThe rural school of Sidvokodvo, Swaziland is like many other rural schools in the developing […]

The post Swazi Pi to empower Swaziland kids through microcomputers — Be part of it appeared first on Dignited.


          Comment on Out of Africa by All The Feels        
[…] If you feel like you’ve heard of this place before, it’s because you have. Cate went to Swaziland a year and a half ago to work with the same two organizations. So much love and hard-earned sweat […]
          Worship Arts Pastor        

We are seeking a high calibre Worship Arts Pastor to join our staff at a unified church in an ongoing season of growth. This minister will lead a team that brings authentic God-centered worship to this congregation on Sundays in a way that honors God and inspires people. This pastor will be highly relational and a self-starter with a proven work-ethic. If you are a skilled Worship Leader with experience, drive and the smarts to lead a team in a growing church, keep reading.  

 

The strong full-time candidate:

  • 3 years on-staff experience in a church of 300 people or more with a proven track-record of leading worship arts teams
  • Minimum of a Bachelor’s Degree from an accredited university with a strong   preference for a seminary degree focused on worship/music ministry
  • Demonstrable musical skill in voice as well as guitar or keyboard
  • Skill in hymnology as well as modern music (Eph 5:18-19 and Col 3:16)
  • A confident-yet-humble demeanour
  • Continuing growth in his leadership abilities as demonstrated by ongoing involvement with conferences, seminars, reading and mentoring
  • Self-starter, self-motivated, and passionate about church work
  • Key spiritual gifts desired: leadership, worship, administration, and shepherding 
  • Ability to multiply(see Liz Wiseman’s “Multiplier” and Ephesians 4:12) through delegation, equipping and empowering volunteers to do the work of the church


    Skills necessary to succeed in this role include:

     

    1 Pastoral

    Biblically sound and loves to be a minister to the church alongside the lead pastor. He is a man of the Word who weaves Scripture and prayer through the worship services, as well as special and seasonal events. Culturally astute and able to adapt to the unique nature of this community, he is emotionally intelligent and perceptive in his role as a shepherd, as a staff pastor. 

     

     2 Musical

    Leadership of the musical portion of the service demands a level of skill and competence in music itself. He can teach and lead other musicians at a variety of skill levels, and do so from a place of mutual respect. This requires a high competence and familiarity level across genres and styles, so that a balance of hymns and contemporary songs with theological depth are selected, taught, and executed with excellence. Comprehension of music theory and ability with multiple instruments would be especially helpful in this arts community which appreciates creativity. 

     

     3 Administrative

    Organized and efficient with time management and advanced planning. He must bring structure and provide outstanding communication to the team and the staff. This means budgeting and calendaring are needed to empower the teams he leads and complement the entirety of the ministry. This team-builder is also a multi-tasking team player with a positive attitude, high productivity, and strong interpersonal skills.

     

     4 Production

    Production of multiple services from start to finish. This is viewed as holy work that demands attention to the details of technology, song selection, transitions, and talent-harnessing preparation with team members. Distractions which interrupt the congregation are serious matters, so leading in this critical area will be focused on excellence and continuing improvement. He will have experience with necessary ministry apps such as ProPresenter, Planning Center & skill with sound systems & lighting which allows our church to focus on worship. 

     

     

    Compensation:

    • Salary package of $65,000 that may be adjusted to reflect experience and education

    • Paid vacation commensurate with vocational experience

     

    The Church:

         Sturgeon Bay Community Church is a non-denominational church that started 20 years ago in the Willow Creek Association, with two Lead Pastors over those years. Our approximate 350 regular attenders represent every age, economic, vocational, political, and educational dynamic our community offers. Our church size is growing rapidly and has presented the opportunity to hire a top-notch Worship Arts Pastor to lead with us as we grow. We have newly updated facilities and land we plan expand on in the next couple of years. We enjoy an especially strong volunteer dynamic and a particularly high level of trust in leadership which has been earned over our church’s history. Elder governed and staff led, this church is a genuine joy to work for. It is our hope to empower you as a pastor to take this ministry as far as your talents and passion can reach. 

         Sturgeon Bay Community Church is aligned with The Gospel Coalition, is theologically conservative and reformed, believe ministry only happens in relationships and invites everyone to “come as you are; we’ll grow together.” We do discipleship through Children’s Ministry, Youth Groups and Community/Small Groups, with a strategic path to adopt the DiscipleShift model in groups over the next 18 months. Our Missions Team oversees missionary partnerships in The Democratic Republic of Congo, Swaziland and the Himalayas. Stateside, we partner with City on a Hill in Milwaukee and Loaves & Fishes here in Sturgeon Bay.

     

    The Town:

         Sturgeon Bay is in beautiful Door County, Wisconsin, a premier vacation destination in the Mid-West. Our city of 10,000 and county population of 35,000 is experiencing economic and population growth as manufacturing, restaurants, vacation, and retail businesses are on the rise. Our excellent school systems, acclaimed parks and community safety are drawing factors for many young families who relocate here annually. The natural beauty here is beyond words; we enjoy 4 distinct seasons every year. It seldom gets above 90 in the summer when tourism significantly increases the population and all enjoy the local cherries, additional seasonal entertainment, and festivals. The festivals continue into the fall, which brings a bountiful harvest of apples and a gorgeous tapestry of changing leaves. The 5 month winters are ripe with opportunity, especially for the outdoor enthusiast. Winter sports are also a major draw to Door County, featuring extensive ice fishing, ice-skating and hundreds of miles of managed trails for snow skiing, snowmobiling and snowshoe hiking.

         We are a vibrant resort destination city with miles of waterfront to explore. Outstanding parks and land trusts are located throughout the peninsula making Door County just the place for the family who loves hiking, biking and camping in the great outdoors. In addition to the obvious fisherman’s dream location, hunters dream of living here too! Large trophy fish and game populations draw people from across the state. https://www.doorcounty.com/

     

    To Apply: 

    Please send cover letter, resume, videos and link to your church/ministry webpage to staffing@sbcommunitychurch.com

     
     

 


          The Shocking Story Of Vaccines, The Toxicity Of Ultrasounds, Why You Shouldn't Play With Your Child & Much More With Dr. Thomas Cowan        
https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/childcare I first introduced you to the brilliant, well-spoken and outside-the-box physician Dr. Thomas Cowan in the podcast episode entitled "How (& Why) To Eat More Vegetables, Why A Plant Is Like An Upside-Down Human, Little-Known Superfood Plants & More!". Dr. Cowan then returned to the show for the mind-blowing episode "Why Your Heart Is Not A Pump (& What Most Doctors Don’t Know About The True Cause Of Heart Disease)." On today's episode, Dr. Cowan is back, this time to delve into shocking story of vaccines and specifically what happened regarding vaccinations in the last 100 years, the toxicity of prenatal ultrasounds, childhood play (including defending his controversial comment "don't play with your children"), and many other topics from the book he co-authored with Sally Fallon Morell entitled "The Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby & Child Care". Dr. Cowan discovered the work of the two men who would have the most influence on his career while teaching gardening as a Peace Corps volunteer in Swaziland, South Africa. He read “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration” by Weston A. Price, as well as Rudolf Steiner’s work on biodynamic agriculture. These events inspired him to pursue a medical degree and he graduated from Michigan State University College of Human Medicine in 1984. After his residency in Family Practice at Johnson City Hospital in Johnson City, New York, he set up an anthroposophical medical practice in Peterborough, New Hampshire. Dr. Cowan relocated to San Francisco in 2003. He has served as vice president of the Physicians Association for Anthroposophical Medicine and is a founding board member of the Weston A. Price Foundation™. During his career he has studied and written about many subjects in medicine. These include nutrition, homeopathy, anthroposophical medicine and herbal medicine. He is the principal author of the book The Fourfold Path to Healing and is the co-author of The Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby & Child Care. He writes the “Ask the Doctor” column in Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, the foundation’s quarterly magazine, and has lectured throughout the United States and Canada. He has three children and three grandchildren and practices medicine in San Francisco, where he resides with his wife, Lynda Smith. During our discussion, you'll discover: -Why kids are getting sick nowadays far more than they used to get sick...[18:20] -Why fevers should be allowed to run their course, rather than being shut down with toxic compounds such as tylenol...[23:00] -How drinking more good water can get rid of most chronic diseases...[35:48] -Why Vitamin A is one of the best things you can give to a child who has had a fever...[38:05] -Whether Ben vaccinated his kids, and Dr. Cowan's take on vaccinations...[46:40 & 50:15] -Why you should not shut down a cell-mediated response and you should "let a child" be sick...[49:00 & 54:00] -Ben and Dr. Cowan's clashing educational philosophies...[61:00] -The reasoning behind Dr. Cowan's controversial statement that you shouldn't play with your kids...[69:20] -And much more! Resources from this episode: -Use code BEN and get 15% off on your order of any of Dr. Cowan's vegetable powders at Dr. Cowan's Garden. -Click here to get a free copy of Dr. Cowan's book “How (& Why) to Eat More Vegetables". -Miller's Review of Critical Vaccine Studies: 400 Important Scientific Papers Summarized for Parents and Researchers -Green Pastures Fermented Cod Liver Oil Do you have questions, thoughts or feedback for Dr. Cowan or me? Leave your comments at BenGreenfieldFitness.com and one of us will reply!
          Why Your Heart Is Not A Pump (& What Most Doctors Don't Know About The True Cause Of Heart Disease).        
I first introduced you to Dr. Thomas Cowan in the podcast episode released a few weeks ago entitled "How (& Why) To Eat More Vegetables, Why A Plant Is Like An Upside-Down Human, Little-Known Superfood Plants & More!" In that episode, you learn how when Dr. Cowan was a 20-year-old Duke grad-student, bright, skeptical, and already disillusioned with industrial capitalism - he joined the Peace Corps in the mid-1970s for a two-year tour in Swaziland. There, he encountered the work of Rudolf Steiner and Weston A. Price - two men whose ideas would fascinate and challenge him for decades to come. Both drawn to the art of healing and repelled by the way medicine was―and continues to be―practiced in the United States, Cowan returned from Swaziland, went to medical school, and established a practice in New Hampshire and, later, San Francisco. For years, as he raised his three children, suffered the setback of divorce, and struggled with what we didn't really talk much about in that previous podcast: a heart condition. He was intrigued by the work of Price and Steiner and, in particular, with Steiner’s provocative claim that the heart is not a pump. Determined to practice medicine in a way that promoted healing rather than compounded ailments, Cowan dedicated himself to understanding whether Steiner’s claim could possibly be true. And if Steiner was correct, what, then, is the heart? What is its true role in the human body? In his new book "Human Heart, Cosmic Heart: A Doctor's Quest to Understand, Treat, and Prevent Cardiovascular Disease", which is a deeply personal, rigorous, and riveting account of his own struggle with heart disease, Dr. Cowan offers up a daring claim... ...not only was Steiner correct that the heart is not a pump, but our understanding of heart disease - with its origins in the blood vessels - is completely wrong. And this gross misunderstanding, with its attendant medications and risky surgeries, is the reason heart disease remains the most common cause of death worldwide. In today's episode, Dr. Cowan presents a new way of understanding the body’s most central organ. He offers a new look at what it means to be human and how we can best care for ourselves―and one another. During our discussion, you'll discover: -The strange root vegetable (which you probably haven't heard of) that Dr. Cowan had for breakfast before our interview...[7:56] -Dr. Cowan's own heart struggles that caused him to have a heartbeat of over 200 beats per minute while playing basketball...[9:20] -Why it is physically impossible for the heart to be able to pump blood through the body in the way that you (and your doctor) have learned...[13:25 & 15:25] -How the way that blood flows through your body is actually quite similar to the way that water flows through a giant, tall tree...[28:45] -What a "chestahedron" shape is, why is the exact shape of your heart, and how it creates a very unique vortex inside your chest....[40:35] -How I personally structure my family's water in a way extremely similar to the way that the heart structures and "spirals" your blood...[42:30] -Why most doctors don't know about this concept of the heart not being a pump...[45:50] -Why coronary angiograms, bypass surgery and stents don't work...[54:00] -A strange Brazilian plant molecule called "Gstrophanthin" and why Dr. Cowan talks about it in the book...[66:50] -How to use fats, oils, vitamin K, parasympathetic nervous system activators and compression therapy to drastically lower your risk of a heart attack...[70:15] -The single biggest key to preventing heart disease...[76:20] -And much more! Resources from this episode: -Human Heart, Cosmic Heart: A Doctor's Quest to Understand, Treat, and Prevent Cardiovascular Disease -My interview on structured water "Is All Water The Same" with Dr. Gerald Pollack -The whole house structured water filter Ben uses to create a "vortex" for his drinking water -The NatureBeat heart rate variability system Ben uses every morning to measure his nervous system -The Strophansus extract / ouabain Dr. Cowan mentions -Organic emu oil -Vitamin D/K2 blend -The Normatec recovery compression boots that Ben wears Do you have questions, comments or feedback for Dr. Cowan or I? Leave your thoughts at BenGreenfieldFitness.com and one of us will reply!
          How (& Why) To Eat More Vegetables, Why A Plant Is Like An Upside-Down Human, Little-Known Superfood Plants & More!        
It's not often I read a book that is less than 100 pages long and I fold over and highlight nearly every page. But that was indeed the case when I read the book "How (& Why) To Eat More Vegetables", a book with a very simple title but a very wide range of practical plant-eating information I've never seen published elsewhere, including little-known superfood plants, why humans are like an upside down plant, how to make extremely nutritionally dense vegetable powders and much more. The book was written by the guest of this podcast: Dr. Tom Cowan. Dr. Cowan discovered the work of the two men who would have the most influence on his career while teaching gardening as a Peace Corps volunteer in Swaziland, South Africa. He read "Nutrition and Physical Degeneration" by Weston A. Price, as well as Rudolf Steiner’s work on biodynamic agriculture. These events inspired him to pursue a medical degree and he graduated from Michigan State University College of Human Medicine in 1984. After his residency in Family Practice at Johnson City Hospital in Johnson City, New York, he set up an anthroposophical medical practice in Peterborough, New Hampshire. Dr. Cowan relocated to San Francisco in 2003. Dr. Cowan has served as vice president of the Physicians Association for Anthroposophical Medicine and is a founding board member of the Weston A. Price Foundation™. During his career he has studied and written about many subjects in medicine. These include nutrition, homeoathy, anthroposophical medicine and herbal medicine. He is the principal author of the book The Fourfold Path to Healing and is the co-author of The Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby & Child Care. He writes the “Ask the Doctor” column in Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, the foundation’s quarterly magazine, and has lectured throughout the United States and Canada. He has three children and three grandchildren and practices medicine in San Francisco, where he resides with his wife, Lynda Smith. During our discussion, you'll discover: -Why a plant is like an upside-down human, carrots and roots are good for your sinus and head, leaves are good for your lungs, and flowers are good for your metabolic and reproductive systems...[15:30 & 19:12] -Why Dr. Cowan believes that vegetables are vastly misunderstood and misused by modern "healthy" diets, such as the Paleo diet...[27:45, 32:50 & 45:00] -How commonly vilified foods such as beans and grains are actually good for you and a crucial part of an ancestrally appropriate diet...[29:35] -Why you should seek out and learn to eat a special superfood vegetable called "Ashitaba"...[37:30] -The little-known plant that can lower blood sugar more powerfully than the diabetic drug Metformin...[41:50] -The fascinating tale of how the vegetable variety of "ancient Californians" compares to the vegetable variety of modern Californians today...[44:45 & 47:50] -How the container that you store a vegetable or other food in can drastically affect the energy and nutrient bioavailability of that food...[51:30 & 52:50] -Whether you should eat vegetables in their raw vs. cooked form...[56:35] -How to make vegetable powders from tomatoes that taste just like bacon...[60:35] -And much more! Resources from this episode: -The 2016 Weston A. Price Foundation conference -The Fourfold Path to Healing -The Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby & Child Care -Nutrition and Physical Degeneration -Biodynamic wine -Anthroposophic medicine Do you have questions, comments or feedback for Dr. Cowan or me? Leave your thoughts at BenGreenfieldFitness.com and one of us will reply!
          Donald Trump to Arrest Mugabe And 6 Other African Leaders Within A Month. Read Shocking Details.        

