Sean John Unforgivable e Jequiti : Popularização do Luxo no Brasil        
Por Cristiane Gonçalves, exclusivade Perfume da Rosa Negra, um novo tempo, um novo perfume




O lançamento de Sean John Unforgivable, a primeira marca internacional de fragrâncias da empresa Jequiti, é um grande e estratégico passo na Perfumaria Nacional. Segundo o seu presidente, Lásaro do Carmo Jr, em apenas 4 anos de existência, a empresa de cosméticos e perfumaria do Grupo Silvio Santos está entre as 3 maiores empresas de venda direta no país, eleita em 2010 a empresa de cosméticos do ano por uma autoridade competente no assunto, está entre as Cias mais emergentes no segmento, com um portfólio de mais de 750 produtos e um crescimento acelerado com vendas de 354 milhões em 2010 e mais de 450 milhões em 2011 até o momento, o que só vem a agregar e reforçar a posição de liderança do Brasil como o maior mercado mundial de perfumaria e o segundo mercado de vendas em vendas porta a porta.  Para uma empresa jovem, com menos de 5 anos de atuação no mercado, ela já demonstra uma visão de futuro com a parceria com Aramis  e Designer Fragrances, inovando a gama de seus produtos, com uma proposta sustentável de negócios de unir à Jequiti a visão global da perfumaria, com o barateamento da produção nacional,  a parceria de grandes grupos e a popularização de marcas de luxo. Certamente, sua estratégia é bem vinda, para trazer o melhor em qualidade de perfumaria ao consumidor, assim como acirrar a competição entre empresas líderes e expressivas  como Natura, O Boticário e Avon Brasil.





A estratégia da Jequiti ao lançar Sean John Unforgivable Ã© interessante porque ela compete diretamente com a Avon Brasil, por exemplo, que tem já tem um histórico de fragrâncias que levam nomes de celebridades como Reese Whiterspoon e Patrick Dempsey em seus catálogos de vendas e que massificam o luxo. Sendo uma empresa 100% nacional, a Jequiti avança na concorrência e  cria um vínculo de proximidade entre fragrâncias de prestígio e a massa popular de potencias consumidores, dessa forma, ela abre caminho para inúmeras possibilidades de propiciar um produto considerado importado e de alto custo para classes C e D, por exemplo, criando mecanismos de alianças de negócio e de produção nacional que tornam o perfume mais barato. Inclusive,  o próprio sistema de vendas da Jequiti, baseado no porta a porta com diversas consultoras espalhadas pelo país, torna o luxo mais acessível a partir do momento que em uma cidade distante, com uma comunidade formada  de classes populares, o produto Jequiti é vendido e distribuído por uma consultora. Para ter uma idéia do custo da fragrância, Unforgivable Ã© comercializado pelo preço  R$ 139,00, sendo que ele custaria mais de R$ 300 se fosse importado.  Para a diminuição desse custo, a participação da Lange Cosméticos assumindo a produção nacional de Unforgivable Ã© de fundamental importância, ainda que insumos e embalagens continuem como items de importação. Considerando a base histórica e tradicional do luxo, no qual produtos são caros, vendidos em nichos específicos e inacessíveis a uma boa parte da população, a popularização do luxo é uma forte manobra de negócios para o crescimento do mercado consumidor, demonstrando que a massificação é uma estratégica duradoura e autosustentável em diversos segmentos do mercado Nacional.






A escolha pelas fragrâncias Sean John Unforgivable foi de bom gosto e bem coerente, considerando sua  ótima característica olfativa, as poucas opções de perfumes de celebridades que fazem a diferença, o background de vendas de Unforgivable nos Estados Unidos e a atitude comprometida e empreendedora de Sean John no desenvolvimento de seus produtos. Ele é conhecido como  rapper Puffy Daddy e é um homem de negócios extremamente empenhado no crescimento de sua marca. Ele criou um portfólio de produtos fashion e de beleza e ele sabe vender a imagem fortemente nesse segmento de perfumes de celebridades que exige uma atitude positiva e agressiva do marketing pessoal e empresarial, tanto que  Unforgivable Man ganhou o Fifi Awards como melhor fragrância luxo de 2007, e na ocasião ele brilhou nos holofotes com sua simpatia, carisma e senso de negócios. No mais, Unforgivable foi topo de vendas number #1 nos Estados Unidos e, com a sua expansão internacional, esteve entre as 3 fragrâncias mais vendidas no Reino Unido e Australia. É importante acrescentar que o duo de fragrâncias  é agradável e têm pirâmides olfativas nada empobrecidas em comparação a perfumes de celebridades que são facilmente esquecíveis; pelo contrário, Unforgivable man e woman conquistam pela versatilidade elegante, sendo a versão masculina bem adequada para o clima Brasileiro, com um fougère sedutor que abre a energia da tangerina, limão e da bergamota com um toque especiado de manjericão e refrescante da Salvia, e a versão feminina, um perfume bem mais refinado, floral  sensual com freesia e lírios, o toque levemente adocicado de coco das ilhas Seychelles e o confortável de madeiras sensuais e âmbar.



O clima no lançamento da fragrância Sean John Unforgivable estava cheio de alegria, a marca do bom humor da Jequiti. Executivos da marca estavam entusiasmados com o orgulho de lançar uma fragrância como Unforgivable, que continua sendo um sucesso de vendas após sua criação, respectivamente em 2005 para a masculina e 2006 para a feminina e pode trazer muito progresso para a Jequiti no Brasil. Além do premiado background de Unforgivable, Sean John chegou a lançar I am the King, em 2008, que também abocanhou o prêmio de melhor fragrância pela Fragrance Foundation, o que comprova que a marca tem uma aceitação e visibilidade pelo público, o que pode funcionar bem por aqui e criar um movimento de novas parcerias globais na perfumaria Brasil.





Vídeos publicitários de Unforgivable Man e Woman
Prometem atiçar o desejo por ser inesquecível




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          Tanaman-tanaman Pemangsa        
Darisemua tanaman aneh di dunia, banyak tanaman yang butuh daging..sepertidaging serangga, dan mereka adalah tumbuhan karnivora .Semua tanamankarnivora dapat ditemukan di daerah dimana tanah memiliki nutrisisangat sedikit. Tanaman menarik ini dikategorikan sebagai karnivorakarena mereka membuat perangkap serangga dan arthropoda, menghasilkancairan pencernaan, melarutkan mangsa , dan sebagian besar, nutrisimereka dari proses ini. Buku pertama tanaman ini ditulis oleh CharlesDarwin, pada tahun 1875, “Insectivorous Plants”.

Setelah penemuan dan penelitian lebih lanjut, diyakini bahwa sifat pemakandaging berevolusi pada enam kesempatan terpisah, dari lima perintahyang berbeda dari tanaman berbunga.sekarang ditemukan lebih dari 630spesies yang berbeda tanaman berbunga.

Ada lima mekanisme dasar tentang jebakan yang digunakan dan ditemukan disemua tanaman: seperti perangkap Fly Kertas, perangkap pukulan,perangkap kantong dan jebakan pot Lobster. Saya ingin menunjukkanbeberapa tanaman, menggunakan mekanisme masing-masing, sehingga Andajuga dapat melihat perbedaan antara genera yang berbeda.

10. Sarracenia

Sarracenia, atau tanaman Pitcher, adalah Genus tanaman karnivoradi pesisir timur, Texas, danau besar dan Kanada timur selatan, dengansebagian besar spesies yang hanya ditemukan di negara bagian tenggara.Itujuga merupakan tanaman pertama dengan perangkap yang akan kita bahas.daun tanaman telah berevolusi menjadi corong, dengan tudung sepertistruktur berkembang selama pembukaan untuk mencegah air hujan darimenipiskan cairan pencernaan.Seranggatertarik oleh warna, bau dan sekresi nektar seperti di bibirteko.permukaan licin, dibantu dalam setidaknya satu spesies, denganobat hantaman nektar, menyebabkan serangga jatuh ke dalam dan merekaakan mati dan dicerna oleh protease dan enzim lainnya

9.Nepenthes
Nepenthes, tanaman pitcher tropis atau Tumbuhan cangkir monyet,yang lain genus tanaman karnivora dengan perangkap . Ada sekitar 130spesies yang tersebar luas, dan dapat ditemukan di Cina, Malaysia,Indonesia, Filipina, Madagaskar, Seychelles, Australia, India,Kalimantan dan Sumatera. julukan "cangkir monyet" julukan berasal darifakta bahwa monyet sering minum air hujan mirip dengan tumbhan ini.Sebagianbesar spesies Nepenthes adalah tanaman merambat tinggi (10-15m), dengansistem akar dangkal. Dari batang Anda akan sering melihat pedangseperti daun berkembang, dengan sulur yang (sering digunakan untukmemanjat) menonjol dari ujung daun.Padaakhir sulur tersebut, pitcher bentuk pertama sebagai bola kecil, yangkemudian mengembang dan bentuk cangkir. perangkap berisi cairan, yangdihasilkan oleh tanaman, yang mungkin ORS encer manis dan digunakanuntuk menenggelamkan dan mencerna serangga. Bagian bawah dari cawan itumengandung kelenjar yang menyerap dan mendistribusikan nutrisi.Kebanyakan tanaman ini kecil dan cenderung menjadi perangkap seranggasaja, tetapi beberapa spesies yang lebih besar, seperti NepenthesRafflesiana dan Nepenthes Rajah, telah didokumentasikan untuk menangkapmamalia kecil seperti tikus. 

8. Genlisea
Genlisea, lebih dikenal sebagai tanaman pembuka botol,terdiri dari 21 spesies dan umumnya tumbuh di darat basah untuklingkungan perairan semi, dan tersebar di seluruh Afrika, tengah danAmerika Selatan.Genliseaadalah tumbuhan kecil dengan bunga kuning yang memanfaatkan perangkaplobster (Perangkap yang mudah untuk masuk tetapi tidak mungkin untukkeluar, seperti dengan menggunakan rambut kecil tumbuh menuju pintumasuk atau dalam kasus ini, yang pernah maju mendorong spiral).Tanamanini memiliki dua jenis daun - daun fotosintesis di atas tanah, dan daunbawah tanah khusus untuk menarik, menjebak dan mencerna organismemenit, seperti protozoa.daun bawah tanah ini juga melakukan tugas akar,seperti menyerap air dan pelabuhan, sebagai tanaman tidak memilikiapapun.Daunbawah tanah ini bentuk tabung berongga di bawah tanah, tabung inimemiliki bentuk pembuka botol mendorong maju, dan dengan bantuan aliranair konstan, mikroba kecil bisa membuat jalan mereka ke dalam tabung,tetapi tidak dapat menemukan jalan keluar lagi. Ketika mereka mencapaibagian di dalam tabung, mereka akan dicerna dan diserap. 

7. Darlingtonia Californica
Darlingtonia californica, juga disebut Bunga California atau Lilly Cobra,adalah anggota tunggal dari genus darlingtonia, dan asli NorthernCalifornia dan Oregon.Mereka tumbuh di rawa dan merembes dengan airdingin dan, karena jarang di dataran, tumbuhan ini dianggap biasa.Daundari Lily Cobra yang bulat dan membentuk rongga kosong, dengan bukaanyang terletak di bawah balon, bengkak seperti struktur dan dua menunjukdaun tergantung dari ujung seperti taring.Tidakseperti tanaman pitcher besar, Lilly Cobra tidak menggunakan perangkapjebak, melainkan perangkap lobster pot. Begitu di dalam, serangga yangbingung dengan lampu besar Speckles diizinkan untuk bersinar melaluitanaman.Ketikamereka mendarat di sana, ada ribuan bulu-bulu halus lebat yang tumbuhke dalam, mereka dapat mengikuti rambut yang lebih dalam terhadap organpencernaan, tetapi mereka tidak bisa berbalik atau bergerak ke belakanguntuk melarikan diri. 

6. Utricularia
Utricularia, atau dikenal sebagai bladderworts, adalah genus tanaman karnivorayang terdiri dari sekitar 220 spesies. Mereka tumbuh di air tawar dantanah basah sebagai spesies darat maupun di perairan, di setiap benuakecuali Antartika.Merekaadalah satu-satunya tanaman karnivora yang menggunakan perangkapkandung kemih. Sebagian besar spesies memiliki perangkap yang sangatkecil, di mana mereka dapat menangkap mangsa dalam sekejap, sepertiprotozoa. Perangkap dapat berkisar dari 0.2mm - 1.2cm, dengan perangkapyang lebih besar, menjebak mangsa yang lebih besar seperti kutu air danbahkan berudu kecil.Perangkapmemicu rambut kecil melekat pada pintu jebakan. Kandung kemih, ketikaset, berada di bawah tekanan negatif dalam hubungan ke daerahsekitarnya. Saat rambut pemicu jatuh, pintu perangkap terbuka,menghisap serangga dan air di sekitarnya, dan menutup pintu lagi, semuadalam hitungan 10 ribuan per detik. 

5. Pinguicula

Pinguicula, atau butterworts
,adalah sekelompok tanaman karnivora yang menggunakan zat lengket,kelenjar daun untuk memikat, menjebak dan mencerna serangga. Nutrisidari serangga melengkapi kandungan mineral dari tanah yang miskin .Adasekitar 80 spesies yang dapat ditemukan di seluruh Amerika Utara danSelatan, Eropa dan Asia.Daun-daunbutterwort adalah indah dan biasanya berwarna hijau derah atau merahmuda . Ada dua jenis khusus dari sel-sel ditemukan di sisi atas daunbutterwort. Salah satunya dikenal sebagai kelenjar penduncular, danterdiri dari sel-sel sekretori di atas sel batang tunggal. Sel-sel inimenghasilkan sekresi mucilaginous yang membentuk tetesan terlihat dipermukaan daun, dan bertindak seperti flypaper effect. Sel-sel lainnyadisebut kelenjar sesil. Mereka terhampar di permukaan daun danmenghasilkan enzim seperti amilase, esterase dan protease, yangmembantu dalam proses mencerna. 


4. Drosera
Drosera, umumnya dikenal sebagai sundews, terdiri dari salah satu genus tanaman karnivora terbesar,dengan sedikitnya 194 spesies. dapat ditemukan secara luas tersebar disetiap benua kecuali Antartika. Sundews, (tergantung pada spesies)dapat berbentuk mawar bersujud atau tegak, mulai dari 1 cm sampai 1mtinggi, dan dapat hidup sampai 50 tahun.Sundewsdicirikan oleh kelenjar tentakel bergerak, diatapi dengan cairanlengket manis. Ketika serangga tanah lengket pada tentakelnya , tanamanini dapat menggerakkan tentakel lebih ke arah serangga untuk menjebaklebih lanjut. Setelah terperangkap, kelenjar sesil kecil akan mencernaserangga dan menyerap nutrisi yang dihasilkan, yang kemudian dapatdigunakan untuk membantu pertumbuhan. 

3. Byblis
Byblis, atau tanaman pelangi,adalah genus kecil asli tanaman karnivora Australia. Nama tanamanpelangi berasal dari tampilan yang menarik daun lendir mereka ditutupidi bawah sinar matahari. Meskipun tanaman ini terlihat mirip denganDrosera dan Drosophllum, mereka tidak terkait pada kesamaan spesies dandapat dibedakan dengan bunga zygomorphic dengan lima benang sarimelengkung.Daun memiliki penampang bulat, dan mereka cenderung sangat memanjang dan meruncing di ujungnya.Permukaan daun benar-benar tertutup rambut kelenjar yang melepaskan zat mucilaginous lengket, yang pada gilirannya menjadi perangkap serangga kecil pada daun atau tentakel sebagai perangkap flypaper effect pasif. 

2. Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Aldrovanda vesiculosa, juga dikenal sebagai tanaman kincir air,adalah tanaman menarik tanpa akar, karnivora, dan juga tanaman air.biasanya memakan vertebrata kecil, menggunakan mekanisme yang disebutperangkap perangkap snap.Tanamanini terutama terdiri dari batang mengambang bebas, mencapai 6 - 11cmpanjangnya. Daun perangkap tumbuh sepanjang 2-3mm tumbuh dari 5-9,berturut-turut sepanjang batang dekat pusat tanaman. Perangkap melekatpada petioles, yang berisi udara, dan membantu dalam pengapungan.Inimerupakan tanaman berkembang sangat cepat dan bisa mencapai 4-9mm perhari, dalam beberapa hal bahkan menghasilkan ulir baru setiap hari.Sebagai tanaman tumbuh dari satu ujung, ujung lainnya akan terusmati.Perangkap pada dasarnya terdiri dari dua lobus yang sama untukmembuat perangkap menutup.Bukaandari perangkap keluar titik, dan tercakup dalam lapisan yang memicurambut, yang akan menyebabkan trap untuk bertepuk menutup saat setiapmangsa yang datang terlalu dekat. kecepatan perangkap menutup adalah 10mili/detik, membuatnya menjadi salah satu contoh gerakan tercepattanaman dalam kerajaan hewan.

1. Dionaea Muscipula
DionaeaMuscipula, lebih dikenal sebagai penangkap lalat Venus, mungkin adalahtanaman karnivora paling terkenal dan ia makan terutama pada seranggadan arakhnida. Penangkap lalat Venus merupakan tanaman kecil yang memiliki 4-7 daun yang tumbuh dari batang bawah tanah pendek.Helaidaun yang dibagi menjadi dua : tangkai daun berbentuk hati yang pipihdan sepasang lobus terminal berengsel di pelepah, membentuk perangkapyang sebenarnya adalah daun sejati.Permukaan bagian dalam dari lobusini mengandung pigmen merah dan ujung-ujungnya mengeluarkan lendir.Inimenunjukkan lobus tanaman gerak cepat dengan meletakkan menutup ketikarambut sensorik khusus dirangsang. Tanaman ini begitu maju sehinggadapat membedakan antara stimulus hidup dan stimulus yang tidak hidup.Lobusmenutup dalam waktu sekitar 0,1/detik. mereka dibatasi oleh tonjolanseperti duri kaku atau silia, yang menutup bersama dan mencegah mangsabesar dari melarikan diri. Setelah mangsa tidak dapat melarikan diridan permukaan bagian dalam lobus terus dirangsang, tepi lobus tumbuhatau mencengkeram bersama, menyegel perangkap dan menciptakan sebuah"perut" tertutup di mana pencernaan dan penyerapan dapat terjadi

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          Viva la Vivāha        

It is going to be a little more than two months since I've got married and I don't have a single post on the wedding stuff. Bad, no? Here are some salient points from the experience.
  • The jee-i'm-actually-gonna-get-married feeling sunk in when Sindhu (my wife) & I started plan the look and layout of our wedding invitation. We had a simple design in mind and were particular on the colour, texture and feel of the invitation card & cover. Menaka, Eureka, Butterfly, Kalyani, Sankeshwara Papeir...it took a lot of running around to get what we wanted. We got there in the end.
  • I totally relished the Maapla treatment at home. It is a super feeling of being the star of the show. You're lavished with attention from everyone. Want something? Just look up...and ten people will be hanging on to the word you say.
  • Couple of days before the wedding, my brothers & I went for a grand beauty treatment to a men's parlour in Mandavali. I had the Groom's Special which had the full works - Diamond facial, bleach, scalp massage, haircut, manicure, pedicure etc. All this took the whole day! My brother found out how ticklish he's on his feet during his pedicure. He just couldn't sit still. The beauty trip was very relaxing and we were refreshed at the end of it.  Everything was great except that ghastly five-figure amount we got billed for their services. 
  • My grand-dad had it. My dad had it. My uncle had it. My cousin had it too. But, more importantly, one Mr Kameshwaran from my favourite Thamizh movie had it. And I decided long time back I was gonna have it when it is my time. Janavasam. I had it. And I totally loved it.
  • It was a typical Tambram wedding...peppered with the highs and extreme highs and thereof (emotionally speaking).
  • People marry. Some re-marry. But you get married for the first time only once. Pah, wattey logic, you may say. The point is - when you do something which you can do only once, why not do it properly? I dug into my reserves of patience and cooperated with whatever rituals I had to do from my part. The motto was: Cooperate, don't kovama operate.
  • Talking about doing things properly - the Sastrigal told us to NOT shake hands with anyone after Mangalya dharanam until he tells us to do so. "Nee avala mattum dhaan thodalaam. Vera yaaraiyum thoda pdaadhu. Purinjidhaa?" #haun. He informed the handshake ban to the audience through microphone. After the Thaali was tied, once the rain of akshadhai and flowers subsided, one Maama ignored the handshake ban and extended his hand with a megawatt smile only to be met with a huge NO from me. Not the one to be cowed away easily, Maama insisted again, the Sastrigal belted out a high decibel bark "Kozhandha correct-a kai kudukka maaten 'granono, yen padutharel! Apram vaango saar!". Got the nods of approval from junior sastrigals and the photographer.
  • I got a candid photographer to cover the event. I closely followed some photographers who specialize in this and boy they are a creative bunch! Glad I had PV cover my wedding. Check out his work here.
  • Panjakacham is an underrated men's garment. 
  • My mum planned to put together a surprise video of me & Sindhu to be played after Janavasam. But poor thing was smashed for time with the wedding prep that she couldn't do much on apart from collating old photographs. She really wanted it to happen so I (with some help from my bro) made a video which was basically a time-line with photos from memorable stages/events in our life and some funny anecdotes thrown in. We played it after Janvaasam. Everybody loved it.
  • Nalangu was a total riot. I sung this song. The family were in their element and reached resonant galaata frequency when I prompted them for chorus. I still wonder how they made me sing 3 songs (incl. a duet) compared to her two songs. I tell you, girls have this amazing ability to slither away from spotlight.
  • We went to Seychelles for honeymoon.
Some changes happen gradually. Sometimes you acknowledge a change is taking place but you don't realise the change until a particular moment. During oonjal ceremony, I looked at the huge gathering of people around us. Before me were persons who were involved in my life in various degrees - like my 2nd standard Sanskrit teacher, cousins I used to play with, classmates, my aunts, my mum - people who were in some way from my birth, childhood, till that point in my marriage played a part in me being the person I am. Looking at them, I felt stock of the changes that has happened in my life. Its moments like these in my wedding and other moments that I am unable to put in words, but are imprinted in my mind far better than any HD camera can record, that made my wedding a happy and emotionally satisfying experience.

          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
          Still waiting for #DelawarePapers and #Nevadapapers        

For just $309, you too can hide your assets — in the U.S.


The website for Corporation Makers promises that owning a business can remain “your deep dark secret.”

“Do you wish to own land or other assets without anyone becoming aware of it?” it advertises.

Not a problem. All for as little as $309.

The pitch doesn’t rely on the loose rules of well-known offshore havens such as the Cayman Islands. It’s about Nevada.

Nevada is among a handful of U.S. states with liberal incorporation laws that offer many of the same benefits that have drawn business tycoons, politicians and money launderers from around the world to hide their wealth in exotic locales — a secret economy revealed this week in a series of reports based on leaked documents from a Panamanian law firm.

The so-called Panama Papers show how the firm Mossack Fonseca set up shell companies for the rich to shield their millions from the prying eyes of tax authorities and the public.

The firm’s most common destination was the British Virgin Islands, where it worked with more than 100,000 entities. But its seventh-most popular place to set up corporations — after island nations such as Seychelles — was Nevada, with more than 1,000 companies.

In pursuit of fees and other revenue, several U.S. states have competed with each other in recent decades to attract people from around the world starting businesses. The states promise minimal taxation and maximum legal protection and privacy, much like offshore tax havens.

“The mechanisms are pretty much the same here,” said Matthew Gardner, executive director of the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, a nonprofit in Washington. “There’s nothing special happening in Panama. Panama is pretty much a microcosm of what the U.S. is a willing partner in.”

Financial watchdog groups have dubbed the competition among states a “race to the bottom” that places the U.S. among the worst places in the world for corporate transparency.

“From the states' perspective, the end game is to raise revenue for the state by creaming off fees from large numbers of companies incorporating there — and the consequences be damned,” one such group, the Tax Justice Network, based in the United Kingdom, wrote in a 2015 report.

When John Cassara, a former special agent with the U.S. Department of the Treasury who investigated money laundering and fraud, was training foreign investigators, they would often ask about “this thing called Delaware.”

“You’ve heard the expression ‘follow the money’?” Cassara said. “Well, when the money trail leads to a Delaware corporation, it is almost a dead end for law enforcement.”

More than a century ago, Delaware sought to attract businesses by allowing companies to write governance rules that shielded management from liability and eliminated standard protections for shareholders.

Today, the state is the legal home to 1.1 million companies, 95% of which have their principal location in another state or country. Tens of thousands of businesses list the same Delaware addresses, home to their incorporating agents.

The businesses registered in Delaware include 65% of Fortune 500 companies.

But many more are limited liability corporations essentially unknown to all but the owners and their agents and lawyers, drawing enough criticism that the state maintains a “facts and myths” Web page.

“Delaware has a comprehensive statutory and regulatory regime to protect the public from improper behavior by business entities, just like other states,” it says.

State officials say that over the last decade or so they have cracked down on a variety of questionable practices, including the use of shelf corporations, or old shell companies that are sold to start-ups trying to pass themselves off as businesses established long ago.

Not in dispute are the benefits to Delaware: corporate franchise taxes — the fees for maintaining a business — provide the state nearly $1 billion a year, or a quarter of its annual revenue.

That success has drawn the attention of other states looking for sources of revenue.

In the 1980s, Nevada began revamping its corporate laws to minimize liability for management.

Among its biggest draws is secrecy.

The state allows “nominees” to file company documents while the identities of the true owners remain hidden.

That is a key selling point for many incorporation companies that specialize in establishing businesses in Nevada.

A common practice is for a nominee to be “appointed in the morning,” file state paperwork by lunch, and then resign by dinner, according to the incorporation site www.Nevada123.com.

“The less the public knows about your affairs, the less engaged they can become,” the site says.

Nevada and other states say their rules are not meant to encourage illegal activity.

But secretive entities have long been used to move and hide money. Hard-to-trace shell companies have served as fronts for controversial foreign buyers of top-end real estate in cities including New York and Miami.

Federal rules have also allowed U.S. political donors to hide campaign contributions by donating to super PACs through limited liability corporations.

One prominent Republican donor, the gambling industry magnate Sheldon Adelson, tried to hide behind secrecy protections when he purchased the Las Vegas Review-Journal last year.

The company’s journalists were informed one day that their new owner was a company called the “News + Media Capital Group,” which had been recently incorporated in Delaware with “undisclosed financial backers with expertise in the media industry.”


Corporate documents listed Michael Schroeder, a Connecticut newspaper publisher, as the company’s manager but did not name the owner, whose identity was only revealed after the newsroom revolted and its reporters launched their own investigation.

Adelson had originally denied buying the paper.

Gardner, of the financial watchdog nonprofit, explained the cost of such secrecy: “There is a basic matter of democratic distrust when you don’t know who’s running things.”

Secrecy has been allowed to flourish in the U.S. even as the government tries to improve corporate transparency abroad in an effort to cut off funding for terrorism, drug trafficking and other illicit activity.

But pressure is building on federal and state officials to address corporate secrecy. This week, U.S. Treasury officials said they could soon issue a rule change that has been in the works to require banks and other financial institutions to obtain information about the owners of companies.

News reports about the Panama Papers this week have already put some state officials on the defensive, with some critics calling for federal requirements that states disclose businesses’ true owners.

Wyoming launched an audit Monday of 24 companies in the state linked to Mossack Fonseca and discovered they had failed to provide “required statutory information for performing the duties of a registered agent under Wyoming law.”

Wyoming Secretary of State Ed Murray promised to fight fraud and possibly seek changes in state law. At the same time, he defended the way Wyoming did business.

“I oppose a one-size-fits-all federal law mandating the dissolving of privacy protections,” he said in a statement. “We are not naive as to the importance of the release of these 'Panama Papers,' but we will not compromise the privacy of our customers.”

See full text and comments in http://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-panama-papers-americans-20160407-story.html



          European Commission issues "black list" of 30 "tax havens"        


Action Plan on Corporate Taxation

On 17 June 2015, the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link for fair and efficient corporate taxation in the EU.
The Action Plan sets to reform the corporate tax framework in the EU, in order to tackle tax abuse, ensure sustainable revenues and support a better business environment in the Single Market.
See the timelinepdf. 

5 Key Areas for Action have been identified:

1. Re-launching the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)
2. Ensuring fair taxation where profits are generated
3. Creating a better business environment
4. Increasing transparency
5. Improving EU coordination 
map of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions has also been published, in a move to reinforce the EU's response to external threats to Member States' tax bases.
The Commission also adopted a decision to prolong the Platform on Tax Good Governance, and revise its scope and working methods.
For further information


The map was drawn up on the basis of work done by the Platform for Tax Good Governance and the information provided by EU Member States.

Top 30 listed countries: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Guernsey, Monaco, Mauritius, Liberia, Seychelles, Brunei, Hong Kong, Maldives, Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, Panama, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, US Virgin Islands.

Panama is listed by Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

Full text in the European Commission website http://ec.europa.eu/





          Weekly Wears: Confidence, Girl        
Weekly WearsWeekly WearsWeekly WearsWeekly WearsWeekly WearsWeekly Wears
(photos by Elise Abigail Photography)

I went through a period this winter/early spring where I just kinda lost my confidence.  I was over analyzing EVERYTHING and felt insecure about decisions I was making.  That typically happens for me when I'm having a creative block.  (My therapist keeps reminding me that my creativity, or lack thereof, does not define who I am as a person, but that's a post for a different day.)  I've posted many times about letting go of self-inflicted pressure and allowing self-forgiveness, but I'm also no stranger to allowing myself to feel overwhelmed or down.  Those are the ups and downs of life, I suppose. Anyway, I'm happy to report that I'm making my way back to self love and understanding.  Oh yeah, and that confidence is returning!  Hooray for that.

Dress: F21;  Socks: Tabbisocks;  Choker: DIY on ABM;  Shoes: Seychelles;  Purse: Bali Elf;  Hair pom: keychain turned hair accessory

I guess that was a bit of word vomit, but hey-- whatever.  I don't think there's anything wrong with talking about where you are at any given point.  We all struggle and if you're there right now, I feel you, friend.  Go easy on yourself.  ðŸ’›



           Hydrological analyses for Mahe, Seychelles         
Institute of Hydrology. 1988 Hydrological analyses for Mahe, Seychelles. NERC Institute of Hydrology. (UNSPECIFIED) (Unpublished)
                  
Originally posted on The world:
Here are some of th best beachs in the world. Seychelles http://www.seychelles.com One of the most…
          Bathroom Inspiration        
My main bathroom is currently a bit lacklustre, when really it should be the go to place for peace, quiet and relaxation, especially on an evening like tonight when i am a football widow.

So i am looking for inspiration...

A tiled black and white floor has been holding me back, i wasn't quite sure how to style it. That was until i had a moment of genius upon sight of this beautiful vintage mirror in my local charity shop. There's nothing better than building a room around such a beautiful bargain!


So Black, White & Gold it is!

Something like this




I would love to find some large gold frames (in the same style as the mirror) to go above the tub, laid out like above featured in Country Living

I also think (space permitting) the coat stand is a brilliant idea, especially for people like me who are yet to get on the property ladder and live in fear of leaving holes in rented walls.

What to put in the frames is always a tough one for the bathroom, because pictures of beach huts and beautiful shorelines have a tendency to make me which i was somewhere else and how ever gorgeous my bathroom is unfortunately it's not in the Seychelles!

Keeping with the vintagey, black and white feel i love the idea botanical prints featured in House Of Turquoise.

Another idea i've had whilst trawling the internet for inspiration is a great penny saver, but what about using wall paper samples? There are loads of great black and white designs around...

All from B&Q

Hopefully these ideas will help to make the bathroom a real haven, my favourite room perhaps...


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          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2010: THE CIRI REPORT        
In conjunction with Human Rights Day, 2011, the CIRI Human Rights Data Project releases its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2010. The CIRI project's data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a wide variety of purposes. The project is Co-Directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University) and Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut) and assisted by Senior CIRI Associate K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). Any inquiries may be addressed to info@humanrightsdata.org

Below, we present four types of stories from this year's released data:


THE BEST AND WORST of 2010

All 14 of CIRI's indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world. The top (best) score a country can receive is 30, while the worst score would be 0. The world average was 18 and the USA scored 26 (tied for 5th place). Below are the best and worst of 2010.

Top 13 Countries:

Denmark [30]
Iceland [30]
Austria [29]
New Zealand [29]
Norway [29]
Australia [28]
Belgium [28]
Finland [28]
Liechtenstein [28]
Luxembourg [28]
Netherlands [28]
San Marino [28]
Sweden [28]


Bottom 10 Countries:

Burma [2]
Eritrea [2]
Iran [2]
China [3]

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of [3]
Yemen [3]
Zimbabwe [3]
Saudi Arabia [4]
Congo, Democratic Republic of [5]
Nigeria [5]


THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL

On May 20, 2011, the United Nations elected 15 new members of the UN Human Rights Council. Here are their total CIRI human rights scores for 2010, out of a possible 30 points. Six out of the fifteen new members had scores below the world average of 18 for the year 2010. Below are the scores for each new member:

Austria         [29]
Benin          [16]
Botswana     [22]
Burkina Faso    [20]
Republic of Congo  [18]  
Chile             [26]
Costa Rica     [26]
Czech Republic   [24]
India               [10]
Indonesia        [13]
Italy               [24]
Kuwait          [11]
Peru              [18]
Philippines     [15]
Romania        [17]


DECLINE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Index of Physical Integrity Rights measure's a government's overall level of respect for four rights: torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, disappearance. The index ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these four rights) to 8 (full respect for all four of these rights). In 2008-2009, the world saw an overall average increase in these rights of .047. However, a reversal of this improvement was seen from 2009-2010, with it's overall average decline in respect of -.031. In particular 2009-2010 saw the following dramatic changes:

Three Countries Lost 3 Points (Violations Increased)

Croatia
Georgia
Panama

Seven Countries Gained 2 Points (Violations Decreased)

Angola
Chad
Chile
Guinea
Italy
Kenya
Seychelles

The fact that the CIRI data stretch back in time to 1981 allows for longitudinal comparison. For example, the graph below shows how regional averages of respect for physical integrity rights have changed over the years:



MORE TORTURE

An important part of this overall decline in respect for physical integrity rights comes from a continuing degradation, globally, of respect for the right not to be tortured. For example, 2009-2010 saw 17 countries engage in more torture, while only 8 engaged in less torture. Below is the list of these countries. CIRI's indicator of government respect for torture is as follows: (0) Frequent/systematic torture, (1) Moderate/occasional torture (2) No reported/confirmed episodes of
torture.

Increased Torture, 2009-2010

Austria
Bahrain
Canada
Congo, Republic of
Croatia
Georgia
Hungary
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Kyrgyz Republic
Marshall Islands
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
Thailand

Decreased Torture, 2009-2010

Chile
Czech Republic       
Denmark       
Dominica       
Italy       
Micronesia, Federated States of       
Seychelles       
Spain

This trend in the greater use of torture is not a post-9/11 phenomenon, however. The chart below shows the increased use of torture beginning in the early 1980s. The extent of the drop in respect for this right differed by region and is seen to be particularly acute in Africa.


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On this dvd we fly from the airline's hub in Mahe to Europe on the Boeing 767-300 as well as to several destinations in the Indian Ocean on its brand new Boeing 737-700. We also discover some of the Seychelles islands as we fly domestic routes on the Twin Otter.


          Dream Vacation ~ Seychelles Islands        



The Seychelles Islands look absolutely magnificent.  I never thought about going until I saw some pictures online, and then I freaked out.  It's paradise incarnate!  Never mind it's one of the last matriarchal societies on the planet (how rad is that?).  Located off the coast of Africa, in the Indian Ocean, this is a dream vacation to say the least.  Find more information on this divine land here.



Photos: 1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9



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          A pop of yellow        
Obsessed with these comfy slides and these sunglasses that I found on the REAL REAL. Thought I would give a lucky reader a go at these before pressing order (not to mention 20%off). A fun pop of color!

A pop of yellow
Gap muscle tee
Mansur gavriel bag
Loren stewart ring
Karen Walker sunnies
seychelles slides (these are on Anthropologie--their site is down at the moment)
Ariel Gordon diamond lariat
MIH straight jeans

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Sweater: Free People ((included in the Nordstrom Sale!)) // Shorts: Loft // Booties: Seychelles ((included in the Nordstrom Sale!)) // Purse: Gucci // Earrings: Baublebar c/o


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Pullover: Gibson // Vest: Patagonia // Jeans: Paige // Booties: Seychelles // Purse: Vera Bradley c/o // Watch: Daniel Wellington c/o


          Comment on Kitesurf destinations by month – part 1 by Brightmen        
July Cabarete, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, Mauritius, Naxos-Greece, Raratonga, Leucate-France, The gorge-USA, Pirlanta-Turkey, Bol-Croatia, Foddini-Italy, Seychelles*, solomon Islands, Maui-USA, fiji, Tahiti, Essaouira-Morocco, Guincho-Portugal, el yaque-venezuela, rhodes-greece, levkada-greece, dakhla - morocco, Corsica, paros-Greece, porto pollo-Sardinia, Lanzarote, El Gouna-Egypt, Safaga-Egypt, Sinai, eilat-Israel, Paramali-Cyprus, Sri Lanka**, Maui-USA, Aruba-Carib, Puclaro-Chile, Mancora-Peru August Cabarete, El Gouna-Egypt, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, Brazil, Mauritius, cape verde, Naxos-Greece, Raratonga, The gorge-USA, Bol-Croatia, Pirlanta-Turkey, Foddini-Italy, Zanzibar-Tanzania, Guincho-Portugal, Seychelles*, solomon Islands, Rangiroa-F.polynesia, Maui-USA, fiji, Tahiti, Essaouira-Morocco, Corsica, Rhodes-Greece, Paramali-Cyprus paros-Greece, Lanzarote, Safaga-Egypt, Eilat-Israel, Sinai, Sri Lanka**, Maui-USA, Aruba-Carib, Puclaro-Chile, Mancora-Peru September El Gouna-Egypt, Tucus-Brazil, Mauritius, Pirlanta-Turkey, Zanzibar-Tanzania, Seychelles*, solomon Islands, Rangiroa-F.polynesia, Sumbawa-indonesia, Maui-USA, Madagascar, UK, Corsica, rosslare-Ireland, Canada, Germany, Israel, Sinai, Noordwijk ann Zee-Netherlands, Puclaro-Chile, Mancora-Peru, Cumbuco Brazil October Tucus-Brazil, Western Oz, Sumbawa-indonesia, Madagascar, New Caledonia, Chile, Watergate-UK, Esbjerg-Denmark, rosslare-Ireland, Buenos aires-Argentina, Carmelo-Uruguay, Noordwijk ann Zee-Netherlands, Cape Hatteras-USA, Tarifa, Puclaro-Chile, Mancora-Peru, Cumbuco Brazil November Melbourne, Tucus-Brazil, Western Oz, Namibia, Sumbawa-indonesia, Auckland-NZ, Madagascar, New Caledonia, Buenos aires-Argentina, Carmelo-Uruguay, Hong Kong, Leucate-France, Noordwijk ann Zee-Netherlands, Tarifa, Puclaro-Chile, Cumbuco Brazil December Melbourne, Tucus-Brazil, Western Oz, cape town-South Africa La ventana-mexico, Namibia, Copal-Costa Rica, Mui Ne Bay-Vietnam, Auckland-NZ, Nashiro-Japan, Baja, New Caledonia, Boracay-philipines, Buenos aires-Argentina, Carmelo-Uruguay, Monastir-Tunisia, Hong Kong, Leucate-France, Cape Hatteras-USA, Tarifa, Puclaro-Chile, Yemen-Red Sea
          Rwandans Upset By Captain        
I wonder what some experts on the regulations think of this.

