Highlights of Union Bank of India's Results for the Quarter ended June 30, 2017
CASA 25.1 per cent YoY
Non Interest Income ` ` 1414 crore (up 36 per cent YoY) Savings Deposit 27.6 per cent YoY
Operating Profit ` ` 2057 crore (up 26.5 per cent YoY) CASA Share 35.5 per cent
Net Profit ` 117 crore (up 7.3 per cent QoQ) RAM* Sector 14.8 per cent YoY
CRAR 12.01 per cent RAM* Share 55.4 per cent
Tier I 9.24 per cent
ï· The growth in Deposits was driven by Savings Deposits, which grew by 27.6 per cent on YoY basis.
ï· Cost to income ratio improved to 43.79 per cent against 48.28 per cent on YoY basis.
ï· Capital Adequacy Ratio (Basel III) improved to 12.01 per cent compared to 10.75 per cent a year ago. * (Retail, Agriculture & MSME share in domestic advances)
Business Global Business grew by 10.5 per cent to `670971 crore as on June 30, 2017 from `607280 crore as on June 30, 2016. Domestic business grew by 10.0 per cent to `635233 crore as on June 30, 2017 from `577473 crore as on June 30, 2016. Total deposit of the bank grew from `338727 crore as on June 30, 2016 to `375796 crore as on June 30, 2017 showing growth of 10.9 per cent. Financial Results for the Quarter ended June 30, 2017
CASA deposits grew by 25.1 per cent to `133412 crore as on June 30, 2017 from `106604 crore as on June 30, 2016. CASA share in total deposits improved to 35.5 per cent as on June 30, 2017 compared to 31.5 per cent as on June 30, 2016. Average CASA ratio also increased by 430 basis points (bps) to 33.5 per cent on YoY basis. Savings Deposit registered YoY growth of 27.6 per cent. A total of 8.70 lakh CASA accounts were opened during April-June 2017, out of which 8.38 lakh were Savings Bank Accounts (excl. BSBDA/BSBDS accounts). The Bankâs Global Advances grew by 9.9 per cent (YoY) to `295175 crore as on June 30, 2017 from `268553 crore as on June 30, 2016. Due to encouraging growth of 14.8 per cent in RAM (Retail, Agriculture & MSME) sector, Domestic Advances increased by 9.4 per cent from `242935 crore as on June 30, 2016 to `265683 crore as on June 30, 2017.
Financial Performance for the quarter ended June 2017 Domestic Net Interest Margin (NIM) stood at 2.20 per cent for April -June 2017 as against 2.36 per cent for April -June 2016. Global NIM for April -June 2017 stood at 2.06 per cent as against 2.27 per cent for January-March 2017 quarter. It was 2.28 per cent a year ago. Yield on funds stood at 6.94 per cent for April -June 2017 as against 7.94 per cent for April-June 2016 and 7.35 per cent for January-March 2017. Cost of funds stood at 5.03 per cent for April -June 2017 as against 5.82 per cent for April-June 2016 and 5.24 per cent for January-March 2017. Net Interest Income for April-June 2017 increased by 6.7 per cent to `2243 crore from `2103 crore for April-June 2016. It was `2387 crore during January-March 2017. Non Interest Income for April-June 2017 stood at `1414 crore, showing increase of 36.0 per cent over April-June 2016. Operating profit increased by 26.5 per cent to `2057 crore during April-June 2017 over `1626 crore during April-June 2016 and was `2134 crore during January-March 2017. Net Profit for April-June 2017 sequentially increased to `117 crore from `109 crore in January-March 2017. Cost to income ratio improved to 43.79 per cent for April -June 2017 from 48.28 per cent for April-June 2016 and it was 44.32 per cent for January-March 2017. Return on average assets (annualised) stood at 0.10 per cent for April-June 2017 as against 0.17 per cent for April-June 2016 and 0.10 per cent for January-March 2017. Return on equity (annualised) stood at 2.46 per cent in April -June 2017 as against 3.36 per cent for April -June 2016 and 2.27 per cent for January-March 2017. Earnings per share (annualised) stood at `6.78 in April -June 2017 as against `9.69 for April -June 2016 and `6.33 for January-March 2017.
Asset Quality Gross NPA stood at 12.63 per cent as on June 30, 2017 as against 11.17 per cent as on March 31, 2017 and 10.16 per cent as on June 30, 2016. Net NPA ratio stood at 7.47 per cent as on June 30, 2017 as against 6.57 per cent as on March 31, 2017 and 6.16 per cent as on June 30, 2016. Provision Coverage Ratio stood at 51.13 per cent as on June 30, 2017 as against 51.41 per cent as on March 31, 2017. It was 49.99 per cent as on June 30, 2016.
Capital Adequacy Capital Adequacy ratio of the Bank under Basel III improved to 12.01 per cent as on June 30, 2017 as against 11.79 per cent as on March 31, 2017 and 10.75 per cent as on June 30, 2016 compared to minimum regulatory requirement of 10.25 per cent. The Tier I ratio as of June 30, 2017 is 9.24 per cent, within which Common Equity Tier 1 ratio is 7.73 per cent compared to regulatory minimum of 6.75 per cent.
Digital Initiatives The Bank has been pioneer in taking various digital initiatives and continuously launched various digital products for enhancing the customer services. Following are some of the key achievements during the quarter: 66 per cent growth in mobile banking users on YoY basis. U-Mobile transaction volume doubled from June 2016. 90 per cent growth in number of PoS terminals on YoY basis. 7th largest presence in banking industry and 3rd largest presence amongst all PSU banks within short span of time in Social media. Trendsetter on Social media channels by taking various initiatives like Live streaming, Digital Education Series â #KyaAapJanteHai etc. 67 per cent share of âtransactions through digital channelsâ in âoverall transactionsâ.
Financial Inclusion: Under the Pradhan Manrti Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), the the Bank has more than 69 lakh accounts having a balance of `1270 crore. 48.91 lakh Rupay Card issued under PMJDY as on June 30, 2017.
Total enrollment under Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY), Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY) and Atal Pension Yojana (APJ) increased to 30.1 lakh, 12.8 lakh and 2.21 lakh respectively. The Bank financed `696 crore in 33433 accounts under Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, including an amount of `211 crore to 7964 beneficiaries through a specific scheme for financing of light commercial vehicle during AprilâJune 2017.
Network The Bank has 4286 branches as of June 30, 2017 including 4 overseas branches at Hong Kong, DIFC (Dubai), Antwerp (Belgium) and Sydney (Australia). In addition, the Bank has representative offices at Shanghai, Beijing and Abu Dhabi. The Bank also operates in United Kingdom through its wholly owned subsidiary, Union Bank of India (UK) Ltd. Total number of ATMs stood at 7574 including 1685 talking ATMs as of June 30, 2017. ATM to branch ratio stood at 1.77.
Awards & Accolades during FY 2017-18 (April-June) Skoch Award Skoch Order of merit Award â Operational Customer Relationship Management (OCRM) Skoch Financial Technology Award - Unified Payment Interface(UPI) Skoch Financial Technology Award - Green PIN solution for Debit cards Skoch Financial Technology Award - Union Digi Gaon Skoch Financial Inclusion Award for Financial Inclusion
Mumbai, August 10, 2017: Octaware Technologies Limited (BSE â 540416), a leading software and business solutions development company,is pleased to announce that they have been awarded the prestigious contract from BPCL for the design and implementation of their loyalty and brand microsites. Octaware was one of the bidders and was awarded the contract, post evaluation and presentation of efficient solutions and capabilities to the evaluation committee.
The scope of work under the contract includes design and implementation of microsites for BPCLâs loyalty programs â SmartFleet & PetroBonus and other brands - Speed and In & Out. The engagement includes a period of 3 months for implementation of microsites and an additional three years of support and maintenance. Octaware Technology Limitedâs expertise in the areas of online portals & enterprise systems helped them win the contract.
Commenting on the development, Mr. Aslam Khan, Chief Executive Officer, Octaware Technologies Limited, said,âWe are extremely delighted to have won the prestigious contract from BPCL, our first major win in the Indian PSU sector, post our IPO in April 2017. The fact that it falls under one of Octawareâs key focus verticals of governance, demonstrates our consistent and steady inroads in the Indian market, surpassing some of the strong players in the region. We look forward to a long-term business association with BPCLâ.
About Octaware Technologies Limited:
Incorporated in 2005, Octaware Technologies Ltd is a software development company providing a range of information technology solutions. The company designs, develops, and maintains software systems and solutions. Company's services include custom software development, ECM/portal solution, ERP and CRM implementation, mobile platform solution, RFID solution, cloud and IT infrastructure services, consulting services and geospatial services.
Octaware provides specialized software application and product development services and solutions in the areas of healthcare, finance, and e-government industry. The company has proprietary products for domestic, as well as international markets, such as PowerERM â Human Capital Relationship Management, Hospice â Healthcare and Citizen Services solution, and iOnAsset â Inventory management and tracking System etc. These products are available as packaged products as well as software-as-a-service model integrated with legacy system.
Octaware Technologies Limited (BSE â 540416), got listed on the BSE âSME platform on April 3, 2017 and was oversubscribed by 148%, providing testimony to the faith, the investors have reposed in the company.
Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) partners with Mumbai Dabbawala Association (MDA)
~A culturally enriching and riveting morning hosted by Malaysian Palm Oil Council with the Dabbawalas of Mumbai~
by Shrutee K/DNS
Mumbai, August 8, 2017 : In April 2017 in conjunction with the visit to India of the Hon. Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato Sriâ Haji Mohammad Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak, Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) signed a MoU with Mumbai Dabbawala Association (MDA). Taking this MoU forward, on the morning of August 8th, MPOC and Mumbai Dabbawalas flagged off an event to create awareness for Malaysian Palm Oil and its benefits.
The event took place at the Lower Parel Bridge, where Dabbawalas wore the T-shirts and topis branded with MPOC message. They then delivered the dabbas carrying a booklet of recipes of dishes that can be cooked in palm oil and the benefits of using palm oil. The Dabbawalas are in a unique position to promote MPOC and raise awareness to the positive nutritional attributes of Malaysian Palm Oil. This becomes particularly useful in Indian cuisine as most dishes are cooked in oil. Substituting for a healthier oil can do no harm, besides besides providing the added bonus of eating delicious food cooked in a healthy oil that is nutritious for the body.
To kick off this event, Dr. Kalyana Sundaram, CEO of MPOC, was present, encouraging the use of palm oil and showing appreciation to our Dabbawalas for their exceptional work. The morning was most enjoyable, entertaining and culturally riveting as some of Maharashtraâs best dancers performed the traditional Lezim Dance, a true delight to have watched! For those unaware of the Lezim Dance, it is a Maharashtrian folk dance performed to the beat of the Dholki, a percussion instrument.
Speaking at the occasion, Dr. Kalyan Sundaram, CEO, MPOC, said, âIt gives me immense pleasure to be here this morning. Dabbawalas have been an integral part of this city and they define what Indians stand for: hardworking, responsible and efficient. They work relentlessly with a smile on their face, be it rain or storm. Malaysian Palm Oil has been a very important part of the Indian diet and with this unique initiative we wish to create awareness for this wonderful oil and its several health benefits. Our association with the Mumbai Dabbawalas allows us to spread the message of healthy cooking to a large number of households and encourages a healthier cooking lifestyleâ
Mr. SubhashTalekar, Association Spokesperson of Mumbai Dabbawala Association said âWe Dabbawalas unfailingly deliver thousands of dabbas to hungry people daily, they are undoubtedly the best people to directly reach out to households and create awareness about palm oil and the health benefits of using it. This is a very exciting new chapter, and we are glad to be partnering with MPOC.â
India is the worldâs largest importer of cooking oils. Palm oil constitutes about two-thirds of Indiaâs steadily increasing vegetable oil import. The price, in comparison to competing oils and the proximity of origin, Malaysia, has made Malayisan Palm Oil a highly preferred oil. Now the Dabawallas have taken it upon themselves, with the help of MPOC, to inform families about the benefits of palm oil and how exquisite food can be cooked in palm oil in alternative to other vegetable oils.
Amongst some of the benefits we came to learn about during the event was that palm oil is rich in natural chemical compounds essential for health and nutrition. It has a rich source of carotenoids that are rich in Vitamin A, a potent natural antioxidant, Vitamins D, E, K, fatty acids, and other important fat-soluble micronutrients that boost the human immune system. The health benefits from using palm oil are tremendous - it reduces chances of Cancer, protects against heart diseases, type 2 diabetes, and helps children with Vitamin A deficiency.
The oil is great for cooking; it is of vegetable origin, making it free of cholesterol and apt for vegetarians, vegans, and Jains. Furthermore, the oil has a neutral flavor - you neednât worry about changing tastes, it does not oxidize easily â making it perfect for frying food, and produces less gummy materials and helps in the cooking area maintaining a non-greasy surface; so, most bakers prefer to use a palm-based margarine for baking goods.
With people now more conscious about their health and food habits, palm oil is definitely the healthier choice to make whilst cooking and a step towards healthier bodies and practices. What better way to create awareness than directly reaching out to the households through our Dabbawalas.
Note to Editors:
MPOC is a Council under the Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities of Malaysia. Its role is to promote the market expansion of Malaysian palm oil and its products by enhancing the image of palm oil and creating better acceptance of palm oil through awareness of various technological and economic advantages (techno-economic advantages) and environmental sustainability.
The Council has set up a network of ten offices all over the world, mainly in China (Shanghai), India (Mumbai), Pakistan (Lahore), Bangladesh (Dhaka), Middle East (Istanbul and Cairo), Europe (Brussels and Russia), Africa (Durban) and Americas (Washington DC) to support, promote and venture into new areas for the industry.
The plantation industry, particularly palm oil, is one of the main pillars of the Malaysian economy. The palm oil sector has contributed significantly towards providing a continuous inflow of export earnings through the export of raw commodity and valued-added products to the global market. In 2016, palm oil contributed USD 9 billion in export earnings for Malaysia and accounted for 33% of the worldâs palm oil production and 39% of total palm oil exports.
Hyderabad, 4th August 2017: SSB Group is a leading structural galvanizing company which is in a retail sector mall in Hyderabad.
The SSB World Shopping Mall has come up with a two brand âAlpineâ- the supermarket and âCasabeneâ- the furniture mall. Casabene has its branches in Kolkata, Hyderabad and is now launching 2 more new branches in Hyderabad.
The company has diversified into retailing. The 3rd retailing space at Chakripuram is 7000 sq. ft which has a combination of Alpine Super Market & Casabene Furnitures. The 4th retailing space at North Kamalanager ECIL is 2000 sq. ft which also has a combination of Alpine Super Market & Casabene Furnitures.
The retail industry is very competitive; in order to give extra mileage SSB is having its own manufacturing facilities. They believe in delivering excellent quality products with customer satisfaction. The Chief Guest for the event will be honourableSmt. Pajjuri Pavani Manipal Reddy (Corporator) for A S Rao Nagar Division, SSB Directors - Y Sharath Babu & Ajay Kumar Singh and Chairman - Ramakanth Singh. Mr Ajay Kumar Singh & Mr Sarath Babu - Directors, of SSB believes in giving good lifestyle supplies at competitive prices.
USP: Exclusively designed/Concept selling/Manufacturing Quality Products/Craftsman and Finishing/Free interior advice/Large collection under one roof
The business plan is to diversify and open 10 Branches of Alpine Super Market & Casabene Furniture in the twin cities.
About SSB: SSB is a Turkey service provider, established in August 2013, SSB Structural and Galvanizing Pvt Ltd is an enterprise by two pragmatic visionaries. As an emerging sector, it is present in telecom, power, heavy and general fabrication and infrastructure. It was able to export structural material in the second year of inception. The company has a turnover of 50 crores and it will have 100 crores of turn over year.
'Leading Wisely is a podcast series by Ricardo Semler about the search for wisdom in organizations. In discussions with business leaders such as Zappos' Tony Hsieh, Basecamp's Jason Friedman and David Heinemeier Hansson and with other experts on the topic such as Frederic Laloux, he challenges assumptions and explores how we can change the way we live and work.
'In France, almost every couple of days a company or public sector organization is entering corporate liberation. How about US? Here is one more example on how a companyâs leader decided to liberate his company.
Ricardo Semlerâs book served as an inspiration. Add to that a deep conviction and a lot of common sense.'
'I, too, have a pet little evil, to which in more passionate moments I am apt to attribute all the others. This evil is the neglect of thinking. And when I say thinking I mean real thinking, independent thinking, hard thinking.'
'..the amount of leverage and excess that has accumulated in bond and Credit markets over the past eight years of extreme monetary stimulus.'
'The Fed is not blind. They monitor stock prices and corporate debt issuance; they see residential and commercial real estate market values. Years of ultra-low rates have inflated Bubbles throughout commercial real estate â anything providing a yield â in excess of those going into 2008. Upper-end residential prices are significantly stretched across the country, also surpassing 2007. They see Silicon Valley and a Tech Bubble 2.0, with myriad excesses that in many respects put 1999 to shame. Iâll assume that the Fed is concerned with the amount of leverage and excess that has accumulated in bond and Credit markets over the past eight years of extreme monetary stimulus.
The Fed collapsed fed funds from 6.50% in December 2000 to an extraordinarily low 1.75% by the end of 2001. In the face of an escalating corporate debt crisis, the Fed took the unusual step of cutting rates another 50 bps in November 2002. Alarmingly, corporate Credit was failing to respond to traditional monetary policy measures (despite being aggressively applied). Ford in particular faced severe funding issues, though the entire corporate debt market was confronting liquidity issues. Recall that the S&P500 dropped 23.4% in 2002. The small caps lost 21.6%. The Nasdaq 100 (NDX) sank 37.6%, falling to 795 (having collapsed from a March 2000 high of 4,816). No financial instability?
I revisit history in an attempt at distinguishing reality from misperceptions. Of course the Fed will generally dismiss the consequences of Bubbles. Theyâre not going to aggressively embark on reflationary policies while espousing the dangers of asset price and speculative Bubbles. Instead, they have painted the âhousing Bubbleâ as some egregious debt mountain aberration. And paraphrasing Kashkari, since todayâs stock market has nowhere as much debt as housing had in 2007, thereâs little to worry about from a crisis and financial instability perspective.
Well, if only that were the case. Debt is a critical issue, and thereâs a whole lot more of it than back in 2008. Yet when it comes to fragility and financial crises, market misperceptions and distortions play fundamental roles. And thereâs a reason why each bursting Bubble and resulting policy-induced reflation ensures a more precarious Bubble: Not only does the amount of debt continue to inflate, each increasingly intrusive policy response elicits a greater distorting impact on market perceptions.
I doubt Fed governor Bernanke actually anticipated that the Fed would have to resort to âhelicopter moneyâ and the âgovernment printing pressâ when he introduced such extreme measures in his 2002 speeches. Yet seeing that the Fed was willing to push its monetary experiment in such a radical direction played a momentous role in reversing the 2002 corporate debt crisis, in the process stoking the fledgling mortgage finance Bubble. And the Bernanke Fed surely thought at the time that doubling its balance sheet during the 2008/09 crisis was a one-time response to a once-in-a-lifetime financial dislocation. Iâll assume they were sincere with their 2011 âexit strategy,â yet only a few short years later theyâd again double the size of their holdings.
Despite assertions to the contrary, the bursting of the âtechâ Bubble unleashed significant financial instability. To orchestrate reflation, the Fed marshaled a major rate collapse, which worked to stoke already robust mortgage Credit growth. The collapse in telecom debt, an unwind of market-based speculative leverage and the rapid slowdown in corporate borrowings was over time more than offset by a rapid expansion in housing debt and the enormous growth in mortgage-related speculative leverage (MBS, ABS, derivatives).
Iâve never felt comfortable that Chinese authorities appreciate the types of risks that have been mounting beneath the surface of their massively expanding Credit system. Global markets seemed attentive a year ago, but have since been swept away by the notion of the all-powerful âChina putâ conjoining with the steadfast âFed put.â These types of market perceptions create tremendous inherent fragility.'
'Itâs now an all-too-familiar Bubble Dynamic. The greater the Bubble inflates, the more impervious it becomes to cautious âtighteningâ measures..'
'The problem today is that years of ultra-loose monetary conditions have ensured everyone is crowded on the same bullish side of the boat. Tipping the vessel at this point will be chaotic, and the Fed clearly doesnât want to be the instigator. Meanwhile, timid little baby-step increases only ensure more problematic market Bubbles and general financial excess.
Itâs now an all-too-familiar Bubble Dynamic. The greater the Bubble inflates, the more impervious it becomes to cautious âtighteningâ measures. And the longer the accommodative backdrop fuels only more precarious Bubble Dynamics, the more certain it becomes that central bankers will approach monetary tightening timidly. Yellen confirmed to the markets Wednesday that the Fed would remain timid â still focused on some theoretical âneutral rateâ and seemingly oblivious to conspicuous financial market excess. The fixation remains on consumer prices that are running just a tad under its 2% target. Meanwhile, runaway securities market inflation is completely disregarded.'
'..In terms of Credit Bubble momentum, itâs notable that Net Worth inflated over $2.0 TN in both Q3 and Q4.'
'The unprecedented amount of system-wide debt is so enormous that the annual percentage gains no longer appear as alarming. Non-Financial Debt expanded 4.7% in 2016, up from 2015âs 4.4%. Total Household Debt expanded 3.6%, with Total Business borrowings up 5.6%. Financial Sector borrowings expanded 2.9% last year, the strongest expansion since 2008.
Securities markets remain the centerpiece of this long reflationary cycle. Total (debt and equities) Securities jumped $1.50 TN during Q4 to a record $80.344 TN, with a one-year rise of $4.80 TN. As a percentage of GDP, Total Securities increased to 426% from the year ago 415%. For comparison, Total Securities peaked at $55.3 TN during Q3 2007, or 379% of GDP. At the previous Q1 2000 cycle peak, Total Securities had reached $36.0 TN, or 359% of GDP.
The Household Balance Sheet also rather conspicuously illuminates Bubble Dynamics. Household Assets surged $6.0 TN during 2016 to a record $107.91 TN ($9.74 TN 2-yr gain). This compares to the peak Q3 2007 level of $81.9 TN and $70.0 TN to end 2008. Q4 alone saw Household Assets inflate $2.192 TN, with Financial Assets up $1.589 TN and real estate gaining $557bn.
With Household Liabilities increasing $473bn over the past year, Household Net Worth (assets minus liabilities) inflated a notable $5.518 TN in 2016 to a record $92.805 TN. As a percentage of GDP, Net Worth rose to a record 492%. For comparison, Household Net Worth-to-GDP ended 1999 at 435% ($43.1 TN) and 2007 at 453% ($66.5 TN). Net Worth fell to a cycle low 378% of GDP ($54.4TN) in Q1 2009. In terms of Credit Bubble momentum, itâs notable that Net Worth inflated over $2.0 TN in both Q3 and Q4.
UBS analysts forecast (above) $3.3 TN of 2017 Chinese Total Social Financing (TSF). And with TSF excluding national government deficit spending, letâs add another $300bn and presume 2017 Chinese system Credit growth of around $3.6 TN. As such, itâs possible that China and the U.S. could combine for Credit growth approaching an Unparalleled $6.0 TN. There are, as well, indications of an uptick in lending in the euro zone, and Credit conditions for the most part remain loose throughout EM. Importantly, the inflationary biases that have gained momentum in asset and securities markets and, increasingly, in consumer prices and corporate profits provide a tailwind for Credit expansion.'
Happy 13th birthday, Google Ad Grants! We launched Ad Grants 13 years ago to offer nonprofits a free online advertising solution to share their causes with the world.Â
Over the years, weâve learned a lot together about what it means to be a nonprofit in the digital age. And as the industry landscape has changed, weâve aimed to ensure that AdWords consistently helps to deliver your mission online.Â
Weâve celebrated the ability of groups to change the world â one day, one person, one place at a time. At the same time, weâve also come to understand the challenges of the nonprofit sector by both listening to your stories, as well as working directly alongside you. In doing so, we recognized that nonprofits struggle to find the time or resources to manage an AdWords account. So in 2015, we launched AdWords Express for Ad Grants as a part of Google for Nonprofits.
With nonprofitsâ limited time and resources in mind, we created AdWords Express to be an automated advertising solution that serves the same effective ads on Google Search as standard AdWords. AdWords Express requires less ongoing maintenance than AdWords, while still delivering an exceptional experience for Ad Grantees.Â
With AdWords Express, your nonprofit can create an online ad quickly and easily, attracting more users to your website. Thereâs minimal ongoing management necessary, and AdWords Express runs and automatically optimizes your ads for you. Much like AdWords though, you can still reach customers on desktop computers and mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets), as well as review the effectiveness of your ads in your dashboard.Â
Sign up for Google Ad Grants here. For more information on AdWords Express, how to get started, and country availability, please visit our Ad Grants Help Center.Â
To see if your nonprofit is eligible to participate, review the Google for Nonprofits eligibility guidelines. Google for Nonprofits offers organizations like yours free access to Google tools like Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Drive, Google Ad Grants, YouTube for Nonprofits and more. These tools can help you reach new donors and volunteers, work more efficiently, and tell your nonprofitâs story. Learn more and enroll here.Â
AntropÃ³logo especializado en desarrollo rural, catedrÃ¡tico de la Universidad CatÃ³lica y miembro del Grupo Impulsor InversiÃ³n en la Infancia, Carlos E. AramburÃº analiza los compromisos del presidente electo, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, con una serie de objetivos a favor de la primera infancia y lo que deberÃa hacerse para mejorar las polÃticas sociales y para la infancia. Resalta la necesidad de un plan de desarrollo rural, sector en el que se concentran la mayor pobreza y los niveles mÃ¡s altos de anemia, desnutriciÃ³n y mortalidad infantil.
El ministro de Salud, AnÃbal VelÃ¡squez, estuvo presente en el lanzamiento de la movilizaciÃ³n nacional contra la desnutriciÃ³n y la anemia infantil convocada por el Grupo Impulsor InversiÃ³n en la Infancia, y comprometiÃ³ el respaldo de su ministerio a esta movilizaciÃ³n. Sobre esta convocatoria, el aporte de la sociedad civil en este tema y lo que estÃ¡ ocurriendo con la anemia y con la desnutriciÃ³n crÃ³nica infantil en el paÃs, responde en la siguiente entrevista el titular del sector Salud.
En la siguiente entrevista, Laureano Del Castillo, director ejecutivo del Centro Peruano de Estudios Sociales (CEPES), analiza las polÃticas del gobierno dirigidas al sector rural, a los pequeÃ±os productores agrarios, que constituyen la poblaciÃ³n de mayor pobreza en el paÃs y en la que se presentan los mayores problemas de desnutriciÃ³n y anemia infantil, o de falta de acceso a una educaciÃ³n de calidad, entre otros aspectos que afectan un adecuado desarrollo de los niÃ±os.
El imperialismo ecolÃ³gico es una realidad. Sin embargo, muchos partidos de izquierda al ser ecologistas estÃ¡n convencidos de que no es imperialismo. Ya Hayek denunciaba que existÃa una imposiciÃ³n de paÃses ricos y contaminados que obligaban a paÃses pobres y selvÃ¡ticos a generar amplias Ã¡reas protegidas. Esto genera como dice don Alpiniano en El Tomismo DesdeÃ±ado unos beneficios a unas personas que no les corresponden, imponiendo cargas a otros que no las merecen. Sin embargo, luego de que en estos paÃses -como Colombia- nadie puede hacer nada, ni tiene cÃ³mo adquirir recursos para explotar sus ventajas ahÃ sÃ llegan empresas extranjeras que, haciendo convenios con el gobierno, adquieren los beneficios que los nacionales no han tenido.
Hace Murray Rothbard, citado por el instituto Mises Hispano una distinciÃ³n importante entre la sana inversiÃ³n extranjera y la alianza de empresas ricas con gobiernos ineptos pobres:
"Los conservadores norteamericanos insisten en particular en resaltar ante los paÃses retrasados las grandes posibilidades y la importancia de las inversiones privadas procedentes de los paÃses avanzados, y les incitan a crear un clima favorable a las mismas, de modo que no se vean sujetas al instigamiento de los gobernantes. Todo ello es muy cierto, pero, una vez mÃ¡s, a menudo es irreal, dada la situaciÃ³n de estos paÃses. Estos conservadores caen persistentemente en el error de no saber distinguir entre las inversiones exteriores legÃtimas del mercado libre y las basadas en concesiones monopolistas y en donaciones de vastas extensiones de tierras otorgadas por los Estados subdesarrollados. En la medida en que las inversiones exteriores se basan en monopolios y en agresiones contra el campesinado, en esa misma medida adquiere el capitalismo extranjero las caracterÃsticas de los seÃ±ores feudales y debe ser combatido con los mismos medios"
En este sentido, estoy de acuerdo con el artÃculo -y en contra del imperialismo econÃ³mico- en que el estado confunde inversiÃ³n extranjera con monopolio extranjero. Y el monopolio es desagradable venga de donde venga, sea el monopolio estatal tan "nacional", como cualquier otro. Por eso, cuando Robledo, senador del Polo, defendÃa a los arroceros por la imposiciÃ³n ridÃcula de tener que comprar nuevas semillas estaba promoviendo algo anarcocapitalista y liberal, aunque con argumentos de izquierda.
"Una variable importante sobre la determinaciÃ³n del precio en el mercado no regulado que debiera incluirse en estudios futuros son las expectativas climatolÃ³gicas; en la medida en que se espere una disminuciÃ³n del recurso hÃdrico, generarÃ¡ expectativas de aumentos en el precio.". http://revistas.upb.edu.co/index.php/cienciasestrategicas/article/view/1093/1313
" La coherencia del resultado se corrobora en el mes de enero de 2014, donde se aprecia una caÃda grande en el precio producto de la entrada en operaciÃ³n de El Quimbo y Sogamoso, las cuales en conjunto aumentan la oferta de electricidad en 1220 MW" http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/1552/155226077004.pdf
El sistema de energÃa que nace con las leyes 142 y en concreto 143 de 1994 tiene muchas deficiencias. Aunque la L143/94 trataba de dar paso a un modelo mÃ¡s parecido al de un mercado, esa distinciÃ³n del mercado regulado del consumidor de energÃa hace que nos saquen un ojo de la cara porque sus precios estÃ¡n muy por encima de los de bolsa; aunque relativamente influidos por ellos como lo mostraba el profesor John Jairo GarcÃa. El modelo aunque avanza hacia tratar de liberar lo que considera de mercado y regular lo que considera "monopolio natural" se queda corto. Pero realmente si hay algo aburrido es la regulaciÃ³n del sistema de energÃa, como todas las regulaciones. Hablemos mÃ¡s bien de leyes bonitas, las del "fatum" o de la naturaleza... las humanas dan asco.
"Yet the Government is neglecting simple options to raise power supply - like reducing the high level of losses in transmission and distribution, which run at about 16% of power generation and amount to some 10,000 GWh per year - more than four times the energy production of El Quimbo."
Casi todas las citas salen de internet asÃ que si no refiero la fuente, estÃ¡ el link. Las formalidades APA o lo que sea me parecen demasiado engorrosas para escribir informalmente. Con el internet deberÃa bastar con el link. El Ãºnico libro que cito, con todas las normas mamonas para probar su existencia, es:
"Todos los grandes gobiernos de la tierra - los que hoy existen como los que han ido desapareciendo - han tenido el mismo carÃ¡cter. No pasan de simples bandas de ladrones que se han asociado con el fin de despojar, conquistar y someter a sus semejantes." (Tomado de SPOONER, Lysander. âEl derecho natural: la ciencia de la justiciaâ En Wikisource tomado dehttp://es.wikisource.org/wiki/El_derecho_natural:_la_ciencia_de_la_justicia 08/10/2009 02:39 p.m. CapÃtulo III. El derecho natural contra la legislaciÃ³n. Segunda parte del CapÃtulo.)
Contrario a los combos dueÃ±os de fronteras invisibles, restringiendo la entrada a dichas zonas, el estado se ha devanado el cerebro en generar justificaciones absurdas a su accionar y frente a los impuestos siempre estÃ¡ el trasfondo de la eficiencia. Â¿CÃ³mo recaudar mÃ¡s (para nada) sin desincentivar el trabajo de sus vÃctimas? El trasfondo de incentivar cierta actividad econÃ³mica o cierta acciÃ³n conveniente al estado provoca una serie de disposiciones tributarias. ConclusiÃ³n un complejo enmaraÃ±ado de disposiciones que generan una serie de costos operativos adicionales para la gestiÃ³n empresarial.
Ese enmaraÃ±ado sistema genera que en Colombia haya un exceso de tributaciÃ³n. Tanto como los griegos que le tenÃan altar al "dios desconocido" en Colombia puede llegar un momento en que nos toque pagar al "impuesto desconocido". A grandes rasgos los principales impuestos en Colombia son:
Impuesto sobre la renta y complementarios.
Impuesto sobre el valor agregado (IVA).
GravÃ¡men a los movimientos financieros (4 X 1000)
Impuesto de Industria y Comercio y Avisos y Tableros (Municipal).
Estos impuestos, en apariencia simples, plantean una serie de complicaciones operativas a las empresas que hacen prÃ¡cticamente que tenga una o dos personas de tiempo completo como mÃnimo resolviendo el problema de los impuestos. Es tal que muchos de los enredos provienen de presumir la mala fe del "contribuyente".
SE PRESUME LA MALA FE DEL CONTRIBUYENTE.
La verdad creo que este es un principio acertado de la tributaciÃ³n, Â¡NADIE QUIERE PAGAR IMPUESTOS! No creo que haya alguien que pague la declaraciÃ³n bimestral del IVA o el impuesto de renta con una satisfacciÃ³n y una sonrisa "Hoy contribuÃ al bien comÃºn" y pensando "Un compromiso tan lindo que no puedo evadir". Bueno quizÃ¡s Ned Flanders en un capÃtulo de los Simpson, capÃtulo donde se hace una crÃtica anarquista y capitalista bastante positiva... y donde obviamente se ve que los impuestos son un dolor de cabeza...AquÃ pueden verlo http://www.seriescoco.com/capitulo/los-simpsons/capitulo-20/40521
ARTICULO 402. OMISION DEL AGENTE RETENEDOR O RECAUDADOR. <Ver Notas del Editor> <Penas aumentadas por el artÃculo 14 de la Ley 890 de 2004, a partir del 1o. de enero de 2005. El texto con las penas aumentadas es el siguiente:>
En la misma sanciÃ³n incurrirÃ¡ el responsable del impuesto sobre las ventas que, teniendo la obligaciÃ³n legal de hacerlo, no consigne las sumas recaudadas por dicho concepto, dentro de los dos (2) meses siguientes a la fecha fijada por el Gobierno Nacional para la presentaciÃ³n y pago de la respectiva declaraciÃ³n del impuesto sobre las ventas.
TratÃ¡ndose de sociedades u otras entidades, quedan sometidas a esas mismas sanciones las personas naturales encargadas en cada entidad del cumplimiento de dichas obligaciones.
Ante esa circunstancia cualquiera que inicie una nueva persona jurÃdica o quiera "cumplir alegremente con los aportes a la nÃ³mina de los congresistas" queda mÃ¡gicamente obligado a retener y de no retener el estado te cobrarÃ¡ con la cÃ¡rcel.
Si uno mira el artÃculo 437 del Estatuto Tributario la regla general consiste en que el Impuesto Sobre las Ventas se causa en cualquiera de los dos primeros casos:
Al momento de la facturaciÃ³n o abono en cuenta (causaciÃ³n).
Si la facturaciÃ³n se da primero, en el caso del impuesto sobre las ventas, ya la empresa que cobra el IVA tendrÃ¡ una deuda en dinero que tendrÃ¡ que pagar en la declaraciÃ³n siguiente, asÃ el deudor se demore en pagar la factura.
Lo mismo sucede en el caso de la retenciÃ³n en la fuente, la regla general es la misma, se retiene o al momento del pago o al de la causaciÃ³n (abono en cuenta). Para eso puede observarse el artÃculo 392 del Estatuto Tributario que consagra exactamente la misma idea de la causaciÃ³n. Adicionalmente, esto ha sido reiterado en conceptos de la DIAN Â¿cuÃ¡ndo se ocasiona la retenciÃ³n?:
"Momento de causaciÃ³n de la retenciÃ³n en la fuente Tal como lo establecen las disposiciones del Estatuto Tributario y lo ha precisado la doctrina de la DIAN (Conceptos No 008054 y No 095988 de 1998, entre otros), la retenciÃ³n en la fuente a tÃtulo del impuesto sobre la renta debe efectuarse, por regla general, en el momento del pago o abono en cuenta, lo que ocurra primero. Se entiende por "pago" la extinciÃ³n total o parcial de una obligaciÃ³n mediante la prestaciÃ³n de lo que se debe y por "abono en cuenta" el reconocimiento contable de una obligaciÃ³n independientemente de su cancelaciÃ³n o pago." (Concepto 003580. 12 de Enero de 2006. DIAN. En http://actualicese.com/normatividad/2006/Conceptos/Enero/003580-06.htm Consulta 17/4/2012)
Esto se puede resaltar en cualquier portal de informaciÃ³n contable:
Causar una obligaciÃ³n a su favor no implica tener esa obligaciÃ³n en efectivo. De hecho, tenerla causada significa precisamente que no se ha utilizado un bien lÃquido llamado dinero que la cancele. El poder liberatorio del dinero implica eso, la capacidad de cancelar las obligaciones causadas.
Pero Â¿cÃ³mo si no se ha cancelado la obligaciÃ³n mÃ¡gicamente el contribuyente va a tener dinero para pagar la declaraciÃ³n? Esta tesis de la causaciÃ³n desconoce la realidad de los negocios en Colombia, donde la puntualidad en el cobro es rÃ¡pida (o sea se factura rÃ¡pido) pero el pago es lento. AsÃ las instituciones tienen el reto de enfrentar una "cartera" morosa de obligaciones "causadas" que generan IVA. Sin embargo, mientras el deudor se demora en cumplir, no puede quien cobra el IVA sustraerse de su obligaciÃ³n de pagar con dinero que no ha entrado en su flujo de caja.
CONCLUSIÃN. Sin perjuicio que lo mejor es que no existieran impuestos pues no tienen causa, las complicaciones del mismo aumentan tanto los costos de transacciÃ³n empresarial que hacen mÃ¡s ineficiente la actividad econÃ³mica como consecuencia de ello. Una de las cosas mÃ¡s ineficientes es la forma en la que afectan el flujo de caja empresarial en especial en lo que se refiere al IVA y a la retenciÃ³n en la fuente. El dinero, como el agua o el aire, fluye de una forma natural de acuerdo al trÃ¡fico de los negocios humanos. Estas formas tributarias lo que hacen es desconocer la forma como circula el dinero en la sociedad para aumentar su calidad tributaria, generando un aumento innecesario en los costos de generaciÃ³n de flujo de caja en las empresas.