American president Donald Trump has, on his first official day in office, reiterated that he will be coming for what he calls “corrupt African leaders” and it is his “first thing on the list”. Speaking from his official residence , The White House, Donald Trump said he is going to make sure he puts behind bars the president of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe and South African president Jacob Zuma. Also on his list is Swaziland King Mswati III, Omar Al-Bashir, President of Sudan, José Eduardo dos Santos, President of Angola , Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, President of Equatorial Guinea and Yoweri Museveni President of Uganda.

 

According to him,  “I promised to deal with corrupt leaders and I will make sure within my first month in office, these 7 corrupt and evil men are brought before the International Criminal Court. For example, the guy from South Africa, Jacob, he faced over 700 charges but got convicted of none. That will not happen under my watch” iMZanzi reported.

 

Last year, the US business icon Donald Trump’s statement was conceived as a notice to Mugabe and Ugandan President, of what their fate will be if he becomes the President of the United States of America. While addressing war veterans in a speech in Washington, Trump warned the other dictators across the globe who want to die in power, that it’s just a matter of time before they face justice for their crimes.

 

“I want to reiterate here before America’s greatest heroes that I will not condone any dictatorial tendencies exhibited by dictators around the world especially the two old men from Zimbabwe and Uganda.”

 

Mugabe responded “Recently that madman that wants to be American President said he’ll arrest some African Presidents including my brother Yoweri and myself and lock us in his imaginary prison should he become American President” “May I state here that Trump will never take us anywhere because we Africans are the strongest and fearless in the universe. I wish everyone to Know that I have nothing to fear and I want to tell the world that Hitler’s descendant (Trump) has taken after him and he is about to do his worst should the people of America make a mistake of electing him” President Mugabe said.

 


          Swaziland, Zuid-Afrika,Botswana,Zimbabwe, Zambia        
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          Swaziland        
none
          Daftar Keanggotaan di WOSM         
Albania Beslidhja Skaut Albania
Algeria Scouts Musulmans Algériens
(Algerian Muslim Scouts)
Angola Associação de Escuteiros de Angola (AEA)
(Scout Association of Angola)
Argentina Scouts de Argentina
(Scouts of Argentina)
Armenia Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun (HASK)
(Armenian National Scout Movement)
Australia Scouts Australia
Austria Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs
(Scouts and Guides of Austria)
Azerbaijan Azerbaican Skaut Assosiasiyasi
(The Association of Scouts of Azerbaijan)
Bahamas The Scout Association of the Bahamas
Bahrain Boy Scouts of Bahrain
Bangladesh Bangladesh Scouts
Barbados Barbados Boy Scouts Association
Belgium
Belize The Scout Association of Belize
Benin Scoutisme Béninois
(Benin Scouting)
Bhutan Bhutan Scout Tshogpa
Bolivia Asociación de Scouts de Bolivia
(The Scout Association of Bolivia)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Council of Scout Associations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana The Botswana Scouts Association
Brazil União dos Escoteiros do Brasil
(Brazilian Scouts Association)
Brunei Darussalam Persekutuan Pengakap Negara Brunei Darussalam
(Brunei Darussalam National Scout Association)
Bulgaria Organizatsia Na Bulgarskite Skauty (OBS)
(Organization of Bulgarian Scouts)
Burkina Faso
Fédération Burkinabé du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses du Burkina Faso (The Scouts and Guides of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Scouts du Burkina Faso (The Scouts of Burkina Faso)
Burundi Association des Scouts du Burundi
(Scout Association of Burundi)
Cameroon Les Scouts du Cameroun/Boy Scouts of Cameroon
Cambodia National Association of Cambodian Scouts
Canada Scouts Canada, with which is affiliatedAssociation des Scouts du Canada
Cape Verde Associação dos Escuteiros de Cabo Verde (A.E.C.V.)
(Scout Association of Cape Verde)
Chad
Fédération du Scoutisme Tchadien
(Scout Federation of Chad)
  • Eclaireurs du Tchad
  • Scouts du Tchad (Scouts of Chad)
Chile Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Chile
(Guide and Scout Association of Chile)
China, Scouts of Scouts of China
Colombia Asociación de Scouts de Colombia
(Scout Association of Colombia)
Comoros Wezombeli (Association Nationale du Scoutisme Comorien)
(The National Scout Association of Comoros)
Congo, The Democratic Republic of The Fédération des Scouts de la République démocratique du Congo
(The Scout Federation of the Democratic Republic of The Congo)
Costa Rica Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Costa Rica
(Association Guides and Scouts of Costa Rica)
Côte-d'Ivoire
Fédération Ivoirienne du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Eclaireurs Laïcs de Côte d'Ivoire
  • Les Eclaireurs Unionistes de Côte d'Ivoire (Unionist Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Scouts Catholiques de Côte d'Ivoire (The Catholic Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
Croatia Savez Izvidaca Hrvatske
(The Scout Association of Croatia)
Cyprus Cyprus Scouts Association
Czech Republic Junák-Svaz Skautu a Skautek
Denmark
Fællesrådet for Danmarks Drengespejdere
(The Danish Scout Council)
Dominica The Scout Association of Dominica
Dominican Republic Asociación de Scouts Dominicanos
(Dominican Scout Association)
Ecuador Asociación de Scouts del Ecuador
(Scout Association of Ecuador)
Egypt Egyptian Scout Federation
El Salvador Asociación de Scouts de El Salvador
(Scout Association of El Salvador)
Estonia Eesti Skautide Ühing (Estonian Scout Association)
Ethiopia Ethiopia Scout Association
Fiji Fiji Scouts Association
Finland Suomen Partiolaiset-Finlands Scouter
France
Scoutisme Français
(French Scouting)
Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France (EEUF)(Unionist Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEDF) (Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Israélites de France (EEIF) (Jewish Guides and Scouts de France)
 Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF) (Scouts and Guides of France)
Scouts Musulmans de France (SMdF) (Muslim Scouts of France)
Gabon
Fédération Gabonaise du Scoutisme
(Scouting Federation of Gabon)
Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses Unionistes du Gabon (Unionist Scouts of Gabon)
Eclaireuses-Eclaireurs du Gabon (Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Gabon (Catholic Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Gambia The Gambia Scout Association
Georgia sakartvelos skauturi modzraobis organizatsia
(Georgian Organization of the Scout Movement)
Germany
Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände (RdP)
(Scout Federation of Germany)
Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (BdP) (Guides and Scout Union)
Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg (DPSG) (German Saint George Scout Association)
Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (VCP) (Christian Guide and Scout Association)
Ghana The Ghana Scout Association
Greece Soma Hellinon Proskopon
(Scout Association of Greece)
Grenada The Scout Association of Grenada
Guatemala Asociación de Scouts de Guatemala
(Scout Association of Guatemala)
Guinea C National Scout Association of Guinea
Guyana The Scout Association of Guyana
Haiti Scouts d'Haïti
(Scouts of Haiti)
Honduras Asociación de Scouts de Honduras
(Scouts Association of Honduras)
Hong Kong The Scout Association of Hong Kong
Hungary Magyar Cserkészszövetség
(Hungarian Scout Association)
Iceland Bandalag íslenskra Skáta
(Icelandic Boy and Girl Scout Association)
India The Bharat Scouts and Guides
Indonesia Gerakan Pramuka
(Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Movement)
Ireland Scouting Ireland
Israel
Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel
(Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation)
The Arab School Scout Association
The Druze Scouts Association
The Hebrew Scout Association
The Israel Catholic Scouts Association
  • The Israeli Arab Scouts Association
      The Orthodox Scout Association
taly
Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo
(Italian Scout Federation)
Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani (AGESCI) (Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy)
Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani (CNGEI) (National Corps of Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides)
Jamaica The Scout Association of Jamaica
Japan Scout Association of Japan
Jordan Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides
Kazakhstan Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan (OSMK)
Kenya The Kenya Scouts Association
Kiribati Kiribati Scout Association
Korea, Republic.of Boy Scouts of Korea
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One of the associations in the Federation is:
Independence Scouts
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Republic of
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(ASDE) (Scouts of Spain)
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Uganda The Uganda Scouts Association
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          [41] Cutting Culture: Tuskegee Redux? Legal and Ethical Problems of the Ramp Up to Male Circumcision in Africa        

Travis Wisdom, a student of Women's Studies at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, organized a daylong conference on male circumcision and the issues surrounding identity and body ownership. The second speaker of the day was John Geisheker of Doctors Opposing Circumcision, who discussed the dubious nature of the 3 African studies that are now being used to promote circumcision in the name of HIV prevention. Here is a recording of the presentation, and a transcript follows.

Transcript
(slightly modified)

Eliyahu Ungar-Sargon

From the White Letter Productions studios in Los Angeles, California, I'm [Eliyahu] Ungar-Sargon, and this is The Cut Podcast.

Christina Hernandez[?]

Our next presenter, John [D.] Geisheker, is the Executive Director and General Council of Doctors Opposing Circumcision. [He] is a powerful ally in the medical field, promoting awareness of and mobilization against [non-therapeutic neonatal] circumcision. Please join me in welcoming him.

John Geisheker

Thanks very much.

Many of you will have read—because it's become a commonplace meme in the American journals of all kinds—that HIV can be solved in Africa by circumcision. The [risk reduction] number that's commonly [claimed] is 60% [to] 63%. [However], you probably don't know the backstory [behind those figures], and I'm going to give it to you now.

