Pain Free Living Announced it is Making a Piezoelectric Stimulator        

Pain Free Living announced it is making a Piezoelectric Stimulator after discovering US Naval Doctors have been using a Piezo stimulator to relieve pain

(PRWeb November 13, 2014)

Read the full story at

          This 3D Printed Violin Looks Like A Klingon Weapon         

It looks straight out of science fiction, but this terrifying contraption is actually one very modern string instrument. The “Piezoelectric Violin,” brainchild of architects at Miami’s MONAD Studio, has got only two strings, and it’s 3D printed, but according to the designers, it still plays and sounds like its ancestral instrument.


          Chemical Resistant Plastics        
All of the plastics discussed in this blog have remarkable chemical resistance; PVDF and Ultem have resistance up to pH 11. These plastics are therefore often used in corrosive or acidic environments, offering solutions to problems that other materials cannot. Some popular plastics with extreme chemical resistance are: Ketron PEEK Techtron HPV PPS Ultem PEI 1000 Symalit PVDF 100 Ketron PEEK PEEK- Polyetheretherketone. PEEK has a unique combination of high mechanical properties and temperature resistance. It has an extremely high maximum service temperature (250⁰C continuously and up to 310⁰C for short periods of time) as well as being flame-resistant and thermally stable. PEEK has excellent retention of strength and stiffness, creep resistance over a wide temperature range and excellent wear and frictional behaviour. PEEK is often used to replace PTFE when higher mechanical load bearing capacity, or when superior wear resistance is needed. Also widely used as a replacement for metal components. Applications of PEEK include pump components, valve seats, bearings, pistons, rollers, gears, high temperature insulators, components exposed to boiling water or steam. PEEK is used in aerospace, automotive and chemical processing industries. PEEK is also used for medical applications. Techtron HPV PPS PPS- Polyphenylene Sulfide Techtron was developed to close the gap both in performance and price between the standard thermoplastic materials (e.g. PA, POM, PET) and the high-end advanced engineering plastics (e.g. PBI, PI, PAI, PEEK). Techtron has a high maximum service temperature, as it can operate at 220⁰C continuously. Techtron has a high retention of strength and stiffness, creep resistance over a wide temperature range, excellent wear behaviour and good electrical insulating and dielectric properties. It also has good UV-resistance and is physiologically inert (suitable for food contact). Techtron is used in industrial equipment such as industrial drying and food processing ovens, bearings, rollers, chemical process equipment, pump, valve and compressor components and electrical insulating systems. It is also used in manifolds, distributor valves, medical equipment components and steam cleaning equipment inserts. Ultem PEI 1000 PEI- Polyether Imide. Ultem is amber coloured and translucent. Ultem has high strength, stiffness and heat resistance (performs continuously to 170⁰C), making it ideal for high strength / high heat applications. Ultem has excellent abrasion resistance, excellent ageing stability and UV resistant. High dielectric and piezoelectric values. Ultem is FDA compliant. Thanks to its good hydrolysis resistance, ULTEM PEI 1000 is capable of withstanding repeated autoclaving cycles (good for surgical probes). Applications of Ultem include manifolds (offer resistance to hot chemical solutions), insulators and clamps (high voltage and flame resistance). Symalit PVDF 100 PVDF- Polyvinylidene Fluoride. PVDF has good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties and shows good resistance to high-energy radiation (considerably better than other fluoropolymers). PVDF has excellent abrasion resistance, excellent ageing stability and UV resistant. PVDF also has high dielectric and piezoelectric values. PVDF is suitable for the manufacture of components for the petro-chemical, chemical, metallurgical, food, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and nuclear industries.
          COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore Award Winners        
The COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore took place on October 20-21, and presenters from across the country came to showcase their simulation work. From modeling the motion of a dragonfly’s flapping wings to the simulation design of piezoelectric energy harvesters, we saw a wide range of exciting poster and presentation topics at this year’s event. Read on to learn about the top posters and papers at the COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore. Top Papers and Posters at the COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore […]
          Pioneer TS-G1345R        

5¼" G-Series 2-Way Speaker with 250 Watts Max Power
General Features

The TS-G1345R speakers are excellent choices to replace a bad set of factory 5-1/4" speakers. Their two-way design handles 250 watts max. power (35 watts nominal) and feature Pioneer’s extremely strong and lightweight Injected Molded Polypropylene™ (IMPP) Composite Cone Woofer, for improved sensitivity and reduced distortion. You don't get just basic, run-of-the-mill features either. The conex damper delivers higher power handling and deeper bass, and the 1-3/16” Piezoelectric tweeter reproduces highs with great performance and musicality. These speakers are designed with a shallow mounting depth for easy install into a wide variety of vehicles. Speaker grilles are not included.


Tweeter Design 1-3/16" Balanced Dome
RMS Power Range (Watts) 2-35
Sensitivity 86 dB at 1 watt
Tweeter Composition PET
Woofer Composition IMPP
Bottom-mount Depth (Inches) N/A
Design 2-way
Woofer Surround Cloth
Frequency Response 34 - 25k Hz
Peak Power Handling (Watts) 250
Impedance (Ohms) 4
Top-mount Depth (Inches) 1 3/4
Cutout Diameter or Length (inches) 4 3/8

          Managed Home Security Plans        
Ask yourself honestly, have you installed a sophisticated security system on your car but not even a simple home security alarm for your house? Many people are worried that their cars get stolen but think that their houses will always be safe from theft and burglaries. You may not be able to continue denying the fact that home property crimes are on the increase with the increasing unemployment rates. Despites the bailout measures taken by many governments, it may take another year before the global economy recovers. If you have been following the news, the police force has been steadily increasing its recruitment cohort size every year. This is not just to absorb the number of new college graduates per year, they really need the manpower to handle increasing crime rates and terrorism throughout the country.

Besides totally relying on the public infrastructure, many house owners are proactively installing home security systems to protect their family and property. This decision has been made easier thanks to the falling prices of home alarms and surveillance equipments as well as the creation of wireless enabled products that do away with expensive and disruptive wiring works. If you are considering to also install a home security system in your home, it would be wise to read up and make yourself familiar with the different types of home security equipments available and how they can work together to meet your needs. Thereafter you can make the better buying decisions in selecting the appropriate home security protection system for your home, office or warehouse.

If you have installed a home security system many years back, you would be familiar with light based trip sensors that are installed at all possible points of entry to your house, such as doors and windows. These are only useful for alerting the home owner after the break in happens and offers no preemptive protection. Nowadays, piezoelectric acoustic sensors can be installed outside your house to detect incoming personnel from as far as 30 feet. When there is a potential risk of intrusion, these sensors can activate sirens to scare off the would be robbers and save you the repair cost of a broken lock or window pane. Generally, these acoustic motion senors work better when placed outdoors compared to indoors where walls and furnitures tend to interfere with the acoustic signals. These sensors can establish up to a thirty feet security zone that surrounds your home and detect all movements before they reach your house. A wireless sensor network also provides extreme ease of deployment and readjustments since there are no rewirings to be done. Their small sizes allow them to be well hidden such that intruders will not be able to see them and try to avoid their detection. With improved energy saving features and transmission protocols, the batteries powering these wireless sensors can easily last for a year before they require recharging or replacement.

When you buy a complete home security alarm system from a professional solution provider such as ADT, they can provide what is known as companion service security, which is a monthly subscription based service. For some added cost per month, the security company have staff working on 24/7 to monitor the status of all burglar sensors and IP surveillance cameras installed at your house. When an intrusion is detected or an accidental emergency arises such as a kitchen fire due to an unattended stove, the security staff will immediately call the police or fire department on your behalf. This is especially useful when the incident happens when you are not at home or even overseas. You are also able to establish direct contact with these staff to seek advice and consultation on what to do. The extra cost of such monitored security companion services is actually quite reasonable, so do consider carefully if you can benefit from it.

If you are wondering how easy is it to activate an unmonitored house security system, there are usually several options. For example, they can be set to time based activation on a daily basis. For example, you can program the motion sensors to work only during 8am to 6pm when you are at work and then 11pm to 7am when you are asleep for weekdays. There is also the master remote control that is carried on a key chain just like your car control. Some systems are even equipped with voice recognition commands for even simpler activation and deactivation of the house alarms. The house security alarm technology that is available now is truly state of the art and can adequately improve the protection of your family and property with a minimal investment.
          Home Security System Trends        
The increasing rise in the number of home robbery, theft and holdups over the entire country is making many homeowners take a proactive approach to protecting their families and property from harm. It is well known that most burglaries occur either at night when the tenants were sound asleep or just after lunch when everyone is at work and there are nobody left in the house or when the entire family leaves for a holiday leaving behind an empty house. Yes, these are not coincidences as burglars will observe their potential break in targets for days to determine when and where is the best time for them to act. While it is difficult to change the "when" part unless you work very random and bizarre hours with no apparent patterns such that any spying burglar cannot say with confidence when you were not be around the house. It is however easier to change the "where" part by making burglars back off from any thoughts of breaking into a well secured house and landing themselves straight into jail.

Do you keep a dog for safety measure but could not handle its non stop barking or toilet habits? Or do you keep a baseball bat under the bed and are unable to have a good night sleep especially after hearing your neighbors got their house broken in and suffered great losses? So how can house owners be assured that they can leave for work without having to worry abut robbers?

Even with more and more news of home robberies being reported, a full fledge home security alarm system may be too over the top for most homeowners especially those staying in smaller apartments and cannot justify the high installation and maintenance costs. Fortunately, you can take advantage of pecking order and the outlook of your neighbors' houses. What this means is that you just need to make your house appear a little less rich and a little more troublesome to break in compared to nearby homes. A large ADT alarm deliberately placed besides your main door is often sufficient to make robbers think that your house is not worth the effort. The small investment cost in a home security alarm may make the difference between your house been broken in versus your neighbor's house. By setting up a home security alarm, you can be assured that when there is an unauthorized entry, the siren will notify everyone nearby and drive away off these unwanted guests. Depending on your household's needs and available budget, there are various kinds of home security systems available. The takeaway message is that no matter what kind of home protection system you install, it is better than not having any in place to prevent strangers from breaking and entering your property.

Home security alarms are often based on motion detectors based on piezoelectric acoustic wave sensors. An acoustic wave is periodically generated and when any changes to the characteristics of the propagation path affects its measured velocity and/or amplitude is detected, a motion activity is detected. These are soundless and non visible during operations and they are definitely not like the red laser beams guarding a security safe as per Mission Impossible movies. In a complete home security system, the central control panel shows the locations where these motion sensors have detected abnormal activities. Depending on the automatic response policy, a siren can be sounded off to startle the thief and notify the house owner as well as the security management company. In 24 hours home security protection plans, there are always staff on standby to check the status of motion sensors installed in your house. When the staff are alerted to the unauthorized motion detected and have confirmed the threat status either based on existing log reports or visual images from the wireless IP security cameras, they will also make a report to the local police immediately on the home owners behalf.

The individual components of a house security alarm system may either be wired together or connected via wireless technology such as IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4 or ZigBee. The wireless components are powered using batteries and run efficient, energy saving operational protocols that enable them to work for weeks on a single charge before requiring new batteries. when buying an indoor or outdoor security alarm siren, you would want one with at least 100db sound output to make sure you create a loud siren noise. Some also come with blue or red strobe lights that looked similar to those on police patrol cars. These are especially helpful in drawing attention during nights.

Regardless of the type and complexity of the home security alarm system you are buying, you should also seek the advice of house security experts about the effectiveness and suitability for your household needs, even if it is a simple system that you intend to install on your own. You need to be aware of its limitations such as motion detection range, battery lifetime, time to failure etc. It is important to regularly test out the home alarm system to ensure it is working properly or you may become complacent and lax in the uphold of your house security. For example, a broken strobe light on your siren not only will not discourage potential burglars, in fact it will make them think that the entire home security alarm is already spoiled and not in service.

Besides alarms, motion detectors, home security cameras etc, do not forget the basics such as a strong main door and lock, bright outdoor lightings and signs of having a house guard dog are also strong crime deterrents. Together, they will help ensure your home is safe from unwanted incidents.
          Grow a large crystal from a small seed crystal        
I already had an explanation for how to make a small Rochelle salt crystal for playing with piezoelectricity. Now I've added an explanation for how you can grow a larger crystal using one of those small ones as a seed. See the link for details.
          Why quantum dot simulation domain must contain multi-million atoms?         
The InGaAs quantum dots obtained from the self-assembly growth process are heavily strained. The long-range strain and piezoelectric fields significantly modifies the electronic structure of the quantum dots. This imposes a critical constraint on the minimum size of the simulation domain to...
          Further Thoughts About Crystal Magic        

I discussed the art of Crystal Magic in a previous blog article, but I didn’t really focus on it as an important part of the energy model of magic and I would like to address those ideas here. Crystals of various kinds have been an integral part of the magic that I work for many years, but I haven’t emphasized in print their importance to me, what I do with them magically, and the role that they play in the workings that I perform. Anyone who would carefully examine my personal magical temple would find a number of crystals placed at strategic locations. These are not used as New Age props nor do they function as interesting but useless esthetic “eye candy.” They have an important functional use in the magic that I work, but that importance is only made possible because of the way that I have developed the energy model of magic.

I started using crystals in my magical workings back in the early 70's. This was way before crystals became a big fad in the New Age community some years later. The way that I discovered crystal magic is an interesting tale all by itself. So, I should tell this tale since it does deviate considerably from how crystals came to be used by adherents of the New Age.

What was my source of inspiration? I blush to reveal that what inspired me was a daffy movie I loved and celebrated which came out during that time (1974). It was the movie “Zardoz” (believe it or not), and I the first time I saw it I was quite stoned. (A few of my friends have also told me this tale about seeing the movie while stoned, so maybe it’s part of the movie cult.)

The use of crystals in that movie were quite futuristic, or perhaps even based on pure fantasy, since the AI computer system (called the Tabernacle) that empowered the “Eternals” living in their isolated vortex was centrally stored in a large crystal diamond, and each “Eternal” had a smaller version of that crystal planted in their foreheads to facilitate a conscious link to that computer system. They also had a crystal ring that functioned as a kind of AI interface. The Tabernacle became the repository of all their knowledge and even their memories and personalities, and when one of them died, they were brought back to life with all their memories intact. They also remained in a state of perpetual youth, a kind of haunting image of pretty young lithe “ambisexual” adults living with the eyes and jaded sensibilities of a people hundreds of years old. 

I was quite fascinated by the various astonishing ideas and visions depicted in that movie, but I didn’t make the connection between crystals and magic until I went through a period of taking LSD while performing magical experiments not long afterwards. The whole premise of crystal magic that I use today was based on what I saw when playing with multifaceted man-made crystals along with small ultra-bright flashlights, strobe and black lights. I saw the lines of force being stored in the crystal, and I could not only enter into the crystal, but could replay certain ritual workings collected in it. It was revelatory, and the insights that I gleaned from these experience became the basis to the methodology that I developed for my version of crystal magic. I can say that having learned to see into crystals in this manner, I have retained that visual ability. Needless to say, it was quite different than what the New Age passed off as “crystal work.”