No me gusta la palabra conclusiÃ³n pero sino la sociedad no entiende. Lo que quisiera es seguir criticando el sistema tributario a ver si algÃºn dÃa desaparece. MÃ¡s aÃºn esto lo que deberÃa es oxigenar de alguna manera el debate de la reforma tributaria que propone el gobierno de "Prosperidad democrÃ¡tica". Un mÃnimo serÃa que desaparecieran todas esas ideas absurdas de retenciÃ³n en la fuente que cargan al "contribuyente" con obligaciones ridÃculas por las que no recibe nada a cambio.
Pero Â¿cuÃ¡les son las consecuencias de hacer billetes? Prendamos la maquinita y experimentemos. Las consecuencias anticipo son dos, la primera se llama inflaciÃ³n, la segunda se llama hurto mediante la mutaciÃ³n de la moneda.
"La falta de dinero en un lugar determinado hace que el precio de los demÃ¡s bienes descienda, y la abundancia de dinero hace que el precio suba. Cuanto menor es la cantidad de dinero en un sitio, mÃ¡s aumenta su valor y, por tanto, âcaeteris paribusâ, con la misma cantidad de dinero se pueden comprar mÃ¡s cosasâ. (DE SOTO, 1968, pÃ¡g. 543).
Es que como decÃamos en Â¿POR QUÃ SURGE EL DINERO? el dinero vale en la medida en que puede cambiarse por otra cosa, ademÃ¡s que la compra es el fin de la venta como veÃamos en Domingo de Soto citado por GarcÃa MuÃ±oz. El ejemplo de una persona en una isla con un millÃ³n de dÃ³lares desierta que no puede cambiar por nada muestran como ese dinero no vale nada. Â¿Un millÃ³n de dÃ³lares no valen nada? SÃ, en una isla desierta sin poderlos cambiar por nada.
Si hay 100 unidades de cambio por 100 bienes y servicio y el estado produce 60 para "aumentar la demanda agregada" ahora por cada unidad de bienes ya no habrÃ¡ 1 unidad de cambio, sino que se requerirÃ¡ 1,6 unidades de cambio para adquirir un bien. Pero que implica eso, que si las unidades de cambio pertenecÃan al 100% antes de la emisiÃ³n de dinero, ahora tenemos que el estado serÃ¡ dueÃ±o del 37,5% de las unidades de cambio y los particulares del 62,5%. Lo que palabras mÃ¡s palabras menos significa un robo muy sofisticado...: la mutaciÃ³n de la moneda. (TORO RESTREPO, 2010)
Sin embargo, una mejor explicaciÃ³n al respecto puede encontrarse en (GARCÃA-MUÃOZ, 2001, pÃ¡g. 151 a 155). AdemÃ¡s, las denuncias sobre estos temas ya se hicieron por los escolÃ¡sticos espaÃ±oles, en especial Juan de Mariana en su libro sobre la mutaciÃ³n de la moneda que he buscado pero no lo encuentro. En todo caso sÃ encuentro la descripciÃ³n del libro en uno de los artÃculos del excelente Instituto espaÃ±ol que lleva su nombre. Este libro:
"comienza en sus dos primeros capÃtulos explicando con firmeza que âel Rey no es dueÃ±o de los bienes particulares de sus vasallosâ, por lo que, lÃ³gicamente, conforme a derecho y justicia, debe âtomar el beneplÃ¡cito del pueblo para imponer en el reino nuevos tributos y pechosâ. En seguida derivarÃ¡ su argumento hacia lo que constituyÃ³ el objetivo de ese librito: criticar la alteraciÃ³n monetaria que practicaba el gobierno de Felipe III por ser causa directa de subida de los precios; juzgando inmediatamente (con enorme perspicacia) que tal inflaciÃ³n era injusta por ser un impuesto oculto, no votado en las Cortes." (GÃMEZ RIVILLAS, 2010)
La cartera del sector financiero llegÃ³ a 177 billones de pesos en junio de 2011, habiendo crecido 11.5% frente a diciembre de 2010. En ese mismo periodo la cartera de consumo creciÃ³ 14.7% y alcanzÃ³ los 52.2 billones de pesos, un 29.5% de la cartera total (un aÃ±o atrÃ¡s representaba el 28.7%). En todo 2010 el monto de deuda en consumo aumentÃ³ 6.4 billones, y en los primeros seis meses de 2011 aumentÃ³ en 6.7 billones de pesos. Los datos mencionados contrastan con el hecho de que la cartera de vivienda a junio de 2011 creciÃ³ 11% desde diciembre de 2010, con lo que representa el 11.3%de la cartera total (similar a los Ãºltimos tres aÃ±os), y el monto de deuda en vivienda aumentÃ³ 2 billones de pesos en el primer semestre del presente aÃ±o.
Existen varias alertas por el endeudamiento de los hogares. Una de ellas hace menciÃ³n a cuÃ¡nto mÃ¡s pueden endeudarse los colombianos sin comprometer su capacidad de pago. (BANCOLOMBIA INVESTIGACIONES ECONÃMICAS, 2011)
La confusiÃ³n que la riqueza proviene del dinero nos genera tanto el robo estatal como el deseo desenfrenado de consumir mÃ¡s de lo que podemos ofrecer. El dinero no es la felicidad, la compra hecha dice una frase, pero tampoco serÃ¡ felicidad si ese dinero no lo hemos conseguido a cambio de algo, a futuro serÃ¡ infelicidad. La falsedad de la idea de que el dinero es la riqueza radica en la confusiÃ³n -originada en Adam Smith- que considera que el origen de los intercambios proviene de la demanda y no de la oferta (GARCÃA MUÃOZ, Derecho y EconomÃa segÃºn TomÃ¡s de Aquino, Tesis Doctoral, 2011, pÃ¡g. 34). Y es que, claramente, el dinero estÃ¡ del lado de la demanda, no de la oferta. Â¿SerÃ¡ entonces que tenemos que mirar la oferta? Â¿SerÃ¡ que es en la oferta donde podremos conocer la naturaleza del dinero? Â¿SerÃ¡ que la riqueza proviene de la oferta?
NiÃ±o Tarazona, D. I. (11 de Noviembre de 2011). BANCOLOMBIA INVESTIGACIONES ECONÃMICAS. EDITORIAL SEMANAL: EL GASTO Y EL ENDEUDAMIENTO EN LOS HOGARES COLOMBIANOS . Colombia: Investigaciones EconÃ³micas Bancolombia.
Los seres humanos nos preocupamos tanto por las grandes obras, que las pequeÃ±as acaban destruyendo la posibilidad de llegar a la grandeza. Es una paradoja, pero una paradoja con fuertes fundamentos fÃ¡cticos que denotan cÃ³mo descuidar lo poco, es el mÃ¡s grande de nuestros errores. El presente ensayo partirÃ¡ de una reflexiÃ³n metafÃsica pasando por una econÃ³mica, pero la intenciÃ³n serÃ¡ trascender hasta, si es posible, una reflexiÃ³n mÃstica. Partiremos de ser centaveros, con imagen de ambiciosos, para llegar a la gloria infinita... simplemente por el valor de lo pequeÃ±o.
Una breve contemplaciÃ³n matemÃ¡tica.
Nubes fractales. El fractal denota la potencia de esta paradoja, la parte se ve en el todo y el todo en la parte.
"De hecho los pobres saben mÃ¡s de finanzas que los ricos. Un rico no sabe cuÃ¡nto vale un peso porque ese es su dÃa a dÃa, pero una persona pobre sabe verdaderamente cuÃ¡l es el costo del dinero, el sudor que se requiere para ganar $18.000 (10 Us$ aprox) [Cfr ElAlispruz. En 2010 si se quiere profundizar en el costo del trabajo]. Esto es tan cierto que los modelos financieros exitosos surgieron precisamente de un elevado valor del dinero. Adicionalmente es la razÃ³n por la cuÃ¡l los modelos tecnocrÃ¡ticos e intervencionistas fracasan. (TORO RESTREPO, 2011)"
Hay algunos personajes que trabajan en la ONU que para discutir el problema del hambre en el mundo llegan llenitos luego de haber pagado los mejores hoteles 5 estrellas en New York. La comida debe ser de la mejor calidad y costosa. Ante esa situaciÃ³n cuando empiezan a discutir el tema con barrigas llenas, observan el problema y ven cÃ³mo comer un poquito menos serÃa bastante costoso y para no sufrir el dolor de ver la pobreza que su despilfarro ocasiona proponen matar a los pobres. Efectivamente, la soluciÃ³n es fÃ¡cil: "seguimos comiendo igual y despilfarrando igual mientras matamos a aquellos que no pueden despilfarrar como nosotros.".
Sin embargo, el problema del hambre no es de "exceso de poblaciÃ³n" sino de "desperdicio de comida". Cualquiera dirÃ¡ que lo hago porque soy pro-vida o porque no creo que el calentamiento global sea ocasionado por el ser humano o como mÃnimo por la poblaciÃ³n. Somos 7.000 millones de personas, pero resulta que el nÃºmero de hormigas ocupa la misma biomasa (o sea pesando TODAS las hormigas de la tierra pesan lo mismo que TODOS los seres humanos) (Chadwick & Moffet, 2011, pÃ¡g. 86). La fuente del peso de las hormigas, como puede observarse, es la revista National Geographic de mayo de 2011, fuente cientÃfica acreditada a nivel mundial.
"3. Reducir el desperdicio. Aproximadamente la mitad de las cosechas mundiales desaparecen 'entre el campo y el plato', dice Stockholm International Water Institute. El desperdicio, la desviaciÃ³n para fabricar alimentos para animales y el comportamiento del consumidor son factores que llevan a esto.". (TOMANIO, KLEBER, CASSIDY, WELLS, & BUZBY, 2011)
Â¿CuÃ¡nto pesa un gramo de arroz? De acuerdo con una fuente no tan fiable como Yahoo Answers pero en algo creÃble, dice que un grano de arroz pesa 1.16 mg. Si cada persona del mundo desperdicia un grano de arroz, algo insignificante, el desperdicio acumulado serÃa de 8.12 toneladas. No soy nutricionista pero eso beneficiarÃa la dieta de miles de personas. El punto es Â¿cuÃ¡ntos granos de arroz promedio desperdicia cada persona al dÃa?
Pero hagamos el esquema matemÃ¡tico de lo que pedÃa el inventor del ajedrez:
Si organizamos la propuesta en una serie encontraremos que sigue la siguiente secuencia:
Concluyendo que la serie es 1+2^1+...+2^(n-1) por lo tanto por la Ãºltima casilla recibirÃ¡ 2^63 granos.
PlantaciÃ³n de trigo. No es la foto mÃ¡s hermosa pero se observa el efecto infinito.
El caso es que sinteticemos la conclusiÃ³n. Luego de un largo periodo de demora en el conteo de todos los matemÃ¡ticos del rey veamos lo que pasÃ³:
"-Antes de comenzar tu informe [dice el rey], quiero saber si se ha entregado por fin (...) la mÃsera recompensa que ha solicitado.
- Precisamente por eso me he atrevido a presentarme tan temprano -contestÃ³ el anciano [uno de los sabios del rey]. Hemos calculado escrupulosamente la cantidad total de granos que desea recibir... resulta una cifra tan enorme.
-Sea cual fuere la cifra -le interrumpiÃ³ con altivez el rey- mis graneros no empobrecerÃ¡n. He prometido darle esa recompensa, y por lo tanto, hay que entregÃ¡rsela.
El rey escuchaba lleno de asombro las palabras del anciano sabio.
-Dime cuÃ¡l es esa cifra tan monstruosa -dime reflexionando.
-Â¡Oh soberano! Dieciocho trillones cuatrocientos cuarenta y seis mil setecientos cuarenta y cuatro billones setenta y tres mil setecientos nueve millones quinientos cincuenta y un mil seiscientos quince." (PERELMAN, 2002, pÃ¡g. 55)
JesÃºs es el ejemplo de esto. La multiplicaciÃ³n de los panes y los peces muestra cÃ³mo de unos pocos panes y peces se alimenta a una muchedumbre y lo que sobra se recoge. Aunque evidentemente es un milagro, no es lo milagroso lo que interesa, sino lo mucho que sale de lo poco su sentido o significado me parece mÃ¡s sorprendente, de la inmensa cantidad de lo poco, el infinito no es nada sin la unidad. Muchos son los ejemplos como el grano de mostaza (aunque lo discuten algunos tecnicistas pero al fin y al cabo de muchas semillas pequeÃ±as salen cosas grandes). Todo el mensaje cristiano estÃ¡ en esa paradoja, un Dios que nace en lo poco pero que trae la mÃ¡s grande de las riquezas..., la salvaciÃ³n. hay que leer a Chesterton para mirar ese sentido cristiano como paradoja.
En la parÃ¡bola de los talentos JesÃºs muestra cÃ³mo se confÃan ciertos bienes a unos trabajadores y aquÃ sale la frase bÃblica que resume el mensaje aquÃ contenido:
El guayacÃ¡n y sus flores. Un Ã¡rbol que da tributo al cielo y cae humildemente a la tierra para que persista el ciclo de la belleza
Chadwick, D. H., & Moffet, M. W. (Mayo de 2011). HERMANDAD DE TEJEDORAS. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC (En EspaÃ±ol) , 82-95.
DANE - DEPARTAMENTO ADMINISTRATIVO NACIONAL DE ESTADÃSTICA. (25 de Noviembre de 2011). 'Producto Interno Bruto Departamental, a precios corrientes. '2000 - 2010pr. Miles de millones de pesos. Recuperado el 20 de Diciembre de 2011, de DANE: http://www.dane.gov.co/files/investigaciones/pib/departamentales/B_2005/PIB_Total_habitante_2010.xls
Holmes, N. (Mayo de 2011). PoblaciÃ³n. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC (En EspaÃ±ol) .
PAPPAS, T. (1996). LA MAGIA DE LA MATEMÃTICA. El orden oculto tras la naturaleza y el arte. (M. Rosenberg, Trad.) Madrid, EspaÃ±a: Zugarto Ediciones S.A.
RECAMÃN SANTOS, B. (2007). LOS NÃMEROS, UNA HISTORIA PARA CONTAR. BOGOTÃ D.C, Colombia: Taurus.
TOMANIO, J., KLEBER, J., CASSIDY, M., WELLS, H., & BUZBY, J. (Julio de 2011). CÃ³mo alimentar un planeta creciente. National Geographic , SecciÃ³n Hoy (Inpaginado).
TORO RESTREPO, D. (16 de Febrero de 2011). FINANZAS Y CUESTIÃN SOCIAL. REFLEXIONES SOBRE EL SISTEMA FINANCIERO. Recuperado el 20 de Diciembre de 2011, de EL ALISPRUZ: http://elalispruz.blogspot.com/2011/02/finanzas-y-cuestion-social-reflexiones.html
â¢ Cuida lo que comes. Todo lo que ingresa en tu organismo podrÃ¡ afectarte sino lo consumes con cuidado. Es decir, todo en exceso es perjudicial y en la comida no podÃa ser la excepciÃ³n. Una alimentaciÃ³n sana y equilibrada te permitirÃ¡ lucir una piel mÃ¡s saludable y radiante, fortalecerÃ¡ tu cabello y, ademÃ¡s, te ayudarÃ¡ a mantener un peso estable.
Sin embargo, el cuidado de la piel va mucho mÃ¡s allÃ¡. Elena del Mar, como un spa en el norte de BogotÃ¡, responde diferentes preguntas que pueden surgir entorno a los cuidados de la piel y el rostro. No dejes de leer porque sabemos que deseas lucir radiante y con gran vitalidad.
1 - Al salir a la calle, Â¿es suficiente la crema humectante para proteger la piel o es necesario aplicar algo mÃ¡s? No es suficiente la sola crema humectante. Debido al potencial daÃ±o que ocasionan los rayos UV sobre tu piel, es imprescindible que uses protector solar diariamente con un factor de protecciÃ³n por lo menos de 30.
6 - Â¿CÃ³mo se pueden mantener los niveles del pH estables? El pH de la piel estÃ¡ determinado y regulado de manera natural y, por ende, varia levemente en determinadas zonas de la misma; para mantenerlo estable es necesario seguir una dieta saludable y equilibrada ademÃ¡s de controlar las sustancias que aplicas en la piel, por ejemplo, podrÃas usar jabones con pH neutro.
Las grandes y reconocidas celebridades que ves en el cine, la televisiÃ³n y el deporte internacional no son, por naturaleza, imponentes y de tez impecable. Ellos tienen sus secretos para lucir jÃ³venes y radiantes y hoy te damos a conocer esos secretos para que los pongan en prÃ¡ctica y te cuides como ellos lo estÃ¡n haciendo.
Con nosotros encontrarÃ¡s establecimientos y spas en el centro de BogotÃ¡ u otros sectores de la ciudad para que tomes decisiones guiÃ¡ndote en expertos que apoyan tus intenciones y respaldan lo que deseas transmitir. En Elena del Mar llevamos mÃ¡s de 52 aÃ±os promoviendo un estilo de vida orientado al bienestar y la armonÃa del cuerpo.
Entre las estrellas se encuentran Cristiano Ronaldo, William Levy, Huge Jackman, Adam Levine, Zac Efron, Ryan Gosling, Rayan Reynolds y William Smith, son algunos de los que mantienen hÃ¡bitos que los ayudan a lucir siempre saludable y radiantes, es que parece que entre mÃ¡s pasan los aÃ±os mejor les queda el tiempo. Sigue sus pasos e irradia vitalidadâ¦
â¢ Ellos cuidan su cabello, invierten en champÃºs y cremas nutritivas para tenerlo bien cuidado. Procuran mantenerlo limpio y libre de quÃmicos. Es asÃ como logran transmitir esa naturalidad y pureza que merece el cabello.
â¢ Llevan una rutina de ejercicio juiciosa y constante donde integran trabajo de peso, fuerza y cardio para mantener el equilibrio. Hoy es posible que lo lleves a la prÃ¡ctica en los gimnasios en BogotÃ¡ de Elena del Mar, nuestro equipo de profesionales te guiarÃ¡ y estructurarÃ¡ la perfecta rutina para tu caso en especÃfico.
â¢ Mantienen su piel hidratada con mezclas con preparaciones caseras como la miel de abejas ya que estÃ¡ preparaciÃ³n ayuda a humectarla y la lleva a lucir fresca y revitalizada. AdemÃ¡s, no piensan dos veces en disfrutar de planes econÃ³micos de gimnasios en BogotÃ¡ porque saben que un equilibrio con el ejercicio es indispensable para lucir saludables y para que la piel se renueve constantemente.
- Abdomen Plano. Por medio de 8 masajes y 8 corrientes brindamos la manera mÃ¡s oportuna para que tu mamÃ¡ cuente con especiales sesiones que le ayudarÃ¡n a moldear su cuerpo y alcanzar esa Figura Total que tanto estÃ¡ deseando. Tu mamÃ¡ merece consentirse y este es el momento indicado. Adquiere la promociÃ³n aquÃ.
- 6 meses de gimnasio en sede Norte. Esta promociÃ³n estÃ¡ de ensueÃ±o, a solo $299.900 le asegurarÃ¡s a mamÃ¡ un semestre en nuestro centro mÃ¡s exclusivo ademÃ¡s de sesiones de Bodyterm, lipolÃ¡ser, masajes, drenaje y mascarillas. No solo le dirÃ¡s cuÃ¡nto la amas sino que le transmitirÃ¡s las ganas que tienes de verla radiante y muy feliz.
- Bono 2x1. Tu mamÃ¡ merece ser consentida y es la ocasiÃ³n perfecta para llevarlo a cabo y hacerla sentir especial. Aunque es su dÃa la puedes acompaÃ±ar y pasar tiempo junto a tu ser amado. Este bono 2x1 + masajes relajantes, mascarillas y corrientes te permiten brindarle un dÃa inolvidable y lleno de momentos inigualables. ConÃ³celo y adquiere la promociÃ³n aquÃ.
La piel, por ser el Ã³rgano mÃ¡s grande y visible del cuerpo, se encuentra con mayor exposiciÃ³n a los cambios ambientales y climÃ¡ticos. Ahora, Â¿la estÃ¡s cuidando como se merece? Posiblemente pienses que lo estÃ¡s haciendo o, por el contrario, no le dedicas tiempo porque no es importante o relevante para tu vida. No obstante, verte bien es sentirte mucho mejor.
A continuaciÃ³n el manual que estÃ¡s esperando, sin importar la edad que tengas hoy podrÃ¡s guiarte y entregar a tu piel los cuidados que necesita para que luzcas radiante.
- Limpia tu rostro diariamente, al menos 2 veces al dÃa (en la maÃ±ana y tarde), con una espuma limpiadora o jabÃ³n especial para tu cara, utiliza una crema para el contorno de los ojos y no olvides la hidratante.
- Es recomendable evitar laexposiciÃ³n al sol durante las horas de 10am a 4pm ya que crea daÃ±os en tu piel. Pues durante este tiempo en ella se estÃ¡ ocasionando envejecimiento, manchas, arrugas y quemaduras.
Sigue este manual y visita nuestras instalaciones para que completes perfectamente tu rutina de cuidados corporales. Agenda tu cita escribiendo al 316 833 6478. AdemÃ¡s puedes consultar nuestros horarios aquÃÂ¡Te esperamos!
Â¡Te esperamos! Preparamos nuestras instalaciones, equipos y profesionales para que cada procedimiento facial que decidas practicarte te entregue los resultados que esperas obtener. Adicionalmente, te ofrecemos tratamientos corporales como los de post parto para que recuperes tu figura y tu tiempo de ser madre sea disfrutado desde cualquiera de las aristas. Â¡Ya sabes! En Elena del Mar cuidas tu rostro y cuerpo; hoy es el momento perfecto de empezar.
No importa la fecha es el momento perfecto para renovarte, adquirir hÃ¡bitos, por ejemplo, organizar tu calendario de belleza de los prÃ³ximos meses. Elena del Mar te ofrece servicios en spas en el centro de BogotÃ¡ y, ademÃ¡s, te da algunas ideas (mes a mes) para que realices la planificaciÃ³n de los tratamientos que son imprescindibles para mimar tu piel y tu cuerpo.
Un mes especial para que te cerciores y demuestres que la higiene facial es vital para mantener una piel sana. Entonces lo ideal es que apliques un producto especializado que no genere daÃ±os en tus tejidos y te aporte cuidado reparador. La frecuencia recomendable es de dos veces al dÃa.
Piensa en tratamientos que se orienten a preparar tu piel para el sol ademÃ¡s de tu cuerpo. En Elena del Mar contamos con la Ãºltima tecnologÃa para que te olvides de esos centÃmetros viendo resultados en cada sesiÃ³n. AdemÃ¡s el bronceado no puede pasar a un segundo plano: lo ideal es que luzcas un cuerpo moldeado, piel limpia, tersa y un tono moreno perfecto.
Cuida tu alimentaciÃ³n, sin embargo, cabe destacar que es un factor que debes tener en cuenta cada mes del aÃ±o, consumiendo frutas, verduras ricas en betacaroteno como son las zanahorias, papaya, tomate y espinacas. Para completar podrÃas agregar los frutos secos como manÃ, trigo o aguacate.
Â¿Deseas impactar en las fiestas de fin de aÃ±o con un cabello de ensueÃ±o? Entonces este es el mes donde debes intensificar los esfuerzos agregando a la dieta el suplemento vitamÃnico apropiado y, optar por una alimentaciÃ³n equilibrada y completa en nutrientes.
Tiempo de mantener tu piel muy hidratada (pero sin exagerar). Las cremas BB (cremas orientales) aportan el toque de color que deseas, ademÃ¡s de una hidrataciÃ³n profunda y es perfecta para cualquier cambio de clima.
#1. DisminuciÃ³n de medidas en la primera sesiÃ³n de masajes
FALSO. Una sola sesiÃ³n de masajes reductores como uno de lostratamientos post partono disminuye tus medidas, lo que puede suceder es que tu estado de Ã¡nimo cambie y te sientas mÃ¡s segura, ligera y conforme con tu imagen. Fortaleciendo tu autoestima y amor por quien eres.
#3. BaÃ±arse con agua caliente aumenta la celulitis
VERDADERO. Las duchas muy calientes o los baÃ±os de inmersiÃ³n generan en tu cuerpo acumulaciÃ³n de lÃquidos en las diferentes zonas donde tienes celulitis. Por tanto, no permite la eliminaciÃ³n de toxinas. Â¿La recomendaciÃ³n? Ducharte con agua templada o, preferiblemente, frÃa.
#4. El botox inflama el rostro
FALSO. El botox no provoca inflamaciones en labios o partes de la carapues no es un material de relleno. Es una toxina que permite la relajaciÃ³n de los mÃºsculos faciales y disminuye las lÃneas de expresiÃ³n naturales.
#5. Todos los rellenos faciales son notables
FALSO. Los rellenos faciales que suelen utilizar los pacientes no se ven exagerados ni modifican las expresiones del rostro. Ahora, no existe en el mercado un relleno que dure para siempre, por tanto, este tipo de procedimientos te aportan una duraciÃ³n de 1 aÃ±o a aÃ±o y medio dependiendo factores de marca.
Este clan K ha sabido posicionarse por sus curvas, mantenerse en un Ã¡mbito de flashes y moda, ser sÃºper modelos, lucir una perfecciÃ³n que muchas desean, o bien, pasar de ser las rezagadas a tener programas de televisiÃ³n. Keeping up with the Kardashian, una telerrealidad transmitida por el canal E! cuenta los dÃas de esta familia (sus problemas, eventos, maneras de afrontar la vida, ocupaciones, relaciones, estados anÃmicos, rutinas para mantenerse en forma) entre otras situaciones que enfrentan en su cotidianidad.
- La mÃ¡s famosa de las Kardashian (Kim) revela en su cuenta de Instagram que lava su cabello cada tres o cinco dÃas. En el tercero y cuarto dÃa lo recoge con una trenza o coleta bien tirante. Antes de hacerlo lo alisa con una plancha de cerÃ¡mica. De este modo evita deshidratarlo y lucir siempre una melena perfecta.
- Kim no teme llevar ropa mÃ¡sculina. âÂ¡La ropa masculina tiene un inesperado aire sexy!â, recalca en publicaciones de su pÃ¡gina web. Invita a sus seguidoras a ponerse una americana grande, una camisa blanca de botones o unos pantalones anchos para llevar un estilo varonil de una forma chic.
- La mayor de las Kardashian, Kourtney, menciona en sus redes sociales que reduce el consumo de pan, grasas nocivas e incluso del adorado arroz y le da fuerte bienvenida al cacahuate o manÃ, pues sabe que es una grandiosa fuente de omega 3. Â¡InclÃºyelo en tu dieta y mejora tus hÃ¡bitos alimenticios!
El cuidado profundo de la piel no es solo cuestiÃ³n de mujeres. En la actualidad los expertos mencionan que los hombres estÃ¡n buscando una piel mÃ¡s sana y de apariencia mÃ¡s joven gracias a productos especializados y la asistencia a spas en el centro de BogotÃ¡ u otras ciudades. Por ello, la Academia Americana de DermatologÃa(American Aacademy of dermatology) afirman que es un buen momento para que los varones evalÃºen la rutina que llevan para cuidar su piel y aprendan acerca de cÃ³mo cuidar el Ã³rgano mÃ¡s extenso del cuerpo.
SegÃºn el dermatÃ³logo Anthony Rossi, profesor asistente de dermatologÃa en el Memorial Sloan Ketterring Cancer Center y, en la Facultad de Medicina, Weill Cornell de Nueva York: âel cuidado de la piel en los hombres ya no es tan tabÃº puesto que mÃ¡s hombres adoptan maneras de cuidar su piel en casaâ. AdemÃ¡s agrega que aunque existen diferencias fundamentales en la piel de los varones y las damas, los elementos bÃ¡sicos de un plan eficaz siempre seguirÃ¡n siendo los mismos. Antes de llevar a cabo cuidados, debes reconocer el tipo de piel, de este modo, podrÃ¡s aprender a cuidarla y seleccionar los productos adecuados para ti.
Cuando usas protector solar ayudas a prevenir el daÃ±o que puede causar en tu piel previniendo arrugas, manchas e inclusive cÃ¡ncer de piel. Recomendable es que adquiera productos resistentes al agua, con amplio espectro con un FPS de 30 o superior. Por supuesto, aplÃcalo cada dos horas para mayor protecciÃ³n durante el dÃa.
a profunda tu piel y rostro. Los tratamientos que brinda Elena del Mar han sido pensados especialmente en tus requerimientos y por ello, podrÃ¡s tener acceso a una grandiosa limpieza facial completa. O bien, si quieres algo mÃ¡s especializado podrÃas pensar en el procedimiento que te brinda un efecto tensor donde obtendrÃ¡s 1 hidrataciÃ³n, 2 radiofrecuencias y 2 lifting para que reafirmes cada parte de tu piel.
Elena del Mar es tu aliado en belleza y cuidado facial y corporal
Â¿CuÃ¡les son las ventajas de los masajes relajantes?
-Cuando te relajas por medio de masajes estas ayudando al alivio de contracturas ocasionadas por el ajetreado dÃa que vives, por golpes o molestias. Posiblemente, por eso te duele tanto la espalda, hombros, muÃ±ecas o cuello.
Es el principal Ã³rgano del cuerpo y su funciÃ³n principal es la de proteger del exterior. Es la barrera que evitarÃ¡ que penetren en el organismo agentes nocivos que pueden provocar posibles daÃ±os al cuerpo. Por consiguiente, se encuentra formada de varias capas: la mÃ¡s profunda es la epidermis, seguidamente se encuentra la dermis y la mÃ¡s externa es la hipodermis.
En otras palabras, entendemos que tanto mujeres como hombres hoy se cuidan de manera paralela y las distinciones no son un impedimento para cuidarse de manera oportuna. Por ello, no depende de los productos en sÃ, sino del estado, tipo de piel y objetivos que cada persona tenga. Los expertos mencionan que los productos y tratamientos pueden compartirse, excepto aquellos que sean especÃficos para una necesidad estricta de uno de los sexos.
Completo circuito de servicios para que te sientas excelente
A la hora de hacer referencia a los cuidados del cuerpo y la piel, ademÃ¡s de resaltar la salud y la belleza son fundamentales si lo que se espera es ver resultados Ã³ptimos que refleje lo mejor de ti. Por ello, un circuito completo serÃ¡ indispensable para que realices la perfecta elecciÃ³n de tratamientos y planes de spas en el centro de BogotÃ¡ o en la ciudad que te encuentres. En Elena del Mar podrÃ¡s llevar a cabo grandiosos circuitos que dependerÃ¡n del plan que escojas, por ejemplo, con el Bono VIP obtendrÃ¡s masajes altamente profundos para que limpies, purifiques y relajes tu cuerpo y piel Â¡Luce espectaculares este fin de aÃ±o!
Â¿Tu objetivo es controlar tu peso? Â¿Llevas intentado varios planes nutricionales y no te ha dado resultados? Â¿Realizas ejercicio pero no es lo que esperas ver? Posiblemente, estÃ¡s llevando una vida saludable, tienes acceso a precios de gimnasios en BogotÃ¡ oportunos y tu cuerpo se ha adaptado pero Â¿estÃ¡s tomando la cantidad de agua necesaria? El agua se convierte en el ingrediente especial que te ayudarÃ¡ a complementar tus iniciativas para alcanzar tus metas. Con esto no estamos diciendo que dejes de hacer ejercicio ni mucho menos desordenar tu alimentaciÃ³n, por el contrario, es agregar a tu rutina de vida un hÃ¡bito mÃ¡s: tomar agua.
Elena del Mar te cuenta las bondades de este grandioso lÃquido que juega un papel importante en tu control de peso. Importante destacar que somos especialistas en salud por ello, ponemos a tu disposiciÃ³n gimnasios y spas en BogotÃ¡ Nortey otros sectores de la ciudad para que lleves a cabo tus planes Â¡Te ayudamos a lograr el equilibrio y metas en tu proyecto de vida!
â¢ Aumentando el volumen de la fibra en el estÃ³mago y asÃ promueve una de las seÃ±ales de saciedad: De este modo, la fibra absorberÃa el agua y se hincharÃa, tocando los receptores que generan presiÃ³n en el estÃ³mago, mandando seÃ±ales de saciedad. Entonces en los grupos estudiados, la sensaciÃ³n de plenitud fue mucho mayor en los grupos que bebÃan agua que aquellos que no Â¡Tenlo en cuenta!
Contar con Elena del Mar como aliado perfecto para alcanzar tus objetivos significa poder tener acceso a clases grupales de Insanity, pilates, rumba y zumba, aerÃ³bicos y danzika. Por supuesto, disfrutar de grandes eventos y especiales momentos. En cuanto a nuestros gimnasios cuentan con su Ã¡rea de pesas para que realices tus entrenamientos de potencia o bien, aquel entrenamiento funcional con la posibilidad de ser personalizado y guiado por expertos que apoyarÃ¡n tu proceso.
For too long, politicians, environmentalists and subsidized proponents of âgreenâ jobs have been peddling the notions that âinvestingâ in green technologies is the illuminating endeavor and beneficent job creator of our time. With scant evidence, these green jobs postulates are bulwarked by so much hot air it rivals the amount of subsidized dollars used to sustain them.
The main dilemma of green jobs and investing is that they defy the reality of basic economics. Jobs are created by entrepreneurs willing to invest in capital, coupled with demand for their goods and services. The economic environment fostered by government (taxes, regulations, etc.) plays an immensely important role as well.
The experience in Europe with investment in greed jobs sheds a glaring light on the fallacious nature of the purported success of these initiatives. In Spain, which has a 20.4 percent unemployment rate, every green job created destroyed an additional 2.2 regular jobs. In addition, every âgreenâ megawatt created destroys 5.28 jobs in the rest of the economy. Aggregately, these green jobs programs killed 110,500 elsewhere in the economy.
The amount of money invested in these programs is exorbitantly costly when compared with private sector job creation. In Italy, the amount of capital invested in the creation of 1 green job was equivalent to the amount of capital invested to create 5 jobs in the rest of the economy.
The reason these programs are such colossal failures, is that government subsidies to inefficient and unsustainable green initiatives divert resources from other productive sectors of the economy and result in the loss of jobs. Price-controls and central planning have long been considered an abject failure, why do we believe that these policies are any more palatable in the energy sector of our economy?
The reason these economically suicidal green job schemes continue to seem viable is that somehow they represent drastically new technology and innovation. Itâs like a burgeoning plant, just give it a little water and it will rapidly expand, right?
Wrong. These propositions elucidate an inherent myopia within the green jobs cheerleaders. The truth is that the wind-powered electricity was commercialized in 1881 and solar power received its first patent in 1892. Mean ugly coal-fired electricity was commercialized in 1882.
The house that contains the green jobs myth has been set ablaze. Do we want the dubious distinction of running in?
Amazingly and audaciously, the mainstream media and liberal pundocracy has created a narrative that President Obamaâs newly found centrism is molded in the inspirational optimism of President Reagan. This narrative seems confusing, when many liberals excoriate Reaganâs economic policy as the grim reaper of capitalism coming to instill all the inequities of the free market.
Reagan, like the Tea Party, believed heavily in the primacy of the individual over the government and limited self-government constrained by the Constitution. Reagan, in his âA Time for Choosingâ speech, echoed these sentiments by saying, âA government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they know when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. They also knew, those Founding Fathers, that outside of its legitimate functions, government does nothing as well or as economically as the private sector of the economy.â
On the flipside, President Obama in his State of the Union Address enunciated the greater need for âinvestmentâ (i.e. government spending and subsidies) wrapped in the rhetorical trappings of American exceptionalism and greatness. This deceptive rhetoric attempted to mask the policy that undergirded Obamaâs State of the Union address which called for more dubious government subsidies for green energy and an increase in spending for high-speed rail boondoggles. If American citizens were groping and longing for high-speed rail, wouldnât it be flourishing by now after nearly 30 years since the French launched their Paris-Lyon TGV line?
If there is no demand for these industries, how else can government make them appealing, but by way of force, coercion or wasteful subsidizing hoping to create a market for these currently unwanted and inefficient products?
Are we to forget the GM bailout, Dodd-Frank financial regulation and an intrusive government intervention into our healthcare system? Do President Obamaâs policies even close to matching his own rhetoric in the State of the Union, let alone Reaganâs?
These pontificators may be well-intentioned, but it is more than condescending to attempt to link President Obama with the former President merely based on oratorical flourishes and Reaganesque-style optimism. Their ideas on the proper function and role of the government stand in stark contrast.
Reagan's invocation of Paine, as well as his quotation of John Winthrop's "City upon a Hill" sermon, expresses the core of his optimism and belief in the dynamism of American society, a dynamism that can have unconservative effects. But he explained his use of Paine in conservative terms way back in his 1965 autobiography, Where's the Rest of Me? "The classic liberal," Reagan wrote, "used to be the man who believed the individual was, and should be forever, the master of his destiny. That is now the conservative position. The liberal used to believe in freedom under law. He now takes the ancient feudal position that power is everything. He believes in a stronger and stronger central government, in the philosophy that control is better than freedom. The conservative now quotes Thomas Paine, a longtime refuge of the liberals: 'Government is a necessary evil; let us have as little of it as possible.'"
Maybe It is time for President Obama to return to some of Founder's writings in order to rediscover his inner centrism. He can begin with Thomas Paine.
âInterpretaciÃ³n de recibos de sueldo y acuerdos de productividadâ fue el primer tema del programa curricular del Curso, el que fuera dictado por el Secretario General Marcelo PortiÃ±o y por el Secretario Tesorero Mariano Grijera. Concurrieron unas 30 personas entre Delegados de plantas de empaque e integrantes de ComisiÃ³n Directiva local.
âEstamos muy satisfechos con la concurrencia y notamos una muy buena predisposiciÃ³n de los compaÃ±eros a capacitarse, han participado mucho y bien, realmente estamos muy contentos. Este curso de capacitaciÃ³n lo estamos haciendo con mucho esfuerzo, pero contamos con la colaboraciÃ³n de la asociaciÃ³n civil âGestar, promoviendo el desarrollo humanoâ quien es la organizaciÃ³n que nos ayudo en la formulaciÃ³n del proyecto y es quien coordina y organiza las distintas actividades de este cursoâ, expresÃ³ Marcelo PortiÃ±o.
El prÃ³ximo encuentro se realizarÃ¡ el dÃa 15 de Agosto en la sede sindical de Misiones 1675 de esta ciudad, en donde se dictarÃ¡ la primera parte del modulo sobre el Convenio Colectivo de Trabajo que regula la relaciÃ³n laboral del sector del empaque, el que serÃ¡ dictado por el Dr. Jorge Crespo.
La continua capacitaciÃ³n de los hombres y mujeres que representan a los obreros en las distintas plantas de empaque de la Seccional General Roca, es necesaria para que el accionar de estos representantes sean los adecuados en la defensa de los derechos de sus compaÃ±eros ante la patronal. Una de las propuestas que la conducciÃ³n actual llevaba en su plataforma electoral en las Ãºltimas elecciones, era lo referente a la capacitaciÃ³n gremial de los delegados y demÃ¡s dirigentes del sindicato de la fruta.