It seems that the unfortunate incident on the last day of the Olympiad has had the unintended side-effect of causing ructions within the Rwandan men's team.

From Rwanda's The New Times paper:

The controversy started on the final day of the tournament on Thursday last week, when in round 11, a Seychelles player against Rwanda’s Alain Patience Niyibizi on board 2, suddenly collapsed and was later pronounced dead.

Although Rwanda was leading on the score against Seychelles before the incident, team captain Maxence Murara chose to sacrifice two games as loses in a gesture of goodwill to Seychelles, a decision which did not go down well with his teammates.

Never mind that the captain apparently did not consult his players, for that was just poor decision-making and obviously bad leadership. I am just curious about this: if the position is not evident on the board during actual play, how can a game be declared lost? Obviously, there may be situations wherein a game can be lost regardless of the position, like player behaving badly if I remember the Laws right, but we are not talking about this. The only procedure I can think of is that the captain sort of "resigned" on behalf of his players, although I am not sure if he can do that either.

Honestly, it is easy to understand the motivations of the Rwandan captain. But I think offering a draw would have been quite adequate as a gesture of goodwill.
          Tromsø, An Olympiad of Surprises        
It was dramatic in the lead up and it was dramatic until the very end. So many surprises, upsets and twists. That was the Tromsø Olympiad. I almost regret not pulling the trigger on a summer vacation in Tromsø.

The event was an historic one, too. For the first time, the Chinese men won gold! If you didn't think that this was a big deal for them, just have a gander at this photograph in Susan Polgar's tweet. Beautiful!


Of course, well done to the Aussies. Over on Chess Chat, Kevo reports that both teams finished way above their seedings.

As for this Smirnov kid, well, he wasn't even my pick for a spot in the team as I was thinking he'd be a bit too inexperienced. But sheesh, was I wrong?! You know, I actually remember him turning up to Hyde Park, in Sydney, many years ago, sitting around while his father (now an IM) played blitz. There was absolutely no sign, then, that the kid would himself actually end up being this good! If he keeps up, the selectors will have to put him on board one for Baku.

To close, let me briefly extend condolences to the Seychelles team. Last night, one of their members suffered a medical emergency during play and later passed away. A terribly sad ending. And this morning, Norwegian journo Tarjei Svensen just tweeted that yet another player passed away, too. No further details yet of this second incident.



          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauAfrica is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          DISTRIBUCCIÓN        
El tiburón blanco vive sobre las zonas de plataforma continental, cerca de las costas, donde el agua es menos profunda. Es en estas zonas donde la abundancia de luz y corrientes marinas genera una mayor concentración de vida animal, lo que para esta especie equivale a una mayor cantidad de alimento. Sin embargo, están ausentes de los fríos océanos ártico y antártico, a pesar de su gran abundancia en plancton, peces y mamíferos marinos. Los tiburones blancos tienen un avanzado metabolismo que les permite mantenerse más calientes que el agua que les rodea, pero no lo suficiente como para poblar estas zonas extremas.
Las áreas con presencia frecuente de tiburones blancos son:
-Las aguas de las Antillas Menores, algunas partes de las Antillas mayores, el Golfo de México hasta Florida y Cuba y la Costa Este de Estados Unidos desde allí hasta Terranova.
-La franja costera de Río Grande do Sul a la Patagonia, la del Pacífico de América del Norte y del Sur.
-Archipiélagos del Pacífico.
- Australia.
-Tasmania y Nueva Zelanda.
- Norte de Filipinas y todo el litoral asiático.
-Seychelles, Maldivas, Sudáfrica y las zonas cercanas a la desembocadura de los ríos Congo y Volta
-Y la fachada costera desde Senegal a Inglaterra, con agrupación apreciable en las islas Cabo Verde y Canarias, penetrando también en los mares Mediterráneo y Rojo. En éstas últimas zonas es donde la presencia humana, manifestada a través de la sobreexplotación pesquera y la contaminación de las aguas, han reducido considerablemente la distribución de esta especie. A pesar de ello, parece que persiste en el área alguna zona de cría, como por ejemplo la del Estrecho de Messina.
- Esta especie puede alcanzar también aguas de Indonesia, Malasia, el Mar de Ojotsk y la Tierra del Fuego.
Normalmente se mantiene a una cierta distancia de la línea costera, acercándose sólo en aquellas zonas con especial concentración de atunes, focas, pingüinos u otros animales de hábitos costeros. Igualmente, suele permanecer cerca de la superficie, aunque ocasionalmente desciende hasta cerca del kilómetro de profundidad.

En un estudio reciente, se comprobó que los grandes tiburones blancos de California emigran a un área entre Baja California y Hawai conocido como "el Café del Tiburón Blanco", donde pasan al menos 100 días al año antes de volver a California Baja. En el viaje, nadan despacio y se sumergen a unos 900 metros de profundidad. 

Tras regresar, cambian su comportamiento y hacen inmersiones cortas a aproximadamente 300 metros durante unos 10 minutos. Otro tiburón blanco etiquetado de la costa de Sudáfrica nadó a la costa del sur de Australia y regresó en el espacio de un año. Esto refutó las teorías tradicionales que decían que los tiburones blancos son depredadores territoriales costeros y abre la posibilidad de que exista una interacción entre poblaciones de tiburón blanco que antes eran consideradas independientes. Aún se desconoce por qué migran; barajándose la alimentación estacional o la existencia de áreas de acoplamiento.
En un estudio similar un gran tiburón blanco de Sudáfrica fue rastreado nadando a la costa noroeste de Australia y atrás a la misma posición en Sudáfrica, un viaje de 2000 km, en menos de 9 meses.

          Seychelles Vacations        
Unspoiled islands, fine white sandy beaches, washed warm waters, lush tropical vegetation, exotic palms, spectacular views, true Creole cuisine, the Seychelles is sure to amaze you.
          December Recap 2016        

His: Tretorn boots | ASOS jeans | UO jacket and shirt Hers: Seychelles shoes | Madewell jeans | Aritzia jacket (similar here) Taking a look back on December… This holiday season really got away from us. With the move and some projects filling our days these last few months, we found ourselves in Target the […]

The post December Recap 2016 appeared first on New Darlings.


          Sejur Enchanted Island Resort Seychelles        
Eturia iti propune sa petreci o vacanta de neuitat in Seychelles; insulele arhipelagului sunt unele dintre cele mai frumoase de pe pamant, fiind supranumite si Bijuteriile Oceanului Indian.

          Croaziera de grup cu insotitor Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar & Reunion, 18 zile - februarie 2018        
Eturia iti propune o croaziera in cele mai importante insule ale Oceanului Indian - Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar & Reunion, prilej cu care vei vedea unele dintre cele mai spectaculoase peisaje si mai exotice plaje din lume.

NOTA: Itinerarul vasului de croaziera poate suferi modificari independent de vointa Eturia. Modificarea itinerarului nu constituie motiv de anulare a calatoriei.

          Safari Kenya & plaja Seychelles, 11 zile - aprilie 2018         
Eturia iti propune un safari in Kenya, unde vei putea observa animalele africane in mediul lor natural. Vei vizita capitala Nairobi, parcurile nationale Masai Mara si Lake Naivasha, iar in final vei avea parte de cateva zile de relaxare pe plajele tropicale din bijuteria Oceanului Indian, Seychelles.

          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Puzzle 2000 piese - Seychelles - 86,90 lei         
thumb

Puzzle 2000 piese - Seychelles

Dimensiuni: 92 X 68 cm
Numar piese: 2000 (puzzle peisaje; puzzle Seychelles )
Puzzle Castorland – puzzle 2000 piese


          Seychelles - Mahe Island Marine Conservation Projects-HD.mp4        

Spend time volunteering on the stunning island of Curieuse while you contribute to vital conservation efforts to preserve some of the islands most important species.


          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps, VISAs and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          S79K, Seychelles Is.        


Martin G4XUM volverá de nuevo en noviembre a Mahe, Seychelles Is. para participar en el CQ WW Dx Cw contest en categoría SOAB como S79K. Podría haber actividad pre/post contest.

Qsl vía G3NKC.

73´s, Luis EA1CS

          9 Tempat Bulan Madu Favorit        

1. The Seychelles

Daerah ini adalah daerah favorit dan menduduki peringkat pertama bagi banyak pasangan bulan madu. Terletak di Samudera Hindia, tempat ini menawakan pantai dengan pasir putih, laut jernih, dan beberapa makanan segar yang unik.

2. Marrakech, Maroko

Marrakech adalah tujuan bulan madu yang sempurna. Honeymooners bisa beristirahat dan bersantai, sambil menikmati wisata budaya yang luar biasa dan pemandangan kota yang sangat indah. Selain itu honeymooners bisa mencicipi menu masakan lokal yang lezat dan dapat naik unta romantis keliling kota.

3. Jamaica
Ini adalah daerah bulan madu favorit ketiga yang dipilih honeymooners. Terletak di Laut Karibia, daerah ini memiliki beberapa pantai yang paling indah di dunia yang benar-benar murni.

4. Las Vegas
Dulu, kota ini dijuluki kota pendosa, tapi citra itu pupus dengan makin banyaknya, pasangan pengantin baru yang menjadikan kota ini sebagai kota tujuan bulan madu. Untuk yang gemar berpetualang dan dugem, kota ini memang sangat cocok untuk didatangi.

5. Bulgaria
Mungkin kejutan terbesar jika kota Bulgaria masuk dalam daftar. Terletak di Eropa Tenggara, kota ini dikenal memiliki sejarah dan budaya beragam. Pantainya pun kabarnya menawarkan keindahan bagi honeymooners.Hari ini i-dus.com bertemakan tentang"9 Tempat Bulan Madu Favorit

6. Jepang
Sebagai negara adikuasa, dan negara pengekspor ke empat di dunia, tidak mengherankan jika industri pariwisatanya pun mengalami kenaikan luar biasa. Jepang dikenal memiliki keunikan dalam kuliner karena menyehatkan. Khusus tempat wisatanya, Jepang memiliki sejumlah tempat bersejarah yang merupakan tempat favorit untuk berlibur bersama keluarga

7. Mesir
Mesir adalah negara yang memiliki segalanya. Mulai dari akses ke Laut Merah, lokasi wisata bawah laut yang menarik, hingga lokasi wisata skuba yang menarik. Pantai di Mesir juga dikenal sangat eksotis dan merupakan satu dari tujuh keajaiban dunia.

8. Thailand
Thailand lebih dikenal dengan wisata pantai dan keanekaragaman budaya yang menarik. Mulai dari The Temple of The Emerald Buddha, atau wisata belanja di Bangkok yang juga merupakan surga bagi shopacholic (penggemar belanja). Thailand juga dikenal dengan wisata seksnya yang bisa dijadikan ajang uji nyali bagi pasangan pengantin baru.

9. The Maldives
Maldives adalah satu negara kecil di kawasan Asia. Daerah ini dikenal sebagai negara berkembang dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang terus naik dari tahun ke tahun. Di daerah ini, para honeymooners bisa melakukan perjalanan wisata alam, yang memang menjadi ciri khas dari negara ini.

Meski ada beberapa kota seperti Venice dan Paris yang disebut-sebut sebagai kota romantis di dunia, tapi kedua kota ini tidak termasuk dalam peringkat 9 pilihan honeymooners. Beberapa tempat di atas diambil berdasarkan hasil polling.

          Calendrier d'établissement des rapports sur l'application de la Convention-cadre - Pays Africains concernés        
Calendrier d’établissement des rapports des Parties sur la Convention-cadre de l’OMS pour la lutte antitabac. Pays Africains Party Date pour soumettre le premier rapport Date first report submitted to Convention Secretariat Date pour soumettre le second rapport 5. Seychelles 27 February 2007 2 March 2007 27 February 2010 15. Mauritius 27 February 2007 27 February 2007 27 February 2010 16. Maldives 27 February 2007 15 February 2007 27 February 2010 22. Kenya 27 February 2007 4 April 2007 27 February 2010 32. Madagascar 27 February 2007 28 February 2007 27 February 2010 39. Ghana 27 February 2007 28 February 2007...
          250 millions + de francophones en Afrique Sub-Saharienne        
PosPays Population -Pays Francophones d'Afrique Sub-Saharienne 257,642,9091 RDCongo 68,692,542 2 Madagascar 20,653,556 3 Côte d'Ivoire 20,617,068 4 Cameroun 18,879,301 5 Burkina Faso 15,746,232 6 Niger 15,306,252 7 Sénégal 13,711,597 8 Mali 12,666,987 9 Guinée 10,957,975 10 Rwanda 10,473,282 11 Tchad 10,329,208 12 Burundi 8,988,091 13 Bénin 8,791,832 14 Togo 6,619,000 15 République Centrafricaine 4,511,488 16 Congo-Brazzaville 4,012,909 17 Mauritanie 3,129,486 18 Gabon 1,514,993 19 Maurice 1,284,264 20 Comores 752,438 21 Djibouti 516,055 22 Seychelles 87,476 Source: us census bureau 2009 by countries http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa#Demographics
          Guatemala Quetzal(GTQ)/Seychelles Rupee(SCR)        
1 Guatemala Quetzal = 1.7999 Seychelles Rupee
          Travel to The Seychelles – Episode 563        

Hear about travel to the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean as the Amateur Traveler talks to Jennifer Dombrowski of luxeadventuretraveler.com about her recent trip to this island paradise. Jennifer says, “The Seychelles […]

The post Travel to The Seychelles – Episode 563 appeared first on Amateur Traveler Travel Podcast.


          Paroles Booziennes        


LA SYMPHONIE CATASTROPHIQUE

Tu connais l'Atlantide,
La clé des pyramides,
Le Zohar, la Cabale et la Chine
Tu lis les cathédrales
Comme je lis le journal,
T'es un drôle de zozo,
Moulinot

T'écris des symphonies
Qui n'ramènent pas d'oseille
C'est normal, c'est trop beau,
Tu déflores les oreilles
Tu t'agites pour des causes
Où tu perds, où tu payes
Tu rigoles, tu t'en fous,
T'es bien au-d'ssus d'tout ça
Tu rentres dans le ciel comme chez toi

Et moi, pendant c'temps -là
Dans mon bureau place de l'Opéra,
Avec ma règle en plastique jaune de 45 centimètres de long,
Je mesure le temps qu'il faut
Pour aller jusqu'ici, jusque-là,
La lumineuse pendule de quartz rouge
Anime le mur d'en face,
Mais la pile d'enveloppes à timbrer
Me fait complètement déplaner,
Plus j'y penses, plus j'y suis,
Plus j'y suis, plus je sue,
Et plus je sue plus j'essuie
Faut qu'jassure, faut qu'jassure
Dans ma débilité totale
Dans mon costard en laine
Au mois d'août
Vous, vous trouvez ça normal
Pendant qu'y en a qui jouent au tennis
Et au golf aux Seychelles
Et l'autre, et l'autre
Qu'est dans l'espace
Et qui nargue sans arrêt ma conscience
Vu qu'y sait tout,
Vu qu'y sait rien
Et vu qu'jen sais pas plus que lui
Et que j'voudrais y aller aussi
Alors alors, faudrait qu'on m'raconte pas d'bobards
Car je voudrais moi aussi
Me le farcir, le panard
Alors j'me dis souvent
Dans ma petite cervelle
J'aurais dû être chanteur
J'aurais été connu dans les bals de mon bled
On m'aurait p'têt même vu à la télévision
Crois-moi, t'en aurais eu pour ton pognon
Mais la vie vous trimbale
Sur des rêves où l'on n'fait pas c'qu'on veut
Ma foi, j'dois m'estimer heureux
On sait c'qu'on a, c'qu'on a pas
On s'contente de bien peu ma brave dame,
Ma brave dame que je vois tous les jours au bureau
Pendant huit heures depuis dix ans,
Et que j'aime sans rien dire
Je suis sot, j'ai trop peur des ragots
A midi, pour la pause, au café,
On mange le même sandwich,
Un jambon Paris-Beurre
Avec un Beaujol'Pif,
C'est une belle vie qui swingue
Comme vous pouvez le voir
Après ça, on s'étonne que j'ai l'blues tous les soirs,
Et que j'tire une ficelle, avec une brosse à dents en chiendent

J'connais pas l'Atlantide,
La clé des pyramides,
Le Zohar, la Cabale et la Chine,
J'lis pas les cathédrales
Comme tu lis le journal,
J'écris pas d'symphonies,
J'magite pas pour des causes,
Et je reste à l'écart,
Loin des métamorphoses
Hé, hé, si tu f'sais ton chorus de guitare
Que j'repose ma cirrhose

Hou heu ha ha beurk

Chevauche le vent
Tu franchiras tous les abîmes
Tu voleras vers la lumière
Contre les courants, contre les modes,
Tu restes seul car tu ne vis pas de frontières
Enivre ton coeur
Tous les écrins de la parole se sont ouverts
J'deviens poussière
Chante chante chante chante,
Un chant nouveau
Pour tous nos frères
Ne nous laisse pas
Ne nous laisse pas
Ne nous laisse pas
Emmène-nous dans l'univers

Ires Me Resse I Yo Volni Peras Minium
Ires Helas Tresse I Cortex Meum Minium

Ires Me Resse I Yo Volni Peras Minium
Ires Helas Tresse I Cortex Meum Minium

Ires Me Resse I Yo Volni Peras Minium
Ires Helas Tresse I Cortex Meum Minium

Crédits :
Batterie : Maurice Mathias
Basse : Charlie Charrieras
Guitare : Jean-Claude d'Agostini
Claviers, synthétiseurs, piano : Gilles Tymaire
Piano électrique : Roger Doereux
Violon : Pierre Blanchard

Musique : E. Booz, J.C. D'Agostini

Paroles : Emmanuel Booz

Arrangements : Jean-Claude d'Agostini et Gilles Tymaire

Enregistré et mixé par Dominique Do Espirito Santo au studio Damiens à Boulogne, 1977

Réalisation : Emmanuel Booz

-----------------------------------------------------------------


LE CHANT DE L'ERRANCE

L'ODE AUX RATS


Nous sommes le peuple des rats
Ratata rastaquouère
Nous sommes le peuple des rats
Ravadja la moukère
Fossoyeur des grandes tombes
Peuple errant des catacombes

Pom Pom Pom Pom Pom
Pom Pom Pom
Pom Pom Pom Pom Pom
Pom Pom Pom
Ropopom ropopopopom

Radio Rat Radio Ras-Le-Bol
Nous renseigne sur le monde
C'est la pagaille sur le fromage en skaï
On dit que tout déraille
Nous sommes dans un drôle d'état
Nous sommes des rats fadas
En solex en mobylette
Plus rien ne nous arrête

Nous sommes un conglomérat
De joyeux délirants
Ramassis de caméras
Nous ramons sur le tas
Arrêtez les raticides
Stoppez tous les génocides
Pom pom pom pom
Comme disait la soeur de mon pote
A Valmy un jour sans culotte
Pom pom pom pom
Ropopom ropopopopom

Dans le combat permanent
Pour que la race vive
Branche tous les mecs
Du PECQ à la Mecque
Avant qu'la pastèque pète

Eh c'est pas une œuvre mec
C'est l'Ode aux Rats
Une ode pour les enfants
Pour les paumés
Qui dorment sur la caillasse
Qui ont la morve au nez
Et le deuil qu'est accroché là haut
Sur leurs paupières
Comme une arrogance
C'est pas une œuvre mec
C'est l'cri d'ma déchirure
C'est l'cri d'mon impuissance
Eh mec qu'est-c'que j'peux faire
Laisse-moi pas tout seul
Dans mon gourbi
A brailler comme un âne
J'pédale dans la s'moule Raoul
A l'aide
La vie s'arrache les yeux
Pour ne plus voir la mort
Et je suis complètement consterné
Par la connerie humaine

Ratopolis est souterraine
C'est la cité de la déveine
Pour essayer de voir le jour
Il nous faudrait un peu d'amour
Mais y'a des pièges dans tous les coins
Les hommes sont devenus des chiens
Et si tu touches a leur assiette
Ils te flinguent à la mitraillette
Cobayes
A charge des états
On nous refile tous les virus
On nous encage et l'on nous teste
On nous injecte, on nous dissèque
On nous secoue comme des pruniers
Pour voir jusqu'où l'on peut tenir
Mais quand on crève
Il n'y a personne
Pour nous chanter
Un Te Deum
Nous qui ne sommes d'aucun pouvoir
Nous ne ferons jamais l'histoire
Nous avons d'autres images à proposer
Que le carnage
Roi du chaos
Que rien n'émeut
Les voix des humbles s'harmonisent

C'est un moment vertigineux
Quand la tendresse n'est plus soumise
Ne te mine plus, idéalise
Tu la verras la Terre Promise
Ce n'est plus que partie remise
Vieux rat pourri
Tu prophétises

Euh hah hah hah !!!

Mais je n'entends plus rien
Je ne sais plus d'où je viens
Je erre
Je suis perdu
Je suis perdu
Non non non non
Ne me parlez plus
Je erre
Je erre...

Crédits :
Durée : 16 mn 08

Réalisation : Emmanuel Booz.
Arrangements : Jean-Claude D’Agostini et Gilles Tinayre.

Musiciens :
- Jean-Claude D’Agostini : guitare
- Charlie Charrieras : basse ("Ode aux rats" et "La symphonie catastrophique").
- Maurice Mathias : batterie ("Ode aux rats" et "La symphonie catastrophique").
- Gilles Tinayre : claviers, synthétiseurs, piano.
- Didier Lockwood : violon ("Ode aux rats").
- Jean-Louis Mahjun : violon alto ("Ode aux rats").
- Gérard Pisani : clarinette basse, soprano, bugle ("Ode aux rats").
- Philippe Briche : piano fender ("Ode aux rats").
- Roger Doereux : piano électrique ("La symphonie catastrophique").
- Pierre Blanchard : violon ("La symphonie catastrophique").
- Jean Schultheis : batterie ("Armoire et persil").
- Gérard Levavasseur : basse ("Armoire et persil").

Musique : E. Booz, J.C. D'Agostini

Paroles : Emmanuel Booz


Prise de son et mixage : Dominique Do Espirito Santo.
Enregistrement : Studio Damiens (Boulogne).

-----------------------------------------------------------------

ARMOIRE ET PERSIL


J'ai vu du haut des tours
De la ville de poussière
Tant de poings éventrés
A genoux sur la terre
Et ma gueule de flippé
Pourrir dans l'ornière
Et le sang d'un ami
Se perdre dans la mer
J'ai vu l'aigle danser
Et mordre la charogne
La luxure des princes
Et le peuple qui grogne
Et puis cette aile obscure
Sur l'horizon noué
Cette veine éclatée
Cette ombre abandonnée
C'est pour ça que je chante
Qu'ça n'tempêche pas d'rêver
Qu'ça n'tempêche pas d'planer

Patatrac pouf plaf beurk

Tout ça ne veut rien dire
Ce sont des mots, des mots, des mots, des mots
Et du délire
Ha !
Tout ça c'était hier
J'avais l'bocal fendu
Encore ce pied d'batterie
Plaf plaf comme un électrochoc dans ma tête
Et tes yeux de folie
Que je ne trouve plus

Tu avais bien le temps
De fuir ce plat pays
Dans le port d'Amsterdam
Tes bigottes s'ennuient
Avec tous ces gens-là
Qui pleurent chez Madeleine
On entend plus ta voix
Qui tonne sur Bruxelles

Les Flamandes ont rangé
leurs robes de dentelles
Don Quichotte traîne encore
Son âme sur la plaine
Tes vieux se sentent seuls
Ils ont perdu l'ami......

Crédits :
Batterie : Jean Shultheis
Basse : Gérard Levavasseur
Guitare : Jean-Claude d'Agostini
Claviers, synthétiseurs, piano : Gilles Tymaire

Musique : E. Booz, J.C. D'Agostini, G. Tymaire

Paroles : Emmanuel Booz

Arrangements : Jean-Claude d'Agostini et Gilles Tymaire

Enregistré et mixé par Dominique Do Espirito Santo au studio Damiens à Boulogne, 1977


Réalisation : Emmanuel Booz

-----------------------------------------------------------------

LES MORTS


Pourriez-vous entrevoir
Batraciens nyctalopes
Une autre dissidence
Une autre alternative
A côté du chaos
De la conscience de l'être
Nous incarnons l'espoir
Agitons-le d'ailleurs
Enclavés dans les blocs
La zone dépressionnaire
Pas la peine d'expliquer
Auf wiedersen Mein Herr
Le comble de l'histoire
C'est que la race s'en branle
Le consensus des deux
Est égal à son nul
Et la rumeur répand
Que c'est pire que l'enfer

Ta mère n'est qu'un fossile
Et ton père irradié
Faut pas être parano
No no baby
Romantic Utopia – An itinerary for a holiday in Seychelles appeared first on Bruised Passports.

I wheeled with the stars My heart broke loose on the wind I thought of Pablo Neruda’s words often while exploring the islands of love in the Indian Ocean. Seychelles is an archipelago of 115 idyllic islands nestled in azure waters but I’m convinced it isn’t just the otherworldly beaches, luxury resorts, or alluring palms that […]

The post Romantic Utopia – An itinerary for a holiday in Seychelles appeared first on Bruised Passports.


          Choosing Accommodation in Seychelles        

The post Choosing Accommodation in Seychelles appeared first on Bruised Passports.

Choosing accommodation in Seychelles can hard because every hotel seems to advertise its proximity to white powdery beaches, services like welcome drinks and water sports, and facilities like open air showers and scenic spas. How is one to make a choice? 🙂 Something to keep in mind is that the island destination doesn’t exactly cater […]

The post Choosing Accommodation in Seychelles appeared first on Bruised Passports.


          Découverte d'un micro-continent préhistorique        
Un micro-continent a été découvet sous l'Océan indien

Des scientifiques ont découvert l'existence d'un micro-continent, situé sous l'île Maurice et la Réunion. Un phénomène qui serait plus fréquent qu'on ne le pense.
Avant d’explorer l’univers, il nous reste un tas de choses à découvrir sur notre planète. Dans une étude, publiée dans la revue Nature Geoscience, des scientifiques expliquent avoir découvert un «micro-continent Â», situé sous l’île Maurice et la Réunion. Baptisé "Mauritia", ce bout de roche, dissimulé sous une épaisse couche de lave remontée du cœur de la Terre, se serait détaché de l’actuelle Madagascar il y a environ 60 millions d’années.

Micro-continent : comment est-ce possible ?

On associe souvent la formation des continents à des « panaches », c’est-à-dire des remontées de roches chaudes provenant du manteau terrestre. Leur chaleur peut, à terme, ramollir les plaques tectoniques jusqu’à les briser, au niveau où le centre d’activité volcanique est le plus intense.
C’est par ce procédé que naquit la partie orientale du Gondwana. Ce « supercontinent », apparu il y a 600 millions d’années, a commencé à se fracturer au Jurassique pour finalement s’éclater en plusieurs morceaux, formant Madagascar, l’Inde, l’Australie et l’Antarctique actuels.

Les Seychelles : une curiosité géologique

Comme l’expliquent les scientifiques, il est fort probable que quelques « masses continentales » se soient égarées en chemin. Au moment où chaque fragment dérivait de son côté pour former le monde tel qu’on le connaît aujourd’hui, certains fragments se sont détachés pour former des îles, comme l’archipel des Seychelles, jusqu’alors considéré comme une curiosité géologique par les spécialistes.
Selon l'étude, menée par une équipe internationale sur des grains de sable d'origine volcanique prélevés sur une plage de l'île Maurice, des fragments de continent semblables à Mauritia ou aux Seychelles pourraient être bien plus fréquents qu'on ne le pense.
« Nous avons pu montrer que les fragments de continent ont continué à se déplacer presque exactement au-dessus du panache volcanique de la Réunion, ce qui explique pourquoi ils sont noyés par des roches volcaniques » et n'avaient jamais été identifiés auparavant, indique dans un communiqué Bernard Steinberger, du centre de recherches allemand GFZ.
« Ce qui avait initialement été interprété comme la seule trace du panache réunionnais est en réalité constitué de fragments continentaux », comme celui des Seychelles, explique-t-il. « L'Océan indien pourrait être jonché de fragments de continent », conclut l'étude.