Now, you'll have to be a little tolerant of this; it's a little “word heavy”, it's a little abstract, and it's a little statistical—and I'm not a stats expert, but I kind of know bad statistics when I see them by instinct. So, what I've done here is distill the work of Dr. Robert Van Howe, the pediatrician in Marquette, Michigan, who has done extensive [analyses] on the 3 African RCTs, as they're called: The Random[ized] Controlled Trials in Africa, [which have been used to promote circumcision].

First, the nature of the crisis, so you understand it: HIV is indeed a scourge in Africa—there's no doubt about it.

  • 15 million Africans have died since the beginning of HIV, which by the way, extends all the way to the 1930s when the virus first crossed from the monkey community into the human community. So, we have lost 15 million, and probably many more actually, because no one knew what the disease was in the 1940s and 1950s.

  • 1.3 million Africans die each year [due to HIV].

  • 22.5 million of them are living with AIDS currently.

  • That leaves 14.8 million children who are orphans or who have lost at least one parent.

Currently, only 25% of [infected] Africans get what's called the antiretroviral therapy [(ART)]. The highest number is [in] South Africa, which has switched from being a country where they were very slow to get started on this, to being the country that's the most aggressive about fighting HIV in Africa (and you'll see why in a second); so, 37% of infected South Africans get the antiretroviral therapy—which, by the way, [is a therapy that] not only saves your life, [but also] makes [it] virtually impossible [for you] to transmit the virus to a partner, which is a very useful feature of the ARTs.

Look at the graph of what's happened since 1988 in Africa; you can see that [the HIV prevalence starts around] 1%-to-5%, [and then later], it goes up to 5%-to-10%, and here in 1998, you can see especially in South Africa and [various] areas [that] it's beginning to [rise to] 20%-to-30%. There are regions of Africa where the [prevalence] is 40%! [It's] unbelievable if you think about it. Here's a graph showing the [prevalence]. Notice it's flattening out a little bit; it actually has slowed down in its virulence in Africa.

Here's the U.S. situation by contrast. Now, these numbers are high, but they are a tiny percent of what's happening in Africa.

  • We have 0.5 million people who have died since the early 1980s when it was first discovered in the U.S.

  • About 1 million people are infected, and 20% of those are unaware that they are infected.

  • 54 thousand people acquire the infection each year, but we have a country of 350 million people, so that's not exactly a huge epidemic at this point.

  • The [prevalence] is 0.6%, which means 6 people in a thousand in the population [have] HIV, and we have a high ART [usage]—a [large number] of people [are] covered by antiretroviral therapies.

    There are hotspots like Washington, D.C., which for cultural reasons [has an incidence of] 3% and even towards 6% in the poorer regions of Washington, D.C.

  • It's disproportionately, alas, a disease of men having unprotected sex with other men, and of people who inject illegal [intravenous] drugs.

Now, since 2005 ([with] the beginnings of the studies in Africa), the notion that HIV can be stopped by circumcision has sort of risen on our cultural radar. It's in the form of a meme. How many of you know the term “meme” or use it casually? A meme is a unit of culture—I think the term was invented by Richard Dawkins in his various books on [evolution]. [A] meme is a unit of culture that gets transmitted from person to person [in a folkloric way] without the backup analysis of why that might be the case. It is, in a sense, a free-floating idea or belief.

Here are the RCTs and the individuals responsible for them:

  • In Rakai (Uganda) in 2005, Ronald Gray began a study of some individuals (we'll see in a second how many).

  • In Kisumu (Kenya), Robert Bailey ran a study

Those are both [mid-east African] countries. [Lastly]:

  • In Orange Farm ([South] Africa), Bertrand Auvert, who is a French epidemiologist, ran another study.

The Ugandan study had almost 5000 participants, [the one in] Kenya [had] almost 3000, and [the one in] South Africa [had] a little over 3000.

I want to thank here Dr. Van Howe [for his] statistical [analysis], and also Hugh Young, a fellow New Zealander (I'm from New Zealand)—an aside by the way: New Zealend abandoned circumcision; New Zealand's rate of circumcision in [the] 1950s went to 99.9% (nobody escaped; very few escaped. Maoris did by the way; the indigenous polynesian people escaped completely, because they have very strong beliefs about having to need [the] entire body [throughout] life, [which] is very sensible in my opinion). [Nevertheless], they dropped circumcision in the 1960s like a hot potato! There have been no infant circumcisions in New Zealand since [the] mid-1960s; it's amazing, and yet, a whole generation of grandfathers [were] completely circumcised. The fathers are sort of hit and miss, and the sons wonder: What happened to their poor fathers and grandfathers?

OK. Here's the method they used in Africa to do this study: They took groups of HIV-negative men and divided them randomly into 2 groups:

  • A control [group].
  • An experimental group.

The control group was offered an immediate circumcision (and we'll talk later about the problems [with] that), and the experimental group was promised a free circumcision later on, perhaps 2 years later (but it never quite got there, actually). Then the [numbers of] seroconversion[s] [within the groups]—that is, the number of [people who became] infected [with HIV]—were compared[.] Now, here's a little warning for you about statistics (I love this quote):

The American mind seems extremely vulnerable to the belief that any alleged knowledge which can be expressed in figures is in fact as final and exact as the figures in which it is expressed.

Richard Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life

Also, there's a common statistical thing you will all notice, and that's the deep decimals: [If] somebody says something happens 10.003% of the time, you're inclined to think that just because there's a thousandth of a percent in there [(".003%")], somehow that suggests the accuracy of the statistic, but statistics can lie gloriously, as we know.

So, here [are] the results:

  • The number of men who were circumcised [as part of the control group], [and] who got infected [with HIV] after 12 months was 1.5% of the [group]—I've combined the stats to make [conveying the information] easy, but the studies were very similar.

  • The intact [group]—that is, the men who were not circumcised—their infection rate was higher: 3.38% of their group.

So, the absolute risk reduction you could argue [that circumcision provides] is 1.8%. This is the stat you should be reading in your newspaper, not this 53%, because that's the relative risk reduction—comparing the 2 little groups. So, one of the commonest [tricks] in statistics is for people to jack up their results by talking about relative changes and not talking about absolute changes.

I sometimes joke that I could protect you by 1000% from being hit by a meteorite by insisting you live in a coal mine, and you'd say:

“But geeze, I don't really have a very high risk of getting hit by a meteorite—”

“But listen to me! I'm talking about protecting your life! 1000%! Are you not interested in that?”

and, of course, you really shouldn't be [interested in that].

All right, here's what the graph looks like if you do an honest graph of the difference between the absolute benefits between circumcision and not-circumcision. It's pretty unimpressive, isn't it?

Here's another way of looking at it (the green are the HIV-negative people): A good number were lost from the study, and the HIV-positive is the small red group at the bottom; once you look at the overall picture of the number of people, and the number of people who actually seroconverted, it doesn't look very impressive—it certainly has nothing to do with 60%.

Here's my favorite cartoon on the subject (this is courtesy of Hugh Young, a fellow countryman):

“Thanks to circumcision, HIV has decreased 60%!”

and I love the comment:

"Question. Are you asking a room full of engineers to be excited about a big percentage decrease over a trivial base!?"

It's a good question! Then the final panel:

“[Answer]. You leave me no choice but to call you an anti-circ zealot; nobody listens to them.”

So, that's great.

All right. Now let's go through the flaws. This gets a little statistical—hang in there; it'll get interesting. It is interesting.

  • Flaw number one: Over half the infections were non-sexual. One of the biggest secrets of the RCTs in Africa is that an awful lot of African HIV infections are caused by physicians!

    • Reusing one-use medical supplies.

    • Not autoclaving the equipment.

    • Attending people who have HIV, but not worrying about the next person who might get HIV from the tools they just used on the first person.

    So, iatrogenic transmission of HIV is itself a huge and scandalous event in Africa. If you remove all the non-sexual infections—that is, those that came from blood transfusions and medical care—all the Africa RCTs disappear, because [then] their results are not statistically significant.

    Here's my favorite quote on this; it comes from Dr. Jennifer Vines up in Oregon:

    In the article by Auvert et al regarding incidence rates of HIV infection in circumcised versus uncircumcised men, the finding of 60% fewer infections among the former group is compelling [1]. I must echo the comments submitted by others and question these findings in light of the fact that the authors did not control for other sources of HIV transimission such as blood transfusions or exposure through infected needles.

    While the literature supports sexual (primarily heterosexual) activity as the main route of HIV transmission in South Africa, the behavioral factor of “Attending a clinic for a health problem related to the genitals,” initially reported by approximately 10% of both the intervention and control groups, corresponds to a significantly elevated HIV incidence rate. It is plausible that these men presented with urogenital complaints that resulted in antibiotic or other therapeutic treatments administered with unsterile needles. This could represent a significant confounder in that the uncircumcised men, if indeed more prone to sexually transmitted infections (STI), were more likely to present for STI care and become infected through the health care setting rather than through unprotected sexual intercourse.

    Controlling for this route of infection could result in a smaller difference between HIV infection rates in the circumcised versus uncircumcised groups, indicating that circumcision may not be as effective at decreasing HIV transmission as the article suggests.

    "Reader Response" to Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, et al. (2005) Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med 2(11): e298.

    I would say “Indeed.”

  • Flaw number two: Researcher expectation bias.

    Remember, these can't be double-blind studies; I mean, you know if you've been circumcised, and the doctor knows if you've been circumcised. There's no sense [in] pretending. You can't [explore] a placebo effect in this kind of a study.

    [The researchers are] known [to have been] proponents of male circumcision prior to [their interest in] HIV. In a sense, I have [just] said—it's a bit cynical—that the HIV crisis in Africa was a gift to male-circumcision proponents; their claim is that there is sufficient evidence to recommend universal circumcision, which is frankly what they're really looking for.

  • Flaw number three: Participant expectation bias.

    What did the participants in the trial[s] expect? Well, they were told that circumcision [is] protective, which [is information] that would affect their behavior. There was a lack of blinding, [as just described], and there was a desire for circumcision.

    Why an African man would submit to circumcision without being campaigned on this subject (if he's an adult) is an interesting question. Remember a lot of African cultures have already existing traditions of bush circumcision, which are both dangerous and painful, and I can see a 16 year old African man saying [to himself]:

    “Geez, do I want to have a circumcision that at least provides anesthesia and has a semblance of Western medicine to it, or do I want to go to the bush and have one of those initiation rites that my friends tell me are horribly painful?!

    Well, I know the choice that I [(and most of you)] would make.

    The RCT authors created a demand for male circumcision among unemployed young men by bribing them, frankly. Participants were interested in the promise of a free male circumcision and other benefits—and we'll get to that in a second.

  • [Flaw number four: Statistical overpowering.]

    [This] is a bit tough to understand. The study, claims Van Howe, was overpowered; that is to say, it was big enough (at more than 10 thousand individuals) that you could find some correlation between something.

    If you gave me 10 thousand people, I bet I could prove that people [who] own brown hats have small dogs, because there would be enough people [in the group] that [I could find a sizeable number of them for whom that correlation is true].

    So, the more individuals you have, the more you can data mine for your particular conclusion (if you work at it). [Dr. Robert Van Howe] says this is large enough to find identifiable differences that are clinically unimportant; in other words, you could do a gigantic drug study and still find correlations that don't mean anything medically.

    [This can be seen in the frequent flip-flopping with which we are all familiar]. You know: Butter is bad [for your health], butter is good, butter is bad, butter is good. You have to read a newspaper to see what [the “consensus”] is today.

  • Flaw [number] five: Selection bias.

    Only men interested in male circumcision were included [in the study], so that automatically excludes others who might have been at lower risk [of HIV infection] because of behavior or genetics—we don't know. So, that's a flaw of this study itself.

  • [Flaw] number six: [The participants] were well paid.

    [Most] were unemployed [and living in the Orange Farm]—Orange Farm, South Africa, is a horrible horrible slum with an employment rate of like 50% and worse, and frankly, the young men were desperate, and [joining the study there was a way that]:
    • They would get cash.

    • They would get a free circumcision.

    • They would get free healthcare for a year or 2, which in the U.S., would be like giving you 12 thousand dollars.

    So, just the very structure of these studies makes them unethical in the U.S., but you can get away with it if you can work it in black Africa.

  • [Flaw number seven]: Now, here's the geographical bias.

    This is intriguing to me. No studies were done in:

    • Ghana
    • Cameroon
    • Tanzania
    • Lesotho
    • Malawi
    • Rawanda
    • Swaziland

    [These are] places where circumcised men are more likely to be [HIV infected]. Just look at Ghana and Cameroon to make it easy:

    • The HIV prevalence in Ghana among circumcised men is 1.6%; [among] intact men, it's actually lower.

    • Now, Cameroon is interesting, because the HIV prevalence [among] circumcised men is like more than 3 times the [prevalence among] intact men!—exactly the opposite of the claims of the RCTs.

    and so on. Each of those countries has the same problem, which is: How do you explain that [in these places], circumcised men actually have more HIV?