Anyway, for me to state that the basis of my techniques of crystal magic were based on some very fascinating hallucinations induced by several acid trips is probably not something that anyone would declare as the source of magical ideas or insights. However, this is the truth of the matter, and sometimes strange experiments done in the spectrum of the highly irrational can produce amazingly great results. I don’t recommend either myself or anyone else using this approach to magical experiments at the present time, since I am now of an age that such experiments would represent a potential mental or physical health hazard. Still, my magical system was founded on the enthusiasm of youthful experiments, when such actions are acceptable risks in the delusional mental background of immortality and invincibility that haunts the young. There was a bit of the Zardoz “Eternal” in what I was doing back then. Thankfully, I am more cautious today about engaging in such crazy exploits, but I am no less curious or optimistic - that part of me hasn’t changed.  

Let us start by examining the basic elements of crystal magic that I wrote up six years ago (found here) so we can then examine the attributes of a “strong” energy model of magic and how it works. I am taking the portion of text from this article that specifically deals with crystal magic, since it was well written and helped to define what crystal magic is and how it should work. I associate the crystal in magic as representing the element of spirit, as far as the elemental tools are concerned. I think that this association is intriguing and gives considerable creative flexibility for the use of crystals in the practice of magic. (Note: I have made some edits on the following text to improve its readability and deepen what is presented.)


Spirit - Crystal or Stone - The quality of Spirit has some particular correspondences associated with it, and these are determined by the definition that Spirit is the unique joining of the previous four elements, producing a synthesis which is also their source. The crystal is uniquely qualified to fill this position, and has many useful and important magical properties. 

Crystals come in many different sizes, shapes, either naturally occurring or man-made; they have the variable qualities of hardness, cleavage, optical properties (clear, opaque, translucent, colored) and electrical conductivity. Some crystals have quite unique electrical qualities, such as quartz, which demonstrates piezoelectric phenomena (where mechanical stress produces electricity). Other crystals, such as germanium or silicon carbide, are used as semiconducting rectifiers, such as what has been used in the various layers of a computer chip. Crystals also exhibit the qualities of resonance and oscillation when a small current of electricity is passed through them (an anti piezoelectric effect). Thus, from a purely metaphysical perspective, crystals receive and store, unleash and vibrate or oscillate; these qualities make them uniquely useful in a magical context.

The basic magical premise of crystal magick is that a crystal can capture and contain the etheric or “fusion-like” energy that is produced in a magical ritual. This is particularly true when the ritual magician bases all of her workings on the prismatic ritual structure of the magnetic spiral vortex. Vibrating patterns of magical energy trace patterns within the crystal, and it can hold that energy indefinitely. That same energy can be retrieved or tapped by the will of the magician so that it can be replicated and projected into a magic circle for reuse. A crystal can accumulate the etheric energy tracings of many ritual workings so that over time it will house a representation of all of the workings that are performed in its presence.

So a crystal can act as a kind of magical memory receptacle, holding the energy until it’s needed or discharged by the magician. From a magickal perspective, crystals can be natural (hopefully, ethically harvested) or man-made. Each crystal has a unique magical effect depending on its shape, size, clarity, color, facet characteristics and whether it is natural, manufactured, or made from molded and polished, lead crystal glass. All of these crystal types are useful in ritual magick, and the only factor is the esthetic sensibilities and tastes of the magician. Cleaning a crystal in salt water will clear it of all influences, yet anointing it with oil or a liquid sacrament does just the opposite - empowering and emphasizing a certain event.

Crystals have the following qualities:

Collectors of magical power - not only do they collect the light frequencies of discrete magical workings, they can store them almost indefinitely, allowing the magician to retrieve either part or the full energy signature of a specific spell performed in its midst. (This can be done multiple times with the same specific energy signature. This would indicate that retrieval doesn’t necessarily discharge what is stored in the crystal.)

Emitters of magical power - crystals not only collect magical power, but they also can transmit that power as well. What is transmitted appears to be more similar to the “information” attribute of a magical power instead of actual magical energy. The energy signature is what is emitted from the crystal, and this seems to become an actual energy field when projected into a consecrated magical circle.

Processors of magical power - multiple magical workings stored in a crystal can be condensed averaged, summed and even multiplied. A magician can retrieve certain aspects or a ritual working to examine independently from the rest of the stored signature. 

Crystal magic as I employ it uses three crystals strategically placed in the magical temple, and these are used in a specific functional manner. These are:

1. Base Crystal or Collector - This is a large crystal, usually natural and consisting of many terminated points. Can be clear, smokey quartz, or of any color, as long as it retains some clarity, allowing light to pass through it. The collector crystal is kept either on or at the foot of the main altar. The collector is used as a kind of recording system for any and all magical rituals performed in the temple. It can recall any part of any ritual performed, recall a series of rituals in a working, or process the magical power collected to extract the overall meaning of a single or multiple workings.

2. Controller or Transformation Crystal - This is a small crystal that is worn around the magician’s neck on a necklace. The controller is a crystal that records the impression and energies associated with the individual magician. The controller can automatically or on command draw and direct power from the collector into itself for the magician to use at any given moment, regardless of the actual physical distance between them. The controller can be worn underneath a shirt or blouse when the magician is in the mundane world, allowing him/her to access and project magical power from the temple complex while far outside of its normal influence. When used during an evocation using both the energy and spirit models, it is called the “crystal of transformation,” since it assists the wearer to fully experience the domain of the spirit that is invoked. It helps to process the phenomenon of evocation so that it is instantly intelligible and meaningful to the magician.

3. Transmutar - this is a wand or stave that has a small crystal affixed to its tip. The transmutar wand is a specialized hybrid tool used in energy magic. It is the curious amalgamation of a wand and dagger, thus it can function as either one or both simultaneously. The transmutar wand can draw power into itself or send it out using either the controller or collector crystals. There is a strong connection between these three crystals and they function as a single unit when a magician wields them in a magic circle. The transmutar wand is used to project energy and information to a given target, make lines of force, invoke or evoke spirits, or even defend the magician from any hazards (just like the wand and the dagger).

The transmutar wand is also a powerful emitter, drawing magical power into itself and amplifying it into the temple confines or to a specific target. Because of its obvious nature, a transmutar wand is usually used in a temple or a grove, but it can be hidden on the person of the magician and used in the mundane world, like the controller crystal necklace. The transmutar wand is the instrument that is used by the magician to access the base crystal, recall previous energy structures, and re-emit them into the magick circle, condense them with other structures or even erase them.

How I achieve this interaction with crystals is through a process of employing sensitive touch and focused visualization projected into the crystal. Sometimes it helps to have a very bright LED with a very narrow focus or a LASER light source to aid this process. Strobe lights and black lights can also be used to access the contents of a crystal, if you have the ability to creatively visualize. Once a magician is able to readily sense, touch and visualize the magical energies stored in a crystal, it then becomes a natural part of his or her regimen.


Crystals and the Energy Model

The use of crystals in magic relies heavily on various premises established in the energy model of magic. Without a strong definition of the energy model then the whole basis of these techniques becomes meaningless. The media that is captured, refracted, processed and emitted from crystals is magical energy. The definition of magical energy has many different frames of reference, whether it is an actual energy unknown as of yet to science or representing something of a metaphor for a process that resides wholly and independently in consciousness. What seems to determine the amplitude of magical energy is more driven by the magician’s emotions and feelings than by anything that might be capable of being measured or controlled, such as capacitors, resistors and the like.

Since crystals also seem to store the information or the essence (signature) of a thing or process, one could also say that the information model of magic is also used by this powerful magical tool. Crystals are unique because as a tool, they straddle more than one magical model. The energy and information models are used, but then so is the psychology model, since one must use the “As If’ formula to actually make a crystal perform as required. If the crystal is a smooth ball or an oblong shape it becomes a window (or even a repository) into the Spirit World, thus additionally harnessing the spirit model of magic. The fact that crystals can bridge all of these models of magic individually or simultaneously makes them uniquely suited as the most excellent magical tool . 

While the belief in a collective magical energy field has been around since the beginning of human consciousness, being variously called Mana, Chi, Vital force, Life-Force, among others, the belief in individual based energy (or energy generated from a person’s body) is more recent. Added to the metaphorical layers of the meaning of magical energy or power are many of the characteristics of electromagnetism, even though such a borrowing is not accepted as fact by science. My opinion is that both individual and collective definitions of magical energy or power are useful and important, as well as the other aggregated metaphors that we use to describe something that is tangible to the senses but not empirical in the laboratory. One of the more mysterious attributes of magical power is that it seems to extend lines of force that connects everyone and everything into a holistic union. I saw this phenomenon early on when I was working magic as a youth, so it was for me not some Neoplatonic pipe dream but a real characteristic of magical power and magic in general. This would indicate to me that what I am experiencing and perceiving is more of a “collective” energy model, since it readily extends far beyond myself.

We are all part of the web of magical energy, and that allows for a certain interaction between individuals and even inanimate objects. I can still see these lines of force today, although it helps me greatly if the lighting is dim (indoors) or spectrally illuminated by moonlight or firelight (outdoors). Whenever I would connect with one of these lines of force I immediately felt a kind of link between myself and to whomever or whatever the line was connected. These lines of force also led to me realize that behind the individuality of everything there was a point where all lines converged. I realized then that in this interconnected web was a unified source, which I emotionally experienced as ecstasy or ultimate power. At that time I had never read any Plato and I was probably not up to reading anything so intellectual or complex. It was a natural experience for me, and one that I always associated with my energy model of magic.

Magical power is never static. It is always in movement. Even when I peer into my crystals to see the lines of force they are in constant movement. The prismatic energy fields that I experience when working energy based forms of magic are also moving, fluctuating, vibrating, pulsating and seemingly forever forming new connections and lattice structures or disappearing or dissolving old connections. When I concentrate magical power in my body, focusing it in my hands or feet, it causes them to feel the vibrations and pulsations of that energy. My hands shiver and shake, and my body moves, sometimes causing me to briefly dance so as to express the energy that I am feeling. Utilizing this model to directly “feel” and “experience” magical power in the body as an individual is even more heightened and amazing when working forms of sexual magic with a partner. This kind of energy based magic powerfully impacts the body, and it is there that the most fundamental of magical changes can be made.

I have already written quite a number of articles about the energy model of magic in my blog, and you can find an index for all 14 of them following this link.

Lines of force, geometric prismatic energy shapes, vortices, pylons, pyramids, gateways - these are some of the many magical energy patterns that I have developed and use with the energy model of magic. All of these qualities are perceived, recorded, processed and emitted through the use of crystals in a form of crystal magic. Crystals are just another magical tool, but they are associated with the element of spirit, and this makes them capable of working and channeling all four elements, including the union of the elements known as Spirit. Crystals are the quintessential element in the magician’s repertoire of magical tools. I have performed some of my workings using only a transmutar wand, dispensing with wooden wands, daggers, swords, and staffs. The crystal has an earth based attribute, particularly if it a natural crystal, and it also seems to be like a liquid frozen into solidity, thus emulated the earth and water elements. Dipping a crystal into a chalice of sacramental wine or touching a sacramental host assists it to capture the signature of that magical sacrament. This use causes the crystal to function as another tool type, and that is a magical reliquary - another topic we should discuss in the future.

As you can see, crystals are eminently useful to a magician, and they are a key instrument employed in my extended version of the energy model of magic.

Frater Barrabbas

          Mosquito Click - $24.95         

Mosquito Click zaps away the sting, itc and swelling from bites by mosquitoes, non-poisonous jellyfish, sandflies, midges, bull-ants, fleas and horseflies.  Chemical free, uses piezoelectricity to inhibit the production of histamine at the site of the sting or bite, thereby reducing itching and inflammation.

          Free Energy System - $99.00        
From the most powerful mind in magic. Magical power at your fingertips! Energize yourself or another object! Perform telekinesis! Make cell phones to activate and more with Fearson's Free Energy System! The race for a source of safe, clean energy is over. Steve Fearson's Free Energy System allows you to become the electric superhero new age guru you've always wanted to be! Just wait until you see the reactions you get when they actually... FEEL YOUR POWER! Picture this... You show both hands clearly empty, sleeves pulled back. You ask a anyone to place on hand on your chest over your heart and extend one finger of their other hand towards you. You extend your finger towards theirs and as your bare fingertip touches theirs, "completing the circuit"... They FEEL the power coursing through your body! It does not hurt or cause any upset to the spectator. The sensation It is subtle, mysterious and undeniably magical! Remember... Your sleeves are pulled back, no wiring or connections hidden up the arms and nothing under your clothing. This is diabolical, you could be strip searched and they won't find it! Obviously the item will be of tremendous value to any magician, psychic or anyone who performs energy demonstrations.Being able to give the impression that you possess some sort of power that can manifest itself physically, a power they can actually FEEL elevates you in the minds of those around you in ways that words can not describe. You need to experience it for yourself. This could be that extra something that pushes the suspension of disbelief past the tipping point in the minds of those you perform for.Now You Can Make Anyone A Believer! Hands are clearly displayed empty Can be done in short sleeves 100% Safe electronic device Several presentation ideas are included, among them are: ENERGY HANDS This one is for the most HARD-CORE SKEPTIC you can find. We've all seen psychics on tv that can zap their followers with just a wave of the hand but when they try it on the local news reporter their mojo seems to fizzle. Not anymore! Imagine taking the most hard-core skeptic from the audience, a true non-believer. You ask them to extend their open palm and you place your hands several inches above and below theirs. You focus your energies for a moment and ask them if they felt the energy you are sending. To their amazement as well as that of the audience, they say YES! You press them further, "Did it feel like heat?" They say no, it was more like a vibration of energy. And they're NOT A STOOGE. They really do feel it! If you are a mentalist, energy worker, demonstrate Tai Chi or do any type of psychic or mentalism demonstration where you would like someone to actually FEEL the power emanating from your hands, Fearson's Free Energy System can help. When your hands are empty, your sleeves are rolled WAY back and the town skeptic says he felt it... well now we're cooking with gas my friends. But that's not all Fearson's Free Energy System can do... CRYSTAL CHARGING In this "New Age" presentation you charge a quartz crystal with power from your hands. You do this by rubbing it and compressing it between your fingertips for it over a short period as you explain what you believe makes this possible in scientific terms. As you patter about the piezoelectric generators and the like, your audience begins to wonder if you just might be serious.When you hand it to them and they actually FEEL residual vibratory energy in the crystal they will have no doubt! The quartz crystal is absolutely ordinary and could even be given away as a souvenir. Many other objects can be charged as well, like a Sharpie Marker, coin, piece of silverware or jewelry. The presentation ideas are endless, you'll have to resist the urge to charge everything in sight! GHOST CALLER Cause someone's cell phone to activate. You don't even have to be touching it. Although this makes for a great gag and you'll have fun using it as such, it can be devastating when used in the context of a larger routine or psychic reading. If you're trying to contact the dead, a ghost call might be just what the doctor ordered. No complex setup. Just grab it and go! No special conditions or clothing required. Safe method will not harm sensitive electronics. We're talking no pulls, cords, straps, or lumps under your clothing. You don't need to be grounded. Humidity is not a concern. The battery lasts a very long time, is very common and can be easily replaced. This is a real worker and we guarantee it's going to be the thing you have the most fun with, straight out of the box. SO HOW DOES IT DO IT? Without giving away the method completely we will say that it does not involve shocking your spectator. Steve Fearson has developed a way to transfer energy from your hands to the spectator without any danger of "zapping" or otherwise hurting them. The spectator feels only a gentle but surprising pulse of energy and is never exposed to dangerous current. With proper handling the sensation can appear to travel quite far. The gimmick is completely under your control at all times. You are able to get the shocking reactions you want, without having to actually shock them... or yourself. This device also will not cause headaches or illness since the current doesn't have to travel through your entire body. We can guarantee without a doubt, this method is 100% SAFE for both you and your spectator. This item is assembled in small quantities in the USA and is meant to last a lifetime. Requires one common 3V button cell battery, not included. The battery life may vary depending on your application but generally will last a very long time before needing replacement.
          Hammock camping at Loch Morar.        
Sometime last Autumn my good friend Keith asked if I'd like a trip up to the North West side of Scotland. He was on his way to run the hills at Knoydart, a remote area reached by ferry from Mallaig. Keith has taken up the pastime of the mountain marathon runner, the idea being that at events held in our mountainous regions folk run a long course carrying the equipment they'll need for a night out on the hill. The rucksacks they carry are packed with extremely lightweight equipment, to the extent that food is weighed and toothbrushes are cut down to size. I gave him one of my wooden spoons, I think it passed the weigh-in.
Keith's pack looked nothing like this....