No nos precede experiencia en esta Ã¡rea y serÃ¡ necesario mucho esfuerzo, colaboraciÃ³n y participaciÃ³n de todos los que tenemos algÃºn grado de responsabilidad en la representaciÃ³n de los trabajadores, esto asÃ porque la defensa de los derechos de los obreros de la fruta a sido y serÃ¡ un compromiso que hemos asumido, y que asÃ lo hicimos porque tenemos vocaciÃ³n de servicio.
Para lograr esta meta, y advirtiendo que la AsociaciÃ³n Civil âGestar, promoviendo el desarrollo humanoâ tenÃa como principal inquietud la formaciÃ³n ciudadana, es que nos hemos unido para consumar el fin propuesto por ambas instituciones: la del Sindicato para mejorar la defensa de los derechos laborales de los trabajadores del sector, la de la AsociaciÃ³n Civil âGestarâ para tener ciudadanos cada vez mÃ¡s consientes de sus derechos y con conocimientos del modo de ejercerlos.
ComisiÃ³n Directiva Sindicato de la Fruta- Seccional General Roca
ComisiÃ³n Directiva- AsociaciÃ³n Civil âGestar, promoviendo el desarrollo humano"
En los tiempos que corren se hace cada vez mÃ¡s necesaria la capacitaciÃ³n gremial, pues muchos de los delegados y demÃ¡s dirigentes actÃºan en base a sus propias experiencias, la que lleva a un aprendizaje de prueba y error, y cuando se cometen errores en la defensade los derechos laborales, los Ãºnicos perjudicados son los trabajadores que ven vulnerados sus derechos sociales. Con esto no queremos menospreciar la experiencia, pero a esto en necesario sumarle otros conocimientos.
AsÃ, se hace cada vez mÃ¡s importante el acceso al conocimiento, pues este constituye un valor central, una necesidad y un derecho inalienable de los trabajadores. El conocimiento, en la hora actual, tiene un peso decisivo en la discusiÃ³n con las empresas en la defensa de los intereses de los compaÃ±eros trabajadores del empaque.
El conocimiento es una herramienta indispensable, y se constituye en condiciÃ³n para pensar, proponer, defender y concretar estrategias de polÃtica sindical, educaciÃ³n no formal y acciÃ³n social.
Con este Curso de CapacitaciÃ³n Gremial buscamos dar respuesta a la necesidad de contar en los lugares de trabajo, con delegados que sepan representar los intereses de sus compaÃ±eros mostrando la solvencia necesaria para estar a la altura de la compleja realidad que presentan actualmente las relaciones laborales.
Capacitar a los representantes gremiales de los conocimientos necesarios que les posibiliten transformarse en lÃderes en sus respectivos lugares de trabajo, asÃ como actualizarlos en la nueva legislaciÃ³n aplicable al sector.
Resaltar el conocimiento y la preparaciÃ³n como un elemento central en la tarea de la defensa de los derechos de los trabajadores.
Posibilitar el mejoramiento de la negociaciÃ³n contractual, logrando enriquecer y revitalizar el accionar sindical.
Acrecentar la credibilidad de los dirigentes del sindicato ante la mirada de los compaÃ±eros trabajadores del empaque, lo que posibilitara un mejor posicionamiento ante los empresarios.
PROGRAMA CURRICULAR (con fechas tentativas de cursado)
PRIMER MODULO: INTERPRETACION DE RECIBOS DE SUELDO Y ACUERDOS DE PRODUCTIVIDAD. (01-08-09)
SEGUNDO MODULO: 1ra Parte: CONVENIO COLECTIVO DE TRABAJO: CONCEPTO Y ALCANCES. LEYES APLICABLES. (15-08-09)
2da Parte: CCT 1/76: PARTES INTERVINIENTES, VIGENCIA Y AMBITO DE APLICACIÃN. REINCORPORACION DEL PERSONAL. SUSPENSIÃN FIN TEMPORADA. PAGO SUELDOS E ITEMS QUE LO INTEGRAN. FALLOS. (29-08-09)
3ra Parte: CCT 1/76: NORMAS APLICABLES A POST-TEMPORADA. DERECHOS Y OBLIGACIONES DE LOS OBREROS, DE LAS EMPRESAS Y DE LOS DELEGADOS. FALLOS. DESACTUALIZACION CCT 1/76. (12-09-09)
TERCER MODULO: TECNICA DE NEGOCIACIÃN.(26-09-09)
CUARTO MODULO: NEGOCIACIÃN COLECTIVA O PARITARIA: NOMINACION DE PARITARIOS Y MANDATO DE LOS MISMOS. ALCANCES DEL ACUERDO. CONCILIACION OBLIGATORIA. LAUDO ARBITRAL. (03-10-09)
QUINTO MODULO: MEDIDAS DE ACCION DIRECTA. CLASES Y DIFICULTADES EN CADA CASO. CAPACIDAD DE LIDERAR Y DE NEGOCIAR. (17-10-09)
SEXTO MODULO. SINDICATO DE LA FRUTA: ESTATUTO. ORGANIZACIÃN Y FUNCIONES. FACULTADESY ATRIBUCIONES DE LAS SECCIONALES. (31-10-09)
SEPTIMO MODULO: EVOLUCION DE LOS DERECHOS DEL TRABAJADOR. CONSTITUCION NACIONAL, PROVINCIAL Y LCT. (14-11-09)
OCTAVO MODULO: ACCIDENTES DE TRABAJO. LEY APLICABLE. OBLIGACIONES DE LA EMPRESA. TRAMITES Y GESTIONES CORRESPONDIENTES. (28-11-09)
NOVENO MODULO: SEGURIDAD SOCIAL: HISTORIA, ALCANCES Y VIGENCIA. ANALISIS DE CADA UNO EN EL MARCO DE LOS OBREROS DE LA FRUTA (TEMPORARIOS). (12-12-09)
CERTIFICADOS: Se extenderÃ¡n certificados a quienes hayan cumplido con el 70% de asistencia.
EXPOSITORES: Cada uno de los temas serÃ¡ abordado por profesionales y/o personas idÃ³neas en cada una de las temÃ¡ticas a desarrollar.
FORMULACION, COORDINACION Y ORGANIZACIÃN: Lo realizarÃ¡ la AsociaciÃ³n Civil âGestar, promoviendo el desarrollo humanoâ, pues este tipo de capacitaciÃ³n esta contemplado entre los objetivos estatutarios de la mencionada asociaciÃ³n civil, habiendo sido convocada por la gremial para la formulaciÃ³n del proyecto, la coordinaciÃ³n y organizaciÃ³n de cada uno de los mÃ³dulos, como asÃ encargada de contratar a los distintos expositores.
ComisiÃ³n Directiva Sindicato de la Fruta- Seccional General Roca
ComisiÃ³n Directiva- AsociaciÃ³n Civil âGestar, promoviendo el desarrollo humanoâ
Que con fecha 24 de enero de 2009, la CAMARA ARGENTINA DE FRUTICULTORES INTEGRADOS manifestÃ³ su disponibilidad para encauzar la soluciÃ³n del conflicto por la vÃa del laudo arbitral, en tanto se den las condiciones para ello.
Que luego de un breve cuarto intermedio, las partes aceptaron la clÃ¡usula propuesta por la autoridad de aplicaciÃ³n y suscribieron de comÃºn acuerdo el compromiso respectivo. Asimismo, ratificaron el contenido general del acuerdo celebrado el 7 de enero de 2008 y en especial la estructura de la escala salarial y los premios que surgen del convenio suscripto en dicha fecha.
Que las partes establecieron que el cÃ³mputo del plazo indicado para el ofrecimiento, producciÃ³n de prueba y presentaciÃ³n de memoria escrita corre a partir del dÃa hÃ¡bil siguiente a aquel en que quede firme la designaciÃ³n del Ã¡rbitro. El cÃ³mputo del plazo previsto para alegar se contarÃ¡ a partir del dÃa hÃ¡bil siguiente al del cierre perÃodo de prueba.
Que finalmente, las partes estipularon que el Ã¡rbitro dispondrÃ¡ de un plazo de DIEZ (10) dÃas hÃ¡biles para emitir su laudo, plazo que comenzarÃ¡ a correr a partir del dÃa hÃ¡bil siguiente del vencimiento del plazo para alegar.
Que mediante el artÃculo 2Âº de la ResoluciÃ³n de la SECRETARIA DE TRABAJO NÂº 98 de fecha 2 de febrero de 2009 se designÃ³ al Dr. Leonardo JesÃºs AMBESI (M.I. NÂº 18.317.925) cÃ³mo Ã¡rbitro en el presente proceso de arbitraje voluntario.
Que con fecha 3 de febrero de 2009, el citado se notificÃ³ y aceptÃ³ el cargo para el que fuera designado, en tanto las partes quedaron notificadas de dicho dispositivo con fecha 5 de febrero de 2009, sin formular observaciÃ³n alguna.
Que con fecha 12 de febrero de 2009, las partes realizaron sus presentaciones, en tanto con fecha 13 de febrero de 2009 se ordenÃ³ su traslado y se clausurÃ³ la etapa probatoria, pasando los autos para alegar.
Que con fecha 16 de febrero de 2009 se notificÃ³ de lo precedentemente dispuesto la parte empresaria, en tanto que, con fecha 17 de febrero de 2009, hizo lo propio la parte sindical.
Que las partes presentaron sendos escritos dentro del plazo estipulado para alegar, pasando los autos a resolver con fecha 19 de febrero de 2009.
Que con fecha 23 de febrero de 2009, el Dr. Leonardo JesÃºs AMBESI decidiÃ³ excusarse para continuar desempeÃ±Ã¡ndose como Ã¡rbitro en las presentes actuaciones, por las razones expuestas en el expediente de referencia, lo que originÃ³ el dictado de la ResoluciÃ³n de la SECRETARIA DE TRA BAJO NÂº 258 de fecha 24 de febrero de 2009, por la cual se aceptÃ³ la excusaciÃ³n del mencionado y se designÃ³ a la suscripta como Ã¡rbitro.
Que en este estado, con carÃ¡cter previo, corresponde el tratamiento preliminar de cuestiones incidentales arrimadas por las partes, a fin de despejar el sendero que conduce al anÃ¡lisis sustantivo del asunto sometido a laudo arbitral.
Que desde esta perspectiva, la riqueza u orfandad de los argumentos desplegados por las partes constituyen un motivo de consideraciÃ³n por el Arbitro pero en modo alguno pueden derivar en una causal que afecte la validez del procedimiento por ellas mismas articulado; mÃ¡xime, cuando se encuentra registrado el pleno acceso a las actuaciones y a las posiciones interpuestas por la contraria.
Que al respecto, dichas circunstancias forman parte de la etapa previa a la formulaciÃ³n del compromiso arbitral y no se encuentran expresamente detalladas en los puntos acordados previamente, por lo que no pueden ser materia de evaluaciÃ³n del arbitraje, ceÃ±ido al temario estipulado por las partes.
Que delimitado el marco general por el que transitarÃ¡ el presente laudo, corresponde expedirse sobre la sustancia sometida a consideraciÃ³n.
Que los puntos sometidos al arbitraje voluntario son los siguientes:
1- Definir el incremento que debe ser aplicado a cada uno de los rubros remunerativos y no remunerativos que surgen de la escala salarial vigente para la actividad al 31 de diciembre de 2008 y que fuera pactada por las partes en fecha 7 de enero de 2008, respetÃ¡ndose la misma estructura y premios.
2- Definir el incremento sobre los premios por productividad previstos en acuerdos vigentes a nivel de las empresas comprendidas en el CCT 1/76, aplicÃ¡ndose en las mismas condiciones de tiempo, modo y lugar que rige de cada empresa conforme lo acordado por empleadores y sus trabajadores para la temporada anterior.
Que sobre el particular, las partes refieren que sus Ãºltimas posiciones en relaciÃ³n a los puntos acordados finalmente para someter al arbitraje, son las indicadas en el acta suscripta en esta misma fecha antes de pasar al cuarto intermedio.
Que por el contrario, para la parte empresaria el incremento salarial deberÃa fijarse en un VEINTIUNO POR CIENTO (21%), en tanto corresponderÃa establecer el incremento sobre los premios por productividad previstos en los acuerdos vigentes a nivel de empresas en un DIEZ POR CIENTO (10%).
Que de los antecedentes reseÃ±ados surge la existencia de una divergencia apreciable en las posturas mantenidas por las partes asÃ como en la interpretaciÃ³n que realizan de la abundante prueba documental aportada.
Que sin perjuicio de ello, a pesar de la disparidad en evidencia, surge un elemento probatorio comÃºn, aportado por ambos sectores, que se identifica como âCostos referenciales de producciÃ³n y empaqueâ, Convenio I.N.T.A. - U.N.C. - S.F.R.N., para las Temporadas 2006-2007, 2007-2008 y 2008-2009 (ver puntos 3.c., 3.d. y 3.e. de la presentaciÃ³n sindical y Anexo VIII de la presentaciÃ³n empresaria, referido a las dos Ãºltimas temporadas).
Que dicho instrumento, en su punto titulado âRetribuciÃ³n de la mano de obraâ, expresa: âLa cantidad de personal afectado al proceso de empaque varÃa segÃºn la capacidad y eficiencia de la planta de empaque.
Dada la diversidad de situaciones presentes en el sector del empaque de la regiÃ³n, no es posible determinar un Ãºnico modelo representativo del mismo, mÃ¡s aÃºn cuando no existe una relaciÃ³n directa entre tamaÃ±o del establecimiento/productividad/costos.
Esto se confirma al realizar un relevamiento de los costos asociados a la contrataciÃ³n de mano de obra en el sector. Surge allÃ la disparidad que existe en el costo laboral entre las diferentes empresas debido tanto a la relaciÃ³n laboral (convenio, cooperativas de trabajo) como a la productividad alcanzadaâ (cfr. punto 2.3.-).
Que con lo expuesto, la suscripta ha deseado poner de relieve la naturaleza particular que reviste esta clase de arbitrajes, destinados a superar el cerco formado por las posiciones rÃgidas de los contendientes.
Que en este contexto, es dable interrogarse acerca de la pauta a tomar en cuenta para resolver las cuestiones planteadas. La respuesta se encuentra en los recientes pronunciamientos de nuestro MÃ¡ximo Tribunal de Justicia, en donde se ha destacado que: â... en la relaciÃ³n y contrato de trabajo se ponen en juego, en lo que ataÃ±e a intereses particulares, tanto los del trabajador como los del empleador, y ninguno de ellos debe ser descuidado por las leyes. Sin embargo, lo determinante es que, desde el Ã¡ngulo constitucional, el primero es sujeto de preferente tutela...â (CSJN, 14/09/2004, âVizzoti, Carlos c/AMSAâ, La Ley, Suplemento Especial Septiembre de 2004).
Que en consecuencia, el arbitraje en el conflicto colectivo de intereses constituye una soluciÃ³n derivada de la negociaciÃ³n y no puede obviar ese origen transaccional pero a la vez, debe atender los principios y criterios que informan la relaciÃ³n laboral y la posiciÃ³n de cada una de las partes.
Que respecto al modo de resolver, se ha facultado a la suscripta para definir el incremento de cada uno de los rubros remunerativos y no remunerativos que surgen de la escala salarial vigente, con el Ãºnico lÃmite de respetar la misma estructura y premios.
Que esto implica la posibilidad, en el marco antes descrito, de adecuar individualmente los rubros seÃ±alados, en tanto y en cuanto no se altere el diseÃ±o general apuntado.
Que, como se seÃ±alara, la estructura salarial contiene un detalle de conceptos vinculados al Salario o Sueldo BÃ¡sico junto a otros de valor fijo, siendo de naturaleza remunerativa y no remunerativa.
Que ello motiva la necesidad de establecer el aumento en tales rubros de manera diferenciada, a fin de alcanzar una recomposiciÃ³n equilibrada y efectiva de cada uno de los conceptos que integran la grilla salarial.
Que por lo expuesto, teniendo en cuenta lo anteriormente manifestado y la informaciÃ³n aportada por las partes, se estima adecuado incrementar en un VEINTICINCO POR CIENTO (25%) el Sueldo BÃ¡sico correspondiente a la CategorÃa de Embalador de Primera, mÃ¡ximo nivel de la grilla, con vigencia a partir del Ã¡mbito temporal fijado para el laudo.
Que en funciÃ³n del nuevo valor se calcularÃ¡n los Conceptos de âTemporadaâ y âPresentismoâ, de acuerdo a los porcentajes vigentes y se relacionarÃ¡n en forma proporcional decreciente las restantes categorÃas y especialidades, de conformidad con la estructura salarial vigente.
Que asimismo, se estima pertinente incrementar la suma a percibir por el Ãtem âReducciÃ³n al Ausentismoâ, en PESOS CUARENTA ($ 40.-), para la categorÃa de Embalador de Primera, con la relaciÃ³n proporcional decreciente que ello tendrÃ¡ en las restantes categorÃas y especialidades, de conformidad con la estructura salarial vigente.
Que asimismo, se entiende necesario incrementar la suma remunerativa existente en PESOS CIEN ($ 100.-) y la suma no remunerativa existente en PESOS CIENTO VEINTE ($ 120.-), a fin de mantener una vinculaciÃ³n razonable en la estructura salarial aplicable, y posibilitar que la recomposiciÃ³n impacte a la totalidad de las CategorÃas.
Que en cuanto al aumento sobre valores actuales de los premios por productividad previstos en los acuerdos vigentes a nivel de empresas, se estima equitativo fijar su incremento en un DIECISIETE POR CIENTO (17%).
ARTICULO 1Âº â Definir el incremento del Concepto âSueldo BÃ¡sicoâ correspondiente a la CategorÃa Embalador de Primera de la escala salarial vigente para la actividad al 31 de diciembre de 2008 y que fuera pactada por las partes en fecha 7 de enero de 2008, en un VEINTICINCO POR CIENTO (25%), sobre los valores actuales, con vigencia a partir del 1Âº de enero de 2009 y hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2009.
En funciÃ³n del nuevo valor se calcularÃ¡n los conceptos de âTemporadaâ y âPresentismoâ, de acuerdo a los porcentajes vigentes, y se relacionarÃ¡n en forma proporcional decreciente las restantes categorÃas y especialidades, de conformidad con la estructura salarial vigente.
ARTICULO 2Âº â Definir el incremento del Concepto âReducciÃ³n al Ausentismoâ de la escala salarial vigente para la actividad a l 31 de diciembre de 2008 y que fuera pactada por las partes en fecha 7 de enero de 2008, en el monto de PESOS CUARENTA ($ 40.-) sobre los valores actuales, con vigencia a partir del 1Âº de enero de 2009 hasta el 31 de enero de 2009, el cual se relacionarÃ¡ en forma proporcional decreciente para las restantes categorÃas y especialidades, de acuerdo a la estructura salarial vigente.
ARTICULO 3Âº â Definir el incremento del Concepto âSuma Remunerativaâ de la escala salarial vigente para la actividad al 31 de diciembre de 2008 y que fuera pactada por las partes en fecha 7 de enero de 2008, en el monto de PESOS CIEN ($ 100.-), sobre los valores actuales, con vigencia a partir del 1Âº de enero de 2009 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2009.
ARTICULO 4Âº â Definir el incremento del Concepto âSuma No Remunerativaâ de la escala salarial vigente para la actividad al 31 de diciembre de 2008 y que fuera pactada por las partes en fecha 7 de enero de 2008, en el monto de PESOS CIENTO VEINTE ($ 120.-), sobre los valores actuales, con vigencia a partir del 1Âº de enero de 2009 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2009.
ART. 2- VIGENCIA ART. 3- AMBITO DE APLICACIÃN ART. 4- REINCORPORACIÃN DEL PERSONAL ART. 5- BOLSA DE TRABAJO ART. 6- RELACION DE TRABAJO ART. 7- LLAMADO AL PERSONAL POR ANTIGÃEDAD ART. 8- LABORACION DE HORAS EXTRAS ART. 9- TRABAJO A DESTAJO (PROHIBICION) ART. 10- NO OBLIGATORIEDAD DE MAXIMO RENDIMIENTO ART. 11- FORMAS DE TRABAJO ART. 12- APLICACIÃN DE LEYES: LEY DE ACIDENTES DE TRABAJO ART. 13- ACCIDENTES Y/O ENFERMEDADES INCULPABLES ART. 14- PAGO DE SUELDOS ART. 15- PAGO SALARIOS FAMILIARES ART. 16- VACACIONES ANUALES Y/O PROPORCIONALES ART. 17- PAGO POR INDEMNIZACION ART. 18- HORARIO DE TRABAJO ART. 19- BONIFICACIÃN POR MAYOR ESFUERZO (10% TEMPORADA) ART. 20- SUSPENCIONES ART. 21- COSECHA PAGO MES COMERCIAL ART. 22- GUARDERIA INFANTIL ART. 23- DIA, HORA Y LUGAR DE PAGO ART. 24- SERVICIO MILITAR OBLIGATORIO ART. 25- DURACION Y APRENDIZAJE ART. 26- NUMERO DE APRENDICES- REMUNERACIÃN DE TRABAJO DE CATEGORIA SUPERIOR A LA DEL OPERARIO QUE LA EFECTUA ART. 27- DEBERES DEL PERSONAL ART. 28- INASISTENCIA POR ENFERMEDAD O ACCIDENTE ART. 29- SANCIONES POR FALTA INJUSTIFICADA ART. 30- MEDIDAS DISCIPLINARIAS- FACULTAD DEL EMPLEADOR ART. 31- OBLIGACIONES DE LA PATRONAL: OBLIGACIONES VARIAS ART. 32- PERMISO PARA DONAR SANGRE ART. 33- PIZARRA PARA COMUNICADOS GREMIALES ART. 34- TRANSPORTE DE PERSONAL ART. 35- LICENCIA POR FALLECIMIENTO FAMILIAR DIRECTO ART. 36- DEBERES Y OBLIGACIONES DE LOS DELEGADOS ART. 37- PERMISOS GREMIALES ART. 38- ESPECIALIDADES Y CATEGORIAS ART. 39- RETENCIONES Y APORTES SOCIALES ART. 40- RETENCIONES DE CUOTA SOCIAL Y/O ESPECIALES ART. 40 BIS- RETENCIONES CUOTA MUTUAL DE LA FRUTA ART. 41- ADICIONALES MENSUALES: BONIFICACIÃN POR ANTIGÃEDAD ART. 42- ADICIONAL POR PERAS ART. 43- ADICIONAL O BONIFICACIÃN POR ASISTENCIA PERFECTA ART. 44- DIA OBRERO DE LA FRUTA ART. 45- ACREDITACION FEHACIENTE DE CATEGORIA- SALARIO ART. 46- PROHIBICIÃN PARA CAPATACES O ENCARGADOS ART. 47- INDUMENTARIA PROVEIDA POR EMPRESA ART. 48- VIERNES SANTO- ASUETO ART. 49- SEGURO DE VIDA ART. 50. CONSTANCIA DE TIEMPO TRABAJADO ART. 51- ARTICULOS DE APLICACIÃN EN POST-TEMPORADA: SUSPENSIÃN POST-TEMPORADA ART. 52- CALCULO SALARIO POST- TEMPORADA ART. 53- MINIMO DE DIAS PARA COBRO SALARIO FAMILIAR ART. 54- PROHIBICIÃN TAREAS EMPAQUE EN CÃMARA O ANTECAMARA FRIGORIFICA ART. 55- REPRESENTACIÃN GREMIAL EN POST-TEMPORADA ART. 56- INCORPORACION TRABAJADOR ENFERMO DADO DE ALTA. SUSPENCIÃN LEGÃTIMA AL REEMPLAZANTE ART. 57- ORDEN PÃBLICO DEL PRESENTE CONVENIO ART. 58- COMISIÃN DE INTERPRETACION DE ESTA CONVENCIÃN
III) DISPOSICIONES TRANSITORIAS
ART. 59- PROYECTO DE REGLAMENTACION DE GUARDERIAS ART. 60- REMISIÃN AL SINDICATO DE PLANILLA DE PERSONAL ART. 61- POST-TEMPORADA: ANTELACION DE 24HS PARA SUSPENDER Y FECHA PROBABLE DE REINCORPORACION ART. 62- RESPONSABILIDAD EMPRESARIA POR TRABAJO EN CAMARA O ANTECAMARA FRIGORIFICA ART. 63- OBLIGACION DE INFORMAR VOLUMEN DE FRUTA EN FRIO A SINDICATO ART. 64- FECHA INICIACION DISCUCIÃN SALARIAL
Timber sectors, which are fastened on a round wooden base to combine nise pattern. This scented board is the basis for hot pots and pans to but them with the hot food on the table. It may also be used for simple decoration or as a souvenir. Quite popular is in Estonia and in Finland to decorate saunas walls with such juniper patern, but then with angular boards.
This board is a part of the board set (5,8 inch, 7,8 inch board)
240g (0,53 pound, 8,5 ounce) Ã20cm (7,8 inch)
Sending up to four sets or one to six of theese boards the sending fee is $11.
While tight exterior envelopes have become standard for single-family homes, they have been slow to reach the multifamily sector. Multifamily buildings have many of the same leakage paths as houses, as well as additional paths hidden in walls or other cavities that are difficult to seal with conventional methods. Researchers at the Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC) at the University of California at Davis recently developed an aerosol sealant to seal leaks in building walls, floors, and ceilings. The process can bemore effective and convenient than conventional methods for sealing envelopes, because it requires less time and effort, and it ...
Corbett and Grace have their work cut out for them. In a decade that has seen employment in the solar-energy sector surge to over 260,000 jobs, home performance enterprises have struggled to find similar traction. SolarCity pulled the plug on its home efficiency services in June 2013, six months after the company went public. Last year, Next Step Living, a venture-backed home energy firm based in Boston, closed its doors and laid off 200 people. Powersmith Home Energy Solutions upgraded over 1,000 homes in the Long Island area before ceasing operations around the same time.
Medical tourism is a growing sector in India. India’s medical tourism sector is expected to experience an annual growth rate of 30%, making it a $2 billion industry by 2015. As medical treatment costs in the developed world balloon – with the United States leading the way – more and more Westerners are finding the […]
Westinghouse Electric Company today announced the formation of Westinghouse Electric do Brasil Ltda in Rio de Janeiro to better serve its customers and partners, strengthen its ties with regional suppliers, and align itself more appropriately with the growing demands of the energy sector in Brazil and other countries in the region.
The bill also seeks to protect the rights of patients to buy health insurance, or make any other arrangements to pay for their own health care.
New federal legislation seeks to prevent government bureaucrats from interfering in private health care and guarantee patient rights to control health care decisions.
Republican Congressman Pennsylvania Rep. Charlie Dent, R-15, and Illinois Rep. Mark Kirk are the cosponsors of the Medical Rights Act of 2009 bill, which was introduced Wednesday. The lawmakers co-chair the centrist GOP Tuesday Group.
"As Congress begins to discuss how best to address America's health care challenges, we must protect the sacrosanct relationship between a patient and a doctor," Dent said. "One of the greatest strengths of our health care system is that Americans can rely on getting the care that they need when they need it."
The bill prevents the government from rationing private health care and actions that interfere in the doctor-patient relationship, the congressman contends. It also would prevent the federal government from regulating the hiring practices of organizations that provide health care, such as hospitals and clinics.
The bill protects the rights of patients to buy health insurance, or make any other arrangements to pay for their own health care. Several foreign countries and several current health care reform proposals substantially restrict this right, according to the bill.
Additionally, the proposed bill would give Americans who get care under government health programs, such as Medicare, the ability to obtain health care outside the program.
In the U.S., if a Medicare-participating doctor accepts payment for a service that would otherwise be covered under Medicare, the doctor is suspended from participating in the federal health program for the elderly for two years, according to the bill.
"This substantially restricts the ability of Medicare patients to pay on their own if Medicare decides they are ineligible for a particular service normally covered by the program," according to the bill. "Not many doctors are willing to take that penalty, so this substantially (if indirectly) restricts the right of seniors and the disabled to access the health care of their choice."
With Congress preparing to debate health care reform this summer, the men warned legislation allowing government involvement in health care decisions could have "dire consequences." They cite other public health programs in Canada and Britain as examples of how government involvement compromises quality.
Long waits for care elsewhere
In a news release, the men cited a 2008 Commonwealth Fund International survey that found most Canadians and British adults waited longer than four weeks to see a medical specialist compared with only 26 percent of Americans.
They also cited long waits for care, based on a Heritage Foundation study that found 43 percent of Canadian patients and 15 percent of British patients received hip replacements within six months, compared with more than 90 percent of American senior citizens.
About 30 percent of Canadians' health care is paid for through the private sector, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, a group of 30 countries that meets regularly to discuss global issues and make economic and social policies.
The private payments are mostly for services not covered or partially covered by Canada's health program, such as prescription drugs and dentistry, according to the OECD.
About 65 percent of Canadians have some form of supplementary private health insurance and many receive it through their employers.
Canada spends less of its gross domestic product on health care (10.4 percent, versus 16 percent in the U.S.) and performs better on two commonly cited health outcome measures - the infant mortality rate and life expectancy.
A 2007 National Bureau of Economic Research report found the U.S. experienced a higher incidence of chronic health conditions than Canada, but Americans had somewhat better access to treatment for the conditions. Also, a significantly higher percentage of U.S. residents were screened for major forms of cancer.
The need to ration health care resources in Canada is the reason most Canadians cited for unmet medical needs, where in the U.S., more than half of those surveyed cited health care costs as the reason for unmet needs, the agency found. Quoting and Saving on your health insurance has never been easier...EasyToInsureME
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Speaker(s): Howard Davies | In the 6th of an annual series of lectures, Howard Davies reviews the development of the Chinese financial system over the last year. He has been a member of the International Advisory Board of the Chinese banking regulator since 2003 and has observed the dramatic changes in Chinese banks at first hand. The Chinese system has been remarkably insulated from the crisis. What does that mean for the future? Will China turn its back on free-market financial reform? Howard Davies is director of LSE. Prior to this, from 1997-2003 he was Chairman of the Financial Services Authority, the single regulator for the UK financial sector, which was created under his leadership from nine separate regulatory agencies. From 1995-1997 he was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England. His latest books include The 'Financial Crisis: Who is to Blame?' and 'Banking on the Future: the fall and rise of central banking'.
Speaker(s): Howard Davies and Paul Volcker | Howard Davies is director of LSE. Prior to this, from 1997-2003 he was Chairman of the Financial Services Authority, the single regulator for the UK financial sector, which was created under his leadership from nine separate regulatory agencies. From 1995-1997 he was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England. His latest book is Banking on the Future: the fall and rise of central banking, written with David Green, which will be launched at LSE at a public debate on 12 May.
Speaker(s): Howard Davies | Howard Davies is working on a book about the future of central banking to be published in 2009 by Princeton University Press. He will assess the ways in which central banks around the world have responded to the credit crisis and what that implies for their role in financial sector regulation in the future. Howard Davies is Director of the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Prior to this, from 1997-2003 he was Chairman of the Financial Services Authority, the single regulator for the UK financial sector, which was created under his leadership from nine separate regulatory agencies. From 1995-1997 he was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England.
Speaker(s): Howard Davies | Howard Davies sits on the International advisory councils of the China banking and securities regulatory commissions. In the fourth lecture of an annual series he reviews the progress of reform in china's financial markets, and the implications for the rest of the world. Howard Davies is Director of the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Prior to this, from 1997-2003 he was Chairman of the Financial Services Authority, the single regulator for the UK financial sector, which was created under his leadership from nine separate regulatory agencies. From 1995-1997 he was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England.
Speaker(s): Howard Davies, David Green, John McFall, Sir Steve Robson, Gillian Tett | As international financial markets have become more complex, so has the regulatory system which oversees them. The Basel Committee is just one of a plethora of international bodies and groupings which now set standards for financial activity around the world, in the interests of investor protection and financial stability. These groupings, and their decisions, have a major impact on markets in developed and developing countries, and on competition between financial firms. Yet their workings are shrouded in mystery, and their legitimacy is uncertain. Howard Davies was the first chairman of the UK's Financial Services Authority, the single regulator for the whole of Britain's financial sector. He was a member of the main international regulatory committees for several years, and is now director of the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). David Green was head of International Policy at the FSA, after 30 years in the Bank of England, and has been particularly closely associated with the development of the European regulatory system. He now advises the Financial Reporting Council. John McFall MP is Chairman of the Treasury Select Committee of the House of Commons since 2001. He was re-elected to this post in October, 2005. In 1997 John served as a Government Whip and in July 1998 he was appointed Parliamentary Under Secretary of State in the Northern Ireland Office. His portfolio included responsibility for the Department of Education, Community Relations, the Training and Employment Agency and the Department of Health and Social Services and the Department of Economic Affairs. Sir Steve Robson is a former senior UK civil servant, who had responsibility for a wide variety of Treasury matters. His early career included the post of private secretary to the Chancellor of the Exchequer and secondment to ICFC (now 3i). He was also a second permanent secretary of HM Treasury, where he was managing director of the Finance and Regulation Directorate. He is a non-executive director of JP Morgan Cazenove Holdings, RBS, Xstrata Plc, The Financial Reporting Council Limited and Partnerships UK plc, and a member of the Chairman's Advisory Committee of KPMG.
Las comparaciones son odiosas, y ( muy ) poca gente serÃ¡ capaz de pensar que un juego con buenos grÃ¡ficos en Wii no deja de ser algo menor. Pero aunque yo me fijara en las texturas pixeladas en planos cercanos de Darkside Chronicles, he llegado a abrir la boca de par en par con el enorme trabajo de Cavia y Capcom. Vanderbergue no da en el centro pero sÃ toca la diana: que tu juego tenga estilo propio es siempre necesario para no ser uno mÃ¡s, pero que Wii no tenga corazÃ³n de 360 no da pie a no intentar hacer grÃ¡ficos realistas. De ser cierto lo que dice Vanderbergue, las portÃ¡tiles a dÃa de hoy serÃan de 8 bits y monocromas.
Amidst the politics of austerity, California has made staggering cuts to the early care and education sector, resulting in lost opportunities for children to be educated, parents to continue working, and members of the early care and education workforce to remain employed and contributing to the state’s economic recovery. During the Great Recession from 2008â2011,…
The members of the commission for awarding the National Prize today held at meeting at the government, to consider those 30 files of the candidates and collectives of candidates, put forward for the 2017 issue of the contest. Â Â
The list of candidates, the fields of nomination and the information on the degree of filesâ meeting the contestâs regulation were unveiled at the meeting chaired by the deputy head of the Commission, Education, Culture and Research Minister Monica Babuc. Following the discussions, the Commission members approved all files submitted for the National Prize 2017, with the structure according to the sectors being the following: science (11 files), technologies (2 files), culture and art (13 files), sport (4 files). Â Â Â Â
At the same time, the commission established the composition of the groups of experts, made up of famous persons: academicians, university professors, practitioners with experience in the field fitting the files, masters of the arts and sportspeople. The evaluation will be made based on a record of criteria, according to the Regulation. Â Â Â
It is worth mentioning that the deadline for submitting files to participate in the contest expired on 28 July 2017. The gala of the contest of the National Prize 2017 will take place on 26 August. Â Â
The State Chancellery has informed about a contest for the employment of three consultants, with the support of the United Nations Childrenâs Fund (UNICEF), to back the work of the national council for the protection of childâs rights, and in particular, of its standing secretariat, the governmentâs communication and protocol department has reported. Â
It is about the: Â
- Â Legal consultant (full working schedule);
- Â Consultant on communication (reduced schedule);
- Â Consultant on implementation and logistic (full schedule).
No, I don't think you get free health care. (I don't, either. My salary is lower than in the public sector, the price of my "free" health insurance.)
My point was actually that there isn't a free lunch.
European governments tend to provide certain amenities/services that the US government doesn't -- well maintained dykes and functional disaster relief organizations come to mind* -- but all of that comes at a price. Namely, taxes.
*I've been re-reading some of my friends' Hurricane Katrina blogs recently ....
Si buscas expertos en tiendas piscina te decimos donde encontrar a tu “Official Partner” mÃ¡s cercano. Los âOficial Partnerâ son profesionales con una larga trayectoria en el sector de la piscina. Actualmente los distribuidores con la categorÃa de Official Partner estÃ¡n presentes en 19 paÃses en mÃ¡s de 200 tiendas especializadas. Los expertos en piscinas […]
La empresa lÃder en el sector inmobiliario Finques Feliu,Â fundados desde 1940. Dentro de sus especialidades destacanÂ los servicios de alquiler y compra de inmueblesÂ (pisos, casas, locales, oficinas, parking o nave industriales) DiseÃ±o web inmobiliario Hemos actualizado el diseÃ±o web responsive de Finques Feliu, adaptÃ¡ndoloÂ a las nuevas tendencias, personalizado con colores corporativos, destacamos la interacciÃ³n con el […]
KDS Card Pay is an Fastest growing Payment Gateway for the tech support in the market, with specialization in Online Payment Gateway for Tech Support process. KDS Card Pay give comprehensive high risk credit card and e-Check processing services to tech support merchants. KDS Card Pay processes thousand of transaction weekly for tech support companies. We offer a smooth, quick and frictionless purchasing knowledge. This component empowers clients to store their credit and debit card credentials.Get in Touch With Us:Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgMobile Number: +91-9718164449, +91-8800559281Address D 158 Noida Sector 10 Uttar pradeshhttp://www.kdscardpay.com/payment-gateway-for-tech-support.phphttps://www.facebook.com/KDScardpaypaymentgatewayfortechsupport/https://twitter.com/kdscardpay
Timmons, Stephen and Wharrad, Heather and Vezyridis, Paraskevas and Randle, Jacqueline and Lymn, Joanne and Bath-Hextall, Fiona (2010) Building and sustaining collaboration in cross sector e-learning development. In: Interprofessional e-learning and collaborative work: practices and technologies. IGI Global, Hershey, pp. 166-175. ISBN 9781615208890
Journal of theÂ National Institute for CareerÂ Education and Counselling March 2013 | issue 30 New perspectives on career coaching This edition contains the latest thinking on career coaching. It features the results of a recent survey and papers focused on practice in public and private sector contexts. There are also new conceptual pieces and contributions from […]
Depois de algum tempo de recesso, volto a escrever aqui no CSS PadrÃµes para retomarmos os nossos diÃ¡logos sobre os benefÃcios que um blog corporativo pode trazer para a sua empresa. Hoje busquei como referÃªncia o blogueiro espanhol Sergio Monge.
Tornei-me um entusiasta apaixonado da mÃdia blog. Para ser mais enfÃ¡tico, tenho assumido uma postura "evangelizadoraâ [expressÃ£o cunhada pelo blogueiro Jeremy Wright], no sentido de tentar fazer com que mais pessoas criem seus blogs e faÃ§am dele uma forma inteligente de comunicaÃ§Ã£o que lhes possibilite usufruir da melhor maneira possÃvel do seu potencial quer seja do ponto de vista pessoal quer seja profissional.
Mas, ainda conforme Sergio Monge, nÃ£o se pode pensar em manter um blog sem assumir uma postura proativa. âUn blogger necesita fuentes para ser capaz de escribir contenidos interesantes y, para ello, lee lo que escriben otros blogger, revisa estudios sobre el sector, asiste a conferencias y congresos y, sobre todo, se mantiene despiertoâ, diz ele.