  • Flaw number eight: Ethical problems.

    We've already hinted at these. South African men were not told their HIV status. The claim of the people who did the studies was that the men are from cultures where being HIV positive would stigmatize [them], and so [the researchers] didn't want to tell the men that they [have] HIV, because that would be embarassing [and problematic] for them.

    [So], as a “practical” matter, they sent men home to infect their partners, and that's exactly the problem that we had with Tuskegee. Some of you may know the history of Tuskegee; I know that my colleagues here do. In [the] 1930s, the CDC in conjunction with [the U.S. Public Health Service] designed a study of syphilis among black males, and [the researchers] didn't tell them [when] they had syphilis, because they wanted to see what would happen long-term.

    So, hundreds and hundreds of people got tertiary syphilis—which, by the way, is not just the genital disease; it eventually affects your brain, and is a horrible way to go at the end. [This incident] is the gold standard for unethical behavior in medicine and bioethics, and precisely that same condition happened in the RCTs in Africa, and they haven't been called to account for it!

    There was no full disclosure with informed consent. Basically, it was a scanty consent, as you can imagine; the men were circumcised that same day. Certainly, they were never ever told the sexual effects of the kind that Marilyn so articulately described for this surgery.

    So, in other words, if you were doing a lawyerly analysis of the accounts here, it would be that the participants were placed at risk in a study with built-in biases, which guaranteed the investigators the results they wanted, and the benefits were coerceive and unethical.

  • [Flaw number nine]: Lead-time bias.

    This is an interesting one; it requires a little thinking for a second. The [group circumcised in the beginning] were told to avoid sex for 4 to 6 weeks, so what happened was if you compare the results over 1 year, somebody got a 2 month head start; the men who were circumcised early [on] got a 2 month head start where they didn't have sex, so they weren't put at risk [for sexually transmitted HIV during that time], and that affects the result entirely. The [bias-based] overestimate according to [Dr. Robert Van Howe] is on the order of 10%, which wipes the whole studies out.

    Yes mam?

Woman

It was suggested in a—

John Geisheker

In the 3rd study they adjusted it somewhat.

Woman

Yeah, it was suggested the men themselves might have gotten longer because of the effects of the circumcision, too.

John Geisheker

I hadn't heard that, but I'm not terribly surprised. Mind you, it could also be counter balanced by men who were desperate enough to have sex when they still had something of an open wound, and you know, that would kind of counterbalance the notion, but in any case, it's not a very good study if you're looking for purity of results.

  • [Flaw number ten: Cultural differences].

    In [the] South Africa study, the 2 groups differed by age, religion, and tribe (and that tribe makes a big difference in Africa). There was no attempt to reconcile that.

  • [Flaw number eleven: Loss from study].

    For every participant infected, a huge number were lost [from the study]. At the highest, 7.4 for every individual that was [infected] was lost. You have to wonder what would have happened had those people stayed in the study. For every sexually transmitted infection of HIV, up to 17.6 participants were lost. Small differentials in the loss group could negate these [RCT] findings, too.

    All of these flaws are cumulative! The more flaws you have in the study, the more the results of the study (especially when they're small) are called into question.

    Now, here's my favorite quote about ignoring dropouts, and it comes from Bad Science by Goldacre (drug studies are an example):

    People who drop out of trials are statistically much more likely to have done badly, and much more likely to have had side-effects. They will only make your drug look bad. So ignore them, make no attempt to chase them up, do not include them in your analysis.

    Bad Science by Ben Goldacre, Fourth Estate, London (2008), p. 209

    That's a great quote. That's a great way to run a drug study—and by the way, there's a scandal that just came out this week about how Africa is being used by Big Pharma and big American institutions like Johns Hopkins University of Illinois, etc., to do studies that they couldn't run ethically in the United States. They're [basically using] Africa as a guinea pig for whatever drugs and whatever procedures they can come up with. I think [this] is a huge scandal; it's definitely going to hit the wall.

Woman

They can't run [such studies] ethically there either; they just do it anyway!—

John Geisheker

Well, they do it, because they can get away with it. Frankly, there is so much money free-floating [in Africa] (provided by the Gates Foundation and others) that local African officials who are poor—and even if they're the honest chief medical officer of a small African colony, country, or tribe, they can't turn down scads of American money, which they could use for other kinds of things. So, of course, they're going to say “Yeah! Let's start a circumcision campaign!”, so they can get the money into their system, so they can use it for useful things (we're hoping they'll use it for more useful things), but you can't blame poor countries for being attracted by American cash. You simply cannot.

  • [Flaw number twelve: Unequal crossovers].

    This is a bit abstract, too, but let's hit it:

    • The number of men [randomly] assigned to be circumcised who were not, and

    • The number of men [randomly assigned] to wait [to be circumcised], but got circumcised early for whatever reason (maybe they elected to)

    [were] not equal[.] [That suggests that] the men who did not receive the immediate, free [circumcision] they wanted dropped out. So, that affects the accuracy of the study as well.

  • Flaw [number] thirteen: [Unequal Treatment].

    (Are you getting saturated on the flaws here? Have I convinced you!?)

    Men [who] were [randomly assigned] to early circumcision had follow up visits. Now, I actually think this is very criticial; if I were [Dr. Robert Van Howe], I would put this on the front end, because I think it's the biggie (along with the relative/absolute [percentages] problem).

    Men [randomly assigned to] early circumcision had follow up visits, [and] this allowed the staff to influence them—to urge them, to provide safe sex advice, etc., etc. So, they were continually being educated, which [surely affected] their behavior.

  • [Flaw number fourteen]: Early termination.

    The proponents quit the study after one year, saying it would be unethical to continue it because the results were so overwhelmingly positive in favor of circumcision that even waiting would be unethical.

    Well, isn't that convenient?

    If the study had been big and long, maybe the benefits they saw would have roughened out, and [maybe] the stats [would have] come to nothing at the very end, but that's not exactly the result they wanted.

    [Ending the study early] also amplifies the lead-time bias. If you have a short study, that 8-week lead time [which] the men who were circumcised got [is] a bigger percentage of the [study time]; if you run [the study] out 2 years, [a 2-month lead time] is only one twelfth [of the study time]. If you run the study for only a year, that lead time is a full one sixth [of the study time]—quite a difference.

So, here [are] some anomalies for you:

  • Why did participating increase risk?

    • Medical exposure? (asks [Dr. Robert Van Howe]).

    • Or [was it a] self-selected population at a higher risk to begin with? That's certainly possible, too.

  • In South Africa, the intervention was not consistent between tribes, for probably cultural reasons.

  • In Kenya, the intervention was effective for one group of young men, but not [for] the 18 year olds. Why is that? We don't know.

Facts that don't make sense:

  • Why is HIV [prevalence] higher [among circumcised] men than [among] intact men in South Africa?

  • Why is the [prevalence] of heterosexually transmitted HIV so much higher in the U.S. than it is in Europe? The answer could be that Americans don't like condoms because they're circumcised. There are lots of different things you could ask about that.

  • If the increase in protection [provided] by a 90% circumcision rate (which they'll never get to in our lifetime) can be undone by a 5% decrease in condom usage, then what's the point [of the circumcision]?

  • If antiretroviral therapy—which, remember, prevents seroconversion even between what's called discordant partners ([one of them is infected, while the other is not])—and treating STDs [are together a] more effective, less costly, and less invasive [way to prevent HIV than circumcision], then why bother with circumcision?

Here are [some contradictory] studies—including 3 by the authors of the African RCTs! [These are] studies, in other words, that show that the effect [of circumcision] is not as good as [they] would hope [for reducing the transmission of HIV to men], or (and we'll talk about it in a minute) [circumcision] endangers women! There's a remarkable number of them; we won't go through [all of] them, but they're available to you if you want to look; [they are] fully explained in a wonderful website you should know about called Circumstitions (once again by Hugh Young, the guy [who] did the Dilbert cartoon).

[Dr. Michel Garenne] authored:

Long-term population effect of male circumcision in generalised HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

Michel Garenne, who is at the Institute Pasteur in Paris, says:

In most countries with a complex ethnic fabric, the relationship between men's circumcision status and HIV seroprevalence was not straightforward, with the exception of the Luo in Kenya and a few groups in Uganda. These observations put into question the potential long-term effect of voluntary circumcision programmes in countries with generalised HIV epidemics.

Well, it's worse than that, Dr. Michel, because it's not going to be “voluntary” circumcisions. That's what they talked about in 2005 and 2006, but I have watched very carefully (so has Marilyn, so has Gillian, [etc.]) as they've gone from “voluntary” circumcision for men, to semi-voluntary circumcision for young men, to involuntary circumcision for infants, which is plan C, and was, I think, the plan all along.

Here's my comment on this. This is epidemiology and anthropology 101. First of all, the biggies:

  • The risk avoidance by confident, [circumcised] men.

    A lot of health officers in Africa are themselves concerned that young men are cheerfully lining up for circumcision so they can avoid using condoms, and so they can tell women that they're HIV-negative and will stay so because they [were] circumcised. In other words, they're going to use their circumcision status to give up on the only thing[s] that [prevent] HIV:

    • Abstinence
    • Condoms
  • So they are putting themselves and their partners at risk, and the risk to women is substantial, because here what I haven't mentioned and could have mentioned upfront: All the RCTs only say that the male is protected from an infected woman; she is not, however, [necessarily] protected if he's HIV [positive]. In fact, she's even more at risk, according to the Wawer study.

    Does that make sense?

    So this is the most sexist plan for almost a billion African people that you can imagine. This is just a recipe for a gigantic epidemic disaster.

  • The other thing is [that the] 60% protection [for men], even if it's true, is not 95% (the gold standard for all immunizations). It is what I call viralette—viral roulette; you're basically just playing with time, and infection will occur eventually. It just may take longer.

  • We should mention is that the effort against HIV in Africa is a zero-sum game. Male circumcision, which is expensive (95 times more expensive than condoms would be), is draining the dollars away from more effective programs.

  • Bush circumcisions (in other words, circumcisions [outside of a sterile, medical environment]) of men are not going to be [performed] by doctors, because there aren't enough doctors to [circumcise] 900 million black Africans; they're going to be done by traditional “healers”.

    I was in Mexico in 2008, and I talked to people who were proposing this program, and they freely admit [that] there aren't enough doctors, [and] that they're going to have to train locals to do one procedure only [(namely, circumcision)], and there's going to be no follow up! The van pulls [into] town, they [circumcise] the whole village, and [then] drive away! There's no follow up, and there [are] plenty of opportunies for iatrogenic HIV infection.

  • Condoms have other uses, too!

    • Preventing pregnancy.

    • Preventing HPV (which we've already mentioned is one of the vectors for cervical cancer), and other sexually transmitted infections.

  • Now, something you may not know is that this idea (a white-people's invented idea) that circumcision solves the HIV problem in Africa has been pitting tribes against tribes; in Kenya, for instance, the Luo (which is the tribe of Barack Obama and his father), do not circumcise, and haven't historically.

    [However], the Kikuyu—anybody see the movie Out of Africa? That's the tribe that's featured in there, the Kikuyu. They do have a long standing tradition of circumcision.

    [The Kikuyu] have been accusing the Luo of being the problem, because they've been told that uncircumcised—intact—men transmit HIV, so they've been capturing—waylaying—Luo men who are found alone, and [then] circumcising them traumatically right in the street, as kind of a tribe against tribe [act of domination].

    By the way, there's probably pretty good odds that—this is an aside, of course—there's probably pretty good odds that Barack Obama is himself intact.

    • His mother was a hippie atheist.
    • His father was an upperclass Luo.

    So, it's very likely that [his mother] either honored his request (or he insisted) that the boy be left intact, but we're not going to know until he's retired.

  • Cutting as a first line disease control defense always strikes me as dodgy. The human body has evolved for many hundreds of thousands of years, and if we take the notion that the way to solve disease is to start lopping parts off, there [is] no [end] to [the number of] surgies you could invent that solve problems [in that way].

    I mean, I don't have any tonsils, because some doctor made a car payment in 1958 off of them. I mean, it was fantastic fraud in the 1950s; play this game sometime at a party: Ask all the people who have had tonsillectomies to put up their [hands], and you will find that everybody [who raises his or her hand] is [in his or her] 50s and 60s. Almost nobody in [his or her] 20s and 30s is without [tonsils]. It's interesting. It was just the “fashion” of the day!

  • Male genital-cutting and female genital-cutting traditions are self-sustaining; the cut become cutters. This is an anthropology rule—a fixed rule. Once someone has had a genital mutilation, [he or she seems] to have some embedded, psychosexual need to have the next generation [undergo] that same initiation right (or that same limitation). There are thousands of explanations for this; I'm fantastically beyond my pay scale by even speculating on any of them, but I leave you with that thought, in any event.