I am a bit long in the tooth for running around the mountains, and of course carrying camera equipment pretty much disqualifies me from such excitable activities.
So I filled my Bergen with things to sleep on, things to sleep under and food to eat.
I took far too much food.
I used to have this one man camping thing well and truly sorted, with my lightweight waterproofs and modern clothing I could keep the carried weight down, time has taken a toll on my light gear, so now I'm toting heavier gear. Mostly surplus.
I'm back to when I first started this hillwalking pastime, although nothing I use nowadays is made of canvas and my boots don't fall to pieces after two trips.
I'm also used to travelling with Sarah, two of everything.
I bought the Bergans PowerFrame pack last summer. I tried replacing my Berghaus Vulcan, it had only lasted 20 years and numerous hitch-hiking and hiking adventures, along with a spell with Mountain Rescue.
Disappointing really..... 
I bought a new Vulcan from Berghaus and it was a shadow of its older and more venerable mark.
After sending three back to Berghaus, one of which wasn't even stitched together, I gave up.
I use the Bergans PowerFrame regularly now, even as a day sack.
It's comfortable, I'm 6'4" on a good day and small day packs don't really fit my back. Also trying to get huge waterproofs into a day sack doesn't leave much room for sandwiches and cameras.
I can simply open the lid of the PowerFrame and pour my equipment in, cinch it up, and go.
It has an external aluminium tubular frame, you can remove the bag and strap all manor of things to it.
It's heavy, but the comfort overrides that issue.
It's a squeaker, but a liberal squirt of wax polish on the offending parts seems to have quietened it down.
Keith dropped me off at the head of a track near Arisaig that would enable me to walk to Loch Morar.
The views were utterly breathtaking.
We made our plans for a rendezvous after our respective adventures.


The walk into Loch Morar was fairly simple, without any navigational problems.
The first big load with the new pack, we seemed to hit it off right away.
Over the final ridge and this...........


I made my camp by the white sandy beach in the bay on the right.
I spotted it from afar and fell in love. I couldn't believe what I'd walked into.
Beauty everywhere.
Once I'd cleared some brush and hung the hammock I lit a fire and ate supper, bed came early, it was a long drive from Dartmoor.
I spent the night in my hammock pea-podded in a Jervenbag.
I slept the sleep of the gods and awoke to this find view.


You can see from this photograph from an earlier trip to the highlands how the Jervenbag can be used to pea-pod the hammock. The Jervenbag or Fjellduken is a waterproof bag, rectangular in shape with zips running on three sides. The waterproof material has a foil backing for heat reflection and some models are lined with Prima loft, as is the one I own.
My Fjellduken is a king sized version, big enough to wear as a waterproof over me and my Bergen, and long enough on the diagonal to envelope my hammock.
It will accommodate Sarah and I at the same time if we need an emergency shelter whilst on the hill.


So the camp is set and I was so pleased being in such a beautiful place. The midge were about, but they weren't too bad. I use a repellant based on DEET which seems to work well, and a midge head net I bought from Endicotts. The Jervenbag helps to keep the midge at bay whilst sleeping.


I chose a fireplace a short distance from the hammock.
I realise the benefits of camp fire smoke in keeping insects at bay, and the smoke would have been useful drifting over the hammock, however, I'm also aware of the damage sparks can do to modern synthetic equipment. Pro's and con's weighed I went with a distant fire.


Staying on the camp fire subject. I've noticed recently on social media, questions from folk wanting to know of a recommended turbo flame lighter - one of those Gucci gas divers bottle looking lighters with a piezoelectric spark generator -  that once ignited delivers a concentrated high pressure, high temperature flame capable of melting solder.
I used one or two in the past when travelling and I've soldered with one (I owned a Ural750, of course I've soldered with a lighter).
They are great, when they are new and spotlessly clean they perform well, especially if one directs the flame across your cigarette end and not toward ones nose.
Lesson learned.
However, aside from the fact that smoking is indeed bad for the health (I stopped 10 years ago) these lighters will fail either from worn parts or the piezoelectric spark gap becoming fouled or the generator itself failing to produce an electric charge.
You'll end up with a hand full of springs the day you really need it.

A Zippo was my preferred lighter, robust and simple. Its usefulness diminishes if you have no source from which to refill. A motorbike fuel tank worked as did the Coleman fuel* I used to use in the Whisperlight cooker when travelling.

*(It's called Essance 'C' in France. You'll find it in most supermarkets in the kitchen cleaning dept)

I switched to a meths burner when the Whisperlight decided to pour fuel every which way one day.

(I used to keep it regularly serviced with replacement 'o'rings and cleaning. I've no idea how or why it failed as it had served me well in all manor of situations for years)

Anyway, I switched to a methylated spirit burner, the set comprises a meths burner, wind shield, pot and pan. This particular one was made for the Swedish military. Believe it or not Sarah and I cooked our food in this set for a summer in France back in the day. We added a Trangia cook set for ease of cooking when we had the sidecar to carry everything.


Methylated spirit won't work in a  Zippo and I no longer smoked so didn't really need a lighter every hour or so. The Zippo fuel used to evaporate quickly in hot weather, often resulting in a Zippo sized chemical burn on the leg where the fuel had seeped through the material of my trouser pocket.
Ouch !

So what do I use for firelighting?

A ferrocerium rod and a box of matches.
Simple tools for the job.


If I'm using matches I'll use a couple of sticks of fat-lighter to get everything going.
I harvested a big load of fat-lighter up on the west coast last summer. I use it at home to get the front room fire going.
Fat lighter is pine wood saturated in resin or pitch, the fat-wood I use came from pine root systems.
I carry a small bundle, it weighs next to nothing and can make a difference when one simply needs to get a fire lit without messing about. Some dead dry heather, birch twigs and fat lighter, plus your main fuel, will make the world nice again.
You can also scrape it down with the back of your blade to make a resin infused dust that will ignite with a spark from your ferrocerium rod.


Whilst camping on my secluded beach I couldn't help but think of the old Robinson Crusoe television program which was shown back in the late 60's and 70's here in England.
So whilst whistling the well known theme tune, as you do, I remembered Crusoe observing the world about him and how he seemed to make friends of the local fauna.
Poll the parrot, a dog and a goat or two, well I didn't quite match Crusoe's menagerie, however I did manage to be-friend a common frog.
He hadn't much conversation in him, but he was good company none the less.


The weather was pretty good during my stay. The temperature was warm and pleasant and the rain came in the form of regular squalls. Never lasting long the wind would whip up the loch. The water would become agitated with waves rolling in all accompanied with sharp rainfall. It was reminiscent of the days I lived by the coast in Cornwall, except there was no chiming coming from the boat masts and street lamps.


 The reason for my trip, other than for the sheer experience of camping in such a beautiful place, was to take some photographs of the coast with its bright white beaches. Well, the bright white beaches were in abundance, however, the sun was lacking and the photographers cry of "More light"! could be heard the length of the loch. I had to tone down my expectations and go for the more moody vibe.
From the some hundred photographs that I took at Loch Morar, I selected one that is worth printing.
I have started a new blog at....

Jon Mac Photography

I have included this photograph in my portfolio of purchasable prints.

Loch Morar in Blue.


In the evenings I would sit on the beach, with the fire crackling in the background and listen to the waterbirds settling down for the night.
The call of the Oyster catcher never ceases to catch the imagination.
I bought a small candle lamp last summer, my wife Sarah has Ménière's disease, her inner ear has been damaged by the disease leaving her with a great loss of hearing and problems with balance. Quite scary and debilitating for her at times. The candle lamp helps her focus on one point for when she moves about camp during the darker hours. I thought I'd take it along as a talisman.
From memory it is a UCO lamp.



My stay was brief at the Loch, I explored the nearby coast and spent the night before departure in some woodland by the sea. I had planned to run some line out for a fish or two at the coast, but ran out of time. I'm hoping that Keith and I could make another trip of a longer duration this year, we'll have to see. It looks as if I have some carving courses to organise in Scotland during the summer, perhaps I can find time out for a trip with Sarah.
I think she'd quite enjoy it, don't you?


See you on the shoreline one day.... J

           Direct evidence for a piezoelectriclike effect in coherently strained SiGe/Si heterostructures         
Khizhny, V. I., Mironov, O. A., Parker, Evan H. C., Phillips, P. J. (Peter J.), Whall, Terry E. and Kearney, Michael J.. (1996) Direct evidence for a piezoelectriclike effect in coherently strained SiGe/Si heterostructures. Applied Physics Letters, Vol.69 (No.7). pp. 960-962. ISSN 0003-6951
          Investigation on the Effect of Draw Ratio on Voltage Outputs of Polarised Isotactic Polypropylene Monofilaments        

Piezoelectric isotactic polypropylene (iPP) monofilaments were prepared by drawing and poling on a laboratory scale melt extruder. Results showed that the filament properties are affected by the drawing ratio. As expected, an increase in draw ratio caused lower filament counts (thinner diameters), higher tensile strengths and higher crystallinities. To invetigate the effect of draw ratio on voltage output of produced samples, a rotational mass was applied onto the samples. Results showed that filaments subjected to a draw ratio of 2:1 had highest voltage output as compared to others. Produced filaments are found to be suitable for use in smart textiles. 

Echocardiography in its current form, has becomean invaluable tool in a modern cardiac intensive care unit environment. Coupled with a clinical examination and monitoring techniques, echocardiography can provide real-time rapid and reliable diagnostic answers that are invaluable to patient care. This noninvasive test can be used to reliably evaluate cardiac anatomy of both normal hearts and those with congenital heart disease and has replaced cardiac angiography for the preoperative diagnosis of the majority of congenital heart lesions. In congenital or acquired cardiac disease, echocardiography may be further used to estimate intracardiac pressures and gradients across stenotic valves and vessels, determine the directionality of blood flow and pressure gradient across a defect, and examine the coronary arteries. Within the realm of critical care, echocardiography is useful to quantitative cardiac systolic and diastolic function, detect the presence of vegetations from endocarditis, and examine the cardiac structure for the presence of pericardial fluid and chamber thrombi. As with all tools, however, a thorough understanding of its uses and limitations are necessary before relying upon the information it provides.

Principles of Echocardiography
Echocardiography uses ultrasound technology to image the heart and associated vascular structures. Ultrasound is defined as sound frequencies above the audible range of 20,000 cycles per second. The primary components of an ultrasound machine include a transducer and a central processor. The transducer converts electrical to mechanical (sound) energy and vice versa. Electrical energy is applied to piezoelectric crystals within the transducer resulting in the generation of mechanical energy in the form of a series of sinusoidal cycles of alternating compression and rarefaction. The energy produced travels as a directable beam which may be aimed at the heart. The sound beam travels in a straight line until it encounters a boundary between structures with different acoustical impedance, such as between blood and tissue. At such surfaces, a portion of the energy is reflected back to the same crystals within the transducer, and the remaining attenuated signal is transmitted distally. Within the ultrasound, machine is circuitry capable of measuring the transit time for the beam to travel from the transducer to a given structure and back again then calculate the distance traveled. A cardiac image is constructed from the reflected energy, or so called ultrasound echoes.
Differing properties of tissues affect the portion of acoustic energy transmitted versus reflected. For example, air reflects the majority of the signal it receives and, therefore, prevents images from being obtained through windows where it is present. Anything hindering or augmenting the reflection of this acoustic signal, such as air, bone, dressings, an open chest, or lines, tubes, or other foreign bodies, will diminish the overall quality of the examination. Therefore, in the intensive care unit, an ultrasound study may be limited by difficulty in finding a good acoustic window to allow for accurate analysis.

The Anatomical Echocardiographic Examination
In order to obtain the best imaging windows, whenever possible, patients are placed in a left lateral decubitus position during a transthoracic echocardiogram. During two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, all planes are described in reference to the heart and not the heart’s position within the body. For a complete pediatric study, standard views (see Fig.1–5) are obtained from the high left chest just lateral to the sternum (parasternal window), the left lateral chest just inferior and lateral to the nipple (apical window), sub-xyphoid area (subcostal window), and the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window). In patients with more complex anatomy, additional windows, such as the high right parasternal border, may be used to obtain additional information.
parasternal window 
Fig.1 Standard echocardiographic image planes from the high left chest just lateral to the sternum (parasternal window (a) and (b)), the left lateral chest just inferior to the nipple (apical window (c)), sub-xyphoid area (subcostal window (d)), and the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window (e) and (f)). RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle; Ao aortic valve; CS coronary sinus; RVOT right ventricular outflow tract; SVC superior vena cava (drawing from Steven P. Goldberg, MD) 

1.  Parasternal Window
In the anatomically normal heart, the parasternal window allows visualization of the heart aligned along its long axis and short axis. In the long axis (Fig.1a), the left ventricular inflow and outflow tracts can be seen well. As a result, comments can be made from this view regarding the aorta, including its annulus, the sinuses of Valsalva, and the proximal portion of the ascending aorta, as well as its relationship to the mitral valve. Additionally, the ballet-slipper appearance of the left ventricle is featured as the inferoposterior wall and interventricular septum are visualized. The anterior and posterior leaflets of the mitral valve can be visualized. By angulating the transducer and performing a sweep, the right ventricle is brought into focus and an examination of both its inflow including the right atrium and tricuspid valve and its outflow tract, including the pulmonary valve can be performed.
The transducer may be rotated 90° providing a series of short-axis views (Fig.1b) that assist in the evaluation of the chambers of the heart, the semilunar and atrioventricular valves, and the coronary arteries. Sweeping from the apex of the heart toward the base will allow a close cross-sectional examination of the ventricular chambers. The normal left ventricle has circular geometry with symmetric contraction, whether it is visualized at the level of the mitral valve, papillary muscles, or apex. In contrast, the normal right ventricle appears as a more trabeculated crescent-shaped structure when visualized at or below the level of the mitral valve. Sweeping farther toward the base of the heart, the mitral valve’s papillary muscles and the valve itself are viewed. Progressing to the base of the normal heart, the tri-leaflet aortic valve takes the center stage with the right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary wrapping in an inverted “U” anteriorly and leftward. Additionally a portion of the atrial septum and the tricuspid valve may be profiled. Finally, continuing the sweep allows for the examination of the atrial appendages, ascending aorta in cross-section and branch pulmonary arteries.
parasternal window 
Fig.1b (continued)