Transferindo esse ensinamento para outro foco, eu tenho dito aos meus alunos nas minhas aulas de Jornalismo Digital que um blog pode funcionar ao mesmo tempo como um laboratÃ³rio e uma vitrina para que eles possam desenvovler e mostrar as suas habilidades com a escrita e o jornalismo como um todo.
Para as empresas o resultado e a melhoria do marketing, pois os clientes e colaboradores vÃ£o perceber que a corporaÃ§Ã£o conta no âseu timeâ com pessoas que acreditam na empresa e se propÃµem a colaborar para o seu crescimento. Quando isso acontece, a organizaÃ§Ã£o poderÃ¡ comemorar em pouco tempo os frutos dessa participaÃ§Ã£o, que virÃ¡ na forma de uma imagem positiva no mercado.
Know these two government schemes that will help you own a home.
Are you dreaming of your first home? Are you planning to buy house in Malaysia? A place where you can grow as a family, safely and quietly. A little slice of sanctuary you can call your own? Buying your first home can be a daunting idea, some may even immediately dismiss the idea thinking that they do not earn enough, or have not saved any money for the mandatory 10% down payment.
But wait! There are two government schemes in place that can help you buy your first house. I am going to go through them, step by step, to ensure we can all understand what they entail, since we arenât all bankers are we?
The first government scheme you should know about is the Skim Rumah Pertamaku (SRP), also known as the ï¿½My First Home Schemeâ.
This scheme allows first time property purchasers to buy a house with 100% financing from financial institutions. This allows first time buyers to buy a house without the stress of saving for a 10% down payment! No extra time needed to try and save until youâve acquired the full amount.
To qualify for this scheme, you need to earn a total amount of RM5000 per month if you are planning on buying the property by yourself, or a total amount of RM10 000 per month if you are planning on buying a property with a family member. For example, if you and your wife are looking at buying a house, your wife earns RM4000 per month and you earn RM4500 per month then you would qualify for this scheme.
The next part of the scheme deals with the total value of your desired property, in total the price of the property should ideally range between RM100 000 to RM400 000. This amount limit is to ensure that the monthly repayments on the house do not exceed 60% of your total earnings within the household. This is put into place so that you will be able to comfortably afford the monthly repayment and still afford your other everyday payments.
The next main qualifying aspect is your age and the time frame taken to pay off the property. You should not be older than 35 years when applying or 65 years old when the repayment plan is complete, and the repayment plan will not be taken over longer than 40 months. This ensures that you have completely paid the financial institution before you are eligible for retirement.
There is always fine print when it comes to schemes like this. Here are the important parts, excluding the main points above, that have to be considered when considering applying for this scheme:
â You must be a Malaysian citizen.
â You have to be working for an independent company, you cannot work for a statutory body (government company), unless the statutory body does not offer a staff financing facility - then you are eligible. You do however qualify if you work for a private company and your spouse works for a statutory body.
â You may not buy a property with a friend, you have to be family members.
â Once the property is bought, the owners have to reside in the property.
â You are not eligible if you are self employed. If your spouse is employed by the private sector, he/she may apply but in an individual capacity.
â The Cagamas SRP Berhadâs guarantee only applies to the financial institution, not to the individual therefore you responsible for paying the full amount of the property value plus the standard bank charges, not just 90% of the total amount.
â To see a list of participating financial institutions use the following link: http://www.srp.com.my/en/bank.html
This scheme allows you to buy a property in key urban areas. The government plans to build these properties in these urban areas. Signing up with PR1MA allows you the first option at acquiring one of these properties.
The difference to the PR1MA scheme is that it utilises ï¿½stepped upâ financing. This means that for the first 5 years, your repayment will be lower. This allows you to get financing for a higher amount, that is affordable now. Another difference is that PR1MA allows for drawing from an EPF 2 ( Employees provident fund 2) as part of the payment up until retirement or end of tenure (end of the repayment contract). This means that you are able to draw from you EPF 2 account to help pay a portion of your total repayment amount should you need to. This is beneficial as it will help you with a decreased initial monthly installment amount and help with the final installment amounts up until the end of your contract. You are able to apply for either ï¿½stepped upâ finance, EPF 2 or both when registering.
The way PR1MA works is through a balloting process. Once you have registered by creating your PR1MA account and chosen your desired areas, you will be notified of the launches in those areas are occurring. This will allow you then to make application for those properties as the balloting process is not automatic. Then the balloting process will take place- this will be an open ballot for everyone who has met the requirements. If your ballot is successful you will then be able to view and choose your property. Then you will go through the financing process.
In order to qualify for this scheme you have to:
â Have an individual or combined household (husband and wife) income of RM2500 to RM7500.
â Be above the age of 21 years ( you can be single or married).
â Be a Malaysian citizen.
â Not be in ownership of more than one other property.
â You will still qualify if your spouse works and lives in another country as long as your combined income within the eligible amount.
Other details that you should be aware of:
â A 10 year Moratorium will be implemented from the start of the financial agreement., that means that the house cannot be sold within the first 10 years of owning the property, unless approved by PR1MA.
â The house has to be lived in by the owners, there is no subletting allowed.
â Houses offered by PR1MA are usually priced between RM100 000 and RM400 000
â The size of the property depends on the type of property, an apartment is sized between 600 - 1200 square feet and a terrace PR1MA house is sized between 850 - 1850 square feet
If your application was not approved by any of the participating banks: Maybank, CIMB, RHB or Ambank, do not worry! In future, PR1MA will have a rent to own scheme specifically for those not approved by the participating banks, to which you can apply for.
Now that you have a breakdown of each scheme you can utilise them to help you get the home of your dreams. Itâs not as difficult or a daunting as you once thought.
BolÃvar - Prestigiosa empresa Distribuidora de Consumo Masivo con mÃ¡s de 5 aÃ±os consolidÃ¡ndose como uno de los principales distribuidores a nivel Oriental y actualmente proyectÃ¡ndose hacia el Sur del paÃs , Ubicada en la ciudad de Barcelona, Estado. AnzoÃ¡tegui. Empresa del sector Venta al ...
Valencia, Edo. Carabobo - Empresa del Ramo Textil, ubicada en Valencia Estado Carabobo, con mas de 20 aÃ±os en el mercado nacional, comercializando diferentes marcas entre las principales KAVAK y Lanitas. Empresa del sector Venta al consumidor, localizada en Carabobo, De 11 a 50 trabajadores Lee la ...
Barinas, Edo. Barinas - Somos el supermercado ferretero mÃ¡s grande y moderno del Estado Barinas, formado por lideres dispuestos a brindar a nuestros clientes un servicio rÃ¡pido y confiable. Empresa del sector Venta al consumidor, localizada en Barinas, De 201 a 500 trabajadores Lee la descripciÃ³n ...
Maracay, Edo. Aragua - Empresa del Ramo Textil, ubicada en Valencia Estado Carabobo, con mas de 20 aÃ±os en el mercado nacional, comercializando diferentes marcas entre las principales KAVAK y Lanitas. Empresa del sector Venta al consumidor, localizada en Carabobo, De 11 a 50 trabajadores Lee la des...
Maracay, Edo. Aragua - Empresa del Ramo Textil, ubicada en Valencia Estado Carabobo, con mas de 20 aÃ±os en el mercado nacional, comercializando diferentes marcas entre las principales KAVAK y Lanitas. Empresa del sector Venta al consumidor, localizada en Carabobo, De 11 a 50 trabajadores Lee la des...
Maracay, Edo. Aragua - Empresa del Ramo Textil, ubicada en Valencia Estado Carabobo, con mas de 20 aÃ±os en el mercado nacional, comercializando diferentes marcas entre las principales KAVAK y Lanitas. Empresa del sector Venta al consumidor, localizada en Carabobo, De 11 a 50 trabajadores Lee la des...
Lara - San Ignacio, Edo. Zulia - Sucursal perteneciente a la prestigiosa red de farmacias San Ignacio, ubicada en el estado Lara con mas de 20 aÃ±os de trayectoria en el ramo farmaceutico Empresa del sector Salud / Medicina, localizada en Lara, De 1 a 10 trabajadores Lee la descripciÃ³n de esta empre...
FalcÃ³n - Empresa de Servicio fundada en 1987, dedicada al servicio en el Ã rea de las telecomunicaciones principalmente en el segmento bancario. Actualmente prestamos servicio a varias entidades bancarias en el Ã¡rea de POS. Empresa del sector Telecomunicaciones, localizada en Miranda Lee l...
This weekend I fixed some disc emulation issues for the JNMS and Maxi-MMC boards. I had previously erroneously identified these two boards but they are different.
The JNMS board is the one in the CDI 180 player (also called the JNMS player). It is not used in any other player and contains a CDIC (CD Interface Controller) chip but no SLAVE processor.
The Maxi-MMC board is the one in the CDI 601 and 602 players. From the emulation point of view it is virtually identical to the Mini-MMC board used by the CDI 605 player, but it has a different CDIC chip version. Both boards contain a SLAVE processor.
The link between the JNMS and Maxi-MMC boards is the CDIC chip: both turn out to have the same older CDIC chip version that differs in a few details from the version used on the Mini-MMC and Mono-I boards players (I described these differences in the earlier âCD-i 180 disc playingâ post).
I noticed the JNMS / Maxi-MMC link from the CD-i player type table in the July 1996 issue of The Interactive Engineer (itâs on the ICDIA site); turns out I had misinterpreted the Board column on page 4 (thereâs also an error there: the 601/602 certainly do not have the 180 board!).
After noticing this I did some testing and it turns out that the CDIC modifications needed for the 180 also work for the 601, including the TOC reading problem.
I have yet to find a way to get chip version information from the CDIC chip itself, so for the time being Iâve keyed the differences on the SLAVE software version. The 180 has no such chip, the 601 has version 1.x where the 605 has version 3.x. For now Iâve assumed that version 2.x also uses the older CDIC chip, but that may be wrong (the 602 or 604 might be interesting test cases).
Having done that, I did some more digging into the TOC read issue. It turns out that the 601 ROM performs CRC validation on the subcode Q data from the lead-in area (which is where the TOC is stored), and CD-i Emulator didnât provide a valid CRC (no other ROMs Iâve seen so far validate this in software). The ROM even has compensation for shifts of between 1 and 7 bits in the incoming subcode Q data, probably because of some hardware timing issue.
I also noticed a bug in the ROM: it always uses the first sector buffer because it takes the current buffer bit from the wrong memory location. Not that this really matters because the TOC data is repeated multiple times; half of the repetitions will always land in the first buffer anyway. The bug is fixed in the 605 ROM.
Generating a valid CRC turned out to be straightforward (itâs just a simple CRC-CCITT calculation), but the ROM wouldnât recognize it! After some head scratching I focused on the ROXL instruction (Rotate Left with Extend) used in the validation code. It is quite an esoteric instruction; could it be that there was an emulation bug here? It turns out that there was indeed; during rotation the contents of the X flag where put in the wrong bit. After fixing this the ROM properly recognized the data and the TOC reads became just as quick as other player models.
In search of version information for the CDIC chip I looked at the emulations and found one potential point of interest: the release number displayed by the service shell. This is a special GUI shell that performs some service functions; you can get to it by inserting a specially wired test plug into input port 1.
After some digging I found that the service shell obtains this number from the SLAVE processor, so it probably does not directly correspond to a CDIC version. The number does appear to differ from other version numbers, though, at least on my two 605 players.
The service shell obtains this number using two special I$SetStt calls into the CDIC driver; extending CD-i Link to remotely perform these same calls was easy. The new -cds[tatus] option can now be used to make the special calls. Here's some representative output of the -cds A3 option:
CD status A3000000 -> A3320000
Extending CD-i Link with remote OS9 calls is actually a fairly easy way to perform some information and tracing actions; I will probably use it for sorting out other dangling issues in the near future. When possible, this technique avoids the problems of writing a fullblown memory-resident trace module.
A new public beta release of CD-i Emulator that has full JNMS and Maxi-MMC support (among other things) is scheduled before the end of this year; there are still a few other issues that need sorting out first. This release should also have better support for the PCDI board used by several portable players, including the CD-i 370.
The major player holes still remaining are the Sony IVO-10/11 players, the Kyocera player, the Bang&Olufsen TV/player combi and of course the I2M board. There is some perspective for all of these but they are not high priority; except for the latter I expect all of them to be minor hardware variations of existing boards.
The I2M board has the interesting feature that it has multiple "ROMs" downloaded from the PC software (which is available for download from ICDIA); it also has a very different way of reading from CD as this is handled by the PC. As a consequence of this, audio is probably also handled differently. I have this board booting to a blue screen where it hangs on host communication.
Last week I added SCSI disk support for the CD-i 60x extension board to CD-i Emulator. It took somewhat longer then I expected, though. This was mostly because the DP5380 SCSI controller chip exposes most low-level details of the SCSI protocol to the driver which means that all of these details have to be emulated.
The emulation ended up to be a more-or-less complete software implementation of the parallel SCSI-2 protocol, including most of the low-level signaling on the BSY, SEL, ATN, MSG, C/D-, I/O-, REQ and ACK lines. This is all implemented by the new CScsiBus class representing the SCSI bus that connects up to 16 instances of the CScsiPort class that each represent a single SCSI-2 bus interface. I was able to mostly avoid per-byte signaling of REQ and ACK if the target device implementation supports block transfers, a big performance win.
The new CCdiScsiDevice class emulates the DP5380 controller chip, working in conjunction with the CCdiScsiRamDevice and CCdiScsiDmaDevice classes that emulate the 32 KB of local extension SRAM and the discrete DMA logic around it that are included on the CD-i 60x extension board.
The CD-i 182 extension uses a compatible SCSI controller chip but a different DMA controller and has no local extension SRAM. I have not yet emulated these because I have almost no software to test it.
The new CScsiDevice class implements a generic SCSI device emulating minimal versions of the four SCSI commands that are mandatory for all SCSI device types: TEST UNIT READY, REQUEST SENSE, INQUIRY and SEND DIAGNOSTIC. It implements most of the boiler-plate of low-level SCSI signaling for target devices and the full command and status phases of SCSI command processing, allowing subclasses to focus on implementing the content aspects of the data transfer phase.
The CScsiFile class emulates a SCSI device backed by a file on the host PC; it includes facilities for managing the SCSI block size and the transfer of block-sized data to and from the backing file.
The CScsiDisk and CScsiTape classes emulate a SCSI disk and tape device, respectively, currently supporting a block size of 512 bytes only. Instances of these classes are connected to the SCSI bus by using the new -s[csi]d[isk][0-7] FILE and -s[csi]t[ape][0-7] FILE options of CD-i Emulator.
The CD-i 60x extension board normally uses SCSI id 5; the built-in ROM device descriptors for SCSI disks use SCSI ids starting at zero (/h0 /h1 /h2) while the built-in device descriptor for a SCSI tape uses SCSI id 4 (/mt0). This means that the useful options with the 60x are -scsidisk0, -scsidisk1, -scsidisk2 and -scsitape 4.
I've added the new dsk subdirectory to contain disk images; tape images have no standard location as they are mostly intended for bulk-transfer purposes (see below).
Inside the CD-i player this leads to the following response to the built-in inquire command:
where the "CDIFAN " part is the vendor name and the "CDIEMU SCSIXXXX " part is the product name.
In the previous post I described a 450 MB OS-9 hard disk image that I found on the Internet. After mounting it with -scsidisk0 mw.dsk I got the following output:
$ free /h0 "MediaWorkshop" created on: Feb 17, 1994 Capacity: 1015812 sectors (512-byte sectors, 32-sector clusters) 674144 free sectors, largest block 655552 sectors 345161728 of 520095744 bytes (329.17 of 496.00 Mb) free on media (66%) 335642624 bytes (320.09 Mb) in largest free block
You can see why thought it was a MediaWorkshop disc, but on closer inspection this turned out to something quite different. Some basic scrutiny lead to the hypothesis that this is probably a disk backup of someone from Microware working on early development of the DAVID (Digital Audio Video Interactive Decoder) platform. There are various surprises on the disk which I will describe below.
Anyway, I wanted to transfer the contents to the PC as a tar archive, similar to the procedure I used for my CD-i floppy collection. After starting CD-i Emulator with a -scsitape4 mw.tar option this was simply a matter of typing the following into the terminal window:
tar cb 1/h0
This command runs the "tape archiver" program to create a tape with the contents of the /h0 directory, using a tape blocking size of 1 (necessary because my SCSI tape emulation doesn't yet support larger block sizes). The resulting mw.tar file on the PC is only 130 MB, not 450 MB which indicates that the disk is mostly empty. At some point I might use an OS-9 "undelete" program to find out if there are additional surprises.
Extracting the mw.tar file was now a simple matter of running the PC command
tar xvf mv.tar
This produced an exact copy of the OS-9 directory structure and files on the PC.
Many of the directories on the hard disk are clearly copies of various distribution media (e.g. CDI_BASECASE, CINERGY, CURSORS, ENET, FONTS, ISP, MWOS, NFS). The contents of the ENET, ISP and NFS directories at first appear to match some of my floppies, including version numbers, but on closer inspection the binaries are different. Running some of them produces "Illegal instruction" errors so I suspect that these are 68020 binaries.
The SHIP directory contains some prerelease RTNFM software; the readme talks about PES which is a type of MPEG-2 stream (Packetized Elementary Stream). Various asset directories contain versions of a "DAVID" logo.
The CMDS directory contains working versions of the Microware C compiler, identical to the ones I already had and also many other programs. It also contains some "cdb" files (configuration database?) that mention the 68340 processor.
The contents of the CMDS/BOOTOBJS directory produced a first surprise: it contains a subdirectory JNMS containing among others files named "rb1793" and "scsijnms". Could this be floppy and SCSI drivers for the CD-i 182 extension, as it contains with a 1793 floppy drive controller (the CD-i 60x uses a different one) and the player has a "JNMS" serial number?
Well, yes and no. Disassembly of the scsijnms file proved it to be compiled C code using an interface different from OS-9 2.4 drivers, so I suspect this is an OS-9 3.x driver. In any case, I cannot use it with the stock CD-i 180 player ROMs. Bummer...
And now for the big surprise: deeply hidden in a directory structure inside the innocently named COPY directory is the complete assembly source for the VMPEG video driver module "fmvdrv". At first glance it looked very familiar from my disassembly exercises on the identically-named Gate Array 2 MPEG driver module "fmvdrv", which is as expected because I had already noticed the large similarity between these two hardware generations.
The source calls the VMPEG hardware the "IC3" implementation, which matches CD-i digital video history as I know it. The Gate Array MPEG hardware would be "IC2" and the original prototype hardware would be "IC1". Furthermore, the sources contain three source files named fmvbugs1.a to fmvbugs3.a whose source file titles are "FMV first silicon bugs routines" to "FMV third silicon bugs routines". The supplied makefile currently uses only fmvbugs3.a as is to be expected for a VMPEG driver.
The fmvbugs1.a source contains some of the picture buffer manipulation logic that I've so far carefully avoided triggering because I couldn't understand it from my disassemblies, and this is now perfectly understandable: they are workarounds for hardware bugs!
As of two hours ago, I have verified that with a little tweaking and reconstruction of a single missing constants library file these sources produce the exact "fmvdrv" driver module contained in the vmpega.rom file directly obtained from my VMPEG cartridge.
In general these sources are very heavily commented, including numerous change management comments. They also include a full set of hardware register and bit names, although no comments directly describing the hardware. This should be of great help in finally getting the digital video emulation completely working.
All of the comments are English, although a few stray words and developer initials lead me to believe that the programmers were either Dutch or Belgian.
Disassembly comparisons lead me to the conclusion that careful undoing of numerous changes should result in exact sources for the GMPEGA2 driver module "fmvdrv" as well. I might even do it at some point, although this is not high priority for me.
The disk image containing all of these surprises is publicly available on the Internet since at least 2009, which is probably someone's mistake but one for which I'm very grateful at this point!
Last weekend I future-proofed my CD-i floppy collection. A bit to my surprise, all floppies except one turned out to be perfectly readable (nearly twenty years after they were last written!). Luckily, the one exception was a backup copy so I didnât lose any contents.
I had originally intended to use the borrowed CDI 182 unit for this (it has two floppy drives). The primary motivation for this was that my unstowed CDI 605 could not read beyond track zero of any floppy, but after giving the matter some thought I decided to try my other CDI 605 first, the primary motivation for this being speed (see below). It turned out that this 605 could read the floppies perfectly, including the three 38U0 format ones that gave problems on the 182 unit. Microware has defined a number of OS-9 disk formats for floppies, the 38U0 one supposedly being the âuniversalâ 3.5" format (there is also a 58U0 âuniversalâ 5Â¼" format).
The problem with the âuniversalâ formats is that track zero can be (and on my floppies, is) in a different density which makes it a bad fit for most tools, both on CD-i and PC. It also means that only 79 tracks are used for data storage, giving a raw capacity of 79 Ã 2 Ã 16 Ã 256 = 632 KB. The 3803 format used by all my other CD-i floppies uses all 80 tracks and consequently has 8 KB more of raw storage for a total of 640 KB (these are both double-density, double-side formats (DS, DD) with 16 sectors of 256 bytes per track like nearly all OS-9 disk formats).
Before unstowing my other CDI 605 (it was nearly at the bottom of a 150 cm stowed equipment stack) I tried reading the floppies with my trusty old Windows 98 machine which still has floppy drives. I could not quickly find a DOS tool that handled the 256 byte sectors (not even raread and friends), although I suspect that Sydexâs TELEDISK product would have handled it just fine. I also tried Reischkeâs OS9MAX which should handle all OS-9 formats under the sun according to its documentation. The demo version ran under MS-DOS and gave me working directory listings, even for the 38U0 floppies, but it does not support actually reading the files and I am somewhat doubtful about the current availability of the paid-for full version (even apart from cost concerns).
Why did I decide to use the 605? It was not a question of reading the disks (the 182 did this mostly fine) but of handling the data thus read. The 182 unit has a SCSI connector but I have no drivers for it (yet) and dumping my full floppy collection over the serial port did not really appeal to me for speed and reliability reasons (it could have been done, of course).
The 605 player has a SCSI connector and includes drivers for it so I could have just connected it to the SCSI disk in my E1 emulator and copied the floppies to hard disk (I would still have needed to transfer them to my laptop which would have been a two-step process via the Windows 98 PC as I have no SCSI connection on my laptop).
Instead I used the BNC network connector of the 605 to directly transfer floppy images to my laptop (it needs a network switch supporting both a BNC connector and the modern RJ45 connectors, but luckily I have two of those, even if they are only 10 Mbit/s). Starting up the network environment of the 605 took only two OS-9 commands at the command shell prompt:
ispmode /le0 addr=10.0.0.120 mbinstall
After this I could just ftp in to my laptop where I ran ftpdmin, a very minimal ftp server program, and transfer floppy disk images directly:
ftp 10.0.0.110 bin put /d0@ floppy.dsk
(where /d0@ is the raw floppy device, for 38U0 I used /d0uv@, both are built-in for the 605).
The transfers ran at the maximum speed of the floppy drive (way below the 10 Mbit/s network speed), and the resulting .dsk files are perfectly readable using the âv option (virtual disk) of Carey Bloodworthâs os9.exe program even though that program was originally written for Tandy Color Computer OS9/6809 floppies (the floppy disk format was not changed for OS-9/68000 which is at the core of CD-iâs CD-RTOS operating system).
For easy access I also created a âtarâ format archive of each floppy on a RAM disk:
chd /d0 tar cvf /r768/floppy.tar .
and ftpâd those to my laptop as well (the /r768 device is a 768 KB variation of the /r512 built-in 512 KB RAM disk device of the 605 player).
I ended up with the following collection of unique floppy disk images:
605h3 - 605 H3 Driver Update (1 floppy)
605upd - 605 Driver Update (1 floppy)
bcase - Basecase Tests (1 floppy)
eboot41 - Emulation Boot Diskette (1 floppy)
eburn41 - Emulation and CDD 521 Boot Diskette (1 floppy)
inet - CD-I Internet Installation Disk - V1.3 (1 floppy)
nfs - OS-9/68000 Network File System V.1.0 (1 floppy)
os9sys - OS-9 System Diskette (1 floppy)
pubsoft - OptImage Public Domain Software (2 floppies)
pvpak - OptImage Preview Pak Installation Disk (1 floppy)
The 605* and eb* floppies are mostly interesting for CD-i 605 or E1 emulator owners, but the bcase floppy contains a set of CD-i standard conformance test programs that.
The inet and nfs floppies contain a full set of Internet software including Telnet and FTP servers and clients and an NFS client (all except the latter are also in the 605 ROMs).
The os9sys floppy contains a full set of Professional OS-9 programs and is my original source for most of the OS-9 CD-i disc that I described earlier (most of these are not in ROM on any CD-i player that Iâve seen so far).
The pubsoft floppies contain miscellanous utilities such as bfed, du, kermit, umacs and vi, most of which can be obtained elsewhere, some CD-i specific utilities such as da (CD-i disk analyzer) and iffinfo (CD-i IFF file dumper) as well as library source files for the CD-i IFF file library.
The pvpak floppy contains preview software for CD-i images that will preview CD-i IFF files from an NFS-mounted host file system directory.
The ubridge floppies are the goldmine (and also the 38U0 format ones) as they contain a full set of native Microware C compiler/assembler/linker/debugger software for OS-9 complete with CD-i header files and libraries and C runtime startup sources. Both the srcdbg and sysdbg debuggers are included as well as the rdump utility for dumping ROFF (Relocatable Object File Format) files.
Unfortunately, most of the above software except for the pubsoft contents is copyrighted property of Microware (now Radisys) or OptImage (a former Philips/Microware joint venture) which means that I cannot distribute it, even though they could be very useful to CD-i homebrew developers. For that the hopefully soon-to-be available GCC cross-port will have to be enough...
While investigating all of the above I also stumbled upon a 450 MB OS-9 hard disk image for MediaWorkshop. The os9.exe program recognizes it just enough to say that it does not support it so I have no real idea about its contents except the obvious.
To remedy that problem Iâm in the process of adding SCSI disk support to CD-i emulator so that I can use the SCSI support in the CD-i 605 ROMs to mount the disk image and look at it. This should also allow the CD-i 180 to boot from a SCSI disk if I ever find drivers for it (a possible path to that has just appeared, weâll see...).
After a few hours of tweaking Iâve gotten CD-i 180 disc playing working in CD-i Emulator. Most of the time was spent on basic disassembly of the driver, which is very similar to the CD-i 605 version (but missing some features such as multi-session support and seek delay). Not very surprising as both players use the same CDIC chip, although they are supposedly different versions.
The problems were really quite trivial but there are of course complications...
The first problem turned out to be a memory map issue. On all CD-i players that Iâve encountered so far, a memory map chunk size of 128 KB works fine because memory from different devices (whether general purpose RAM or device-specific memory such as NVRAM and CDIC local memory) never lives inside the same 128 KB chunk of address space. On the CD-i 180 this is not true, as can be seen from the following fragment of maximmc.brd:
$00300000 cdic.dev level=4 $00310000 nvr.dev
My code silently overwrote the CDIC mapping with the NVR mapping which meant that any access to CDIC local memory terminated in a bus error. Needless to say, this was not conducive to disc playback. Simply lowering the memory map chunk size to 64 KB fixed this problem.
Next it turned out that during initialization the cdap18x driver wants to do some kind of data transfer to address $320001, possibly DSP parameters or something, and there was no device there yet. This was easily fixed also.
At this point the disc play got started but the interrupt routine ignored all interrupts. After inspecting the driver it turned out that the CD-i 180 expects an additional status bit to be set in the DBUF register that was never used on other CD-i players with a CDIC. Still easy to fix.
Now the interrupt routine started trying to process the sector but it got bus errors in two places. It attempted to read the FILE selection register, which other CD-i players never did, and it took the buffer index bits (these specify the DMA buffer the hardware used from the sector) from a previously unimplemented register that Iâve dubbed DSEL for now. Easy fixes galore...
After this one sector got properly transferred to memory but an unending stream of interrupts hung up the player. It turns out that the CD-i 180 ROMs donât read the CDIC XBUF register that CD-i Emulator used to clear the interrupt. Generating and clearing the interrupt from the DBUF register fixed that also, and now the disc actually started playing!
Of course I did some tests next and there are currently three known problems:
- Reads of the disc table-of-contents (TOC) take ages, probably because the ROMs are checking for or waiting on some flag or data byte that CD-i Emulator currently doesnât provide. This should not be very hard to fix.
- Audio playback from memory doesnât work, the symptoms are very similar to those of the audio sync issues that occurred during the MESS collaboration in 2009. This may be a hard problem to crack.
- And finally the most hairy issue: the CDIC emulation modifications break other players. The breakage is often subtle but very definitely there so I will have to do some careful juggling to get it working on all players, if necessary by explicit version checking but I hope to avoid that. The hardware should not be that dissimilar, really...
On the serial port and pointing device front, Iâve found someone who has a surplus serial port interface and an infrared remote. He also has a complete CD-i 180 set (including the CDI 182 unit) and Iâm looking forward to extracting the ROMs from that one also.
He also took apart his mouse and it seems to be a fairly standard Amiga design which means that it should not be very hard to manufacture a replacement.
Iâve been looking into making a small PIC-based interface for PS2 and/or CD-i peripherals and it may still come to that but it seems to be not as necessary as I thought.
Over the last week I have been playing with the CD-i 180 player set. Thereâs lots to tell about, so this will be a series of blog posts, this being the first installment.
The CD-i 180 is the original CD-i player, manufactured jointly by Philips and Sony/Matsushita, and for a score of years it was the development and âreferenceâ player. The newer CD-i 605 player provided a more modern development option but it did not become the âreferenceâ player for quite some years after its introduction.
The CD-i 180 set is quite bulky, as could be expected for first-generation hardware. I have added a picture of my set to the Hardware section of the CD-i Emulator website; more fotos can be found here on the DutchAudioClassics.nl website (itâs the same player, as evidenced by the serial numbers).
The full set consists of the CDI 180 CD-i Player module, the CDI 181 Multimedia Controller or MMC module and the CDI 182 Expansion module. The modules are normally stacked on top of each other and have mechanical interlocks so they can be moved as a unit. Unfortunately, I do not have the CDI 182 Expansion module nor any user manuals; Philips brochures for the set can be found here on the ICDIA website.
Why am I interested in this dinosaur? Itâs the first mass-produced CD-i player (granted, for relatively small masses), although there were presumably some earlier prototype players. As such, it contains the âoriginalâ hardware of the CD-i platform, which is interesting from both a historical and an emulation point of view.
For emulation purposes I have been trying to get hold of CD-i 180 ROMs for some years, there are several people that still have fully operational sets, but it hasnât panned out yet. So when I saw a basic set for sale on the CD-Interactive forum I couldnât resist the temptation. After some discussion and a little bartering with the seller I finally ordered the set about 10 days ago. Unfortunately, this set does not include a CDI 182 module or pointing device.
I had some reservations about this being a fully working set, but I figured that at least the ROM chips would probably be okay, if nothing else that would allow me to add support for this player type to CD-i Emulator.
In old hardware the mechanical parts are usually the first to fail, this being the CDI 180 CD-i Player module (which is really just a CD drive with a 44.1 kHz digital output âDOâ signal). A workaround for this would be using an E1 or E2 Emulator unit; these are basically CD drive simulators that on one side read a CD-i disc image from a connected SCSI hard disk and on the other side output the 44.1 kHz digital output âDOâ signal. Both the CDI 180 and E1/E2 units are controlled via a 1200 baud RS232 serial input âRSâ signal.
From my CD-i developer days I have two sets of both Emulator types so I started taking these out of storage. For practical reasons I decided to use an E1 unit because it has an internal SCSI hard disk and I did not have a spare one lying around. I also dug out an old Windows 98 PC, required because the Philips/OptImage emulation software doesnât work under Windows XP and newer, and one of my 605 players (I also have two of those). Connecting everything took me a while but I had carefully stored all the required cables as well and after installing the software I had a working configuration after an hour or so. The entire configuration made quite a bit of mechanical and fan noise; I had forgotten this about older hardware!
I had selected the 605 unit with the Gate Array AH02 board because I was having emulation problems with that board, and I proceeded to do some MPEG tests on it. It turns out the hardware allows for some things that my emulator currently does not, which means that I need to do some rethinking. Anyway, on with the 180 story.
In preparation for the arrival of the 180 set I next prepared an disc image of the âOS-9 Discâ that I created in November 1993 while working as a CD-i developer. This disc contains all the OS-9 command-line programs from Professional OS-9, some OS-9 and CD-i utilities supplied by Philips and Microware and some homegrown ones as well. With this disc you can get a fully functional command-line prompt on any CD-i player with a serial port, which is very useful while researching a CD-i playerâs internals.
The Philips/Optimage emulation software requires the disc image files to include the 2-second gap before logical block zero of the CD-i track, which is not usually included in the .bin or .iso files produced by CD image tools. So I modified the CD-i File program to convert my existing os9disc.bin file by prepending the 2-second gap, in the process also adding support for scrambling and unscrambling the sector data.
Scrambling is the process of XORing all data bytes in a CD-ROM or CD-i sector with a âscramble patternâ that is designed to avoid many contiguous identical data bytes which can supposedly confuse the tracking mechanism of CD drives (or so Iâve heard). It turned out that scrambling of the image data was not required but it did allow me to verify that the CD-I File converted image of a test disc is in fact identical to the one that the Philips/Optimage mastering tools produce, except for the ECC/EDC bytes of the gap sectors which CD-I File doesnât know how to generate (yet). Fortunately this turned out not to be a problem, I could emulate the converted image just fine.
Last Thursday the 180 set arrived and in the evening I eagerly unpacked it. Everything appeared to be in tip-top shape, although the set had evidently seen use.
First disappointment: there is no serial port on the right side of 181 module. I remembered that this was actually an option on the module and I had not even bothered to ask the seller about it! This would make ROM extraction harder, but I was not completely without hope: the front has a Mini-DIN 8 connector marked âCONTROLâ and I fully expected this to be a âstandardâ CD-i serial port because I seemed to remember that you could connect standard CD-i pointing devices to this port, especially a mouse. The built-in UART functions of the 68070 processor chip would have to be connected up somewhere, after all.
Second disappointment: the modules require 120V power, not the 220V we have here in Holland. I did not have a voltage converter handy so after some phone discussion with a hardware-knowledgeable friend we determined that powering up was not yet a safe option. He gave me some possible options depending on the internal configuration so I proceeded to open up the CDI 181 module, of course also motivated by curiosity.
The first thing I noticed was that there were some screws missing; obviously the module had been opened before and the person doing it had been somewhat careless. The internals also seemed somewhat familiar, especially the looks of the stickers on the ROM chips and the placement of some small yellow stickers on various other chips.
Proceeding to the primary reason for opening up the module, I next checked the power supply configuration. Alas, nothing reconfigurable for 220V, it is a fully discrete unit with the transformer actually soldered to circuit board on both input and output side. There are also surprisingly many connections to the actual MMC processor board and on close inspection weird voltages like â9V and +9V are printed near the power supply outputs, apart from the expected +5V and +/â12V, so connecting a different power supply would be a major undertaking also.
After some pondering of the internals I closed up the module again and proceeded to closely inspect the back side for serial numbers, notices, etc. They seemed somewhat familiar but that isnât weird as numbers often do. Out of pure curiosity I surfed to the DutchAudioClassics.nl website to compare serial numbers, wanting to know the place of my set in the production runs.
Surprise: the serial numbers are identical! It appears that this exact set was previously owned by the owner of that website or perhaps he got the photographs from someone else. This also explained why the internals had seemed familiar: I had actually seen them before!
I verified with the seller of the set that he doesnât know anything about the photographs; apparently my set has had at least four owners, assuming that the website owner wasnât the original one.
On Friday I obtained a 120V converter (they were unexpectedly cheap) and that evening I proceeded to power up the 180 set. I got a nice main menu picture immediately so I proceeded to attempt to start a CD-i disc. It did not start automatically when I inserted it, which on second thought makes perfect sense because the 181 MMC module has no way to know that youâve just inserted a disc: this information is not communicated over 180/181 interconnections. So I would need to click on the âCD-Iâ button to start a disc.
To click on a screen button you need a supported pointing device, so I proceeded to connect the trusty white professional CD-i mouse that belongs with my 605 players. It doesnât work!
There are some mechanical issues which make it doubtful that the MiniDIN connector plugs connect properly, so I tried an expansion cable that fit better. Still no dice.
The next step was trying some other CD-i pointing devices, but none of them worked. No pointing devices came with the set, and the seller had advised me thus (they were presumable lost or sold separately by some previous owner). The only remaining option seemed to be the wireless remote control sensor which supposedly uses RC5.
I tried every remote in my home, including the CD-i ones, but none of them give any reaction. After some research into the RC5 protocol this is not surprising, the 180 set probably has a distinct system address code. Not having a programmable remote handy nor a PC capable of generating infrared signals (none of my PCs have IrDA) I am again stuck!
I spent some time surfing the Internet looking for RC5 remotes and PC interfaces that can generate RC5 signals. Programmable remotes requiring a learning stage are obviously not an option so it will have to be a fully PC-programmable remote which are somewhat expensive and Iâm not convinced they would work. The PC interface seems the best option for now; I found some do-it-yourself circuits and kits but it is all quite involved. Iâve also given some thought to PIC kits which could in principle also support a standard CD-i or PC mouse or even a joystick, but I havenât pursued these options much further yet.
Next I went looking for ways to at least get the contents of the ROM chips as I had determined that these were socketed inside the MMC module and could easily be removed. There are four 27C100 chips inside the module, each of which contains 128Kb of data for a total of 512Kb which is the same as for the CD-i 605 player (ignoring expansion and full-motion video ROMs). The regular way to do this involves using a ROM reading device, but I havenât gotten one handy that supports this chip type and neither does the hardware friend I mentioned earlier.
I do have access to an old 8 bit Z80 hobbyist-built system capable of reading and writing up to 27512 chips which are 64Kb, it is possible to extend this to at least read the 27C100 chip type. This would require adapting the socket (the 27512 is 28 pins whereas the 27C100 has 32 pins) and adding one extra address bit, if nothing else with just a spare wire. But the Z80 system is not at my house and some hardware modifications to it would be required, for which I would have to inspect the system first and dig up the circuit diagrams; all quite disappointing.
While researching the chip pinouts I suddenly had an idea: what if I used the CD-i 605 Expansion board which also has ROM sockets? This seemed an option but with two kids running around I did not want to open up the set. That evening however I took the board out of the 605 (this is easily done as both player and board were designed for it) and found that this Expansion board contains two 27C020 chips, each containing 256Kb of data. These are also 32 pins but the pinouts are a little different, so a socket adapter would also be needed. I checked the 605 technical manual and it did not mention anything about configurable ROM chip types (it did mention configurable RAM chip types, though) so an adapter seemed the way to go. I collected some spare 40 pin sockets from storage (boy have I got much of that) and proceeded to open up the 180 set and take out the ROM chips.