          Documento de posición de Nigeria en relación al Africa        
Revista de Relaciones Internacionales Nro. 2
La dimensión económica de la política exterior de Nigeria
Prof. Dr. Okon Edetuya (Embajador de Nigeria)
Introducción
Permítanme comenzar agradeciendo a las autoridades de esta institución por la oportunidad de encontrarme nuevamente aquí para interactuar en este magnífico medio académico. Esto es testimonio de las crecientes y confiablemente beneficiosas relaciones entre su institución y la Embajada, en primer término, y la Argentina y Nigeria, en segundo lugar.
Les felicito, en particular, por la decisión de inaugurar un programa de Estudios Africanos, a nivel de postgrado en vuestra institución. Como probablemente sabrán, postulo firmemente que las emergentes y crecientes relaciones entre Africa y América Latina en los campos político, diplomático y económico deben aclararse sólidamente en conocimientos concretos, intelectualmente convalidados y firmes acerca de las mutuas condiciones actuales. Es mi firme convicción que relaciones perdurables y significativas solo pueden conformarse superando la ignorancia mutua, que lamentablemente, aún caracteriza ampliamente nuestro enfoque recíproco.
Al embarcarse en la tarea de estudiar a Africa. permítanme solicitarles tener en cuenta lo siguiente:
I. Que los estudios africanos han madurado enormemente en los últimos 30 años y que, por lo tanto, no pueden ser ya considerados como un área de curiosidad de turismo intelectual, sino como un asunto digno de rigurosa y seria atención académica.
II. Que, ampliamente, si bien europeos y norteamericanos continúan realizando excelentes investigaciones acerca de Africa, los africanos, tanto en el continente como fuera de el, han surgido como los intérpretes más confiables de su realidad ante el mundo exterior, mediante la investigación rigurosa. Es, entonces, importante que los puntos de vista de estos investigadores africanos sean considerados ante asuntos importantes que se refieran al continente.
III. Que se ha producido una gran revolución en las perspectivas y enfoques metodológicos aplicados al estudio de Africa, debida al creciente reconocimiento de que la naturaleza de sus sociedades, incluyendo las perspectivas culturales y las cosmologías, debe influir significativamente en la selección de las perspectivas y los métodos para el estudio del continente. En realidad, se acepta actualmente en general que nadie puede llamarse investigador de la realidad africana, sin incorporar deliberadamente una perspectiva afrocéntrica y una metodología multidisciplinaria.
Espero que tengan presente los comentarios generales precedentes al estructurar los programas de enseñanza e investigación de los estudios africanos. De todos modos, pueden siempre contar con el apoyo intelectual y la cooperación de la Embajada de Nigeria y la Comunidad Académica Nigeriana en esta digna empresa.
Sobre la base de lo antedicho, permitanme compartir con ustedes algunos de mis pensamientos acerca de un importante aspecto de la política exterior de Nigeria; tal es, la dimensión económica en su concepción, articulación y práctica. En primer término, hare un breve comentario acerca de los parámetros generales de la diplomacia nigeriana, dentro de los cuales puede apreciarse mejor el componente económico.
PARAMETROS GENERALES
A pesar de haberse producido variantes en estilo de una administración a otra y a pesar de los frecuentes cambios de liderazgo y la alternancia entre regimenes civiles y militares en el país, los intereses de la política exterior de Nigeria han mantenido suficiente consistencia, si bien algunos aspectos han recibido mayor énfasis en determinadas circunstancias, reflejando las necesidades del momento, los intereses y las cambiantes alianzas a nivel nacional, regional y global. Las preocupaciones que han dominado las relaciones de Nigeria, tanto en el plano bilateral como multilateral, fueron así identificadas: protección de la soberanía e integridad territorial del Estado Nigeriano, principalmente mediante la promocion del bienestar socio-económico y político de los nigerianos, respeto por la integridad territorial y la soberania de otros estados africanos; promoción de la unidad y solidaridad de los estados africanos; incluyendo la total emancipación política, económica, social y cultural y el rejuvenecimiento de Africa; el apoyo a la autodeterminación de todos los pueblos, incluyendo el compromiso inquebrantable con la eliminacion del colonialismo, el apartheid y el racismo en todo el mundo; la promoción de la cooperación y la comprensión internacionales en los campos económico, social y político, conducentes a la consolidación de la paz y la seguridad esenciales para el rápido desarrollo de nuestra aldea global; garantizar la dignidad y la promoción del bienestar de los africanos y los pueblos de ascendencia africana en todo el mundo; y finalmente, compensar los desequilibrios en las estructuras de poder internacionales que han tendido a frustrar e invalidar el desarrollo adecuado y ordenado y la maduración de los pueblos del mundo en desarrollo.
Los teorizadores de la política exterior de Nigeria han postulado que esta puede representarse cabalmente como operando dentro de tres círculos concéntricos. El núcleo interior corresponde a las actividades de Nigeria dentro de la sub-región del Africa Occidental, principalmente a traves de la ECOWAS (Comunidad Económica de Estados del Africa Occidental). El círculo medio representa la preocupación de Nigeria por, y sus actividades dentro de Africa, frecuentemente descriptas como la pieza central de su política exterior. El círculo exterior corresponde a las relaciones de Nigeria con el mundo no Africano. En años recientes, especialmente en vista de que la política exterior de Nigeria ha sido identificada como el principal instrumento para el desarrollo económico del pais, se ha volcado un esfuerzo conciente para dividir al mundo no africano en dos categorías mayores, a saber, los paises recientemente industrializados de Asia y América latina, especialmente Argentina, Brasil, Malasia, las dos Coreas, Indonesia e India, que son vistos actualmente como zonas preferenciales para la adquisición de nuevas tecnologías; y las naciones de más larga historia industrial, aún consideradas como fuente importante de capital para el desarrollo.
Se considera actualmente, en general, que aún durante las dos primeras décadas de vida independiente, cuando el multilateralismo era visto como un refugio para las naciones débiles, con el objeto de encarar con efectividad a los fuertes y poderosos, la política exterior de Nigeria siempre fue una saludable combinación de bi- y multilateralismo, especialmente en materia económica. Un cuidadoso análisis de las actividades de Nigeria en organismos multilaterales tales como la ECOWAS, la OAU (Organización de la Unidad Africana), el Commmonwealth británico de naciones y las Naciones Unidas y sus varias Agencias, confirma que, dada su envergadura y su enorme base de recursos naturales, minerales y humanos, Nigeria ha surgido como líder en Africa y como miembro de equipo respecto de temas fundamentales en la escena mundial. Esto es particularmente así en asuntos relativos a la descolonización, la lucha contra el apartheid, y, quizás lo más importante dentro de este contexto, los problemas de atraso social y económico y la continuada y expansiva disparidad económica entre las naciones ricas y las pobres del mundo.
Naturalmente, los temas relativos a la descolonización, el apartheid y el racismo y la necesidad de sensibilizar a la comunidad internacional respecto de su recurrencia en el mundo, especialmente en Africa, dominaron la diplomacia nigeriana de los primeros años. En realidad, el país asumió la carga de un liderazgo autoimpuesto en esta materia, especialmente respecto de la lucha para terminar con el apartheid en sus variadas manifestaciones en Africa del Sur, con la sincera convicción de que la independencia de Nigeria no habría de tener sentido hasta tanto Africa se liberara del flagelo del colonialismo y el racismo.
En 1963, a pesar del continuado énfasis puesto sobre los asuntos políticos, el compromiso de Nigeria de aplicar la diplomacia como importante instrumento para el desarrollo económico del continente africano, había pasado al frente. En el contexto africano, esto tomó forma mediante el apoyo a la incorporación de un componente económico a la doctrina, y posteriormente, a la Carta de la naciente Organización de la Unidad Africana. Así, en una presentación ante la Conferencia Cumbre Africana de Mayo, 1963, el Primer Ministro de Nigeria, Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa insistía en que, mientras algunos líderes africanos compartían el punto de vista acerca de que la unidad africana debería alcanzarse mediante la fusión política de los diferentes Estados africanos, la posición de Nigeria era que "la unidad africana podría alcanzarse tomando algunas medidas prácticas de cooperación económica, educativa, científica y cultural". Más aún, mientras Nigeria apoyaba la idea de un Mercado Común Africano, mantenía el punto de vista que era de aplicación práctica entonces, "un Mercado Común Africano basado sobre ciertos agrupamientos tales como el de Africa del Norte, el de Africa Occidental y el de Africa Oriental" Nigeria se constituyó en un de los principales promotores del enfoque práctico y progresivo para la cooperación e integración en Africa, que ha pasado a ser el modus operandi de la Organización de la Unidad Africana para asuntos económicos. En realidad, Nigeria ha continuado insistiendo en que una integración exitosa del continente africano sólo podrá tener lugar mediante agrupamientos sub-regionales o regionales basados sobre la cooperación entre los Estados miembros en áreas específicas tales como comercio, transporte, comunicación, y recursos naturales. La carta de la OAU, aprobada en mayo de 1963, específicamente obliga a los estados africanos a "coordinar e intensificar su cooperación y esfuerzos para alcanzar un mejor nivel de vida para los pueblos de Africa, armonizando sus políticas generales en el campo de la cooperación económica, incluyendo transporte y comunicaciones".
En 1976 se hizo cada vez más obvio que la recientemente ganada independencia de los países africanos no tenía sentido sin el concomitante desarrollo económico y la autosuficiencia. Nigeria fue uno de los países que insistió en realizar una Sesión Extraordinaria del Consejo de Ministros de la Organización de la Unidad Africana dedicada exclusivamente a asuntos económicos. El foro multilateral, que tuvo lugar en Kinshasha, Zaire, recomendó la formación de una política energética común para el continente; la promoción de la Cooperación Inter-Africana para completar el emergente nuevo Orden Económico Internacional y el establecimiento de un Banco de Datos Económico, por la Comisión Económica para Africa (ECA), y la OAU. Nigeria también desempeñó un activo rol en varios symposios destinados a analizar y desarrollar una perspectiva más panafricanista y afrocéntrica del desarrollo africano, durante las décadas de 1970 y 1980. El symposiun de Monrovia de 1979, uno de los más exitosos, reclamó una nueva pedagogía orientada hacia la unidad africana; la necesida de apoyar el desarrollo africano sobre valores científicos, culturales y sociales; el control de los instrumentos vitales técnicos y financieros para alcanzar tal desarrollo, y un nuevo enfoque de la cooperación internacional destacando los lazos entre los países en desarrollo. En 1973, los Jefes de Estado africanos suscribieron la Declaración Africana de Cooperación, Desarrollo e Independencia Económica que compromete explícitamente a las naciones africanas a actuar para redimensionar el compromiso económico del continente y prestar especial atención a los temas económicos en reuniones subsiguientes. En una de las sesiones, Nigeria insistió en que "en la búsqueda de soluciones a los actuales problemas económicos mundiales, nosotros, como africanos, debemos realizar nuestra contribución positiva reorganizando nuestras prioridades económicas y promoviendo el contacto y la cooperación". Era la firme convicción de Nigeria que "la cooperación económica africana no es simplemente un ideal excelso. Es una realidad de la vida, es una necesidad de nuestro tiempo". Estas variadas actividades culminaron en la cumbre de la OAU en Lagos, Nigeria, en 1980, que fue testigo de la adopción del Plan de Acción de Lagos (LPA), para el Desarrollo Económico de Africa, así como del Acta Final de Lagos, considerada como el anteproyecto del desarrollo económico de Africa.
El plan de Acción de Lagos, por ejemplo, preveía el establecimiento de un Mercado Común Africano para el año 2.000 sobre la base de una economía continental autosustentada y autoregulada, fundada sobre agrupamientos económicos sub-regionales. El desarrollo de la alimentación y la agricultura, la industria, la ciencia y la tecnología, el transporte y las comunicaciones, el comercio y las finanzas y los recursos humanos y naturales fueron identificados como las principales áreas de interés. No es necesario decir que el optimismo con que se recibió la adopción de estos documentos fundamentales no se materializó debido a la mala administración interna, el medio económico internacional desfavorable, la corrupción nacional, la caída en los ingresos por exportaciones, el colapso de los precios del mercado internacional para los productos primarios, el declinante flujo de recursos y el proteccionismo de las economías desarrolladas, y, quizás, lo más importante, el peso de la deuda. Estos serían algunos de los temas fundamentales que ocuparían a la diplomacia nigeriana en las décadas de 1980 y 1990.
Indeclinablemente, Nigeria ha continuado defendiendo y articulando nuevos enfoques para abordar los problemas económicos. Por ejemplo, en 1984, Nigeria convocó a una cumbre de la OAU para revisar los progresos realizados en la implementación del Plan de Acción de Lagos y el Acta Final de Lagos, así como formular una programa de emergencia ante la crisis económica africana. Se estableció un Comité de Conducción Permanente, conformado por Argelia, Côte D'Ivoire, Senegal, Tanzania, Zimbabwe y Nigeria. También se constituyó un Fondo Especial de Asistencia de Emergencia (SEAF) para Sequías y Hambrunas en Africa, al que Nigeria contribuyó con U$S 3 millones. Finalmente, la 21a. Cumbre convocada subsiguientemente, dedicada exclusivamente a temas económicos, adoptó el Programa Prioritario Africano para la Recuperación Económica (APPER), para 1985-1990, el que, entre otras cosas, reclamaba la convocatoria de una conferencia internacional sobre la deuda externa africana, bajo los auspicios de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas que tuviera lugar en New York, desde el 27 de mayo al 1º de junio de 1986. La conferencia adoptó el Programa de Acción de Naciones Unidas para la recuperación Económica y el Desarrollo, que comprometía a los gobiernos africanos a implementar reformas políticas y a reunir U$S 82.5 mil millones para la ejecución del proyecto y la provisión por parte de la comunidad internacional de U$S 46.1 mil millones para financiar el proyecto. Los focos principales eran alimentación y agricultura, desarrollo de recursos humanos, industrialización y temas afines, el medio económico internacional y sequías y desertificación. Nigeria, que jugó un rol catalítico en los pasos conducentes a la convocatoria de la conferencia, encabezó la discusiones sobre los temas relativos a alimentación y agricultura.
Como es sabido, en gran parte debido a la incapacidad de la comunidad internacional para cumplir con su compromiso con el programa, a pesar de los programas de ajuste estructural en los que se embarcaron muchos países africanos, la crisis económica africana ha continuado siendo una de las mayores preocupaciones de todos los Estados africanos, Nigeria incluída, ante numerosos foros multilaterales tales como la OAU, las N.U., el Grupo de los Quince, y otros. Como miembro activo de tales grupos, Nigeria continua aplicando su músculo diplomático para llamar la atención sobre, y articular soluciones para la crisis económica africana, que es realmente la crisis económica africana, que es realmente la crisis de los paises en desarrollo vis-a-vis el mundo desarrollado, particularmente el problema de la deuda externa. En realidad, Nigeria participó activamente en la Sesión Extraordinaria de la Asamblea de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OAU realizada en Addis Abeba en diciembre de 1987, que adoptó una Posición Africana Común sobre la Deuda Externa de Africa, la que, en 1986 se estimaba en U$S 200 mil millones alcanzando el 45% del Producto Bruto interno combinado del continente. Entre las propuestas se contaba con el mejoramiento del medio económico internacional, un incremento en el flujo de recursos, un tope en los pagos del servicio de la deuda pendiente. Nigeria se mantiene como miembro del Grupo de Contacto Permanente establecido por la conferencia para controlar el desarrollo de tales temas.
Las iniciativas diplomáticas de Nigeria y su apoyo a la aplicación de las relaciones exteriores entre los países de Africa para promover el desarrollo económico rápido y la integración del continente culminó en la 27a. Cumbre de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OAU, concluida recientemente en Abuja, nueva Capital Federal de Nigeria, en junio de 1991, que finalmente aprobó el acuerdo de constitucion de una Comunidad Economica Africana. Los objetivos de la comunidad incluyen:
I. promoción del desarrollo económico, social y cultural e integración de las economías africanas, a fin de incrementar la autoregulación y un desarrollo endógeno autosuficiente.
II. establecimiento, a escala continental, de una estructura para el desarrollo, la movilización y el aprovechamiento de los recursos humanos y materiales de Africa con el objeto de alcanzar un desarrollo autoregulado.
III. promoción de la cooperación en todos los campos del quehacer humano con el objeto de elevar el nivel de vida y mantener y garantizar la estabilidad económica, promover relaciones estrechas y pacíficas entre los estados miembros y contribuir al progreso, al desarrollo y la integración económica de Africa.
IV. coordinar y armonizar políticas entre las comunidades existentes y las futuras con el objeto de promover el gradual afianzamiento de la Comunidad Economica Africana.
Sin pecar de inmodestia, la adopción del tratado y su pendiente ratificación por los Estados miembros marca un hito importante en la búsqueda de la integración económica de Africa. Es aún más importante, en cuanto no podemos olvidar que las expotencias coloniales han probado todo recurso posible para mantener sus reductos de influencia, especialmente económica, en Africa y han manipulado frecuentemente tales influencias para frustrar la aspiraciones africanas de unidad e integración, superando el elegado separatista linguístico y cultural del colonialismo. A pesar de los obvios problemas de implementación, el tratado puede considerarse como el comienzo de una nueva alborada en la cooperacion e integración económica de Africa. Dentro de este contexto, el tratado convalida la correción del enfoque gradual, práctico y concreto para la integración de Africa promovido por Nigeria desde 1963. En este sentido, se lo puede considerar un triunfo de la diplomacia nigeriana en Africa.
En las Naciones Unidas, la principal organización multilateral del mundo, la voz de Nigeria en apoyo de los temas referidos al desarrollo económico, especialmente respecto del mundo en desarrollo, no ha sido menos sonora y efectiva. Cuando Nigeria se constituyó en el 99 miembro de la Organización en 1960, existía un creciente reconocimiento de la necesidad internacional de prestar especial atención a la transformación económica, social y política de las emergentes nuevas naciones en desarrollo de Africa y Asia. De particular importancia fue el reconocimiento del rol de las Naciones Unidas para encarar problemas de seguridad económica, la reestructuración del orden económico internacional, la autoregulación y la cooperación entre los países en desarrollo. Nigeria, que ha destacado en forma consistente los logros de Naciones Unidas y sus organismos especializados en áreas tales como educación, alfabetización, alimentación, agricultura y asistencia técnica para el desarrollo, se ha sentido igualmente perturbada por lo que percibe como "el peligro de la paz y estabilidad mundiales ante un orden económico caracterizado por la existencia en un mismo mundo de pequeñas islas de abundancia en medio de un océano de pobreza y privaciones". Desde el punto de vista de Nigeria, la independencia política de las nuevas naciones no tiene sentido sin una adecuada seguridad económica, dado que su continuada dependencia económica las hace vulnerables ante ideologías y otras formas de presión externas.
Con una firme convicción e independencia nacional; y no alineamiento positivo, Nigeria apoyó activamente la adopción de la Primera Década de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (1961- 1970), propuesta para acelerar la evolución de las naciones en desarrollo, reduciendo así la brecha entre el mundo desarrollado y el mundo en desarrollo. Es así que Nigeria participó activamente en las actividades conducentes a la convocatoria de la primera Conferencia de Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD) realizada en Ginebra en 1964. El grupo de los 77, que se constituyó en foro de coordinación de puntos de vista de los países en desarrollo, preparatorios de la reunión de Ginebra, fue aceptado por Nigeria como importante plataforma y fuerza vital para armonizar las posiciones de estos paises ante cuestiones de economia internacional. Del mismo modo, Nigeria participó efectivamente en el desarrollo de los aspectos doctrinarios de la Segunda Década para el Desarrollo, especialmente en cuanto a la adopción de la Estrategia Internacional para el Desarrollo, que definió metas específicas de crecimiento en educación, comercio, empleo, finanzas, salud, vivienda, y producto nacional en 1980. Estas metas, como es sabido, no fueron alcanzadas, especialmente con posterioridad a la caída de las instituciones de Bretton Woods en 1971 y el abandono del patrón oro como medida de intercambio por los EE.UU. Nigeria denunció cambios unilaterales en el sistema monetario, insistiendo en que tales "medidas financieras, tomadas por países avanzados y poderosos, con economías altamente desarrolladas, han causado incertidumbre que provocara graves efectos sobre los países cuyas economías no son tan avanzadas". Nigeria reclamó consultas entre las naciones desarrolladas y en desarrollo para examinar la situación y participó en la reafirmación de la posición de la Cumbre de No Alineados que tuvo lugar en Argelia en 1973, sobre el mismo tema. A posteriori, en la primavera de 1974, la Sesión de la Asamblea General sobre Materias Primas y Desarrollo adoptó la Declaración y Programa de Acción para el establecimiento de un Nuevo Orden Económico Internacional (NOEI), que entre otras cosas, proclamó la determinación de los Estados miembros de Naciones Unidas de trabajar mancomunadamente por la evolucion de un nuevo orden que eliminara desigualdades, redujera injusticias y, finalmente, eliminara la brecha de desarrollo entre las naciones desarrolladas y las en desarrollo. El programa contempla las relaciones entre los precios de los productos básicos exportados desde los países en desarrollo y los de las manufacturas que importan, la reforma del sistema monetario internacional, involucrando a los países en desarrollo en los procesos de toma de decisiones por parte de las instituciones financieras internacionales, el mejoramiento de los términos de intercambio de los países en desarrollo y el incremento en la producción y exportación de alimentos desde estos países.
Si bien Nigeria recibió con beneplacito estos avances, continuo reclamando mayores medidas para encarar estos asuntos, tales como el derecho de los Estados a controlar sus propios recursos, y la regulación y supervisión de las corporaciones transnacionales. Esta posición fue compartida por la mayoría de los Estados miembros, los que, en diciembre de 1974, aprobaron la Carta de Naciones Unidas sobre Derechos y Deberes Económicos de los Estados. La Carta, entre otras cosas afirma los derechos de los Estados al control soberano de sus recursos naturales y a establecer procedimientos para la regulación, nacionalización, expropiación y transferencia de la titularidad de empresas extranjeras en tales países. Este interés en la interdependencia entre las naciones desarrolladas y las en desarrollo, basada sobre el respeto a las respectivas soberanías y la necesidad de modificar las estructuras económicas existentes y las disposiciones para facilitar el desarrollo de las naciones de Africa, Asia y America Latina, ha continuado siendo un importante elemento de la política exterior nigeriana. En realidad, en los ccomienzos de la crisis de las economías de la mayoría de las naciones africanas en la década de 1980, caracterizada por el colapso de los precios de la mayoría de los productos básicos, incluído el petróleo; declinantes ingresos nacionales, escasez de alimentos, hambrunas, sequías, reducción en el flujo de recursos; términos de intercambio comercial en deterioro, resultando una pérdida de alrededor de U$S 50 mil millones entre 1986 y 1990; y el enorme peso de la deuda, estimada actualmente en U$S 272 mil millones o el 109% de su Producto Bruto Interno; estas preocupaciones han adquirido mayor significatividad y prominencia.
Como señalara anteriormente, Nigeria jugo un rol importante al sensibilizar a la comunidad mundial ante estos problemas y al buscar y articular soluciones para ellos dentro de la OUA y las NU y sus organismos especializados. La posición de Nigeria continua sosteniendo que, a pesar de los valerosos profundos ajustes estructurales, que acarrean considerable riesgo político y costo social a partir de los sacrificios que se pide de los pueblos africanos, la fortuna económica del continente continúa siendo abismalmente descorazonadora dado que " las contribuciones de la comunidad internacional para la implementación del Programa han quedado muy por detrás de las expectativas de los paises africanos". Queda en claro que esta preocupación por el desarrollo económico de Africa se mantendrá como plataforma fundamental de la política exterior de Nigeria durante varios años por venir. En realidad, se cuenta con que sea el tema dominante de la contribución de Nigeria a las deliberaciones de la próxima Conferencia del Grupo de los 15 a realizarse en Caracas, Venezuela.
Mientras Nigeria ha enfocado correctamente su accionar en foros internacionales para la articulación y promoción de la dimensión económica de su política exterior afrocéntrica, no ha ignorado los foros bilaterales. Nigeria cuenta actualmente con convenios de cooperación económica bilateral con muchos países africanos y no africanos. Los ejemplos mejor conocidos de ellos son la Comisión Conjunta con Niger y los acuerdos de joint-venture con las Repúblicas de Guinea y Benin para la explotación de uranio, producción de cemento, refinado de azucar y construcción vial. A ellos podemos agregar la Comisión de la Cuenca de Lake Chad que reune a Camerun, Chad, Niger y Nigeria para la exploración y desarrollo conjunto de los recursos de Lake Chad y la Comunidad Económica de los Estados de Africa Occidental (ECOWAS) que agrupa a 16 países de la sub-región del Africa Occidental. Muchos países de Africa, incluídos Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Côte D'Ivoire, Etiopía, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauricio, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, Tanzania y Togo se han beneficiado con el Fondo Fiduciario de Nigeria administrado por el Banco Africano de Desarrollo para la ejecución de proyectos específicos de desarrollo.
Mas recientemente, en 1986, la Administración Babangida organizó el Esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Tecnica (TAC) cuyo objetivo es abordar las cruciales necesidades técnicas de los países receptores, así como "promover la cooperación y el entendimiento, de importancia crítica en las relaciones internacionales contemporáneas". El esquema también ha sido diseñado para facilitar "contactos significativos entre grupos de jovenes nigerianos dinámicos y otros africanos, así como con poblaciones de ascendencia africana en las regiones del Pacífico y el Caribe, con el objeto de establecer un punto de apoyo, a partir del cual forjar relaciones interpersonales entre Nigeria y otros pueblos africanos". Como explicara el Presidente, Comandante en Jefe de las FF.AA. de Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida, en ocasión del lanzamiento formal del Esquema, el 7 de octubre de 1987:
El esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Técnica forma parte de nuestro compromiso con nuestra política exterior que coloca a Africa como pieza central. Esta administración considera que, por ser parte del interés nacional de Nigeria, debe considerarse como un deber sagrado, el dignificar el status de toda persona negra en el mundo. Intentamos alcanzar este objetivo sin interferir en los asuntos de otros pueblos, ni haciendo el papel de Papa Noel, sino incorporando mayor realismo a nuestra política, brindando asistencia sobre la base de las necesidades de sus beneficiarios en tanto son percibidas y evaluadas, sin descuidar nuestro interés nacional.
El objetivo del Esquema es compartir know-how tecnológico disponible y experiencia en areas claramente identificadas, con las naciones menos afortunadas de Africa, el Pacífico y el Caribe. El gobierno de Nigeria se hace cargo de los gastos y pasajes de voluntarios cuidadosamente seleccionados asignados a estos países por dos años. Desde 1991, los siguientes países se han beneficiado con este Esquema: Cabo Verde, Guinea Ecuatorial, Fiji, Gambia, Jamaica, Kenya, el Reino de Lesotho, Mozambique, las Seychelles, Sierra Leona, Tanzania y Zambia. Las áreas de especialización de los participantes incluyen Medicina, Ingeniería, Contaduría, Investigación, Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Leyes, Historia y Enfermería. El Esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Técnica ha sido recibido calurosamente por los países beneficiarios "como una demostración práctica de la Cooperación Sur-Sur dentro del contexto de la Cooperación Económica Universal entre los Países en Desarrollo (ECDC)".
Diplomacia Económica
Como señalara al principio de esta presentación, una de las principales preocupaciones de la política exterior de Nigeria ha sido el aplicarla como instrumento fundamental para promover el bienestar de los nigerianos, que es considerado esencial para la protección de la soberanía y la integridad territorial del Estado nigeriano. Si bien esta preocupacion de la soberania y la integridad territorial del estado nigeriano, siempre estuvo presente, fue la Administración actual del General Babangida que la bautizó como "Diplomacia Económica" en 1987. En este sentido amplio, la Administración Babangida considera a la diplomacia económica significativa en la circunstancia actual, sólo si contribuye a resolver los acuciantes problemas económicos que agobiaron al país desde principios de la década de 1980. Así, ademas de los intereses tradicionales panafricanistas y los temas relativos a la paz y la seguridad, desde 1987 en adelante se tomó la decisión deliberada de enfatizar la dimensión económica de las relaciones de Nigeria con otros países. En realidad, la designación de los Jefes de Misión ha estado determinada ampliamente por una evaluación de su capacidad para contribuir a este proceso. La medida en que se logre atraer la participación externa a las actividades económicas de Nigeria es criterio fundamental para evaluar su desempeño.
La Diplomacia Económica implica el reconocimiento explícito por parte de Nigeria de que la diplomacia sin el componente económico no es más que la retórica vacía. Además, involucra la decisión de abrir la economía nigeriana, hasta entonces ampliamente controlada por el Estado, a la empresa privada, incluyendo empresas extranjeras. En realidad, el proyecto integra deliberadamente al sector privado en el plano de la política exterior. Tercero, la diplomacia económica incluye el deseo expreso de redimensionar los desequilibrios en los sistemas económico y monetario internacionales, que fueron identificados como parte responsable de las contínuas dificultades económicas de las naciones en desarrollo. Finalmente, especialmente en cuanto a la adquisición de tecnologías de producción apropiadas, se tomó la decisión de otorgar mayor prominencia a las naciones de potencia intermedia, recientemente industrializadas de Asia y América Latina, con la convicción de que tales naciones estarían mejor dispuestas a compartir su know-how tecnológico en el espíritu de la cooperación Sur-Sur.
Para apreciar plenamente este postulado de la política exterior de Nigeria, es importante tener en cuenta que, a pesar de sus ampliamente conocidos vastos recursos naturales, minerales y humanos, capaces de transformar a Nigeria en una nación altamente industrializada, el país no ha logrado aún desarrollarse plenamente en toda su potencialidad. Como la nación negra más populosa del mundo, con una población estimada en 110 millones de personas, núcleo del mercado de la ECOWAS que abarca una población superior a los 200 millones de personas, 6º productor mundial de petróleo, con reservas estimadas en 17.1 mil millones de barriles, contando al mismo tiempo con reservas de gas natural, oro, piedra caliza, manganeso, estaño y uranio, con su inmenso espacio geográfico, tanto físico como humano, capaz de generar una razonable demanda interna, indispensable para un crecimiento autocentrado y autosuficiente, Nigeria no ha logrado aún satisfacer las expectativas de su ciudadanía y de la comunidad internacional. La diplomacia económica fue concebida como un importante paso para revertir esta situación inaceptable.
La intención fue instaurar políticas e incentivos que atrajeran el know-how tecnológico y capital necesarios para la rápida transformación del país en una economía vibrante y garantizar la autosuficiencia en el área crítica de la alimentación.
En el terreno de la industrialización, el énfasis actualmente está puesto sobre la creación de un clima apropiado, que sea propicio a la incorporación de capital y tecnología extranjeros para la industrialización del estado nigeriano. Se ha dispuesto un paquete de incentivos, incorporados a un documento titulado Nueva Política Industrial de Nigeria. Estos incluyen: la creación de un departamento de coordinación del desarrollo industrial, como agente de diligenciamiento en un sólo paso de solicitudes y aprobaciones, eliminando así los cuellos de botella burocráticos; la eliminación de licencias de importación, otra de las trabas fundamentales de nuestro comercio; privatización y comercialización de las empresas públicas; libre acceso a la divisa extranjera, a través del Mercado de Cambios; garantías para la libre repatriación de beneficios, dividendos, honorarios de consultoría, derechos y por servicios técnicos y de administración, revisión del Decreto de Promoción de Empresas para permitir al capital extranjero ser titular de hasta el 80% de participación en empresas que requieran gran inversión de capital y/o tecnología sofisticada; el establecimiento de una zona de opción libre donde los extranjeros pueden participar hasta con el 100% de la titularidad; así como generosos incentivos impositivos, incluyendo la exención para inversiones en sectores pioneros de la economía.
Los principales objetivos de la política industrial son la expansión de oportunidades laborales, incremento de exportaciones del sector no petrolero, dispersión de industrias a las áreas rurales del país, perfeccionamiento de la capacidad tecnológica, creciente uso de materias primas locales, atracción de capital extranjero y el incremento de la participación del sector privado, tanto nativo como extranjero.
Las áreas industriales pioneras, donde los incentivos son particularmente atractivos y generosos son las siguientes: cultivo y procesamiento de alimentos, vegetales y frutas; manufactura de productos sobre la base de cacao; procesamiento de oleaginosas para la producción de aceites vegetales; producción láctea integral; cría de ganado en general; triturado de huesos; pesca, ya sea de altura, costera o en aguas interiores; procesamiento de sal; explotación de plomo y zinc; manufactura de hierro y acero a partir de mineral de hierro; fundición y refinado de metales no ferrosos y manufacturas en sus aleaciones; explotación de minerales varios; manufactura de materiales para perforación petrolera; cemento; vidrio y artículos de vidrio; cal a partir de piedra caliza, mármoles; manufactura de productos cerámicos, productos químicos industriales básicos; productos farmacéuticos, instrumental quirúrgico; almidón vegetal; producción de levaduras; alcohol y derivados; alimentos para animales; producción de papel; curtidos de cuero y manufacturas en cuero; fibras textiles naturales y sintéticas ; artículos de metal; maquinaria; productos total o parcialmente de caucho; redes de pesca con materia prima local; cultivo y procesamiento de trigo local; cultivo y procesado de aceite de palma; cultivo y procesado de caucho; de goma arábiga; producción integral de madera; producción de fertilizantes y fabricación de vehículos comerciales. Otros sectores que reclaman la inversión extranjera son el petróleo y la explotación de las enormes reservas de gas natural. La política exterior de Nigeria actualmente, y en los años por venir, continuará orientando sus esfuerzos a la mejor aplicación de la diplomacia para atraer capitales y know-how tecnológico necesarios para la rápida transformación del Estado Nigeriano. La diplomacia económica es, por lo tanto, considerada como importante componente de nuestro proyecto de recuperación económica.
Aludí anteriormente al hecho que, buscando las fuentes de tecnología de producción adecuadas, Nigeria ha enfocado su interés sobre las naciones recientemente industrializadas del mundo, especialmente en América Latina, especialmente con Argentina y Brasil.
Nigeria cree firmemente que los lazos económicos fuertes y la interacción económica entre Africa y América latina redundarán en el beneficio mutuo de ambas regiones, especialmente dentro del contexto de la problemática del intercambio y el comercio internacionales durante el período posterior a 1992. Lo que es más importante aún, es que las tecnologías de producción existentes en países como la Argentina en áreas tales como alimentos, fármacos, maquinaria industrial, servicios y mantenimiento, transporte y energía nuclear para fines pacíficos, son más adecuadas a nuestra circunstancia presente que aquellas tecnologías más sofisticadas que ofrecen las naciones altamente industrializadas. Uno de los objetivos más importantes en nuestras relaciones con este país es el atraer e involucrar a estas tecnologías en el desarrollo económico de Nigeria.
Para tal fin, el 17 de agosto de 1988, Nigeria y Argentina firmaron un Acuerdo de Cooperación Económica, Científica y Técnica, ya ratificado por parte de la Argentina. Este acuerdo de resguardo, entendido como para insuflar vida y confianza a la cooperación económica, establece claramente las áreas específicas de cooperación económica y científica, tal como indique antes y, quizás lo más importante, estipula las modalidades para la incorporación de los sectores privados de ambos países para la implementación del acuerdo. El mismo facilitara el incremento de las actividades de joint-venture, a las que se están incorporando en forma creciente empresas privadas argentinas y nigerianas. Sea como fuere, Nigeria cree firmemente que se impone una mayor cooperación económica entre nuestros países, por el hecho de ser vecinos y por la complementaridad existente entre la tecnolgía argentina y las necesidades de Nigeria. Creemos también que los empresarios aún no han sacado el máximo provecho de las oportunidades que ofrece Nigeria para la inversión de su experiencia y capital, si bien hay indicios de que el ritmo se ha acelerado en los últimos dos o tres años.
Conclusión
En esta reseña he intentado destacar la dimensión económica de la política exterior de Nigeria, tanto en el plano bilateral como el multilateral. De ello surge que, aún cuando los temas relativos a la descolonización, el racismo y la lucha contra el apartheid han dominado las relaciones de Nigeria con el resto del mundo, el componente económico ha sido persistente y contínuo. Es así que, durante la gestión del actual Presidente Ibrahim Babangida y su actual Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores, General I.O.S. Nwachukwu, que esta dimensión económica de la política exterior ha sido manifestada explícita y expresamente como el componente más importante de nuestra política exterior, que ha sido bautizado como "la diplomacia económica". En tanto persistan los actuales dilemas económicos de Africa y otras naciones en desarrollo este énfasis continuará dominando la diplomacia nigeriana en los tiempos por venir. En este aspecto recae el peso del contenido del mensaje dirigido por el Presidente Ibrahim Babangida en ocasión del sexto aniversario de su administración, el 27 de agosto de 1991. Decía el Presidente:
"Deseo aprovechar la ocasión de este aniversario para destacar los fuertes lazos que unen a nuestras políticas interna y exterior dentro del programa de transición. Estamos conformando un nuevo orden socio-político según el cual el país no se mantendrá aislado de Africa ni del resto del mundo. Al mismo tiempo, deseamos garantizar que Nigeria se encuentre mejor equipada que en el pasado para interactuar con otros países. El objetivo es continuar promoviendo el bienestar y la amplitud de horizontes para nuestro pueblo como así también, contribuir a la paz y seguridad internacionales. Nuestro punto de partida es una economía nacional sólida y una situación política democrática estable sobre la base de la justicia social y la autorregulación, que sustente una política exterior dinámica.


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          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niño ha de ser una consideración primordial en todas las medidas que se adopten en relación con los niños,
Reafirmando, la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño y el Plan de Acción para la aplicación de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño en el decenio de 1990, aprobados en la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que se celebró en Nueva York el 29 y 30 de septiembre de 1990 A/45/625, anexo., en particular el compromiso solemne de asignar alta prioridad a los derechos del niño, su supervivencia, su protección y su desarrollo, y reafirmando asimismo la Declaración y Programa de Acción de Viena que aprobó la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, celebrada en Viena del 14 al 25 de junio de 1993A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), cap. III., en que, entre otras cosas, se indica que deben reforzarse los mecanismos y programas nacionales e internaciona- les de defensa y protección de los niños, en particular de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles, con inclusión de medidas eficaces para combatir los casos de explotación y el maltrato de niños, como el infanticidio femenino, el empleo de niños en trabajos peligrosos, la venta de niños y de sus órganos, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de los niños en la pornografía, y en que se reafirma que todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales son universales,

Observando con profunda preocupación que la situación de los niños en muchas partes del mundo sigue siendo crítica como resultado de la pobreza, las dificultades sociales y económicas en una economía cada vez más mundializada, las pandemias, los desastres naturales, los conflictos armados, el desplazamiento de la población, la explotación, el analfabetismo, el hambre, la intolerancia, la discriminación y la protección jurídica inadecuada, y convencida de que es preciso adoptar medidas urgentes y eficaces en los planos nacional e internacional,
Destacando la necesidad de integrar la dimensión del género en todas las políticas y programas relacionados con los niños,
Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social del niño, así como de proporcionar un acceso universal a la enseñanza primaria en condiciones de igualdad,

Reconociendo también que la colaboración entre los gobiernos, las organizaciones internacionales y todos los sectores de la sociedad civil, en particular las organizaciones no gubernamentales, es importante para el ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Destacando la importancia del décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño para la movilización y adopción de nuevas medidas a fin de lograr el pleno ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Acogiendo con satisfacción los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General, dedicado al seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que ha de celebrarse en 2001,


I
Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
1. Insta una vez más a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que, como cuestión prioritaria, firmen y ratifiquen la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 o se adhieran a ella, a fin de lograr el objetivo de la adhesión universal para el décimo aniversario de la celebración de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y de la entrada en vigor de la Convención en el año 2000;
2. Reitera su preocupación por el elevado número de reservas a la Convención e insta a los Estados partes a que retiren las reservas que sean incompatibles con el objeto y propósito de la Convención y que revisen periódicamente sus reservas con el fin de retirarlas;
3. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que apliquen plenamente la Convención y subraya que la aplicación de la Convención contribuye al logro de los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia;
4. Insta a los Estados a que hagan participar a los niños y a los jóvenes en las actividades para lograr los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y la Convención;
5. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que cooperen estrechamente con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño y cumplan puntualmente la obligación de presentar informes que les impone la Convención, ateniéndose a las directrices elaboradas por el Comité, y alienta a los Estados partes a que tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones formuladas por el Comité en la aplicación de las disposiciones de la Convención;
6. Exhorta asimismo a los Estados partes a que promuevan la capacitación en materia de derechos del niño de quienes participan en actividades relacionadas con niños, por ejemplo, por conducto del programa de servicios de asesoramiento y cooperación técnica en materia de derechos humanos;
7. Pide al Secretario General que facilite el personal y los medios necesarios para que el Comité pueda cumplir de manera eficaz y rápida sus funciones, y toma nota del apoyo temporal proporcionado por el plan de acción de la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos para reforzar la importante función del Comité en la promoción de la aplicación de la Convención; y le pide que presente información sobre las medidas complementarias del plan de acción;
8. Exhorta a los Estados partes en la Convención a que adopten las medidas apropiadas para que la enmienda del párrafo 2 del artículo 43 de la Convención sea aceptada a la mayor brevedad posible por una mayoría de dos tercios de los Estados partes a fin de que entre en vigor y el número de miembros del Comité pueda aumentar de 10 a 18 expertos;
9. Invita al Comité a que siga intensificando su diálogo constructivo con los Estados partes y la transparencia y eficacia de su funcionamiento;
10. Acoge con satisfacción la atención que presta el Comité al logro de los niveles más altos posibles de salud y de acceso a la atención de la salud y a los derechos de los niños afectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y exhorta a los gobiernos a que, en cooperación con los órganos y las organizacio- nes de las Naciones Unidas, tomen todas las medidas que corresponda con el fin de hacer efectivos esos derechos;
11. Insta a los Estados a que protejan todos los derechos humanos de los niños migrantes, en particular los niños migrantes no acompañados, y que garanticen que el interés superior del niño sea, por tanto, la consideración principal, y alienta al Comité, al Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a otros órganos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que, en el marco de sus mandatos respectivos, presten especial atención a las condiciones de los niños migrantes en todos los Estados y, según convenga, formulen recomendaciones para fortalecer su protección;
12. Recomienda que, en el marco de sus mandatos, todos los mecanismos competentes de derechos humanos y otros órganos y mecanismos pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, así como los órganos de supervisión de los organismos especializa- dos, presten especial atención a las situaciones particulares que pongan a los niños en peligro y en que sus derechos sean violados y que tengan en cuenta la labor del Comité, y alienta a seguir desarrollando el criterio basado en los derechos del niño que ha adoptado el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a adoptar nuevas medidas a fin de incrementar la coordinación a nivel de todo el sistema y la cooperación interinstitucional para la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño;
13. Alienta al Comité a que, en su labor de supervisión de la aplicación de la Convención, siga prestando atención a las necesidades de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles;
14. Alienta a los gobiernos, a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas, a las organizaciones no gubernamentales competentes y a las personas dedicadas a las actividades en pro de la infancia a que, según corresponda, contribuyan a la base de datos que ha establecido en la red el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) a fin de continuar proporcionando información sobre leyes, estructuras, políticas y procesos adoptados a escala nacional con el objeto de llevar a la práctica la Convención;


II
Prevención y erradicación de la venta de niños y de su explotación y maltrato sexual, en particular la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía
1. Acoge con satisfacción el informe provisional de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía A/54/411. y expresa su apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial;
2. Pide al Secretario General que proporcione a la Relatora Especial toda la asistencia necesaria en materia de recursos humanos y financieros para que pueda cumplir plenamente su mandato;
3. Invita a que sigan aportándose contribuciones voluntarias por conducto de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y a que se preste apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial para que pueda cumplir su mandato con eficacia;
4. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 relativo a la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía e insta al grupo de trabajo a que concluya su labor antes de la celebración del décimo aniversario, en 2000, de la entrada en vigor de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
5. Reafirma la obligación de los Estados partes de impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma y de proteger al niño de todos los tipos de explotación o abuso sexual, de conformidad con los artículos 34 y 35 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
6. Insta a los Estados a que tipifiquen como delito y castiguen eficazmente todas las formas de explotación y abuso sexual de los niños, en particular dentro de la familia o con fines comerciales, la utilización de niños en la pornografía y la prostitución infantil, incluida la explotación de niños en el turismo sexual, garantizando al mismo tiempo que los niños víctimas de esas prácticas no sean penalizados; y a que adopten medidas eficaces para garantizar el procesamiento de los delincuentes, tanto locales como extranjeros, por las autoridades nacionales competentes, en el país de origen del delincuente o en el país de destino, respetando las garantías procesales;
7. Insta también a los Estados a que en los casos de explotación de niños en el turismo sexual aumenten la cooperación internacional entre las autoridades competentes, en particular las autoridades policiales, y a que compartan los datos pertinentes a fin de erradicar esa práctica;
8. Pide a los Estados que intensifiquen la cooperación y la acción concertada a nivel nacional, regional e internacional, incluido en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas, por parte de todas las autoridades e instituciones competentes, a fin de adoptar y aplicar medidas eficaces para la prevención y la erradicación de la venta de niños y su explotación y abuso sexual y para prevenir y desmantelar redes de trata de niños;
9. Destaca la necesidad de combatir la existencia de un mercado que fomenta ese tipo de prácticas delictivas contra los niños, incluso mediante la adopción de medidas preventivas y coercitivas dirigidas contra los clientes o las personas que explotan o maltratan sexualmente a los niños;
10. Insta además a los Estados a que promulguen, apliquen, examinen y revisen, según proceda, la legislación pertinente e implanten políticas, programas y prácticas para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de la explotación y abuso sexual, incluida la explotación sexual con fines comerciales, y eliminar esas prácticas, teniendo en cuenta los problemas específicos que plantea la utilización de la Internet en este sentido;
11. Alienta a los gobiernos a que faciliten la participación activa de los niños víctimas de explotación o abuso sexual en la formulación y aplicación de estrategias para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de explotación o abuso sexual;
12. Alienta a seguir tratando de determinar a nivel regional e interregional las mejores prácticas y las cuestiones que exigen una respuesta particularmente urgente para dar seguimiento a la aplicación de medidas acordes con las indicadas en la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo.;
13. Invita a los Estados y órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que asignen recursos suficientes para la rehabilitación de los niños víctimas de la explotación y el maltrato sexual y a que tomen las medidas correspondientes para promover su plena recuperación y reintegración social;