2.  Apical Window
For those not trained in echocardiography, the images obtained with the transducer in the apical position (Fig.1c) are perhaps the most intuitive as it allows for visualization of all four chambers and valves in the heart with a simple left-to-right orientation. Imaging is begun in the four-chamber view, in which the anatomic right and left ventricles may be identified. Sweeps of the transducer from this position identify the posterior coronary sinus and may indicate abnormalities such as a left superior vena cava or unroofed coronary sinus. Proceeding more anteriorly to a five-chambered view, the atrial and ventricular septa may be visualized looking for defects and the left ventricular outflow tract and ascending aorta may be examined. The four chamber view allows for the examination of the anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflets and pulmonary veins as they enter the left atrium. By rotating the transducer to 90° from the four-chamber view, a two-chamber view of the left ventricle and left atrium can be obtained to evaluate the anterior and posterior left ventricular wall function.
the left lateral chest just inferior to the nipple (apical window) 
Fig.1c (continued)

3.  Subcostal Window
For pediatric patients with complex cardiac anatomy, the subcostal position (Fig.1d and Fig.1.e) provides the most detailed information and is often thebest starting place. In order to obtain images in this position, patients are placed supine with the transducer in the subxiphoid position. In larger cooperative patients beyond the infancy period, image quality may be improved by having the patient participate in the examination with held inspiration that allows the heart to move downward toward the transducer. Initial views in this position should determine visceral situs as well as the relationship of the inferior vena cava and aorta. Subsequent views and sweeps will provide detailed analysis of the atrial septum as well as the images related to the ventricular septum, the atrioventricular valves, atrial and ventricular chambers, and drainage of systemic veins. With the rotation of the transducer both ventricular outflow tracts may be visualized. Additionally in some patients the branch pulmonary arteries and the entire aorta may be examined from this position.
sub-xyphoid area (subcostal window) 
Fig.1d  (continued)
the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window) 
Fig.1e (continued)

4. Suprasternal Window
The views are obtained in this position by placing the transducer in the suprasternal notch (Fig.1.f) with the neck extended. The suprasternal longand short-axis views provide detailed information regarding arch sidedness, anomalies in the ascending and descending aorta and head and neck vessels, the size and branching of the pulmonary arteries, as well as anomalies of systemic and pulmonary venous systems.
the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window) 
Fig.1f (continued)

M-Mode Imaging
One of the earliest applications of ultrasound technology that remains an important tool in the evaluation of cardiac function, dimension, and timing, the M-mode echo provides an “ice-pick” view of the heart. An M-mode echo is obtained with the ultrasonic transducer placed along the left sternal border and directed toward the part of the heart to be examined. A single line of interrogation is repeatedly produced and the resultant image is displayed with time along the x-axis and distance from the transducer along the y-axis (see Fig. 2). M-mode obtains an estimate of ventricular function by measuring the short axis shortening fraction and wall thickness.
M-mode echocardiography obtained in the parasternal short axis through the right and left ventricular chambers at the level of the papillary muscles. LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVESD left ventricular end-systolic dimension
Fig.2 M-mode echocardiography obtained in the parasternal short axis through the right and left ventricular chambers at the level of the papillary muscles. LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVESD left ventricular end-systolic dimension

Doppler Evaluation
Frequently in an intensive care setting the clinician is concerned with new or residual flow disturbances from shunt lesions, an abnormal cardiac valve, or narrowing of a blood vessel. While 2D echocardiography determines anatomical relationships, additional information regarding movement of the blood or myocardium is provided by looking for Doppler shifts in the reflected ultrasound waves. The Doppler principle, first described by Johann Christian Doppler, states that for a stationary object, the frequency of ultrasound reflected is identical to the transmitted frequency. Inherently the heart and the blood it pumps do not fit this basic definition. Therefore, when performing a cardiac ultrasound, the moving objects alter the frequency of the reflected signal (the Doppler shift) according to the direction and velocity with which they are moving in relation to the fixed transducer. Additional insights to intracardiac and vascular hemodynamics may be obtained when velocity data is collected. Doppler data are typically displayed as velocity rather than the actual frequency shift. The velocities can then be translated into pressure data using the modified Bernoulli equation: P1 – P2= 4[(V2)2 – (V1)2]. If one assumes that the level of obstruction and therefore the velocity of V1 is negligible compared with the obstruction at V2 the formula becomes even simpler: DP = 4(Vmax)2. Although the modified Bernoulli equation can only be applied in appropriate situations, it does help predict the pressure drop across an abnormal valve or septal defect to give a general estimate of the severity of the lesion which can prove to be valuable information to help manage patients in the intensive care setting.
Of note, during Doppler imaging it is clinically important to recognize the angle of interrogation of blood flow and its impact on the accuracy of our velocity measures. It is important when performing Doppler studies that the line of beam interrogation should be directly in the line of flow, resulting in as little distortion of data as possible. The more off-angle the approach is, the increasingly more severe the underestimation of the true velocity will be. For practical purposes, an angle of interrogation less than 20° is essential to ensure clinically accurate information.
Two commonly used techniques are pulsed and continuous wave Doppler. Pulse wave Doppler allows determination of direction and velocity at a precise point within the imaged cardiac field. However, it is limited in its maximum detectable velocity by the Nyquist limit making it unusable for quantification of high-velocity flow (e.g., as seen with severe obstruction). In contrast, continuous wave Doppler interrogates all points along a given beam. Continuous wave Doppler imaging is not constrained by velocity limits and can hence record velocities exceeding those of pulsed Doppler imaging. The drawback is that while the line of interrogation is identifiable, knowledge of anatomy must already be obtained to identify the precise location of the maximum velocity. Clinically these two techniques are commonly used sequentially to identify the area of interest and then to obtain the maximum velocity.

1. Color Flow Doppler
Color flow Doppler is powerful technique for obtaining additional hemodynamic and anatomic data for patients undergoing echocardiography in the intensive care unit. Color flow Doppler allows velocity information to be overlaid on a 2D anatomic image therefore providing data regarding intracardiac and extracardiac shunts, valvar insufficiency or stenosis, and vessel obstruction. By convention, shades of red are used in identifying blood flowing toward the transducer and blue to indicate blood flowing away from the transducer. Therefore, color flow Doppler defines the presence and direction of shunts and is used to grade the severity of valvar insufficiency.

Current Clinical Applications
Clinical applications of echocardiography within the intensive care unit may be divided into the following major areas:
1. The diagnosis and post-intervention evaluation of anatomic lesions.
2. Evaluation of cardiac function.
3. Diagnosis of intracardiac masses and extracardiac effusions.
4. Guidance of intervention within the intensive care unit

Anatomic Lesions Pre and Post Intervention
Advances in technology have enabled most congenital heart defects to be diagnosed by echocardiography avoiding the risks, time, and cost of invasive cardiac catheterization. In addition, for infants and pediatric patients admitted to an intensive care unit due to being succumbed to shock, echocardiography may be useful for differentiating anatomic causes of shock from functional causes. Patients with obstruction to outflow on the left side of the heart who go undiagnosed at birth frequently present with signs of diminished cardiac output (CO) or frank shock. These lesions including aortic valve stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, and variations of hypoplastic left heart syndrome may be identified and defined by echocardiogram alone.
Following surgical or catheter-based intervention patients convalesce in the intensive care unit. Most patients undergo a postprocedural echo before getting discharged home to document adequacy of the repair and lack of significant complications. In postoperative patients this assessment may prove more complicated as access to the patient and the correct windows may be severely compromised by dressings, intracardiac lines, and chest tubes. Occasionally postoperative patients in the intensive care unit may be found to have unexpected residual lesions (see Fig.3). For example, following repair of septal defects, echocardiography may be useful to screen for the presence of residual shunts which may be less well tolerated secondary to myocardial changes following cardiopulmonary bypass. Often, the presence of a residual lesion is known in the operating room through transesophageal echocardiography or direct discussion with the surgeon. An important role of echocardiography is to distinguish those lesions with hemodynamic consequences from those whose presence has no impact on postoperative care. Transthoracic echocardiography may be used to diagnose and assess the hemodynamic sequelae of shunt lesions, residual stenosis, and function. More complicated is the assessment of coronary flow, right ventricular dynamics, and distal obstruction following intervention. In patients who are experiencing arrhythmias postoperatively, special attention should be paid to the flow within the coronary arteries to ensure that it has not been compromised or that a line or mass in the heart is not causing ectopy.
Parasternal short axis image in a patient with pulmonary atresia/VSD who acutely decompensated. White arrows demonstrate the large residual VSD than resulted when a patch dehisced. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; AV aortic valve 
Fig.3 Parasternal short axis image in a patient with pulmonary atresia/VSD who acutely decompensated. White arrows demonstrate the large residual VSD than resulted when a patch dehisced. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; AV aortic valve
Four chambered view demonstrating color Doppler of tricuspid regurgitation and the corresponding spectral Doppler pattern. 
Fig.4 (a) and (b): Four chambered view demonstrating color Doppler of tricuspid regurgitation and the corresponding spectral Doppler pattern. The velocity obtained by spectral Doppler may be utilized to estimate pulmonary artery pressures in the absence of downstream obstruction. A complete envelope by pulse wave or continuous wave Doppler provides the velocity of the regurgitant jet which may be translated into pressure data using the equation: DP = 4(Vmax)2. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle.

Unanticipated pulmonary arterial hypertension may slow the progress of a patient in the intensive care unit. In the absence of a Swan Ganz catheter or a direct pulmonary arterial monitoring, echocardiography may be used to estimate the pulmonary artery pressures. There are several methods that may be used to determine the pulmonary artery pressures. In a patient with
tricuspid regurgitation, the velocity of the jet estimates the difference in pressure in the right atrium and the right ventricle (see Fig.4). If there is no stenosis of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary valve, or right ventricular outflow tract, the difference in pressure between the right atrium and right ventricle plus the right atrial pressure (CVP) provides an estimate of the pulmonary arterial pressures. In the absence of tricuspid valve insufficiency, interventricular septal geometry may be used to help quantify the degree of pulmonary hypertension.

Analysis of Ventricular Function
One of the most frequent uses of echocardiography in the ICU is related to the evaluation of ventricular performance. Improvements in technology allow assessment of both systolic and diastolic function with increasing accuracy.
1. Systolic Function
Accurate and timely assessment of systolic function should be an integral part of the medical management of the hemodynamically unstable critically ill patient. Global assessment of LV contractility includes the determination of ejection fraction (EF), circumferential fiber shortening, and cardiac output (CO). There are several methods that may be used to garner this information. Each has its limitations and assumptions which are paramount to understand prior to clinically applying the information gathered. For assessment of left ventricular function, perhaps the simplest quantitative approach is to use M-mode echocardiography (see Fig.3) in either the parasternal short axis at the level of the papillary muscles or in the parasternal long axis at the tips of the mitral valve leaflets to measure the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD) for the determination of the fractional shortening (FS) percentage.
Fractional shortening is derived by the following:
Normal values for fractional shortening in children and infants vary slightly with age, falling typically between 28 and 44%.
Fractional shortening, therefore, provides a method of assessing circumferential change but has several obvious drawbacks. This method assumes that the ventricle being examined has a circular shape in the axis in which it is examined. As a result, changes in diameter may be mathematically related to circumferential fiber-shortening providing an estimate of ventricular function. Therefore anything that alters the circular shape of the left ventricle (anatomic abnormalities intrinsic to congenital heart disease, pre and afterload changes, or ventricular–ventricular interactions) may affect the assessment of fractional shortening by altering the movement of the septum and causing an under or over estimation of the either end-systolic or diastolic dimension.
A second method of assessing ventricular function is via ejection fraction. Ejection fraction is a volumetric appraisal of ventricular fiber shortening. Echocardiographically the most common method of calculating ejection fraction is the biplane estimation of volumes from the apical four-and two-chamber views. One of the more commonly used mathematical algorithms is the Simpson method in which the left ventricle is traced manually at the end diastole and end systole along the endocardium. Using the method of disks the left ventricle is divided into a series of parallel planes and the resultant disks are individually summed to create each volume. Ejection fraction is calculated using the following equation:
Unfortunately, the determination of an accurate ejection fraction is also subject to ventricular shape with the left ventricle assumed to be its normal prolate elliptical shape. Variations from this shape, which occur frequently in pediatrics, significantly alter the relationship between fiber shortening and volume dependence upon when this equation is applied. In addition, patients in the intensive care environment frequently have suboptimal imaging windows making the endocardium difficult to distinguish and trace.
Not infrequently in active pediatric intensive care units, a patient’s heart and/or lung function must be supported for a period of time. Two such modalities of support are extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and ventricular assist devices. Often the pediatric echocardiographer is asked to assist in the management of these patients by providing insight into the recoverability of cardiac function. This request can be one of the more challenging uses of echo in an intensive care setting. As discussed above, many of the techniques commonly used to determine ventricular systolic function and CO are dependent on the loading conditions of the heart as well as contractility. As a result, both of these support systems which unload the heart in an effort to allow recovery time severely limit echo’s utility as a prognostic indicator. Several newer methods of determining myocardial function including Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI), strain and strain rate, color m-mode, calcium gating, and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography are entering the realm of echo in the intensive care unit. These newer modalities may prove to be more efficacious than current standard echocardiography is at present.

Diastolic Function
Accurate assessment of diastolic function by echocardiography is an evolving field that has made great strides in the past few years. Diastolic heart failure and its impact on postoperative management also deserve consideration. Spectral Doppler evaluation is a relatively easy and useful method for evaluating diastolic function noninvasively at the bedside. A prominent pulmonary vein atrial reversal wave (a wave) is a marker of diastolic dysfunction. This finding represents marked flow reversal into the pulmonary veins during atrial systole in response to a noncompliant ventricular chamber. The mitral inflow Doppler pattern can also be a useful marker for diastolic dysfunction. Mitral inflow is composed of 2 waves – an E wave representing early passive ventricular filling (preload dependent) and the A wave representing active filling as a result of atrial systole. The E:A ratio, velocity of E wave deceleration and duration of the A wave can be altered in patients with diastolic dysfunction.
Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a newer technique for assessing diastolic ventricular function. TDI allows recording of the low Doppler velocities generated by the ventricular wall motion and directly measures myocardial velocities. In spectral TDI, pulsed Doppler is placed along the myocardial wall (mitral, septal, or tricuspid annulus) recording the peak myocardial velocities. Three waveforms are obtained: a peak systolic wave (Sa), an early diastolic wave (Ea), and an end-diastolic wave (Aa) produced by atrial contraction. The tissue Doppler systolic mitral annular velocity has been shown to correlate with global LV myocardial function [14]. TDI has also been used to estimate diastolic function, and is relatively independent of preload condition. The pulsed Doppler peak early mitral inflow velocity (E) divided by the TD early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Ea) results in a ratio that correlates with the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. The E/Ea ratio is also useful in estimating mean LV filling pressure. At this time, TDI represents one of the most accurate techniques to assess diastolic function and is therefore of particular interest in the critical care population in whom abrupt changes in preload and afterload are common, making Doppler evaluation of diastolic function less reliable.