When determining the mechanical fit of the two sockets for the adapter I noticed three jumpers adjacent to the ROM sockets of the expansion board and I wonderedâ¦ Tracing of the board connections indicated that these jumpers were indeed connected to exactly the ROM socket pins differing between 27C100 and 27C020, and other connections indicated it at least plausible for these jumpers to be exactly made for the purpose.
So I changed the jumpers and inserted one 180 ROM. This would avoid OS-9 inadvertently using data from the ROM because only half of each 16-bit word would be present, thus ensuring that no module headers would be detected, and in the event of disaster I would lose only a single ROM chip (not that I expected that to be very likely, but you never know).
Powering up the player worked exactly as expected, no suspicious smoke or heat generation, so the next step was software. It turns out that CD-i Link already supports downloading of ROM data from specific memory addresses and I had already determined those addresses from the 605 technical manual. So I connected the CD-i 605 null-modem cable with my USB-to-Serial adapter between CD-i player and my laptop and fired off the command line: cdilink âp 3 âa 50000 âs 256K âu u21.rom
(U21 being the socket number of the specific ROM I chose first).
After a minute I aborted the upload and checked the result, and lo and behold the u21.rom file looked like an even-byte-only ROM dump:
This was hopeful, so I restarted the upload again and waited some six minutes for it to complete. Just for sure I redid the upload from address 58000 and got an identical file, thus ruling out any flakey bits or timing problems (I had already checked that the access times on the 27C100 and 27C020 chips were identical, to say 150ns).
In an attempt to speed up the procedure, I next attempted to try two ROMs at once, using ones that I thought not to be a matched even/odd set. The 605 would not boot! It later turned out that the socket numbering did not correspond to the even/odd pairing as I expected so this was probably caused by the two ROMs being exactly a matched set and OS-9 getting confused as the result. But using a single ROM it worked fine.
I proceeded to repeat the following procedure for the next three ROMs: turn off the 605, remove the expansion board, unsocket the previous ROM chip, socket the next ROM chip, reinsert the expansion board, turn on the 605 and run CD-i Link twice. It took a while, all in all just under an hour.
While these uploads were running I wrote two small programs rsplit and rjoin to manipulate the ROM files into a correct 512Kb 180 ROM image. Around 00:30 I had a final cdi180b.rom file that looked good and I ran it through cditype âmod to verify that it indeed looked like a CD-I player ROM:
File Size Type Description ------------ ------ ------------ ------------ cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.rom Unknown CD-i system ROM cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.mdl Unknown CD-i player cdi180b.rom 512K unknown.brd Unknown board
Of course cditype didnât correctly detect the ROM, player and board type, but the list of modules looks exactly like a CD-i player system ROM. It is in fact very similar to the CD-i 605 system ROM, the major differences are the presence of the icard and *iic drivers, the absence of a slave module and the different player shell (ps module with separate ps_* data modules instead of a single play module).
It being quite late already, I resocketed all the ROMs in the proper places and closed up both players, after testing that they were both fully functional (insofar as I could test the 180 set), fully intending to clean up and go to bed. As an afterthought, I took a picture of the running 180 set and posted it on the CD-Interactive forums as the definitive answer to the 50/60 Hz power question Iâd asked there earlier.
The CD-i Emulator urge started itching however, so I decided to give emulation of my new ROM file a quick go, fully intending to stop at any major problems. I didnât encounter any of those, however, until I had a running CD-i 180 player three hours later. I reported the fact on the CDinteractive forum, noting that there was no pointing device or disc access yet, and went to a well-deserved sleep. Both of these issues are major ones and those I postponed for the next day.
To get the new player type up and running inside CD-i Emulater, I started by using the CD-i 605 F1 system specification files cdi605a.mdl and minimmc.brd as templates to create the new CD-i 180 F2 system files cdi180b.mdl and maximmc.brd. Next I fired up the emulator and was rewarded with bus errors. Not unexpected and a good indicator of where the problems are. Using the debugger and disassembler I quickly determined that the problems were, as expected, the presence of the VSR instead of VSD and the replacement of the SLAVE by something else. Straightening these out took a bit of time but it was not hard work and very similar to work I had done before on other player types.
This time at least the processor and most of the hardware was known and already emulated; for the Portable CD-i board (used by the CD-i 370, DVE200 and GDI700 players) both of these were not the case as they use the 68341 so-called integrated CD-i engine which in my opinion is sorely misnamed as there is nothing CD-i about the chip, it is just the Motorola version of an 68K processor with many on-chip peripherals in remarkably similar to the Philips 68070 in basic functionality.
Saturday was spent doing household chores with ROM research in between, looking for the way to get the pointing device working. It turned out to be quite involved but at the end of the day I had it sort of flakily working in a kludgy way; Iâll report the details in a next blog post.
Sunday I spent some time fixing the flakiness and thinking a lot about fixing the kludginess; this remains to be done. I also spent time making screenshots and writing this blog post.
So to finish up, there is now a series of 180 screenshots here on the CD-i Emulator website as reported in the What's New section. A very nice player shell, actually, especially for a first generation machine.
I will report some ROM and chip finds including new hopes for replacing the missing pointing device in a next blog post.
It's been a while since I wrote anything here, but that doesn't mean that work on CD-i Emulator has stopped. On the contrary, a lot has happened in the last month and describing all of it will take a very long blog post. So here goesâ¦
Last January an annoying date-checking bug was found which forced me to release beta2 somewhat earlier than anticipated. After that I did no further work on CD-i Emulator. There were various reasons for this, but the most import one was a very busy period at my day job.
After a well-earned vacation I resumed CD-i related work in early August. First I spent a few days on Walter Hunt's OS-9 port of gcc, the GNU C/C++ Compiler that I found in October of last year. Getting it working on a modern Cygwin installation was interesting and something very different from my usual line of work. The result could be useful for homebrew activities: it's a much more usable C compiler then the Microware OS-9 one and supports C++ as a bonus. I intend to use this for ROM-less emulation validation some day; see also below. The sources need to be released but I havenât gotten to that stage yet.
After that I had another go at the Digital Video cartridge emulation. At the point where I left off last year the major stumbling block was the presumed picture / frame buffering logic of the MPEG video driver. When the appropriate interrupt status bits are set the driver starts copying a bulk of status information to an array of device registers and it will sometimes also read from those registers. This is all controlled by several status and timing registers that are also referenced elsewhere and I previously could not get a handle on it.
My first attempt this time was spending another few days staring at it and tracing it, but this did not gain me much new understanding. Finally I decided to just leave it for now and see how far I could get without understanding this part of the driver. I decided to once again attempt to get "CD-i Full Motion Video Technical Aspects" working.
This CD-i was produced by Philips to give future Full Motion Video (as the new MPEG playback functions were called at the time) developers a demonstration of the technical capabilities of the new hardware, at a time when this hardware was still in the early beta phase. The CD-i actually contains the compiler libraries necessary for making FMV calls from CD-i applications, as these had not previously been widely distributed.
It is not a very slick disc visually, being intended for developers, but it demonstrates a number of FMV techniques such as regular playback, playback control including pause, slow motion and single step, freeze frame and forward/backward scan, special effects like scrolling the FMV window, a seamless jump and a sample of overlay effects with the CD-i base case video planes.
I had previously tried to run this disc on CD-i Emulator, but it always crashed for an unknown reason that I attributed to MPEG device emulation problems. This time I traced back the crash and it turned out to have nothing at all to do with FMV playback but was instead caused by an incorrect emulation of the 68000 instruction "move ea,ccr" which is supposed to set the condition code register (ccr) to the value specified by the effective address (ea). In the processor manual this is classified as a word instruction and I had emulated it as such, which turned out to be wrong as it caused a word write to the full status register which should have been a byte write to the lower eight bits of it which hold the condition codes.
The problem manifested itself when the application calls the math trap handler for some mundane number calculations, which were naturally supposed to set the condition codes. The value written to the status register inadvertently changed the processor from user to system mode (and also scrambled the active interrupt masking level) which caused an instant stack switch that caused a bus error when the trap handler attempts to return to the application program (the cpu took the return address from the wrong stack and got garbage instead).
Most CD-i applications probably don't use the math trap handler so the problem went undetected for a long time. Now that it's fixed some other titles have probably started working but I haven't tested that.
After this, the FMV Technical Aspects application would get to its main menu screen, allowing me to start FMV playback operations. Regular playback worked fine until the end of the video clip, where there turned out to be status bit generation issues that prevented the application from properly detecting the end of video clip condition (the decoder is supposed to send a "buffer underflow" signal, among others, after the end of the MPEG data and my emulation didn't do that yet).
This was not very easy to fix because of the way that MPEG data buffering and decoding is handled inside CD-i Emulator, which I'll get into below. So it took me some time.
Regular play working fine, I started worrying about window control. This was the area where I feared the picture buffering stuff, but it turned out that this was easily bypassed. The horizontal / vertical scrolling functions were ideal to test this but it took me some time to get it working. There were bugs in several areas, including my integration of the MPEG video decoding code, which I took from the well-known mpeg2dec package. This code is written to decode a single video sequence and consequently did not handle image size changes without some re-initialization calls at the appropriate times. Failing that, it mostly just crashed (at the Windows application level) due to out-of-bounds video buffer accesses.
Another issue was the timing of device register updates for image size changes; I turned out to have the basic mechanism wrong and consequently the driver would keep modifying the window parameters to incorrect values.
Having all of the above fixed, I returned my attention to playback control. So far I can get the video playback properly paused, but I haven't been able to get it properly resumed. For some reason the application resumes the MPEG playback but it doesn't resume the disc playback. Since the driver waits for new data to arrive from disc before actually resuming MPEG playback nothing happens (this is documented as such). The application is presumably expecting some signal from the driver to get into the proper state for resuming disc playback, but I haven't found it yet.
At this point, it seemed promising to look at other CD-i titles using playback control and the Philips Video CD application is an obvious candidate. Again, regular playback appears to work fine, but playback control (including pause/resume) does not. It turns out that this application uses a different driver call (it uses MV_ChSpeed instead of MV_Pause, probably in preparation for possible slow motion or single step), which never completes successfully, probably again because of device status signaling. Similar issues appear to block playback control in a few other titles I tried.
I've given some thought to tracing driver calls and signals on an actual player to see what CD-i Emulator is doing wrong, and it appears to be relatively simple, there's just a bandwidth issue because all of the trace output will have to go out the serial port which can go no higher then 19200 baud. Some kind of data compression is obviously needed and I've determined a relatively simple scheme that should be enough (the CD-i player side will all need to be coded in 68000 machine language so simplicity is important!), but I haven't actually written any code for it yet.
I know there are issues with the proper timing of some video status signals. Things like start-of-sequence, end-of-sequence and start-of-picture-group should be delayed until display of the corresponding picture, at present they are delivered at decoding time, which can be a few pictures early. But that does not really affect the titles I've tried so far, because they do not attempt picture-synced operations. An application like The Lost Ride might be sensitive to thinks like this, though, and it needs to be fixed at some time. Similar issues are probably present with time code delivery. In addition, the last-picture-displayed and buffer-underflow signals are not always properly sent; I'm fixing these as I go along.
In the process, I decided that the magenta border was getting annoying and tried to fix it. That turned out to be harder then I thought. The MPEG chip has a special border color register that is written by the MV_BColor driver call and it seemed enough to just pass the color value to the MPEG window overlay routines. Well, not so. Again the issue turned out to be timing of decoder status signals, but of a different kind. The driver doesn't write the border color registers until it has seen some progress in certain timing registers related to the picture buffering thing, presumably to avoid visual flashes or something on the actual hardware. Fortunately, it turned out to be easy to simulate that progress, taking care not to trigger the complicated picture buffer code that I so far managed to keep dormant.
At some point, possibly related to slow motion or freeze frame, I might need to actually tackle that code but I hope to by that time have gained more understanding of the supposed workings of the MPEG chip.
Looking at the above, you might think that all of the difficulties are with the MPEG video decoding and that is indeed mostly true. I did have to fix something in the MPEG audio decoding, related to the pause/resume problems, and that was the updating of the audio decoder clock. When audio and video playback are synchronized the MPEG video driver uses the MPEG audio clock as it's timing reference, which means that it has to be stopped and restarted when video playback control operations occur. Since I had never before seriously tested this, the audio clock wasn't stopped at all and the video driver obligingly continued decoding and displaying pictures until it ran out of buffered data.
There is currently just one known problem with the MPEG audio decoding: the audio isn't properly attenuated as specified by the driver. This causes little audio distortions at some stream transitions and when buffers run out. There is also a problem with base case audio synchronization but that is hard to trigger and possibly even not audible in many titles so I'll worry about that much later.
Above I promised to get into the MPEG data buffering and decoding issue. The basic problem is one of conceptual mismatch: the CD-i decoding hardware gets data "pushed" into it (by DMA or direct device I/O) at the behest of the driver, whereas the MPEG decoding code (based on the publicly available mpeg2dec and musicout programs from the MPEG Software Simulation Group) expects to "pull" the data it needs during decoding. Things get messy when the decoding runs out of data, as the code does not expect to ever do so (it was originally written to decode from a disc file which of course never runs out of data until the end of the sequence). Some obvious solutions include putting the decoding in a separate thread (which given multi-core processors might be a good idea anyway from a performance perspective) and modifying it to become restartable at some previous sync point (most easily this would be the start of an audio frame or a picture or picture slice). Both options are somewhat involved although they have obvious benefits, and it may turn out that I will need to do one of them anyway at some point. For now I've avoided the problems by carefully timing calls into the MPEG decoding code so that enough data to decode a single audio frame or video picture should always be available; the MPEG data stream at the system level contains enough timestamp and buffering information to make this possible (in particular, it specifies the exact decoding time of every audio frame or video picture in relation to the timing of the data stream, thus making it possible to make those calls into the decoding code at a time that a valid MPEG data stream will have already filled the buffers far enough).
The approach depends on the timing of the MPEG data entering the decoder, which means that it does not handle buffer underflow conditions unless you add some kind of automatic decoding that continues even if no more MPEG data appears, and this is basically what Iâve done. In the end it was just relatively straightforward extension of the automatic decoding already there to handle the fact that MPEG audio streams do not have to explicitly timestamp every single audio frame (the CD-i Green Book does not even allow this unless you waste massive amounts of space in each MPEG audio data sector) and would have been needed anyway to correctly decode the last pictures of a sequence, but that had never been tested before.
For performance and possible patent reasons I have taken care to edit the MPEG decoding code (placing appropriate #ifdef lines at the right places) so that only MPEG 1 video and audio layer I/II decoding code is compiled into the CD-i Emulator executable. This is all that is needed for CD-i anyway and MPEG 2 video and audio layer III greatly complicate the decoding and thus significantly enlarge the compiled code.
Being somewhat stymied at the FMV front, I next decided to spend some time on another lingering issue. During testing, I often have to do the same exact sequence of mouse actions to get a CD-i application to a problem point and this is starting to be annoying. Input recording and playback are a partial solution to this but then you still have to wait while the application goes through it, which is also annoying and can sometimes take quite some time anyway. The obvious solution is a full emulation state save/restore feature, which I've given some thought and started implementing. It's nowhere near finished, though.
During the MESS collaboration I spent some time investigating the MESS save/restore mechanism. If at all possible I would love to be compatible for CD-i emulation states, but it turns out to be quite hard to do. The basic internal mechanism is quite similar in spirit to what I developed for CD-i Emulator, but it's the way the data is actually saved that makes compatibility very hard. Both approaches basically boil down to saving and restoring all the relevant emulation state variables, which includes easy things like the contents of cpu, memory and device registers but also internal device state variables. The latter are of course not identical between different emulators but they could probably be converted if some effort was thrown at it and for a typical device they aren't very complex anyway. The MESS implementation uses an initialization-time registration of all state variables; at save/restore time it just walks the registrations and saves or restores the binary contents of those variables. CD-i Emulator has a somewhat more flexible approach; at save/restore time it calls a device-specific serialize function to save or restore the contents of the state variables. The actual registration / serialization codes are structurally similar in the two emulators (a simple list of macro/function calls on the state variables) but the code runs at different times.
The real problem is that MESS includes very little meta information in the save files: only a single checksum of all the names and types of registered state variables in registration order. This is enough to validate the save data at restore time if the state variables of the saving emulator exactly match those of the restoring emulator, because there is no information to implement skipping or conversions. This holds between different versions or in some case even configurations of MESS emulators, but it holds even more so between MESS and CD-i Emulator! The meta information could of course be obtained from the MESS source code (relatively simply macro modifications could cause it to be written out) but that would require exact tracking of MESS versions because every version could have its own checksum corresponding to different meta information (in this case CD-i Emulator would need meta information sets for every MESS checksum value it wants to support).
I want CD-i Emulator to be more flexible, especially during development, so I decided to make full meta information an option in the save file. The saved state of every device is always versioned, which allows the save/restore code to implement explicit conversion where needed, but during development this isn't good enough. With full meta information turned on, the name and type of every state variable precedes the save data for that variable in the save file. This allows more-or-less automatic skipping of unknown state variables and when properly implemented the restore code can also handle variable reordering. At release time, I will fix the version numbers and save full metadata information sets for those version numbers so that the same automatic skipping and handling of reordering can be done even if the metadata isn't in the save file (it probably won't be because of file size considerations, although that may turn out to be a non-issue because save files need to include the full RAM contents anyway which is 1 MB of data in the simplest case without any compression, which is of course an option).
In addition to all of the above, I made some progress on the ROM-less emulation front. First I spent some time reading up on the internals of OS-9 file managers, because writing a replacement for the NRF file manager (NRF = Nonvolatile RAM File manager) seemed the logical next step. Actually writing it turned out not to be that hard, but there were of course bugs in the basic ROM emulation code. Most of them had to do with handlers not calling into the original ROM, which totally screwed up the tracing code. Some new functionality was also needed to properly read/write OS-9 data structures inside the emulated machine from the ROM emulation code; I wanted to implement this in such a way that compilation to "native" 68000 code remains a future option for ROM emulation modules. And of course the massive tracing described in the previous blog post had to be curtailed because it was impossible to see the relevant information in the morass of tracing output.
The new emulated NRF stores its files in the PC file system and it currently works fine when you start it with no stored files (i.e., the player will boot). In that case it will write out a proper "csd" (Configuration Status Descriptor) file. However, if this file already exists, the player crashes, although I have so far not found any fault in the NRF code. The origin of the problem probably lies elsewhere; I suspect it has to do with the hidden "player_shell_settings.prf" file. This file is read and written by the ROM bootstrap even before OS-9 is running; it does this by directly accessing the NVRAM memory (the file never changes size and is always the first one in NVRAM). Since the bootstrap accesses of this file do not go through the NRF file manager or even the NVRAM driver they are not redirected by the OS-9 emulation. However, later accesses by the player shell *are* redirected and the player shell does not seem able to handle the file not existing in the PC file system in the case where a csd file already exists. Solutions include extending the emulated NRF to always access this particular file from the NVRAM instead of the PC file system or somehow synchronizing the two locations for the file. The latter is probably the easiest route given the fixed location and size of the file, but the former is also useful as it would provide a full reimplementation of the original NRF that could in principle be compiled to native 68000 code to replace the "original" NRF in ROM (this is where gcc comes in as alluded to earlier, since all emulation code is written in C++).
In either case, I do not want the file manager to directly access emulated NVRAM although it could do so easily, as there is already an internal CNvramPort interface that provides just such access independent of the actual emulated NVRAM chip. The NRF file manager should instead call the NVRAM driver, which means that I need to implement cross-module calling first. It's not really hard in principle, the design has been done but there are a lot of little details to get right (the most obvious implementation uses at least 66 bytes of emulated stack space on each such call which I find excessive and might not even work; smarter implementations require some finicky register mask management or a "magic cookie" stacking approach, the latter having the best performance in the emulation case but being impossible in the native 68000 compilation case). When cross-module calling is working, I can also have the file manager allocate emulated memory and separate out the filename parsing functions by using the OS-9 system calls that provide these functions (the current emulated NRF does not allocate emulated memory which is arguably an emulation error and has the filename parsing coded out explicitly).
When everything works correctly with the emulated NRF, I have to find some way of integrating it in the user experience. You could always start over without any NVRAM files, but I'd like to have some way of migrating files between the two possible locations without having to run CD-i Emulator with weird options. Extending the CD-i File Extractor (cdifile) by incorporating (part of) the emulated NRF seems the obvious choice, which would also provide me with some impetus to finally integrate it with the CD-i File Viewer (wcdiview) program that's supposed to be a GUI version of cdifile but so far is just a very thin skeleton barely able to graphically display a single CD-i IFF image file passed on the command line (it doesn't even have a File Open menu) and will often crash. A proper implementation would look like Windows Explorer with a tree view on the left (CD-i file system, real-time channels and records, IFF chunk structure, etc) and a variable content display on the right (raw data view, decoded sector view, code disassembly view, graphical image view, audio playback, slideshow playback, decoded MPEG view, MPEG playback, etc).
That touches on another area in which I did some work last month: the saving of CD-i IFF image files for each emulated video frame. The motivation for this was to bring full-resolution real-time frame saving into the realm of the possible, as it would write only about 2 x (1024 + 280 x (384 + 32)) = 247 KB of raw CD-i video and DCP data per frame instead of 560 x 768 x 3 = 1260 KB of raw RGB. At least on my PC this has turned out not to be the case, however. The data is written out fine, which is not as easy as it sounds since video line data size can vary with each line because of pixel repeat and run-length encoding, but it's still too slow. That being so, I am not really very motivated to extend the CD-i IFF decoding implementation to actually decode this information. Some kind of compression could be an option, but that takes processor time and makes things even harder and possibly slower. Perhaps using another thread for this would be a solution, on a multi-core machine this should not greatly impact the basic emulation performance nor the debugging complexity as the compression code would be independent of the emulation itself.
So there is still a lot of work to be done, but it's all quite interesting and will provide for some entertaining evenings and weekends in the coming weeks or possibly months.
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A report released today by the OECD has put pay to the trickle down theory espoused by right wingers when seeking to justify the massive incomes of those working at the top of the financial sector.
Those that insist that protecting the interests of the very wealthy will benefit the whole of the economy because they are "wealth creators" is rubbished by the findings of the new report "Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising."
Inequality around the world is rising fast and it's particularly bad in the UK where the top 10% now have incomes 12 times higher than the lowest 10%. This is up from a ratio of eight to one in 1985.
"Trickle down theory is dead. The belief fostered by Ronald Reagan in the US and Margaret Thatcher in the UK in the 1980s, that if the rich got richer, their income and wealth would trickle down the income scale so that a rising tide lifted all the boats, has had the last rites pronounced on it."
So if the rich bankers aren't really creating wealth for society, who really provides it? A good starting point would be a 2009 study by The New Economics Foundation which compared the social value of different occupations. For bankers it found that "while collecting salaries of between Â£500,000 and Â£10 million, leading City bankers destroy Â£7 of social value for every pound in value they generate."
Tax accountants meanwhile destroy Â£47 for every Â£1 in value they generate.
In comparison it showed that childcare workers generate between Â£7 and Â£9.50 and hospital cleaners more than Â£10 of benefits for society for every Â£1 they are paid. The OECD recommends that to stem the tide of rising inequality investment in "human capital" is vital and that "more and better" jobs should be created.
"Once the transition from school to work has been accomplished, there must be sufficient incentives for workers and employers to invest in skills throughout the working life."
We will only recognise these challenges if jobs are created for those who are society's real wealth creators. Stopping the damaging public sector cuts would be a wise place to start.
The government may not be on the side of our nurses, teachers and civil servants but at least the public are.
Despite what you might be led to believe when you pick up the majority of papers this weekend, judging by a string of opinion poll results, it seems that the majority of the public is supportive of last week's strike.
A poll conducted by the BBC ahead of the strike showed that 61% of those responding said that they supported it.
Interestingly that was relatively low support compared to support on the actual day of the strike.
A Sky News twitter poll had 72% in support on Wednesday and even the vehemently anit-union Daily Mail ran a poll where 84% of respondents said that they supported the action.
Perhaps what sparked increased support was Osborne's latest attack on the workers who were striking in his autumn statement on Tuesday. If those further cuts were meant as a show of muscle against the public sector it only seems to have made strikers more determined in their cause and even provoked added sympathy from the wider public.
It's a shame for Osborne that the same can't be said of public support for his autumn statement. The latest YouGov poll shows that the majority of voters think that the government are handling the economy badly.
Maybe he would gain a little more credibility if he stopped seeking to punish public sector workers with extra taxation through increased pension contributions and pay cuts and instead accepted proposals to tax the banking sector.
Cuts in feed-in tariffs being brought in before a government consultation has even ended, will lead to the loss of thousands of jobs according to the CBI. Channel 4 News are reporting that John Cridland, the CBI director general has warned that the low-carbon sector risks being de-railed by the move and calls it the "the latest in a string of government own goals."
For a Party that claimed they would be the greenest government ever, the Conservatives have a funny way of going about it. Proposing to put the traffic speed limit up to 80mph, threatening to sell-off our forests, culling badgers, the list goes on...
Only last month a group of the country's leading environmental groups criticised the government for only managing to meet two of their 16 green pledges.
It seems the government need to start acting on the promises that helped get them elected in the first place. That said, anyone gullible enough to think that the Conservatives were really going to be the champions of the environment were only fooling themselves. An emblem with a tree on it shouldn't have fooled anyone.
George Osborne has complained to his fellow European finance ministers that they're wasting time debating a financial transaction tax because he believes pensioners will pay for it rather than bankers.
Good to see our Chancellor fighting the cause for pensioners. He's always got their interests at heart. Like when he changed the rate of indexation from RPI to CPI costing pensioners on average between Â£2,250 and Â£2,500 per year and wiping off Â£75 billion off the value of private sector pensions. Not to mention the millions of public sector workers his government are currently seeking to make work longer and pay more for less pension.
It is somewhat galling therefore that he seeks to reject a progressive tax that would raise Â£30bn to fight poverty by painting himself as some kind of defender of pensioners.
He doesn't see the point of discussing it as it will not be unilaterally agreed. He ignores a report by Bill Gates that cites that the tax would work even if it wasn't agreed by all countries. He ignores faith leaders such as the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Pope and Desmond Tutu, and he ignores a global movement of more than 220 million people who are calling for it to help the world's poor and allow the banks to atone for creating the current financial crisis.
France, Germany and Brazil among others can hold their heads up high in the knowledge that their government's back this tax. I for one am ashamed that my government doesn't just not support it, but out-rightly seeks to disingenuously undermine it.
Again, Osborne is out to protect the interests of the wealthy few rather than the millions suffering from poverty.
The Robin Hood Tax campaign does a good job of refuting Osborne's bias against the tax on their website.
Good to see Ed Balls offering a message of hope at todayâs Labour Party conference as an alternative to the Toriesâ message of doom. Pity he chose to undermine the unions strategy for defending their membersâ pensions.
He was at his best when taking on the Tory belief of âprivate always good, public alwaysâ and challenging the government to take up an alternative economic strategy, talking up measures that would promote growth instead of their over-reliance on austerity.
It was particularly interesting to hear how he chose to attack Osborne and Cameronâs economic strategy on the international front:
âConfronted with the biggest most urgent global challenge of our age, all they can do is urge other countries to pile austerity on austerity tooâ¦ ignoring the lessons of history and the evidence here in Britain, and across the world, that austerity just isn't working. That is not just a failure of leadership â it is a complete abdication of responsibility too.â
The lessons in history he no doubt alludes to are how, during a time of an even worse national debt, the Labour Party was able to introduce the welfare state, NHS, state pensions, and comprehensive education.
Balls could have gone further on these reasons for Labour to be proud. Unfortunately, on the subject of pensions, he chose to criticise the unions for standing up to the governmentâs (as he put it) âconfrontational and unfairâ pension changes. He reiterated the partyâs leadershipâs belief that the decision to strike would be walking into a trap and that âthere is nothing George Osborne would like better than a strike this autumn to divert attention from his failing economic plan.â
He said that under Labour pensions contributions and retirement ages would be going up anyway. Why? Was he inviting us to question â whose side are you on Ed? Are you really looking out for the ordinary working people you spoke of today that are struggling to make ends meet who need hope of a better way? You must realise many of these people are the same people youâre criticising for having the audacity for taking a stand against having their pension rights torn up.
Itâs good to see the Labour Party going on the offensive against the Tory austerity measures and calling for the immediate need for growth. However, the partyâs leaders need to realise, if strikes do go ahead in November and they fail to support the workers, many of these traditional Labour supporters may never forgive them.
I am writing a short series, âCities for Familiesâ to showcase how local governments, non-profits, and the private sector are building a family friendly city. This fourth and final edition spotlights the non-profit sector, examining how the Co-operative Housing Federation of BC and other partners achieved this goal with the First Avenue Athletes Village Housing […]
The regulation of top income, especially, the remuneration of senior civil servants, public officials and top-level executives in the semi-public sector has resurfaced as a topic of political and public debates across the European Union since the economic crisis in 2008. In order to control the remuneration of high-level public officials and make them more transparent, different measures have been introduced. This study – articulated in two different parts - aims at investigating, from a theoretical and practical point of view, the regulation of executive pay across the European Union. The underlying overall objective is to develop comparative insights, define possible best practices and focus on themes and systems’ elements that should become subject to further research in order to account for an effective policy model.
This study has been conducted upon the request of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations by the European Institute of Public Administration of Maastricht.
A follow up (event) will soon be released in order to share and deepen the main findings of the research.
For further questions and information about this study and/or new research inquiries please contact the project leader.
Under the theme “The Public Sector as Partner for a Better Society”, the EPSA 2015 gathered and rewarded those ground-breaking and evidenced solutions of public administrations facing current (European, if not worldwide) challenges related to areas such as migration and integration, health and educational sectors, the labour market, energy, the environment and demographics coupled with pressures on welfare budgets and general budgetary constraints.
A total of 266 projects from 36 European countries and European institutions were submitted, which shows that working in partnership is a necessity for all levels of public administrations across Europe in order to contribute to and take the lead towards a better society.
This publication highlights the trends identified from the EPSA 2015 practice-front in order to share best practice elements with the readers – as a source of inspiration for their own change projects. Thus, this publication presents a first analysis and taster of the novel solutions applied by public administrations across Europe.
It is split into two parts: An EPSA 2015 Trends & Practices Report analysing the best practices and successful elements identified in the EPSA submissions, which are of interest to other public administrations looking for solutions on how to address current challenges. Common elements, enablers and barriers are pin-pointed during this analysis. The general findings and common trends across the two administrative categories are sketched out in the joint conclusions at the end of this report.
The second part of this publication contains the Best Practices Catalogue, which comprises the EPSA 2015 statistics and the edited executive summaries of the 64 best practices (9 nominees and 55 additional Best Practice Certificate recipients) with the contact details of the EPSA 2015 winners, nominees and best practice certificate recipients to allow the reader to directly contact the public sector innovators behind the rewarded projects and thus encourage joint learning and knowledge transfer.
In conclusion, this publication contains inspirational and working solutions which are ready to be adapted to and replicated by the readers’ public sector institutions in their own administrative cultures and systems.
Since the first edition of the book the use of Competitive Dialogue has been influenced by both changes on how public contracts are awarded arising from the 2014 Public Procurement Directives and the continuing impact of the global financial crisis on award procedures for PPP projects at a time when private finance is increasingly seen as central to the modernisation of European infrastructure. Yet objective advice for decision makers about how to award complex contracts, however they are financed, remains hard to find.
Cutting through the jargon and misconceptions, this book is an independent guide for all those in Europe facing the challenge of awarding complex contracts effectively to secure value for money for the public sector.
The continuing experience of the authors is that good practice in the application of Competitive Dialogue and Negotiated Procedures will often be very similar. Thus in this second edition the scope of the book includes consideration of Negotiated Procedures.
Written from a public sector perspective, the book has two main audiences. i.e.:
European decision makers from the legislative and judicial branch of government responsible for creating and implementing an appropriate legal framework at EU level for Competitive Dialogue and Negotiated Procedures.
Politicians, public officials and their professional advisers in the EU currently facing choices about when and how to use Competitive Dialogue and Negotiated Procedures in a way which maximises legal certainty and the likelihood of achieving value for money.
The book both explains the legal framework for the application of Competitive Dialogue and Negotiated Procedures and gives practical guidance for all stages of the award procedure on how best to exercise the choices available within the legal framework.
It also sets out an agenda for future use of Competitive Dialogue and Negotiated Procedures after the 2014 Public Procurement Directives, with actions at EU and national level.
The stakes in terms of the need to modernise Europe’s transport, energy and digital infrastructure and the effective implementation of key European policies, such as compliance with environmental legislation and the completion of the Internal Market, at an affordable cost remain too high for it to fail.
El buen funcionamiento del sector público local es clave para la prosperidad y el crecimiento económico. Actualmente, las ciudades se enfrentan a numerosos retos como el cambio demográfico, la creciente diversidad cultural, el progreso tecnológico, la desigualdad y segregación social, la expansión urbana y la creciente presión sobre los ecosistemas urbanos. Además, muchos sistemas locales atraviesan dificultades económicas como consecuencia de la globalización. Esto agrava el ya conocido problema al que se enfrentan los administradores locales de "hacer más con menos".
Este libro analiza y compara siete ciudades europeas – Bilbao (ES), Birmingham (UK), Mannheim (DE), Milán (IT), Tallin (EE), Tampere (FI), y Trondheim (NO) – que deben su éxito a la adopción de medidas innovadoras y de excelencia. Con este fin, se combina un riguroso método de análisis con un estudio práctico de los casos (el "Making of..."). Por último, describe los siete pasos para alcanzar la excelencia en la gestión pública local.
Cada caso analiza los antecedentes, desarrollo de estrategias, el camino al éxito, los sistemas de control de gestión y económico, los resultados obtenidos y el poder de innovación (los principales factores de éxito). Las historias de éxito se centran en diferentes áreas de la gestión pública local – desde procesos integrales de cambio a proyectos a pequeña escala – con el objetivo de demostrar a otras ciudades que existen numerosas soluciones. Lo único que queda por saber es: ¿se atreverán a hacerlo?
The economic storm faced by European public administrations continues unabated. Budget cuts and austerity measures coupled with unpleasant tax increases have been extensively applied, though they have not always delivered the expected results.
Difficult choices lie ahead for Europe’s public sector in order to stabilise public finances, while continuing to deliver the services needed more than ever by an increasing number of citizens as a result of the economic pressure. Trends over time which exacerbate such pressures are unlikely to be reversed in the medium term.
The EPSA 2013 edition has collected a rich harvest of 230 solutions from across all levels of public administration and from 26 European countries and EU institutions, which can all be proud of their achievements and also showcase how they are dealing with these challenging times.
This publication aims to sketch out the trends, ideas and solutions in the various creative public management and service reforms on the one hand, whilst pinpointing common elements or obstacles in their delivery – The Research Part. Key findings, among many others, include active strategies to promote economic growth, the ability to enhance social inclusion, the use of transparency as a means to promote better governance, or the smart deployment of ICT to boost trust in government and improve service delivery.
On the other hand, the best and top-ranked 47 practices (15 nominees and 32 additional best practice certificate recipients) are subsequently described, allowing the reader to not only get an idea of the innovation and drivers behind the cases, but also to directly contact the owners behind the applications in order to encourage the learning and transfer potential. These outstanding public achievements span sectors such as economic and urban development, sustainable development, justice and police, education and training, sports and youth, public health, social media, and human resources management. This part – The Catalogue – is supported by data and statistics on the applications (e.g. type, country, size, fully or partly EU co-financed).
In a nutshell, the EPSA 2013 book demonstrates – again! – how the public sector has tried to resolve the various urgent challenges linked to the current crisis, by combining creativity and sustainability, accompanied by an often needed passion in their solutions.
A well-functioning local public sector is the cornerstone for prosperity and growth. Cities are being confronted by significant pressures and challenges, such as demographic change, an increasingly culturally diverse population, the impact of new technologies, social polarisation and segregation, urban sprawl, and environmental threats to the urban ecosystems. More importantly, the difficulties of the economic system are a reality for many local communities due to the dynamics of globalisation of economies. This exacerbates the well-known problem faced by local policymakers and managers of ‘doing more with less’.
This book seeks to examine, compare and contrast seven European cities – Bilbao (ES), Birmingham (UK), Mannheim (DE), Milan (IT), Tallinn (EE), Tampere (FI), and Trondheim (NO) – which have proven their success in adopting creative and excellent solutions. This is done by combining a solid scientific approach of comparison, with a more practical examination of the cases (‘...the making of…’). It concludes by presenting seven steps leading to excellence.
Each case is first analysed in terms of background, strategy development, ‘journey’, management control system and financial management, results, and innovation power (key drivers and enablers). These success stories from different areas of local public management – from comprehensive local business-change processes, to smaller and bottom-up projects – aim to show other cities that various routes to smart solutions are possible. The only thing left to find out is: are they ready to take on the challenge?
What kind of ideas are behind the remodelling of the state and public sector, and how have these ideas materialized in practice? In this book the authors illustrate what are the driving forces behind the huge amount of public management reforms over the last three decades. Trends and ideas of public management reforms in practice are validated by data from European Public Sector Award cases (2009 and 2011).
European public sectors are particularly affected by the demographic challenge and an ageing and shrinking workforce. According to OECD statistics, over 30% of public employees of central government in 13 countries will leave during the next 15 years. Moreover, the public sector has as compared to the private sector to rely on a much older workforce, who will have to work longer in future. Against this background, European governments need to react and re-think major elements of current HR and organisational management in the public sector. Particularly the skills in age management should be improved in order to also maintain in future a highly productive, competent and efficient public sector and to ensure that public employees stay longer ‘employable’, ‘healthy’, ‘fit for the job’ and ‘up to the task’. The survey suggests some solutions by investing more in three priority areas in the field of HRM.
The catalogue is structured into three parts. In the first chapter, data and statistics on the applications are provided, i.e. an overview of the projects by countries, administrative level, and size of administration or sectorial area of the submitting institution. Subsequently, the EPSA multi-step selection and assessment methodology and process is decribed in detail. The third chapter illustrates all the good practices following a brief introduction to each of the three EPSA 2011 thematic areas - Smart Public Service Delivery in a Cold Economic Climate (Theme I), Opening Up the Public Sector Through Collaborative Governance (Theme II) and Going Green: Concrete Solutions from the Public Sector (Theme III) - and ordered by country and EPSA registration number. Each case description also provides the reader with contact details of the submitter and how to find more information about the project in order to facilitate the exchange of good practice and lessons learnt.
This publication is again the result of the many applications received during this edition. Its main purpose is thus to shed light on the many public administrations efforts and to draw the future trends from these practices when analysing the innovative performances. The state of affairs and development of the three EPSA 2011 themes are mirrored against the respective applications received and the emerging, best or nominated practices are highlighted in order to subsequently arrive at common conclusions and recommendations. In addition, this book provides – for the first time – some insight into the grounds and motivation behind why public organisations participate(d) in initiatives such as the EPSA (EPSA Testimony), as well as outlining a possible model for measuring and defining the potential public added-value of such participation and the return on investment one may expect.