III
Protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados
1. Acoge con beneplácito el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre el efecto de los conflictos armados en los niñosA/54/430.;
2. Expresa su apoyo a la labor del Representante Especial del Secretario General, en particular sus esfuerzos por crear mayor conciencia de la cuestión en todo el mundo y por movilizar a la opinión oficial y pública en favor de la protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, a fin de promover el respeto de los derechos y las necesidades de los niños en los conflictos y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, y recomienda al Secretario General que prorrogue su mandato por un nuevo período de tres años, conforme a lo estipulado en los párrafos 35, 36 y 37 de la resolución 51/77 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996;
3. Insta al Secretario General y a todas las partes pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluido el Representante Especial y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, a que intensifiquen sus esfuerzos por elaborar un enfoque concertado de los derechos, la protección y el bienestar de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, incluso, según proceda, en los preparativos de las visitas al terreno del Representante Especial y en el seguimiento de dichas visitas;
4. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes interesadas a que sigan cooperando con el Representante Especial, cumplan los compromisos que han contraído, y examinen atentamente todas las recomendaciones del Representante Especial y se ocupen de las cuestiones señaladas;
5. Celebra el apoyo constante que se ofrece a la labor del Representante Especial y las contribuciones voluntarias efectuadas a ese respecto;
6. Insta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario, a poner fin a cualquier forma de agresión dirigida a los niños y a los ataques a lugares en los que suele haber un número considerable de niños, exhorta a los Estados Partes a que respeten plenamente las disposiciones de los Convenios de Ginebra de 12 de agosto de 1949 Naciones Unidas, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, Nos. 970 a 973. y los Protocolos Adicionales de 1977 Ibíd., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 y 17513., y exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a adoptar todas las medidas necesarias para proteger a los niños de los actos que constituyen violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario, incluso mediante el enjuiciamiento por los Estados, en el marco de la legislación nacional, de los responsables de dichas violaciones;
7. Reconoce, a ese respecto, que el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional contribuiría a poner fin a la impunidad de los perpetradores de ciertos crímenes cometidos contra los niños, tipificados en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional Véase A/CONF.183/9, art. 8., que incluyen, entre otros, los que entrañan violencia sexual o la utilización de niños soldados, y tendrá también un efecto preventivo;
8. Condena el secuestro de niños en situaciones de conflicto armado o con el fin de involucrarlos en conflictos armados e insta a los Estados, a las organizaciones internacionales y a otras partes interesadas a que adopten todas las medidas que sean apropiadas para obtener la liberación incondicional de todos los niños secuestrados, e insta a los Estados a someter a los perpetradores a la acción de la justicia;
9. Toma nota de la importancia del segundo debate público sobre los niños y los conflictos armados, celebrado por el Consejo de Seguridad el 25 de agosto de 1999 Véase S/PV.4037., y del compromiso del Consejo de prestar especial atención a la protección, el bienestar y los derechos de los niños, al adoptar medidas encaminadas al mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad Resolución 1261 (1999) del Consejo de Seguridad., y reafirma el papel fundamental que corresponde a la Asamblea General y al Consejo Económico y Social en la promoción y protección de los derechos y el bienestar de los niños;
10. Exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a que velen por que el personal humanitario tenga acceso seguro y sin restricciones a todos los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, y por que se preste asistencia humanitaria a esos niños;
11. Celebra la decisión del Consejo Económico y Social Documentos Oficiales de la Asamblea General, quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones, Suplemento No. 3 (A/54/3), cap. VI, párr. 5, conclusiones convenidas 1999/1, párr. 22. de exhortar a una acción interinstitucional sistemática, concertada y amplia a favor de los niños y pedir que se asignen recursos suficientes, en forma sostenible, para prestar a los niños asistencia inmediata de emergencia y financiar medidas a largo plazo a ese respecto durante todas las etapas de una emergencia;
12. Insta a los Estados y a todas las otras partes en los conflictos armados a poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados y asegurar su desmovilización y desarme efectivo, y a adoptar medidas eficaces para la rehabilitación, la recuperación física y sicológica y la reinserción en la sociedad de todos los niños que han sido víctimas de situaciones de conflicto armado; invita a la comunidad internacional a prestar asistencia en ese empeño; y subraya que no se debe prestar a quienes utilicen niños soldados ningún apoyo que haga posible o que facilite esa práctica;
13. Exhorta a los Estados y a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas a que continúen prestando apoyo a las actividades nacionales e internacionales de remoción de minas, incluso mediante contribuciones financieras, programas de información sobre el peligro de las minas y programas de asistencia a las víctimas y de rehabilitación dedicados especialmente a los niños, y celebra también los efectos positivos que tiene para los niños la adopción de medidas legislativas concretas respecto de las minas antipersonal;
14. Toma nota con preocupación del efecto de las armas pequeñas y ligeras sobre los niños en situaciones de conflicto armado, en particular como consecuencia de su producción y tráfico ilícitos, e insta a los Estados a ocuparse de ese problema;
15. Recomienda que, cada vez que se impongan sanciones, se evalúen y vigilen sus efectos en los niños, y que las exenciones por motivos humanitarios tengan especialmente en cuenta a los niños y se formulen con unas claras directrices de aplicación;
16. Exhorta a los Estados, a los órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y a las organizaciones regionales a que integren los derechos del niño en todas sus actividades durante los conflictos armados y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, incluidos los programas de capacitación y las operaciones de socorro de emergencia, los programas en los países y las operaciones sobre el terreno encaminadas a promover la paz y a prevenir y resolver conflictos, así como en la negociación y aplicación de los acuerdos de paz, y, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias a largo plazo para la sociedad, subraya la importancia de incorporar disposiciones específicas para los niños, incluso disposiciones relativas a la aportación de recursos, en los acuerdos de paz y en los acuerdos negociados por las partes en los conflictos;
17. Acoge con beneplácito las gestiones que realizan, entre otros, las organizaciones regionales, las organizaciones intergubernamentales y las no gubernamentales para poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados en los conflictos armados, y reafirma la necesidad urgente de aumentar la edad mínima límite establecida en el artículo 38 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 para el reclutamiento y la participación de cualquier persona en los conflictos armados, con el objeto de poner fin a la utilización de niños soldados;
18. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño relativo a la participación de los niños en los conflictos armados, y las consultas que dirige el presidente del grupo de trabajo para seguir avanzando con el fin de concluir su labor antes del décimo aniversario de la entrada en vigor de la Convención;


IV
Los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país
1. Insta a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de políticas y programas para la protección, el cuidado y el bienestar de los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país, con la cooperación internacional necesaria, en particular la de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Representante del Secretario General sobre los desplazados internos, en consonancia con las obligaciones contraídas en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
2. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados, así como a los órganos y organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, a que presten atención urgente a la protección y asistencia a los niños refugiados o desplazados en el interior del país, que están especialmente expuestos a riesgos relacionados con los conflictos armados, como los de ser reclutados forzosamente o ser objeto de violencia, maltrato o explotación sexual;
3. Expresa su profunda preocupación por el número cada vez mayor de niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados, y hace un llamamiento a todos los Estados y a los órganos y organismos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones pertinentes para que den prioridad a los programas para la búsqueda y reunificación de las familias y continúen supervisando las disposiciones en materia de cuidado de los niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados;


V
Eliminación progresiva del trabajo infantil
1. Reafirma el derecho del niño a la protección respecto de la explotación económica y la realización de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para él o constituir un obstáculo para su educación o que pueda resultar nocivo para su salud o su desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o social;
2. Acoge con satisfacción la aprobación por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en el 87° período de sesiones de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, celebrado en Ginebra del 1° al 17 de junio de 1999, del Convenio No. 182 sobre la prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación, y alienta a todos los Estados a considerar, como cuestión prioritaria, la posibilidad de ratificarlo, con miras a que entre en vigor lo antes posible;
3. Exhorta a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que consideren la posibilidad de ratificar los convenios de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo relativos al trabajo infantil, en particular el Convenio No. 29, de 1930, sobre la abolición del trabajo forzoso u obligatorio y el Convenio No. 138, de 1973, sobre la edad mínima de empleo, y los exhorta a que apliquen esos Convenios;
4. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a que traduzcan en medidas concretas su compromiso de eliminar progresiva y efectivamente las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas y los insta a que, como cuestión prioritaria, eliminen de inmediato las peores formas de trabajo infantil, enumeradas en el nuevo Convenio No. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo;
5. Exhorta además a todos los Estados a que evalúen y examinen sistemáticamente la magnitud, la naturaleza y las causas del trabajo infantil y a que elaboren y pongan en práctica estrategias para la eliminación del trabajo infantil que contravenga las normas internacionales aceptadas, prestando especial atención a los peligros concretos a que hacen frente las niñas, así como a la rehabilitación y la reinserción social de los niños afectados;
6. Reconoce que la educación primaria es uno de los principales instrumentos para reintegrar a los niños que trabajan e insta a todos los Estados a que reconozcan el derecho a la educación, haciendo obligatoria la enseñanza primaria y garantizando que todos los niños tengan acceso a la enseñanza primaria gratuita como estrategia fundamental para prevenir el trabajo infantil, y reconoce, en particular, la importante función que cumplen a este respecto la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia;

7. Exhorta a todos los Estados y al sistema de las Naciones Unidas a que incrementen la cooperación internacional como medio de ayudar a los gobiernos a prevenir o a combatir las violaciones de los derechos de los niños y a alcanzar el objetivo de eliminar las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas;

8. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que fortalezcan la cooperación y coordinación en los planos nacional e internacional, para abordar efectivamente el problema del trabajo infantil, cooperando también estrechamente con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, entre otros organismos;


VI
La difícil situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle

1. Exhorta a los gobiernos a buscar soluciones amplias a los problemas que dan lugar a que los niños trabajen o vivan en la calle y a aplicar políticas y programas apropiados para la protección y la rehabilitación y reinserción de esos niños, teniendo en cuenta que son particularmente vulnerables a todo tipo de violencia, maltrato, explotación y abandono;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a velar por que se presten servicios a los niños para evitar que se dediquen a actividades que puedan acarrearles daño, explotación y maltrato y atender a las necesidades económicas apremiantes que motivan su participación en tales actividades;

3. Insta encarecidamente a todos los gobiernos a que garanticen el respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, en particular el derecho a la vida, a que adopten con carácter urgente medidas eficaces para evitar que se mate a los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle, combatir la tortura, el maltrato y los actos de violencia contra ellos y someter a los perpetradores de tales actos a la acción de la justicia;

4. Hace un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que, mediante una cooperación internacional eficaz, incluida la prestación de asesoramiento y asistencia técnicos, apoye la labor de los Estados encaminada a mejorar la situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle;


VII
Niños con discapacidad

1. Celebra que, de conformidad con la decisión del Comité de los Derechos del Niño, se haya establecido un grupo de trabajo con el fin de elaborar un plan de acción en favor de los niños con discapacidad, en estrecha colaboración con el Relator Especial sobre Discapacidad de la Comisión de Desarrollo Social y otros sectores pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas Véase CRC/C/84, párrs. 219 a 222.;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que adopten todas las medidas necesarias para asegurar que los niños con discapacidad gocen plenamente y en condiciones de igualdad de todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales y a que promulguen y hagan cumplir leyes contra la discriminación de esos niños;

3. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a promover para los niños con discapacidad una vida plena y decorosa, en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten la autosufi- ciencia y faciliten la participación activa del niño en la comunidad, incluido el acceso efectivo a la educación y los servicios de atención de la salud;


VIII

Decide:

a) Pedir al Secretario General que le presente en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones un informe sobre los derechos del niño que contenga información sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 y los problemas a que se hace referencia en la presente resolución;

b) Pedir al Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados que presente a la Asamblea General y a la Comisión de Derechos Humanos informes que contengan información pertinente sobre la situación de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, teniendo en cuenta los mandatos actuales y los informes de los órganos correspondientes;

c) Seguir examinando esta cuestión en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones en relación con el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño”.
***

13. La Comisión también recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe el siguiente proyecto de decisión:



Informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
La Asamblea General toma nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño A/54/265
Iraq: ONU califica de intolerable situación de niños



25 de abril, 2008 La representante especial de la ONU para Niños en Conflictos Armados, Radhika Coomaraswamy, consideró que la situación de los niños en Iraq es intolerable debido a la violencia.
Al concluir una visita de cinco días a ese país, la enviada dijo hoy que los menores son víctimas silenciosas del entorno violento que impera

en Iraq.




En este sentido, instó a los líderes religiosos, políticos, militares y comunitarios del país a enviar un mensaje claro a la niñez iraquí para que se mantengan el margen de las hostilidades y vuelvan a la escuela.

Coomaraswamy urgió a todas las partes en conflicto a apegarse estrictamente a los estándares humanitarios internacionales sobre la protección de los niños y a liberar de inmediato a los menores de 18 años que estén asociados a cualquier organización combatiente.

Señaló que más de la mitad de los desplazados y refugiados iraquíes son niños que afrontan grandes dificultades en los lugares donde llegan a asentarse ya sea en su propio país o en uno ajeno.

“La comunidad internacional debería asistir a los países anfitriones para garantizar que se protejan los derechos de los niños y que tengan acceso a servicios básicos como la educación y los servicios de salud”, enfatizó la representante especial.


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Kadhum Al-Sahir, nuevo Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, habla sobre las necesidades de los más pobres
BAGDAD, Iraq, 9 de mayo de 2011. Kadhum Al-Sahir, el cantante iraquí mundialmente reconocido como uno de los más grandes representantes de la música árabe contemporánea, se convirtió hoy en el primer Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq. Al regresar a su país tras 14 años de ausencia, Al-Sahir destacó la necesidad de luchar por la igualdad en pro de los niños más necesitados de Iraq.

VÍDEO (en inglés): 5 de mayo de 2011. El famoso cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir, recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, compuso una nueva canción, titulada "Juntos por los niños", en la que convoca a todos los segmentos de la sociedad de su país a que ayuden a poner fin a las penurias que afrontan los jóvenes y niños.
"Los niños y niñas de Iraq han sufrido penurias indescriptibles en las últimas dos décadas, en las que cientos de miles de menores sufrieron las consecuencias brutales de la violencia y las privaciones inhumanas", dijo. "Ha llegado la hora de poner fin a esa situación".
Al-Sahir es uno de los más destacados músicos en la historia de Iraq y uno de los artistas más populares de la región.
El cantante aboga por los niños y jóvenes desde hace mucho tiempo. Ese apoyo comenzó en 1998, cuando compuso e interpretó "Tathakkar" ("Recuerda"), una canción sobre los niños en las situaciones de conflicto. El tema recibió un premio de UNICEF por tratarse de una contribución sobresaliente al mejoramiento de las vidas de los niños en situación de necesidad. En 2004, Al-Sahir ofreció un concierto a beneficio de más de 50.000 niños y niñas de Oriente Medio.



Juntos por los niños
Continuando en la misma vena, Kadhum Al-Sahir presentó hoy "Juntos por los niños", una nueva canción que es también un llamamiento a la acción.



© UNICEF Iraq/2011/Arar
Kadhum Al-Sahir, el famoso cantante recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, regresa a su país tras una ausencia de 14 años.
La canción rinde homenaje al coraje de los niños de Iraq en versos que dicen, por ejemplo, "¿Hay alguien que haya sufrido las penurias que sufrieron ustedes? Porque ustedes han superado los límites del temor y las privaciones".
El cantante convocó a todos los segmentos de la sociedad iraquí a que ayuden a mejorar la situación de sus niños. "Unámonos a UNICEF, y marchemos juntos para poner fin a las muertes, las enfermedades, el abandono y la pobreza", añadió. "Ayudemos a los niños que son víctimas de las guerras. Vengan y hagamos algo para que sus penurias se conviertan en prosperidad. Vengan, trabajemos todos juntos".
Las cuestiones que afectan a los niños de Iraq
En el decenio de 1970, Iraq era uno de los mejores países de Oriente Medio y África septentrional si se era niño, pero tras varias décadas de guerra y abandono, hoy es uno de los peores. Entre las cuestiones más graves que afectan a los casi 15 millones de niños y niñas iraquíes figuran las siguientes:
 Unos 35.000 lactantes mueren anualmente durante su primer año de vida.
 Más de 1,5 millones de niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición.
 Unos 700.000 niños y niñas en edad escolar no asisten a clases, mientras que cientos de miles de niños que inician sus estudios no los terminan.
 Unos 2,5 millones de niños carecen de acceso al agua potable y unos 3,5 millones no cuentan con instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas.
 Unos 800.000 niños y niñas de 5 a 14 años de edad trabajan.


© UNICEF-Iraq/Arar/2011
El cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir se dirige a un grupo de periodistas tras el anuncio en Bagdad de su nombram
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          GroundHog Year        

Black tipped sharks gathering near the Seychelles, it reminds me of our elected leaders returning to Canberrra with suitcases of lies and misdirections of their intentions of actually being an excellent Parliament this year.  I don't know why I bothered to write that when we all know it's complete bullshit although that shark second from right looks like our Pauline and the one sneaking in way over the back reminds me of Mal.

Already one has stuffed up with her travel allowances, good on ya, Susan.  Centrelink is like the Oroborus with its tail in its mouth going in circles. Barnaby refused to apologize for the mess and why would anyone let computers do anything after the Census debacle.

Mother still lives, still planning her 90th Birthday.  But my dear Eric the Mower died on Friday. The cancer spread rapidly after the diagnoses and sister has been helping his partner. They've been friends for years but being a nurse does not help when someone close is leaving. The Palliative care team won the praise of sister which doesn't happen often. 

One of my neighbours has visitors and they have brought their dog and by the barking, the thing must be the size of a wolfhound.  The IceBear was about to go out last night, had one little paw on the step when the thing woofed.  I thought I might have to give the boy CPR after he fell to the ground. We don't have dogs anywhere near us and I hope it's gone home.  The brave Bear shot under the coffee table until I had to take him out the front door and stay there until he'd done the rounds of the front yard, didn't bother with the back.  We all know he is a white cat but he'd managed to find the one spot in the garden where I'd put water for the camelia and in came the filthiest muddy mangy looking creature I've seen in  years.  While I was wetting a towell to clean him up, he disappeared so I thought he'd be under the coffee table.  No no no, in the great tradition of cats, he was rolling on my doona, my brand new white doona, the one with splashy colourful flowers interspersed with black paw prints and circles of dirt.  I was not in the mood at near midnight to be changing a king size doona so I went to bed and so did he, right in front of the fan blowing over him instead of me.  

Christmas presents still aren't wrapped.  Dear people, you will get them at some stage, honest.
          By: seychelles company        
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          L’hôtel de luxe le plus cher du monde se trouve aux Seychelles        
Une enquête de Luxury-Hotels.com vient de révéler le classement des hôtels de luxe les plus chers du monde. Selon le média, l’hôtel le plus cher se situerait aux Seychelles. Il s’agirait du North Island Lodge. North Island Lodge : l’hôtel de luxe le plus cher du monde 6 995 dollars la nuit, c’est le prix…
          Durban mercenary involved in Seychelles coup dies before book about his life is published        
Durban mercenary involved in Seychelles coup dies before book about his life is published 2017-08-07 07:21 Tania Broughton, News24 Correspondent The cover of the book about Peter Duffy’s life. (Tania Broughton, News24) SA mercenary dies in Shabaab attack – report … Continue reading
          Mickaela and Karina Senk - Club Private In Seychelles        

Mickaela (21:40)

          EmGoldex Team USA facing civil fraud charges        

Civil Fraud Charges EmGoldex is known as a pyramid scheme. It mainly focused on recruiting rather than product sales. The group keeps an administrative workplace in Seychelles, located far off coast of Africa. While representing itself as an internet-based store...

The post EmGoldex Team USA facing civil fraud charges appeared first on Wired Chronicle.


          The Latvian Presidency's plans        
In case anyone has missed it (make that most people rather than anyone), Latvia has taken on the rotating presidency of the European Union. So, naturally, their representatives have been presenting plans for the next six months and, we have to assume, somewhere among those plans there is the usual one about cutting red tape and encouraging business and entrepreneurship.

Here is what the Minister of Agriculture Janis Duklavs said to the Committee for Fisheries (PECH) in the European Parliament:
Multiannual management plan for Baltic Sea cod, Baltic herring and sprat stocks is the first multiannual fishing plan of the new generation. This file is essential for ensuring sustainability of the stocks and at the same time offers more predictability and certainty to the industry. The proposal is therefore on the top of the Presidency’s priorities.

Proposal for Regulation on introduction of the landing obligation: the Latvian Presidency will be fully involved in the outstanding work on the new rules. The obligation to land some fish species entered into force on 1 January this year, but fishermen still have no clear rules on the application. The EU institutional agreement on this file should be completed as soon as possible.

External dimension of fisheries (sustainable fishing partnership agreements with third countries, negotiations with coastal states and representation in international organizations): the Minister underlined the importance of fisheries agreements for a viable and competitive EU fishing fleet in high-seas. It is expected that the work on negotiations for agreements with Mauritania, Kiribati, Seychelles and other countries would be smoothly continued in the first half of 2015.

Let us note immediately the reference to the "competitive EU fishing fleet". Whether it is competitive or not is irrelevant. Nothing much in the EU is competitive, after all. The point is that it is an EU fishing fleet. Or, let me spell it out, for the benefit of politicians, should they bother to read this blog, no amount of reforming has changed the fact that the UK (and that would have been true for a Scotland "independent within the EU) has no fishing fleet of its own while the country remains part of the Common Fisheries Policy, that is, part of the European Union.

That, of course, applies to the internal arrangements as well. Decisions will be taken for political reasons at the centre and relayed down to the regional institutions for them to implement. That, in essence, is the extent of those much-vaunted reforms.



          Imperio Colonial Frances        




       

Imperio colonial francés


Francia tuvo varias posesiones coloniales, en varias formas, desde comienzos del siglo XVII hasta los años 1960. En su punto más alto, entre 1919 y 1939, el segundo imperio colonial francés se extendía por más de 12.898.000 km² de tierra. Incluyendo la Franciametropolitana, el área total de tierra bajo soberanía francesa alcanzaba 13.000.000 km² en los años veinte y treinta, lo cual es el 8,7% del área terrestre del mundo.
Los remanentes de este gran imperio son cientos de islas y archipiélagos localizados en el Atlántico norte, el Caribe, el océano Índico, el Pacífico Sur, el Pacífico Norte y el Océano Antártico, así como también un territorio continental en América del Sur, totalizando juntas 123.150 km², lo cual representa tan sólo el 1% del área del imperio colonial francés anterior a 1939, con 2.543.000 personas viviendo en ellas en 2006. Todas estas gozan de representación política total a nivel nacional, así como también varían los grados de autonomía legislativa y algunas: Guyana FrancesaGuadalupeMartinicaMayotteReuniónSan MartínSan Pedro y Miquelón y San Bartolomé forman parte de la región ultraperiférica de la Unión Europea y tienen como moneda el EuroNueva Caledonia, la Polinesia francesa y Wallis y Futuna: están fuera de la Unión Europea y del Euro. Éstas usan como moneda el Franco CFP.
Las áreas en color azul indican los territorios que en un momento u otro han formado parte del Imperio Colonial Francés a través de la historia.
La mayor parte del imperio estuvo controlado por las Fuerzas Coloniales Francesas.

Índice

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El primer imperio colonial francés [editar]

Quebec fue la Nueva Francia
Al principio, los franceses llegaron al Nuevo Mundo como exploradores en busca de una ruta al océano Pacífico y riqueza. Las exploraciones francesas en América del Norte se iniciaron durante el reinado del rey Francisco I. En 1524, fue enviado Giovanni da Verrazzano, italiano de origen, a explorar la región entre la Florida y la isla de Terranova para hallar una ruta al océano Pacífico. Verrazano llamóFrancesca y Nova Gallia a los territorios entre Nueva España y Terranova y Labrador, con el objeto de promover los intereses franceses.1
Diez años más tarde, Francisco I envía a Jacques Cartier a explorar la costa de Terranova y el río San Lorenzo. En agosto de 1541, este grupo establece una colonia fortificada, bautizada como Charlesbourg-Royal, sobre el emplazamiento del actual distrito de Cap-Rouge en la ciudad de Quebec; sin embargo, más tarde, se decidirá abandonar el lugar debido a las enfermedades, el clima execrable y la hostilidad de los autóctonos. La ubicación precisa de esta colonia fue por mucho tiempo un misterio para los historiadores hasta el descubrimiento, en agosto de 2006, de sus restos arqueológicos.2
Así, los primeros viajes de Giovanni da Verrazzano y Jacques Cartier en el siglo XVI, junto como los frecuentes viajes de pescadores franceses a los Grandes Bancos deTerranova a lo largo de aquel siglo, fueron los precursores de la historia de la expansión colonial francesa. Pero la celosa protección de España de su imperio en América, y las rupturas causadas en la misma Francia por las Guerras de Religión en los últimos años del siglo XVI, previnieron cualquier esfuerzo consistente de Francia para establecer colonias. Los intentos franceses de fundar colonias en Brasil, en 1555 enRío de Janeiro (la proclamada France Antarctique) y en 1612 en São Luís (la proclamada France Équinoxiale), y en Florida no fue exitosa, debido a la vigilancia y prevención portuguesa y española.
La historia del imperio colonial de Francia comenzó en realidad el 27 de julio de 1605, con la fundación de Port Royal, en la colonia deAcadia en Norteamérica, en lo que es ahora Nueva Escocia, Canadá. Ya unos años antes, Samuel de Champlain había hecho su primer viaje a Canadá en una misión de comercio de pieles. Si bien no contaba con un mandato oficial con respecto a este viaje, redacta una carta y escribe, a su regreso a Francia, una rendición de cuentas titulada Des sauvages (relación de su estancia en una tribu innu cerca de Tadoussac).3 Luego, en 1608Samuel de Champlain fundó Quebec, la cual se convertiría en la capital de la enorme, pero escasamente poblada, colonia trampera-peletera de Nueva Francia (llamada también Canadá).
Aunque a través de las alianzas con varias tribus nativas americanas, los franceses fueron capaces de ejercer cierto control sobre gran parte del continente norteamericano, las áreas de población francesa estaban limitadas al valle del río San Lorenzo. Antes del establecimiento del Consejo Soberano de 1663, los territorios de Nueva Francia se desarrollaron como colonias mercantiles. Es sólo después de la llegada del intendente Jean Talon, que Francia dio a sus colonias americanas los medios apropiados para desarrollar las colonias de población comparables a la de los británicos. Pero hubo relativamente poco interés en el colonialismo en Francia, la cual se concentró más en el dominio dentro de Europa, y para la mayor parte de la historia de Nueva Francia, hasta Canadá estuvo lejos por detrás de las colonias británicas norteamericanas en población y en desarrollo económico. La misma Acadia fue cedida a los británicos en el Tratado de Utrecht en 1713.
En 1699, los reclamos territoriales franceses en Norteamérica se expandieron aún más, con la fundación de Luisiana, en la cuenca del río Misisipi. La extensa red comercial a lo largo de la región conectó a Canadá a través de los Grandes Lagos, y fue mantenida a través de un vasto sistema de fortificaciones, muchas de ellas centradas en el País de los Illinois y en la actual Arkansas.
Extensión de la Nueva Francia y de la Luisiana francesa
Mientras el imperio francés en Norteamérica se expandía, los franceses comenzaron también a construir un imperio más pequeño pero más rentable en las Indias Occidentales. La población a lo largo de la costa sudamericana en lo que es hoy Guayana Francesa, comenzó en 1624 y se fundó una colonia en San Cristóbal en 1627 (la isla tuvo que ser compartida con los ingleses hasta el Tratado de Utrecht en 1713, cuando fue cedida enteramente). La Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique fundó colonias enGuadalupe y Martinica en 1635, y una colonia se fundó más tarde en Santa Lucía en (1650). Las plantaciones productoras de alimentos de estas colonias fueron construidas y sostenidas a través de la esclavitud, con el suministro de esclavos dependientes del comercio de esclavos africanos. La resistencia local de los pueblos "indios" americanos resultó en la Expulsión Caribe de1660.
La posesión colonial caribeña más importante no llegó hasta 1664, cuando la colonia de Saint-Domingue (hoy Haití) fue fundada en la mitad oeste de la isla hispana de La Española. En el siglo XVIII, Saint-Domingue creció para ser la colonia azucarera más rica del Caribe. La parte oriental de la Española (hoyRepública Dominicana) también estuvo bajo dominio francés por un corto periodo, después de ser entregada por España a Francia en 1795.
No obstante, la expansión colonial francesa no estaba limitada al Nuevo Mundo. En Senegal, en África occidental, los franceses comenzaron a establecer factorías a lo largo de la costa en 1624. En 1664, La Compañía Francesa de las Indias Orientales fue establecida para competir por el comercio en el este. Las colonias estaban establecidas en la India en Chandernagore, en Bengala(1673) y Pondicherry en el sureste (1674) y más tarde en Yanaon (1723), Mahé (1725) y Karikal (1739). Se fundaron también colonias en el Océano Índico, en la Île Bourbon (Reunión, 1664), Île de France (Mauricio, 1718) y las Seychelles (1756).

          africa burnt...        
(Image via: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/ah-patentmedicine2.html)
I had planned to write a blog about “gym walks”, but what with AfrikaBurn underway and so much being said about it on social media, I couldn’t resist the urge to “get involved” myself. In truth, the mere idea of the event has been filling me with a growing feeling of annoyance that I can only liken to an untreated STD – you know it’s there and it bothers you but you can’t talk to anyone about it. However, on reading Kurt Seigfried’s colourful and wonderful rant, I feel as if I am no longer alone and therefore safe enough to “express” how I really feel.

To be clear from the start: I haven’t been to Afrika Burn so everything I know is wholey based on what people – people who haveactually gone - have said. So guys: no judgement. Don’t fire back at me because this is about me and my issues, not about you and, um, yours.

By all accounts, it sounds like AfrikaBurn is an event that is short on venue and long on attitude. A dusty festival of druggery, fuckery and white-neckery. What is wrong with druggery, fuckery and white-neckery I hear you ask? Well, nothing actually. And as my dad would say, if that’s your thing, bully for you. Except I can’t help but feel that if it IS your thing, you should state quite clearly that it is. You could say something like,

“I’m off for some druggery, fuckery and white-neckery” in the desert for the week”.

And then, your family and friends could say something like,

“Awesome. Have a wonderful time! See you next Tuesday.”

That way, there would be no confusion about what your intentions are. Because, despite the honourably conceived principles that underpin the event, most people are there for the aforementioned activities, and the “gifting”, “self expression” and all those other admirable things, are peripheral to the real experience.

But let’s back up a little and give deserts, druggery, fuckery and white-neckery some due diligence.

Deserts. I do like them. A little. But mostly I like them far away from me and not when I’m in them. Also, I like deserts a whole lot more when they have a lot more grass, a big lake, perhaps a stream or two, and a ton of trees. Guys, deserts are overrated. There’s a reason bedouin’s are nomads. They’re trying to find their way out!

Drugs. No problem with them. Not at all. Except that I, for one, like my drugs the way that God intended them to be taken. Prescribed and predictable. Also, the concept of “recreational drugs” and “decommodification” somehow don’t go hand in hand. After all, we can only assume that all the E and coke that has been purchased to aid “self-expression” has been “bought”, and not “gifted”. Of course, the fact that these drugs have entered the “Burn” through unconventional, black-market avenues might be of some comfort to those “burners” who don’t want to make big corporations rich. But personally speaking, I like my drugs utterly tested. And no, I don’t care that I’m making pharmaceutical companies rich or that my hard-earned buck is sending their sales force to the Seychelles. When I need drugs because I’m sick, I call on Cipla, not my local dealer, to help me out.

Also, if drug-talk is to be believed, ummm… how to but this gently ….  Apparently, drug users have an inconvenient reaction prior to “dropping” their stuff, and that is…they need to poop. Now, under normal circumstances, pooing is no problem. However, given that AfrikaBurn has limited loos (which are located roughly 7km away from where your urge happens), I can only assume that after a few days of reactionary-pooping a bit of a, um, buildup occurs. The lack of lavs (amongst other important things) is hilariously alluded to by the very funny Susan Hayden of discopants blog. Indeed, I feel such a kinship with her after reading her piece that I want to dash over to her house, cuddle with her on the couch and say  “Isn’t this great. Just you and me, fully clothed, in not-a-desert, and with tea and a loo close by”.

Those folk who know me will probably say that I’m being all grinchy about AfrikaBurn because I’m not hot enough to show myself off. And they would be partly right. When asked if I will be joining in the revelry, my standard retort has been “No. Because if I go, I want to be the hot-chick wearing nothing but gold lamé hotpants and a crocheted bikini top, and since I’m not that girl, I’m not going”. Given that the event is held in a hot desert and that I have the opposite of a thigh-gap, my only option would be to wear gold lamé leggings (to avoid chafe, you understand), which would leave me looking like a tubby, trunk-legged minion that never got into the movie.

But let’s get to the fuckery. Fuckery in the desert doesn’t work for me. It’s a very dry environment guys, and heaven only knows how the sales in KY jelly must have spiked over the last few days (see: “decommodification”). Coupled with a severe lack of ablutions (see “wet wipes purchases” and “decomodification”), screwing in the desert just sounds like a UTI waiting to happen. Not only that, but I think I’m not alone when I say that 5 days of not showering is just not sexy. Also, I can’t lie. If I went I’d want to seem like a person who is all “fun-and-up-for-anything” whilst in truth, I’d be the “touch-me-and-I’ll-stab-you-in-the-eye” person”.

Sex in the desert reminds me of the story of when Exotica met her husband for the first time. One of his first questions to her (obviously a deal-maker or –breaker) was, “Would you prefer to sleep in a cave or a hotel”. I’m afraid to say that, crushed by the weight of such a loaded question and by the need to seem “cool”, I would have be compelled to answer “cave”, only to scream out on my fourth cave-date: “I like hotels! I like hotels and showers and soft beds and not-caves. There. I’ve said it.” Because, as most people know, camping (in caves or otherwise) is like blow-jobs. You say you like it at first to impress people but then eventually you just have to be honest about it.

And what do I mean by white-neckery. AfrikaBurn is not cheap. Tickets are over R1000 apiece and that’s before you’ve fired up your ol’ SUV to get there. Add to that, the price of your outfit/s, the cost of your drugs, the petrol to get there, the milk-thistle and ibruprofen to recover, the food, the drinks, the wet-wipes (did I already mention wet-wipes?) and you have a pretty packet. Radical inclusion se gat. There’s a whole bunch of folk that can’t afford the ticket, let alone all the other paraphernalia that helps you be “self-reliant” and “self-expressive”. And don’t even get me going on the environmental footprint of the event. I think The Cooling Man has made his point.

As for gifting. Why just for one week? Why not “decommodify” in real life and offer your services for free for a week to, oh hell, I don’t know, people who actually could do with a gift or two?

By the way, the concept of “gifting” is pretty much the same as “commodification”. Here’s why. Way back when, some guy had some chickens. Then, because he was feeling kind (or perhaps one chicken was troublesome), he “gifted” a chicken to a friend. However, after a while, the guy who was getting all the chickens said,

“Thanks for the chicken, but you know what I really need? I really need a goat.”

And then, the other guy said,

“OK, I’ll ‘gift’ you a goat but I really need a pig. If I give you one of my goats, will you give me one of your pigs?”

And then, after a whole nother while, one guy had enough chickens and enough pigs and enough goats and needed something he could save for a rainy day. So, he said to the other guy,

“You know what, I have enough pigs, goats and chickens for now, and what I’d really like is to have something I don’t have to feed. If I give you a pig, will you give me some of that shiny, heavy, metal stuff?”

And the other guy said,

“Ja, OK”.

And so, “gifting” became ‘trading” which is “commodification”. Same-same but different.

Last but not least, lets chat “self-expression”. Presumably, this relates to druggery, fuckery and white-neckery. I could be wrong, but as far as I know there is no rule-book that say’s you can’t self-express every day, any day, and everywhere. I’m not sure why you have to go into the desert to be different just so that you can be the same? Any clarification on this point would be hugely useful. Also, as far as self-expression goes, I find it slightly cheeky that you are “allowed” to take pictures at AfrikaBurn but you are not allowed to “use” them for anything other than personal use. Umm, did I miss something? Surely self-expression includes being able to pretty much do as you please so long as you’re not harming anyone?

Anyhoo, perhaps next year I will also be a “burner” (yes, the very word is like nails on a chalk-board to me). Perhaps I will don that outfit and have to eat a big slice of humble pie when I have a rip-roaring, fiery jol. But till then, the only thing I will be burning is the dinner. As usual.

P.S. And for the love of sweet cheeses, can we pleeeeeeease also stop spelling Africa with a “K” in it.