  • This is [Dr. Robert] Van Howe talking about how circumcisions [are] a wasteful distraction. This is Hugh Young's illustration; if the African studies are correct—if everything I've said about their flaws is inconsequential, and [these studies] are correct—it's still going to take 56 circumcisions to prevent one HIV case per year, and it will [still] fail to prevent one—not much of a gain, and that's true in Uganda, [where there is] a 4% HIV [prevalence]; we have a 0.6% HIV [prevalence] in the U.S.—6 in 1000. Statistically, it would take 380 circumcisions to stop one HIV case—so, at huge expense.

To give you a flavor of the professionalism that surrounds the RCTs in Africa, [consider] these quotes:

  • “We're hacking away. Those foreskins are flying!” That's Robert Bailey [of the] University of Illinois, quoted in the New York Times barely a month ago. It's amazing to me; I can't see how a man could possibly have that casual an attitude toward a surgery that serious on so many people and be able to keep this in his head. It just appalls me to my core.

  • The other [quote] that struck me was one from Dr. Renee Stein [of] St. John's Emergency Medical Center in St. Louis talking about their circumcision rate there: “We whack 'em all!” she said. Wow. What a treat. You can imagine how cold I was when I saw that in the Times.

  • Here, one of my colleagues, David Llewellyn of Atlanta, Georgia, went to a meeting at the CDC in Atlanta. [One of] the presenters to the CDC on how circumcision should be proposed for Africa made fun of intact men (David is intact and proud of it) by using this slide, showing the man as an elephant. So, question of taste? Do you think there's any taste problem there?

  • Here's Israeli Inon Shenker (whom I met in Mexico in 2008) with the Zulu chief, Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu. I talked to Inon Shenker for quite a long time in Mexico, and frankly, I said to him:

    You're Israeli, and you're calling your [plan to circumcise Africans] “Operation Abraham?” Why didn't you call it “Operation Sterile Procedure” or “Operation HIV Prevention”? Why did it get called “Operation Abraham”? It has a slighly religious connotation for some of us.

    and [his response was that] he was offended by that, [and] it wasn't his choice, [and so on]. He generally thinks that this is an opportunity for the Israelis[;] his claim is that Israelis have a unique expertise in adult male circumcision, because they did them wholesale to Russian immigrants to Israel in the 1970s when there was a huge outpouring of Russian Jews into Israel. So, he's on a quest for the business, as it were.

  • Now, here's a picture I found:

    “The operation is a good chance for safe sex education”

    One of the things that Shenker and colleagues talked about in Mexico in 2008 when I met them was that the circumcision procedure itself [is] a marvelous opportunity for the man to have “a quiet reading moment”, where he could read about safe sex [in] brochures they were going to have him read.

    Well, I don't know what your attention span is like during surgery—even surgery with a decent local anesthetic—but I don't think I'd be reading much. At the time, it struck me as a very thin reason to perform a procedure—you could also put him up on a table, all stand around, not cut him, hand him the brochure, then have [a test afterward] to see if he read the material, and you [would] get the [same] benefit.

  • Here's a billboard on the Ethiopian–Sudan boarder, showing that you should get circumcised, and there's a ton of these in Africa—tons and tons of them, put up by the local health authorities and by individuals who have much to gain.

  • Here's Orange Farm in South Africa:

    The young men have flocked by the thousands to this clinic for circumcisions.

    ...

    “I've done 53 in a seven-hour day, me, myself, personally,” said Dr. Dino Rech, who helped design the highly efficient surgical assembly line… for cutting off foreskins.

    ...

    Well, I submit to you that if you do 53 procedures in a day, your first one might be decent, but I wonder about your 53rd. I think I'd want to be the mid-morning appointment—somewhere where you're back in the swing of it, but [aren't] yet exhausted, do you know what I mean? I mean, it's just insane to think you can do 900 million circumcisions in Africa without a single problem. We have hard enough problems doing circumcisions to a decent standard in U.S. hospitals that are first rate, let alone in bush clinics and vans all over sub-Saharan Africa.

So, thanks very much.

I actually have 2 more slides. This is me sailing rather than talking about penises [laughter], and this is my houseboat out in Seattle, which I built.

Thank you. Any questions?

Woman

Can you explain how you calculate the absolute reduction in risk vs. the relative reduction?

John Geisheker

Well, they're not my numbers for a start (they're [Dr. Robert] Van Howe's), and I will happily give you his handout, which he would be delighted if we shared. In fact, I thought I had given it to Travis to reproduce. Is it here? Ah! That's excellent. Why don't you check those numbers in there.

Marilyn Milos

[NOTE: Marilyn Milos previously threatened legal action for transcribing her words. Therefore, they have not been reproduced here.]

John Geisheker

Oh, relative and absolute?—

Woman

Well, just how are they calculated in general? How does one calculate an absolute risk versus a relative risk?

John Geisheker

Well, let me give you an example [which] is a bit closer to home.

One of the claims of people who propose circumcision is that it solves urinary tract infections for boys under 1 year [of age]. But, the actual rate—and even this I think is questionable for reasons I may mention in a minute—the absolute rate, if you believe it, of UTIs in [male] infants is 1% (1 boy in 100). Now, the proponents [of circumcision] claim that if you circumcise boys, only 1 in 1000 will get a urinary tract infection. So, rather than saying to a parent:

You know, he has only a [1 in 100] chance of having a UTI, [but] we could marginally improve on that by circumcising him, so then it will go down to 1 in 1000.

Instead, what they do is they say:

Circumcision confers a 10 times protective effect!

So, they use the relative difference between 1/100th and 1/1000th, and [they sell circumcision using] that [relative] scale, rather than using the absolute, which is the 1 in 100 that you should be talking about as the “high” risk side.

Does that make sense to you?

Woman

Yeah, but—

John Geisheker

The same thing is happing in the RCTs.

Woman

Right. It just [seems] like the absolute reduction was really low then. It was like 1.8%, and so in a population when HIV is so much more prominent, it just seems like it [is] a strange number. So, I was just curious how they kind of got that.

John Geisheker

This is the slide you're talking about, right?

Woman

[Yes]

John Geisheker

Yeah, well, see, [among] those who got a circumcision [early on], out of every 100, a little over 1.5 of them got HIV, whereas [among those not circumcised until later, out of every 100, a little over] 3.3 [of them got] HIV, and it's the [proportionality] between those 2 that gives you your big number if you're dishonest about it.

Yeah, I'll stick with [the word] “dishonest”, because I frankly think these studies are rankly dishonest, and they have been marketed at their highest point of possible [benefit], and none of the shades—none of the nuances—have been [discussed]. [Unfortunately], [their results] are so deeply embedded now, you could walk out on Marilyn's street here, stop a cab, and [the driver] will tell you [that circumcision confers a] “60% protective effect”. You know, it's deep; it's in place.

Marilyn Milos

[NOTE: Marilyn Milos previously threatened legal action for transcribing her words. Therefore, they have not been reproduced here.]

[NOTE: The audio ends abruptly here.]


          Imprint huge feet near the town Mpaluzi (South Africa)        

February 12, 2013 15:23

Giant footprint near Mpaluzi (South Africa), close to the border of Swaziland. Age print — 200 million years, when taking into account the current theory of the formation of granite. Track length — about 120 cm

Imprint huge feet near the town Mpaluzi (South Africa)

In the following video, Michael Tellinger says that it may be one of the best evidence that the Earth in ancient times there were giants.

With that, the trail is in the vertical plane surprising — this is due to the shift of tectonic plates.

Continue reading Imprint huge feet near the town Mpaluzi (South Africa)


          Flying solo on a South Africa group tour        

This 9-day overland tour, from the game parks of Kruger, through Swaziland and the beaches of Mozambique, down to Durban completely changed my view of what a group tour can be...

The post Flying solo on a South Africa group tour appeared first on Intrepid Travel Blog.


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          Encuentra personas mdiante su telefono y el GPS        
A continuacion les presentamos esta innovacion para localizar gente mediante la señal del celular y un GPS. Gracias a www.trackapartner.com

Debes poner el pais y el numero de telefono con el codigo de la ciudad...


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          Minyak dan Lemak Seri Ke-6        


MENCAPAI
PANJANG UMUR
dan TETAP SEHAT

Oleh : Dr. H.M. Nasim Fauzi

Tujuan Program Kesehatan
Tujuan utama program kesehatan adalah agar kita panjang umurnya, tetapi tetap sehat.
Umur Harapan Hidup Manusia
Binatang umumnya mati sekitar 8 x umur mencapai dewasa. Manusia mencapai dewasa sekitar umur 15 tahun. Bila sebanding dengan binatang, seharusnya manusia bisa mencapai umur 8 x 15 tahun = 120 tahun. Pada kenyataannya sangat jarang manusia yang bisa mencapainya.
Para Nabi adalah manusia yang istimewa. Umur mereka bisa dipakai sebagai standar. Nabi Adam As. wafat umur 140 tahun, Nuh As. 950 tahun, Ibrohim As. 200 tahun, Yusuf As. 110 tahun, Musa As. 120 tahun, Harun As. 122 tahun, Dawud As. 100 tahun, dan Muhammad Saw. 63 tahun yang wafat karena sakit. Jadi, umumnya mendekati 120 tahun, kecuali Nabi Nuh As.

Umur Harapan Hidup Manusia di Dunia Tahun 2011
Menurut CIA World Factbook tahun 2011, umur harapan hidup manusia di dunia tercatat sebesar 66,57 tahun (64,52 tahun untuk laki-laki dan 68,76 untuk perempuan).
Dari 191 negara di dunia, umur tertinggi tercapai oleh penduduk Monako, Perancis selatan, yang umur harapan hidupnya rata-rata 89,73 tahun, untuk laki-laki 85,77 dan perempuan 93,84 tahun. Yang terendah adalah penduduk Swaziland yang umur harapan hidupnya rata-rata 31,88 tahun, untuk laki-laki 31,62 dan perempuan 32,15 tahun. Negara ini terletak di sub-sahara, dimana negara-negara di wilayah itu mempunyai tingkat penyakit HIV /AIDSyang tinggi, dengan prevalensi pada orang dewasa sekitar 10 hingga 38.8 persen.
Untuk Indonesia umur harapan hidupnya rata-rata 70,76 tahun, untuk laki-laki 68,26 dan perempuan 73,38 tahun.

Secara genetik umur manusia telah ditentukan oleh Telomer yang terletak di ujung DNA. Setiap kali sel membelah diri, telomer akan memendek (menua), yang akhirnya habis dan meninggal dunia sekitar umur 120 tahun.
Manusia tidak bisa mencapai umur ini karena menderita penyakit yang menimbulkan kematian.
10 Penyebab Kematian Terbanyak di Dunia Menurut WHO Tahun 2011
 1.       Penyakit Jantung Koroner
 2.       Stroke
 3.       Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Bawah
 5.       Diare
 6.       HIV/AIDS
 7.       Kanker Paru
 8.       Diabetes Melitus
 9.       Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas
10.      Prematuritas
Kita bisa memperpanjang umur manusia dengan cara mencegah agar tidak menderita penyakit-penyakit tersebut.
Mari kita analisa satu per satu.

1 dan 2, Penyakit Jantung Koroner dan Stroke

Kedua penyakit ini disebabkan oleh atherosklerosis akibat pengendapan Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol yang disebut Kolesterol jahat. LDL Cholesterol yang tinggi ditimbulkan oleh konsumsi Minyak buruk yaitu minyak kelapa sawit, minyak kedelai dan minyak-minyak yang mengandung asam lemak rantai panjang / Long Chain Triglycerides (LCT) lainnya.

LCT ini setelah dikonsumsi, dalam bentuk Chylomicron masuk ke saluran lemak dan limfe /
cisterna chyli, lalu ke thoracic duct,  selanjutnya masuk ke vena jugularis interna dan subclavia, akhirnya masuk ke peredaran darah umum.
     Kadar LCT yang tinggi akan meningkatkan kadar kolesterol di antaranya LDL cholesterol yang bisa menimbulkan atherosklerosis. Selain menghindari minyak buruk kita juga harus menghindari lemak jahat yaitu margarin yang mengandung lemak trans, yang selain menimbulkan kanker juga bisa meningkatkan kadar kolesterol
Sebagai gantinya kita memakai minyak baik, yaitu minyak kelapa, yang mengandung asam lemak rantai sedang / Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT). Dari usus, MCT ini  langsung masuk ke hati dijadikan keton bodies dan ATP sebagai bahan bakar tubuh. Sangat sedikit minyak / trigliserid yang masuk ke peredaran darah umum.
Penyakit jantung koroner dan stroke juga disebabkan oleh arteriosklerosis akibat tekanan darah tinggi. Penyakit tekanan darah tinggi dapat dikendalikan dengan mengkonsumsi obat anti hipertensi setiap hari selama hidup, mengurangi makan garam dan menghindari kegemukan.

3. Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Bawah (ISPB)

Biasa menyerang bayi dan orang berusia lanjut yang keadaannya lemah. Sering merupakan kelanjutan penyakit ISPA (Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Atas). Sebaiknya dirawat di RS dengan penanganan yang intensif.

4. Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronik (PPOK)

Terdiri dari bronchitis chronis dan emphysema.
PPOK disebabkan oleh pencemaran lingkungan karena mengisap debu dan asap kimia dari industri, knalpot mobil dan motor.
PPOK bisa mengenai 50 % perokok yang berumur lebih dari 60 tahun, juga bisa mengenai 10 - 20 % perokok usia muda..

5. Diare

Kematian penderita diare disebabkan oleh kekurangan cairan tubuh (dehydrasi). Penderita diare harus segera diberikan cairan elektrolit. Bila perlu diinfus di RS dengan cairan RL dan diberi antibiotik yang sesuai. Untuk mengurangi cairan yang keluar bila perlu bisa diberikan anti spasmodik.

6. HIV / AIDS

Sampai sekarang belum ditemukan obat yang bisa membuhuh virus HIV/AIDS. Maka yang terpenting adalah mencegah agar kita tidak tertular dengan menghindari perzinaan. Bahkan tidak mendekati zina. (Wa la taqrobuzzina). Yang dimaksud dengan tidak mendekati zina adalah menghindari persentuhan lelaki dan perempuan yang bukan muhrim, minimal tidak bersalaman. Persetubuhan hanya boleh dilakukan antara suami isteri.
Orang yang sudah terjangkit virus HIV harus minum obat anti virus selama hidup.

7. Kanker Paru

Kanker paru bukan disebabkan oleh mengisap rokok, terbukti dari Rasio kematian oleh kanker paru antara penduduk Jepang dan AS di bawah ini.

Jepang
AS
Jumlah rokok dalam milyard batang
328
451
Jumlah penduduk (dalam juta jiwa)
117
310
Rasio rokok / penduduk (dibulatkan)
2
1
Rasio kematian oleh kanker paru
1
10
Konsumsi lemak (% kebutuhan harian/ orang)
8
40
     Bila rokok adalah penyebab kanker paru tentunya kanker paru di Jepang lebih banyak dari AS. Ternyata kanker paru lebih banyak di AS. Penyebabnya adalah karena tingginya konsumsi lemak di AS berupa minyak buruk yaitu minyak kedelai dan minyak kelapa sawit, serta lemak jahat yaitu margarin yang mengandung lemak trans dan bisa menimbulkan kanker.
8. Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Penyakit Diabetes mellitus atau kencing manis tudak dapat dicegah karena sifatnya menurun.
Bila seseorang menderita DM, kadar gula darahnya yang tinggi dapat dikendalikan dengan jalan :
- Mencegah kegemukan dengan mempertahankan lingkar perut, pada laki-laki < 90 cm, pada perempuan < 80 cm dengan cara membatasi konsumsi karbohidrat dan lemak.
- Tidak mengkonsumsi gula
- Setiap hari minum obat penurun gula darah sampai kadar gula  darahnya < 200 mg %. Bila perlu suntik insulin tiap hari selama hidup.

9. Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas

Kecelakaan lalu lintas dihindari dengan tertib lalu lintas,.serta membatasi kecepatan kendaraan di jalan raya. Kematian akibat kecelakaan lalu lintas dihindarkan dengan penanganan yang cepat dan tepat sejak di tempat kecelakaan, sampai di tempat rujukannya.

10.  Prematuritas

Kematian akibat prematuritas dapat dicegah dengan pena-nganan kelahiran prematur di RS dengan kelengkapan yang memadai.


PENUTUP

Sebagai penutup, agar kita panjang umur dan tetap sehat kita harus melakukan olahraga di antaranya senam.
Unsur dari senam adalah menggerakkan otot dan persendian, di antaranya peregangan otot.
Di bawah ini penulis kutipkan peregangan otot yang paling sederhana, hanya terdiri dari 3 posisi.

1. Side Twist
     Posisi ini adalah peregangan terbaik yang bisa Anda lakukan segera sesaat setelah Anda bangun tidur di pagi hari. Ini akan meningkatkan energi dan kekebalan tubuh.
     Berbaringlah telentang di tempat tidur. Angkat kedua lutut ke dada Anda, kemudian silangkan kedua lutut ke sisi kanan tubuh Anda.
Regangkan lengan Anda dalam posisi T dan dengan telapak tangan menghadap ke bawah. Putar kepala Anda ke kiri dan lihatlah ke sisi kiri Anda.
     Lakukan peregangan selama 30 detik,
Setelah itu gunakan otot perut untuk mengangkat kembali lutut Anda. 
     Lakukan gerakan yang sama untuk sisi satunya.
2. Cat Stretching
     Posisi ini sangat bagus untuk membuat bahu, dada dan juga punggung lebih santai.
     Berlututlah dengan tangan Anda, hembuskan napas dan tarik napas dengan teratur dengan posisi layaknya kucing ini. 
     Ulangi gerakan ini sebanyak 3 kali.
3. Child Pose
Berlututlah pada kasur dan tekuk kaki Anda.
     Lakukan posisi seperti bersujud. Tarik dan buang nafas dengan teratur untuk mendapatkan ketegangan.
Jember, 5 Juli 2015
Dr. H.M. Nasim Fauzi
Jalan Gajah Mada 118
Tilp. (0331) 481127
Jember
                  
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          Can the Success of HIV Scale-Up Advance the Global Chronic NCD Agenda?        
Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide but have received suboptimal attention and funding from the global health community. Although the first United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) for NCD in 2011 aimed to stimulate donor funding and political action, only 1.3% of official development assistance for health was allocated to NCD in 2015, even less than in 2011. In stark contrast, the UNGASS on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in 2001 sparked billions of dollars in funding for HIV and enabled millions of HIV-infected individuals to access antiretroviral treatment. Using an existing analytic framework, we compare the global responses to the HIV and NCD epidemics and distill lessons from the HIV response that might be utilized to enhance the global NCD response. These include: 1) further educating and empowering communities and patients to increase demand for NCD services and to hold national governments accountable for establishing and achieving NCD targets; and 2) evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of large-scale NCD screening and treatment programs in low-resource settings. We conclude with a case study from Swaziland, a country that is making progress in confronting both HIV and NCD. In September 2011, the United Nations (UN) convened a UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on noncommunicable diseases (NCD). The event was the second UN High Level Meeting ever held for a health issue, following the successful UNGASS on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in 2001. Modeled after its predecessor, the 2011 meeting was intended to catalyze a response to what the World Health Organization (WHO) called an epidemic of “silent killers” that were the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, yet receive little attention from the global health community [1]. Looking back to the prior UNGASS on HIV/AIDS a decade earlier, the NCD meeting aspired to similar goals: rallying multisectoral and cross-national partnerships; stimulating robust donor funding; spurring ambitious targets and commitments on the part of national governments; and catalyzing rapid scale-up of NCD services in resource-limited settings [2]. Advocates highlighted similarities between chronic NCD and HIV/AIDS, including a stark mismatch between the burden of disease and available funding, and the need for programmatic innovation, continuity care, and health systems strengthening 3, 4 and 5. The UNGASS on NCD was successful at producing a Political Declaration to combat NCD [6], and many countries affirmed a commitment to ambitious NCD targets and to implementing evidence-based “best buys” 7 and 8. Yet 5 years later, the global NCD response has languished in what some have called an environment of “malignant neglect” [9]. Despite the fact that NCD account for 37% of disability-adjusted life years in low-income countries [10], only 1.3% of official development assistance for health was allocated to NCD in 2015 [11], a proportion that decreased between 2011 and 2015 [12]. Few resource-limited countries have operational national NCD strategies or adequate NCD services, awareness of and treatment-seeking rates for NCD have not improved [13], and the vast majority of people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease remain undiagnosed and untreated 14 and 15. In contrast, in the years that followed the 2001 UNGASS, global spending on HIV increased by billions of dollars and the number of people initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries soared from 400,000 in 2003 to nearly 17 million in 2015 [16].
          L’Afrique du Sud commence la chasse aux casinos en ligne        
Dans la « bataille » menée entre le casino en ligne Piggs Peak, basé à Swaziland, et le gouvernement sud-africain, ce dernier prétend avoir pour seule motivation la protection de ses résidents. De son côté, le casino prétend avoir le droit de mener des activités en Afrique du Sud. La Haute Cour de l’Afrique du Sud a […]
          Selamat datang nuklear        
http://www.malaysiakini.com/columns/246983
.
Sebenarnya apa yang saya tuliskan ini merupakan suatu perkara lama, yang diulang-ulang, moga kita bukan sahaja dapat melawan lupa, tetapi tidak berputus asa terus memperjuangkan keyakinan kita. Mungkin ramai yang telah tahu, atau ramai yang kurang tahu, atau ramai yang tidak mahu ambil tahu. Apatah lagi jikalau kita bukanlah ahli politik sepenuh masa mahupun aktivis profesional. Kerancakan kegiatan politik Malaysia pula setakat pesta pilihanraya – yang katanya penuh dengan penipuan itu. Selesai pilihanraya, masing-masing kita punya kerja, tanggungjawab, amanah dan tugas-tugas lain, di luar kegiatan yang melibatkan urusan pembuatan keputusan warga dan hal ehwal kenegaraan.
Sebenarnya saya cuma mahu membawakan khabar gembira. Khabar yang ringan saja. Cuma siaran ulangan. Tidak berat dan mendatangkan sakit kepala. Diberitakan Agensi Berita Bernama, pada bulan Mac, 2011, bahawa Malaysia bakal memiliki dua buah loji nuklear yang bakal menjana 1,000 megawat tenaga elektrik, setiap satunya. (http://www.thestar.com.my/story.aspx?file=%2f2011%2f3%2f16%2fnation%2f20110316195554&sec=nation)
Loji pertama akan siap beroperasi pada tahun 2021 dan loji kedua, setahun kemudiannya.
Manakala dalam suatu laporan lain, yang memetik kenyataan Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), loji nuklear pertama akan siap beroperasi pada tahun 2025.
Barangkali perkataan nuklear akan menakutkan segelintir pihak yang cemburu dengan pembangunan satu Malaysia yang makmur dan maju ini. Apatah lagi pengalaman ngeri senjata nuklear, dua butir bom atom bernama “Little boy” dan “Fat Man” ke atas Nagasaki dan Hiroshima, pada tahun 1945. Little Boy yang panjangnya 3 meter itu telah memusnahkan bandar Hiroshima, menjadikan kota itu seperti padang jarak padang tekukur, hancur! Begitu hebat tenaga nuklear. Kira-kira 70,000 ke 80,000 orang terbunuh. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AtomicEffects-p7a.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AtomicEffects-p7b.jpg)
Selebihnya adalah sejarah perang dunia ke-2.
Jadi kita perlu jelaskan nuklear di Malaysia ini, untuk menjana tenaga elektrik. Ia bukan nuklear untuk senjata dan peperangan. Ia nuklear untuk keamanan. Ia hijau kedamaian tenaga kehidupan, bukan hitam kemusnahan kejam pembunuhan. Sepertimana yang telahpun diperakui PM Najib Razak dihadapan Presiden Obama pada tahun 2011 di Bali dulu terhadap komitmen Nuclear Non-Proliferation. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=WXFOhQ7urJY)
Ini kerana tenaga minyak dan gas akan habis. Oleh kerana loji nuklear tidak melepaskan karbon dioksida, maka kita namakan ia teknologi hijau. Meskipun sebenarnya istilah teknologi hijau untuk nuklear adalah kurang tepat. Orang kampung tidak tahu, aktivis terlalu sibuk, terlalu banyak isu. Para pemimpin politik sedang cerdas bergaya di parlimen dan DUN ataupun cergas bermuktamar, berkongres, berhimpun merebut  kerusi. Mahasiswa Malaysia pula sibuk memecahkan rekod Guiness.
Yang pentingnya semua orang akan menerima istilah teknologi hijau untuk loji nuklear. Fikir nuklear, fikir hijau. Hijau bagus. (Sila klik pautan http://www.tnb.com.my/nuclear.html)
Jikalau rekaan senibina loji nuklear berbentuk kubah keIslaman itu pastinya lebih baik. Kita boleh namakan ia, Pusat Teknologi Hijau Al-Hikmah  Al Sifari atau apa-apa sahaja nama-nama Arab.
Tolong lupakan tenaga angin, geo termal, matahari. Tenaga-tenaga ini hanya sesuai diamalkan negara-negara berkebajikan, sosialis dan komunis. Ini tenaga tidak bawa untung. Kalau rugi, macam mana kita mahu meneruskan rancangan Malaysia menjadi negara maju, selepas tahun 2020. Tanpa teknologi hijau (baca: nuklear) ini, negara kita akan mundur, miskin, hina dan kehilangan daulatnya pada masa akan datang.
Seperkara lagi. Loji nuklear kita bakal mengamalkan konsep kitar semula yang menjadi teras amalan gaya hidup hijau lestari alam sekitar. Di sinilah letaknya lojika utama untuk menamakan loji nuklear sebagai pusat tenaga hijau. Pusat Teknologi Hijau itu juga akan turut mengitar semula sisa Thorium dari Kilang Lynas. Makanya kebimbangan orang ramai berkenaan ke mana sisa radioaktif Lynas akan dihumban telahpun terjawab. Budaya konsumerisme kita terus rayakan – dengan berbagai-bagai produk moden dan terkini, hasil nadir bumi, untuk kita beli dan guna.
Sisa Lynas untuk Pusat Teknologi Hijau  boleh menjana tenaga elektrik bernilai RM4 trilion. (Perkara ini telahpun dijelaskan Presiden Persatuan Pengguna Pulau Pinang, merangkap Sahabat Alam Malaysia, S.M Idris, Lynas thorium waste : A real health threat,   bertarikh 11 Jun 2012 http://www.malaysiakini.com/letters/200572) Siapa yang tidak gelap mata dengan keuntungan sebesar itu? Nah, mestilah ada hikmahnya disebalik sesuatu perkara itu.
Jangan risau dengan tahap keselamatan pusat teknologi hijau kita itu. Lagipun jika ada apa-apa perkara yang terjadi, kerajaan Malaysia adalah kerajaan yang sangat-sangat bertanggungjawab. Jika kita bandingkan dengan negara-negara dunia ketiga lainnya, seperti Kongo, Swaziland dan Zimbabwe, perlu kita semua persetujui, yang Malaysia jauh lebih bagus dan terkehadapan sekali. Lihatlah betapa bertanggungjawabnya kerajaan Malaysia dalam menangani isu-isu keruntuhan binaan, misalnya stadium di Terengganu dan siling hospital.
Di dalam dunia ini, daripada kesekian banyak loji-loji nuklear, cuma ada dua buah loji nuklear yang berakhir dengan trajedi ngeri. Satu di Chernobyl, Soviet Union pada tahun 1986 dan satu lagi di Fukushima, Jepun, tahun 2011 yang lalu. (boleh google sendiri berkenaan trajedi Chernobyl dan Fukushima)
Sekali lagi, kita jangan terpengaruh dengan dakyah pihak-pihak yang cemburu dengan kegemilangan kerajaan Barisan Nuklear, terutamanya orang-orang Cina Malaysia dan Mat Saleh luar negeri ataupun Mat Saleh celup, yang membawa agenda liberal barat. Pihak-pihak ini tidak tahu bersyukur dan patut berhijrah keluar dari Malaysia. Misalnya orang seperti Dato Dr. Ronald Mccoy. Kerajaan sudah bagi pangkat Dato pun tidak tahu bersyukur. Masih hendak melawan kerajaan. Adakah patut Doktor ini menghasut orang ramai untuk menghentikan cadangan pembinaan pusat teknologi hijau kita itu?
(Dr. Ronald dalam tulisannya di laman Aliran Monthly, diposkan pada 1 Mei 2013 yang lalu, mendesak kesemua parti-parti politik untuk mengisytiharkan pendirian sebulat suara agar membatalkan sebarang rancangan untuk membina loji nuklear di Malaysia. Dato Dr. Ronald merupakan ahli Persatuan Perubatan Malaysia dan merupakan mantan Presidennya pada tahun 1995. Beliau juga merupakan Presiden Bersama International Physicians for the Preventive of Nuclear War (IPPNW), sebuah kesatuan kumpulan kedoktoran daripada 83 buah negara, mewakili 200, 000 orang doktor di seluruh dunia yang bermatlamatkan untuk menghapuskan senjata nuklear. IPPNW merupakan penerima Hadiah Nobel Keamanan pada tahun 1985. Sila rujuk: http://aliran.com/12712.html)
Tolong jangan marah-marah. Tolong jangan lawan-lawan. Tak penat ker? Kalau hendak melawan juga, tiru macam saya, hanya pandai menyalak dan marah di blog, fesbuk dan laman web sahaja. Ataupun ikut macam para pemimpin saya yang giat berdebat di parlimen dunia ketiga. Berceramah di seluruh negara. Buat laporan polis, kumpul tandatangan, hantar memorandum ke Suhakam. Atau bantahlah sejam dua jam di jalanan, pastikan selepas solat Jumaat.
Tetapi, pusat teknologi hijau ini lama lagi hendak siap, pasca 2020 nun nanti. Seperti Lynas, kita tunggulah lojinya siap dahulu, kalaupun benar mahu membantah. Kalau sudah siap, kita tunggulah pula, betulkah ada hal-hal yang buruk dan berbahaya akan terjadi.  Jika berlaku yang buruk. Kita patut redha, tidak guna lagi bersabar menahan-nahan amarah. Kita mesti menerima takdir dan pasrah bahawa dunia ini hanyalah pentas ujian yang tidak ada apa-apa makna. Hidup insan di dunia bermula daripada tiada, kepada ada dan kembali tiada.
Sementara itu, tenang-tenang, bersenang-lenang, beristirehat, beribadat dan berbahagia. Dunia belum kiamat. Seperkara lagi, janganlah terlalu taksub dengan apa yang saya tuliskan. Adapun yang sebenar-benarnya saya ini bukanlah boleh dipercayai sangat akhlak dan keilmuannya. Saya akui, saya juga salah seorang Sarjana Kosong.