Competitive Dialogue has been hailed by some as the new solution for public authorities wanting to award contracts for complex infrastructure projects, while others see problems in applying it effectively to obtain value for money for the public sector. Objective advice for decision makers on when and how to use Competitive Dialogue is hard to find. This book - written for politicians, public officials and their professional advisers - is an independent guide for those facing these challenges at all levels in Europe.
After an explanation and analysis of legal framework for Competitive Dialogue, the book sets out how Competitive Dialogue emerged, how it compares to the Negotiated Procedure, the legal challenges in applying Competitive Dialogue, when it is appropriate to use it and where it is being used in the EU. Successive chapters then analyse the key issues arising in the implementation of Competitive Dialogue at each stage of the process and how they should be addressed. Finally, the book draws together the key conclusions for the future use of Competitive Dialogue and the actions needed to implement them at EU and national level. Taken together, they add up to an agenda for the future effective use of Competitive Dialogue.
Book Review What people have said about “Competitive Dialogue – A practical guide”
“Burnett and Oder...have produced an essential practitioner’s guide into the complex area of concluding public contracts” Professor Christopher Bovis(in European PPP Law Review) Read the review here.
“Has added to our understanding of the Competitive Dialogue process. If it is read and its guidance is followed there could be significant improvements in public sector procurement outcomes” John Tizard(in Government Opportunities) Read the review here.
“This book is a unique addition to the existing literature on Competitive Dialogue...Burnett and Oder set out their findings in a clearly written, illustrative and practically relevant manner” Sylvia de Mars(in Public Procurement Law Review) Read the reviewhere.
The catalogue is divided into two parts. In the first chapter, data and statistics on the applications are provided, i.e. an overview of the projects by countries, administrative level, and size of administration or sectorial area of the submitting institution. The subsequent chapter illustrates all the good practices following a brief introduction to each of the four EPSA 2009 thematic areas - Performance Improvement in Public Service Delivery (Theme I), Citizen Involvement (Theme II), New Forms of Partnership Working (Theme III) and Leadership and Management for Change (Theme IV) - and ordered by country and EPSA registration number. Each case description also provides the reader with contact details of the submitter and how to find more information about the project in order to facilitate the exchange of good practice and lessons learnt.
During the last 15-20 years the public sector has faced a number of challenges connected to changing socio-economic, environmental and political factors, including among others:
Demographic changes such as an ageing population, a diminishing working population and increased immigration;
Environmental changes, such as climate changes and shortage of space;
• Urbanisation including pressure on metropolitan areas, commuting and citizens’ demand for housing;
Globalisation, internationalisation and Europeanisation;
Diminishing “social capital”, including participation in elections and mistrust towards public administration and public services;
The emergence of complex social issues, arising from social fragmentation, not susceptible to single agency action and/or one dimensional responses;
Less willingness to increase resources to the public sector, despite higher demands and expectations of citizens for better services.
These issues are strong drivers for change in Europe’s public administrations and generally cut across traditional boundaries of government departments, and in some cases of the responsibilities of different levels of government; this presents challenges to public administrations in the way they deliver their public services. Consequently, a number of profound reforms have taken place and continue to do so at all levels of public administration. The (ultimate) purpose of the different reforms is to make governments more responsive to society’s changing needs and demands.
The fact that businesses and job creators can make such a phenomenal showing after years of regulatory uncertainty and continued political intervention reminds us of the power of the free market and that the best successes come from the work of the individuals, not collectivists in the public sector.
Perhaps the best reminding of what the last eight years brought us was President Obamaâs infamous 2012 campaign speech âIf you've got a business, you didn't build that.â Throughout the course of his administration saw a creation of routine legislative and executive actions that were designed to both micromanage business and supposedly âcreateâ jobs. Unfortunately, none of this had the intended success.
Most prominently among the actions from the executive administration while Obama was presidents include significantly increased regulations. Among these have included the Waters of the United States Rule (WOTUS), Dodd-Frank, the stimulus package, and, most spectacularly of all, Obamacare. All of these added a large interventions and onerous barriers in the economy that failed to achieve their stated goal.
Outside of simple regulation, there was also so called âjobs creationsâ programs that were supposed to create jobs the President did not think businesses could such as the stimulus package. The program was sold as a job creation plan that would keep unemployment below 8 percent for the low price of $830 billion.
However, policy alone does not explain why there has been high profit growth for the last two quarters. As the Wall Street Journal article admits, health care legislation and tax reform have been stalled in the senate. This has caused a climate of uncertainty which businesses have not been happy with.
Nevertheless, they have instead moved on from Washington and instead remained focused on doing business. Political events seem to have taken a backseat to actual business as the number of S&P 500 companies have mentioned the President or his administration during conferences is down by a third as the research firm Sentieo found out. To be blunt, the involvement of Washington and government policy is not driving the current profit growth and the lack of involvement may actually be increasing it.
For a better example of how reduced involvement can improve the economy, look no further than the Depression of 1920. At the time, war time debt had exploded, unemployment peaked at 11.7 percent in 1921, and inflation rates jumped above twenty percent. It had the potential to be even more catastrophic than the Great Depression that started in 1929.
However, the policies pursued were entirely different. The federal budget was severely reduced from $18.5 billion in FY 1919 to $3.3 billion for FY 1922. Taxes at the same time were cut by about 40 percent.
As a result, unemployment dropped to 2.3 percent by 1923 and a crisis had been averted. This was accomplished not by bailouts and and overregulation but by getting the government entirely out of the way. This is a radically different approach than was pursued during the financial panic of 2008 or even the Great Depression.
As history and current events have shown time and time again, the best results come not from government involvement and micromanagement, but from the hard work of free individuals in free markets. More and more, the adaptability of businesses to their consumerâs demands and their ability to whether adversity in the marketplace has always been more efficient than the micromanagement the state perceives. As a result, sometimes the best thing to do is to have the government do nothing so that those who can make the economy better will.
An issue that has a tendency to come into the public consciousness from time to time is bringing back Glass-Steagall. Initially repealed in 1999 by the Financial Services Modernization Act, primarily known as the GrammâLeachâBliley Act, the law that separated commercial and investment banking has received renewed support with both party platforms during last yearâs presidential election calling for it to be reinstated.
There may be good intentions behind this desire, but the belief that the law would reduce recessions or prevent banks from becoming âtoo big to failâ is at best misguided and unnecessary while at worst it will cause unforeseen problems for the financial system.
As stated above, Glass-Steagall is a law that requires a separation between commercial and investment banking in the financial sector. It was instituted in the 1930s during the great depression by Sen. Carter Glass (D-Va.) and Rep. Henry Steagall (D-Ala.) in the hopes that it would prevent banks from making risky decisions in the market. At the time, âmore than 600 banks failed each year between 1921 and 1929,â so there was a serious desire to curb that.
However, from the 1960s onward, the legislation faced erosion with congressional legislation and the Supreme Court rulings changing key sections of the bill, including reducing limitations on security purchases, the abolition of interest caps, and increased deference to regulatory agencies for the legislation. The most prominent and controversial change to the legislation came from the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, which repealed sections 20 and 32 of the legislation.
Unfortunately, there are certain problems with the narrative that deregulation and the repeal of Glass-Steagall specifically caused the recession. First off, there is no history of deregulation in the past two decades in the financial sector. As was noted by the Mercatus Center, the number of banking regulations actually consistently grew between 1999 and 2008 despite the Glass-Steagall repeal which puts a major hole in the deregulation narrative.
With that in mind, the Glass-Steagall legislation itself had very little to do with the 2008 financial recession. However, many of the institutions that had failed were not actually affected by the legislation period. Also, most of the institutions that did fail either received government incentives to provide risky loans (especially in providing housing loans to people who could not afford them), were still heavily regulated, and received guidelines or incentives from the central government for those risky loans.
In addition, there is also evidence that Glass-Steagall did not reduce the banking failures during the depression which it was allegedly supposed to address. For an example, Canada did not pass a Glass-Steagall law during the recession despite facing similar issues to the US. Overall, Canada saw its GDP fall by 40 percent between 1929 and 1939, but not a single bank failed during the depression years and its banking system remained mostly intact.
Beyond that, the most replacing Glass-Steagall could do is stifle the banking industry. Some economists have speculated that the repeal softened the blow because it allowed more diversification of the market. Since less diversified firms made up for a larger number of failures during the 2008 financial crisis and the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco credited diversification with being the reason Canada did not face bank failures during the depression, this does provide evidence that may have been a possibility.
This may seem surprising, but the US was the only country in the industrialized world to separate investment and commercial banking. The desire remains to prevent the creation of banks that are âtoo big to failâ but it seems to have largely failed to address that and has prevented useful diversification. Bringing it back will not prevent another crisis nor prevent banks from going under.
The fix is in. Did you know, corporations like General Electric Co. (GE) spend more money on lobbyists than they pay in taxes?
The federal government currently taxes corporations at 35 percent. While many argue the rate is too high, you donât hear companies like GE complaining about it. Thatâs because they arenât paying it.
Over the past 15 years, GEâs federal income tax rate averaged only 5.2 percent. General Electric paid no federal taxes in 2010, despite earning $5.1 billion in U.S. profits. Instead, the company claimed a tax benefit of $3.2 billion.
Meanwhile, GE executives awarded themselves more than $75 million in compensation and paid lobbyists a total of $39 million that same year- all while laying off their own employees.
How was this possible? It was an inside job. General Electricâs tax planning team includes former employees from the Treasury, IRS, and congressional tax-writing committees. GE doesnât have a tax compliance team, it has a tax defiance team.
This is how the revolving door of power works in Washington. Entry-level staffers move to our nationâs capital and work as âpublic servantsâ for a few years. They learn the rules of the game, then cash out in the private sector to help lobbying firms and corporations like General Electric manipulate the system.
And the door spins âround and âround ...
No wonder Fortune 500 companies are so quiet on the sidelines while grassroots America fights to reform the tax code. Theyâve already cut a deal behind closed doors.
With a Republican-led Congress and White House, there is a serious opportunity for tax and welfare reform in 2018. Itâs time to finally level the playing field. Any serious GOP entitlement reform effort must begin with corporate welfare reform.
Everyday families canât afford entire teams of lawyers and lobbyists dedicated to avoiding taxes. We work hard, and play by the rules. Political insiders and corporate America should do the same.
The American people arenât being heard by government because the game is rigged. Washington isnât broken. Itâs âfixed.â
On behalf of FreedomWorks activists nationwide, I urge you to contact your representative and encourage him or her to cosponsor the Prison Reform and Redemption Act, H.R. 3356, introduced by Rep. Doug Collins (R-Ga.). This bill would require the Attorney General to develop an offender risk and needs assessment system and incentivizes offenders to lower their risk of recidivism.
On a fiscal level, this bill simply makes sense. Right now, taxpayers are not getting a return on their investment. In 2005, the Bureau of Justice Statistics an office of the Department of Justice tracked over 400,000 offenders in over 30 states after their release from prison. The study found that within three years 67.8 percent reoffended and in five years 76.6 percent reoffended. This failure rate is unacceptable, and Congress must change the direction by utilizing evidenced-based practices to reduce recidivism.
Thankfully, the states â the laboratories of policy innovation â have shown that rehabilitative programming in state prisons reduces recidivism and enhances public safety. In 2007, for example, Texas began the first phase of its justice reinvestment initiative, using a data-driven approach to corrections to reduce recidivism. Crime in the Lone Star State is now at its lowest rate 1968. More than 30 states, including Georgia and South Carolina, have adopted similar justice reinvestment initiatives.
The Prison Reform and Redemption Act would require the Attorney General to develop a post-sentencing risk and needs assessment. All prisoners in the federal prison system will be assigned recidivism reduction programming. The Bureau of Prisons would be responsible for the implementation of the risk and needs assessments for each prisoner and development of recidivism reduction programming.
Each offender will be assessed for risk on an individual level to develop a comprehensive plan based on his or her need and probability of reoffending. Utilizing private public partnerships in this capacity would allow non-profit organizations, educational institutions, and private sector entities to build relationships and community for the most vulnerable citizens in our society.
The bill would incentivize prisoners to reduce their risk of recidivism. For every 30 days of successfully completed recidivism reduction programming, prisoners will ten days of time credits. Prisoners can earn an additional five days, for a total of 15 days, after two successful risk assessment periods. Those prisoners who have are considered low or no risk of recidivism can earn an additional five days, for a total of 15, provided that their risk of recidivism doesnât increase over two risk assessment periods.
Certain categories offenders â including violent offenders, sex offenders, and terrorists â would not be eligible to earn time credits.
The Prison Reform and Redemption Act would allow for great access to visitation and phone privileges, create a pilot program to address the heroin and opioid epidemic, and prohibit the use restraints of pregnant offenders unless the offender poses a serious threat. The bill would require the Bureau of Prisons to collect statistical and demographic information to be provided to Congress on an annual basis.
Congress has fallen behind the states on this important issue. While other policy changes â such as sentencing reforms and reentry reforms â are needed, this bill would bring a key component of state-level success to the federal prison system, offering prisoners an opportunity for restorative justice while enhancing public safety. For these reasons, I urge you to contact your representative and encourage him or her to cosponsor the Prison Reform and Redemption Act, H.R. 3356.
On behalf of FreedomWorksâ activist community, I urge you to contact your representative and ask him or her to vote YES on H.J.Res. 111. FreedomWorks Foundation drove more than 15,000 responses to the CFPB against the rule during the comment period.
This resolution of disapproval under the Congressional Review Act (CRA) would cancel the Consumer Financial Protection Bureauâs (CFPB) arbitration rule. The final rule was published on Regulations.gov on July 19. While the CRA isnât a panacea, it does provide a means for Congress to act as a check on out-of-control federal agencies.
The CFPBâs arbitration rule is, in reality, a giveaway to trial lawyers. The rule ostensibly bans contractual arbitration clauses related to consumer financial products offered by banks and other financial sector firms. This severely limits consumersâ ability to enter into arbitration during disputes.
Arbitration is an easier and quicker process for consumers to resolve issues, but lawyers donât make much money from this process. The rule, however, will encourage trial lawyers to pursue more class-action lawsuits, which take longer and result in smaller payouts to consumers. But class-action lawsuits do bring in big dollars for trial lawyers.
Class-action lawsuits can take two to five years to resolve, and the average payment is $32.35 per individual. These class-action suits, for which trial lawyers are paid an average of roughly $1 million, also drive up costs to consumers. By comparison, arbitration typically takes two to five months, with an average payment of thousands of dollars. Itâs clear which process truly protects consumers.
FreedomWorks will count the vote on H.J.Res. 111 on our 2017 Congressional Scorecard. The scorecard is used to determine eligibility for the FreedomFighter Award, which recognizes Members of the House and Senate who consistently vote to support economic freedom and individual liberty.
The fix is in. Did you know, members of Congress can exclude themselves from federal laws they donât want to follow? Taxpayers are forced to play by the rules, while lawmakers in Washington get a free pass.
The Congressional Accountability Act (CAA) of 1995 was created to remedy some of these injustices. In theory, the CAA requires members of Congress to abide by some of the same employment and workplace safety laws as any other business or federal government entity.
But in reality, members of Congress continue to dodge their way around significant legislative policy.
Congress has the power to kick you off your health care plan, yet lawmakers excused themselves from the ObamaCare exchanges. Congress requires federal agencies to provide citizens with internal records, yet lawmakers exempted themselves from the Freedom of Information Act, along with numerous other record-keeping and transparency laws (including whistleblower protections).
Congress supports sending citizens to jail for insider trading, yet lawmakers are allowed to make stock trades based on non-public information. Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to protect citizens from dishonest private sector CEOs, yet lawmakers shamelessly lie about the costs of their policy agenda.
Not surprisingly, the Office of Compliance for the U.S. Congress revealed to the press that representatives often fail to produce records and information critical to investigations in a timely manner- or sometimes even at all. Compliance has no legal authority to subpoena information, leaving them at the complete mercy of legislative offices.
Why are members of Congress so tone deaf? Because they arenât living in the same reality as the rest of America. They are shielded from the consequences of their actions. Forget equal treatment under the law, the official slogan of the Legislative Branch should be: Rules for thee, but not for me.
The American people arenât being heard by government because the game is rigged. Washington isnât broken. Itâs âfixed.â
NÃ£o tenho nada contra Ã s concentraÃ§Ãµes. SÃ£o agradÃ¡veis, proporcionam boas escapadelas de fim-de-semana, impulsionam o sector e as regiÃµes. No entanto, talvez valha a pena inventar outras formas complementares para recuperar o tal convÃvio despretensioso que motociclistas como eu sÃ³ conhecem de ouvir falar. Ou talvez caiba a cada um de nÃ³s promover esses momentos de partilha. Ã que quando o vil metal entra na equaÃ§Ã£o, para mais numa escala de centenas de milhar, tudo fica mais impessoal. Ã como ir ao hiper-mercado em vez de ir Ã mercearia.
ACTO II â A CORTESIA, E A FALTA DELA HÃ¡ trÃªs anos fiquei espantado ao verificar que em FranÃ§a todo e qualquer motociclista que se cruzasse comigo me dirigia um cumprimento. Fosse com o polegar em sinal de OK, fosse com a perna direita esticada, fosse com um simples aceno de cabeÃ§a ou fosse, inclusivamente, com uma piscadela de mÃ¡ximos. Todos sem excepÃ§Ã£o, independentemente da moto que utilizavam, nÃ£o hesitavam em cumprimentar-se entre si. Achei bonito. SÃ£o gestos simples como este que aumentam a uniÃ£o, a coesÃ£o, e o sentimento de pertenÃ§a a um grupo do qual fazemos parte. NÃ£o custa nada e cai bem.
EPÃLOGO Talvez haja outros traÃ§os que definam de forma complementar, para o bem ou para o mal, o motociclista portuguÃªs. Falo dos motociclistas empenhados em acÃ§Ãµes de solidariedade social, de outros que promovem passeios interessantes (onde â aqui sim - se pode comungar do tal convÃvio que tem estado arredado dos grandes eventos), dos aceleras, dos âmicro-matrÃculasâ, dos minimalistas (aqueles que arrancam tudo da moto deixando ficar sÃ³ o quadro, as rodas e o assento, e mesmo assimâ¦.), dos gabarolas, dos arruaceiros, dos condutores de fim-de-semana, dos condutores de fim-de-semana mas sÃ³ no verÃ£o, dos que vÃ£o ver todos os jogos do Sport Lisboa e Benfica, mas que acham caro o bilhete para o Moto GP, preferindo ceder o lugar aos espanhÃ³is, etc. Mas quem sabe, numa prÃ³xima oportunidade, eu talvez retome ao tema e acabe por adicionar novas cenas a esta peÃ§a. Ã uma questÃ£o de aguardar pela sequela.
9.Âº BIKE SHOW Durante a tarde de sÃ¡bado, as repousantes sombras do Parque do Cerejal serviram, uma vez mais, de palco para uma boa mostra de motos transformadas, contando, mais uma vez, com a excelente organizaÃ§Ã£o do MC AÃ§o na Estrada. Este ano, o local escolhido para a exibiÃ§Ã£o das motos a concurso foi num cenÃ¡rio militar.
IRIS c/ Orquestra Ensemble Petrov Directamente do Algarve, os Iris fizeram-se acompanhar pela Orquestra Ensemble Petrov, que emprestou uma sonoridade sinfÃ³nica Ã s composiÃ§Ãµes originais e Ã s versÃµes que os Iris habitualmente tocam ao vivo. Domingos Caetano, guitarrista virtuoso, e vocalista de voz aguda, influenciado pelo som que ouviu na juventude nos anos 80 (Hard-Rock e Heavy-Metal), terminou o espectÃ¡culo dedicando a emocionante versÃ£o do famoso âAdÃ¡gioâ de Albinoni a todos os motociclistas que jÃ¡ partiram.
STONE Banda de covers, os Stone sÃ£o um colectivo com boa presenÃ§a e som possante que aqueceu o pÃºblico que se assomava ao recinto da concentraÃ§Ã£o na noite de sexta-feira.
DESPORTOS E ANIMAÃÃO RADICAL Este ano a oferta, embora menos âviolentaâ (sim porque o bungee jumping do ano passado nÃ£o era para todosâ¦), foi mais variada. As opÃ§Ãµes disponÃveis eram o Laser Tag, Sky Bike, Orbit Ball, Human Loop, Parede de Escalada e Slide.
TASQUINHAS VÃ¡rios restaurantes, com extensas esplanadas, onde se pÃ´de apreciar a boa e variada gastronomia beirÃ£. Uma excelente oportunidade para uma pausa, num ambiente calmo e sereno, saboreando um bom vinho em convÃvio com os amigos.
TENDA ELECTRÃNICA Depois das actuaÃ§Ãµes no grande palco, a tenda electrÃ³nica garantiu a animaÃ§Ã£o pela noite dentro com excelentes DJâs. O mote era pÃ´r todo o tipo de pessoal âa bombarâ, e pelo que vimos, o objectivo foi atingido.
ROTEIROS TURÃSTICOS DistribuÃdos com a inscriÃ§Ã£o, os roteiros turÃsticos sÃ£o duas diferentes propostas de passeio pela regiÃ£o, percorrendo as suas melhores paisagens, a gastronomia, as tradiÃ§Ãµes, o artesanato e a hospitalidade beirÃ£.
WORKSHOPS Esta novidade apareceu na forma de passatempos e concursos de pintura para vÃ¡rias categorias.
GNR no local De presenÃ§a discreta, mas efectuando algumas operaÃ§Ãµes Stop, o balanÃ§o foi positivo, uma vez que nÃ£o houve ocorrÃªncia de acidentes graves durante o perÃodo da concentraÃ§Ã£o. NÃ£o foram interceptadas motos roubadas, houve sim alguns autos de contra-ordenaÃ§Ã£o levantados por excesso de Ã¡lcool, ausÃªncia de seguro ou de licenÃ§a de conduÃ§Ã£o, e matrÃculas tapadas ou retiradas. Mas mesmo assim, estas ocorrÃªncias foram em menor nÃºmero absoluto do que em 2006. Tendo em conta que este ano houve uma maior afluÃªncia de motos do que no ano passado, podemos afirmar que, de um modo geral, os motociclistas tiveram um comportamento verdadeiramente exemplar.
There is reason to be concerned the AFSCME lawsuit challenging the recent collective bargaining amendments will undermine the legislatureâs effort to reform public sector collective bargaining.Â As discussed in our previous post on the new law, AFSCME Council 61, the stateâs largest public employee union, filed a lawsuit to invalidate the new law on February...… Continue Reading
The 2017 Iowa legislative session has been one of the more rancorous in recent memory, driven in large part by proposed amendments to the public sector collective bargaining law.Â Following all-night debates and massive protests by union supporters, the house and senate both voted on February 16 to make the most sweeping changes in the...… Continue Reading
Si por Ãºltimo del conjunto del sector se distinguen productores agrarios, productores pecuarios, industrializadores (frigorÃficos, usinas lecheras y productores de aceites y biocombustibles) y comercializadores (en particular propietarios de silos y exportadores), resulta evidente que los industriales y comercializadores del sector se han apropiado, como resultado de la polÃtica del gobierno, de parte de los beneficios de los productores pecuarios o agrarios".
La mejor definiciÃ³n que hallamos sobre "el pueblo" nos la proporcionÃ³ LeÃ³n Tolstoi en las pÃ¡ginas de Anna Karenina que yo habÃa estado leyendo un mes antes. Constantino Dmitrievich (Levin) estÃ¡ discutiendo con su hermano Sergio Ivanovich, en presencia de su suegro (el PrÃncipe) y de un amigo comÃºn (Kosnichev), sobre los voluntarios rusos que se estaban movilizando en ese momento para participar en el conflicto armado contra los turcos que tenÃa lugar en los Balcanes... Merece la pena que echen un vistazo a todo el capÃtulo XV de la parte VIII; yo les dejo a continuaciÃ³n sus Ãºltimas lÃneas:
"âEn este caso, las opiniones personales no significan nada ârespondiÃ³ Kosnichevâ; las opiniones personales no tienen ningÃºn valor ante la voluntad de toda Rusia expresada con unanimidad.
âPerdone, pero no lo veo. El pueblo es ajeno a todo eso ârepuso el PrÃncipe.
âEl pueblo no puede ignorarlo. El pueblo tiene siempre conciencia de su destino y en momentos como los de ahora ve las cosas con claridad âdeclarÃ³ Sergio Ivanovich categÃ³ricamente, mirando al viejo encargado del colmenar, como interrogÃ¡ndole.
El viejo, arrogante, de negra barba canosa y espesos cabellos de plata, permanecÃa inmÃ³vil sosteniendo el pote de miel y mirando dulcemente a los seÃ±ores desde la elevaciÃ³n de su estatura sin entender ni querer entender lo que trataban, segÃºn se evidenciaba en todo su aspecto.
âSÃ, seÃ±or âafirmÃ³ el viejo, moviendo la cabeza, como contestando a las palabras de Sergio Ivanovich.
âEso significa, a mi juicio âdijo Levin que comenzaba a irritarse otra vezâ, que en un pueblo de ochenta millones se encuentran, no ya centenares, sino decenas de miles de hombres que han perdido su posiciÃ³n social, gente atrevida, pronta a todo, que siempre estÃ¡ dispuesta a enrolarse en las bandas de Pugachev o cualquier otra de su especie, y que lo mismo va a Servia que a la China...
âTe digo que no se trata de centenares ni de gente perdida, sino que son los mejores representantes del pueblo ââdijo Sergio Ivanovich con tanta irritaciÃ³n como si estuvieran defendiendo sus Ãºltimos bienesâ. Â¿Y los dineros recogidos? Â¡AquÃ sÃ que el pueblo expresa directa y claramente su voluntad!
Caminamos con Sara por las destrozadas calles de nuestro barrio de CÃ³rdoba. Vamos indignados, charlando sobre los altos impuestos que debemos pagar los ciudadanos para (sobre)vivir en una urbe con un aspecto y un funcionamiento deplorables. A nuestro lado pasan una docena de carros de cartoneros, tirados por caballos flacos como el famoso Rocinante, toda una estampa del tan mentado "subdesarrollo". Entramos a un supermercado y padecemos el desabastecimiento, los exagerados precios de la inflaciÃ³n y los manejos especuladores de los comerciantes. Compramos muy poco, lo bÃ¡sico para poder seguir comiendo. Hay alimentos que no vemos o no podemos comprar desde hace meses. De retorno a casa, nos cruzamos con varias unidades de transporte urbano que parecen sacadas de una pelÃcula de la Guerra Mundial (la Primera). Antes de llegar a la puerta de nuestro edificio, debemos sortear basuras no recogidas desde hace dos dÃas y tres derrames de aguas fecales que inundan las aceras... y que nadie se preocupa por reparar.
Al lado de esas declaraciones oficiales, escuchamos las denuncias de escuelas rurales, que cuentan como sus niÃ±os deben viajar tres o cuatro horas a lomo de caballerÃa para llegar a clases, padeciendo frÃos de bajo cero, para luego soportar el mismo frÃo dentro del aula, pues no hay ni gas ni electricidad. Son los mismos niÃ±os que llevan los carros cartoneros. Escuchamos las narraciones de los que trabajan en las rutas del interior del paÃs, esas que son apenas transitables. Escuchamos las quejas de los ancianos, que apenas si pueden comprar un medicamento. Y vemos, con nuestros propios ojos, el funcionamiento de los hospitales y transportes pÃºblicos... que, por cierto, funcionan cuando quieren o pueden.
En ese punto, tanto Sara como yo nos permitimos preguntar lo siguiente: los que escriben los discursos oficiales Â¿creen que somos estÃºpidos? Â¿Creen que no vivimos todos los dÃas una realidad opresiva, que apesta, que nos toma a todos los ciudadanos de rehenes de una situaciÃ³n deprimente, contra la cual nada podemos hacer, por mucho que luchemos?
Â¿O quizÃ¡s los estÃºpidos son ellos? Â¿O los medios de comunicaciÃ³n, que aÃºn difunden esas noticias? Â¿O los libros de historia y sociologÃa, que en aÃ±os venideros escribirÃ¡n verdaderos mitos, lejanos a la vida real de la gente de la calle, de todos nosotros?
Hace casi medio siglo, el escritor hÃºngaro Paul Tabori escribiÃ³ un libro que considero magnÃfico. El tÃtulo original era "Natural History of Stupidity". En castellano se tradujo como "Historia de la Estupidez Humana".
El libro no tiene desperdicio. Cada pÃ¡rrafo es asombroso, y el lector va saltando de estupidez en estupidez âa cual mÃ¡s increÃble, todas ellas bien documentadasâ a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad. Si pueden conseguirlo, no dejen de leerlo.
Creo que Tabori olvidÃ³ incluir, en su libro, un capÃtulo sobre discurso polÃtico y medios de comunicaciÃ³n. Porque las cosas que allÃ se creen, se dicen y se hacen (al menos en este paÃs nuestro) son magnÃficos ejemplos de idiotez profunda. Una idiotez contra la que nada podemos hacer. SÃ³lo podemos soportarla y aprender a tomÃ¡rnosla con risas (por no llorar, claro).
Aunque, ahora que lo pienso, me pregunto si deberÃa hablar de estupidez o de hipocresÃa, opresiÃ³n y abuso.
Un abrazo desde CÃ³rdoba
PD. Para aquellos desinformados, les comento que acabamos de "salir" de un conflicto entre el gobierno nacional argentino y parte del sector agrario, que ha durado 100 dÃas. Los problemas que motivaron el conflicto han comenzado a discutirse en el Congreso de la NaciÃ³n. Eso ha sido lo que han cubierto los periÃ³dicos internacionales. Pero nadie ha hablado de lo que padecÃa antes de ese conflicto el pueblo argentino, ni de lo que sigue padeciendo. Como pantalla de humo para ocultar otros problemas mÃ¡s graves, el conflicto ha sido estupendo. Mientras tanto, nosotros seguimos aquÃ. Sobreviviendo.
Parece ser que, en el principio, todos los hombres hablaban un mismo idioma. Hasta que se les ocurriÃ³ construir una ciudad y edificar en ella una torre tan alta que alcanzase los cielos. En castigo de tamaÃ±a presunciÃ³n, Dios confundiÃ³ todas sus lenguas, de forma que no pudieran entenderse entre ellos y les fuera imposible continuar la edificaciÃ³n de esa construcciÃ³n: la famosa torre de Babel.
Esta impresionante variedad de hablas, palabras, gramÃ¡ticas y sonidos, conforman una parte importante de nuestra diversidad cultural, la cual, de acuerdo a la DeclaraciÃ³n Universal sobre Diversidad Cultural de la UNESCO de 2002, es uno de nuestros mayores tesoros como especie. Sin embargo, y para no perder la costumbre, el ser humano estÃ¡ ocupÃ¡ndose de destrozar ese milagro con sus propias manos a cada paso que da. Basta examinar algunos datos provistos por la propia UNESCO en 2005:
SÃ³lo el 4 % de los idiomas son usados por el 96 % de la poblaciÃ³n mundial; el 50 % de las lenguas del mundo se encuentran en peligro de extinciÃ³n; el 90 % de ellas no estÃ¡n representadas en la Internet; cinco paÃses monopolizan el negocio de la industria cultural mundial.
(Tomado de Knowledge versus information societies: UNESCO report takes stock of the difference).
A video tells the story of a poor farmer who, through effective water conservation methods, became rich and a role model to other villagers.
Vasant Baburao Parkale, a 52-year-old farmer, has become a role model for many farmers in the drought-prone Marathwada region. His determination and the will to excel in life have helped him to transform his dreams into reality.
In 1984, he was just another labourer working for Bhagwan Yashwantrao Shirsagar, a wealthy farmer in Kadwanchi village in Jalna district. In 2006, Shirsagar built three farm ponds in the village with the help of the government subsidy.Â Vasant aspired to become a farmer like Shirsagar and was interested in building a farm pond. When he informed Shirsagar about this, he was discouraged from doing it. Unperturbed by this, Vasant went ahead with his efforts and started meeting government officials for the farm pond subsidy.Â The officials supported his initiative and provided himÂ with the subsidy.
In 2006, he made his first 24x24-metres-farm pond.Â Through his two farm ponds, he harvests one crore 15 lakhÂ litresÂ of water annually.Â His grape production is flourishing with efficient water management practices. He owns 8.3 acres of land now and has properties worth Rs 1 crore.Â
A study finds faulty agricultural policies and practices and not just indebtedness to blame for rising suicides among farmers.
Over the last few months, we saw protests by distressed farmers of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and other states over farming crisis and farmer suicides. In what seemed like a knee-jerk reaction, many state governments announced farm loan waivers without thinking if it would actually help the farmers.Â
Are loan waivers enough to improve the situation of farmers? Experts think otherwise. They believe that certain core issues of farming have been left unaddressed and need urgent consideration.
What do farmers have to say about the increasing crisis in agriculture and rising suicides? This article titled Lives in debt: Narratives of agrarian distress and farmer suicides published in the Economic and Political Weekly discusses the findings of a study on farmersâ experiences from two districts with high suicide rates in the country--Yavatmal in Maharashtra and Sangrur in Punjab.
The article argues that farmer suicides need to be understood in the context of the broader crisis in agriculture. It is not only indebtedness but a number of core issues related to faulty agricultural policies and practices that contribute to the distress among farmers.
Glaring signs of the crisis in agriculture
The contribution of the agricultural sector to Indiaâs GDP has been declining steadily. Nearly half of the workforce in the country, however, is involved in farming.
There has been a steady increase in the percentage of farmers having small landholdings. Small landholdings do not support mechanisation and irrigation. Moreover, the absence of land records in many cases prevent these farmers from accessing formal credit, government benefits or crop insurance.
A large number of small farm holders are accessing credit mainly from informal sources.
Indebtedness among farmers is on the rise with 52 percent of agricultural households in the country being plagued by it.
What causes distress among farmers in Yavatmal and Sangrur?
Although Yavatmal and Sangrur are very different in terms of socioeconomic backgrounds, crop patterns, agricultural practices, the underlying reasons for distress are found to be similar.
Flawed cropping patterns aggravating water scarcity
In Sangrur and Yavatmal, where paddy and cotton are grown, the crop choice is not harmonious with the agroclimatic features of the region. BT cotton is very sensitive to the timing and intensity of rainfall. Growing it in Yavatmal that has unpredictable rainfall and no alternative source of irrigation is unsuitable for the region.
As much as 2,000â4,000 litres of water are required to produce one kilo of rice. The high water demand makes rice unsuitable for a place like Sangrur which is highly water stressed with falling water tables due to severe depletion of groundwater resources.
Rising input costs
Farmers in both regions complain of rising input prices (seed, water, electricity, fertiliser, pesticide and land rent) and the absence of a proportionate increase in minimum support prices (MSP). In Yavatmal, BT cotton producers are barely able to meet the costs of production, while traders and middlemen make proï¬ts at the cost of farmers who are not able to store the harvest and wait for the right price. Farmers in the study question the instability of prices and demand an enhancement of the loan amount from formal credit sources so that they can cover input costs and make farming viable.
In Sangrur, in addition to the high input prices needed for farming, dependence on paddy cultivation increases the demand for water, forcing farmers to spend huge amounts on digging borewells in an area that suffers from severe depletion of groundwater resources.
The unending cycle of borrowing, non-repayment and the shame of debt
Rising input costs force farmers to borrow. Since the bank loans are insufficient to meet these high input costs, farmers are compelled to access informal sources of credit. At times, farmers prioritise repayment of loans taken from informal sources over bank loans due to high rates of interest and to retain their rapport with the moneylender to remain credit-worthy. Also borrowing from different sources to repay bank loans to stay within the banking system further pushes farmers into the spiral of debt. This, coupled with crop failure, worsens their situation.
At times, farmers are forced to borrow from their close relatives when other avenues of borrowing such as moneylenders have been tried and exhausted. The shame associated with oneâs inability to repay is immense in village society and it is worse if money is borrowed from relatives, which forces many farmers to commit suicide.
Rising aspirations and absence of alternative sources of income
Recently, rising aspirations have also led to farmers taking huge loans for non-farming activities such as marriages, ceremonies, cars, gadgets, contributing to their financial burden as many do not have any other source of income.
What is the way out?
The article suggests some fundamental changes to alter the situation.
Moving towards cropping patterns that are suitable for the agro-climatic zones and encouraging indigenous patterns of farming that are less cost intensive.
Modifying the institutional credit disbursal system by introducing the option of repayment in instalments.
Introducing a proportionate loanâland ratio which would enable the farmer to retain his rights for the rest of his landholdings, which can then be used as a source of liquidity.
Introducing speciï¬c farming credit policies for dryland and rainfed areas.
The introduction of cashless loan components to avoid diversion of crop loans towards non-farm expenditures.
Restructuring of loans against localised crop failures where speciï¬c and targeted compensation packages take extreme weather events or natural calamities into account.
Introducing land reforms, correcting the terms of trade that work against farmers and providing them with alternative sources of livelihoods.
The water of East Kali is heavily polluted. It would hopefully change with the NGT taking notice of it.
Rampura, situated in Bulandshahr district in western Uttar Pradesh, is one of the 1,200 villages on the banks of the 300-km long East Kali, a tributary of the Ganges. The river is named after goddess Kali who, according to the Hindu mythology, is fierce and fights evil by ingesting it.
Till the 1980s, the river was a symbol of purity. Things have changed now with the river turning into a nullah brimming with industrial effluents. âWe used to drink its waters when young. Today, it's so toxic that forget drinking, I dread touching it,â says Devendra Kumar Sharma, a resident of Panwadi, a village in Meerut district. The riverâs toxic water now symbolises death and not life.
Foul flows in streams
As per a study by Neer Foundation, a Meerut-based non-profit working on environmental issues, as the river is polluted, the groundwater of the area which gets replenished by the river too has turned into a receptacle for toxic waste. Unsuspecting people, however, continued to draw water through the handpumps till recent studies rang an alarm bell.
The study conducted in 2015-16 reveals that in Rampura, the groundwater recorded a total dissolved solids of 1760 mg/litre, way above the permissible standard of a maximum of 500 mg/litre for drinking purposes. Soil stratum was harmed as iron and lead contamination spread from river water to aquifers (underground reservoirs that hold groundwater) that are recharged by it.
Lead is recognised as highly toxic, and damages the nervous system in humans while iron is therapeutic in low doses but lethal when present in excessive quantities.âThis toxic water gets distributed and is used for drinking and irrigation purposes in rural areas. This has a severe health impact on us and our animals. The outfall of water from nullahsÂ to the river must stop,â says Satish Kumar, a farmer from Jalalpur village in Meerut district.
The water from handpumps has shown iron concentration measuring up to 0.35 parts per million, which is enough to cause water to turn reddish brown in colour. Lead concentration too was high at Â 0.5 parts per million in Rampura. According to Indian standard drinking water specification 1991, the highest desirable limit of lead in drinking water is 0.05 parts per million. âThe possibility of geogenic contamination i.e., naturally occurring contaminants in the water, too cannot be ruled out. The Central Ground Water Authority is studying these aspects,â says Atulesh Yadav, regional officer, Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board, Meerut.
Rampura is one of the several villages of the eight districts of western Uttar Pradesh where peopleâs lives at one time depended on the river water for everything--from drinking to irrigation. The village that once boasted ofÂ lush green guava orchards has no original water left in its river. The prime villains in this regretful story are the ceaseless discharge of industrial wastewater and municipal sewage into the river.