Detection of Intracardiac Masses and Extracardiac Effusions
An abnormal area of dense reflectance that is well localized within an echo may represent a mass, thrombus, or calcification. In the postoperative or critical care patient with multiple lines in place, especially in the setting of low flow, care must be taken to evaluate these areas for thrombus formation. Echo is the imaging modality of choice for elucidating and evaluating cardiac mass lesions. Differentiating an area of concern from artifact, can be challenging. Areas that move appropriately throughout the cardiac cycle and the presence of an abnormality in more than a single view, suggest a mass rather than an artifact (see Figs. 5a–d). These findings must in turn be distinguished from such anatomical variations as a prominent Eustacian valve or Chiari network.
Demonstrate a thrombus in the right ventricle seen in parasternal short axis  
Fig.5 Demonstrate a thrombus in the right ventricle seen in parasternal short axis (a) and modified four-chamber (b) views. RV right ventricle; LV left ventricle. (c) and (d): Demonstrate a thrombus in the left atrial appendage in both parasternal short axis and a modified four chamber views. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; AV aortic valve; AO ascending aorta; LV left ventricle.

Major factors that predispose a patient to the development of intracardiac thrombi are the presence of intracardiac lines, diminished CO, and localized stasis in addition to changes within the clotting cascade from sepsis, bypass, intrinsic clotting disorders, or heparin use. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients within the intensive care setting must include an awareness of the increased incidence of thrombus formation and a careful evaluation of areas predisposed to become a nidus for thrombus.
Following cardiac surgery it is not uncommon for patients to develop small collections of fluid in the pericardial space (see Fig.6). Typically, this is of little concern to the clinician; however, in a postoperative patient experiencing tachycardia and/or hypotension, the necessity of recognizing the potential for and screening for cardiac tamponade becomes paramount. In young infants and children, it is frequently difficult to rely on physical exam findings of increased jugular venous pressure or the late finding of pulsus paradoxus. In this instance, a directed and easily performed 2D and Doppler echocardiography can confirm the presence of an effusion and provide accurate assessment of its hemodynamic significance.
Subcostal image demonstrating a large circumferential pericardial effusion (green arrows) 
Fig.6 Subcostal image demonstrating a large circumferential pericardial effusion (green arrows)

The size and extension of a pericardial effusion may be diagnosed from parasternal, apical, or subcostal windows. The apical view is the easiest for obtaining information regarding the effusions hemodynamic significance. From the apical four chamber view both the mitral and tricuspid valve flow patterns are evaluated with the respiratory monitoring in place. Examining the changes in inflow hemodynamics with respiration allows for the evaluation of tamponade physiology. Greater than 25% variability in maximal e wave velocity of the mitral valve with inspiration or 50% of the e wave velocity of the tricuspid valve (see Figs.7a, b) is indicative of significant hemodynamic compromise resulting from the effusion. Additionally, collapse (differentiated from contraction) of the free wall of the right and left atrium (see Figs.8a, b) when the pericardial pressure exceeds the atrial pressure may be seen from this view in a patient with a significant effusion.
Respiratory changes in the mitral and tricuspid valve e wave Doppler patterns consistent with tamponade physiology. 
Fig.7 (a) and (b): Respiratory changes in the mitral and tricuspid valve e wave Doppler patterns consistent with tamponade physiology. The tricuspid valve inflow demonstrates more than 50% variability between inspiration and expiration (a). During mitral valve inflow Doppler, the peak E wave velocity alters more than 30% between inspiration and expiration (b).
Four chambered views 
Fig.8 (a) and (b): Four chambered views demonstrating right atrial and right ventricular collapse (green arrows) as a finding of tamponade physiology. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle.

Echocardiography GuidedProcedures
1.  Pericardiocentesis
Performing “blind” percutaneous pericardiocentesis as a treatment for significant pericardial effusion dates back to the early eighteenth century and it is historically fraught with complications. Improved techniques in the 1970s with the advent of 2D echo allowed more accurate localization of the fluid and the development of echo-guided pericardiocentesis. Echo-guided pericardiocentesis (see Fig.9) has been found to be a safe and effective procedure with insertion of a catheter for drainage used to reduce the rate of recurrence found to complicate simple needle drainage and is considered the primary and often the definitive therapy for patients with clinically significant effusions.
Echoguided pericardiocentesis. 
Fig.9 Echoguided pericardiocentesis. Green arrow is in the pericardial space demonstrating the large fluid collection. Blue arrow is pointing to the needle that has been advanced into the pericardial space to drain the fluid collection. The large effusion allows the echocardiographer to direct the individual performing the pericardiocentesis away from areas that could lead to complications such as perforation of the myocardium.

2.  Balloon Atrial Septostomy (BAS)
Part of any echocardiographic assessment of a patient with congenital heart disease should include evaluation of the atrial septum. Cardiac lesions such as transposition of the great arteries, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and tricuspid atresia require an adequate atrial communication. In the setting of a restrictive atrial septal communication or intact septum, a BAS is required to improve mixing and CO. In the past, the procedure, originally described by William Rashkind was performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory under fluoroscopic guidance. However, during the last decade BAS has been routinely performed at the bedside in the intensive care unit under echocardiographic guidance (see Figs.10a–d). Most commonly either a subcostal view that includes a focused look at the atrial septum, pulmonary vein, and mitral valve or an apical four-chamber view is used. For the echocardiographer, the primary role is to provide continued visualization of the catheters and communicate well with the interventionalist. Advantages of this technique are multifactorial; echocardiography is superior to fluoroscopy during BAS due to a lack of radiation, the ability to perform the procedure at bedside rather than transporting to a catheterization laboratory, and direct, continuous visualization of the atrial septum, pulmonary veins, and mitral valve. The disadvantages of this technique include the potential for interference with maneuverability for both echocardiographer and catheter operator around a small neonate and therefore the risk of contamination of the sterile field. Additionally there is the possibility of poor acoustic windows in an ill neonate who may be mechanically ventilated. However, with proper planning and communication, the limitations of transthoracic echocardiographic guidance of BAS may be minimized.
Subcostal images demonstrating echo-guided balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) 
Fig.10 Subcostal images demonstrating echo-guided balloon atrial septostomy (BAS). (a): shows the initial small atrial communication in both 2 dimensional (2D) and color Doppler imaging. (b): reveals the deflated balloon that has been advanced across the atrial communication. It is important during this portion of the procedure for the echocardiographer to ensure that the balloon has not been advanced across the left atrioventricular valve. (c): demonstrates the inflated balloon within the left atrium. It is important to note the balloon’s position away from the mitral valve and pulmonary veins. (d): demonstrates the atrial communication following septostomy using both 2D and color Doppler imaging. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle; Green arrows atrial communication.

Future Directions
There are several areas of advanced imaging that are becoming more commonplace in the practice of pediatric echocardiography. Primary assessment of cardiac mechanics by evaluating myocardial motion, strain, and strain rate has been validated in healthy children and provides additional information regarding myocardial performance. Three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has a growing role in evaluating anatomic defects, valves, and right and left ventricular function independently of geometric assumptions that constrained the previous methods.

1. Myocardial Mechanics
In the past several years, myocardial strain and strain rate have emerged as promising quantitative measures of myocardial function and contractility. Strain (e) is a dimensionless parameter defined as the deformation (L) of an object relative to its original length (Lo), and is expressed as a percentage. Strain rate (SR) is defined as the local rate of deformation or strain (e) per unit of time, and is expressed in 1/s. Strain and strain rate measurements can be obtained from data acquired by Doppler Tissue Imaging or 2D tissue tracking. Strain and strain rate should be of great help in the future in the evaluation of ventricular function, since conventional M-mode and 2D echocardiography have limitations due to complex morphology of the right ventricle and altered left ventricle morphology that occurs in complex congenital heart defects. Left and right ventricular values of strain and strain rate are available for healthy children.

2.  3D Echocardiography
Off-line 3D reconstruction consists of acquisition of sequential 2D slices which are converted to a rectangular coordinate system for 3D reconstruction and provides accurate anatomic information suitable for quantitative analysis. Left ventricular volume, mass, and function can be accurately assessed using RT3D independently of geometric assumption, and ejection fraction can be calculated. The wideangle mode is often used to acquire the entire LV volume, from which further analysis allows determination of global and regional wall motion. Wall motion is evaluated from base to apex with multiple slices from different orientations. The advantage of 3D over 2D is the ability to manipulate the plane to align the true long axis and minor axis of the LV, thus avoiding foreshortening and oblique image planes. LV volume assessment by RT3D is rapid, accurate, reproducible and superior to conventional 2D methods and is comparable to MRI, which represents the gold standard. Three dimensional reconstruction of the tricuspid valve has been shown to be helpful for anatomical assessment of Ebstein’s malformation or after atrioventricular septal defect repair. 3D Echocardiography is a useful adjunct to standard 2D imaging and should be increasingly used in the future.

          Blog Post: Fostering dialog between industry & academia at the TI European Academic Symposium        
The European University Program held its 2 nd TI European Academic Symposium at the BMW Welt in Munich, Germany on November 2 nd and 3 rd . University educators and TI experts from across Europe had the chance to meet, share experiences and discuss educational aspects of today’s new technologies. As part of its annual student competition, the TI Innovation Challenge (TIIC) European Design Contest, the company awarded tomorrow’s new design stars at the conclusion of the symposium. Guest speakers host a Q&A on industry and academia collaboration. The first half of the event included key note speeches covering power management in education and industry and how the TI Power Management Lab Kit (PMLK) brings the two fields together. Speakers also covered automotive trends in power and drives in the academic space. Forty European professors explored how these innovative technologies can be leveraged into the university curricula and how these tools can help their students acquire skills highly valued in the industry. Attendees at the Academic Symposium eagerly await the announcement of the TIIC winners. TI representatives shared initiatives taken by the company to keep an innovative spirit alive within TI such as R&D Kilby Labs , new industrial and automotive applications and market-changing projects on industry 4.0 within the framework of the Horizon2020 European Commission’s agenda. In addition, recently graduated university students presented their views on entrepreneurship – speaking on opportunities for student start-ups and recruitment prospects for future engineers. TIers showcased demos of TI technology to attendees at the Academic Symposium. The event closed with the TI Innovation Challenge Europe design contest finalist award announcement. The TIIC contest allows European students to work on a system-level project, solving today’s problems with automotive and industrial applications. This year, students from more than 30 countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa participated in the competition. For the 2015 TIIC, the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) won first place for their industrial project based on a piezoelectric deformable mirror that used many different TI analog ICs, creating a low-cost high-precision beam steering. The heart of this project was the MSP430F5529 ultra low-power microcontroller. Luebeck University (Germany) won second by designing a wearable device for data acquisition based on TI connectivity parts. The third prize went to KU Leuven in Belgium for their intelligent lighting system processed with TI LED drivers, TI analog and power management. Finally, ETH Zurich (Switzerland) designed an energy harvesting application that brought them fourth place, based on TI power management components. The final four teams accept their award prize at the TIIC finals in Munich. “It is very exciting to observe how the TIIC is growing year by year, to become the leading electronics design contest in Europe,” said Nuria Llin, European university program manager. “We are glad to start the 2016 TIIC with 3 different competing categories: automotive, industrial and innovation.” Each category’s winner will spend a week at the TUM University to develop a prototype and explore the possibility of running their own start-up, as several past TIIC winners have gone on to develop their own start-up around the project that won in the contest. These students will have the opportunity to attend a workshop in coordination with key industrial players such as Bosch and BMW as leading car manufacturers. Attendees at the event heard from past TIIC winners and got to participate in their virtual racing technology. Professor Nicola Femia, power management educator at University of Salerno and one of the attendees to the symposium stated, "Teaching has to evolve in harmony with technologies, and the TI Academic Symposium is a great opportunity for university professors to discuss visions, experiences and tools for engineering education.” “The university contributions to the symposium and the projects presented by the student teams at the TIIC Europe Design Contest provide significant elements for the future roadmap of education,” Femia continued. “The student projects, in particular, provide an intense stimulus to professors and students themselves to better understand how to use new technologies to solve real-world problems." See more pictures from the event. Sign up to receive information about the 2016 TIIC European Contest.
          Blog Post: Our demo offerings for Mobile World Congress        
Mobile World Congress is less than a week away, our demos have been shipped to Barcelona, and our team will soon be packing their suitcases for the flight to Spain (we bet someone will forget their toothbrush). We’re excited to have even more analog demos at this year’s show in applications ranging from wireless infrastructure solutions to tablets, smartphones and portable audio devices. If you’re traveling to Barcelona, or if you’re in the mood for a spur of the moment semiconductor vacation, come visit us at booth 8A84 in Hall 8 . Here’s the demo lineup from our analog signal chain and power businesses: Wireless infrastructure solutions Featuring the TSW3085EVM , ADC12D1800RF EVM ( ADC12D1800RFRB ) and TSW3065EVM This wideband radio demo pushes the limits of speed and performance while decreasing power consumption and device footprint for multi-band/mode/standard macro base stations, micro and small-cell base stations and microwave backhaul. It includes the following components: Multi-carrier 3G and 4G transmit using the TSW3085EVM transit solution ( DAC34H84 , TRF3705 , LMK04806B , TI Power) Direct RF sampling for base station receive or microwave backhaul using the ADC12D1800FR EVM ( ADC12D1800RFRB ) Natural user interface solutions Featuring the DRV8662 , TMP006 , and more Our audio, temperature sensing, touch screen controller and haptics demos showcase a variety of products created to improve and enhance users' experiences with their mobile devices, including: Contactless infrared temperature measurement for the first time in a device small enough to fit inside a smartphone ( TMP006 ) Highly integrated piezoelectric haptic driver to create high definition haptic effects, including localized haptics ( DRV8662 ) Spatial audio technology to enhance audio quality from small speakers by manipulating the sounds into a cinematic, immersive experience. ( LM48901 ) Boosted class-D amplifiers to maintain consistent audio quality even during low battery situations Wireless power solutions Featuring the bqTESLA™ portfolio Cut the cord and start designing mobile devices with interoperable wireless power technology. TI’s bqTESLA portfolio includes both the receiver and transmitter ICs for contactless charging integration. Both devices are supported by evaluation modules , user guides and development kits . To view a video of the development kit, click here . While at the show, you can view actual end equipments with the bqTESLA technology integrated, and learn how transmitter ICs can be integrated into infrastructure pieces like furniture, autos, offices, and more. TI wireless power devices are Qi compliant Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) is the only industry standard for wireless power Qi-compliant assures interoperability between various charging pads and portable devices Wondering what else TI is planning at MWC? Get an overview of TI’s overall presence here: .
          Fluid Condition Sensor Technology Reduces Costs and Downtime        

Currently lubricant analysis primarily takes place in laboratories. The wide variety of analytical tests, strengthened by their unmatched accuracy and precision, makes lab-based oil analysis an integral part of any serious preventive maintenance program.

However, several factors are driving an increasing demand for real-time, on-site lubricant health monitoring:

  • A desire to extend oil drain intervals for economic and environmental reasons. Today, lubricants are replaced and replenished based on rules of thumb and on hours of usage. As a result of not taking the true condition of the lubricant into consideration, they are replaced either prematurely (incurring unnecessary costs) or are replaced too late, thereby risking the overall health of equipment.
  • Reduction of warranty costs by original equipment manufacturers (OEM). By virtue of not knowing the true condition of lubricants, machine operators may inadvertently cause mechanical failure in equipment, which otherwise would have functioned without any issue. When this occurs within the warranty period, it is not uncommon for the OEM to bear the cost of repairing or replacing equipment.
  • The end user’s quest to gain a competitive advantage by minimizing downtime and the associated opportunity and repair costs.