Dr. Seuss inspired "Ode to Africa Burn"
I will not burn
I will not hug
I will not take
Your fucking drug
I will not “gift”
I will not “shift”
I will not sniff
The shit you sift
I will not poo
I will not screw
I will not in
The desert spew
I will not “art”
I will not “install”
I will not pretend
I’m “different” at all
You can take your burn
And all its gas
And kiss my lily-white
Abundant ass

          Women in Public Life: above the parapet [Video]        
Speaker(s): Dr Joyce Banda, Dr Purna Sen, Marie-Pierre Lloyd | Joyce Banda will reflect on her journey to the highest level of public life. This event launches a new Institute of Public Affairs project exploring the roads taken by women who shape public life. Joyce Banda was the first female President of Malawi (2012 – 2014) and only the second woman to lead a country in Africa. Purna Sen (@Purna_Sen) is Deputy Director of the Institute of Public Affairs at LSE. Marie-Pierre Lloyd is Seychelles High Commissioner to the UK and a member of the Above the Parapet advisory group. Haleh Afshar OBE is Professor Emeritus at the University of York, serves as a Crossbench Peer in the House of Lords and is a member of the Above the Parapet advisory group. Above the Parapet (@LSEParapet) is a research project at the LSE’s Institute of Public Affairs which explores the stories of women in high profile public life. Credits: Tom Sturdy (Audio Post-Production), LSE AV Services (Audio Recording).
          'Karan Johar said he was blown away by our performance'        
'We have been getting e-mails for assignments and events. People from random islands, like Seychelles, called us to perform for India's independence day. It's crazy to see how the internet affects the world. We feel blessed that so many people recognise us. We have even got mails from low-budget feature film makers in the South -- like they want us to be the heroines!' Twins Poonam and Priyanka Shah give us a jhalak into their lives!
          Smiley looking for a travel buddy        

7125048 Alter 39 Von Prague, Czech Republic
Frau Suche ein Mann

I like to think I am clever, honest and kind, with a great sense of humor. Photography is my biggest hobby and for past several years also my job, I freelance for different magazines and companies. I have won several awards, nationally and internationally too. I love animals - dogs, cats and horses in particular - I am also an equestrian journalist and translator. I love to travel and explore new places, and I could use a buddy to travel with or to enjoy a glass of good wine (or a great cocktail) together. Non-smoker. I do enjoy reading a good book or watching a movie (especially great sci-fi) or a nature documentary. I graduated from a University with masters degree in animal husbandry so yes, I do know how to milk a cow. I love horseriding and skiing - and even the combination of the two, skijoring! :-) When traveling I am not that much about spending days on the beach, I prefer to see stuff and to explore the local nature, culture and traditions. I have been fortunate enough to travel to more than 20 countries already, including China, India, Seychelles, United Arab Emirates or even Turkmenistan. My bucket list is full with places to visit, with Falkland Islands/South Georgia/Antarctica, Pantanal, Alaska, Spitsbergen/Greenland, Iceland or Bhutan topping the list.I would love to see the northern lights, the great wildebeest migration, an erupting volcano and many more natural wonders. Would love to learn scuba diving, dogsledding, and finally improve my French! Still believe I can find a like-minded man for all these adventures. ENTP.


                  

          S79K Mahe Island Seychelles. From DXNews.com        
Martin, G4XUM will be active again from Mahe Island, IOTA AF - 024, Seychelles in CQ WW DX CW Contest 25 - 26 November 2017 as S79K.
          Jaeger-LeCoultre and the International Herald Tribune continue to support the World Heritage Marine Programme        
The Tides of Time programme, initiated in 2008 through a partnership with Jaeger-LeCoultre and the International Herald Tribune, has entered its second year. The year began with coverage of sites such as Sian Kaan in Mexico and the Everglades in the USA. Other sites including the Atoll of Aldabra (Seychelles), Sundarbans (Bangladesh/India), Shiretoko (Japan), and the Peninsula Valdez (Argentina) should be the focus of this year's campaign. The partnership, implemented over a period of ...
          30 Tips for Surviving Your First (or Any) Writing Conference        

I just got home from Crossroads Writers Conference, and boy, are my arms tired!
Not really. But my voice is almost gone.

As we all know, writing is an activity that mostly occurs in solitude. You at your laptop, pounding away. Sure, we have Twitter and Facebook, but there comes a time in every writer's life where you want to meet real, live people who share your struggles and hopes and dreams-- and the people who can help you reach them.

And that's where writing conferences come in.

If you've never been to a writing conference or have had a less-than-stellar experience, hopefully this will help. If not, please don't find me at a writing conference and berate me. Good? Good.


1. Go for the right reasons.
For me, the best thing about writing conferences is meeting other writers. But you also want to find a conference that maximizes what you'll get out of it for your money and is appropriate for where you are as a writer and what you want to do. If you go to a conference for the sole reason of selling a book at that conference, you have a 99.9% chance of being sorely disappointed.


2. Do your research on the conference and authors.
Sad to say, but there are tons of people out there who will promise you the moon and take your money for what feels like no return. Before you sign up for a conference, do the research. See how long it's been around, who runs it, who the guests are, and who's coming back. If a conference doesn't go well, writers seldom wish to return. It's okay to stalk guests on Twitter or Facebook and see what they're saying or to Google "Delilah's 100% Guaranteed Book Deal Writing Conference 2012" to see what popped up on blogs after last year's con. Make sure it's legit before you invest your time and money. Make sure the speakers are people you admire and from whom you'll gain valuable information, or at least make sure they have credentials to speak to the topic. Be sure you're aiming up, that the con will give you new information on your next step. You simply want to make sure the con is going to help you with what you personally need. No matter how great a con is, if you write self-pub romance and go to a con for traditionally published thrillers and horror, you might not enjoy yourself. Or, honestly, you might discover your next great idea. It's all about managing expectations and also how much you're open to new things.

The Pocket Books panel at RWA Nationals 2013, including writer Shoshanna Evers and three editors from Pocket. 
This is the time to ask about the submission and publication process, NOT pitch your book.



3. See if there are scholarships, discounts, or volunteer slots.
Conferences cost money. Which isn't so horrible if you're a pro writer, because they're tax deductible. But if you're completely out of pocket, it might be a burden. Most cons offer scholarships, and if you don't see them listed on the site, email the organizer and ask. Many cons will do a discount period to encourage early sign-ups. Ask about that, too. And make sure you follow them on social media, as they sometimes do contests for registration fees or provide other ways to get in for less. If money is seriously a problem, see if there's a cheaper hotel one block away and if someone you like might want to share a room. Conferences can be crazy expensive, but there are easy ways to make them on a budget.


4. If you are shy, reach out beforehand.
As an introvert, social media is a huge boon to me. If you've met me and would consider me outgoing, it's because I was among friends or discussing a shared passion, like writing. And a big part of that comes from making connections on Twitter. Most of the authors who present at cons are active on social media, and a simple, personalized, "I loved your books and look forward to seeing you at the conference!" is a friendly way to start a conversation. Most cons are on social media, too, and you can see who they're talking to and pre-pave the way to conference friendships with other attendees, especially if they have a hashtag. If I know a couple of people, I'm going to feel so much more comfortable and excited. Set up a coffee break or lunch ahead of time, if you have particular friends you'd like to hang with or if you're intimidated by being alone.


5. Do not print out copies of your query, book, screenplay, or Glamour Shots.
Conferences are for learning and making connections. Even the ones that provide agent and editor meetings are for getting to know the person and discussing your hook; you're not going to sell a book at one of these appointments, I promise. If it is appropriate to bring any part of your work, they will let you know. For example, at JordanCon last year, they asked the authors to do a roundtable where writers could receive a critique of their first five pages, and that was very cool. But this is 2013, and no one wants to pay extra to lug home your 400-page opus in their carry-on to New York. Bring business cards that include your name, email, website, and Twitter handle, and maybe a little blurb that will remind them of what you write. The most effective one I've ever seen is by humorous erotica author Mina Vaughn, who has "kink with a wink" as her catchphrase. But there is no reason, ever, to approach someone at the con with a hard copy of your book. If they're interested, email it later.


6. Bring more clothes and shoes than you think you'll need.
I'm a pretty low-fuss girl, but I take as many clothes as I can carry to a con to make sure I look professional, but like myself. It's so hard to judge the dress code beforehand. Cute dresses and flowy shirts roll up very small. If you feel like you fit in, you're going to have so much more confidence, and there's nothing worse than wearing a cocktail dress/suit when everyone else is in t-shirts... or vice versa. Looking at photos of last year's con online can ensure you're at least in the ballpark. And although I'm a big fan of cute shoes, all my heels are by Seychelles because I know they're comfortable and won't give me blisters. You can't concentrate on business and work when you're crying from pain. And even if you guessed wrong and aren't dressed exactly like everyone else, smile and hold your chin up. I've been there, and you'll survive. At the end of the day, a good attitude can help you sail through a fashion flub. In any case, for either gender, it's hard to go wrong with nice dark jeans, boots, and a shirt that doesn't have Bart Simpson on it. Also of note: writing cons aren't generally the place for cosplay. Business attire and Friday business casual are the norm.


7. Be careful with food.
Don't get me wrong-- I love to eat. But I know which foods to avoid before and during cons. You're there to learn and network, and you can't do that if you have an upset stomach or are burping garlic on people. On the same token, fainting in front of an editor isn't good etiquette, so make sure you drink plenty of water and plan snacks and eat meals that will last, especially for cons that don't have restaurants or hospitality suites easily available. I pack a box of protein bars and nuts and can always rely on Starbucks for a banana. And pack mints!


8. Be careful with drinks.
It's true-- as awesome as the panels are, the best parts of the con often happen at the bar afterwards. That's where you can talk to authors, other writers, agents, and editors one-on-one with just a dash of alcoholic bravado. JUST A DASH. Nobody wants to talk to the crazy drunk lady waving her script around. And nobody wants you to barf on their cute shoes. I rarely turn down a drink at a con, but I always have a glass of water in between. And if I have to present before 10am the next morning, one drink is enough. But this is the time to ask the questions you really want to know and possibly hear some good stories. And although I shouldn't have to say this, most cons happen at hotels, and all the people at the hotel bar are not other writers you know and trust, so hold onto your drink just as carefully as you do in strange places. Also of note: when someone wants to dominate a writer, agent, or editor's time, they often offer to buy them a drink first. Which is totally okay, and which is why they are compensated to be there. But don't make it creepy or weird, and don't be hurt if they say no. Timing is essential.


A room party at Crossroads Writers Conference in Macon, GA, one of my very favorite cons for writers. Crossroads is great for lots of writer/attendee mingling.



9. Don't fall in the Sarlaac pit.
Every conference has one. Really.


10. Carry cash.
If you have ten people at a sit-down restaurant and a panel to catch in ten minutes, you don't want to make the poor waitress divvy up the check and run ten cards. I always bring cash and keep receipts. In larger cities, you might share a cab or grab some coffee from a street cart. I've also been in a place where I wanted to buy a book from the author and didn't have cash on hand, and I'd hate to miss out on a signed book I'd love.


11. Wear your name tag. Make it simple.
Given my preference, my name tag will say DELILAH S. DAWSON and then, underneath that, I'll write @DelilahSDawson so that people will know my name and my Twitter handle. For me, they're the same. But awesome author JT Ellison, for example, is ThrillerChick on Twitter, so I didn't recognize her at first and felt like a derp. If Twitter is your big thing, that's a great way to let people know the best way to find you. Unless you write under several pen names, try to keep your name tag very simple. At the least, focus on the name/genre people at that con would recognize. I've seen some, for example, that say:

Romance writer
JL Smith
Horrorgirl at Bookanistagirls
@RHJones
JHSmithJones/Facebook
VP of the Mississippi Mystery Society

And... I have no idea what to call her because she has so many names and so many different blogs and genres. Make it easy for someone to remember your name and what you write, if you can.


12. Meet new people.
It's why you're there. But for me, this is the scariest part. Luckily, at cons, it's so much easier, because you're both there for the same thing and can talk about writing and books all day. My go-to question is always, "So, what do you write?", and I can ask it with honest interest. If that one's done, ask them where they're from or how long they've been writing or where they got their shoes or what they thought of their last session. If you're at a con alone and looking for compatriots, find a likely group chatting in between panels or at lunch and just ask if they have a chair open. I am by no means a conversational god, but I can tell you that everyone at the conference feels about the same as you and would probably prefer to travel in packs. Even asking a leading question like, "Do y'all know anything about lunch plans? I'm starving!" can lead to an invite and a wonderful experience. You can also pre-plan on Twitter to meet people, especially if the con has a hashtag that others are following. And if the absolute worst happens and you can't find friends, it's a writing conference, and you get extra cool points for ordering room service and banging out 2000 words in the comfort of your hotel room. Which I've totally done.

Cherie Priest, John Scalzi, Sam Sykes, Leanna Renee Hieber, me, and Kevin Hearne on the Author Chairdancing panel at Phoenix Comicon in Phoenix, AZ. My friend Cherie invited me, and there I met Sam, Leanna, and Kevin, who are now three of my all-time favorite people. I first met Scalzi at Fandomfest in Louisville. We had a pleasant conversation, and then someone said OMIGOD DO YOU KNOW WHO THAT IS?, and I was like, "Um, no. He was really nice and funny, though." And then I found out. All good stories about being nice to people and making wonderful friends in the writing world.


13. When in doubt, introduce yourself.
Sometimes, you walk into a group of friends and start chatting but don't know anyone's name. Sometimes you get into a conversation and realize you already know each other on Twitter. Sometimes you show up in the same three panel audiences as someone who looks cool, and you just keep smiling at each other like goofballs. All of this is totally normally and still somehow feels awkward. The answer, for me, is just to stick out my hand and say, "I'm sorry; I don't know if we've met. I'm Delilah." You should probably say your name instead, though. And then you'll know that person's name. And there is no shame, should they say, "We've met before", in saying, "Well, it's good to see you again" or, as happens to me often, "Of course I know you on Twitter, but now I know you for real." Whether the con has 300 people or 3,000, no one can keep track of everyone, and some of us go by a lot of different names or don't have a recent personal photo as a Twitter avatar. You never go wrong wanting to shake a person's hand and then, once you've established how you know each other, going in for a hug. There's also nothing wrong with saying something like, "Are you Delilah?" if you think you know someone and want to confirm before launching into conversation.


14. On creeping.
I don't like this topic. I don't want to think that anyone reading this might be a creeper or might get creeped on. But it's going to happen, because conferences are about people who get obsessive and passionate, and sometimes, people who get obsessive and passionate can accidentally get creepy. And there are many levels of creepy, but in particular, let's just say that sometimes at cons, someone wants to get to know you in a way that makes you want to escape and hide, and that's not cool. It's not always dude on chick, either; sometimes, we get super excited to meet our heroes. Sometimes, creepers don't even know they're doing it. If you feel that someone is creeping on you, you must handle it in the way that feels comfortable for you, but please always make sure that you are safe. You have a right to exit any conversation, to turn down any offer for drinks or a meal, or to tell someone else that you are having a problem and use them as an escape route. If you think someone might be following you, do not go bravely into the elevator with them. Find someone, friend or stranger, explain the situation, and ask them to go with you. This hasn't happened to me at a writing con, but it has happened to my friends. Never put yourself in danger for the sake of being polite.

Of note for women: I have several guy friends at cons who would stand between me and a charging bull, if the bull stared at my chest too long. If you know James Tuck or John Hartness or a similar big-hearted teddy bear, develop a signal so they can rescue you if you look terrified or feel creeped on. I'm not saying we women can't stand up for ourselves. But I know what it feels like as someone who depends on appearing professional and polite when you can't extricate yourself from an uncomfortable situation without making more of a scene than you're interested in making. There's no shame in creating outside interference.


15. Go to panels.
Chances are that when I'm not on a panel or teaching a workshop, my butt is in a seat in someone else's panel. No matter how rad a writer you think you are, there is always another way to up your game. Last year at a con, I went to a panel on comics and graphic novels and asked several questions. I was so excited by what I learned there that I'm now trying to get into writing more comics and have my first comic out soon. If there's nothing in that session that's truly applicable, think about what you're going to need further down the line. Want to dabble in another genre? Need to know about the legal aspects of self-pub? At the very least, go into a panel that will be popular, like "Tips for Bestsellers" and start live-tweeting it. You might think you know everything, but you might learn something-- or pass the information on to someone in your tweetfeed who needs it. And use the con's hashtag so others can find you and your info.

A panel on humor at Olde City, New Blood, now Coastal Magic, a con for romance in Florida.

16. Take notes.
When you're listening to a panel, it can be so easy to nod along and feel your brain open up like fertile ground in the rain. And then when you leave, you're like... WHAT JUST HAPPENED I FORGOT EVERYTHING. So take notes, just like in school. Whether you do so in a notebook or on your iPad, jot down the things that will help you later. Livetweeting is great for this sort of thing, but you can be put in Twitter jail if you tweet too much, too quickly, and then you miss all the fun for the rest of the day. Please don't worry about disrupting the speaker by playing on your device if it means you're getting something from the session; just turn off the chick-chick-chick typewriter sound. Speakers love to see their words pop up on Twitter or Facebook, because that means our info meant enough to you that you wanted to share it.


17. Ask questions.
I know it can be scary at a con, whether because there are so many people or there's so much new information or because agents and editors literally have seven heads full of venomous fangs. But this is your chance. This is why they are here: to help you. You paid your conference registration fee, and you have a right to ask the questions that will help you up your game. Granted, those questions should always be informed, pointed, brief, and not rude, but it's understood that if a person is sitting in the hotel bar, they are making themselves available, however briefly.

Good questions:
Are you having a good con? You represent one of my favorite authors, and I'd love to hear how you started working together. Do you think zombies will come back anytime soon, because I know you edited that anthology and I really enjoyed it. Your panel on social media was wonderful, and I wanted to know a little more how you find the blogs you follow on tumblr and inspire them to reblog you so much. I'm having trouble with some self-publishing formatting and really enjoyed your panel, but you didn't speak to formatting for foreign countries; do you have any experience with that?

Bad questions:
So, are you married? Can we go someplace private to talk? Are you looking to represent a book about a were-mermaid from ancient Australia who falls in love with a blind vampire? I heard that author who writes for you is a total bitch; is that true? Your rejection letter sucked, and I'd like to get some more feedback on why you didn't like my manuscript. In that sex scene in your book, did you really try that thing with the monkey bars and the peanut butter? I went to your panel, but I want to tell you all the reasons that you are wrong. I brought my manuscript; would you mind looking at it? Will you tell me if my query is any good? Are those real?


18. Do what works for you, but don't let fear hold you back.
There's a fine line between doing what naturally appeals to you and breaking out of your comfort zone. Conferences are a great way to push yourself into doing new things that will benefit your writing life. Did a slot suddenly open up with an agent or editor that you don't know? Take it. Give your pitch. If it's not a good match, you get five minutes to talk with an agent or editor about anything you want, and that's a great deal. Did a writing group from Canada you just met on the way to your room invite you out to dinner at the Persian restaurant? Change shoes and go, and when they hop on the table to bellydance, join them. Did your Twitter friend hear about an amazing bar with a chocolate fountain and wants to call a cab and check it out? Leave the hotel and have an adventure. Did you get invited to a room party? Check it out! But! Did that panelist just give you what you need to fix your manuscript and you're totally on fire to write? If that's what means the most to you, go do it. Conferences are there to serve you, and if five hours in a quiet room away from your family to write is the best gift you can give yourself, then don't feel pressured to go eat an expensive hamburger and listen to the cozy writer from Kansas as she details her dog's sweater collection.


19. Swag-- do you need it?
Swag really worried me, at first, because I felt that I needed it, and I needed it to rock. But for conferences, in my opinion, all you really need is a tasteful business card with your contact information on it-- mine are from Moo.com because I like the weird size and the ability to use different images on different cards. If I'm totally honest, I take everything given to me at a con with a huge smile, put them all in a pocket of my bag, go home, and dump out the bag. I go through the cards and find the people with whom I wish to connect on Twitter or Facebook. I keep the pens and the wrapped chocolate. Almost every thing else I take to the swag room or leave on a table for someone else. I can honestly say I have never bought a book or contacted a writer based on a piece of swag; getting to know the author, liking them, and wanting to know more gets me to check out their book or blog. At a reader's conference, I understand swag is a big deal. But at a writing conference, I suggest sticking with a card and good conversation that would make someone want to keep talking to you.

My worst ever swag experience: A writer I did not know came in to her panel late, disheveled, and not dressed professionally. She pulled out a bag of plastic Easter eggs and began throwing them into the audience, where they ponged off people's heads. Inside them were candy and codes to her e-book. Later, she took a phone call while sitting on the panel. I did not even consider downloading the e-book code in the egg because she'd been so disrespectful of other panelists, the moderator, and the audience. Don't be the egg-thrower.


20. Let them know how to find you.
If you're an aspiring writer-- first of all, you're a writer. You write. But if you're not yet published, you need to make sure that anyone who meets you at a con can easily find you online. A business card is great, but what do you put on it, and where does it go? My cards include a gmail address, my Twitter handle, and my website. And that's pretty much it. I don't like phone calls unless they're about paying me, and I don't press people to use my Facebook author site, as Facebook only shows 1/3 of my followers any given post. As for websites, if you don't have one, get one. You can get a site on Blogspot or Wordpress for free, and you don't have to use it as a blog, if you're not ready to do that.  Just use the site to provide a biography, a photo, some information about what you write, and your contact information. Check out the websites or blogs of other writers you admire and see what they're doing, then do your version of that according to your skill set. It also bears mentioning that it can help to make all of your online handles match. If you're RomanceWriter3 on Twitter and write emails from JoeandCarolSmith.hotmail and have the website JojotheCorgi.com, it's confusing-- and very 1999. Get a free email address and make it professional. If your name is common, add a middle initial or the word author or writer. Example: JaneLSmithAuthor, JohnQPublicWrites, etc.


21. How to frighten people away.
Granted, these are just the sort of things that make me edge away politely or that ensure I won't be following someone on Twitter or looking up their blog. Your mileage may vary. You might think I'm a bitch. But I'm honest.

Don't pitch to every human being you can catch and talk about your book exclusively and obsessively. Don't tell someone in publishing that you don't read, you think publishing is dead, you hate romance, SFF is stupid, or that your book is different than all that other crap and will be a bestseller. Don't tell an author their books suck, you hate their covers, or here's what you would have done differently; interesting conversation or asking questions is good, but no one wants to hear how much they stink. Don't get drunk and bemoan all your rejections. Don't name drop like crazy. Don't talk sh*t about other authors or only talk about negative things. The thing is, people assume that if they like you, they'll like your writing. And if you appear unlikeable, no one will pick up your books or offer to help. And most writers love helping each other, providing introductions or recommending cons or books or suggesting agents to try.

Also of note: Personal hygiene is important. You know this, but I have to say it. Stay clean, don't be unkempt, don't overdo the perfume or cologne.


22. On self-presentation.
In many ways, a writing conference is simultaneously a party with your friends, a business meeting, a schoolroom, and a job interview. You want to be yourself, but you also want to be yourself at your best in a way that will draw people to you as colleagues and as possible collaborators. You don't want to dress too fancy and look like you're trying too hard, but you don't want anyone to walk away thinking you're sloppy and lazy, because whether or not it's true, they'll think your writing is sloppy and lazy. They say 'dress for the job you want, not the job you have', but you definitely shouldn't wear pajama pants like most authors are right now.

If you're trying to get a traditional publishing deal, you also might want to err on the side of normal and save the wacky for later in the realm of personal presentation. Believe me when I say that it's possible to look professional and still "you". That being said, if you've seen my dear friend Leanna Renee Hieber in her full Victorian outfits, that's legit her--and she rocks it and gladly tells people, "If you like the way I dress, you'll like my books." Find what works best for you but always be gracious and inviting-- and always be genuine.

The Carniepunk signing in Houston at Murder by the Book. 
Note what seven traditionally published authors are wearing.
(Me, Nicole Peeler, Jaye Wells, a reader, Mark Henry, a reader, Liliana Hart, and Kevin Hearne.
I want that red dress!


And here's how professional authors dress at Dragon Con, a comics convention.
Totally appropriate (and expected!) for DC. Not so much for RWA.
I don't know the lovely lady in purple, but then there's Lucienne Diver, John Hartness, me, Faith Hunter, and Tamsin Silver.


23. Sleep. Get some.
You know what's really hard to do on three hours of sleep and hung over? Learn anything. Getting enough sleep at a seriously great con while also staying out with friends can feel impossible, especially when there are informative sessions at 8:30am. Personally, I try to plan ahead and pick one night for serious carousal, usually the night after I've done all my presenting or when I don't have to present until late afternoon the next day. I always bring melatonin to help me get to sleep at cons, because I get so overexcited and my brain won't stop spinning and I have trouble turning it off. There is nothing wrong with going to bed early if you know you're going to have a long day. And there's also nothing wrong with running up to your room for a two-hour nap--just be sure to set your phone's alarm. And there's really nothing wrong with repeating the word COFFEE? until someone finally gives you some. Ask me how I know.


24. If something goes wrong, initiate damage control immediately.
It can be hard, when you've paid for an experience, to deal with the frustration of not getting what you paid for. But I firmly believe that most situations can be saved. If the conference is poorly run, just try to salvage whatever you can by networking outside of the panels and making connections. If a speaker is terrible, leave the panel and sneak into another one. If the people aren't appealing and you're not connecting at all, introduce yourself to new people or go to panels alone and learn every last damn thing you can. If something bad happens to you, figure out a way to make it okay. I once had a horrible experience with a signing in which the bookstore treated me wretchedly... but there was a cupcake store next door, so I walked right over there and sat down for a cupcake and pulled out a book to read. Now I remember the delicious cupcake more than the bookstore.

Although conference organizers can't do much for you in the moment, you have every right to complain, honestly but reasonably, afterword, through an email or letter, especially if you felt that it wasn't worth what you paid. Speaking as someone who's run events before, it's much better to say, "The keynote speaker was notably intoxicated, the hotel had bedbugs, and the provided lunch was not vegetarian, as per my request; it would have been preferable to hold the con in the much nicer hotel up the street that also has meeting rooms but only costs $10 more per night," versus "THIS CONFERENCE SUCKED AND YOU SHOULD DIE IN A FIRE." Let them know what went wrong, what you expected, and what they could do to ensure you'd return.

Not to get all Mr. Rogers on you, but although the experience is out of your control, how you react to it is firmly in your control. I've been to bad conferences, but they gave me a chance to commiserate with new friends, and in retrospect, those friends are totally worth it. At the very, very least, a few days in a hotel room can let you crank out a few chapters in solitude.


25. If someone helps you, thank them.
The conference organizers have spent all year planning the con and probably haven't slept in days. The volunteers have been smiling since 6am. The panelists flew in from LA on a red-eye and haven't seen their kids or pets in a week. So if you get a chance, thank them. If there's something in particular that you appreciated, going into detail about what you liked will make their day. When someone comes out of a presentation, no matter how awesome they are, they're often unsure if it went over well and they truly are glad to know that what they said or did made a difference. You can never go wrong thanking people, and you need to know that your kind words keep them going when things get tough.


26. If you liked a speaker, one of the best ways to thank them is to buy their book.
No matter how good someone's writing is or how much press you think they get, every book sale matters. Especially for new and midlist authors, these conferences are a way of getting our books into the hands of new readers and making connections with fans. There is no greater praise for a panelist than to say, "I really liked what you said, so I went and bought your book. Will you sign it?" And that's why I always leave room in my suitcase: I buy the books of the panelists whose words or attitude speak to me. And I love signed books by awesome people.

This is what my lap looks like on the way back from a writing conference or signing.
I love meeting great writers, buying their books, and telling everyone on Twitter about it.



27. Afterwords, follow up.
The conference might be over, but there's still plenty to do. Find the people you met at the con on Twitter and Facebook. Follow them and send them a friendly tweet letting them know it was nice to meet them and asking them how their experience was. If an agent or editor showed interest in your book, polish it up with what you learned and email it over, along with a reminder note along the lines of, "We met at BookCon last week and you expressed interest in my novel THE RETICENT MERMAID. I've done some revisions based on our talk, and the manuscript is attached." Tag people in  your photos, RT what they're saying about the conference, and keep the conversations going.


28. Blog about it.
Like I am! Seriously, though, if you learned things at conferences, writing up your experience is a great way to remember it yourself and get some blog traffic from other people who might want to go and see what it's like. Post pictures and talk about the speakers who really reached you, but try to leave any name-calling or incriminating photos out of it. Next year, someone might be Googling the con for the first time, and your post could be the one that convinces them to go. Which leads me to...


29. Be generous.
You're not the newbie anymore, but someone else is. If you can give them a hand-up, do. If you see someone at the con who looks shy, invite them into your circle. Introduce them. Ask them what they write. Share your resources, whether you know a great blog or another con that's close to them. I'm so fortunate to have met tons of wonderful, amazing, giving people on my writing journey, and I'm always anxious to help y'all if I can. Any questions? Just ask in the comments.

And give folks the benefit of the doubt. Sometimes, you might think someone is ignoring you at the bar, but they're seeing someone they only get to see once a year. Or maybe that author was a little short when you told her how much you love her book, but she just got a phone call about her mom in the hospital or she really has to pee. Almost every time I've gotten annoyed that someone had given me the cold shoulder, I've met them later under different circumstances and found them delightful. Authors, agents, and editors are all human, and they're doing the best they can.


30. Apply what you learned and move to the next step.
I meet amazing people at conferences who are holding back from that next step. They love their first draft too much to delete anything. They adore their book but are terrified to show it to someone else. They think they're ready to query, but they're scared of rejection. It's easy to fall into the trap of writing and revising without ever sending anything out, but that's part of the process. Jump out of that nest and fly, little bird! You can do it!

***

Anything I didn't cover? 
Ask away in the comments, and I'll do my best to answer.


          Estonia 2017 stamp exhibition - special cover from Tartu        
Exposition philatélique Estonia 2017 - Pli spécial de Tartu

Du 14 au 16 juillet 2017, une exposition philatélique était organisée dans le musée national estonien à Tartu, dans le cadre du 25ème anniversaire de la "International Estonian Philatelic Society" ("Rahvusvaheline Eesti Filatelistide Selts - REFS" en estonien).
A cette occasion, la poste estonienne a mis en circulation un entier postal spécial ainsi qu'un TAD spécial reproduisant le logo de cette exposition à laquelle 6 pays ont participé.
Un grand merci Vera pour cette intéressante lettre envoyée de Tartu le 1er jour de cette exposition, avec le logo sur l'illustration à gauche et le cachet bleu en haut à gauche reprenant l'emblème du musée national estonien ("Eesti Rahva Muuseum"), dont le nouvel édifice a été inauguré en 2016, présentant plus de 140000 objets de nature ethnographique et folklorique pour la plupart.
From July 14 to 16, 2017, a philatelic exhibition was organized in the Estonian National Museum in Tartu as part of the 25th anniversary of the International Estonian Philatelic Society ("Rahvusvaheline Eesti Filatelistide Selts - REFS" in Estonian).
On this occasion, the Estonian Post has put into circulation a special postal stationery as well as a special postmark, reproducing the logo of this exhibition in which 6 countries participated.
A big thank you Vera for this interesting letter sent from Tartu on the 1st day of this exhibition, with the logo on the illustration to the left and the blue cachet on the top left with the emblem of the Estonian National Museum ("Eesti Rahva Muuseum"), whose new building was inaugurated in 2016, presenting more than 140,000 objects of ethnographic and folkloric nature for most of them.


Le TAD spécial a été appliqué sur cette lettre affranchie avec le timbre (0,65€, conception : Vladimir Taiger, tirage : 40000) émis le 29 avril 2017 pour célébrer les 100 ans du Lions Clubs International.
Considéré comme la plus importante organisation de clubs philanthropiques dans le monde (1,4 million de membres répartis dans plus de 46000 clubs), le Lions Clubs International a pour principal objectif d'organiser des activités de levée de fonds et à encourager le volontariat pour des actions sociales.
D'autres administrations postales ont également planifié des timbres en 2017 consacrés à ce 100ème anniversaire : Taïwan, Finlande, Pakistan, Brésil, Pays-Bas, Singapour, France, Monaco, Croatie, Hongrie, Autriche, Australie, Jersey, Portugal, Nouvelle-Calédonie, Chypre, Indonésie, Irlande, Japon, Seychelles, SMOM, République Dominicaine...
Vera a complété son affranchissement avec 3 timbres courants "cor postal" autocollants dont un (0,10€, conception : Lembit Lõhmus) émis le 19 février 2014, le dernier d'une série composée de 25 timbres émis depuis le 10 janvier 2008.
A partir du 10 février 2016, une nouvelle série courante (conception : Indrek Ilves) a été mise en circulation, les 2 autres timbres ci-dessus en faisant partie (0,05€ émis le 19 mai 2016 et 0,65€ émis le 18 janvier 2017).
Ces 3 timbres ont été oblitérés avec le cachet classique du bureau de poste situé dans le centre commercial Kvartal de Tartu.
The special postmark was applied to this letter franked with the stamp (€ 0.65, design: Vladimir Taiger, print run: 40,000) issued on April 29, 2017 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Lions Clubs International.
Lions Clubs International is the world's largest philanthropic club organization (1.4 million members in more than 46,000 clubs). Its main objective is to organize fundraising events and to encourage volunteerism for social actions.
Other postal administrations have also planned stamps in 2017 dedicated to this 100th anniversary: ​​Taiwan, Finland, Pakistan, Brazil, Netherlands, Singapore, France, Monaco, Croatia, Hungary, Austria, Australia, Jersey, New Caledonia, Cyprus, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Seychelles, SMOM, Dominican Republic...
Vera completed her postage with three "Post Horn" definitive self-adhesive stamps including one (€ 0.10, design: Lembit Lõhmus) issued on February 19, 2014, the last in a series consisting of 25 stamps issued since January 10, 2008.
As of February 10, 2016, a new definitive series (design: Indrek Ilves) has been put into circulation, the other two stamps above being part of it (€ 0.05 issued on May 19, 2016 and € 0.65 issued on January 18, 2017).
These three stamps have been canceled with the standard postmark of the post office located in the Kvartal shopping centre in Tartu.
 

           Attempted re-establishment of a sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus breeding colony on Denis Island, Seychelles         
Feare, C. J., French, G. C. A., Nevill, J. E. G., Pattison-Willits, V. S., Wheeler, V., Yates, T. L., Hoareau, C. and Prescott, C. (2015) Attempted re-establishment of a sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus breeding colony on Denis Island, Seychelles. Conservation Evidence, 12. pp. 19-24. ISSN 1758-2067
          Juiz Baltasar Garzon processa piratas que capturaram atuneiro espanhol        
O juiz espanhol Baltasar Garzon abriu hoje um processo judicial contra dois piratas capturados pelas forças espanholas que participaram no sequestro do atuneiro Alakrana, com 36 tripulantes a bordo.
Garzon acusa os piratas, que chegaram hoje de manhã a Torrejon, a bordo de um avião do exército espanhol, de «associação ilegal, que poderá ser qualificada de terrorista e de 36 delitos de detenção ilegal», um por cada marinheiro a bordo.
Por seu lado, os piratas somalis, que capturaram a 2 de Outubro o atuneiro espanhol Alakrana, com 36 tripulantes a bordo ao largo da Somália, exigiram hoje a libertação dos dois piratas capturados pela Marinha espanhola, antes de negociarem um resgate.
«Dois dos nossos amigos foram detidos pelas forças estrangeiras e isso pode atrasar qualquer processo que leve a um acordo para libertar o navio. É preciso que eles libertem os nossos amigos para que possamos começar a discutir o destino do barco e dos reféns», declarou por telefone Abdi Mohamed, um dos piratas.
«Insistimos que eles têm primeiro de os libertar para que se chegue a acordo sem problemas», acrescentou, questionado desde o porto de Harardere, um esconderijo de piratas onde está actualmente o Alakrana.
Os dois piratas que capturaram o atuneiro espanhol no Oceano Índico, entre a Somália e as Seychelles, foram detidos há uma semana pela Marinha espanhola.
Estes dois piratas «chegaram hoje de manhã a bordo de um avião do exército espanhol à base aérea de Torrejon e foram postos à disposição da Justiça», segundo fonte governamental.
A captura do Alakrana assinalou o recomeço dos actos de pirataria na região por bandos armados que se aproveitam do fim das monções e do regresso a um mar mais calmo.
A tripulação do navio desviado é composta por marinheiros de Espanha, Gana, Indonésia, Madagáscar Senegal e Seychelles, que estarão a ser tratados «com humanidade», segundo os piratas.
Num outro desenvolvimento, a Marinha francesa entregou hoje às autoridades de Puntland (nordeste da Somália) cinco alegados piratas somalis que tinham atacado seis dias antes o navio-almirante das forças francesas no Oceano Índico, indicou o estado-maior das Forças Armadas em Paris.
Lusa / SOL

          Keindahan Alam Negara Kecil di Dunia        
Berikut adalah 17 negara yang paling kecil (dilihat dari luas area), mulai dari yang terkecil sampai terluas. Masing – masing negara ini mempunyai luas tidak lebih dari 200 mil persegi. Jika kita menggabungkan luas negara yang ada dalam list ini, kita Cuma akan mendapatkan sebuah negara yang sedikit lebih luas dari Rhode Island. Bahkan Singapore negara tetangga kita masih lebih besar dari daftar yang ada dibawah ini (Singapore mempunyai luas 246 mil persegi)!


Vatican City - 0,2 mil persegi – Merupakan negara berdault yang
paling kecil di dunia. Vatican hanya mempunyai populasi sebanyak 770
orang, dan tidak ada yang merupakan permanent resident (warga negara
tetap). Negara kecil yang dikelilingi oleh St. Peter’s Basilica ini
merupakan Pusat Spiritual bagi umat Katholik Roma.



Monaco – 0,7 mil persegi – Negara mungil ini terhampar sepanjang
pantai mediterania Perancis. Monaco dihuni sekitar 32.000 warganya.
Negara ini juga terkenal dengan Casino Monte Carlo dan Princesss Grace.
Negara ini telah berdiri sebagai sebuah negara merdeka sejak abad ke 13.


Nauru – 8,5 mil persegi – Sekitar 13.000 warganya sangat
bergantung kepada deposit fosfat yang semakin hari semakin menyusut.
Negara ini merdeka pada tahun 1968 dan sebelumnya dikenal sebagai
Pleasant Island.


Tuvalu – 9 mil persegi – Tuvalu terdiri dari susunan 9 karang
sepanjang rantai karang yang terdapat di Polynesia. Negara ini merdeka
pada tahun 1978 dan dihuni sekitar 12.000 warga.


San Marino – 24 mil persegi – terletak di gunung Titano sebelah
utara Italia, San Marino mempunyai 29.000 penduduk. Negara yang
mengklaim sebagai negara tertua di Eropa ini, telah berdiri sejak abad
ke 4.


Liechtenstein – 62 mil persegi – Berpenduduk sekitar 34.000 jiwa, negara ‘mikro’ ini terletak di Sungai Rhine antara Switzerland dan Austria.


Marshall Islands – 70 mil persegi – Mendapatkan kemerdekaan pada
tahun 1986 setelah resmi memisahkan diri dari Pasific Island (yang
termasuk dalam wilayah Amerika Serikat). Negara ini berpenduduk 58.000
jiwa.


Saint Kitts and Nevis – 104 mil persegi – Negara yang terletak
di kepulauan Karibia ini mendapatkan kemerdekaan pada tahun 1983 dan
mempunyai warga negara sebesar 39.000 jiwa.