          Clivia miniata        
Common name: Natal Lily, Bush Lily, Kaffir Lily, Clivia, Fire Lily, the South Africa Lily Family: Amaryllidaceae Distribution and habitat: Clivia miniata is a species of flowering plant native to damp woodland habitats in South Africa as well as in Swaziland. They are always found under tree cover in evergreen forests, growing in well-drained leaf […]
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          "...but go on..."        


Earlier this week I was facing a little crisis of sorts.


It's funny how so many things can be swirling around us on the outside, but it's those inner struggles that are actually the hardest.
I tweeted a while back, "Prepare NOW for battle-time decisions, or else when the battle rages you will be frozen and unable to do what needs to be done."
At first read, that can easily mean that when the battle is raging around us, we will have prepared and made up our minds what to do.
When someone does something less than honoring of me, I've already prepared my response.
When something in my life comes crashing down, I've already prepared my response.
But, what about when the battle is raging inside us?
At second read, we realize it's often the inner battle we need to be prepared in advance to fight.
What about when those thoughts sneak in?
What about when the questioning comes?
What about when we're tired of the resistance and we wonder, "Is this worth it? Is it really worth all this? Ugh."


I know God has called me to speak truth.
Well, He calls ALL of us to speak truth, so it's really not that great of a revelation.


...except that He really has. He has called me to speak truth that He shows me, boldly and without fear, yet wrapped in grace and love and peace... walking each step so intentionally at His direction.
In the last few months I have done that in various places in the world. 
Wales. Swaziland. Uganda.
In the past year(s) I've stood in front of numerous people... large groups, small groups, individually... and called out the truth that God has laid on my heart, wrapped in the reality of His loving grace.


But interestingly enough, the battle always rises... especially on the inside.
Because there is an enemy who does not want us speaking truth.
(Or sometimes he's fine with us speaking it, as long as it's not wrapped in grace and love, because that does even more damage than if we never spoke it in the first place.)


Earlier this week I was preparing to reenter some areas (because the fall season is here, and that's what we do in fall: reenter) where I know God has called me to speak truth.
So, why is it often easier to travel and proclaim it than to do it on your home soil?
(I could expound on that here, but it's meant to be a thought provoking and somewhat rhetorical question.)


And the inner battle rises.
Funny how, when we seek His thoughts and His heart, He is so quick to affirm and confirm and build us up in what He has called us to.


"Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking and do not be silent; for I am with you..."


Do you know who God said that to? Paul. He said it to Paul in Acts 18.
Paul the greatest apostle of all time.
Paul who stood before people who both loved him and hated him and he spoke the truth, wrapped in grace and love, no matter the audience.
PAUL!!!!!
"Do not be afraid any longer..."
Ummm... why would God say that to Paul
Paul wasn't afraid. Right? Paul never had second thoughts. Right? 
He was the Einstein of the Apostles. 
The Abraham Lincoln of the whole group.
The Montana in the heyday of the 49ers.


Or maybe Paul was human, like the rest of us.
And maybe thoughts and questions rose in his head like the rest of us.
And maybe when he got shut down and turned on and shunned, maybe sitting there at his desk, reflecting in the candle light, up too late...
maybe he had the same thoughts as the rest of us.
"Is it really worth it? Is it really worth all this? It's so exhausting. Maybe I should just stay here and study. The other guys can speak truth. Silas, Timothy. They got this. I'm tired. I'll stay here and..."
Yet God, so quick to affirm and confirm and build up, says, "Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking and do not be silent; for I am with you..."


Earlier this week I was facing a little crisis of sorts...
wondering if it was really worth it. Thinking maybe I should throw in the towel in this certain area. There are others that have it. I could just retreat and it would be fine. Reasoning in a way with my own self, knowing what God has called me to do, yet weary of the doing it in certain places that are just... so... hard.


"Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking and do not be silent; for I am with you..."


Yet God is so quick to affirm and confirm and build up. I just love so much His sweet and tender way of reassuring us while dolling out a kick in the rear.
We seek His heart, we go to His word, and then a passage jumps off the page. It hangs in front of our eyes while at the same time hugging us so tightly and literally causing a physical surge of strength in our bodies, causing us to stand up, pace the room and exclaim, "Yes! Okay, Lord! I'll do it!" 
The passage is written as a message straight to us, exactly in this moment... nearly two thousand years ago.
Because His word is living and active, sharp as a two-edged sword.


And no one on the outside would know that Paul even needed to hear from the Lord, "Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking and do not be silent; for I am with you..."
But it was recorded so we would know that these are real people, dealing with the same inner battles.


And no one would ever know I've struggled with any of this, except that I'm recording it, because I'm a real person who deals with the same inner battles we all do.
But, I've made up my mind in advance and prepared myself NOW, so when it rages I will trust God's word and what HE says.


"...but go on..."


And I will continue walking out what He has called me to do, in the very areas He has called me to do it.


And so will you.


"...for I am with you..."









          Ka Mun Rah... and I have come BACK...        


THREE MONTHS!!!
Holy freak-out cow.
And in those three months since I last blogged I have
*been to Swaziland with my family (freak OUT!!!)
*South Africa and Uganda with my daughter  (I KNOW!!!!!!!!!!)
*seen two amazing weddings 
I've been praying for 
*been to California, Oregon and 
Washington to see friends and family 
*miraculously formed a group of over 100
women that will crash Women of Faith in September
*experienced so many incredible things
*sent my kids BACK to school (muah-ha-haaaa)...


and God has been kicking my rear to get back on here and blog about all of it!


(Of course, if you follow me on Twitter and/or Instagram, you have seen the craziness of this summer's journey documented in pics and short sentence bursts.)


Hopping back into things, there will be some changes on this blog.
You will see posts on everything our family experienced in this amazing summer.
Africa was beyond incredible, and I desperately want to share all of it with you. Things we learned, things that didn't happen I thought would, things that did happen that I may have not been as prepared for.
All of it.
Because God is INCREDIBLE and it's all HIS story (HIStory) that is shouting to be told!!!


One of the major changes you will see is that I am re-enabling comments.
Long ago, there were comments on this blog. And then there were not, due to reasons that maybe I'll explain at some point on here but won't get into now.
Well, comments are HERE. So, while most of my readers may not ever care to leave a comment, some of you have said you'd like to at least have the option.


HowEVer, this blog is NOT COMMENTS BASED!!!!!!!!! There are some bloggers and readers that live and die by comment numbers and topics and whatnot.
I'm just tellin' ya right NOW that this blog is not one of those.
If you DO choose to comment, I'm going to do my best to respond within a few days of the post. Because you've come here, and you've taken the time, and that's just super cool, so I want to respond!


Another major change is that I will still be blogging on fashion-y type stuff (yes, that's an official term), BUT my Random Outfit Posts will now be appearing mostly on Instagram as just plain Outfit Posts.
(This has already been happening, which some of you know because you already follow me on there.)
I will still do tip and style posts on here, for sure. (And I'll probably even post the Instagram pics every so often.) But, it was just too difficult and time consuming to try and set up the camera outside, get some decent shots, upload them, sit down to do the post, etc.
In my real days full of real life, it just didn't happen as often as I wanted it to. And one of the whole POINTS of the outfit post is to show what I'm actually wearing in real life and how you don't have to spend a fortune to feel good in what you're wearing.


With the glorious invention of Pic Stitch that leads to Instagram that leads to Twitter that leads to Facebook, I can snap a few "real life" shots and post them with outfit details in just a couple of minutes.
Which means I'll post them more often... which means you get to see what a real woman who loves real fashion wears during her real days in her real life... which means hopefully you'll sometimes be inspired to step out of the box and try something new in YOUR real days full of real life.