Fluid condition sensors, which provide the ability to continuously monitor the health of lubricants, address the need for extended oil drain intervals, reduce OEM warranty costs and improve the overall equipment availability for the end-user.

Fluid condition sensors cannot replace lab-based oil analysis. Rather, they provide a means to more judiciously make use of detailed lab analysis only when further investigation of lubricant health is warranted. Fluid condition sensors provide equipment operators with the information necessary to make decisions on when to send samples to a lab as opposed to using arbitrary and sometimes artificial timetables. Usually, this is less frequent than originally envisaged, although sometimes it may be more frequent.

Further, a fluid condition sensor can provide timely information on rapidly deteriorating machine conditions on a continuous, real-time basis, something that lab-based analysis cannot provide. By using such sensors to complement and augment lab-based lubricant analysis programs, the end-user can improve efficiency, prevent damage and lower costs.

Fluid Condition Sensor Technology
Viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant are primary indicators of overall lubricant condition. The technology to monitor these metrics in situ either already exists or is actively being developed by companies in the fluid condition sensors arena. The conductivity and dielectric constant of a fluid can be quantified by using a parallel plate capacitance cell arrangement, as shown in Figure 1.

Measuring the admittance of the cell at a reasonably low excitation frequency ensures that the dielectric loss is negligible. In this case, the conductance of the cell will directly be related to the conductivity of the fluid, while the susceptance of the cell will directly be related to the “static” relative dielectric constant of the fluid. Changes in fluid condition (i.e. water ingress, soot loading and presence of metal particles) will result in observable changes in the conductivity and dielectric parameters, and when combined with viscosity measurement, can be used to ascertain overall fluid health.

Viscosity can be measured by placing a piezoelectric thickness shear mode (TSM) resonator (sensing element) in contact with the fluid. The top surface of the sensing element interacts with the fluid forming a thin fluid layer (on the order of microns) that moves with the vibrating surface. The fluid’s viscosity determines the thickness of the fluid layer that is hydro-dynamically coupled to the surface of the resonator. The sensing element resonates in uniform shear motion at frequency ω=2pf with an amplitude U. The frequency is known by design and the amplitude is determined by the level of the electrical signal applied to the sensing element. The shear wave penetrates into adjacent fluid to a depth d, determined by the frequency, viscosity and density of the liquid as d=(2h/wr))1/2, where h is viscosity, w frequency and r is density. The shear wave interaction with the fluid changes with changes in viscosity and density, which can be measured by the electrical properties of the piezoelectric sensing element.

No single fluid metric, by itself, is sufficient to provide an accurate assessment of lubricant health. Viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant by themselves provide only part assessments of fluid condition. However, a combination of some or all of these metrics can provide highly informative signs of overall lubricant health. For some lubricants, viscosity and dielectric constant can prove to be highly relevant. For others, a combination of viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant can prove to be ideal.

Fluid condition sensors, which can track a variety of fluid condition metrics, including viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant, provide the continuous monitoring capability required to ensure the uninterrupted operation of equipment. However, not all of these metrics will necessarily apply to every application. In addition to the long-term benefits of real-time monitoring, further cost savings can be found by using sensors that provide the flexibility to track only those metrics that are most relevant, rather than using a one size fits all solution.

About the authors:
Shravan Jumani is the product manager for SenGenuity, a division of Vectron International, and Ray Haskell is the director of engineering. SenGenuity is a leading provider of breakthrough sensor solutions for performance and reliability in critical data gathering applications. Coupling its state-of-the art precision sensor solutions with Vectron’s surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW and BAW) technology, SenGenuity delivers innovative solutions for measuring the condition of fluids in challenging, embedded environments, and is driving the development of breakthrough solutions for gas and physical sensing applications. For more information, visit www.sengenuity.comor call 888-328-7661.

           Hysteresis modeling and experimental verifications of piezoelectric ceramics based actuators         
Al Janaideh, Mohammad Farhan (2004) Hysteresis modeling and experimental verifications of piezoelectric ceramics based actuators. Masters thesis, Concordia University.
           Design, finite element and experimental analysis of piezoelectric tactile sensors for endoscopic graspers         
Singh, Harpiyar (2004) Design, finite element and experimental analysis of piezoelectric tactile sensors for endoscopic graspers. Masters thesis, Concordia University.
           Design and development of a piezoelectric linear actuator for smart structures         
Li, Jian (2004) Design and development of a piezoelectric linear actuator for smart structures. Masters thesis, Concordia University.
          Photographic Depth of Field        
I was curious why a large aperture on a lens reduces depth of field. To investigate this I set my camera up with a macro extension tube and a subject with lots of depth.

The subject is a potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) crystal mounted in a brass holder, with a copper contact wire for detecting the crystal's piezoelectric properties. From the perspective of the camera, this setup looks like this:

This image shows a very short field, as is typical with macro photos that are taken from very close to the lens. The focal plane is about 10 degrees off of perpendicular from the surface of the coins, and intersects the subject about where the copper wire wraps around the crystal.

To understand why some parts of the image created when the aperture is large are blurry, it's helpful to visualize the paths the light takes through the lens. I used this simulator to make a simple diagram:

From any given point on the subject on the left, light passes through every point on the lens and is focused onto the camera's sensor. If you imagine a tiny bug with an equally tiny camera walking around on the big lens and taking his own pictures of the subject, you would noticed that depending on where he was standing, his photos would each be slightly different, sometimes from a little higher or lower, or one side or the other. We can simulate the bug camera photos by taking a picture through a pinhole placed in front of the lens.

Because the tiny bug camera has a really tiny aperture, all his photos will have very large depth of field, they'll be sharp all over. My bug-simulator has a fairly large pinhole, you can see it near the top of the image, it's about 2mm wide, so I won't get as much depth of field, but you can definitely see that much more of the depth of the image is in focus, compare to the image above and note how in these both the rubber band near the back of the image and the reeds on the edge of the coin are sharp. Here the bug is walking from one side of the lens to the other:

It's hard to tell in the still images, but the perspective is different in each shot, the angles all change a bit as the bug walks across the lens. It's easier to see this if you user a bigger hole so that you get a full-frame image instead of the circular shot, but it's harder to see the increase in the depth of field. Here is another example with a slot to let in more light. Left side from the top of the lens, right side from the bottom. 

Since the tiny bug camera can only collect a tiny bit of light with each photo, all those slightly-different photos will be quite dark. If we stack them all up to increase the brightness, we get the image we would get from the regular-sized camera. It's a bright, but only the parts that were all the same in the individual images will still look sharp in the combined image. The parts that were all slightly different will be all mixed together, making them appear blurry. 

That's exactly what the big lens is doing, stacking together thousands of different perspectives of the view all taken at the same time. We could get deeper depth of field in the image by using a smaller aperture, but that makes the image darker. To compensate we can increase the light on the subject, leave the shutter open longer, or use a more sensitive sensor.

To really see this effect, it's best to see it in a video, so check this out:

Epson Stylus NX110 All in One Printer
Printer Epson, baru-baru ini epson mengeluarkan produck yang kualitasnya sangat menarik dan terjagkau, pertama ketika saya melihat teman saya yang membeli printer epson ko di liat2 kurang menarik, ya itu mungkin krena sya belum tau.., tapi ternyata setelah sya tanya ma teman-teman saya memang katanya tiap printer itu mempunyai kekurangan dan kelebihannya tersendiri akan tetapai epson itu lebih bandel dan tidak rewel.., oleh karena itu jadi duech saya beli epson Stylus TX111, dan ternyata benar yang temen saya katakan, tidak rewel dan bandel, printernya kumplit scan, copy, and photo print..., bisa infush dan juga bisa yang suntik., emang sih pas ngprintx agak lambat kalau di bandingkan dengan yang lain, akan tetapai hasilnya bo.., bagus bener.., soklah pokonya kaga nyesel deach...., o iya ni sedikit informasi tentang EPSON STYLUS TX111:

Platform Multifunction  
Printing Method InkJet
  • On-demond ink jet (Piezoelectric)  
Max. Media Sizes A4  
Max. Resolution 5760  
Effective Print Resolution 5760 x 1440 dpi (with Variable Sized Droplet Technology)  
Print Speed Black 30 ppm 
Print Speed Color 15 ppm 
PC Connectivity USB  
OS Compatibility
  • Windows 2000/XP/XP x64 Edition/ Vista  
  • Mac OS 10.3.9 or later with USB  
Network Supports Not Available  
Input Tray #1 100 sheets  
Compatible Media Sizes A4, A5, A6, B5, 10x15 cm (4x6in), 13x18 cm (5x7in), Latter, Legal, Envelopes : #10 (4 1/8 x 9.5 in), DL (110 x 220 mm), C6 (114 x 162 mm)  
Duplex Printing Not Available  
Copier Function
  • Copy Speed
    • BLACK TEXT MEMO (A4) Approx 3 sec (Draft)  
    • COLOUR TEXT MEMO (A4) Approx 12 sec (Draft)  
Scanner Function
  • A4 Flatbed colour image scanner  
  • CIS Sensor Type  
  • 600 x 1200 DPI, 48 bits input, 24 bits output Optical Resolution  
  • Scanning Speed :
    • MONOCHROME A4 300dpi Approx 3mSec/line  
    • COLOUR A4 300dpi Approx 9mSec/line  
    • MONOCHROME A4 600dpi Approx 4mSec/line  
    • COLOUR A4 600dpi Approx 12mSec/line  
Power Consumption Approx. 13.9 W (Standalone copying, ISO10561 Letter Pattern)
  • AC100 ~ 120V: Approx 3.6W (Sleep Mode)  
  • AC220 ~ 240V: Approx: 3.7W (Sleep Mode)  
Weight 4.6 kg  
Warranty 1-year Limited Warranty by Authorized Distributor  

          SystemX Seminar        

The Precision Medicine Initiative challenges biomedical researchers to reframe health optimization and disease treatment in a patient-specific, personalized manner. Rather than a one-size-fits-all paradigm, the charge is for a particular profile to be fit to each patient, and for disease treatment (or wellness) strategies to then be tailored accordingly. Non-invasive physiological sensing and modulation can play an important role in this effort by augmenting existing research in ‑omics and medical imaging towards better developing such personalized models for patients, and in continuously adjusting such models to optimize therapies in real-time to meet patients' changing needs. While in many instances the focus of such efforts is on disease treatment, optimizing performance for healthy individuals is also a compelling need. This talk will focus on my group's research on non-invasive sensing of the sounds and vibrations of the body, with application to musculoskeletal and cardiovascular monitoring applications. In the first half of the talk, I will discuss our studies that are elucidating mechanisms behind the sounds of the knees, and particularly the characteristics of such sounds that change with acute injuries. We use miniature microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) air-based and piezoelectric contact microphones to capture joint sounds emitted during movement, then apply data analytics techniques to both visualize and quantify differences between healthy and injured knees. In the second half of the talk, I will describe our work studying the vibrations of the body in response to the heartbeat using modified weighing scales and wearable MEMS accelerometers. Our group has extensively studied the timings of such vibrations in relation to the electrophysiology of the heart, and how such timings change for patients with cardiovascular diseases during treatment. Ultimately, we envision that these technologies can enable personalized titration of care and optimization of performance to reduce injuries and rehabilitation time for athletes and soldiers, improve the quality of life for patients with heart disease, and reduce overall healthcare costs.

           Mode shapes variation of a composite beam with piezoelectric patches         
Georgiades, Fotios and Latalski, Jaroslaw and Warminski, Jerzy (2011) Mode shapes variation of a composite beam with piezoelectric patches. Transaction of Aviation Institute / Prace- Instytut Lotnictwa , 218 . pp. 36-43. ISSN 0509-6669
          Comment on L. Eric Cross (1923–2016) discoveries led to piezoelectric transducers for modern medical ultrasound by Balasubramaniam Vaidhyanathan        
Fantastic person, great scientist, innovator and teacher. Had the privilege to meet him and learn & interact with him during my stint at MRL. RIP to the great soul.
          Problem-0119: Electrical Materials objective question        

Which one of the following is the correct statement?

The type of majority charge carriers in a semiconductor can be found by

a. Hall effect
b. Piezoelectric effect
c. Photoelectric effect
d. Meissner effect

          Sony FE 16-35mm f/2.8 GM Lens        

High corner-to-corner resolution

Uncompromised optical design achieves extremely high resolution and contrast. Landscapes, architecture, interiors, and other expansive subjects are captured with outstanding corner-to-corner sharpness. Aspherical elements minimize distortion, while ED (Extra-low Dispersion) glass elements effectively control chromatic aberration.

Clarity and contrast in any light

Sony’s original Nano AR Coating suppresses spurious reflections that can cause flare and ghosting in backlit and other challenging lighting situations, for consistently high contrast and clarity. Freedom from flare over a wide range of incident light angles provides greater framing and composing flexibility, particularly at wide-angle focal lengths.

Resolution and bokeh raised to new heights

This lens features two Sony XA (extreme aspherical) elements with 0.01 micron surface precision. Distortion that tends to occur in wide-angle zoom lenses is meticulously controlled, as are astigmatism and field curvature.  Unattractive onion-ring bokeh is effectively suppressed by XA (extreme aspherical) elements so that smooth, beautiful bokeh is achieved in out-of-focus areas.

Optimum resolution at any focal length

Consistently high resolution is achieved from infinity to the closest focusing distance. This lens employs a floating focus mechanism with two independently driven lens groups. This system helps to reduce all types of aberration to minimum levels and thereby maintain sharp, high-resolution rendering from infinity focus for landscapes, for example, all the way down to close focus for portraits and similar subjects.

Direct Drive SSM

Two DDSSM (Direct Drive SSM) systems employing original Sony piezoelectric motors directly drive two focus groups in a floating focus configuration. The focus groups are positioned with high precision for the highest possible focus accuracy. DDSSM is quiet too, making it ideal for shooting movies as well as stills.

11 blades enhance bokeh beauty

Sony's original 11-blade circular aperture contributes to even greater bokeh quality. Design and materials have been revised to maintain a round shape, and strict circularity standards are applied to ensure that the full beauty of the lens’s bokeh is achieved without compromise.

High reliability in harsh conditions

The overall design of this lens is dust and moisture resistant for extra protection and reliable operation in challenging environments. Shoot with confidence in light rain or windy conditions. Plus, the Fluorine coated front element helps to prevent dirt and fingerprints from sticking, and make it easier to wipe dirt and fingerprints away if they do become attached to the lens surface.


          The Skeptics Guide #586 - Oct 1 2016        
What's the Word: Apophenia; News Items: Europa Venting, Piezoelectric Roads, Unhackable, Change in Astrological Sign; Who's that Noisy; Science or Fiction
          Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor        
While trying to create a circuit that detects whether water is flowing through a pipe by measuring the vibration with a piezoelectric sensor, just to see what happens I taped the sensor around my finger and - to my surprise - got values that were a very noise-free representation of my heart rate! This is [...]
          IEDM 2014 Preview - What's Coming Up On 13 - 17 December        
Later this month the good and the great of the electron device world will make their usual pilgrimage to San Francisco for the 2014 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting.  To quote the conference web front page, IEDM is “the world’s pre-eminent forum for reporting technological breakthroughs in the areas of semiconductor and electronic device technology, design, manufacturing, physics, and modeling. IEDM is the flagship conference for nanometer-scale CMOS transistor technology, advanced memory, displays, sensors, MEMS devices, novel quantum and nano-scale devices and phenomenology, optoelectronics, devices for power and energy harvesting, high-speed devices, as well as process technology and device modeling and simulation. The conference scope not only encompasses devices in silicon, compound and organic semiconductors, but also in emerging material systems. IEDM is truly an international conference, with strong representation from speakers from around the globe.” 