Seychelles – 107 mil persegi – 81.000 penduduk yang tinggal di
negara kepulauan di Samudra Hindia ini telah merdeka dari Inggris sejak
tahun 1976.


Maldives – 115 mil persegi – Terletak di Samudra Hindia, negara
ini mendapatkan kemerdekaan dari Inggris pada tahun 1965 dan dihuni
oleh 340.000 jiwa.


Malta – 122 mil persegi – Negara ini terletak di sebelah selatan
pulau Sicilia Italia. Merdeka pada tahun 1964 dari Inggris dan memiliki
400.000 penduduk.


Grenada – 133 mil persegi – Terletak dekat sekali dengan
Venezuela, negara ini merdeka pada tahun 1974 dari Inggris dengan
populasi penduduk berjumlah 90.000 jiwa.


Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – 150 mil persegi – 117.000
jiwa menghuni negara yang terletak di Kepulauan Karibia ini. Negara ini
mendapatkan kemerdekaan dari Inggris pada tahun 1979.


Barbados – 166 mil persegi – Merdeka dari inggris pada tahun 1966 dan dihuni sekitar 280.000 jiwa dan terletak di Kepulauan Karibia.


Antigua and Barbuda – 171 mil persegi – Bangsa Karibia yang
berjumlah 69.000 jiwa ini merdeka dari Inggris pada tahun 1981. Tiga
pulau indah yang menjadi wilayah negara ini, menjadi andalan pemasukan
negara dari sektor pariwisata.


Andorra – 180 mil persegi – berpenduduk sekitar 70.000 jiwa, dan merdeka dari Perancis pada tahun 1278.


Palau – 191 mil persegi – Palau dikenal juga dengan nama Belau,
sebelumnya bernama Carolines. Terdiri dari 200 gugusan pulau dengan
populasi sebanyak 20.000 jiwa. Palau mendeka sejak tahun 1994.

          Adebayor leads Togo as minnows fall        
Emmanuel Adebayor returned to the Togo side to help them become one of ten teams into the group stage of African qualifying for Brazil 2014, which also included Kenya, who eased by Seychelles.
          Why Seychelles Is A Hot Travel Destination        

Seychelles is a little slice of heaven.  Thinking about the pristine beaches, turquoise blue waters, gorgeous sunshine, and beautiful resorts immediately puts me into daydreaming mode.  The big appeal is how isolated it is and how pristine the environment is because of where it is in the world.  Nestled in the Indian Ocean, this collection […]

The post Why Seychelles Is A Hot Travel Destination appeared first on Going Awesome Places.


          Kalusha Bwalya: "El prodigio zambiano"        
El mejor jugador de la historia de Zambia y Balón de Oro africano en el año 1988. Desarrolló parte de su carrera en Europa y México y salvó la vida al no ser convocado por lesión para un choque de su selección frente a Mauricio en 1993. Sus compañeros tomaron un avión militar en la ciudad de Port Louis y tras una escala en Libreville el aparato se estrelló frente a las costas de Gabón. Nacido el 16 de agosto de 1963 en Mufulira (Zambia), se desempeñaba como delantero o extremo. Jugador zurdo de exquisita técnica, rapidísimo y desequilibrante, disponía de un fabuloso golpeo de balón y de unas cualidades físicas propias de un atleta.

Con el equipo nacional
Comenzó a jugar en las calles de su país natal pero no fue hasta los 16 años cuando empezó su carrera. Lo hizo en el Mufulira Blackpool en el que apenas estuvo una temporada para en 1980 firmar por el Mufulira Wanderers, uno de los mejores clubes zambianos. En el cuadro verde pronto destacó como el mejor jugador y ayudó a que el equipo lograse una Challenge Cup en 1984, la Copa Chibuku en 1985 y la Supercopa ese mismo año.
Fue entonces cuando a las oficinas del Círculo de Brujas belga llegó un video con las mejores jugadas de Bwalya. Su calidad impresionó a los técnicos que recomendaron su fichaje, pagando finalmente 25.000$ por su traspaso. En sus dos primeras temporadas demostró un gran olfato goleador que le permitió ser el mejor artillero del plantel, a lo que sumó dos galardones de mejor jugador del año. En 1988 el gran papel desempeñado en los Juegos de Seúl puso a numerosos equipos tras su fichaje. Pero fue finalmente el PSV el que logró su propósito un año más tarde.
En el conjunto de Eindhoven coincidió con Romario y Kieft formando una sociedad temible en la zona de ataque. Además también había en el vestuario otras figuras de gran prestigio en el balompié neerlandés como van Breukelen, Vanenburg, van Aerle y Valckx o el defensa belga Gerets. Allí permaneció un lustro en el que marcó 25 dianas en más de 100 partidos oficiales y levantó importantes trofeos como la Liga en 1991 y 1992 tras superar al Ajax, la Copa en 1990 después de vencer el PSV en la final por 1-0 al Vitesse o la Supercopa en 1992.
Su trayectoria en el fútbol europeo concluyó a mediados de los 90 cuando emprendió viaje a México donde se consagraría como un ídolo. Se enroló en las filas del América siendo la estrella durante varias temporadas. Al equipo azulcrema lo dirigía Leo Beenhakker y su lado jugaron por ejemplo los cameruneses Omam-Biyik (con él formó el dúo conocido como las abejas africanas) y Pagal, el rumano Dumitrescu o los locales Cuahtémoc Blanco, Luis Alves o Adrián Chávez. 21 dianas en 88 partidos y la Copa Pachuca fue su bagaje con las águilas hasta 1997 cuando se marchó al Necaxa.
A partir de ese instante recorrió varios equipos en apenas tres años sin lograr la estabilidad en ninguno. En 1998 tuvo una corta experiencia en el Al Wahda de Abu Dhabi con el que alzó la Copa Al Etihad. A continuación retornó a México para jugar unos meses en Club de León en 1998, en Irapuato y Veracruz en 1999 y el SD Correcaminos al inicio del nuevo siglo para finalizar su carrera poco tiempo más tarde.


América 1994-1995
Zambia 1988
PSV 1990


Con la selección fue internacional en 87 ocasiones, anotando 39 tantos. Se estrenó de forma oficial el 24 de abril de 1983 en un choque de clasificación para la Copa de África del año siguiente. Zambia jugó ante Sudan en Lusaka en un partido que acabó sin goles. El cuadro zambiano no logró la clasificación para la Copa de África, ni tampoco para los Juegos Olímpicos de Los Ángeles pese a que Bwalya jugó la decisiva eliminatoria ante Egipto.
Su primer gol importante con el equipo nacional se produjo en 1984 con Uganda como rival. Zambia iniciaba el camino para el Mundial de México y tras dejar en la estacada a los ugandeses se vio las caras con Camerún. Los Leones Indomables que venían de participar en el anterior Campeonato también sucumbieron ante el poder de los zambianos que les derrotaron en casa por 4-1. Sin embargo en la tercera y penúltima ronda contra los argelinos el conjunto de los Madjer, Guendouz o Menad se impuso con claridad en ambos encuentros y acabó con el sueño mundialista de Zambia.
El buen nivel de los oranges quedó demostrado también en la Copa CECAFA de 1984 además de en la buena calificación mundialista que completaron. Bwalya lideró a una selección que comandó el grupo A y que en semis derrotó a Kenia por 2-0 y en la final se impuso en los penaltis por 3-0 a Malawi. Dos años más tarde el delantero por fin pudo debutar en una Copa de África. Zambia evitó una ronda tras la retirada de Etiopia pero tuvo que disputar una eliminatoria vital frente a Nigeria. En Lagos hubo empate sin goles pero en la capital zambiana un triunfo por la mínima dio la clasificación a los locales. Ya en el torneo continental quedaron encuadrados con duros adversarios como Camerún, Argelia y Marruecos. El papel realizado por los pupilos de Brightwell Banda fue pobre al sumar un único punto contra los argelinos pero Bwalya dejó su sello en la competición con una diana en la primera jornada ante Camerún. 
El mejor momento hasta la fecha de las Balas de Cobre sucedió en el año 1988. Bwalya sólo participó en la eliminatoria final frente a Ghana pero su olfato de gol fue decisivo para clasificar a Zambia para los Juegos Olímpicos de Seúl. En tierras surcoreanas el equipo dirigido por Alex Chola y con otros enormes jugadores además de Bwalya como su hermano Johnson, David Chabala, Charles Musonda,  doblegó a Guatemala con un doblete del jugador del Círculo de Brujas y empató en el estreno frente a Irak. Sin embargo si hubo una victoria histórica fue la lograda ante Italia. Bwalya destrozó a una defensa transalpina con Tassotti o Ferrara y marcó un hat-trick histórico y confirmó el pase a la siguiente fase. Ya en cuartos el sueño de Zambia se esfumó por la vía rápida al caer aplastados por la Alemania Occidental de Klinsmann o Hässler por 0-4.
La llegada de los años 90 supuso una época de permanencia de Zambia entre los mejores equipos africanos. Sus participaciones en la Copa de África fueron una constante al disputar las ediciones de 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 y 2000. Pese al accidente del 1993 y la reconstrucción de casi toda la selección el equipo logró reponerse. Únicamente le faltó lograr el billete para un Mundial, siendo la fase de clasificación de 1994 cuando estuvo más cerca de alcanzarlo. Bwalya era la estrella del equipo y en la liguilla de primera ronda consiguió tres dianas muy importantes frente a Tanzania, Namibia y Madagascar. A continuación en la ronda final se retaron con marroquíes y senegalés y se quedaron a un punto del Mundial. El atacante ayudó a la victoria de Zambia en Lusaka contra ambos combinados con un gol en cada partido pero el empate fuera ante Senegal y la derrota en Casablanca les dejó sin el gran sueño.
Por su parte en la competición africana hincaron la rodilla en el grupo inicial en los años 1998 y 2000, en cuartos en 1992 y en semifinales en 1996. Ese año finalmente ocuparon el tercer lugar al vencer por 0-1 a Ghana y Bwalya fue el máximo artillero del torneo con 5 dianas. Pero si hubo un año que estuvieron cerca de coronarse como el mejor equipo de África fue en 1994. Parte de la selección era nueva con Zeddy Saileti, James Phiri, Elijah Litana, Harrison Chongo o John Lungu pero Bwalya era el capitán general de la selección tras lo acaecido el año anterior. En la primera ronda empataron con Sierra Leona y ganaron a Costa de Marfil para ser primeros de grupo. En cuartos se deshicieron de Senegal y en semis barrieron a Mali con el único tanto de Bwalya en el torneo. En la final sin embargo se toparon con una Nigeria potentísima que remontó el gol inicial de Litana en una tarde extraordinaria de Amunike. 
La carrera internacional de Bwalya se extendió hasta el año 2004, cuando jugó sus últimos minutos con la selección que el entrenaba en un choque frente a Angola de la Copa COSAFA. Por entonces era el quinto jugador con más partidos en el equipo zambiano y el tercer máximo goleador tras Chitalu y Alex Chola.

Después de colgar las botas dirigió brevemente al Club Deportivo Marte mexicano y luego fue el elegido por su Federación para tomar las riendas de las Balas de Cobre durante tres años. Estuvo un total de 36 encuentros dirigiendo al equipo nacional y les llevó al título de la Copa COSAFA del 2006 al doblegar consecutivamente a Malawi, Islas Seychelles, Bostwana y Angola.

Ha sido miembro de la FIFA y de la CAF, embajador de la Copa del Mundo de Sudáfrica en 2010 y actualmente ostenta el cargo de presidente de la Federación de Zambia desde el año 2008.

Además desde 2003 tiene su propia fundación en la que ayuda a educar a jóvenes con el virus VIH y el SIDA.


          Insectivorous Plants: Definition with Examples        

Insectivorous or Carnivorous Plants

Insectivorous plants: 
» Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods
» Because insects are one of the most common prey items for most carnivorous plants, they are sometimes called insectivorous plants.
» Insectivorous Plants is a book by British naturalist and evolutionary theory pioneer Charles Darwin, first published on 2 July 1875 in London.
» Insectivorous plants have adapted to grow in places like swamps and rocky areas where the soil does not have all the nutrients specially nitrogen.
» Insectivorous plants receive nitrogen from its prey.
» Insectivorous plants can obtain water and at least some minerals from the soil, they also extract nutrients from captured animals.
» The process of nutrition by which these plants take in insects and digest the protein part within the body with the help of certain plants is called insectivorous nutrition.
» There are more than 600 species of insectivorous plants, mostly found in North America.
» In India. insectivorous plants are found in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal and the Garhwal Himalayas.
» Insectivorous plants can broadly be divided into active and passive types based on their method of trapping their prey.
1.       Active: Use rapid movement (ex. Venus fly- trap, Utricularia)
2.      Passive: sticky hairs or a long tube with hairs that trap prey
» The active ones can close their leaf traps the moment insects land on them.
» The passive plants have a ‘pitfall’ mechanism, having some kind of jar or pitcher-like structure into which the insect slips and falls, to eventually be digested.

Trapping Mechanisms in Insectivorous Plants

» Five basic trapping mechanisms are found in carnivorous plants.
1.  Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf that contains a pool of digestive enzymes or bacteria. Eg.-Pitcher plant, Nepenthes etc.
 
The primitive pitchers of Heliamphora chimantensis are an example of pitfall traps.

2. Flypaper traps use a sticky mucilage. Fly Paper traps are coated with a sticky substance called “mucilage". When an insect lands on the plant it sticks to it, after a while the plant will curl around it and digest it. Eg.-Sundews, Butterworts etc

Sticky glands and tentacle movement on Drosera capensis

3. Snap traps utilize rapid leaf movements. (Venus fly trap) Venus Fly Trap has small trigger hairs on the inside, so if an insect lands on it and triggers only one hair and flies off its lucky but if it triggers more than one it will cause its own doom. Eg.- Venus flytrap, Waterwheel etc.
 
The Venus flytrap: shows reaction to the second touch.

4. Bladder traps suck in prey with a bladder that generates an internal vacuum. (Bladderwort)The Bladderwort is like an under water Venus FlyTrap. The bladders suck in and trap water insects.
The tip of one stolon of Utricularia vulgaris, showing stolon, branching leaf-shoots, and transparent bladder traps 

5. Lobster traps, also known as eel traps, force prey to move towards a digestive organ with inward-pointing hairs. A lobster-pot trap is a chamber that is easy to enter, and whose exit is either difficult to find or obstructed by inward-pointing bristles. Lobster pots are the trapping mechanism in Genlisea, the corkscrew plants. These plants appear to specialise in aquatic protozoa. A Y-shaped modified leaf allows prey to enter but not exit.  Eg.- Corkskrew
Genlisea violacea traps and leaves 

Insectivorous Plants in India

» Insectivorous plants of India belong mainly to three families: Droseraceae, Nepenthaceae and Lentibulariaceae. Droseraceae
1.  Droseraceae (3 species)
2. Nepenthaceae (1 species) and
3. Lentibulariaceae (36 species).

Droseraceae
» Droseraceae is a family of flowering plants. The family is also known as the sundew family.
» It is a small family of carnivorous plants, which consist of approximately 180 species in three extant genera.
» Drosera and Aldrovanda belong to family Droseraceae.
» Most of the members of Droseraceae are contained in Drosera, the true sundews.
» Both Dionaea and Aldrovanda have only one extant species. Droseras secrete a sticky substance from their leaves that traps prey.
» Dionaea and Aldrovanda both use snap-traps that close rapidly when the leaves are disturbed, Dionaea is terrestrial, while Aldrovanda is strictly aquatic.
» Like carnivorous plants of other families, the Droseraceae are able to supplement their nutrient intake, especially that of nitrogen, by capturing and digesting small animals such as insects.
» In this way, these plants are able to thrive in nutrient-deficient areas, such as sphagnum bogs.
» Aldrovanda is a free-floating, rootless aquatic plant, the only species found in India, occurs in the salt marshes of Sunderbans, south of Calcutta. It also grows in fresh water bodies like ponds, tanks and lakes.

Nepenthes
» Nepenthes, also known as tropical pitcher plants, is a genus of carnivorous plants in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae.
» The genus comprises roughly 150 species, and numerous natural and many cultivated hybrids.
» They are mostly liana-forming plants of the Old World tropics, ranging from South ChinaIndonesiaMalaysia and the Philippines; westward to Madagascar (two species) and the Seychelles (one); southward to Australia (three) and New Caledonia (one); and northward to India (one) and Sri Lanka (one).
» The greatest diversity occurs on BorneoSumatra, and the Philippines, with many endemic species.
» Many are plants of hot, humid, lowland areas, but the majority are tropical montane plants, receiving warm days but cool to cold, humid nights year round.
» A few are considered tropical alpine, with cool days and nights near freezing.
» The name "monkey cups" refers to the fact that monkeys have been observed drinking rainwater from these plants.
» Nepenthes has some Ethnomedical uses. In local medicine, the pitchers, along with the debris of trapped insects inside, are rubbed into a paste, mixed with water, and given to cholera patients. The liquid inside the pitcher is consumed as a remedy for urinary troubles; it is also used as eye drops for treating redness and itching of eyes.
» These plants are mainly found in high rainfall hills and plateaus of north-eastern region, at altitudes ranging from 100 —1500 m, particularly in Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills of Meghalaya.

Lentibulariaceae
» Lentibulariaceae, the bladderwort family, is a family of carnivorous plants containing three genera: Genlisea, the corkscrew plants; Pinguicula, the butterworts; and Utricularia, the bladderworts.
» The Bladderworts generally inhabit freshwater wetlands and waterlogged areas
» The genera Polypompholyx (two species of pink petticoats or fairy aprons) and Biovularia used to be regarded as fourth and fifth members of this family.
» Biovularia has been subsumed into Utricularia, and Polypompholyx has been relegated to a subgenus of Utricularia.
» Placement of the family used to be in the Scrophulariales, which has been merged with Lamiales in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system.
» Pinguicula or Butterwort grows in the alpine heights of Himalayas, from Kashmir to Sikkim, along streamsides in cool boggy places.

Conservation of Insectivorous Plants

» Over half of the carnivorous plant species assessed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are listed as threatened (i.e. vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered).
» In India, species like Drosera peltata, Aldrovanda vesiculosa and Nepenthes khasiana have been included in the Red Data Book as endangered plants.
Their popularity with gardeners and traders of medicinal plants is one of the main causes for their decline.

Frequently asked questions on Insectivorous Plants:

What are the 4 traits of a carnivorous plant?
They attract, capture, kill and digest animals
Where in the world can you find these plants?
Everywhere except Antarctica
What is the most common habitat of carnivorous plants?
Nutrient poor wetlands.
What feature of their habitat allowed them to evolve carnivory?
The lack of nutrients available in the soil.
Why does the habitat have this feature?
pH of water is low, so bacteria cannot help decompose plants and plants cannot take up nutrients as easily.
What do carnivorous plants commonly eat?
Insects, spiders and aquatic plants eat small animals, fish and mosquito larvae.
What are the two types of traps they use to catch their prey?
Active and passive
Name a variation of each type of trap.
Active: bladderwort (Utricularia), Venus fly trap (Dionaea). Passive: pitcher plant has a pitfall trap; most carnivorous plants have sticky hairs.

See also:

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          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: Kekana takes the spotlight, Cape Verde beaten        
Hlompho Kekana lit up Saturday's action in Africa Cup of Nations qualifying by scoring from his own half in South Africa's 2-2 Group M draw at Cameroon. Bafana Bafana were without a win heading into the clash in Limbe and were unable to pick up their first three-point haul despite Kekana's remarkable strike. Tokelo Rantie gave the visitors the lead after 17 minutes, but Cameroon – coached for the first time by Hugo Broos – hit back through Sebastien Siani before half-time. Kekana put the South Africa back in front after spotting the goalkeeper off his line, before Nicolas Nkoulou headed what could prove to be a hugely significant leveller. The result lifts South Africa off the bottom of the group, but they remain five points adrift of leaders Cameroon and four behind Mauritania at the midway point, with the 13 group winners and two best runners-up progressing to the tournament. Top-ranked African side Cape Verde suffered a setback as they lost 1-0 at home to Morocco, who go three points clear at the top of Group F following Herve Renard's first game in charge. Democratic Republic of Congo leapt from third to first in Group B thanks to a 2-1 home win against Angola, while Senegal maintained their 100 per cent record by beating Niger 2-0. That win sends them six points clear of their three Group K rivals, with Namibia having claimed a 3-1 victory at Burundi. Jonathan Pitroipa netted the only goal from the penalty spot as Burkina Faso replaced 10-man Uganda at the top of Group D and Seychelles got the better of Lesotho 2-0. In the day's remaining fixture, Mauritius beat Rwanda 1-0.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: South Sudan make history, Liberia shock Tunisia        
South Sudan earned their first ever competitive victory with a 1-0 win over Equatorial Guinea in their Africa Cup of Nations qualifier on Saturday. The minnows joined the ranks of international football in 2012 and had not found the net since a 3-1 defeat to Kenya in November 2013, but Atak Lual's 52nd-minute strike was enough to seal a 1-0 win in Juba. The momentous result lifts Lee Sung-Je's side to second place in Group C ahead of Benin’s clash with Mali on Sunday. There was similar joy for Liberia, who shocked Group A rivals Tunisia with a 1-0 victory despite being without first-choice goalkeeper Nathaniel Sherman, who reportedly suffered a serious eye injury after inadvertently barging into a glass door at the team's hotel. But a Francis Forkey Doe strike in the 11th minute proved decisive, in the first international match to be held in Monrovia since the lifting of the Ebola ban. Ghana, runners-up to the Ivory Coast in 2015, look well-placed for another finals berth after preserving their 100 per cent record in Group H by edging to a 1-0 win over Rwanda thanks to Mubarak Wakaso's superb 88th-minute free-kick. Morocco were more emphatic in securing their second win in Group F, brushing aside Sao Tome and Principe 3-0. In Group K, Senegal took advantage of Burundi's 2-0 win over Niger with 2-0 win away to Namibia, courtesy of goals from Premier League stars Cheikhou Kouyate and Sadio Mane – a win that leaves them three points clear at the top. Meanwhile, three-time champions Nigeria were held to a disappointing 0-0 draw at Tanzania and could be knocked off the top of Group G should Egypt beat Chad on Sunday, while South Africa's difficulties in Group M continued with a 3-1 defeat to Mauritania. A solitary 25th-minute strike from Tonny Mawejje saw Uganda rise to the top of group D with a 1-0 win away to Comoros, overtaking Burkina Faso, who slumped to a 1-0 defeat at Botswana. Elsewhere, 10-man Seychelles lifted themselves off the bottom of Group J with a 1-1 draw to Ethiopia, while Group E remains wide open after Congo's 1-1 draw with Guinea Bissau.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualification Preview: Egypt, Nigeria target AFCON return        
Hector Cuper's first key assignment as Egypt coach begins on Sunday as the seven-time continental champions begin qualification for the Africa Cup of Nations. Egypt were absent from the most recent AFCON after bowing out in qualification, with the former Inter boss appointed in March. Cuper's men are at home to Tanzania, while the other fixture in Group G sees 2013 champions Nigeria host Chad. Stephen Keshi's men also failed to qualify for this year's competition and the Super Eagles' qualification build-up has been marred by reports of a bust-up between the coach and midfielder John Obi Mikel. "I don't have a problem with Mikel," Keshi responded this week. "I spoke with him before I invited his fellow players for this game. We don't need him at this moment. In September we might need his services if he is available." Ghana will be heavy favourites to move into the next round from Group H as this year's beaten finalists welcome Mauritius while group rivals Mozambique and Rwanda meet in Maputo. Holders Ivory Coast travel to hosts and automatic qualifiers Gabon for a friendly without influential midfielder Yaya Toure with Sierra Leone and Sudan looking to get some early momentum in the only three-team group. George Weah junior - son of the legendary Liberia striker - could make his international debut for James Debbah's men when they face Togo in Lome. Elsewhere in Group A, Africa's lowest-ranked side Djibouti will hope to pull off a surprise result against Tunisia while Aliou Cisse takes charge of his first competitive Senegal match against Burundi in Dakar. The former Senegal international has been keen to play down his side's favourites tag, but will nonetheless be confident following March's friendly win over Ghana. Group K's other fixture sees COSAFA Cup winners Namibia travel to Niger, while there are also away trips for Libya, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, who travel to Morocco, Guinea and Malawi. Group M favourites Cameroon and South Africa face Mauritania and Gambia, with Cape Verde Islands hosting Sao Tome e Principe and Guinea-Bissau taking on Zambia. Elsewhere, Uganda and Burkina Faso entertain Botswana and Comoros, and Congo and Congo DR take on Kenya and Madagascar. In Group C, Equatorial Guinea - hosts of 2015's competition - welcome Benin as Mali face South Sudan. Guinea-Bissau meet Zambia in Ndola with Algeria taking on Seychelles and Lesotho travelling to Ethiopia.
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En cours: Seypirate
A bientôt..... Merci mam' Catherine et Don Sylvio pour ces zoli foto...







Le trésor d'Olivier Levasseur!
Et oui! C'est une histoire de pirate aux Seychelles










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          Top 10 budget beach B&Bs in the Seychelles        

The Seychelles islands of Mahé, Praslin and La Digue may be known for their luxury resorts but there is also a great selection of family-run, more affordable guesthouses just as close to the archipelago’s famous, world-class beaches

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Continue reading...
          This Adorable Tiny Frog Can Only Hear Through Its Mouth         

The Gardiner frog, an inhabitant of the isolated rain forests of the Seychelles islands that split from the continental mass more than 50 million years ago, may possess an ancient evolutionary mechanism for sound perception.


          Daftar Keanggotaan di WOSM         
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(The Danish Scout Council)
Dominica The Scout Association of Dominica
Dominican Republic Asociación de Scouts Dominicanos
(Dominican Scout Association)
Ecuador Asociación de Scouts del Ecuador
(Scout Association of Ecuador)
Egypt Egyptian Scout Federation
El Salvador Asociación de Scouts de El Salvador
(Scout Association of El Salvador)
Estonia Eesti Skautide Ühing (Estonian Scout Association)
Ethiopia Ethiopia Scout Association
Fiji Fiji Scouts Association
Finland Suomen Partiolaiset-Finlands Scouter
France
Scoutisme Français
(French Scouting)
Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France (EEUF)(Unionist Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEDF) (Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Israélites de France (EEIF) (Jewish Guides and Scouts de France)
 Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF) (Scouts and Guides of France)
Scouts Musulmans de France (SMdF) (Muslim Scouts of France)
Gabon
Fédération Gabonaise du Scoutisme
(Scouting Federation of Gabon)
Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses Unionistes du Gabon (Unionist Scouts of Gabon)
Eclaireuses-Eclaireurs du Gabon (Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Gabon (Catholic Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Gambia The Gambia Scout Association
Georgia sakartvelos skauturi modzraobis organizatsia
(Georgian Organization of the Scout Movement)
Germany
Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände (RdP)
(Scout Federation of Germany)
Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (BdP) (Guides and Scout Union)
Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg (DPSG) (German Saint George Scout Association)
Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (VCP) (Christian Guide and Scout Association)
Ghana The Ghana Scout Association
Greece Soma Hellinon Proskopon
(Scout Association of Greece)
Grenada The Scout Association of Grenada
Guatemala Asociación de Scouts de Guatemala
(Scout Association of Guatemala)
Guinea C National Scout Association of Guinea
Guyana The Scout Association of Guyana
Haiti Scouts d'Haïti
(Scouts of Haiti)
Honduras Asociación de Scouts de Honduras
(Scouts Association of Honduras)
Hong Kong The Scout Association of Hong Kong
Hungary Magyar Cserkészszövetség
(Hungarian Scout Association)
Iceland Bandalag íslenskra Skáta
(Icelandic Boy and Girl Scout Association)
India The Bharat Scouts and Guides
Indonesia Gerakan Pramuka
(Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Movement)
Ireland Scouting Ireland
Israel
Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel
(Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation)
The Arab School Scout Association
The Druze Scouts Association
The Hebrew Scout Association
The Israel Catholic Scouts Association
  • The Israeli Arab Scouts Association
      The Orthodox Scout Association
taly
Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo
(Italian Scout Federation)
Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani (AGESCI) (Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy)
Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani (CNGEI) (National Corps of Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides)
Jamaica The Scout Association of Jamaica
Japan Scout Association of Japan
Jordan Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides
Kazakhstan Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan (OSMK)
Kenya The Kenya Scouts Association
Kiribati Kiribati Scout Association
Korea, Republic.of Boy Scouts of Korea
Kuwait Kuwait Boy Scouts Association
Latvia Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrala Organizacija
(The Scout and Guide Central Organization of Latvia)
Lebanon Fédération du Scoutisme Libanais
(Lebanese Scout Federation)
One of the associations in the Federation is:
Independence Scouts
Lesotho Lesotho Scouts Association
Liberia Boy Scouts of Liberia
Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya
Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement
Liechtenstein Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins
(Scouts and Guides of Liechtenstein)
Lithuania Lietuvos Skautija (Lithuanian Scouting)
Luxembourg
Lëtzebuerger Guiden a Scouten (LGS) (Guides and Scouts of Luxembourg)
Macedonia, The former Yugoslav
Republic of
Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija
(The Scout Association of The former Yugoslave Republic of Macedonia)
Madagascar
Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara
(Scout Federation of Madagascar)
Tily Eto Madagasikara (Christian Scouts of Madagascar)
Antilin'i Madagasikara (Catholic Scout Association of Madagascar)
Kiadin'i Madagasikara (Scouts of Madagascar)
Malawi Scout Association of Malawi
Malaysia Persekutuan Pengakap Malaysia
(The Scouts Association of Malaysia)
Maldives The Scout Association of Maldives
Malta The Scout Association of Malta
Mauritania Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie
(The Scout and Guide Association of Mauritania)
Mauritius The Mauritius Scout Association
Mexico Asociación de Scouts de México, A.C.
(Scout Association of Mexico)
Moldova, Republic of Organizatia Nationala A Scoutilor Din Moldova
(The National Scout Organization of Moldova)
Monaco Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco
(Association of Scouts and Guides of Monaco)
Mongolia Mongoliyn Skautiyn Holboo
(The Scout Association of Mongolia)
Montenegro Association of Scouts of Montenegro
Morocco Fédération Nationale du Scoutisme Marocain
(National Federation of Moroccan Scouting)
Mozambique Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique
(League of Scouts of Mozambique)
Namibia Scouts of Namibia
Nepal Nepal Scouts
Netherlands Scouting Nederland
(Netherlands Scouting)
New Zealand Scouting New Zealand
Nicaragua Asociación de Scouts de Nicaragua
(Scout Association of Nicaragua)
Niger Association des Scouts du Niger
(Scouts Association of Niger)
Nigeria Boy Scouts of Nigeria
Norway
Speidernes Fellesorganisasjon
(The Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Norges Speiderforbund
(Norwegian Guide & Scout Association)
(YWCA-YMCA Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Oman The National Organisation for Scouts & Guides
Pakistan Pakistan Boy Scouts Association
Palestinian Authority Palestinian Scout Association
Panama Asociación Nacional de Scouts de Panamá
(National Scout Association of Panama)
Papua New Guinea The Scout Association of Papua New Guinea
Paraguay Asociación de Scouts del Paraguay
(Scouts Association of Paraguay)
Peru Asociación de Scouts del Perú
(Scout Association of Peru)
Philippines Boy Scouts of the Philippines
Poland Zwiazek Harcerstwa Polskiego (ZHP)
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
Portugal
Federação Escutista de Portugal
(Scout Federation of Portugal)
Associação dos Escoteiros de Portugal (AEP) (The Scout Association of Portugal)
Corpo Nacional de Escutas (CNE) (Escutismo Catolico Portugues) (The Catholic Scout Association of Portugal)
Qatar Qatar Boy Scouts Association
Romania Cercetasii României
(The National Scout Organization of Romania)
Russian Federation Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (RAS/N)
Rwanda Association des Scouts du Rwanda
(Scout Association of Rwanda)
San Marino Associazione Guide e Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi
(The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino)
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Boy Scouts Association
Senegal
Confédération Sénégalaise du Scoutisme
(Senegalese Scout Confederation)
Eclaireurs du Sénégal (Scouts of Senegal)
Les Scouts du Sénégal (The Scouts of Senegal)
Serbia Scout Association of Serbia
Seychelles The Scout Association of Seychelles
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Scouts Association
Singapore The Singapore Scout Association
Slovakia Slovensky skauting
(Slovak Scouting)
Slovenia Zveza tabornikov Slovenije
(Scout Association of Slovenia)
South Africa South African Scout Association
Spain
Federación de Escultismo en España (FEE)*
(Scouting Federation in Spain)
Federación de Asociaciones de Scouts de España
(ASDE) (Scouts of Spain)
Movimiento Scout Católico (MSC) (The Catholic Scout Movement) *with which is affilliated:
Federació Catalana d'Escoltisme i Guiatge (FCEG) (The Federation of Scouts and Guides in Catalonia)
Acciò Escolta de Catalunya
Escoltes Catalans
Minyons Escoltes/Guies Sant Jordi de Catalunya
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Scout Association
Saint Lucia The Saint Lucia Scout Association
Saint Vincent and The Grenadines The Scout Association of Saint Vincent & The Grenadines
Sudan Sudan Boy Scouts Association
Suriname Boy Scouts van Suriname
(Boy Scouts of Suriname)
Swaziland Emavulandlela Swaziland Scout Association
Sweden
Svenska Scoutråde t
(The Swedish Guide and Scout Council)
Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund
(Salvation Army Guide and Scout Association)
KFUK- FKUMs Scoutförbund
(Swedish YWCA-YMCA Guide and Scout Association)
Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund
(Swedish Temperance Guide and Scout Association)
SMU-Scout
(Guide and Scout Organization of the Swedish Covenant Youth)
Svenska Scoutförbundet
(Swedish Guide and Scout Association)
Switzerland Swiss Guide and Scout Movement
Syrian Arab Republic Scouts of Syria
Tajikistan Ittihodi Scouthoi Tochikiston / Associatsia Skautov Tadjikistana
(Scout Association of Tajikistan)
Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania Scouts Association
Thailand The National Scout Organization of Thailand
Togo Association Scoute du Togo
(Scout Association of Togo)
Trinidad and Tobago The Scout Association of Trinidad & Tobago
Tunisia Les Scouts Tunisiens
(The Scouts of Tunisia)
Turkey Turkiye Izcilik Federasyonu
(Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey)
Uganda The Uganda Scouts Association
Ukraine National Organization of Scouts of Ukraine
          1MDB : Apabila Jalan adalah Lautan        
1. Belum sampai 6 bulan, 1MDB tiba-tiba menjadi hantu. Sebelum ini, tidak ramai rakyat Malaysia tahu berkaitan syarikat itu, walaupun telah wujud sejak Januari 2009, beberapa bulan sebelum Dato Seri Najib Razak dilantik sebagai Perdana Menteri.

2. Hujung tahu lalu, tiba-tiba sahaja syarikat pembangunan strategik itu menjadi tajuk berita, apabila satu portal yang didaftar di UK - Sarawak Reports (SR) menjadikannya isu. Kemudian, digunakan oleh pembangkang terutama oleh Tony Pua dan Rafizi Ramli.

3. Pokok pangkal, penyebab syarikat itu menjadi sensasi, apabila terlambat mengemukan laporan kepada bursa malaysia dan isu terlambatnya membayar hutang.

4. Oleh kerana isu disiarkan oleh Sarawak Report dan akhirnya menjadi berita antarabangsa, maka kemudian menjadi tajuk-tajuk utama portal-portal pembangang dan blog-blog pembangkang.

5. Sarawak Report mengetengahkan laporan kerjasama antara syarikat itu dengan PetroSaudi International (PSI), dengan berbagai laporan, seolah-olah berlaku penyelewengan berkaitan kerjasama tersebut.

6. Dengan keluarnya laporan tersebut, pada mulanya Perdana Menteri yang juga penasihat kepada 1MDB menafikan semua laporan Sarawak Reports tersebut.

7. Oleh kerana laporan-laporan Sarawak reports tersebut, selain ditokok tambah oleh pemimpin pembangkang, kemudian, mantan Perdana Menteri- Tun Dr Mahathir, juga memberi kritikan berkaitan syarikat itu, akhirnya isu 1MDB bukan sahaja menjadi toksik malah menjelma sebagai hantu yang menakutkan.

8. Berbagai pendedahan dirungkai, termasuk jumlah hutang terbaru yang berjumlah RM42 bilion, kemudian dibandingkan dengan aset syarikat itu bernilai RM58 bilion.

9. Keadaan yang menyelubungi syarikat itu, apabila timbulnya masalah membayar hutang, sehingga terpaksa meminjam daripada pihak ketiga sejumlah RM2bilion, permintaan suntikan modal daripada kerajaan yang berjumlah RM950 bilion, semata-mata untuk membayar hutang tertangguh sehinga Januari 2015.

10. Ekoran berbagai dakwaan, sehingga menjadikan syarikat itu sebagai hantu yang menakutkan, Perdana Menteri pada awal April meminta Ketua Audit Negara untuk mengaudit syarikat tersebut, dan kemudiannya laporan audit itu diserahkan kepada Jawatan kuasa-kuasa Kira-Kira Dewan Rakyat (PAC). Perdana Menteri juga menyatakan, jika sebarang salah laku berlaku, kerajaan tidak akan melindungi siapa-siapa.

11. Walaupun arahan mengaudit syarikat tersebut telah diberikan, namun rakyat Malaysia, tidak sabar-sabar menunggunya, malahan dimarakkan oleh desakan Tun Dr Mahathir yang bertali arus, agar dengan segera Perdana Menteri menjawab semua persoalan yang ditimbulkan.

12. Oleh kerana, desakan dan syarikat itu telah menjadi hantu yang menakutkan, sehingga memberi impak kepada perekonomian negara, malah ada yang mendakwa kemelut syarikat tersebut penyebab kepada jatuhnya nilai ringgit.

13. Cuba kita perhatikan, permulaan kepada penyebab 1MDB menjelma sebagai hantu, apabila Sarawak Reports membuat laporan yang membabitkan PSI dan 1MDB, kononnya sejumlah wang yang disalurkan kepada PSI oleh 1MDB sebagai obligasi kepada kerjasama, kononnya dialihkan kepada satu akaun yang dikawal oleh jutawan kontraversi Jho Low.