Because some days it's stilettos and somedays it's flats.
And some days it's lots of jewelry and some days it's not.
And some days it's sweat pants and some days it's a dress.
Because that's JUST how life IS.
And we can feel confident in ALL of it.


But whatever changes happen, whatever adventures God leads me into, whatever topics are on my heart to discuss here,
Stilettos & Grace will always be about the (un)balancing act of walking out this amazing, grace-filled life that God has called us to.
It's an ADVENTURE, and we're meant to embrace it as such!


"I have come that you might have life, and life to the full."
~Jesus, John 10:10





(Title... where's it from? It's a frequent quote here in the White House.)






          Random Outfit Post        


I still have a few more Wales posts to do.

And I'm forever walking around giving God TOTAL glory for the miraculous story, told in my last post.
(Because we're going to Africa. 
OUR FAMILY IS GOING TO SWAZILAND AND UGANDA in LESS than a WEEK!!!)

And I NEED to update you on some AMAZING Women of Faith info.
(Are you coming with our group? Because we're going to have a BLAST. And I'm a seat snob, which God totally provided for and gave us AWEsome seats.)
Sign up or get more info on my Women of Faith blog page.

BUT, I have been hearing some comments...
"It suuuuure has been a while since you've done a Random Outfit Post."



Yes. Yes, it has been a while.



I was feeling very olive-y on Sunday...






pulling it all together...
cropped silk 90's shirt: Found for less than a dollar at my fav thrift store up on the Air Force Academy.
cropped silk pants: Poleci, dirt cheap at XSThreadz. SO comfy.
black billowy tank: Goodwill in California. I think it's a yoga brand, but it is incredibly lounge-y comfy.
black tank layered under: Active Basic, fav layering brand, from French Quarter in SLO.
strappy sandals: Tahari, a birthday gift a few years back from my handsome hubby.
gold earrings: Kenya.
gold bracelet: from mom, via my sis, from Spain? (Mom, I can't remember.)
same leather Brave and Grace bracelets I always wear and small gold ring from Grams.
hair: Showered night before, slept on it, ran my fingers through it with a bit of hairspray to add texture.


This outfit would actually be great without the tank layered under. However, I was going to church and wanted to make sure everything "stayed in place" if I felt like jumping around during worship.
Hence, the layering top. 
But if I were just wearing this out and about I wouldn't worry about it. The drapey tank looks a little more flow-y and loose without the second layer beneath.
In fact, I did wear this tank three more days this week!
*gasp*
Because it was just sooooo comfy.
(I'm a rule-breaker like that.)


(Actually, I'm not. I'm totally a rule-follower. But, when it comes to fashion... I'm a rule-breaker. Ooooo... I feel so Molly-Ringwald-as-Andie-in-Pretty-in-Pink-ish.)


I love how strappy these sandals are, and the stud detail and soft leather are amazing. The fact that they're only a 3 inch or so heel makes them great for long-wear. There is a little scuff on one of the tips that I need to fix. But, it's me we're talking about here. 
I always forget to do that stuff until I'm wearing the item that needs fixed.




And because we all know I can never be too serious, even if my above pics make it seem like I am...








          Swazi Update: FUNDED!!!        

(This post is an update on where our Swazi finances are and the amazing things we have seen take place. We are still taking donations to make the Uganda goal for the follow-on trip Brittney and I are making. Details below.)


Last week we witnessed a miracle... 


Wednesday morning we launched a matching campaign for our Swazi trip. An extremely generous donor said they would match, dollar for dollar, all donations up to the cost of one trip ($3500, which has gone up from $3300 since we first started on this journey). We were blown away at this amazing opportunity!!!
That meant that if we could somehow max out this matching gift, we would raise $7000 for our family's trip to Swaziland!!!


When we started this journey back in January, we had an estimated $27,000 to raise for our family of six to go to Swazi, for me and Brit to follow onto Uganda and for my Wales trip (that I took in early May).
***Get those full details here.***
We had no idea how the funds would be raised, but we knew that we knew that we knew God was calling us into all three of these trips.


My Wales trip was covered about a week before I left, which was amazing and miraculous in and of itself.
When I returned we looked at the $12,000+ balance in our Swazi account and said, "Okay, Lord. We can't do this... we knew that when you called us into it. But YOU can. ONLY You can."


SO many incredible people had given to put that $12,000 into our account. We were humbled and beyond thankful at the generosity of our friends and family. The tutu sales and fundraising nights at Marco's Pizza had been helpful, but we knew we couldn't stop there if we were going!


Last Wednesday morning when we launched the matching campaign, we were two weeks away from leaving...

...AND WE WATCHED A MIRACLE HAPPEN!!!!!!!!!!!!


Donations came into paypal, and we received messages and emails from people committing to give.
Thursday early afternoon we received an updated donation report from the church that told us we were getting closer to maxing out the gift, but we still had a bit farther to go.
I spread that news via emails and facebook, and we said, "Okay, God. You know what this is supposed to look like."


And we waited.


More messages and emails came in indicating that people would donate. And we received paypal emails saying that people WERE donating!!! People were pouring out their hearts into this Swazi trip and coming alongside of our family!
And in the midst of that Thursday so many other immediate things were clamoring for our attention with kids and doctors appointments and school ending. We knew God had it... and that we wouldn't receive a report from online donations until sometime Friday.
My parents flew in that night, and we prayed and waited.


Friday morning came and went, and we cheered on Brit as she walked up to receive her 5th grade continuation certificate and officially move into 6th grade... and middle school.
Friday afternoon came and went, and we jumped between classrooms and schools as the kids got out for summer break and celebrations were had.
Friday evening came and we went as a family, with Mom and Dad and Hanna Who Is Most Awesome (our very own School of Worship Intern) to the kids favorite restaurant to celebrate the end of another school year... Golden Corral. 
I kept glancing at my phone, looking at email every so often... and then it came.
A text message from the Amazing Melissa: "I just sent you an updated report."


I looked at Nate and clicked into email. It started downloading. He took the phone from me. "Honey!" I exclaimed. He opened one email... opened the attachment... a grin spread across his face...
"Our Swazi trip is covered."
"WHAT????" I called out in the middle of Golden Corral.
"It looks like our Swazi trip is fully covered and the plane flights for you and Brit up to Uganda are probably covered, too, with some left over for the Uganda ground costs."
"AAAAAAAA!!!!! HONEY!!!! Really??? REALLY???
He showed me the amount, and between the church's online giving site, paypal, and the checks that had come in and we knew were coming, we not only maxed out the matching gift, but we raised over $10,000 in 36 hours!!!!!
Enough to put our total to around $23,000!!!!!!! 


And in the middle of Golden Corral we cheered and celebrated and rejoiced in the faithfulness of our God and the amazing hearts and generous spirits of our friends and family... some who hardly even know us, but believe so deeply in what we are stepping into.


We are blown away. Absolutely blown away. For the past few days I have been walking around with a somewhat dazed look and a slight smile. 
Sometimes laughing,
sometimes with tears pooling in my eyes,
sometimes randomly squealing (which I'm sure is hard to imagine). *wink*
Because one of the huge things with our Swazi finances being covered right now is that we didn't have to spend our last week and a half scrambling to fundraise the remaining money.
We leave a week from tomorrow, and we are able to focus on packing and prepping... get everything laid out, wrapping up loose ends.
This going-across-the-world-with-four-kids thing is no joke! Man. And because of all of you who have stepped in to be a part of this, we can breathe and take these last few days to focus on our family being ready.


You are all SUCH a blessing to us!!! When I say that, I hope you can hear the sincerity in my words. From giving throughout the months, to giving during the matching campaign, to praying fervently for our family and our trip... SO many of you stepped up and into our Swazi story. Not only have you come alongside of our family in this, but you have come alongside the story of these beautiful Swazi people. YOU are going WITH us in carrying the hope of a future to this AIDS-ransacked nation.
YOU have invested in them... and us.


So many of you have invested financially, with sacrifice... THANK YOU!!!
So many of you have invested with your prayers, putting our picture on your fridge or mirror or car dashboard and covering us in the most foundational aspect of this trip... THANK YOU!!!
And so many of you have done BOTH... THANK YOU!!!


Our Swazi trip: funded.
Mine and Brittney's plane flights up to Uganda: funded.
Our Uganda ground costs: we still need to reach that goal, but we're getting there!
Donations keep coming in, and if you still have a heart to join this story and help us go, we do still need help covering the rest of our Uganda costs. I don't have an actual amount on that, because with group fundraising and other elements, it's hard to nail down what remains.
But, we're going to keep moving forward, knowing that just as God has provided for everything else, He will provide for this, too.
(Just follow the giving guidelines on our Africa page.)


Thank you, thank you, THANK YOU to everyone that has come alongside of us.
We're so excited to frame that picture of our family in Africa and write every single one of your names on the mat, to be hung in our household and remembered in our Swazi story... in our family's story... that has become part of your story.


God is faithful. He does provide for what He calls us into.
Thank you for being part of that provision for our family.
Many said it couldn't be done, that we were launching into the impossible.
Good thing that's what our God specializes in... making the impossible possible.
We hear, we obey, and we do it with confidence in the One who calls us into the adventure.


Africa, here we come...



          Where We're Going: Swaziland, Part 3        


Some friends recently went to exactly where we're going in Swaziland (we'll spend most of our time at the Gege CarePoint).
Over the next few days I'll repost here, with permission, Glenn Packiam's thoughts on his experience.
To read all four posts at once, you can go to Glenn's blog
To read more about our family going and different ways that you can help us get there, go here.
If you go to New Life and would like to sponsor a child at our CarePoints, click the Ask Angela link on the side and email me for more information. (I'm the sponsorship coordinator.)
Read Part One HERE.
Read Part Two HERE.


Part Three: "Luck Bearers"

[NOTE: This series of blogs is a compilation of reflections from our NewLifeSundayNight trip to Swaziland in March, 2012. A separate absolute monarchy surrounded by South Africa, Swaziland has the highest HIV infection rate in the world. 60% of its population lives on less than USD$1.25 a day. Our church is partnering with Children's Hope Chest to "sponsor" two communities where orphans and vulnerable children abound. I will say more on this partnership and how the model works in Part 4 of this blog series. My goal in writing this blog series is primarly to help our church understand the nature of this partnership, and to find ways of getting involved.]


It is the strange way of the Spirit that whenever I write a book, I find myself having to live it out in new ways after its release. When Butterfly in Brazil came out, New Life Church experienced an unexpected transition and I had to put to new practice the ideas of staying faithful right where I was. When Secondhand Jesus released, I found myself beginning a long journey or renewed theological study and liturgical discovery that has shaped my own spiritual formation in fresh ways. When LUCKY came out last year, I couldn't help but wonder how the Spirit would lead me to live out in new ways the message of receiving and participating in the Kingdom that has come, is coming, and is yet to come. Little did I know, it would come on a trip to Africa.

IMG_1028Each day in Swaziland, we made home visits. Our team split up to make most of these visits, so my stories are of the ones I was on. The first was to a woman named Sophie. She said she was 90-years old and had been bed-ridden for almost 50 years by a grotesquely swollen left leg. Matt Howard began by thanking her for allowing us to come and visit her. As he asked more questions we learned-- with the help of an interpreter-- than she had been married to a pastor who had been habitually unfaithful. He had abandoned her when she became sick. As if that were not bad enough, each of her four children had died suddenly, just as their careers in the city were beginning to take off. Now here she was, lying on a mat on the floor, trying to care for her grandchildren. When we presented her with a bag of supplies-- candles, matches, rice-- a large bag of beans, and a large bag of corn flour, she burst into tears.She told us she knew God was faithful, that He was her provider. We prayed with her as we fought back tears of our own.

IMG_1050At another visit, we met a grand-aunt who had travelled miles across their "mountains" to check in on her 20-year old grand-niece who was the sole provider for her younger siblings. Jennifer Randolph shared the story of Jesus calming the storm, bringing a word of encouragement that Jesus is with them even in their storms. After presenting them with the same supplies and gifts of food, the old woman shared her own fear of a storm that would melt away the mud home her grand-nieces were living in. Storms are not simply metaphorical for her.

IMG_1092On another occasion, we met an old couple who were caring for the orphaned grandchildren. The grandfather was broken as he shared how he wished he could work the field and provide for his family, but his body was just too frail now. Chris Burley shared beautifully about how God fed Elijah with ravens. Somehow these stories took on a more earthy feel as sat on the rotting wooden bench outside, staring at people who would likely starve without raven-like intervention. It occured to me to say to them that we are like God's ravens,bringing them rice and flour and beans and candles and more. As we gave them the gifts, the grandmother began to weep. She said she had just been praying Psalm 23, trusting God to be their shepherd to provide for all their need. And now, we had come.