âThe three main cities of Meerut, Hapur and Bulandshahr through which the East Kali passes have several sugar mills, allied alcohol manufacturing distilleries, paper industries, dairies, tanneries and textile mills that discharge their effluents into the river,â says Raman Kant, director of Neer Foundation. The effluents from the sugar and paper mills are highly toxic and these two industries are enlisted among the 17 most toxic waste releasing industries by the standards provided under the Environment Protection Rules, 1986.
The pollution load in the river is unmanageable and it can barely assimilate the pollutants. Dilution with freshwater isn't a viable treatment option any longer. In most villages--right from Antawada in Muzaffarpur where the river originates, to Kannauj, its confluence with the Ganga--the water, laced with industrial toxins, is lifted from both the river and under the ground for irrigation. âWater flows from the underground caverns in the forest adjacent to our village forming a river that used to collect rainwater. Once a life-giving force, the river is dry at its origin andÂ gets polluted by industrial effluentsÂ a few kilometers downstream,â says Bilam Singh, a farmer from Antawada. âThe effect of this on our food is mostly unknown. It is possible that some of the most toxic chemicals like cancer-causing dioxins and organochlorines released by factories are present in the water that is irrigating the farms,â says Raman Kant.
In 2001, Neer Foundation tested the water quality in government accredited laboratories which showed the presence of persistent organic pollutants or PoPs in the two samples near Saini village, downstream of Nanglamal sugar factory. PoPs are known for their impacts on human health and the environment as they are resistant to environmental degradation. âFarmers knew of the contamination but continued to irrigate from the river,â adds Raman Kant.
âIt is only on the riverâs downstream stretch as it crosses the city of Aligarh that its pollution level declines as freshwater is added to it from the upper GangaÂ canal. Besides this, industrial wastes are not added in the riverâs stretch between Aligarh and Kannauj,â says Raman Kant.
The green court takes note
Many civil society groups have raised the issue of river clean-up. Come monsoon and stretches of the effluent-laden river turn red as it passes through industrial sites. An otherwise seasonal river has now turned into a perennial one, thanks to the discharge of industrial and municipal wastewater into it. For years, this has been a concern as villagers were left with no option but to drink this contaminated water. The union environment ministry had in 2012 directed the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to monitor the quality of the river water and the major wastewater outfalls. âThe Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board too does regular monitoring of the river waters,â says Yadav.
Yet small pockets of industries are polluting the waters of the predominantly rural catchment that is largely dependent on the untreated water from the river as well as the ground. This is leading to the spread of cancer and various other life-threatening diseases. Seeing the impasse, Raman Kant put up a public interest litigation (PIL) which was heard by the principal bench headed by Justice Swatanter Kumar, chairperson, National Green Tribunal (NGT). Neer Foundation had two demands--the Environment Protection Rules, 1986 that prescribes the standards for effluent discharge is followed and municipal authorities who are responsible for managing municipal wastes adhere to the Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2016.
âThe industries not only abstract large volumes of water during their manufacturing processes reducing dilution of pollutants present within the surface water bodies but also contaminate the river by draining their effluent wastes into it,â the PIL states.
The NGT has, in an order dated May 24, 2017, asked the Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board to test the groundwater along the course of the East Kali river. The order is applicable to districts of Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Hapur, Bulandshahr, Kasganj, Aligarh, Kannauj and Farrukhabad through which the river passes. The NGT has directed the authorities to test the water immediately and seal those handpumps that supply contaminated water. The PIL also says the Kali clean-up is a prerequisite to cleaning the Ganga. The green tribunalâs order has come as a temporary respite for thousands of villagers living along the river. They are nonetheless waiting for the government to establish long-term policies to resolve the crisis. This could be in the form of a comprehensive action plan for cleaning the East Kali river.
âThe Supreme Court had in 2014 transferred a public interest litigation by noted environmental activist M.C. Mehta, pending since 1985, to the green tribunal. It deals with issues of the river Ganga, especially those involving discharge of domestic sewage and other sources of pollution in the Ganga. This is the larger case which is being heard on a daily basis by the tribunal. As a result, some of the prayers of the petitioner in the case of Kali river were not heard separately,â says advocate Adarsh Srivastava, one of the applicants on behalf of the petitioner.
âWe hope to get an official assessment of the water quality in the riverside villages as per the present order on the East Kali river soon. However, since we have been working on the riverâs revival, we look forward to the tribunalâs orders on the Ganga pollution case. The court is likely to give directions on strict measures and penalties to prevent hazardous materials and pollutants from being dumped into the rivers,â says Abhishek Tyagi, secretary of Neer Foundation.
Without this, it is hard to tell whether the issue of pollution will be resolved in the near future.
Centre urges states to gear up for possible monsoon failure
The agriculture ministry has ordered all the states and union territories to prepare themselves for a possible monsoon failure and operationalise their drought mitigation strategies. For this, the states and union territories have been permitted to earmark 25 percent of funds under centrally-sponsored schemes as flexi-funds for using them for the mitigation of natural calamities. Also, the ministry has allowed the states to expand the coverage of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana in order to tackle loss of production in the event of a disaster. Â
Government rejects funds to Gujarat's SAUNI yojana
On technical grounds, the Central Water Commission (CWC) has rejected the request to fund the Gujarat government's Saurashtra Narmada Avtaran Irrigation Yojana (SAUNI). As per the CWC, the detailed project report for the scheme lacks key details in relation to technical feasibility. Along with expressing concerns about the Gujarat government's failure to consult Narmada Control Authority (NCA) and other concerned states, the CWC has also raised questions over the water storage calculation for the project. However, after getting rejected by the Centre, the state government has decided to fund the project on its own.Â
Ramgarh dam encroachment: HC notice to Rajasthan government
The Rajasthan high court has issued notice to several authorities in the state against the encroachment on the catchment areas of the Ramgarh dam in Jaipur. In 2004, the court had ordered the state authorities to demarcate the catchment area of the Ramgarh dam and declare it a no-construction zone. Further to this notice in 2012, the court ordered to remove the encroachment on the catchment areas but no action has been taken in this regard; even the demarcation of the catchment areas is yet to be done.Â
Telangana to tackle its water crisis using four waters concept
Telangana Water Resources Development Corporation (TWRDC) has launched the Jal Doots programme in which 50 volunteers of various NGOs will educate farmers, members of small help groups and gram panchayats across 600 villages in the state on various recharge and water harvesting structures. The basis of the programme is the âfour waterâ concept (ground, surface, soil moisture and rainwater) that aims to conserve each drop of water. The programme will encourage farmers to build soak pits at home, farm ponds in field and adopt various conservation methods like tank renovation, silt application and drip and sprinklers for irrigation.
India ambitious to mine mineral wealth of the oceans
The Ministry of Earth Sciences has decided to embark on the ambitious Deep Sea Mission. The project, worth Rs 10,000 crore, aims to explore and mine mineral wealth beneath the ocean floor. The project is expected to begin by theÂ year-end in 2017. According to the ministry, the project would be beneficial to the country as it will provide deep ocean energy, deep sea fishing and minerals.Â
This is a roundup of important policy matters from May 8 - 14, 2017. Also, read the news this week.
Women in drought-hit Karnataka takes on the task to revive lakes
In Mandya district, nearly 3000 women across 31 villages are on a mission to revive lakes, ponds and irrigation tanks to tackle the water scarcity in the region. These women have even fought the administration to give them designated work under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Through protests, these women have also forced the authorities to pay on time and let them continue with the work. Due to crop failure, the women were devoid of any work and the task of lake rejuvenation has provided them an apt solution to this as well. Also, the movement is being spread to other districts and work has already begun in Kolar district.Â
Maharashtra's rivers are dirty, thanks to its industries
With more than 75,000 manufacturing units in the state, Maharashtra's rivers are the filthiest with Pune-Chinchwad region having the worst offenders. Between 2011 and 2016, the state pollution control board has issued notices to over 5,200 industries, out of which 65 percent of the factories have been served a red-category notice for heavy pollution. The reason for industries violating the norms is the lackadaisical attitude of the state pollution control board; it has issued directives to erring unitsÂ but had not taken any legal action against them. Â
Despite farm crisis, record national harvest predicted for Tamil Nadu
Thanks to the worst northeast monsoon in 140 years, Tamil Nadu is going through a farm crisis. Despite the situation, however, the agriculture ministry has predicted a record national harvest of foodgrain--an increase of about nine percent in the crop year 2016-17 ending June. Moreover, the state government has claimed that only 82 farmers have committed suicide since October 2016 but according to farmers' representatives, as many as 106 farmers have died in January 2017 alone due to the prevailing drought conditions.Â
Maharashtra eases Karnataka's water woes
To tackle the prevailing drought in Karnataka, the Maharashtra government has released 2.65 TMC water from Koyna dam. This is the second time that the latter has released water. Karnataka is reeling under drought for the past three years and this year only 20 percent water is left in nine of its 12 dams. Also, the available live storage of water in the reservoirs has touched an all time low.Â
This is a roundup of important news from May 8 - 14, 2017. Also, read the policy matters this week.Â
The indigenous community of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been systematically alienated from their land by the colonial and post-colonial policies. A new book chronicles the change.
Pankaj Sekhsariaâs recent book Islands in flux--The Andaman and Nicobar Story is a collection of around 20 years of his writings on the environmental and conservation concerns faced by the indigenous tribal communities of the region. Unlike his previous book, The last wave, a factual fiction adventureÂ story dealing with love, longing and loss, this one is a collection of contemporary developments in the islands. The book is divided into seven parts and several chapters each dealing with the societal and ecological facets of the islands. Issues related to the environment, wildlife conservation and development policies that threaten the islandâs indigenous communities have been chronicled by the author who is a long-time member of the NGO, Kalpavriksh.
Alienation of islanders
The book begins with the section, Setting the context, in which he writes about the history of the alienation of the island communities living there for over 40,000 years. The author takes a dig at the history writers of the modern democratic Indian state who have left gaping holes in their writings by not sudying the ancient indigenous communities--the Great Andamanese, the Onge, the Jarawa and the Sentinelese. It is here that the author mentions âif the real and complete history of the islands is ever written, the British would not be more than a page and India could only be a paragraphâ.
The indigenous people have been systematically alienated from their resources by the British colonial policies and the post-colonial development-oriented policies of India. The Britishers set up a penal colony in the islands in 1858, the Japanese occupied the islands during the World War II, and during the post colonial period, thousands of settlers from mainland India were brought to the island. Though the islanders put up a fierce fight to defend their territories, the social fabric of the island communities has been violently torn apart and their populations decimated while the settlers outnumbered the original inhabitants. The region is witness to nation building exercises, hinduisation of âuncivilized jungleesâ and even an attempt to rename the islands. The author calls this as an attempt to âreclaim what was never yoursâ. No effort has been made by way of scholarship or historical studies to take the islandersâ point of view.
Forestry is the chief source of revenue in cash in the islands but the system of forestry did not suit the region. The author quotes an official report by the Department of Environment, Government of India that argues that âthe forestry system was leading to a preponderance of deciduous elements in the evergreen system that would eventually destroy the whole island ecosystemâ. The carrying capacity of the islands has been long exceeded, the author says. Ill-conceived schemes like cattle rearing were introduced for a community that does not consume milk. Tourism is a concern in the islands which have been declared as âglobal biodiversity hotspotâ.
The pristine forests and the people living in the Jarawa tribal reserve that covers half the island is under threat because of the ill conceived Andaman Trunk Road that separates the reserve land from the rest of the island. The Jarawas for whom the forests have been a home for ages have been reduced to begging around the Trunk Road that runs through the reserve. The road has been controversial due to the negative fallouts on the islandâs ecology and the indigenous people. The Supreme Court had in 2002 passed an order to close it; the island administration chose to ignore it. Its closure was absolutely critical to protect the Jarawa community, the author says.
Islands turn colonies
The author chronicles the colonising of the islands in a chapter of the same name and discusses how the settlers look down upon the indigenous communities. Tension continues between the tribal communities especially the ancient tribal community of Jarawas and the settlers over land rights and there is a lack of political will to ease this even as the population of the Jarawas has been reduced to a few hundreds. âThere are opinions that the Jarawas should be assimilated into the modern world, but it is clear that it is exactly this contact with the outside world that is rapidly pushing them towards the brink,â the author states.
In the chapter, A brief history of logging, Sekhsaria provides an account of the timber operations in the Andamans. He notes how as a part of Indiaâs colonisation scheme, mainlanders were settled here. This was done to strengthen Indiaâs claim over the islands. Incentives were offered to settlers by way of land and royalty free timber. Timber-based industry was promoted and liberal subsidies offered. Forests were exploited to benefit settlers who had little stake in the islands or its natural resources. Timber offered for millions decreased after the 2002 Supreme Court order. The order was in response to a petition by three NGOs to stop logging. The Supreme Court order that banned the cutting of naturally grown trees in the Andamans and Nicobar islands were welcomed by the environmental rights groups. But logging continued within the tribal reserve.
In the section, Environment, ecology and development, the author stresses the need for evolving sensible conservation policies. The author discusses the consequences of introducing exotic species into the island systems. This has led to irretrievable loss of native species and ecosystems. âThe Andaman and Nicobar islands are unsurpassed in their botanical wealth, and the ethnomedical knowledge of the tribals who live here is astounding,â he says.
In the section, December 2004 and its aftermath, the author discusses the turmoil caused by the tsunami of December 26, 2004 which killed around 3500 people in the fragile Andaman and Nicobar islands, the worst hit area in India. The tectonic activity due to the third deadliest earthquake of the world in the last 100 years caused a significant shift in the islandsâ geography with a permanent average uplift of four to six feet while parts of Nicobar islands went significantly under, with the southernmost tip, Indira point on Great Nicobar island going 15 ft down. Apart from dealing with how the tsunami destroyed the island, the section also highlights how the people picked up the pieces and started all over again.
Leave them alone
The tsunami waters inundated large areas of the islands causing damage to its coastal and marine ecology. In the aftermath of this turmoil, ecologists have suggested âno interventionâ and that âleaving areas alone should be the preferred management optionâ. A disturbing facet of the islands in recent times is its water scarcity. The islands have been facing severe water shortages even during the pre-tsunami period but this got worse after 2004. Fresh water sources got hit by the tsunami.
Talking about the faulty development planning, the author discusses how the former president late Abdul Kalam in 2005 in the aftermath of the tsunami announced a grandiose vision for the development of the Andamans and Nicobar islands. This included ecologically perilous components like deep sea fishing, exploitation of bamboo, value-added coconut products and tourism.
A central thread of Sekhsariaâs book has been the neglect and acculturation of the Jarawas, and their losing scuffle with the outsiders. The book presented in a journalistic manner handles the issue very sensitively and the author exhibits a keen understanding of the history of the indigenous people and its ecology.
As the TN farmersâ protest in Delhi enters its fourth week, all eyes are on the Centre which is not budging.
A woman stands with a begging bowl and a placard strung around her neck. An old man shuffles along barefoot in the street at Jantar Mantar, the official site of a farmersâ protest in the heart of New Delhi. He finds his way through a group of farmers gathered at the protest site on a hot summer afternoon. Dressed in green loincloths, they are lying motionless on the road and the footpath exhausted after their meetings with the deputy speaker of Lok Sabha M. Thambidurai, MDMK general secretary Vaiko and Congress vice president Rahul Gandhi in the past few days.
These are farmers from Tamil Nadu on a protest which is in its fourth week. The drought situation on the Cauvery belt in Tamil Nadu has gone from bad to worse this year with the state witnessing the worst spell in 140 years from a poor northeast monsoon, as per the India Meteorological Department. The state government officially declared a drought in January 2017.
âThe Centre has not announced a drought relief package yet despite our long-standing protest. The High Court of Tamil Nadu has issued directions to the state government to write off all agricultural loans. But we will not budge from here till the Centre hears us out,â says Sivaprakash, a farmer from Dindigul in Tamil Nadu.
Sivaprakash is a part of the group of over 100 farmers representing the âDesiya Thenidhiya Nathigal Inaippu Vivasayigal Sangamâ (National South Indian River Interlinking Sangam). They have been protesting at Jantar Mantar since March 14, 2017. âHundreds of farmers have committed suicide given the drought conditions in the state which was preceded by the devastating cyclone Vardah. Even the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has sought a detailed report from the state government on this,â says Sivaprakash. Earlier in January, the NHRC had taken suo motu cognisance of the media reports on the suicide of 106 farmers in one month in Tamil Nadu.
Waiting for an ethical response
With the government unmoved by their protest, members of the Sangam resorted to skull protest to intensify their agitation. âThrough our skull protest, where we are displaying the skulls of farmers who have committed suicide in the wake of the drought in the state, we are seeking a drought relief package from the Centre. The skulls we are using in the protest symboliseÂ our fate if the state does not help us out. Debt relief is being provided to the wealthy people. What about us, the farmers who have toiled so hard?â asks P. Ayyakannu, president of the Sangam, who hails from the Tiruchirappalli district in Tamil Nadu. Â
The state government had in February 2017 sanctioned a drought relief package of Rs 2,247 crore for 32 lakh farmers of the state. âThe state government gave Rs 3,000 each as compensation for crop losses to those who depend on seasonal rain and Rs 5,465 per acre to those who depend on irrigation. How is that enough to make up for the losses we have faced?â Ayyakannu asks. âThis is highly inadequate and we demand a drought relief package of Rs 40,000 crore from the Centre,â says Saravana Kumar Vasudeva, who belongs to a farmer family in Theni, Tamil Nadu. âWe also want a waiver of loans, better support price for our produce, lower input prices and above all, solutions to water scarcity in the region," says Saravana.
Natarajan who has come all the way from Karur in Tamil Nadu says, âI lost my crops to this drought and have an outstanding debt of around Rs 5 lakh from a nationalised bank. How will I repay this? I have no money left. Why canât the government extend the waiver for loans from nationalised banks like they have done for cooperative banks?â
âWe wanted to make a representation to the prime minister about the agrarian situation in Tamil Nadu but even after 28 days, our representatives have not been granted an appointment. This only shows the government's claim that it is sensitive to farmers is hollow,â says Ayakannu. âFarmers would be forced to intensify their agitation unless the issue is settled,â he adds.
Catching the peopleâs imagination
The farmers from the Cauvery belt have been joined by farmers from the other states in the protest. âOur livelihoods have been destroyed. To drive home this point, we are using macabre elements in the protest like skulls, rats and snakes. We are carrying begging bowls, shaving half of our heads and staging mock funerals. We even stripped in front of the prime ministerâs office yesterday. But other than the media, no one seems to be noticing us despite the gravity of the situation,â says Manohar Patil from Maharashtra who has joined in the protest.
Some of their demands include setting up of the Cauvery Management Board and interlinking of the national rivers to deal with the lack of water in Cauvery. âWhy canât the Centre force the Karnataka government to release water from Cauvery when the Supreme Court has directed Karnataka to do so as many as seven times? The Center talks so much about Ganga but nothing on Cauvery,â says Saravana.
âWe are languishing here for days but the Centre has no interest in hearing us out. How do you think our families will survive with no income?â asks Natarajan. âUnable to repay our loans, we are left with no option but to rot in Delhi,â he says.
âOur crisis deepened this year because Karnataka, in spite of the Supreme Court order, refused to release Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu,â says Kuppuswamy, a farmer from Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu. Many agitating farmers are senior citizens and are also demanding a pension scheme where farmers over 60 years of age get Rs 5,000 each.
Whose fault is it anyway?
The Centre considers drought relief as the responsibility of the state. The state, on the other hand, has approached the Centre and sought an assistance of Rs 39,565 crore from the National Disaster Relief Fund for drought relief. Following this, a central team has visited Tamil Nadu to assess the condition and has submitted its report. Union Minister for Agriculture Radha Mohan Singh plans to take it up at a high-level committee meeting soon. However, it may be difficult for the Centre to waive off loans for the Tamil Nadu farmers alone as there are other states too which are in a similar situation. Tamil Nadu farmers may get some financial assistance but will that solve the current crisis of farmer debts and suicides?
Droughts are not just episodic in nature but are a structural problem. Drought or no drought, farmers will continue to fall in debt traps given their dependence on high-cost farming methods using fertilisers, pesticides, machinery and seeds. At the same time, crops are no longer fetching them remunerative prices from which they can profit. The answer to this crisis may be in adopting low-cost sustainable farming methods. Meanwhile farmers should be provided income security to wean them off the debt trap. Letâs wait and watch if the state responds well to the current crisis.
The scene browser shows all of the sectors in flarge.
Here's how it works:
A plugin implementing wrappers around all of the (useful) CS interfaces is loaded. It registers interface wrapper factories with an iInterfaceWrapperManager. This manager keeps a hash of scfInterfaceID's mapped to iInterfaceWrapperFactory's.
Another plugin listens for when the map is loaded (which the editor tells it), then creates an EditorObject for all of the sectors in the engine and adds it to the editor's object list.
EditorObject, using SCF metadata, goes through each interface implemented by the object it's wrapping and requests the iInterfaceWrapperFactory for the given interface. If there's no wrapper for that interface, it ignores it. It then instantiates that wrapper and pushes it onto an array. While it's going through, it finds an interface wrapper that has a name attribute, and stores that for future reference, when something wants to call Get/SetName. It does the same thing for a parent attribute. It also figures out the type (instance, factory, or unknown) and stores that.
After adding an object to the object list, the scene browser panel will get an Object Added event, and it will put the given object into the tree, using EditorObject to get the name and parent (for the hierarchy).
I haven't implemented putting the objects into the correct hierarchy in the Scene Browser panel yet, nor have I implemented object name editing or re-parenting via dragging. Also, scene browser should have a way of showing an icon and grouping (or sorting) the different objects.
Right now, I've only implemented an interface wrapper around iObject, since that provides the name for every engine object. But eventually, I'll need wrappers for every useful object, since I will need to know their properties for the property editor.
This was partly just a proof-of-concept right now. There are a few functions that could have a better place at the moment.
Add the rest of objects from engine on map load (other than sectors)
Clean up some of the nasty parts
Respect object hierarchy in scene browser
Implement name editing in scene browser
Hi! I was accepted to build a Crystal Space World Editor for Google Summer of Code this summer.
A little about me: I'm an 18-year-old computer engineering major at University of Maryland. My main interests beside computers are classical guitar and biking.
In this blog I'll post my ideas and progress on this project. Comments and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
Here is the abstract as given in the proposal:
Crystal Space, being a 3d engine, deserves a good art pipeline so that applications using it can focus on creating assets, not editing world files by hand. Having worked on several game projects using CS over the past 2 years, I have experienced directly the difficulty of getting art into the engine. I would like to help take a huge step in improving it by creating a usable world editor.
The editor should have a completed framework by the end of the work period, including a working plugin system, undo/redo system, selection system, tool system, save/load functionality, scene browser, factory browser, and property editor. Also, basic selection and transform tools will be implemented. Any remaining time will be used to polish the user interface or implement tools for other CS features, such as terrain.
The project is currently in the design stage, but the ideas are becoming more focused.
Here is some of the progress so far.
Name of the editor
We had nearly an hour-long name-throwing session on IRC about this, but I don't think any of them stuck. The consensus seems to be that the name shouldn't be too serious. Some highlights: Ochre, Composotron IV, Crystal Latte, Crystachino, Deity for Dummies, Quartz, Chainspoon, Turbospoon, CrystalGarden, Plow, Colloid Space. I would choose Anvil, but it is already the name of my old editor. Maybe Anvil Reloaded? ;) Any more ideas?
The editor will use wxWidgets as a GUI library.
I'll use wxAUI and wxPropertyGrid widgets. wxAUI is a really nice docking toolkit that should give a very flexible, modern-looking interface. wxPropertyGrid will be great for the property editor.
wxAUI has been included in wxWidgets 2.8.0+, but wxPropertyGrid is a contrib widget. To handle the dependency, the editor will probably require wxWidgets 2.8.0+ and wxPropertyGrid will be included in the source tree.
I'll use wxFormBuilder to design the more complex dialogs for the editor (options, material editor, etc) and save them as XRCs. The main window will be done in code, using wxAUI.
Tools allow the interface to remain consistent when switching between different editing functions. Tools will handle events like mouse move, mouse click, keyboard press, and draw to allow for extra information to be drawn on top of the scene. Examples of tools are select, move, rotate, scale. Plugins can also add tools. Tools will be available through a toolbar. In addition, tools can provide a panel for tool-specific settings.
There are several types of tools.
Mesh-specific tools: These tools will be shown based on the type of the selected object.
e.g. for particle system editor, an emitter editor. For a terrain editor, a tool to modify heights with a brush.
Creation tools: Tools which create things, e.g. a tool which creates mesh primitives, or a tool which creates an initial flat terrain.
One-shot tools: Tools which perform one "non-interactive" action, like "compress vertices" or "generate normals".
The scene browser is basically a tree that will show all of the instances in the world file (e.g. all the stuff that goes in between <sector> tags).
There could possibly be multiple "view modes" for this: Group by sector, group by object type, sort alphabetically.
Plugins should be able to add 3rd party types to the scene browser (e.g. CEL entities).
This should show some of the files that the world file depends on. It will allow you to link or unlink libraries to the world file.
Formerly named "factory browser", the assets browser will allow you to browse through mesh factories, materials, etc. It should allow you to remove them, or edit their properties when selected (in property editor). Adding mesh factories can be accomplished through importing or linking to a library. Or you can use a tool which creates primitives.
This will show all of the available mesh factories, rendered to textures. The selected one will show a rotating preview.
This will show all of the available materials rendered on tiny spheres. You should also be able to create an empty material from here.
With all of these browsers, there seems to be a commonality between them: they generally provide a view of a certain category of objects, and when selected, they should publish an event to listeners, including the property editor which will allow you to edit the selected object. It seems like they could share a lot of code.
There will be a property editor shown for the selected object.
I will need to implement some custom property types, including one for matrices.
Another thing I would like is a "link" to another object. It would basically allow you to choose one of the available objects of that type. And it will allow you to follow the link and show the linked-to object in the property editor. For example, the mesh instance property editor will have a link property "Material", which will allow you to choose which material is used for the mesh.
Since the saver doesn't fully support saving all CS objects, and since it is desirable to preserve comments in the world files, I'll be supplementing the loader to attach the original DOM nodes to engine objects when they are loaded (and only when the saveable flag is on). The editor will then keep track of which objects are modified, and only save those. This means that all unsupported nodes will be preserved. A main failure of the current way of using the saver is that it obliterates any unsupported nodes. Judging by the rate at which the loader advances versus the rate at which the saver plugins advance, this will be necessary for some time.
The sooner this is implemented, the sooner the editor will be useful for making small tweaks to existing world files. So I do regard it as quite important, although it is not trivial.
Whew! There are a lot of ideas there. I hope I get some good feedback on this.
I still have approximately 2 more weeks of school, so I'll be trying to think of this and post when I'm not taking exams. Then, summer! :)
Leading rabbis and the Jerusalem Municipality have joined forces in a battle against the widespread habit of smoking in the haredi public, in light of studies indicating that the sector has the highest rate of smokers in Israeli society.
The Health Ministry and local haredi authorities will also take part in the effort.
In a campaign that will be launched Thursday, rabbis will issue halachic rulings banning smoking. The rulings will be posted on bulletin boards and buses, and published in the community's pamphlets.
The decision to launch the campaign ahead of Purim was based on the fact that during the holiday it is usually considered legitimate for children to smoke cigarettes.
As opposed to last week's screed against Jewish music concerts, this is a ban I can wholeheartedly get behind.
I lived in Israel for a time, and I will never forget the sight on Purim day of Charedi adolescents smoking cigarettes all over Jerusalem. Smooth-faced young boys were dragging away on cigarettes at every street corner. In certain Israeli Charedi circles it's almost as if allowing adolescents to smoke is one of the positive commandments of the Purim holiday - almost as widespread as the widely kept Purim "mitzvah" of drinking enough to vomit all over the sidewalk.
We can only hope a Rabbinic ban on underage drinking on Purim is soon to follow.
This paper is an adaptation of a longer report commissioned by the UK Data Service. The longer report contributes to on-going support for the Big Data Network â a programme funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The longer report can be found atdoi:10.7207/twr16-02.
This paper discusses requirements for preserving transactional data and the accompanying challenges facing the companies and institutions who aim to re-use these data for analysis or research. It presents a range of use cases â examples of transactional data â in order to describe the characteristics and difficulties of these âbigâ data for long-term access. Based on the overarching trends discerned in these use cases, the paper will define the challenges facing the preservation of these data early in the curation lifecycle. It will point to potential solutions within current legal and ethical frameworks, but will focus on positioning the problem of re-using these data from a preservation perspective.
In some contexts, these data could be fiscal in nature, deriving from business âtransactionsâ. This paper, however, considers transactional data more broadly, addressing any data generated through interactions with a database system. Administrative data, for instance, is one important form of transactional data collected primarily for operational purposes, not for research. Examples of administrative data include information collected by government departments and other organisations when delivering a service (e.g. tax, health, or education) and can entail significant legal and ethical challenges for re-use. Transactional data, whether created by interactions between government database systems and citizens or by automatic sensors or machines, hold potential for future developments in academic research and consumer analytics. Re-use of reliable transactional data in research has the power to improve services and investments by organisations in many different sectors. Ultimately, however, these data will only lead to new discoveries and insights if they are effectively curated and preserved to ensure appropriate reproducibility. This paper explores challenges to this undertaking and approaches to ensuring long-term access.
This paper states 16 principles for the long term retention and preservation of digital geographic information. The paper is mainly aimed at public sector geographic information providers in Europe (particularly those involved in mapping and cadastre) with the intention of highlighting the significance of fundamental concepts for digital geographic data archiving. Geographic information providers are mainly mapping agencies, but also archives preserving geographic data among a wider range of digital information. A supplementary objective is that the paper may provide useful information for providers of all types of geographic information right around the world.
This paper states 16 principles for the long term retention and preservation of digital geographic information. The paper is mainly aimed at public sector geographic information providers in Europe (particularly those involved in mapping and cadastre) with the intention of highlighting the significance of fundamental concepts for digital geographic data archiving. Geographic information providers are mainly mapping agencies, but also archives preserving geographic data among a wider range of digital information. A supplementary objective is that the paper may provide useful information for providers of all types of geographic information right around the world.
There are many reasons why people wish to retain access to information, though the main drivers for archiving digital geographic information are meeting legislative requirements, the short and long term exploitation (re-use not only access) of archived data for analyzing social, environmental (e.g. global climate changes) and economic changes over time as well as efficiency savings in managing superseded datasets.Â This paper sets out the path and describes what needs to be done now to future-proof the investment government agencies around the world have made in creating digital Geographic Data.
In this project I've used opaque textile panit but you can also find its fluor version, transparent for clear fabrics, reflective, metallic...It's cheap, easy to work with because it dissolves in water and it's sold in most craft stores. The only advice is to remenber to iron it properly once it gets dry, to ensure you can wash it with confidence.
NecesitarÃ¡s: cualquier prenda que quieras customizar, pintura textil, pincel, cinta de pintor, papel de periÃ³dico y plancha.
You'll need: any garment you want to customize, fabric paint, brush, masking tape, newspapers and iron.
Introduce el periÃ³dico en medio de la camiseta para que la pintura no traspase.
Introduce a newspaper between both sides of your t-shirt so paint won't go through.
"Draw" the geometric shape you like the most with masking tape.
Vierte un poco de pintura y moja el pincel. Pour a bit of paint and dip brush.
Si el tejido es elÃ¡stico como el de una camiseta aplica la pintura a toques, nunca arrastrando el pincel.
If your fabric is stretchy like a t-shirt paint it with little touches, never dragging brush.
Cuando hayas acabado espera a que la pintura seque, retira la cinta de pintor y plancha la zona pintada unos 2-3mins para fijar el color. (Queridos lectores impacientes: el secado se puede acelerar con un secador)
Wait for the paint to get dry after finishing, remove masking tape and iron 2-3 mins to fix color. (Dear impatient readers: You can speed drying with a hairdryer)
Fin de la historia. A fardar de camiseta tuneada con tus propias manitas. End of history. Boast about your t-shirt customized with your own hands.
El mundo de los DIY's ha estado monopolizado por el sector femenino hasta ahora. Por suerte me consta que cada vez hay mÃ¡s hombres que empiezan a enseÃ±arnos sus habilidades como
Addressing climate change requires a globally coordinated, long-term response across all economic sectors. The 2015 Paris Agreement provides the framework for limiting global warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and for pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Early in this process, the European Union has adopted ambitious and binding climate and energy targets for 2020 and 2030. Member States have set the strategic objective of building an Energy Union,...
With the issue of how to get the private sector on board for climate financing high on the agenda at COP22 in Marrakesh, the first projects of a new fund supported by the European Investment Bank (EIB) - the Catalyst MENA Clean Energy Fund (Catalyst) - are now taking off. This fund will make it much easier for companies and governments in the region to invest in and benefit from renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. The Catalyst fund is the newest investment of the Global Energy Effic...
Brussels, Belgium -
European leaders meeting on 23 May to discuss how to achieve growth despite massive budgetary challenges must turn to wind energy for immediate job-creating and economic benefits.
Every EU citizen is paying more than EUR 700 for energy imports and this is increasing as prices climb and domestic resources deplete. But wind energy replaces imported fuel - saving EUR 5.7 billion in 2010 alone - while creating growth.
In 2010, the wind energy sector's growth rate was twice that of EU ...
The European wind power industry's contribution to EU economic growth will increase almost threefold over the decade by 2020. More than half a million people will be working for the wind power industry in Europe by 2020.
The sector has been proven to be a powerful motor against economic slowdown in Europe. This will be shown on Monday 16 April 2012, as the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) presents its latest report "Green Growth - The Impact of Wind Energy on Jobs and The ...
Emissions of many pollutants from transport fell in 2009. But this reduction may only be a temporary effect of the economic downturn, according to the latest annual report on transport emissions from the European Environment Agency (EEA). The Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) explores the environmental impact of transport. For the first time, the report considers a comprehensive set of quantitative targets proposed by the European Commission's 2011 roadmap on transport.
LTU Business AB has been given the task of developing the innovative capabilities of nine of Europe's leading raw material consortia led by globally recognized players such as Atlas Copco, DMT, GTK, Terrafame, LuleÃ¥ University of Technology, Uppsala University and Swerea in an order worth about SEK 5 million.
There is a growing gap in Europe between the countries that have invested in renewable energies and those who have not done so. This finding is presented in a new doctoral thesis on technological development in the European environmental energy sector and the knowledge spillover between the countries.
Los aÃ±os anteriores a 1810, ocurrieron en la CapitanÃa General de Venezuela una serie de eventos que traerÃan como consecuencia la independencia de las provincias que conformaban la CapitanÃa; no solo pensemos en las diferentes insurrecciones e intentos de golpe de estado, sino en las disputas por el poder entre las dos clases dominantes, ademÃ¡s el pensamiento o temor que tenÃa la clase criolla de perder sus privilegios a manos de las clases de pardos y quinterotes.
El 19 de abril de 1810, no es realmente el grito de independencia, es un acto mediante el cual estos âconspiradoresâ juran lealtad a Fernando VII.
No habÃa una clara definiciÃ³n de carÃ¡cter autonomista, sobre todo en funciÃ³n de la presencia de un sector de la clase dominante criolla que, por la conjugaciÃ³n de intereses econÃ³micos, prejuicios sociales, conciencia monÃ¡rquica, miedo a los negros, etc., mantenÃa la plena identificaciÃ³n con los intereses metropolitanos (criollos realistas). Sin duda -afirma la autora-, la conciencia de poder de la clase dominante criolla no se correspondÃa aÃºn plenamente con la idea de ruptura del nexo colonial.
Esto nos esto nos deja claro que algunos criollos buscaban hacerse del poder.
Es por ello que generan leyes y reglamentos entre 1810 y 1811 que evitaban a otros grupos sociales ejercer entre otros el derecho al voto tal como lo enuncian Salazar y otros (2000, p. 351)
El reglamento electoral promulgado daba el derecho al voto a los hombres libres, mayores de veinticinco aÃ±os y propietarios de bienes y cargos. Esta Ãºltima condiciÃ³n, unida a la negativa de permitir el voto de mujeres y esclavos, generÃ³ un Congreso representativo de la oligarquÃa criolla. Este hecho facilitÃ³ el mantenimiento del orden social y econÃ³mico que ellos defendÃan.
La Sociedad PatriÃ³tica, que habÃa sido convocada para ocuparse del desarrollo econÃ³mico del paÃs, se convirtiÃ³ en un foro donde se llevaron a cabo las discusiones y los discursos que condujeron a la independencia del paÃs.
Las personas que constituyeron la Sociedad PatriÃ³tica formaron la elite intelectual criolla, que desempeÃ±Ã³ un papel importante en el desarrollo de nuestro movimiento independentista. Entre sus miembros, figuraban SimÃ³n BolÃvar y Francisco de Miranda. Es en este escenario donde SimÃ³n BolÃvar el 2 de julio de 1811 hace su discurso.
En la maÃ±ana del 4 de julio el Congreso celebraba una sesiÃ³n secreta cuando se anuncia una comisiÃ³n de la Sociedad PatriÃ³tica. La sesiÃ³n se hace pÃºblica, y se les recibe. Los miembros mÃ¡s exaltados de la Sociedad van a las barras. Desde allÃ gritan y presionan.
Los que frecuentaban el lugar eran BolÃvar, Vicente Salias y Coto PaÃºl. Cuando el presbÃtero Juan Vicente Maya expone algunas razones para no acceder a la inmediata declaratoria de independencia, fueron ellos quienes lo increparon con palabras airadas.
Como se deduce, la Sociedad PatriÃ³tica tenÃa una estructura y una consistencia de partido. Al principio, se constituye guardando un criterio de selecciÃ³n. AsÃ lo recomiendan las tÃ¡cticas del momento. Luego amplÃa su base y acepta tanto blancos como mulatos, negros e indios, dando impulso inicial a nuestro desprejuiciado sentido de integraciÃ³n racial.
Like any deep malaise, Congoâs rape crisis is but one expression of entrenched, systemic problems. Local witnesses, security analysts and medical professionals who treat survivors present overwhelming evidence that the primary perpetrators are uniformed Congolese security actors. A weak justice system may be responsible for the failure to discipline or punish perpetrators, but the sources of this behavior lie within the security sector itself. Accessing the security elite, Congoâs infamous âblack boxâ, is notoriously difficult. As a result, very little analysis exists of the problem from the perpetratorsâ perspective: analysis and evidence that deciphers the institutional culture and internal organization of the security sector, or that maps relations between senior officers, politicians and economic actors. By design, opacity reigns supreme.
At around 2.5 per cent of the national budget, DR Congo spends the least on agriculture of all its neighbors, a figure made more minuscule given the great untapped potential of its vast arable lands. For comparison, the Republic of Congo spends close to 14%, Zambia 10% and Ethiopia over 20%.