That’s a pretty broad range of topics, but from my perspective at Chipworks, focused on the analysis of chips that have made it to production, it’s the conference where companies strut their technology, and post some of the research that may make it into real product in the next few years.

In the last few days I’ve gone through the advance program, and here’s my look at what’s coming up, in more or less chronological order.  As usual there are overlapping sessions with interesting papers in parallel slots, but we’ll take the decision as to which to attend on the conference floor.


Again this year the conference starts on the Saturday afternoon, with a set of six 90-minute tutorials on a range of leading-edge topics:

The first three are from 2.45 – 4.15, and the remainder from 4.30 – 6.00.  This year I hope to make it to my old friend Wilfried Vandervorst’s session on characterisation, and possibly the other imec tutorial on memories at 4.30.

Wilfried gave an impressive talk at the imec symposium at Semicon West, and this time he has an hour and a half instead of 45 minutes, so hopefully a good bit more detail on what we can see, now that we are counting atoms in transistor analysis.

On Sunday December 14th, we start with the short courses, “Challenges of 7nm CMOS Technologies” and “3D System Integration Technology”. Last year the short course was “Challenges of 10nm and 7nm CMOS Technologies”, so I guess we’ve moved on a bit; though I still need convincing that the 10-nm process architectures are locked down as yet.

Hidenobu Fukutome of Samsung has organised the former, and we have some impressive speakers – Greg Yeric, Senior Principal Design Engineer of ARM, (Circuit application requirements), Peide Ye, Purdue University (Device challenges), Guido Groeseneken, KU Leuven & imec, (Reliability challenges), Eric Karl, Intel, (On-die memory challenges), and Tsutomu Tezuka, Advanced LSI Technology Laboratory, Toshiba (Process and integration challenges). With 14-nm product on the market now, we need to look ahead, so this is appropriate - on the Intel clock, 7-nm is only four – five years away! 

It now seems that 10-nm will be silicon-based, so we’ll see what the guys predict for 7-nm; new channel materials, nanowire transistors, and how will they integrate into a manufacturable process? What will be the effects on the performance of the basic logic blocks? What will device reliability be like with the potential new materials/structures? Hopefully we’ll find out here!

Eric Beyne of imec has set up the other short course; 3D is a very hot topic these days, both finFET and die stacking – here we are talking about die stacking.

Denis Dutoit of Cea-Leti looks at 3D System Design - Challenges for 3D Integration; I have the distinct impression that the manufacturing technology is in place, but design and test still have a way to go.

Next up is Kangwook Lee, Tohoku U, on Enabling Technologies: TSV Technology; again TSV technology is being promoted as here by both foundries and OSATs, and some products such as the Xilinx 2.5D FPGAs are out there, and stacked memories such as the Hybrid Memory Cube are sampling.

After lunch we have 3D evangelist extraordinaire Subu Iyer from IBM, talking about Enabling technologies: 3D integration for the Memory subsystem. IBM has been embedding DRAM into their products for several generations now, and as noted above, we are starting to see 3D-packaged memory come on to the market.

Wafer-to-wafer bonding is an essential part of 3D stacking, and that’s the topic of James Lu from Rensselaer Polytechnic. The last session is on 3D Reliability and Impact of 3D Integration on Devices, with Kristof Croes of imec discussing the device effects of the additional processing needed to make a 3D stack.

So some good solid stuff – although the courses make a long Sunday, from 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m., but it’s worth sticking around to the end.

Sunday evening has some extra sessions; Sematech is holding a session on “Materials & Technologies for Beyond CMOS” at an as-yet unnamed location; and Leti will host a workshop on their “vision for silicon nano-technologies in the next 10 years” from 5.30 – 8.30 pm at the Nikko Hotel, across the street from the Hilton.


Monday morning we have the plenary session, with three pertinent talks on the challenges of contemporary electronics:
  • SiC MOSFET Development for Industrial Markets, John Palmour, Cree Inc. – broadening the range of uses for silicon carbide?
  • Are 3D atomic printers around the corner? Enrico Prati, CNR IMM (Italy’s Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems) – now that 3D printers are becoming consumer goods, can we push the idea into the atomic scale? That sounds like the potential for everything from drugs design to the ultimate version of Moore’s law..
  • Research into ADAS with Driving Intelligence for Future Innovation, Hideo Inoue, Toyota – Automated Driver Assistance Systems; moving towards the self-driving car?

After lunch we have seven parallel sessions coming up!

Session 2 is a focus session on power devices, with a kick-off paper by John Baliga of NCSU, on the Social Impact of Power Semiconductor Devices (2.1). John invented the IGBT in his time at GE back in the 80’s, and claims that the technology has reduced global carbon dioxide emissions by 75 trillion pounds over the last 30 years. He speculates that this can only increase with the introduction of new power devices. Papers 2.3 – 2.5 and 2.7 look like reviews of high-power switch technologies, and Si-, SiC and GaN-based power devices, respectively, while 2.2 and 2.6 look at specific SiC JFET and GaN HEMT devices.

Session 3 is the hot Advanced CMOS Technology group of papers with late news additions by Intel (3.7) and IBM (3.8), both on 14-nm finFET technologies, which even triggered their own press release.

The Intel finFET (note – not trigate!) device features “a novel subfin doping technique” to minimise fin doping and leakage under the fins, and air-gaps in two metallisation levels. This is the first use of air-gaps in a production logic part that I know of; we’ve seen them in memory chips for a while. Intel had a persuasive paper on this at the 2010 IITC conference [1], and I was wondering if we would see implementation at this node.

If you hunt hard in Intel’s August 14-nm announcement, you can find the air-gaps in the M5 level:

Air-gaps shown in Intel announcement

And we did find them in the M5 and M7 levels, but I will leave any detailed comment until a later blog. The IITC paper [1] speaks of using a mask step to define specific air-gap locations, and we can confirm that masking has indeed been used to define specific locations.
Now that we are analysing the Intel part, it would be remiss of me not to show an early shot of the fins, and they are clearly different from the 22-nm variety. There has been an obvious reduction in the width of the fin from its initial etched dimension, and it is tempting from this image to say that the NMOS fin is wider than the PMOS, but again more thorough discussion will have to wait.

Linear section TEM of HKMG gate in Intel 14-nm Broadwell chip

IBM’s finFET is on SOI (of course, this is IBM!) and has a “unique dual workfunction process” which allows multi-Vt versions of both NMOS and PMOS, and claims sub-20 nm gate lengths. The process also includes fifteen metal layers and the latest version of their e-DRAM technology.

With all the Intel/IBM hype, I have become out of order here, because paper 3.1 from TSMC discloses what looks like their 16FF+ 16-nm finFET technology, advanced from the 16FF reported last year. A 15% speed boost and 30% power reduction is claimed, or 40% speed gain and 60% power saving compared to the 20-nm process.
Gossip in the industry has it that 16FF was not advanced enough for TSMC’s customers, so they did some transistor engineering and cranked up the performance; 16FF is not even mentioned on the website these days, and 16FF+ is now in risk production, with endorsements by Avago, Freescale, LG Electronics, MediaTek, Nvidia, Renesas and Xilinx, .
It will be interesting to see if any of the dimensions have changed from the 48 nm fin pitch and 90 nm contacted gate pitch announced last year. The metal stack is stated to be the same as the 20-nm planar process with a 1x pitch of 64 nm.
Paper 3.2 is from Avago, discussing Analog Circuit and Device Interaction in High-Speed SerDes Design in 16nm FinFet Process, and Renesas presents 3.3, on 16-nm 6T SRAM macros, both presumably TSMC’s process. 3.4 again looks at SRAM, but this time on STMicroelectronics’ 28-nm UTBB FDSOI process.
Next up is a couple of academic papers (3.5 & 3.6), discussing a 28-nm integrated RF power amplifier, and a 3D-stacked light harvester on a “epi-like Ge/Si monolithic 3D-IC with low-power logic/NVM circuits”.
3.7 and 3.8 are the Intel and IBM papers, and 3.9 is another late-news paper, from STMicroelectronics, but a change of pace from the finFETs – a 55-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology this time.
And by now it’s 5pm, the end of an intense afternoon!
In session 4, we take a look at Display and Imaging Systems. STMicroelectronics starts us off discussing MOS Capacitor Deep Trench Isolation for CMOS Image Sensors (4.1) in a joint talk with CNRS and CEA-LETI.
One of the goals in image sensors has to be integrating the A/D converters on each pixel, instead of at the edge of the pixel array, and 3D stacking comes to images sensors in paper 4.2 from NHK and U Tokyo; in which SOI wafers are direct bonded so as to provide each pixel with A/D conversion.

Conceptual diagram of the image sensor pixel (left) and SEM cross-section bonded CMOS image sensor pixel 

However, we won’t be seeing this in a phone anytime soon, as it is a proof-of-concept with 60-µm square pixels, as opposed to the 1-2 µm pixel pitch in most phone cameras.

NHK (jointly with Panasonic and U Hyogo) has another stacked sensor in 4.3, this time a selenium photodiode stacked on CMOS circuitry.

The remaining four papers are academic, covering far-infrared (4.4), a stacked SOI multi-band CCD (4.5), an embedded CCD in CMOS (4.6), and the display paper is 4.7, a solid-state incandescent device.

Session 5 covers Nano Device Technology – 2D Devices, a research session; 5.5 is a review of Nanophotonics with two-dimensional atomic crystals; the other papers all cover graphene devices (5.3, 5.4 and 5.6), black phosphorus (5.2), and molybdenum disulphide and tungsten diselenide (5.1, 5.7).

Resistive RAM is discussed in session 6. CEA-Leti has three papers in the afternoon,  (6.1, 6.3, 6.5) The first (joint with Altis Semi) looks at oxygen vacancies in doped oxide/Cu-based conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), improving the Cu filament formation in the resistive layer; 6.3is an invited paper that takes a higher level view of CBRAM and OxRAM devices in two different applications; and 6.5is a detailed examination of CBRAM operation.

Micron and Sony get together to build a 27-nm 16Gb Cu-ReRAM part in 6.2, with a 1T 6F2 cell – definitely some DRAM technology showing up here, in the buried wordlines:

Schematic of Micron/Sony ReRAM (left) and TEM cross-section of access devices

TSMC and National Tsing Hua U have a 28-nm BEOL RRAM in 6.4; Stanford U looks at thickness limits in HfO-based RRAM in 6.6; Crossbar (6.7) discusses crossbar RRAM arrays; and imec/KU Leuven finishes the session with a paper on a TiN/Si/TiN selection device for RRAM switching elements (6.8).

Modeling Simulation of Extremely Scaled Group IV and III-V FETsis the topic in session 7, looking way ahead. In paper 7.1, imec and Synopsys look at the stress effects of 3D stacking on 7-nm devices(!); 7.2 examines mobility enhancement in sub-14nm FDSOI, by the CEA-Leti/STMicroelectronics/IMEP/IBM/SOITEC FDSOI crew; and transient electrothermal effects in nanoscale FETS are considered in 7.3., from Osaka U and Kobe U, and JST-CREST.

Victor Moroz (Synopsys) does a comparative analysis of 7-nm finFETs in different materials in 7.4 – this might be a follow-up of his talk at Semicon West back in July, in which he concluded that silicon is still the best channel material, at least for low-power mobile devices.

Samsung and Udine U also look at different material nFinFETs (7.5, 7.6), and Peking U discusses III-V ultra-thin body pMOSFETs in the last paper of the session (7.7).

NEMS (Nanoelectromechanical Systems) and Energy Harvesters are dealt with in Session 8 – six academic papers, ranging from graphene and Mo disulphide atomic-scale layers that vibrate at RF frequencies (8.1), to photoelectric hydrolysis on MIS photocathodes (8.6).

For those interested in energy storage, Intel have fabricated porous silicon capacitors (8.2) that can potentially be integrated on-die or onto solar cells, taking advantage of the extreme conformal deposition capabilities of atomic-layer deposition (ALD). The image below shows a top-down view of the porous silicon before and after ALD TiN deposition; the wall of the pore walls get thicker, but the pore structure doesn’t change. Capacitances of up to 3 milliFarads/ sqcm are claimed.

Top-down SEM images of porous silicon capacitors before and after TiN deposition
Then in the evening we have the conference reception at 6.30, through until 8 pm.


In the morning we have another seven parallel sessions, starting with session 9 on Advanced CMOS Devices for 10nm Node and Beyond, so another one I will definitely be targeting.

The first paper (9.1, from IBM/STMicroelectronics/SOITEC/CEA-Leti) is about strained 10-nm FDSOI devices, incorporating “a fully compressively strained 30% SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) channel PFET on a thin (20nm) BOX substrate”; they also report ‘strain reversal’ in a PFET – is that so much strain that it reduces mobility? In their workshops at last year’s IEDM and Semicon West, CEA-Leti have been showing a roadmap that jumps from 28-nm to 14-nm and then 10-nm nodes – this looks like the first showing of the 10-nm technology.

That is followed (9.2) by an invited talk from Simon Deleonibus of CEA-Leti on how process technologies can move us towards the zero-power era(?).

Purdue U claims the First Experimental Demonstration of Ge CMOS Circuits (9.3) on a GeOI substrate, while TSMC details InAlP-capped Ge nFETs on Si and Ge substrates (9.4), and Ge n-finFETs on Si (9.5). Still in germanium, National Taiwan U talks Ge nanowire nFETs on SOI (9.6).

The last paper of the session (9.7) is from AIST in Japan on tunnel finFETS in a CMOS process.

Session 10 is a focus session on Novel Imagers and Specialty Imaging Applications, starting with an invited talk by Jiaju Ma (10.1) from the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, on the Quanta image sensor; as near as I can make out, this type of sensor scans the pixel array so fast that it effectively reads individual photoelectrons, and the image is formed by integrating x, y, and time.

Paper 10.2from TU Delft discusses single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), which have enabled solid state range finding, fluorescence lifetime imaging, and time-of-flight positron emission tomography. The topic of 10.3 (Ritsumeikan U, TU Delft, Osaka U) is high-speed image sensors, aiming for one giga-frame per second!

Another invited talk is by Siemens (10.4), about organic photodetector imaging, and next  imec details a CMOS-compatible approach to hyper- and multispectral imaging (10.5).

In a different spin, Annette Grot of Pacific Biosciences (10.6) will discuss how high-resolution, low-noise and high-speed image sensors have enabled large amounts of DNA to be sequenced quickly and at reduced cost; and how further advances will keep on pushing productivity and cost reduction.

For the final talk, we go from chip-scale to huge – the large scale hybrid pixel detector systems used at the Large Hadron Collider experiments at CERN (10.8).

Session 11 is the second group of talks about power and compound semi technologies, this time on High Voltage and RF Devices. Five of the six papers are on GaN devices, and one (11.2) describes a diamond MOSFET good up to 400C. We have a new acronym in there – a SLCFET (Super-Lattice Castellated Field Effect Transistor), with a 3D castellated gate structure (11.5) – that should make for a couple of interesting slides!