14. Cuba perhatikan tiga isu utama yang menjadi kemelut kepada 1MDB. Pertama- USD700juta yang kononnya dirompak Jho Low, kedua- Jho Low merupakan pemain dibelakang layar urusniga PSI dan 1MDB dan ketiga- 1MDB berbohong berkaitan wang yang disimpan di sebuah akaun di Singapura.

15. Sebelum membuat apa-apa kesimpulan atau anggapan buruk berkaitan 1MDB, elok kita melihat atau memeriksa, dokumen-dokumen yang disiarkan oleh Sarawak reports (di mana menurut portal tersebut, beribu-ribu lagi dokumen dalam simpanan portal), walaupun portal itu tidak pernah memberitahu sumber-sumber kepada dokumen-dokumen tersebut dan bagaimana dokumen-dokumen tersebut diperolehi. Sarawak Reports dikuasai oleh Rewcastle-Brown.

16. Bertolak belakang kepada laporan Sarawak reports tersebut, PSI telah membuat laporan kepada London police Action Fraud Unit at the National Fraud and Cyber Crime Reporting Centre kerana mendakwa server syarikat itu diceroboh.

17. Dakwaan PSI, bahawa server syarikat itu diceroboh, seolah-olah benar, apabila meneliti dokumen-dokumen yang disiarkan oleh Sarawak Reports (SR) seolah-olah berasal daripada PSI, atas sebab dokumen-dokumen tersebut merupakan dokumen asli. Oleh kerana urusniaga antara PSI dan 1MDB sungguh rumit, tidak perlulah mengetahui lebih detail berkaitan urusniaga itu, apa yang mustahak, adalah isu utama, iaitu, wang USD700juta, apakah benar wang tersebut dimasukkan ke akaun Jho Low di Swiss?

18. Mari periksa urusniaga antara PSI dan 1MDB. Mengikut TOA (Terma Perjanjian) 1MDB perlu menyalurkan dana tunai USD1bilion1. 1MDB menyalurkan tunai USD 700 juta kepada PSI, namun menurut SR, wang tersebut disalurkan akaun syarikat Good Star yang dikawal Jho Low. Bukti yang digunakan, sekali lagi SR satu surat kononnya daripada CEO PSI-Tarek Obaid. yang meminta agar wang tunai tersebut dimasukkan ke dalam satu akaun 11116073 di RBS Coutts Bank Ltd Zurich, Switzerland.

19. Menurut SR akaun tersebut bukan milik PSI, akan tetapi Good Star Ltd. Untuk membuktikan bahawa akaun tersebut kepunyaan Good Star, SR menyertakan tiga bukti- pertama email daripada Patrick Mahony kepada Tarek Obaid, dimana menurut surat tersebut, akaun tersebut kepunyaan Good Star Ltd.

Bukti kedua yang disertakan oleh SR bahawa Good Star Ltd beralamat PO Box 1239, Offshore Investment Centre, Mahe, Seychelles, di mana Seet Li Lun ada CIO, dan merupakan orang kanan Jho Low.

Bukti ketiga- SR mengepilkan email kononya berasal daripada CEO 1MDB Sharol Halmi yang telah mengarahkan pegawai Deutsche Bank Malaysia untuk menyalurkan dana tersebut kepada akaun yang dimaksudkan dengan alamat yang sama seperti bukti kedua.

20. Dengan merangkai tiga bukti tersebut, SR mendakwa Jho low menggunakan Good star Ltd untuk memesong USD700juta urusniaga 1MDB-PSI.

Analisis bukti #1- Bukti yang disertakan SR, seolah-olah asal atau asli, kerana ianya dicetak pada "letterhead" PSI yang ada tandatangan Tarek Obaid, di mana isi surat, tarikh, alamat dan tandatangan serupa salian asli. Dalam surat itu juga, dinyatakan wang USD700 dibayar kepada PSI dengan akaun, alamat yang sama dengan Good Star Ltd. Persoalnya, syarikat mana pemilik akaun tersebut? kerana mempunyai nombor yang sama, alamat yang sama dan bank yang sama.TIDAK mungkin, dua syarikat mempunyai akaun yang sama!!!.

Mari lihat, bagaimana SR menghubungkan akaun tersebut kepada Good Star Ltd. Amati bukti ke-2, Email Patrick Mahony kepada Tarek Obaid, di mana nombor akaun tersebut seolah-olah kepunyaan Good Star Ltd, akan tetapi email tersebut macam dipalsukan, kerana ianya seperti ditaip semula semacam berbentuk memo, selain "font" abjad yang berbeza, format juga berbeza,. selain tarikh. Email tersebut sangat mencurigakan. 

Bukti ke-3, semacam ditaip semula dimana alamat dan nombor akaun seolah kepunyaan Good Star Ltd.

Bukti ke-4 seolah-olah Sharol Halmi mengarahkan Deutsche Bank juga mencurigakan. Email tersebut mencurigakan, dan besar kemungkinan berlaku rekayasa dan pemalsuan. Dalam email tersebut tidak menunjukkan masa (GMT-4) yang menunjukkan Time Zone bahagian Timur Amerika yang juga termasuk wilayah timur caribbean (lokasi kewangan pesisir pantai). Email itu tersebut, berformat seperti berasal daripada format handphone blackBerry, dan berbeza dengan sekian banyak email yang biasa dilapor oleh SR. yang ada kaitan dengan Sharol.

21. Memandangkan beribu pejabat di Kuala Lumpur, janggal bagi CEO 1MDB menggunakan time zone pantai timur Amerika termasuk kepulauan Caribbean? Untuk mengetahui apa sebenarnya berlaku, didapati alamat yang digunakan pada email yang dikepilkan SR, iatu POBOX 1239, Offshore investment Centre, Mahe, Seychelles " ialah alamat sebenar PSI. kerana dicetak dikaki "letterhead" PSI, di sini lah boleh disimpulkan bahawa SR menipu, kerana hanya menyertakan letterhead PSI, tanpa catatan kaki (catatan kaki dipadam). Letterhead PSI dengan mudah dibuktikan melalui surat-surat yang dikeluarkan syarikat itu pada tahun 2010 semasa membeli saham UBG dan hingga kini boleh diperolehi melalui sesawang internet.

22. Apa yang menarik tidak berlakunya perpindahan USD700juta daripada akaun JV antara 1MDB dan PSI ke akaun Good Star Ltd. Apa yang berlaku adalah tindakan menipu yang sistematik untuk memburukan 1MDB. Apa kah Jho Low adalah dalang dibelakang JV PSI-1MDB? menurut SR, Jho Low adalah dalang utama. Menurut SR, orang kanan Jho Low Seet Li Lin adalah orang yang mengatur semua perancangan dalam PSI, tanpa pengetahuan 1MDB. Menurut SR, 1MDB hanya terlibat, apabila semua urusniaga selesai, dan 1MDB hanya diminta tandatangan pada perjanjian. Untuk membukti itu, SR mengemukan berbagai bukti email yang membabitkan Seet, Jho Low, Sharol dan Patrick Mahony.

23. Apabila meneliti semua email kononya daripada Jho low dan Seet yang mengguankan akaun gmail, amat meragukan, kerana tidak masuk akal menjalankan transaksi ratusan juta menggunakan email yang tidak selamat (insecure gmail accounts), kerana semua email itu menggunakan perkhidmatan telepon bimbit blackBerry. Adalah tidak masuk akal seorang billioner menggunakan BB dengan email yang mudah dipintas seperti gmail. Juga, time zone yang tertera pada email yang dikepilkan SR menunjukkan timezone yang berbeza, iaitu GMT+2 dan GMT+0, dimana email tersebut dihantar di kawasan Eropa, perbezaan timezone ini juga menimbulkan tanda tanya besar.

24. Sebagai tambahan email-email tersebut dihantar menggunakan T-Mobile, sedangkan hanya tahun 2009 perkhidmatan tersebut beroperasi di UK, German, Amerika dan beberapa negara Eropa, manakala perkhidmatan tersebut belum beroperasi di Asia. Oleh kerana Jho low dan Seet beroperasi di Hongkong, adalah mustahil mereka menggunakan perkhidmatan tersebut.

25. Didapati juga berlakunya penipuan, apabila Patrick menghantar email kepada dirinya. 

26. Berasas kepada analisa, adalah didapati email-email yang kononnya daripada PSI, sebenarnya direkayasa dan dipalsukan.

27. Benarkah 1MDB menipu berkaitan akaun di Singapura? . Menurut SR, 1MDB mengemukakan penyata akaun palsu pada sebuah bank di singapura-BSI Bank Ltd Singapore dan kononya satu laporan diberikan oleh bank tersebut ke pihak berkuasa Singapura. Dakwaan ini, sebenarnya tidak masuk akal, kerana sebagai bank niaga, BSI sangat ketat berhubungan dengan profile pelanggannya.

28. BSI merupakan private bank dan salah satu keistimewaannya adalah kerahsian. Tidak mungkin, sebuah bank seperti BSI dengan mudah mengemukan penyata akaun pelanggannya, tanpa perintah mahkamah, lagi pun pihak Malaysia tiada locus standi untuk meminta bank tersebut mengeluarkan penyata akaun, walaupun pelanggannya adalah syarikat Malaysia. Berasaskan kepada keadaan ini, dakwaan SR tersebut, sebenarnya hanya dakwaan dan tidak berasas.

29. Adalah jelas, keseluruhan laporan SR berkaitan 1MDB, sebenarnya satu rekayasa yang tersusun untuk menjadikan 1MDB sebagai HANTU, khususnya kepada Perdana Menteri- DS Najib Tun Razak.

30. Sungguh malang, ada rakyat Malaysia termasuk Tun Dr Mahathir termakan pemalsuan yang sistematik yang dilakukan SR. Sungguh pelik, bagaimana Tun boleh percaya SR, sedangkan sebelum ini, beliau mengutuk protal itu sebagai portal sampah.


          Dans l'océan des rêves        
Seychelles île de Mahé
          Find Out How 2 Wolves Inspire Julianne Hough to Hit the Gym        

A post shared by Julianne Hough (@juleshough) on

Getting back on the fit and healthy train is so hard after you've taken a break. And Julianne Hough feels your pain! She and Brooks Laich had been livin' it up on their honeymoon in Seychelles, "indulging guiltlessly," as she admitted, but she was so happy to be back at the gym.

Julianne captioned a recent Instagram post, "I'm so grateful that I made this part of my everyday lifestyle. Staying active and working out is now a must for me 💪🏼." She said that after giving it "3 weeks of hard work and discipline," something shifted in her body and mind that actually makes her crave workouts!

She also referred to an inspiring quote, "There is a battle of two wolves inside us, the one that wins, is the one you feed. All we need is within us, NOW! Stay strong, fight the fight, and then enjoy!!!" It reminds me of the quote, "Losing weight is hard. Staying overweight is hard. Choose your hard." You know what makes you feel healthy and strong and confident, so do it!


          ASAL USUL LAGU NEGARAKU        
Lagu Negaraku dijadikan lagu kebangsaan pada tahun 1957. Irama asli lagu Negaraku telah diambil daripada lagu keroncong bertajuk Terang Bulan, sebuah lagu yang popular pada masa tu dan merupakan lagu kebangsaan negeri Perak (the state anthem of Perak). Pada masa tu, 11 negeri di Malaya (ketika tu) mempunyai lagu negeri masing-masing. Tunku Abdul Rahman, pada masa tu Perdana Menteri mencadangkan untuk memilih lagu kebangsaan yang sesuai. Satu pertandingan telah diadakan dan penyertaan telah mendapat sambutan dari serata dunia. 514 penyertaan telah diterima tapi tiada satu pun yang sesuai. Kemudian pemimpin tertinggi kerajaan membuat keputusan untuk memanggil komposer terkenal. Komposer yang telah terpilih ialah Benjamin Britten, Sir William Walton, Gian Carlo Menotti and Zubir Said (pencipta lagu singapura). Tetapi usaha mereka juga sia-sia.
Selepas tu, pemimpin kerajaan terfikir untuk mengambil lagu kebangsaan Perak sebagai lagu kebangsaan. Lirik baru telah dicipta. Pada masa tu, melodi lagu ni (semasa masih sebagai lagu kebangsaan perak) adalah sangat popular di Singapura & Malaya dengan tajuk Terang Bulan.
Sebenarnya, irama lagu Terang Bulan ini sama seperti lagu Mamula Moon yang berasal dari ‘Island of Mahe’ di Seychelles, tempat tinggal Sultan Perak suatu masa dahulu. Kumpulan-kumpulan kugiran Perancis selalu membuat persembahan dengan irama ni. Pakar sejarah percaya bahawa lagu Mamula Moon dicipta oleh Pierre Jean de Beranger yang mendapat ilham daripada karya para penyair Perancis pada abad ke-19.
          Community Event        
Name * What would you like to invite the community to? (Ballet performance, rugby game, chess tournament, piano recital, etc...) * Wanna give some more details? Date/Time * Where will it be held? * AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBruneiBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiComorosCongo (Brazzaville)CongoCosta RicaCote d'IvoireCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEast Timor (Timor Timur)EcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGabonGambia, TheGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, NorthKorea, SouthKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritiusMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint VincentSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbia and MontenegroSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVatican CityVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe Website Upload Flyer or Photo (optional) Prev Next Submit
          Encuentra personas mdiante su telefono y el GPS        
A continuacion les presentamos esta innovacion para localizar gente mediante la señal del celular y un GPS. Gracias a www.trackapartner.com

Debes poner el pais y el numero de telefono con el codigo de la ciudad...


Track a phone number here
Select Country:
Phone Number:
Attention:
THE USE OF THIS SYSTEM IS FOR INFORMATIVE PURPOSES ONLY, WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS ABUSE BY THE USER.
Welcome to Satellite Tracking
GSM mobile phone tracking system via the GPS-TRACK satellite network
Based on repeater triangulation, the system tracks mobile phones using GPS and GSM technology
We are not responsible for possible tracking errors that may occur.
Use areas
You can see where a person is; such as your wife, husband or friend in real time anywhere in the world 24/7
Copyright © www.trackapartner.com All Rights Reserved

Approximate margin of error:
10 meters (max.) for mobile phones in Europe and the U.K.
25 meters (max.) for mobile phones in the U.S.A., South America and Canada.
50 meters (max.) for mobile phones elsewhere.
This system will not work in countries without GSM technology networks.

          Rechazo sin precedentes de los accionistas de Prisa al sueldo de Cebrián y el resto del consejo        
El sueldo del consejo de administración de Prisa, encabezado por su presidente ejecutivo, Juan Luis Cebrián, suscitó un rechazo sin precedentes en la Junta General de Accionistas que la editora de El País celebró el pasado viernes.
Según consta en la web de Prisa, la política de retribuciones del máximo órgano de gestión de la compañía en 2016 y para este ejercicio fue el punto del orden del día que menos apoyos concitó en la asamblea. Aunque recibió el apoyo de algo menos del 68% del capital, votaron en contra un 27,6993% de los accionistas, mientras que un 4,32% se abstuvo.
Es el porcentaje de rechazo más alto desde que en 2012 Prisa empezó a someter este asunto a votación con carácter consultivo. El mayor porcentaje de votos negativos registrado hasta ahora databa de la junta del 28 de abril de 2014. Entonces, votó en contra el 19,71% de los accionistas y a favor, algo más del 80%.
En 2016, tras registrar unas pérdidas de 67,9 millones de euros, la retribución del consejo de administración de Prisa fue de 5,753 millones, frente a 5,911 millones un año antes. El presidente de Prisa recibió 1,762 millones (frente a 2,061 millones en 2015), desglosados en un salario fijo de 1 millón y un variable de 692.000 euros, ligado al resultado de explotación, al flujo de caja y a la facturación de los negocios digitales de Prisa.
El sueldo de Cebrián, que incluye el pago del alquiler de una casa en Madrid por 48.000 euros (4.000 euros mensuales), fue ligeramente inferior al de sus homólogos de cotizadas del sector de los medios de comunicación con beneficios multimillonarios, como Silvio González, de Atresmedia (2,38 millones de retribución) o Paolo Vasile, de Mediaset (2,03 millones).
La capitalización de Atresmedia ronda los 2.300 millones de euros y la de Mediaset supera los 3.600 millones, mientras que el valor bursátil de Prisa, tras el desplome de los últimos meses (ha perdido un 54% de su valor desde enero), no llega actualmente a los 190 millones y es incluso inferior al de Vocento. En 2018, la compañía debe hacer frente al vencimiento de 965 millones de deuda y la fallida venta de Santillana complica ese objetivo.
En los últimos meses, un grupo de accionistas de Prisa, encabezados por el fondo buitre Amber Capital, ha maniobrado para tratar de forzar la destitución de Cebrián como primer ejecutivo de la compañía, hasta ahora sin éxito. Cebrián renovó como consejero de la compañía por otros cuatro años en la Junta de 2016 y tiene pactada una compensación de seis millones en concepto de “complemento de jubilación” que cobrará cuando expire su actual contrato como ejecutivo, en 2018, “o en el caso de una extinción anticipada del mismo por cualquier causa, aunque el consejero cese por su propia voluntad”.
La relación de Cebrián con Prisa terminará el 31 de diciembre de 2020, aunque está previsto que pierda el poder ejecutivo al finalizar 2018, tras lo que se iniciará un proceso de transición de poder en la compañía.

Relevo del consejero delegado

En la junta en la que el pasado viernes los accionistas aprobaron las cuentas de Prisa con el 95,67% de los votos, Cebrián anunció el relevo del todavía consejero delegado del grupo, José Luis Sainz, que lleva en el cargo desde 2014 y será sustituido a partir de septiembre por el hasta ahora consejero delegado de El País y Prisa Noticias, Manuel Mirat.
Durante la junta, Cebrián indicó que "es la voluntad de esta empresa ajustar las remuneraciones a la situación de la propia empresa. Pretendemos revisar la política salarial de los puestos directivos", indicó, al tiempo que recordó que los ejecutivos del grupo han reducido sus retribuciones un 30% y que la compañía es consciente de que "también hay que remunerar el talento y la responsabilidad como es debido".

          Comment on まだまだ描くよ! by Cara J        
Very, very bad translation: Title: I will draw more still! (Liechtenstein, Belarus and Turkey sketches) I still have it! (Seychelles, South Korea and Hong Kong sketches) (Girl drawing) And this is a picture of about 16 years old. Kyoto-san from the land love* book "Great! Japan-Mainland Continent" which was released around this time. It was a mysterious book with the concept that the 47 prefectures nationwide were a country. (Ukraine sketches) Brutish child *I'm guessing this is like an appreciation of Japan book? I don't know.
          What is law? - Part 3        
Previously : What is Law? - Part 2.

The corpus of law - the stuff we all, in principle, have access to and all need to comply with, is not, unfortunately a nice tidy bundle of materials managed by a single entity. Moreover, the nature of the bundle itself, differs between jurisdictions. Ireland is quite different from Idaho. Scotland is quite different from the Seychelles. Jersey is quite different from Japan, and so on.

I will focus here on US and UK (Westminister)-style legal corpora to keep the discussion manageable in terms of the diversity. Even then, there are many differences in practice and terminology all the way up and down the line from street ordinances to central government to international treaties and  everything in between. I will use some common terminology but bear in mind that actual terminology and practice in your particular part of the world will very likely be different in various ways, but hopefully not in ways  that invalidate the conceptual model we are seeking to establish.

In general, at the level of countries/states, there are three main sources of law that make up the legal corpus. These are the judiciary, the government agencies and the legislature/parliament.

Let us start with the Legislature/Parliament. This is the source of new laws and amendments to the law in the form of Acts. These start out as draft documents that go through a consideration, amendment and voting process before they become actual law. In the USA, it is common for these Acts to be consolidated into a "compendium", typically referred to as "The Statutes" or "The Code". The Statutes are typically organized according to some thematic breakdown into separate "titles" e.g. Company Law, Environmental Law and so on.

In the UK/Westminster-type of Parliament, the government itself does not produce thematic compendia. Instead, the Acts are a cumulative corpus. So, to understand, for example, criminal law, it may be necessary to look at many different Acts, going back perhaps centuries to get the full picture of the "Act" actually in force. In UK-style systems, areas of law may get consolidated periodically through the creation of so-called "consolidations"/"re-statements". These essentially take an existing set of Acts that are in force, repeal them all and replace them with a single text that is a summation of the individual Acts that it repeals.[1]

It is common for third party publishers to step in and help practitioners of particular areas of law by doing unofficial consolidations to make the job of finding the law in a jurisdiction easier.
Depending on how volatile the area of law is in terms of change, the publisher might produce an update every month, every quarter, every year etc. In the USA, most US states do a consolidation in-house in the legislature when  they produce The Statutes/Code. In a similar manner to third party publishers, this corpus is updated according to a cycle, but it is typically a longer cycle - every year or two years.

So here we get to our first interesting complication with respect to being able to access the law emanating from Legislatures/Parliaments that is in force at any time T. It is very likely that no existing compendium produced by the government itself, is fully up to date with respect to time T. There are a number of distinct reasons for this.

Firstly, for Parliaments that do not produce "compendiums", there may not be an available consolidation/re-statement at time T. Therefore, it is necessary to find a set of Acts that were in force at time T, which then need to be read together to understand what the law was at time T.

Secondly, for Legislatures that produce compendia in the form of Statutes, these typically lag behind the Acts by anything from months to years. Typically, when a Legislature is "in session", busily working on new Acts, it is not working on consolidating them as they pass into law. Instead, they are accumulated into a publication, typically called the Session Laws, and the consolidation process happens after the session  has ended.  This is an area where third party publishers typically add value because they do consolidate "on the fly" and this is something that is very useful to many practitioners.

Thirdly, the concept of "in force" is quite tricky in practice. An Act may become law as soon as it passes through a signing process but the law itself may not take effect until some other event has happened. Typically there is some form of official government publication - register/gazette - and laws come into force when they appear in the register/gazette. Through a device called a "line item veto" it may be that a law comes into force but some parts of it are essentially elided. Trickier still is the concept of conditional legislation which comes into force, if, for example the cost of a barrel of oil hits some threshold value.

Even if it is possible to arrive at the text in force as it stood at Time T, the nature of the text itself has a large role to play in its direct usefulness for practitioners. The clearest example of this is what are known as amendatory acts. An amendatory act, rather than replacing a textual unit with a replacement textual unit, expresses the required changes in terms of amendatory instructions. E.g. "After the first occurrence of the word 'dog', insert 'cat or '". Again, this is an area where third part publishers often step in.

This brings us to a very important point about law that needs to be emphasised and it is this: what the text of the law says at any time T and what the text of  the law means at time T, are two totally different things on a number of levels. At a purely text management level, there is often a big difference between what the law says and what is means because the journey towards true meaning can only start once the editorial aspects of amendment consolidation have taken place and this might not be a function that the government performs at all. Even if it is, it may lag behind the creation of new Acts in a way that impacts its usefulness to practitioners as a definitive reference of the laws in force at any time T.

Once we get past the text management level of 'meaning' in the corpus, we are still only part of the way towards "the law" because the text needs to be read/parsed in order to find the parts of the text that are  in force and what parts are not, at any given target time point T. A simple example of this is a so-called "sunset clause" in which the consolidated text of an  area of law as it was at time T may contain a statement which repeals part of the law - potentially somewhere else entirely in the corpus of law! - at some time later than time T.

Are we having fun yet? Complex, isn't it? I will just add a few more layers to it and then we will take a step back, I promise...

Having arrived - by whatever means - at the text of the law as it stood at Time T, it might not be the case that the text has definitive status as "law" , even if it is produced by the government itself. A good example of this is the United State Code[2]. In the world of law, there is the concept of "prima facie evidence of the law" which is distinct from "the law" because the corpus that is the US Code has not itself passed through Congress as a corpus.

A similar nuance comes up in US State Legislatures where the Journals - essentially the meeting minutes of the formal chambers - may be considered by the judiciary as the one true source of new and amended laws. In this way of thinking, even Statutes produced by Legislatures are, in a sense, secondary sources.

Two more wrinkles and then I will stop. I promise. Stay with me here...

The first is that the corpus of Acts in force is not necessarily self consistent. Over the course of hundreds of years and thousands upon thousands of amendments errors can creep in such that a statement in Act A with is "the law" might contradict another statement in Act B which is also "the law". This is another  point where IT people tend to wince! Paradoxes, the law of the excluded middle[3], the entire glorious edifice of boolean logic, is dependent on the absence of
logical contradictions and yet, they can and do happen in law.

When this happens, jurisdictions do not SEGFAULT or go into endless loops or refuse to boot up in the morning. Rather, the legal system exhibits an interesting property that might be referred to as autonomic resolution[4]. Texts that conflict can co-exist in law (perhaps in the form of "unconsolidated statute") alongside consolidated statute, perhaps in the form of separate acts that conflict with each other. The entity that then deals with it is typically the judiciary, where that most ineffable of concepts : "human judgement" resolves the conflict.

Peter Suber[4] has argued that such contradictions cannot be fully eradicated from law. In his book the Paradox of Self Amendment[5], he uses an argument reminiscent of Godel's Incompleteness Theorem[6] to show that any system that can amend itself needs to be able to break out of contradictions/dead ends it might get itself into through the process of amendment.

In a memorable piece of prose[7], he puts it this way:

"One may regret the lapse of law from abstract logic, appreciate the equitable flexibility it affords, take satisfaction in the pretensions it punctures, or decry the dangers it makes possible."

The second, and final wrinkle I will add for now, is the concept of a  retroactive provisions[8]. These beauties have the effect of changing the way the law as it stood at time T needs to be interpreted at some future time T+1. If your head hurts, you are not alone. It is a tough one to grasp. Basically a full understanding of the law as some historical time point T1 is dependent, not just on the corpus as it was at that time point T1 but also, as it was as some future point T2. This is because the law at T2 may contain retroactive changes to how the law at T1 needs to be interpreted.

By now you will have noticed that I keep saying "the law at time T". Hopefully, given the discussion so far, you are beginning to get a feel for why the concept of time is so important. Time, the passage of time, its impact on the corpus of law....references to time in the law itself....it is inextricably woven into the way law works in my opinion. That is why, I believe any computational model of law must have the concept of time as a first class member of model, to be able to accurately reflect what law really is.

Not convinced about the primary importance of time in the conceptual model of law? Consider this: every single litigation, every single dispute that arrives in a court of law, needs to be able to look backwards to what the law was at the time of the litigation event. The law as it is today is not the point of departure in a court case. It is the law as it was at the date or dates relevant to the case. The nature of court cases is that this can be many years after the events themselves.

The same is true for many compliance issues in regulated industries. The same is true for many tasks in forensic accounting. The same is true for many financial audit scenarios...

I could go on with numerous other interesting aspects of the legislative/parliamentary side of the corpus but I will stop there.

Next up we turn to regulations/statutory instruments which come from the executive branch i.e. government agencies.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consolidation_bill
[2] https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1517999
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_excluded_middle4
[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Suber
[5] http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/writing/psa/
[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6del's_incompleteness_theorems
[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomic_computing
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ex_post_facto_law



          As línguas mais faladas no mundo        
Aproveitando o tema do post anterior, que tal conferir a lista das 50 línguas mais faladas?


1. Mandarim (chinês) - Brunei, Camboja, China, Indonésia, Malásia, Mongólia, Filiipinas, Singapura, África do Sul,Taiwan, Tailândia.
Total de falantes em milhões:    885,0


2. Espanhol -  Andorra, Argentina, Belize, Bolívia, Chile, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, República Dominicana, Equador, El Salvador, Guiné Equatorial, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicarágua, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, Espanha, Uruguai, Estados Unidos, Venezuela.
Total de falantes em milhões:  332,0

3. Inglês -  Austrália, Botsuana, Brunei, Camarões, Canadá, Eritréia, Etiópia, Ilhas Fiji, Gâmbia, Guiana, Índia, Irlanda, Israel, Lesoto, Libéria, Malásia, Micronésia, Namíbia, Nauru, Nova Zelândia, Palau, Papua-Nova Guiné, Samoa, Seychelles, Serra Leoa, Singapura, Ilhas Salomão, Somália, África do Sul, Suriname, Suíça, Tonga, Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, Vanuatu, Zimbábue, e diversas ilhas do Caribe.
Total de falantes em milhões:   322,0

4. Bengali -  Bangladesh, Índia, Singapura.
Total de falantes em milhões: 189,0

5. Hindi - Índia, Nepal, Singapura, África do Sul, Uganda.
Total de falantes em milhões:  182,0

6. Português -  Angola, Brasil, Cabo Verde, França, Guiné-Bissau, Moçambique, Portugal, São Tomé e Príncipe.
Total de falantes em milhões:   170,0

7. Russo -  China, Israel, Mongólia, Rússia, Estados Unidos.
Total de falantes em milhões:  170,0

8. Japonês -  Japão, Singapura, Taiwan.
Total de falantes em milhões:   125,0

9. Alemão -  Áustria, Bélgica, Bolívia, República Checa, Dinamarca, Alemanha, Hungria, Itália, Casaquistão, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Paraguai, Polônia, Romênia, Eslováquia, Suíça.
Total de falantes em milhões:  98,0

10. Chinês -  China.
Total de falantes em milhões:  77,2

11. Javanês -  Indonésia, Malásia, Singapura.
Total de falantes em milhões:   75,5

12. Coreano -  China, Japão, Coréia do Norte, Coréia do Sul, Singapura, Tailândia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  75,0

13. Francês -  Andorra, Bélgica, Burkina Fasso, Burundi, Camarões, Canadá, Congo, Zaire, Djibuti, França, Gabão, Guiné, Haiti, Luxemburgo, Mauritânia, Mônaco, Ruanda, Senegal, Seichelles, Suíça, Vanuatu.
Total de falantes em milhões:   72,0

14. Vietnamita -  Vietnã, China.
Total de falantes em milhões:   67,7

15. Telugo -  Índia, Singapura.
Total de falantes em milhões:   66,4

16. Cantonês (chinês) -  Brunei, China, Costa Rica, Indonésia, Malásia, Panamá, Filipinas, Singapura, Tailândia, Vietnã.
Total de falantes em milhões:  66,0

17. Marati -  Índia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  64,8

18. Tâmil -  Índia, Malásia, Ilhas Maurício, Singapura, África do Sul, Sri Lanka.
Total de falantes em milhões:  63,1

19. Turco -  Bulgária, Chipre, Grécia, Macedônia, Romênia, Turquia, Usbequistão.
Total de falantes em milhões:  59,0

20. Urdu -  Afeganistão, Índia, Ilhas Maurício, Paquistão, África do Sul, Tailândia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  58,0

21. Min nan (chinês) -  Brunei, China, Indonésia, Malásia, Filipinas, Singapura, Taiwan, Tailândia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  49,0

22. Jinyu (chinês) -  China.
Total de falantes em milhões:  45,0

23. Gujarati -  Índia, Quênia, Paquistão, Singapura, África do Sul, Tanzânia, Uganda, Zâmbia, Zimbábue.
Total de falantes em milhões:  44,0

24. Polonês -  República Checa, Alemanha, Israel, Polônia, Romênia, Eslováquia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  44,0

25. Egípcio -  Egito.
Total de falantes em milhões: 42,5

26. Ucraniano -  Polônia, Eslováquia, Ucrânia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  41,0

27. Italiano -  Croácia, Eritréia, França, Itália, San Marino, Eslovênia, Suíça.
Total de falantes em milhões:  37,0

28. Xiang (chinês) -  China.
Total de falantes em milhões:  36,0

29. Malaio -  Índia, Singapura.
Total de falantes em milhões: 34,0

30. Hakka (chinês) -  Brunei, China, Indonésia, Malásia, Panamá, Singapura, Suriname, Taiwan, Tailândia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  34,0

31. Kannada -  Índia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  33,7

32. Oriya -  Índia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  31,0

33. Panjabi (ocidental) -  Índia, Paquistão.
Total de falantes em milhões:  30,0

34. Sunda -  Indonésia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  27,0

35. Panjabi (oriental) -  Índia, Quênia, Singapura.
Total de falantes em milhões:  26,0

36. Romeno -  Hungria, Israel, Moldávia, Romênia, Sérvia e Montenegro, Ucrânia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  26,0

37. Bhojpuri -  Índia, Ilhas Maurício, Nepal.
Total de falantes em milhões:  25,0

38. Azerbaijano -  Afeganistão, Irã, Iraque, Síria, Turquia.


Total de falantes em milhões:  24,4

39. Farsi (ocidental)  -  Irã, Iraque, Omã, Catar, Tajiquistão, Emirados Árabes Unidos.
Total de falantes em milhões:  24,3

40. Maitili -  Índia, Nepal.
Total de falantes em milhões:  24,3

41. Hauçá -  Benin, Burkina Fasso, Camarões, Gana, Nigéria, Níger, Sudão, Togo.
Total de falantes em milhões:  24,2

42. Algeriano -  Argélia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  22,4

43. Birmanês  -  Bangladesh, Mianmá.
Total de falantes em milhões:  22,0

44. Servo-croata - Bósnia-Herzegovina, Croácia, Macedônia, Sérvia e Montenegro, Eslovênia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  21,0

45. Gan (chinês) - China.
Total de falantes em milhões:  20,6

46. Awadhi  -  Índia, Nepal.
Total de falantes em milhões:  20,5

47. Tailandês -  Singapura, Tailândia.
Total de falantes em milhões:  20,0

48. Holandês -  Bélgica, França, Países Baixos, Suriname.
Total de falantes em milhões:  20,0

49. Iorubá -  Benin, Nigéria.
Total de falantes em milhões:  20,0

50. Sindi  - Afeganistão, Índia, Paquistão, Singapura.
Total de falantes em milhões:  19,7


Observações importantes
• Muitas das línguas da tabela são, tecnicamente, dialetos. Mas elas foram listadas de modo separado porque são suficientemente diferentes umas das outras para serem mutuamente incompreensíveis.
• Entre os países listados nos idiomas espanhol, inglês, português, francês e servo-croata não estão incluídos aqueles nos quais menos de 1% da população fala tal idioma como primeira língua.
• A população de falantes por idioma é apenas estimada. O idioma servo-croata é também denominado sérvio, croata ou bósnio, dependendo do grupo étnico ou político dos falantes.

Informações obtidas no Klickeducação
          Bonzour dans la Seychelles!        
none
          Sunshine After The Rain        

Sunshine after the rain 3

Shoes - Seychelles
Denim - Old Navy
Shirt - Local Boutique
Clutch - F21
Sunnies - Rayban

Sunshine after the rain 4
Sunshine after the rain 2
Sunshine after the rain 1

Last week was rough ... to say the least!!  I had a killer cold that left me lying on the couch doing absolutely nothing!!  The good news is that I am finally feeling much better ( still super dizzy and tired though :( ) and back to blogging!!

          Keeping it casual        

keeping it casual 2

Shoes - Seychelles via Ross
Denim - Levi's
Shirt - Gap
Scarf - bought in Paris
Bag - Michael Kors
keeping it casual 3
keeping it casual 4
keeping it casual 1

Our weekends are typically pretty jammed packed .... that is when we really work.  My husband and I have a event company so anything from weddings to bar mitzvahs, or any sort of party really and we are in!!  So finding something cute and comfortable is really important for me.  A bright shirt with some comfy jeans and even more important ... super comfy shoes ( which these ones are!!) make for a good day!!

          Red List - Espécies Ameaçadas        
-> www.redlist.org

Diz-se que uma imagem vale mais do que mil palavras e neste site isso nota-se bem.
A lista das espécies ameaçadas, mostrando os animais e plantas que estão em perigo de extinção, bem como os seus nomes e um resumo da situação em que se encontram, é a página mais eloquente de uma morada onde no entanto há também bastante informação textual.
É na secção de fotografias que mais apetece estar.
Veja-se por exemplo este papagaio – já só sobrevive em pequenas áreas da Colômbia e o seu futuro é bastante incerto.
Ou o sapo vermelho africano, do Quénia.
Já o mocho das Seychelles passou da lista das espécies muito ameaçadas para a das ameaçadas, porque há uma população estável em aparente crescimento.
Plantas e animais de todo o mundo estão presentes numa lista que é actualizada todos os anos.
Neste site pode acompanhar-se a situação e consultar as listas de anos anteriores.
          Los 10 países menos poblados de África (2017)        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN Los 10 países menos poblados de África actualmente (año 2017) son, por orden (de menor a mayor población): Seychelles, Santo Tomé y Príncipe, Cabo Verde, Comoras, Yibuti, Suazilandia, Guinea Ecuatorial, Mauricio, Guinea-Bisáu y Lesoto. A continuación se presenta un… Continue Reading

La entrada Los 10 países menos poblados de África (2017) aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Sudafrica Rand(ZAR)/Seychelles Rupee(SCR)        
1 Sudafrica Rand = 1.03529 Seychelles Rupee
          Saint Ange Tourism Report on tourism in Seychelles and souroundings        
In the ever-evolving field of tourism, it is integral that we understand the industry.
          Seychelles tourism minister resigns        
Replacement has been nominated
          la plage d’Anse Source d’Argent, Seychelles – Carte, faits, situation, guide        
la plage d’Anse Source d’Argent est l’une des plages les plus populaires des Seychelles. Lisez notre guide et obtenez des informations sur sa situation, la carte et les attractions.
          Población de los países de África (2013)        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN África tenía una población aproximada en el año 2013 de 1 000 millones de habitantes¹. El país más poblado del continente africano era Nigeria con 174 millones de habitantes (el 17% de la población total de África) y el menos poblado era Seychelles con 94… Continue Reading

La entrada Población de los países de África (2013) aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          País menos poblado de cada continente (2017)        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN Los países menos poblados de cada continente actualmente (año 2017) son: – Ciudad del Vaticano (Europa). – Tuvalu (Oceanía). – San Cristóbal y Nieves (América). – Seychelles (África). – Maldivas (Asia).   2. EL PAÍS MENOS POBLADO DE CADA CONTINENTE (año 2017) País menos… Continue Reading

La entrada País menos poblado de cada continente (2017) aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Â¿Cuál es el país más pequeño de África?        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN El país más pequeño de África es la República de las Seychelles, un archipiélago formado por 115 islas localizadas en el océano Índico, al este del continente. Este país africano y paraíso tropical, tiene una extensión de 455… Continue Reading

La entrada ¿Cuál es el país más pequeño de África? aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          País más pequeño de cada continente        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN Los países más pequeños de cada continente son: La Ciudad del Vaticano (Europa), Maldivas (Asia),  San Cristóbal y Nieves (América), Nauru (Oceanía) y Seychelles (África). La extensión en km² de estos países es: País más pequeño de Europa: Vaticano (0,44) País más pequeño de Asia: Maldivas… Continue Reading

La entrada País más pequeño de cada continente aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Beiron Andersson is Fitter Than Ever at 51        
Beiron Andersson
Per Bernal

Unless your knowledge of male models extends well beyond the fictional character Derek Zoolander, you probably aren’t familiar with the name Beiron Andersson. (You probably don’t know how to pronounce the first name either—it’s BAY-ron.) But if you picked up a magazine or turned on a television at any point during the 1990s, you have undoubtedly viewed his handsome mug many, many times.