Following the 2009 Maputo Accords, NEPAD initiated the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (or CAADP), a continent-wide compact to reduce poverty and hunger by increasing state investment in agriculture over a ten-year period, with two basic metrics: raise public ag spending to 10% of GDP and raise ag growth rates to 6% by 2020. Participating countries were encouraged to tailor their growth strategies and investment plans accordingly, and solicit the views of farmers' associations, civil society and the private sector for an inclusive national approach with popular support.
DR Congo announced its National Investment Plan for Agriculture (PNIA) last month in Kinshasa, with great fanfare and expense. A total of $5,730m is budgeted, but only $857m had been committed (93% from donors, 7% from GDRC) by the closing ceremony. So where were the investors? In interviews and public pronouncements, government officials are confident that their chosen path, the PNIA, will attract foreign investment and will modernize and monetize Congoâs vast agricultural potential, thus transforming the lives of the country's rural poor, nearly all of whom are isolated, subsistence farmers.
Outside of government, skepticism regarding the PNIA is high. The primary criticism from donors and the Congolese private sector accuses the GDRC of failing to commit to sweeping infrastructural renovation (communications, transport, electricity, etc) as the foundation of national economic growth, and instead shifting that burden onto the international firms it assumes are lining up to invest. Yet no foreign firm would consent to such a capital outlay given the countryâs dismal business environment. Serious investors would expect to see government planning and budgets to this end, yet beyond the PNIA the GDRC has no comprehensive plan to address the countryâs deeply eroded infrastructure (piecemeal donor projects are the norm), or resolve its regulatory morass and lack of legal protection for private enterprise.
An even greater deterrent, the current Code Agricole stipulates that any private enterprise would require a 51% ownership stake by the GDRC. These terms are currently being revisited, but the compromise under discussion is 20% national ownership -- still untenable for obvious reasons, particularly given the country's long history of nationalization (viz., Zairianisation), expropriating private businesses, stripping assets and triggering massive capital flight. This legacy is still felt today among potential investors who see Congo as too risky (unpredictable and unstable), and in the Kabila administration's patrimonial, anti-entrepreneurial policies.
The other main deterrent for foreign investors is the cost of commerce itself which, after the endless hoops and ladders of business registration, is so high that local produce cannot compete with cheap imports. In the countryâs urban centers, imported versions of Congoâs basic foodstuffs (palm oil, maize, beans, sugar, rice, and wheat flour) outnumber local varieties, except for cassava.
This wave of imported commodities began with a policy enacted in Mobutu's final years (1992-96, known as âPlan Mobutuâ) as colonial infrastructure finally and irretrievably collapsed, interrupting the regular flow of local produce into Kinshasa and causing food prices to soar. Allowing cheap foodstuffs from outside to saturate the market was initially intended as a stopgap measure, but the challenge of infrastructure rehabilitation proved overwhelming and was postponed indefinitely. Now as then, local produce is uncompetitive because high transport costs and extortion rackets deter trade, production and investment. Specific to local farming, the impact of systematic rent-seeking on agricultural production and trade is another crippling deterrent to rural agricultural production and commerce. Detailed studies of these organized rackets abound, but have had no policy impact.
Ambitious in vision and consistent with COMESA and AU policy frameworks, operationally the PNIA is unlikely to succeed. It is hostage to the government's general inability to address the countryâs primary obstacles to economic growthâa chaotic business environment (legal protection, banking systems, transparent procedures/absence of corruption, and credit) and a very thin, highly unreliable infrastructure (power, transport, communications, etc). If in fact l'argent n'aime pas le bruit, then Congo's leaders need to concentrate on creating a law-abiding and responsive administration capable of reassuring investors that their entrepreneurism is welcome and respected.
"Con Dios no hay nada imposible", afirman las dominicas mientras se asientan en la ciudad destruidaLas hermanas dominicas que trabajan con la poblaciÃ³n cristiana en el norte de Irak han anunciado su intenciÃ³n de volver a la ciudad devastada de Mosul, aunque algunos sectores duden del futuro del cristianismo en dicha ciudad, recientemente liberada por Leer mÃ¡s…
Seven UTC Electrical Engineering (EE) students were awarded $1,000 scholarships for the spring semester sponsored by the department’s DOE workforce development grant. These Smart Grid Scholarships were established to provide a pipeline of qualified applicants to meet the workforce needs of the energy sector and energy-related businesses, particularly as it relates to green power, smart grid and renewable energy technologies. The awardees include Brian Allbrooks, Wes Brown, Nick Johnson,…
âThe transport sector is undergoing huge changes. Digitalisation, automation, the sharing economy and new services are transforming transport markets all over the world,â said Kari Wihlman, Director General of the Finnish Transport Safety Agency (Trafi) at the Trafi 2016 stakeholder event at Finlandia Hall today, 14 October 2016.
Okay, thatâs a sensible policy articulated by someone the banks pay to speak for them, itâs an association you know, who want us all to feel that the banking sector is, well, not-too-big-to-fail, and therefore safe enough to let one of them fail to prove it.
A new report by the Prison Reform Trust, supported by the Bromley Trust, shows the system under significant strain with fewer staff, worsening safety and fewer opportunities for rehabilitation.
A new report by the Prison Reform Trust, supported by the Bromley Trust, shows a prison system under significant strain with fewer staff, worsening safety, and fewer opportunities for rehabilitation.
Unprecedented cuts to the Ministry of Justice budget, due to total Â£2.4 billion by 2015-16, are creating a race to the bottom in prison conditions and the warehousing of people in super-sized jails, according to the Prison Reform Trustâs new report Prison: the facts.
Further measures are planned to drive down costs to levels claimed by the new much criticised private sector establishment HMP Oakwood, which is reported to cost around Â£15,500 per place and holds nearly 1,600 men.
Despite evidence suggesting smaller prisons are safer and more effective than larger establishments, holding people closer to home with a higher ratio of staff to prisoners and more emphasis on resettlement, the government plans to build a super-sized prison in Wrexham holding 2,000 prisoners.
Over 40 per cent of prisoners are now held in prisons of 1,000 places or more and nearly two-thirds of prisons in England and Wales are overcrowded by to the prison serviceâs own definition, holding 2,687 more prisoners than they were designed to. In the last two weeks prison numbers have swelled by over 500 â equivalent to the population of a small prison.
Strict controls on recruitment and high levels of staff sickness, the closure of 15 prisons, the transfer of a further two prisons to the private sector and a 23 per cent reduction in the number of prison officers employed in publicly run prisons since March 2010 have created a system stretched to its limit. Reductions in staffing levels impact on safety and the amount of time prisoners are able to spend their time engaged in purposeful activity. Nearly half (46 per cent) of adults are reconvicted within one year of release, rising to 58 per cent for those sentenced to 12 months or less.
The number of occasions Prison Service Gold Command, (the national group convened during serious incidents and disturbances), has been opened over the last three years has increased by 153 per cent since 2011-12. In 2013-14 it opened on 81 occasions. There has also been a 14 per cent rise in serious prisoner-on-prisoner assaults between 2010 and 2013 , and the number of deaths in custody last year was the highest on record.
According to HM Chief Inspector of Prisons, Nick Hardwick, both âthe quantity and quality of purposeful activity in which prisoners are engaged [has] plummetedâ in 2012-13, reporting the worst outcomes in six years. In over half of prisons results were judged to be not sufficiently good or poor. He also warned in 2012: âResources are now stretched very thinly [...] there is a pretty clear choice for politicians and policy makers â reduce prison populations or increase prison budgets.â
This report comes only a month after the Prison Reform Trust found evidence that the new Incentives and Earned Privileges (IEP) scheme, which includes a ban on prisoners receiving books and other basic items, is eliciting a strong sense of injustice in prisons and undermining opportunities for effective rehabilitation.
Juliet Lyon, Director of the Prison Reform Trust said: âThese latest figures reveal a prison service having to cope with unprecedented strain. Ministers must heed the warning signs. Rising assault and suicide rates, fewer staff and less constructive activity, call into question the governmentâs commitment to safety and decency. Slashing prison budgets and introducing harsher regimes while warehousing ever greater numbers overseen by fewer staff is no way to transform rehabilitation.â
Overcrowding and high reoffending rates are the norm in the prison system according to an analysis of recent statistics by the Prison Reform Trust.
Overcrowding and high reoffending rates are a fact of life in todayâs prison system according to an analysis of recent prison population statistics by the Prison Reform Trust. Despite opening two new prisons this year with a capacity of 2,500 places, 59 per cent of prisons in England and Wales are operating at an overcrowded level.
Although the growth in the prison population has slowed down in recent months, prompting plans to close HMP Wellingborough, there are still 7,294 more people in the prison system than it is designed and built to hold. On 31 July 2012, there were 77 out of 131 establishments over the Prison Serviceâs Certified Normal Accommodation defined as âthe good, decent standard of accommodation that the Service aspires to provide all prisonersâ.
The most overcrowded prison in England and Wales, according to official figures, is HMP Kennet. Designed to hold 175 men, it now holds 337. In second place is Shrewsbury (built to hold 170 men and holding 326) and in third is Swansea (built for 240 and holding 435).
For people in prison themselves, overcrowding has a tangible impact. Nearly a quarter of people in prison are being held in overcrowded accommodation, either doubling up in cells designed for one occupant or being held three to a cell in cells designed for two people. Private prisons have held a higher percentage of their prisoners in overcrowded accommodation than public sector prisons every year for the 13 years to 2010/11.
Overcrowding makes it much harder for staff to work intensively with offenders on resettlement, says the Prison Reform Trust. Currently 47 per cent of adults reoffend within a year of leaving prison, rising to almost 57 per cent for those who had served a sentence of less than 12 months. Nearly 70 per cent of children aged 10 to 17 released from custody reoffend within a year.
The National Offender Management Service (NOMS) itself has recently acknowledged that âimprisonment in and of itself does not reduce reoffending. If anything it slightly raises reconviction rates after releaseâ. The NOMS consultation document goes on to state that âto reduce reoffending, as well as mitigating the negative effects of imprisonment [â¦] prisons need to focus on four essential factorsâ, the first being the âprovision of a legal, safe, decent and rehabilitative regime supported by appropriate staff behaviours.â
Juliet Lyon, director of the Prison Reform Trust said: âBuilding our way out of the overcrowding problem is not the answer. The prison population can be safely reduced by curbing inflation in sentencing, calling a halt to any unnecessary use of custodial remand and investing in effective community penalties.
"Court ordered community sentences are more effective, by eight percentage points, at reducing one-year proven reoffending rates than custodial sentences of less than 12 months for similar offences. Rather than falling back on short, ineffective spells behind bars, investment in more intensive community sentences and public health solutions would cut crime and save the taxpayer money."
Leveraging his extensive experience driving service efficiencies in the public sector, William Rogers has joined Goodwill of San Francisco, San Mateo, and Marin Counties (SFGoodwill) as Chief Operating Officer. Rogers is responsible for streamlining the complex supply chain of the growing social enterprise, which includes 33 donation sites, 21 stores, 110k sq. ft of warehousing, and a burgeoning aftermarket salvage business.
In Documentation We Thrust In this bat episode, Dan Brown, consultant and author extraordinaire, deftly parries Tom Wailes repeated calls to oust the wireframes and task flows for prototyping and simulations. Our stalwart hero defends mindful subversion of the status quo as the best path in many corporate and public sector projects..
HOLLY SNIFF, who is the first person in her family to attend college, found out about making hard choices early on. "I really wanted to go out of state for school, but because of financial reasons I couldn't," says Ms. Sniff, who is now a sophomore at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.
For as long as she can remember, Sniff has been putting away money for her education. "I saved every dollar I was given as birthday presents or special treats as a child," she says.
Those childhood savings along with summer earnings and additional financial help from relatives got Sniff through her first year of college. But tuition continues to rise, and Sniff, along with millions of other students, is struggling to keep up.
At the same time, both private and public colleges and universities are moving beyond trimming at the margins to control costs.
Many schools are freezing faculty salaries, suspending hiring, delaying building maintenance, limiting course offerings, and even cutting academic departments.
Administrators are finding that they can no longer fund every project, department, or program. In the 1991-92 academic year, 57 percent of all colleges and universities were forced to reduce their operating budgets, according to an annual survey by the American Council on Education in Washington, D.C.
At the University of Vermont, a budget committee's proposal to eliminate the School of Engineering led to an uproar and the eventual resignation of the university's president.
AS state funding shrinks, public universities are being forced to increase class sizes and cut back on student services. Students at California's public universities have staged massive student protests against overcrowded classes and eye-popping tuition increases.
Nationwide, public colleges raised their tuition and fees an average of 10 percent and private-college increases averaged 7 percent this year, according to the College Board's annual survey released last month.
"Given the state of the economy and its impact on state budgets, many people expected much larger [tuition] increases this year, particularly in the public sector," says Donald Stewart, president of the College Board.
The rate of increase for public-college tuition is actually down this year compared with last year's 13 percent rise. And private colleges held their increases to last year's rate.
Yet that doesn't mean tuitions are gravitating back to earthly levels, warns Arthur Hauptman, a college tuition consultant.
"What the public tuition number says is that the recession has eased a little bit," he says. "If things get better [in terms of the economy], you would expect to see some additional reduction in those numbers."
In the '90s, Mr. Hauptman points out, there is much more competition for state funds than there was in the 1980s. Health care, prisons, and elementary and secondary education are all clamoring for funding.
"Despite predictions at the beginning of the '80s that it would be a tough decade, it turned out to be a very good decade for higher education in terms of revenue growth," Hauptman says. "Every major revenue source for colleges grew in real terms during that time - federal, state, tuitions, endowments, sales, and services."
And how were those revenues spent? Some faculty critics argue that the funds were spent on administrative bloat. "The fact is that in the '80s administrative staff at both private and public colleges grew much faster than the faculty," Hauptman says. "It is also true, however, that in the 1980s faculty salaries increased in real terms."
Last year, Rep. Patricia Schroeder (D) of Colorado launched a congressional investigation into the skyrocketing cost of tuition at public colleges.
"When it comes to college education, American families are paying more and getting less," she said. "Since 1980, the cost of sending our kids to college, a key part of the American dream, has doubled or tripled the rate of inflation every single year."
The investigation found that the growing research orientation of public higher education has fed the spiraling tuition costs. The teaching load of professors dropped from the traditional 15 hours per semester to as low as six hours per semester at some institutions, according to the study.
Pinning down the cause of increased tuition at either public or private universities isn't easy. Education is a labor-intensive enterprise that does not lend itself to productivity gains, administrators argue.
"Because faculty salaries have lagged in the past and because of competition for faculty among universities and industry, faculty compensation [increases] now exceed inflation," points out Paul Locatelli, president of Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, Calif.
Yet it is possible to increase teaching loads, reexamine the length of the academic year, and de-emphasize research in an effort to gain productivity, argues Hauptman.
"Colleges want to increase their resources; it's a natural inclination," he says. "If you read the college presidents' letters to the parents, you would assume costs are pushing tuition increases. But I think it's more that the revenues provided by the tuition hikes allow the schools to increase costs."
Meanwhile, students like Holly Sniff are willing to work harder or borrow more in order to get a college degree. Sniff expects to have accumulated about $10,000 in loans before she graduates. "I think I'm better off taking out loans now and using my life savings so that hopefully in the future I can find a better-paying job," she says.
Increased indebtedness raises the stakes for many students. "I'm not really concerned with it now," Sniff says, "but as soon as I graduate I'm going to have to get a good-paying job to pay off all of these loans."
What better way to educate oneself around the topic of Corporate Social Responsibility, than to listen to panel discussions with some of the most informed thinkers in this sphere representing global (UN Global Compact), public sector US (EPA), corporate (Dupont, Orange Telecom, SAP, Jones LangLaSalle and Bank of America), and academic (Harvard University Kennedy School of Government) perspectives.
I know that James Governor, Thomas Otter and Dennis Howlett had received an opportunity from James Farrar to hear from and about Transparency International back in November in Berlin and I was sorely grieved to have missed that event because of my TechEd travels.This invitation was ample compensation and a real learning opportunity.
The event provided the audience of about 130 business leaders with fodder for thought around the following topics:
What does sustainability mean to companies around the world?
What are they doing well and where is more action required?
Does sustainability pay and how much does it matter?
Can this build shareholder value?
Business and government, markets vs regulation
What it the role of business
Where does that role stop
Vijay Vaitheeswaran, correspondent, for the Economist chaired the conference and I found him exceedingly adept at moving the panel discussions along by asking provoking questions, engaging the audience with the speakers and allowing each of the featured panelists to present their unique perspectives.
Each session easily warrants a separate entry, but I will try to summarize just one speaker of one discussion here.
A big takeaway came from a surprising source:
The title of the blog entry is a quote from Mark Vergnano, Group Vice-president of DuPont Safety and Protection. âCollaboration isnât an option, itâs a requirementâ. Pretty compelling (actually disruptive and disturbing) to think of Dupont as a force for sustainability.Vergnano described Dupont as a company viewed in the past as one of the largest polluters in the world.For me such companies are still tainted with the specter of Union Carbide and the tragedy of Bhopal (synonymous with chemical and industrial disasters) hovering.The images of Bhopal are lingering ghosts that haunt and inform our sensibilities about that particular industry.Perhaps the Dupont story is so compelling for the very reason that it was difficult to think of Dupont a chemical company partnering with BP resulting in attaining sustainability goals and reducing carbon footprint and yet, Dupont claims to not only have accomplished its goals but to have saved billions of dollars.As a number of the speakers pointed out, if the company had been âBen and Jerryâsâ or Timberlake, the impact of the sustainable growth mission of Dupont, a top-down driven, gunpowder company, would have been less dramatic.
Vergnano spoke of science as an enabler and collaboration as an imperative. If Dupont has indeed harnessed science and partnered with BP in order to get government on boarded with bio-fuel usage and has managed, as it declares, to have turned waste to energy and taken the unique science of two companies and through collaboration, succeeded in its goals, it is an interesting story indeed.
De ano para ano, o eShow tem sido responsÃ¡vel por um incremento significativo dos negÃ³cios dos sectores que representa, cumprindo assim uma das suas missÃµes prioritÃ¡rias: apoiar os expositores no crescimento da sua actividade. Nesta terceira ediÃ§Ã£o do eShow Lisboa, que arranca jÃ¡ no prÃ³ximo mÃªs de Outubro, nos dias 9 e 10, o evento […]
With the die now cast for the imposition of an onerous carbon tax on the Australian economy it is timely to consider how this senseless position was reached and forecast what lies ahead for an Australian society of 22 million souls.
While the more courageous scientific and economic lobbies are protesting the rationale for the tax, there should be no doubt now that it is being forced upon this nation for political reasons simply to safeguard the majority Greens-Labor-regional independents' alliance in the federal parliament.
For the present the Greens effectively control federal policy, especially on issues that really matter, with the carbon tax but the tip of an iceberg. Consequently, those complicit in their election have much to answer for.
That the alarmist measures are unnecessary and result from a systematic Green's-driven campaign is evident from the fact that science has yet not found a clear link between man-made CO2 and climate change. There has been no increase in global temperatures, as predicted by IPCC computer modelling, since 1998, nor has there been any decline in the arctic polar bear population, nor any abnormal rise in ocean levels, nor damage to the Great Barrier Reef, etc.
Furthermore, far from being a pollutant, CO2 is necessary for plant life with a scientifically-proven positive correlation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and plant growth. Indeed, the planet supported an abundant plant life during the Carboniferous era with CO2 concentrations more than five times today's levels of less than 400ppm.
That the tax is futile in terms of any global impact on emissions is self-evident from the fact that Australia's contribution to global emissions is negligible at under 2% and Australia has failed to influence the big emitters to follow suit.
In compensating households for the increase in their utilities' costs the government provides no incentive for domestic energy users to change their behaviour; in addition, some economists are predicting that the government will not be able to meet its compensation promises.
That the tax will have a serious negative impact at all levels of the economy is becoming clearer daily. At domestic level, the cost of living will increase due to the direct and indirect impact of the tax on processed consumer goods and utilities. Despite denials by the pro-tax lobby and policy-makers the impact on industry and commerce will be variably significant depending on their energy consumption.
Heavy industry and mining will likely be at a comparative disadvantage to their overseas competitors and forced to go offshore where emissions will continue, or shut down with consequent unemployment issues.
The seriousness of many social impacts is only slowly beginning to unfold as these are not immediately apparent and the wider community has not yet realised the serious longer term implications of the relentless Greens'-driven 'reforms'.
Moreover, the UN's 'Green'-motivated international agencies such as the UN Women's and radical feminist groups, with their anti-life (abortion, euthanasia, same-sex marriage and the like) policies are already disrupting traditional family life.
With their electoral power now assured, and in accord with their Global Charter, the Greens will intensify their assault, firstly on Australian society, to ultimately create a biocentric world in which nature (landscape, plants, animals, insects) is superior to humanity and becomes the focus of humanity's development.
This means that resources and activity now used for the benefit of human society will be transferred to enhancing nature, including reversing the scientific advances that have fed, clothed and kept healthy an increasing, longer-living population.
The carbon tax is but a legal ploy for forcing our (mineral and energy) resources to remain untouched. It joins the long-time successful challenge by the Greens and other groups who demanded that water flow out to sea where its (edible) creatures could enjoy an unmolested existence!
Without coal, society will depend for its energy on renewable sources, which scientists have warned will be very expensive and cannot match fossil energy, thus enforcing a reduction in living standards. Energy-dependent industry will be forced to downsize with inevitable flow-on effects on economic development.
At the same time measures to lower national (and global) population will emerge to reduce the human 'polluters' to a level that will accommodate society within the limited resource and economic base permitted by a nature-oriented world. The Green's sustainable human population estimate for Australia is seven million.
The dilemma for many environmentally conscious Australians is that the anti-humanity focus of the Greens' policies is completely at odds with the Judaeo-Christian principles governing a balanced relationship between humanity and nature. Successive popes have stressed that nature is at the service of humanity which may use and develop its natural resources, always mindful of the obligation to safeguard nature for the benefit of future generations, while emphasising that nature must not be glorified.
The blame for the political rise of the Greens-dominated environmental lobby can include a sympathetic media, influenced by the clever Greens'-driven propaganda campaign that began fifty years ago, along with the failure of orthodox science to be more outspoken, especially those employed in the public sector.
In addition, according to anecdotal information, the religious education system, in encouraging an environmental consciousness, has failed to get the correct balance between a (Christian) humanity-centred and a (atheistic) biocentric focus, in accord with Christian principles. Sadly, a number of influential clergy and religious have also lost sight of a human development imperative within a theology of the environment.
Peter Finlayson is an active Catholic in the Ballarat Diocese and an agricultural scientist who has worked in many developing countries.
The head of the British Christian Legal Centre sees persecution of Christians in public life looming behind controversial recent remarks by the Equality and Human Rights Commissioner Trevor Phillips.
Andrea Minichiello Williams, who directs the legal centre, said that Phillips also sounded "naive," saying he "doesn't seem to be living in the same Britain that I'm living in."
Williams is not the only one who wondered where Phillips got some of the ideas he expressed in an interview on 19 June with the London Telegraph newspaper. The equality commissioner indicated that Muslim immigrants were integrating better into British society than many Christian populations, and said that Catholic adoption agencies were more clearly discriminatory than Sharia courts.
Phillips also said British Christians tended to imagine discrimination against them where none existed. And he indicated that believers should not expect exemptions from the 2010 Equality Act, with its controversial language on sexual orientation, once they stepped outside "the door of the church or mosque."
Williams, whose legal centre advocates for the rights of British Christians in the public square, said her country's Christian roots once made it "a land of great freedom," where "freedom of conscience" was respected.
"Those things we have seen eradicated under the Equalities agenda, which is Trevor Phillips' approach," she said in a 30 June interview. "Secularism, under the Equalities agenda, is not neutral. It punishes dissenters."
Williams said the system of equality laws, which began under Prime Minister Tony Blair and continued with his successor Gordon Brown, "sounds like utopia - but in fact, it leads to the beginnings of tyranny."
"If you enter into the public sphere, or a public sector job, you have to speak and act the prevailing Equalities agenda. If you do not do that, if you disagree, then you are punished. You lose your job. You become under investigation. You perhaps get accused of hate speech. These are our realities in the United Kingdom."
Phillips' most blatant criticism of traditional Christianity in the Telegraph interview came during a discussion of immigrant populations from Africa and the Carribean.
The commissioner acknowledged that there was "an awful lot of noise about the Church being persecuted," but said the "more real issue" for "conventional churches" was the influx of "people who ... believe in an old time religion which in my view is incompatible with a modern, multi-ethnic, multicultural society."
Williams explained that this perception of "incompatibility" came from a caricature of Christianity, not from the Gospel of Christ himself. "Everything that flows from him," she said, "leads to the recognition of the innate dignity of every human being."
"Because Christianity is not coercive - unlike secularism, and unlike Islam - it leads to true tolerance."
In his extensive interview with the Telegraph, Phillips said individual believers could expect the commission to stand up for their right to worship and believe as they pleased. He said it was "part of the settlement of a liberal democracy" for individuals not to be "penalised or treated in a discriminatory way" on account of "being an Anglican, being a Muslim, or being a Methodist, or being a Jew."
But Williams charged that the commission is not upholding even this limited interpretation of religious freedom.
"What Mr Phillips needs to do," she said, "is to come spend a day at the Christian Legal Centre, run through the cases, and see the discrimination that is out there."
"In the Sherry Chapman case, for instance - the nurse who was told to take off her cross after 38 years of wearing it in frontline nursing - exceptions were made for the Muslims, with the long flowing hijab and a big brooch."
"Down in a South London council, Muslims are allowed to pray five times a day, but Christians are not permitted to display Christian calendars on their desks. These are our realities."
She also pointed to the case of Eunice and Owen Johns, the elderly Pentecostal couple who were rejected as foster parents - despite their extensive experience - because they disapproved of homosexuality. "The Equality Commission intervened in that case. They intervened against the Christians," Williams noted.
"They've intervened in a number of other high-profile cases. They have not, ever, intervened against Muslims. They've only ever intervened in the Christian cases to stand against the Christians. This is not equality. This is inequality."
"There's a complete making-way for Islam, and yet Christianity is suppressed," Williams observed.
"This notion of accommodating Sharia, of accepting it - and then, of saying that Catholic adoption agencies, which believe a child needs a married mother and father, should be closed - is devastating for society."
Williams says Britain's aggressive pursuit of secularism was creating a "vacuum" that radical Muslims could seek to exploit. "Radical Islam has an agenda in this nation, and works hard," she noted.
But many English Christians fail to stand up for biblical truth in this context. "In many ways, the Church has herself to blame for the state we're in. What we've got to do is find our voice. Otherwise, there will be increased oppression and suppression."
Williams observed that Christianity has historically "survived much worse than attacks by Trevor Phillips." But she acknowledges that things look "very bleak" at the moment.
"We've currently got a government that's consulting on extending civil unions to religious premises," she noted. "They said they would never do that."
Williams and other English Christians want authentic religious freedom for themselves and others. But they understand the conflict with secularism is part of the cost of discipleship.
"Jesus suffered a false trial, was hated by the world, put on the cross," she recalled. "But there was his resurrection, and the great hope that flows from that."
With acknowledgement to Catholic News Agency.
LA DISMINUCION DE BIODIVERSIDAD EN GALLINA DE HUEVOS AZULES
â¢ Se ha producido paulatinamente el abandono de prÃ¡cticas tradicionales de producciÃ³n de gallinas, siendo reemplazado por la introducciÃ³n cultural de sistemas intensivos de producciÃ³n, promocionados por las polÃticas de desarrollo agrÃcola y ganadero del paÃs, que por un lado han profundizado la perdida de la gallina productora de huevo azul, incapaz de competir bajo sistemas de producciÃ³n intensivos y por otro lado han provocado la alteraciÃ³n en la calidad del producto (huevo). En este marco se necesita una recopilaciÃ³n y acuerdo de los expertos locales sobre los sistemas tradicionales Ã³ptimos para la mantenciÃ³n de las gallina de huevos azules, la cual bajo los sistemas intensivos de producciÃ³n, que en la actualidad son promovidos, no demuestra todas sus habilidades de rusticidad y calidad de sus productos.
The year 2012 started on a relatively positive note for U.S. restaurants. That scenario changed gradually as sales momentum slackened in the sector as the macroeconomic tension, presidential election and the “Fiscal Cliff” raised uncertainties in the market. Even this year, the industry remains on the receiving end of global economic concerns, fragile consumer confidence, a more expensive food cost environment in the U.S., a sluggish labor market, “Obamacare” and an excess of restaurants in the industry. As a result, […]
Coordonatorul PSD Sector 3, vicepresedintele Robert Negoita, a fost atacat de colegii sai joi seara, acestia acuzandu-l, in prezenta lui Ion Iliescu si a lui Miron Mitrea, ca a fost "parasutat" de la centru si ca vrea sa candideze impotriva vointei filialei pentru Primaria Sectorului 3. Negoita a re...
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Metroid: Other M was a good game, not by metroid standards at all (i think metroid prime is the best game of all time though, so its tough to live up to it) but the action parts and bosses were usually top-notch (the controls were ugly, but they worked since they built the game around them). This post isn't about what I liked about the game, it's just a general criticism of a lot of decisions they made gameplay-wise. I'm not gonna cover the stuff everybody says, just the things I noticed that didn't seem to get much mention in other criticisms of the game. Spoilers do follow, so be warned.
Team Ninja's "explanation" for why you can't use your powerups is shoddy at best. Some sort of explanation like, "super missiles could damage the hull of the ship" or "wave beam might have unforseen consequences in a contained environment, so we won't let you use them unless you absolutely need to for success" could have gone a long way. Not, "Oh you can't use your varia suit right now, even though you're burning to death". You know, give some context as to WHY adam makes these decisions for samus. After all, there's a strong theme that samus trusts adam since he makes good decisions (and it's his only role in the game really, as commander), so explain then, why it's a good decision to not allow use of grapple beam. In most cases, this doesn't effect gameplay all that much (replace "plot event" with "collect item") but it definitely defeats the impact of collecting a powerup.
For example, when you get the grapple beam. Anthony is in trouble and you need the grapple beam to get to him. Adam won't give it to you until you lock on to the grapple target. But, hey, why the FUCK would I look at the grapple target if I don't have the grapple beam? I lost about 5 times there before going, maybe I can just use the grapple beam out of desperation.
Then, adam goes missing, and samus is like "fuck that I'm using space jump" ("any objections adam?" = best line in game), then adam dies, and samus is like "well I guess I can use my powerups now, but I'm gonna wait till I need to" and over the course of like 10 minutes you get all your powerups. The last hour of the game you get so many powerups in a row it's just like..... come on man, make me work for them a little bit. It also doesn't tell you you can use power bombs when you get sucked into the last boss's stomach, I actually tried using a power bomb and it places a regular bomb so I figured I don't have them yet. As it turns out, I didn't charge for long enough (some feedback would have been nice for that). So I had to use an item I didn't know I had for the final boss. The one spot it doesn't give you a tutorial for how to use an item.
Also, team ninja was too lazy to make a new model of samus for the different suits, so they just put glow around her when the "feature" is active. WTF? That is just laziness.
The game feels unfinished. Only 3 sectors? Fusion, the game it borrows from, had 6, and they were interconnected. The sectors feel small for how few they are. I was really looking forward to sector 0, then adam is like "No i have to blow it up, sorry". This SHOULD HAVE BEEN PART OF THE GAME. Adam's "heroic sacrifice" doesn't seem that heroic when you don't know the dangers of the place he blew up. Also, they blow up the entire ship at the end, so really, what was the point? Adam doesn't seem to make very smart decisions, which is funny since his JOB is to make decisions. Also the end had rapid-fire powerup getting. I really think they originally intended to have sector 0 in the game, and more of the other 3 sectors, but time restrictions had them finish early. So they cut sector 0, and give you all your powerups at like the same time, and don't even bother modeling the gravity suit or the varia suit.
The Nightmare boss fight was totally awesome though, the fusion version was my favorite boss fight ever in the entire series (cause of its backstory and the melty creepy face). I was like, gravity suit here I come. Then you don't get it right then. And you get it a while later. The awesome part of metroid is how, when you beat boss that does gravity like that, your reward is the gravity suit. You know what's coming since each boss relates to the powerup it grants as a reward. Not in this game, the bosses are just there. No "Cool I get a powerup after this boss". Just, "oh hey another boss".
My end percentage was 34%, but since missiles are absolutely pointless, I really felt no desire to go back and search for the rest of the powerups.
Also, they never explain "The Deleter" (samus's nicknames for things really suck). He comes in as a plot device, then they ignore him completely in the end.
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Autor: Javier y MartÃn, con fecha 02/07/2012 17:25
<b>13 de mayo de 2012.</b><br><br>Recorrido de la Sierra Condiana por la cresta desde el Pico de Tres Hombres a la Punta de las Tres Huegas. Desde el parking de la zona Sextas de la estaciÃ³n de esquÃ de Formigal cruzamos el puente sobre el rÃo GÃ¡llego y remontamos siguiendo el trazado de las pistas en direcciÃ³n a la zona de descanso del Cantal. En un llano por debajo de esta Ãºltima sale el telearrastre Tramacastilla, que seguimos hasta la misma base del Pico Tres hombres. Desde el final del remonte un ligero giro a la izquierda para alcanzar un pequeÃ±o collado en la lÃnea de ascenso al pico y lo coronamos sin dificultad. Desde aquÃ solo queda el sencillo recorrido de la cresta hasta la punta de Tres Huegas, parte superior del sector Izas/Sarrios de la estaciÃ³n. Aunque no gozamos de buena visibilidad durante el recorrido se alcanza a ver todo el valle y de forma destacada la Sierra de la Partacua y los picos aledaÃ±os: Punta Escarra, Pala de Ip, etc. Aunque la idea inicial era descender al Collado de Izas y regresar siguiendo el GR11 preferimos desandar la cresta y evitar asÃ toda la zona de pistas. Ver post | Ver mÃ¡s blog
Autor: Javier y MartÃn, con fecha 10/06/2010 16:29
<b>5 de junio de 2010.</b><br><br><br>El IbÃ³n de Bucuesa y la/s balsa/s de AurÃn se asientan en una extensa terraza natural en las estribaciones del sector occidental de la Sierra de la Partacua, abierta por el Norte al Puerto de Piedrafita (Circo de Arbenuso), con excelentes vistas de los picos del valle de Tena, y al Sur al valle del RÃo AurÃn (Ribera d'As Canals). El paraje es absolutamente pintoresco. El ibÃ³n se encuentra en el circo lacustre que ocupa la parte superior, un rincÃ³n de contrastes y enorme belleza alejado de la zona del Valle donde el agua y los ibones tienen mayor protagonismo en el entorno del Balneario de Panticosa. Para llegar hasta aquÃ hemos recorrido el curso medio y alto del rÃo AurÃn, que no hemos abandonado desde la partida en la entrada del pueblecito de Acumuer. La mitad del trayecto se hace por pista y una vez finalizada esta hay que salvar inmediatamente, por nuestra derecha, un estrechamiento del rÃo (el salto ChurrÃ³n) y, tras una hora aproximadamente, las paredes del circo que constituye la cabecera del valle (por nuestra izquierda la canal de acceso se hace mÃ¡s evidente a medida que nos acercamos). Ver post | Ver mÃ¡s blog
Autor: Javier y MartÃn, con fecha 05/10/2009 15:47
<b>3 de octubre de 2009.</b><br><br>El poco conocido pico del Turno (2.753 metros), situado en el lÃmite del sector noreste del valle de Chistau, era hasta ahora una de las asignaturas que teniamos pendientes en este cautivador valle. La sensaciÃ³n de retiro y soledad son casi absolutas y a excepciÃ³n hecha del sector de Posets, dada la imponente proximidad de los picos de Eriste y Espadas, disfruta de una buena panorÃ¡mica del resto de sectores del valle: Suelza-Ordiceto, Culfreda, Bachimala y Cotiella. Todo ello sobre las tranquilas aguas del ibÃ³n del Sen. Ruta circular con salida y llegada desde el camping de El Forcallo: ascenso directo hasta el ibon d'es Luceros con camino a veces difÃcil de encontrar y descenso por el ibÃ³n de PixÃ³n y barranco de la Solana. Ver post | Ver mÃ¡s blog
Autor: Javier y MartÃn, con fecha 02/09/2009 16:03
<b></b><b>29 de agosto de 2009.</b><b></b><br><br>Vuelta circular en el sector nor-occidental del Parc Nacional d'AigÃ¼estortes i Estany de Sant Maurici con ascensiÃ³n a la Punta Alta de Comalesbienes, mirador de singular belleza. La imponente proximidad del macizo de Besiberri con el telÃ³n de fondo del Aneto, la armonÃa de los Estanys de Comalesbienes, el sinuoso cresterÃo que se abre hacie el Este precedido por el majestuoso pico de contraix, el paisaje pristino de la cara sur del Montardo salpicada de estanys, el hipnotismo de la Sierra de Tumeneia desde la Vall de Colieto, el reposado discurrir por las pletas de Colieto y Riumalo, y el ambiente de alta montaÃ±a del que se disfruta en la cumbre justifican sobradamente la ascensiÃ³n y el recorrido elegido, con subida por el barranco de Comalesbienes desde la presa de Cavallers y regreso por el valle de Colieto y pletiu de Riumalo. Ver post | Ver mÃ¡s blog
For this posting, I'm using an annotated urls format. Let's begin.
The Global Grid
Grid computing. HPC (high-performance computing). Lots of trade press coverage. Lots of academic papers. Generally, this is a GREAT convergence. Didn't hold with AI (artificial intelligence), but the coverage of grid computing is much more pervasive. Also, it's an area where I believe that systems integrators (SIs) in China can play with the globals. It's new enough that there are no clear leaders. Okay, maybe IBM is a clear leader, but it's certainly not an established market.
It's also a market where Chinese SIs can leverage work done for domestic applications for Western clients. This is NOT true in areas such as banking applications; the apps used in China are very different from the apps used in the States. Fundamentally different systems. But a lot of grid work is more about infrastructure and custom development. There's also a lot of open source in the grid sphere.
I've selected some of the best papers and sites for review. This is certainly not meant to be comprehensive, but simply follow the links for more info.
One last note: Clicking on any of the following links will likely lead you to an abstract and possibly to some personal commentary not included in this posting. You may also find related links found by other Furl users.
Well, the link has been replaced. Try to get a hold of this paper. It WAS available for free. SOA meets the grid. The lead author, Liang-Jie Zhang, is a researcher at IBM T.J.Watson Research Center and chair of the IEEE Computer Society Technical Steering Committee (technical community) for Services Computing. Contact him at email@example.com . Ask for his related papers, too.
I don't agree with this, but it's worth reading, especially considering the source. I agree that China shouldn't try to be a clone of India, but the arguments in support of the domestic market don't consider margins.
I'll be writing a column for the AlwaysOn Network about the disconnect between China's foreign policy initiatives and the realities of the IT sector. Suffice it to say that SIs in China should NOT chase after the EU. Again, do NOT confuse foreign policy with corporate policy!!
This article is a bit confusing. I suspect that TCS is simply copying the IGS China strategy. But it's worth noting that they're moving beyond servicing their American clients with a presence in China.