Andersson, a Swede by birth who moved to the United States as an exchange student at age 17, became one of the most recognizable models on the planet in 1992 when he was plucked from obscurity for a GUESS advertising campaign alongside Anna Nicole Smith. (For you younger readers, Smith was the Kate Upton of her day: a beautiful, voluptuous blonde bombshell.) That was Andersson posing with Smith in those iconic black-and-white ads—puckering up to kiss her, riding shotgun with her in a classic car, even lacing up the gloves and doing his best Rocky Balboa to win her over in a commercial titled “Boxing.” (Go ahead, YouTube it. It’s awesome.)

In addition to his five ad campaigns for GUESS, Andersson modeled for brands such as Armani, Versace, Valentino, H&M, Jim Beam, and Pepsi, traveling to far-flung places like the Seychelles, Hong Kong, Australia, and South Africa (and, of course, New York, Los Angeles, Miami, and Europe—that goes without saying).

Who knows, you might have even purchased a Soloflex machine after watching a young, long-haired Andersson use the equipment to do incline situps and biceps curls in an abandoned warehouse in a Soloflex infomercial that ran around the clock on cable TV in the mid-’90s. (Go ahead and YouTube this, too. Skip to the 8:20 mark—and keep an eye out for three-time Mr. Olympia Frank Zane.)

But ironically, Andersson might be in the best shape of his life right now. Never mind that he will be 52 years old in October. Andersson, who is quick to point out that he is all-natural, is much thicker and more muscular today than he ever was in those GUESS ads. He credits this to a lifelong passion for fitness, especially weightlifting.

“I love weights,” Andersson says. “When I was young, I was a runner. I ran mornings. I ran evenings. I did a marathon in the snow. But after a while it starts getting old to only run. So I started lifting weights as well. And I started putting some size on. And then I moved from Sweden to a small farm town in Northern California called Durham. And a lot of these farm boys in Durham were big and strong and loved to lift weights. That was a little bit extra inspiring, because American boys lift best.” 

Andersson was even preparing to open a gym in Northern California with a friend when his modeling career took off. He drove to Los Angeles to scout out a few gyms for some last-minute ideas on equipment when he decided to indulge his aunt, who was an actress and a model in L.A. and had been encouraging him to try modeling.

“My aunt and I went to the park and she took some snapshots,” Andersson recalls. “I took those snapshots to my first agency, and they had a lot of interest, so they kind of took it from there.”

Andersson quickly signed with Wilhelmina Models and moved to L.A. with his wife, Tina, his high school sweetheart. Within a couple of weeks, he booked a national Levi’s campaign—television and print. “I worked an hour and was paid $1,500,” Andersson says. “And I go, ‘I could do this.’”

Then came the life-changing GUESS job, followed by a whole lot of people in the industry suddenly kissing his ass, and high-paying gigs around the world. But when the work began to dry up in the late ’90s, Andersson moved behind the camera and became a photographer—a job that he says is more fulfilling than his glory days as a model.

“There’s nothing wrong with modeling,” Andersson says. “But it wasn’t much brain stimulation for me after a while, because basically all I was doing with every move was counting the dollars. With photography, all of a sudden it was nonstop mental stimulation. I could be creative and see the process from beginning to end, which is a lot more work but also much more satisfying.”

Today, Andersson owns a photo studio in Chico, CA. He is still married to Tina, and they have two children. (His daughter is finishing chiropractic school. His son owns a car-detailing business and a clothing brand.) In addition to photography, Andersson’s other obsession these days is fitness. He designs workouts and diet programs for clients.

He’s ramping up his presence on social media (Instagram: @beironandersson). He’s even planning to compete in some physique bodybuilding shows in the near future. “I want to kick butt hard now,” Andersson says, “and see if I can get into some high-end shows and do well.”

But beyond the potential physique competitions, Andersson says he wants to be a sort of fitness ambassador, especially for others his age. “I would like to become someone whom people can look up to and get advice from,” he says. “If you played hard in your life, by age 50 you have knee problems. You have back problems. You have shoulder problems. I always hear people say, ‘Oh, I cannot do this; I cannot do that.’

I go, ‘I don’t have one single day I go to the gym and something isn’t hurting.’ But it’s not because I’m lifting. It’s actually better when I go lift. If I don’t lift, I feel much worse. When I get my workout in, it really helps my whole body.”


          10 Tempat di Dunia Yang Belum Pernah Terjamah Oleh Manusia        
meskipun perangkap peradaban mengelilingi kita, ternyata masih ada beberapa bagian di bumi ini yang masih murni, nyaris tak tersentuh. Mulai dari lapisan es Antartika hingga hutan-hutan di Papua New Guinea. Berikut beberapa tempat terindah di planet ini.
1. Namibia

Namibia adalah salah satu negara dengan jumlah penduduk paling jarang di dunia. Nama salah satu negara Afrika bagian selatan ini diambil dari Gurun Namib, rumah bagi 2.500 ekor cheetah. Dengan bukit pasir raksasa, petroglif kuno, kawah dan air terjunnya, Namibia menjadi salah satu lanskap paling tak tersentuh di Afrika. Namibia juga menjadi salah satu negara yang mencantumkan hal-hal mengenai penjagaan kesehatan ekosistem dalam konstitusinya. 2. Galapagos

Meskipun perjalanan Darwin ke sejumlah pulau-pulau unik diikuti oleh wisatawan yang tak terhitung jumlahnya, Kepulauan Galapagos masih menjadi tempat yang murni. Kepulauan ini merupakan rumah bagi kura-kura raksasa, iguana, singa laut, pinguin, ikan paus dan ikan. Dihuni oleh 23.000 penduduk dan ratusan spesies endemis, kepulauan ini juga menjadi tempat pelestarian hayati laut selama lima puluh tahun.
3. Papua Nugini
Para ilmuwan percaya jika banyak spesies tanaman dan hewan yang belum ditemukan berada di sini. Eksploitasi sumber daya alam terhambat oleh medan yang kasar, sistem hukum dan tingginya biaya pengembangan infrastruktur. Karena semua masalah manusia, sebagian besar lanskap masih sulit untuk disentuh.
4. Seychelles

Seychelles memiliki persentase tanah konservasi terbesar dibandingkan negara-negara lain. Sekitar 50 persen dari keseluruhan wilayah negara kepulauan ini berada di bawah konservasi. Karena itu, Seychelles merupakan rumah bagi beberapa pantai yang luar biasa murni dan spesies seperti burung nasional, burung beo hitam Seychelles. Pengunjung yang sampai di sana relatif sedikit, terutama di sepanjang garis pantai “berbubuk” lembut yang membentang sejauh 305 mil (490 kilometer).
Spoiler for Penampakan:
5. Bhutan
Sementara beberapa orang mungkin berpikir jika Tibet sebagai surga tercemar, sepupunya, Bhutan, justru jauh lebih bersih. Lebih dari 60 persen wilayah negara ditutupi hutan dan seperempat wilayah ditunjuk sebagai taman nasional atau kawasan lindung. Dikenal sebagai Tanah Naga Guntur, negara ini memiliki pegunungan terjal dan lembah-lembah sehingga tepat untuk dijadikan hotspot bagi keanekaragaman hayati.
6. Daintree National Park, Australia

Kadang-kadang sesuatu yang lebih tua, menjadi semakin tak tersentuh. Seperti Daintree National Park di Far North Queensland, Australia, yang berisi hutan hujan berusia 110 juta tahun―salah satu ekosistem tertua di bumi. Taman ini adalah rumah bagi ribuan jenis tumbuhan dan pohon yang berusia lebih dari 2.500 tahun.
7. Fiordland, Selandia Baru

Di ujung selatan pantai barat Selandia Baru, wilayah Fiordland masih liar, kasar dan nihil pembangunan. Dengan gunung tinggi yang jatuh ke dalam perairan berbatu gerigi, Fiordland belum pernah mempunyai penduduk permanen. Bahkan, orang-orang Maori hanya mengunjunginya hanya untuk sementara waktu guna berburu, memancing dan untuk mengumpulkan batu giok. Selain itu, arus udara bertiup lurus dari Antartika sehingga udara Fiordland merupakan salah satu yang terbersih di planet ini.
8. Kamcatka, Rusia

Semenanjung Kamcatka di Timur Jauh Rusia adalah tempat yang liar dan kosong dengan Samudera Pasifik di timur dan Laut Okhotsk di barat. Gunung berapi dan gletser membintiki semenanjung. Mega gempa bumi telah mengguncang semenanjung ini dalam lima dekade terakhir
9. Gurun Atacama, Chili

Atacama merupakan salah satu pemandangan aneh di dunia: padang pasir yang sama sekali tidak mendapatkan hujan. Cekungan garam, pasir dan lava menutupi sebagian besar dari kawasan yang memiliki luas 40.000 perusahaan mil persegi (103.600 km persegi) ini. Bahkan, NASA merancang tes Mars di sini. Tempat ini juga menjadi salah satu tempat terbaik di dunia untuk melakukan pengamatan astronomi. Di sana terdapat dua observatorium besar.
10. Antartika
Antartika adalah tempat yang benar-benar tak tersentuh. 96 persen dari benua ini ditutupi es, dengan ketebalan rata-rata lebih dari satu mil (1,6 km). Penguin, ikan paus, anjing laut dan burung laut menggunakan perairan di sekitar Antartika untuk mencari makanan.

          JA Resorts & Hotels: Restaurant Supervisor - Enchanted Island Resort         
Competitive package with hospitality industry benefits: JA Resorts & Hotels: Restaurant Supervisor for Enchanted Island Resort (Seychelles) -with experience in Seychelles or any remote area. Seychelles (SC)
          El hombre que recorrió el mundo... sin volar         

Este inglés, nacido en Liverpool hace 34 años, busca esta semana que el Guinness World Records

lo reconozca oficialmente como

el primero en lograr tal hazaña, algo "absolutamente increíble", asegura.

Necesitó 1.426 días y recorrió 257 mil kilómetros. Filmó su estadía en cada país y divulgó en YouTube un video llamado "One Second - Every Nation", que ha sido visto más de 630 mil veces, para publicitar su travesía.

Con un presupuesto de 100 dólares a la semana, Hughes se lanzó a la aventura el 1º de enero de 2009 y la completó a fines del año pasado. Lonely Planet, National Geographic y la BBC han transmitido distintas partes de su viaje, pero no le dieron apoyo financiero.

Hughes viajó en 2002 a India, al sudeste asiático y por América del Sur de mochilero y conociendo a habitantes locales. "Me inspiré a viajar sin volar para pasar más tiempo con la gente local, sabía del récord y también quería tener en cuenta el impacto ambiental", explica.

"Quería probar que se podía hacer, la gente me decía que era imposible. Hice mis investigaciones y me di cuenta que era posible. Sabía que lo podía hacer", agrega. Armado con su inglés, un poco de francés y otro tanto de español, salió a recorrer el mundo. El lenguaje de los gestos fue fundamental, y dice que donde más sintió la barrera del idioma fue en China y en Rusia.

Pero quizá el mayor desafío fue el agua. Cruzar océanos y mares sin volar. Necesitó dos años para recorrer 184 países y otros dos para llegar a los 17 restantes, 16 de ellos islas y el otro Sudán del Sur, un estado que no existía cuando comenzó su viaje.

Las Islas Seychelles, en el océano Índico, fueron las más complicadas de acceder por el riesgo de un ataque de piratas somalíes. Necesitó siete intentos. Y finalmente llegó en un barco de carga.

"FE EN LA HUMANIDAD"

Tras casi cuatro años viajando dice haber vuelto "con la fe en la humanidad recuperada". "Aprendí que no se debe juzgar a la gente por los actos de sus gobiernos", agrega.

Por error, estuvo preso en República del Congo y en Cabo Verde, y nunca le robaron.

Pasó "menos de un minuto" en el Vaticano y hasta ocho meses en Australia, recuerda especialmente a Palau, Egipto, Irán, Tailandia, Bolivia y Perú, y a la América Latina en general.

"La gente allí es increíble, hay un ambiente positivo", asegura.

Hughes dice que la vuelta a la normalidad, a su trabajo como director de videos, le ha resultado "interesante", y cuenta que ya tiene otros grandes planes, pero no está autorizado a hablar de ello.




          UHY Strengthens Presence in Africa: New Member Firm in Seychelles Joins the UHY Network        

Premier Financial Services (Seychelles) Limited, formed in 2014, provides clients with fiduciary and trust services, company formation, international tax planning and structuring, company secretarial services, accounting/ bookkeeping and other ancillary services to a portfolio of local but mainly international clients

(PRWeb May 09, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/05/prweb13400891.htm


          REGIONALISM AND CONTEMPORARY        
Journal of Indian Ocean Studies, Vol. 15 No.1 April 2007


REGIONALISM AND CONTEMPORARY
INDIAN OCEAN REGION

Mahmood Mukhtar AIam*


Abstract

The world economy has been drifting into inward-looking trade blocs with multilateral free trade principles based on geographical proximity. Article 24 of the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade, (now World Trade Organization) explicitly permits regional arrangements. At present there are more than 85 regional trade arrangements in existence, 28 of which have been set up since 199ZzIhe form of regionalism that is emerging in the Indian Ocean Region~(/OR-ARC) is quite different from the European Union (EU) and North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) model because economic or political union is not the ultimate goal. Regional cooperation framework in the lOR are neither planned nor policy oriented, though the economies of this region have merely agreed to increase pressure among them to keep their economies open to free flows of investments and trade in the lOR economies. Such open cooperation provides new instruments for promoting consensus building, information flow and consultations between businesses and governments. It may provide another mechanism to achieve trade liberalisation by encouraging freer regional trade.

The rapid spread of regionalism is the most important development in the global trading system. Post-war international trade relations are built on multilateral free trade principles that regard regional trade coalitions as suboptimal arrangements. A rising share of international trade is occurring within regions. It raised the fear that the world economy is disintegrating into inward-looking trade blocs.


The process is strongly influenced by geographical proximity. The regions have become more geographically oriented, with the majority of members associated with the regional cores of Japan and USA with APEC; Germany and UK with EU; USA with NAFTA; and Singapore and Malaysia with ASEAN. Regionalism takes shape through governmental promotion of trade linkages between countries by removal of barriers to mutual trade in the form of free trade areas, customs unions and other preferential trading agreements. It has gained momentum with the formation of EU and NAFTA. The trend towards regionalisation is an intermediary stage in the relationship between the states on the one hand and the globalising economy on the other.

The recent years have witnessed the growth of 'New Regionalism', interfacing the global trading arrangements. Unlike the regional trading arrangement of the sixties, newly formed blocs! agreements have given importance to preferential free trading arrangements among themselves.

Even the Article 24 of the GATT (now WTO) explicitly permits regional arrangements, thus, acknowledging their compatibility with the multilateral trading system. Since the 1990s, 'open regionalism' is prevalent in various parts of the world, and represents an effort to resolve one of the central problems of the contemporary trade policy, Le., how to achieve compatibility between the explosion of regional trading arrangements around the world and the global trading system as embodied in the WTO. The concept seeks to assure that regional agreements will in practice be building blocks for further global liberalization rather than stumbling blocks that deter such progress.

By now, no. fewer than 85 regional trade arrangements are in existence, 28 of which have been set up since 1992. Yet, the world has only two significant trade blocs, defined as zones of preferential trade. One is the Western Europe and the other is North America. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APE C) forum covers a quarter of world trade, but is not a preferential arrangement.

The strategic environment under which trade operates is a potentially competitive market, and the location of a supplier is largely irrelevant. This means that the patterns of contemporary international trade increasingly reflect organizational strategies, which affect trade decisions. Moreover, regionalism is thought to be increasingly a natural phenomenon, because informal economic agents as businesses who become more internationalized, drive it. Trade is said to be greater in 'natural' trade regions because the formation of such trade regions is influenced by geographical proximities, which reduces transaction costs and increases information flows.

The form of regionalism that is emerging in the Indian Ocean Region (lOR-ARC) contrasts sharply with the EU and NAFTA model because economic or political union is not the ultimate goal. Neither planned nor policy-oriented, regional cooperation frameworks in the lOR are loose arrangements with low levels of institutionalization. lOR-ARC, for instance, is neither a free trade area nor an institution. Its members have merely agreed to increase pressure among them to keep their economies open to free flows of investments and trade in the lOR economies. Such open cooperation provides new instruments for promoting consensus building, information flow, and consultations between businesses and governments. Additionally, it shall provide another mechanism to achieve trade liberalization by encouraging freer regional trade.

The lOR is a very fast growing region in the world economy, and is rapidly becoming a major centre of the world trade and economic activity. Apparently, two ideas have strongly influenced the lOR-ARC. One is the realization that the Indian Ocean is the only ocean not to have any economic grouping like NAFTA, ASEAN and APEC at a time when international relations are increasingly becoming ocean ¬centric. In this regard, the then Vice-President of India, Mr. K. R.
Narayanan said in 1994 at Port Louis:

"If the littoral states of the Pacific can draw together in a mutually satisfying convergence of economic and political interests, why not the states on the other side of the developmental divide?

In that sense, the lOR-ARC may become a bridgehead between Africa, Asia and Australia.

Raison d'etre
In the past several years, there has been considerable discussion of the proposal aiming at bringing about closer economic integration among the nations of the lOR community. This discussion has been generated by the strong rate of economic growth in the countries around the Indian Ocean basin; by their rapidly expanding trade, investment and other commercial relations; and changes in the international political environment', par1icularly the flux in the relationship among the great powers in the area since the 1991 Gulf crisis. As the Prime Minister of Mauritius Dr. Navinchandra Ramgoolam described: "The lOR grouping is a delayed, but timely initiative to enable the Indian Ocean countries to face the challenges of globalization and also utilize the opportunities that it posed. He wamed that unless the developing countries responded suitably and in a spirit of cooperation, they could be marginalised with the emergence of the mega trade bloc.


It is to be kept in mind that there have already been many regional and sub-regional organisations within the lOR region existing with some specific agenda. There are broadly five sub-regional organisations, covering the littoral states of the Indian Ocean Rim: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); Southern African Development Community (SADC); Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN); the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), now African Union (AU); and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).


There are a few ground realities that can support the formation of lOR-ARC. In the recent years, there has been a sea-change in the industrial capacities and profiles of some of the industrialising countries in the region, namely India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Kenya, South Africa and Australia. They are in a position to otter their manufactures and intermediate types of capital goods and machinery that are suited to the requirements of many developing countries in the region.

Many countries in this region are burdened with crippling debt burdens in the wake of the two oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, and also the falling commodity prices. Repayments posed serious burdens on their balance of payments. Many of the non-oil, less developed countries face an unprecedented energy crisis along with problems of balancing their national budgets and international balance-of¬payments accounts. One can imagine a single item, Le. mineral fuel, constitutes around 30 percent of total import.

Much of the technology that is available to these countries from the western industrialised economics is highly capital intensive. These technologies are not suited to their growing employment needs and aspirations. Many of the countries have small international markets and they want to develop domestic industrial capacities and raise their tariff walls to protect the same. The kind of technology that is not available in a country could promote greater intra-regional trade investment and economic cooperation.

The challenges of the eighties and even of the nineties, perhaps, leave no alternative for the developing countries of the Indian Ocean Rim but to forge closer links among themselves. The 15 countries of Western Europe have already formed the European Union, and have permitted free flow of goods, people and capital. The North American Free Trade Area has been constituted by the US, Canada and Mexico; and the APEC group has been formed to cover the Pacific Rim. Only the Indian Ocean had remained without the regional groupings and trade blocs and is now filling the vacuum. The Foreign Minister of Indonesia, Mr. Ali Alatas said in 1997.

"The general feeling was that the Atlantic was the Ocean of the past", the Pacific of the present and the Indian Ocean, that of the future. It would be the challenge of the lOR countries to make their Ocean also one of the present"?

The lOR economies constitute a major part of the world economy but are left behind in the decision making of the world trade and commerce. The focus on the Indian Ocean as "the regional basis" of some future forum for economic interaction among the countries, which lie within this region, visualises the Indian Ocean as a unifying factor (A glance at the map shows that while the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean divide continents, the Indian Ocean unites a vast arc of land). Primarily, the strongest factor for the emergence of IOR¬ARC is the geographical consideration. As mentioned earlier, the Indian Ocean Rim region has a number of sub-regional formations already existing, which have been catering to the concerns of the groupings. These would have direct and indirect bearing upon the developments of lOR-ARC.

Origin
The Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation is the product of several events. It was only in the second half of the twentieth century that people began to think of the Indian Ocean as a unifying factor. In the 1950s, late Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru referred to the 'commonality' of the peoples of the region; and in the 1970s and 1980s, Sri Lanka and Seychelles, started to propagate a 'zone of peace' and a 'nuclear-free zone' in the area. Neither of these concepts, however, involved regional economic co-operation. It was not until the early 1990s that the idea of forming an Indian Ocean Rim (lOR) economic grouping came to the forefront. The idea of bringing together the countries of the Indian Ocean Rim into a new form of economic cooperation was first mooted by Mauritius in August 1992. In January 1994, the Mauritian Prime Minister, elaborated the idea and called for the creation of an "Indian Ocean Rim trading bloc" through economic cooperation between Asian and African countries of the Indian Ocean and Australia.

The concept of an lOR initiative was also publicly mooted by the South African foreign Minister, Pik Botha in November 1993. President Nelson Mandela reinforced Pik Botha's idea when he visited India in January 1995.

"Recent changes in the international system demanded that the countries of the Indian Ocean Rim shall come on a single platform. The natural urge ofthe facts of history and geography should broaden itself to include exploring the concept of Indian Ocean Rim and socio¬economic cooperation and other peaceful endeavors".

This proposal was well received both by the India and Australian governments. For India, it was consistent with the vision of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had encouraged unity among the Indian Ocean states. For Australia, this was in line with their 'Look West' policy.

The Mauritius-Indian Ocean Rim Initiative, of the government, business and academia (Port Louis) on 29-31 March 1995, had delegates from seven countries-Australia, India, Kenya, Mauritius, Oman, South Africa and Singapore. The meeting took note of the recent significant changes in the political and economic conditions, particularly the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations and the setting up of a World Trade Organisation. (WTO) which promised to usher in a more liberal international trading system, growing trend towards regionalism and the increasing adoption of market-friendly policies by a growing number of countries. The meeting concluded that the vital interests shared by the expansion of free trade and investmen~, at the regional and global levels, called for greater cooperation for a more effective utilisation of human, natural and other resources of the lOR for sustained, accelerated economic growth. And also for the improvement of the economic and social welfare of its people, who shared history, and had close cultural links and long-standing trade relations.

The meeting set out the principles, objectives, scope of activity and future course of action to be und~rtaken by the core group, namely those participating in the "initiative". The principles stated that, in a spirit of open regionalism, it seeks to build and expand understanding and mutually beneficial cooperation through a consensus-based, evolutionary and non-intrusive approach. The underlying principles of the entire concept were stated to be:

- Cooperation within lOR's framework to be based on respect of the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, and non-interference in internal affairs, peaceful coexistence and mutual benefit;

- Such cooperation shall not be a substitute for bilateral and other forms of multilateral cooperation entered into by member states, but shall reinforce and be complementary to those forms of interaction, and shall be consistent with the bilateral and multilateral obligations of member states;

- Eligibility for membership is open to all sovereign states of the lOR;

- All decisions shall be taken 'on the basis of consensus';

- But bilateral and other issues likely to generate controversy and be an impediment to regional cooperation efforts shall be excluded from the deliberations, and Member states shall undertake the work programmes of the Association 'on a voluntary basis'.

Australian perceptions

Since the beginning of the nineties, Australia's policy has been marked by reorganisation and reorientation. It focused on making the country a major market economy in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was launched in 1989 at Canberra, Australia. On 16-18 November 1992, a major trade and investment convention named "Into Asia" Convention was held at Perth, attended by some 500 government and business representatives. In the keynote address at the convention, the then Premier of Western Australia, Dr. Carmen Lawrence, noted that the state was at the forefront of a national transition to a more Asian¬oriented economy. Not only did the state conduct 70 percent of the trade with Asia, this activity provided 40 percent of the jobs. As Asian Australians becoming increasingly involved in such trade initiatives, he said," Western Australia could become a major gateway to Asia".

Following the Mauritius inter-governmental meeting in March 1995, and before the Perth Conference in June 1995, the Australian Foreign Minister, Gareth Ev(;!ns, undertook an eleven-day visit to eight countries around the Indian Ocean: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Seychelles, Madagascar, South Africa and Mauritius. He espoused an indigenous Indian Ocean region-wide process of cooperation. The Perth Conference, was comparatively a more representative gathering of the Indian Ocean States. In this conference, there were 122 participants from business, academia and government from 22 lOR countries. These were: Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand; United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In this conference, six major approaches were dealt with:

- Historical Interaction: regional, commercial and economic interaction through cross-fertilization of cultures and technologies, prior to the arrival of the European colonial powers.

- Current Economic Situation: the nature of current economic characteristics and linkages in the Indian Ocean Region. The major thrust was on trade share of the lOR economies and commodity trade structure.

- Intra-Regional Trade: to bring the lOR countries closer and would provide an economic underpinning for reduction of tension and maintenance of security.
- Global and Regional Security Arrangement: trade routes carrying trans-oceanic trade, the "Choke Points", and the general concern about oil security within the Gulf.
- Non-Military Issues: illicit drug trafficking, illegal movement of people, terrorism and border disputes.
- Networking Prospects: existing networks of cooperation and their prospects for further development. There are organisations representing particular specialist areas such as law and those with interests in a particular sector of the Indian Ocean.
- In the law category major organisations are: the African Asian Legal Consultative Committee (MLCC); Indian Ocean Marine Affairs Cooperation (IOMAC); Association of Shipping and Ports Authorities (ASPA); the Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (IOFC); Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and the Port management Association for Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA). Another category comprises the Indian Ocean Island Commission in the southwest, the GCC, SMRC, ASEAN and SACEP (South Asian Cooperative Environment Programme). The reasons for the absence of networking were attributed to the lack of awareness, political commitment and financial support as well as the reluctances of some countries to be involved in multilateral activities.


The major outcomes of Perth Summit were:
- Consultative Business Network: The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry would act as the interim coordinator for this network;
- A charter for, a new business organization; Information technology, including telecommunication; Customs and trade documentation; Non-tariff barriers and impediments to investment; and Maritime affairs.

Second track approach
The first meeting of the tripartite working group in Mauritius (15¬-17 August 1996) supported the establishment of a second track process consisting of business and academic networks. This was complementary to the intergovernmental movement. A further meeting in Mauritius (10-11 September 1996) finalised a charter for the creation of the lOR-ARC with a doubling of membership to include Indonesia, Malaysia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Yemen. Finally, with 14 members the lOR-ARC was formed in March 1997 in Port Louis, Mauritius. The functioning mechanism of lOR-ARC was demarcated in this meeting, according to the given provision.

The lOR-ARC Working Groups are the Indian Ocean Rim Academic Group (IORAG) representing the academia, and the Indian Ocean rim Business Forum (IORBF) representing the business community. These two groups identify special areas for economic cooperation and identify projects to strengthen this process with adequate consultations.

Work programmes
i) The IORBF focuses not only on trade facilitation, trade promotion, trade liberalisation and investment promotion, but also on providing mechanisms for consultation and co-operation on trade-related infrastructure (shipping, air services, and telecommunication); and on establishing programmes for cooperation in technology, tourism, and human resource development. At meetings of the IORBF in Maputo, Mozambique on 3-4 July 2000, and again in Muscat, Oman on 4 April 2001, progress on 8 projects, comprising part of the work programme of the lOR-ARC, was reviewed.

ii) The objectives of IORAG are to service the needs of both government and business within the ambit of the lOR-ARC, to promote intellectual dialogue between member countries of the Association, and to provide co-ordinated research in support of the lOR-ARC. Research projects can be grouped into two broad categories; of applied nature and aimed at facilitating economic interaction within the lOR region; and of an academic/scientific nature and aimed at improving scientific knowledge and/or promoting academic/scientific exchange within the region. At meetings of the IORAG in Maputo, Mozambique on 28-29 March 1999, and again in Muscat, Oman on 4 April 2001 , progress on 17 projects the Indian Ocean Rim Business Forum.13

At the Second Ministerial meeting in Maputo (March 1999), five new members of the lOR region namely, Thailand, Bangladesh, United Arab Emirates, Iran and Seychelles were added, increasing the total number of members of the lOR-ARC to 19. Also, Japan and Egypt were welcomed as dialogue partners. The last meeting of IOR¬ARC was held in Oman on April 2001. A high level task force (HL TF) comprising Australia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Mozambique, Oman, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Yemen was established to study the further direction of the lOR-ARC; the organisational structure and funding of the Co-ordinating Secretariat; the idea of a 'special fund' for the implementation of lOR-ARC projects and programmes. However, the Charter was finalised in March 1997 with the following objectives: 14

- To promote sustained growth and balanced development of the region and to create common ground for regional economic cooperation;

- To focus on those areas of economic cooperation which would provide maximum opportunities to develop shared interest and reap mutual benefits; and, in so doing, formulate and implement projects for economic co-operation in the areas of trade facilitation, promotion and liberalisation, foreign direct investment, scientific and technological exchange, tourism, the free flow of people, goods and services, and human-resource and infrastructural development;

- To explore all possibilities and avenues for trade liberalisation with a view to augment and diversify trade flows among member states;

- To promote liberalisation, and to remove impediments and barriers to a free flow of goods and services, investment and technology within the region;

- To encourage close interaction of trade and industry and academic institutions of the lOR-ARC members; Cooperation among members on global economic issues, and to develop shared strategies and common positions on issues of mutual interest in the international forum; Closer institutional links for development of human resources and training.

Conclusions
'Open Regionalism' is a model of economic cooperation, representing an effort to resolve one of the central problems of contemporary trade policy. It is a flexible arrangement where decisions are taken by consensus. When the Indian Ocean Rim initial grouping was formed in 1995, open regionalism was embraced without much discussion of its limitations in promoting economic integration in the regional grouping.15

This concept was developed to avoid the possibility of a discriminatory trading bloc. However, its real implications depend on the economic and political conditions of the region, internal policy of an economy and communication networks. The regional perspective is meant to complement, supplement and incorporate without any political intervention. Regionalism with institutional foundation is the strongest strategy for economic linkages


References
1. J. Poon, Global Regionalisation Tendencies: Spatial Structure and Linkages, Southeast Asian Studies Working Paper (National University of Singapore, 1995), pp. 5-7.
2. C. Fred Bergsten, "Open Regionalism", The World Economy, Vol. 20, No.5,1997,p.545.
3. Ibid., p. 137.
4. P. Krugman, Regionalism Versus Multilateralism: Analytic Notes, in J. De Melo and A.Panagariya (eds.), New Dimensions in Regional Integration (Cambridge: Cambride University Press, 1993), pp 58-79.
5. Patriot, 17 May 1994.
6. Hindu, 6 March 1997.
7. Ibid.
8. Denis Venter, "The Indian Ocean Rim Initiative: A Vehicle for South ¬South Cooperation", paper distributed at the Indian Ocean Research Network (lORN) Meeting in Durban, March 10-11, 1997, p. 1.

9. Greg Mills, 'Security and a (Nuclear) Indian Ocean Rim', in Greg Mills (ed.), South African Year Book of International Affairs (Durban: Sunray Publishers Ltd., 1998-99), p. 148.
10. Kuldeep Kaur, 'Australia's Changing Orientation from Pacific to Indian Ocean', Journal of Indian Ocean Studies, Vol. 8, No.3, December 2000, pp.210-11.
11. 'Strategies: Western Australia-Springboard to Asia', Insight, 30 November 1992, pp. 13-14.
12. For detail, see lOR-ARC, Report of IORBF, Maputo, Mozambique, 3-4 July 2000, Vacoas: lOR-ARC Co-ordinating Secretariat, July 2000, p. 4; lOR-ARC, Report of the Indian Ocean Rim Business Forum (IORBF), Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, 4-5 April 2001, Vacoas: lOR-ARC Co¬ordinating Secretariat, April 2001, p. 4.
13. For details, see lOR-ARC, Report of the Indian Ocean Rim Academic Group, (IORAG), 28 and 29 March 1999, Vacoas: lOR-ARC Co-ordinating Secretariat, March 1999, Maputo, Mozambique, p. 6; lOR-ARC, Report of the Indian Ocean Academic Group (IORAG), Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, 4-5 April 2001, Vacoas: lOR-ARC Co-ordinating Secretariat, April 2001, p. 5.
14. J. Mahender Reddy, 'Overview', in J. Mahender Reddy (ed.), Trade and Investment: Issues in the Indian Ocean Rim (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 2000), pp. 4-5.
15. Saman, Kelegama, 'lOR-ARC Beyond Maputo: Open Regionalism in the
Indian Ocean', in Reddy (ed.), n.14, p. 45.
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          Di Sebalik 250 Muka Surat Saman DOJ        

Tiada yang berubah sejak tahun lalu kecuali aset yang disenaraikan. Adalah penting untuk anda ketahui, saman sivil bagi pelucuthakan aset adalah dibuat ke atas aset dan bukan individu seperti Jho Low. Pemilik aset terbabit berhak mencabar saman itu, di mana mereka turut lakukan itu di mahkamah di Amerika Syarikat.


Berikut adalah pandangan terhadap saman sivil terkini melibatkan 250 mukasurat dari Jabatan Kehakiman Amerika Syarikat:

1. Ia adalah saman sivil bagi mendapatkan pelucuthakan aset dan bukannya saman jenayah.

Tiada yang berubah sejak tahun lalu kecuali aset yang disenaraikan. Adalah penting untuk anda ketahui, saman sivil bagi pelucuthakan aset adalah dibuat ke atas aset dan bukan individu seperti Jho Low. Pemilik aset terbabit berhak mencabar saman itu, di mana mereka turut lakukan itu di mahkamah di Amerika Syarikat.

2. Ia hanyalah cerita ulangan dari saman terdahulu pada Julai 2016 tanpa sebarang susulan.

Tiada yang berubah sejak tahun lalu kecuali penambahan aset yang disenaraikan. Bagaimanapun, apa yang menarik perhatian orang ramai ialah dakwaan kononnya berlian bernilai USD27 juta (RM118 juta) dihadiahkan kepada isteri MO1. Lihat no 7 untuk memahami senario ini.

1MDB tidak pernah meminjam atau kehilangan wang sejak Julai 2016. Malah, 1MDB sebenarnya sedang meraih pendapatan dan membayar semula hutang pada tahun lalu.

3. Tiada wang yang didakwa dibelanjakan atau dilaburkan adalah milik 1MDB.

Ia bermakna wang yang disebutkan bukanlah wang 1MDB. Ia telah diperjelaskan tahun lalu. Sejak itu, pelbagai laporan turut mengesahkannya, terutama penyelesaian IPIC - 1MDB pada April lalu di mana IPIC dilaporkan telah mendapatkan pembeli bagi unit bernilai RM2.5 bilion dan turut bersetuju terhadap penyelesaian berikut:

Kedua pihak turut bersetuju untuk melalui perbincangan bagi pembayaran yang dibuat oleh 1MDB kepada entiti berkaitan.

Contoh untuk senario adalah sebagaimana berikut:

Bayangkan jika saya membayar RM1,000 untuk pelaburan dan ia dimasukkan ke dalam akaun anda. Sebagai pulangan, anda kemudian mengeluarkan satu dokumen untuk menyatakan anda berhutang dengan saya RM1,000 dan anda memberi jaminan bahawa saya akan menerima RM1,000 kembali.

Anda kemudian membayar RM500 kepada seorang samseng.

Bolehkah saya dituduh membayar RM500 kepada seorang samseng?

Sehubungan itu, mengapa IPIC bersusah payah untuk mengeluarkan satu jaminan terhadap bon bernilai USD3.5 bilion kepada satu negara lain? Mengapa Aabar mahu menjamin satu lagi unit dana bernilai USD2.5 bilion milik 1MDB?

Sebab itu 1MDB tetap dengan pendirian mereka bahawa tiada wang mereka yang hilang.

4. Dakwaan Jabatan Kehakiman Amerika Syarikat bahawa unit di BSI atau Cayman terlebih nilai atau tersalah nilai, tidak ada kena mengena dengan 1MDB.

Sebagaimana diperjelaskan sebelum ini, nilai unit dijamin oleh Aabar Investments PJS. Bagi 1MDB, nilai minimum unit terbabit sudahpun dijamin oleh Aabar. Sebagaimana dilaporkan oleh media Singapura, Aabar telah mendapatkan pembeli bagi unit USD2.5 bilion itu (termasuk unit bernilai USD940 juta yang berbaki dalam dana BSI) dan 1MDB sudah mula menerima perolehan tunai itu.

Pada kedudukan 1MDB, mereka mempunyai sejumlah wang dalam unit BSI yang dijamin oleh Aabar yang sebenar. Memandangkan Aabar yang sebenar telah mendapatkan pembeli bagi membeli unit dana berkenaan dan membayar 1MDB jumlah sebenar, maka tidak timbul sebarang persoalan sama ada unit dana berkenaan tidak bernilai atau di bawah nilai mahupun terlebih nilai.

5. Dakwaan Jabatan Kehakiman Amerika Syarikat kononnya wang itu diseleweng dari pinjaman 1MDB di Deutsche Bank, tidak ada kena mengena dengan 1MDB.