Circuit/Device Variability and Integrated Passives Performance is the focus of session 12; the middle papers, 12.3 and 12.4are the passives talks, on Ultra-High-Q Air-Core Slab Inductors (IBM), and Above CMOS Integrated High Quality Inductors for wireless power transmission (HONG Kong UST). The other discussions range from finFET simulations (12.1 and 12.2) through MTJs for random number generation (12.5), noise suppression by using dynamic threshold voltage MOSFETs (12.6), and finally a consideration by ARM of poly pitch co-optimization in standard cells below 28-nm (12.7).

We look ahead to TFETs and other Steep-Swing Devices in session 13. The first paper (UCal Berkeley, Toshiba) discusses a nano-mechanical relay (13.1), which inherently has zero off-state leakage and perfectly abrupt ON/OFF switching behavior, but also serious manufacturing challenges. 13.2 and 13.3 are TFET talks, the 13.4 topic is a Schottky-barrier Si FinFET, and 13.5 and 13.6review piezoelectric negative differential capacitance effects and devices.

Advanced Memories and TSV are the subjects of session 14; the first four papers are more resistive RAM, from imec (14.1 and 14.2), Politecnico di Milano/Micron (14.3) and Politecnico di Milano/Adesto (14.4). Adesto is the only company I know actually selling CBRAM parts, although we haven’t had a chance to look at them yet.

14.5 is a follow-up paper looking at noise in Samsung’s V-NAND flash [2], and 14.6is also a follow-up from IBM on mobile ion penetration from BEOL layers close to TSVs. IBM’s TSV process uses MEOL connection to the TSVs [3], so it’s feasible that there could be some cross-contamination. Tohoku U contributes the last discussion (14.7), testing polyimide TSV liners as a way of reducing the stress in the adjacent silicon.

More sensors and MEMS papers in session 15; the first three are from Tsinghua U, about different applications of graphene MEMS (15.2 also from Berkeley), and TSMC/U Illinois contribute 15.4, on an integrated 180-nm SOI-CMOS biosensor.

A*STAR in Singapore author the final two papers, but on very different topics. 15.5 is an optical biosensor with Ge photodetectors built in to the back end, and 15.6 details a MEMS-tunable laser combined with a photonic IC.

The speaker at the conference lunch will beT.J. Rodgers, founder, President and CEO of Cypress Semiconductor, a well-known voice in the business for decades. Given the recent news of the merger between Cypress and Spansion, he could be an illuminating speaker!

Session 16 focuses on Ge and SiGe Transistors, starting with an IBM/GLOBALFOUNDRIES report (16.1) on strained SiGe-OI finFETs with 50% Ge and fin width of 3.3 nm and gate length of ~16 nm; clearly aimed at the 10-nm node.

Looking a bit further into the future, CEA-Leti/STMicroelectronics/SOITEC (16.2) examine omega-gate CMOS nanowires, with strained SiGe-channel p-FETs and Si-channel n-FETs, integrated into a SOI-CMOS process. From the look of the pictures below they are using a gate-first approach, so there is still some life in that technology.

TEM images of nanowire pFET

16.3 is another nanowire paper from National Tsing Hua U, this time with dopant-free Ge junctionless nanowire non-volatile memories as well as Si nanowire FETs; and 16.4 is a study of Ge quantum-well finFETs fabricated on a 300mm bulk Si substrate, from Penn and N. Carolina SUs with TSMC and Kurt Lesker Co.

Imec tries out replacement metal gates on Ge n-finFETs with raised NiSiGe source/drains in 16.5; AIST examines poly-Ge-OI junctionless p- and n-finFETs, fabbed by flash annealing in 16.6; and Purdue U (16.7) reports on GeOI CMOS devices with recessed S/D.

Session 17 looks at Trapping Mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN Transistors; definitely at the academic end of the scale for me, although the last paper, CMOS-Compatible GaN-on-Si Field-Effect Transistors for High Voltage Power Applications, by TSMC, seems a bit out of place (17.6).

Session 18 is the second one on circuit/device interaction, this time considering Analog and Mixed Signal Circuits. Xilinx studies the interaction between devices and analog circuits used in high-speed transceivers in both planar and FinFet processes in 18.1. Part of this will be using the TSMC 16-nm finFET process, we’ll see if it adds anything to their paper in session 3.

Broadcom looks at mismatch in HKMG transistors related to the layout, and finds sensitivity to top metal routing, in 18.2. GLOBALFOUNDRIES (18.3) looks at Analog and I/O Scaling in 10nm SoC Technology and Beyond; is it better to take an increasing proportion of the die for hard-to-shrink analog, or go with TSVs and multiple dies?

CEA-Leti has a pathfinding paper (18.4) reviewing RF front-end modules (FEMs) in the light of the increasing number of modes (GSM, WCDMA, LTE, etc) and frequency bands in mobile devices. There are now more than 40 bands worldwide, so we see multiple FEMs in the worldphones we take apart, and keeping costs down while enhancing capability is one of the understated challenges in the industry.

There is more RF from Mediatek in 18.5, this time examining Digitally-Intensive RF Transceivers in Highly Scaled CMOS; apparently, these days embedded intelligence is needed on-chip to reduce the sensitivity of circuit performance to device characteristics.

The last paper in the session (18.6) is from Keio U, discussing circuit/device interaction in the 3D context of inductive coupling between dies.

Session 19 is the third memory session, this time on MRAM, DRAM and NAND; the first three talks are focused on STT-MRAM, from imec (19.1), Hanyang U/Samsung (19.2), and LEAP (19.3). Then IBM updates on their embedded DRAM (19.4), now at the 22-nm node in their latest Power8 processor (which, being IBM, is ~650 sq. mm!).

TSMC discusses a new Self-Aligned Nitride non-volatile memory cell in 19.5, and Macronix updates us on their BE-SONOS charge-trapping NAND flash (19.6) in the last paper of the session.

Characterization and Reliability of Advanced Devices is the subject of Session 20; papers 20.1, 20.3, and 20.5 all deal with nanowire characterization; imec has two studies, on HKMG InGaAs finFETs (20.2), and ESD diodes in Si finFETS (20.4); and finally two invited reliability presentations, by Jim Stathis of IBM (20.6) and Tony Oates of TSMC (20.7), on what the challenges are in their field as we move beyond 14/16 nm.

Session 21 is a group of five papers discussing Atomistic Modeling of Device Interfaces and Materials, the first being a multi-national study of hole traps in p-MOSFETs (21.1); I had not realized that such traps had similar characteristics in different oxide dielectrics, whether it be silicon or high-k; and it appears that hydroxyl (-OH) groups could be the cause.

The next three talks (21.2, 21.3, 21.4) are also dielectric and interface studies, as is the last, but 21.5 is focused on HfO and HfAlO-based RRAM.

We go back to MEMS in session 22, actually NEMS as well, as in 22.1, which is a review of integrating NEMS with CMOS (U Grenoble Alpes, CEA-Leti, MINATEC), and 22.4, another CEA-Leti talk on polySi nanowire sensors. Tsing-hua U has two papers also, 22.2 on a nanomechanical thermal-piezoresistive oscillator, and 22.3 on CMOS-MEMS Oscillators. The final two presentations are from A*STAR, about integrating RF MEMS resonators and phononic crystals (22.5), and a 9 degree of freedom capacitive sensor.

That brings us to the end of the afternoon, and Applied Materials is hosting a panel on "The Transistor Revolution" in the Nikko Ballroom in the Nikko Hotel. In parallel Coventor is hosting an event "Survivor, Variation in the 3D Era" in the Carmel Room, also at the Nikko Hotel. They both usually cater us well, so once we’re sated from the hospitality we can wander back to the Hilton for the conference evening panel:

“60 Years of IEDM and Counting: Did we push silicon based devices for integrated electronics to the ultimate and what does the future hold?”

Usually there are two panels, having one avoids conflicts this year; and there are some distinguished panelists – Krishna Saraswat from Stanford University, with two colleagues, Yoshio Nishi and Philip Wong, Chenming Hu (UCal Berkeley), Hiroshi Iwai Tokyo Institute of Technology), Jesus del Alamo (MIT), and Kurt Petersen, co-founder of six MEMS companies, and a member of the Band of Angels.


Wednesday morning has sessions 25 – 31; S25 on III-V for Logic; MIT has two papers, on InGaAs Quantum-Well MOSFETs (25.1), and InGaAs/InAs heterojunction single nanowire vertical tunnel FETs (25.5). 

25.2 is an invited review of “High-Performance III-V Devices for Future Logic Applications”, by Dae-Hyun Kim of GLOBALFOUNDRIES; 25.3, by IBM, is more high-performance self-aligned InGaAs-channel MOSFETs; 25.4 (UCal, Santa Barbera) is also InGaAs, but with InP Recessed Source/Drain Spacers; and 25.6 discusses an InAlN/AlN/GaN triple T-shape fin-HEMT (Nanyang TU, Ohio State U, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering).

S26 covers Thin Film Transistors for Display and Large Area Electronic Applications. Imec demonstrates an ultra-low power organic 8 bit transponder chip in 26.1, followed by IBM with heterojunction field-effect thin-film transistors (TFTs) with crystalline Si channels, and gate regions comprised of hydrogenated amorphous silicon or organic materials (26.2).

CBRITE is next up (26.3), on High Performance Metal Oxide TFTs, then a change of pace to carbon nanotubes with sputtered and spray-coated metal oxides to form complementary inverters, from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Imperial College London, and U Würzburg (26.4).

Believe it or not, Delft U has worked out a way to put silicon TFTs on paper or other soft substrates:

Photograph of polysilicon thin-film transistors (the brown portion of the image) printed on paper.
“The Delft team made the devices by casting a quantity of liquid polysilane onto a substrate, and forming a thin film from it by “doctor-blading,” or skimming it with a blade. High-performance polysilicon channel regions then were formed by laser annealing, using short pulses of coherent light to selectively crystallize the disordered film. The maximum temperature required was only 150ºC, making the TFTs suitable for paper and plastic substrates such as PET and PEN.” (26.5)

Tsing Hua U finishes up the session with the last two papers – a study of “Ultra-Thin Body (2.4nm) Poly-Si Junctionless Thin Film Transistors with a Trench Structure”, claimed to be useful for displays and 3DICs; and more poly-Si channel junctionless  FETs, but this time with a poly fin (26.6, 26.7).
          El CEO de Xiaomi nos muestra indicios de un Xiaomi Mi Mix 2 con pantalla de ratio 18:9         

Mi Mix

La compañía china Xiaomi, es unas de las que más expectación levanta, especialmente cuando hablamos de sus teléfonos estrella: el Xiaomi Mi Mix y su cercano sucesor, el Xiaomi Mi Mix 2. Del nuevo buque insignia de Xiaomi llevamos meses hablando y parece que de nuevo, la pantalla será su característica más destacable.

Hace unos meses ya hablamos de que Xiaomi dejaría de utilizar la cerámica piezoeléctrica del cuerpo del terminal como altavoz para que fuera la pantalla quien se encargase de esto. También supimos que el panel ocuparía hasta un 93% del frontal y ahora podemos intuir, gracias a una publicación del CEO de la compañía, que contaría con una relación de aspecto de 18:9 como también esperamos del Xiaomi X1.

¿Estaría acabado el Mi Mix 2?

El teléfono tiene fecha de presentación oficial orientativa en torno a octubre de este mismo año, pero quizás ya esté terminado. Y es que el CEO de Xiaomi, Lei Jun, ha publicado en la red social china Weibo una captura de pantalla en la que muestra la nueva powerbank de 10.000 mAh de la compañía.

Img 0073 512x1024

A priori esto podría no tener nada que ver con el futuro buque insignia de la compañía, pero si nos fijamos en la fotografía, la captura de pantalla es bastante alargada, pudiendo haber sido tomada con una un teléfono cuyo ratio de aspecto sea 18:9. Weibo indica que la fotografía ha sido tomada con un smartphone sin identificar y Xiaomi no cuenta aún con ningún teléfono con dicho ratio, por lo que hay muchas posibilidades de que pudiera tratarse de flamante Mi Mix 2.

Los rumores anteriores sobre el Xiaomi Mi Mix 2 nos cuentan también que podría llegar con chipset Qualcomm Snapdragon 835 y 6 GB de memoria RAM y que incluso podríamos ver una versión con 8 GB de RAM y 128 de almacenamiento interno, pero por el momento tenemos que esperar unos meses más hasta que se confirmen los datos sobre tan esperado teléfono.

Vía | Gizmochina En Xataka | Xiaomi Mi Mix tras un mes de uso: la imperfecta perfección

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La noticia El CEO de Xiaomi nos muestra indicios de un Xiaomi Mi Mix 2 con pantalla de ratio 18:9 fue publicada originalmente en Xataka Móvil por Érika García .

          Rugosímetro – TR-110        
Teste de Rugosidade de Superfícies – portátil – TR-110 Portable surface roughness tester for determining surface texture, combining measurement of roughness parameters Ra and Rz in one instrument.The compact portable TR-110 roughness tester is designed for fast and precise measurement. It employs a piezoelectric microsensor technique which is identical to that of high-precision laboratory roughness … Continuar a ler
          The Benefits of Piezoelectric Jet Valves        
          Máy in phun - Máy in Epson hoạt động nhÆ° thế nào ?        

1. Thermal Drop-On-Demand
Nhóm thứ nhất dùng kỹ thuật thermal Drop-On-Demand gồm có các hãng lớn như Hewlett Packard(HP), Canon và hãng Lexmark/IBM.
Người ta dùng các resistor nhỏ xíu nằm tại các jet (jet: lỗ phun mực, tên chánh thức là nozzles), theo nhu cầu một dòng điện chạy qua resistor để nung nóng mực làm cho nó phóng vào mặt giấy nhanh đến 5000 lần trong 1 giây. Lỗ phun mực có đường kính cỡ sợi tóc(70micrometer) do đó buổi đầu nó thường hay bị nghẹt. Ngày nay đã cải tiến nhiều giọt mực phóng ra có thể tích cỡ 8 cho tới 10 picoliter và chấm mực bám vào giấy có đường kính cỡ 50 tới 60 microns.

Thông thường mực đen được chứa trong một cartridge riêng và lỗ phun mực to hơn, giọt mực đen ném ra có thể tích cỡ 35 picoliter. Cartridge màu chứa 3 loại mực màu khác nhau nằm trong ba ngăn riêng rẽ. Một vài máy hiện giờ dùng đến 8 màu mực căn bản như HP7960. Đây cũng là cái máy inkjet printer đầu tiên in được hình “đen trắng”. Những inkjet printer hiện nay in đen trắng bằng cách pha mực màu lại với nhau để tạo màu đen, do đó tấm ảnh đen trắng in được luôn luôn có ánh hơi xanh, hơi đỏ hay hơi vàng.

Đầu in loại thermal nầy có khuyết điểm là bị hiện tượng Kogation làm hư dần(Kogation là hiện tượng mực bị biến thành các hạt rắn bám dần vào thành firing chamber) do đó các máy in của hãng HP đều theo một nguyên tắc chung là đầu in dính luôn vào bình mực. Khi in hết mực các bạn mua bình mực mới thì có ngay đầu in mới, chữ nghĩa hình ảnh luôn luôn sắc nét và không bị suy giảm theo tuổi thọ của cái printer. Số jet trên đầu máy thay đổi tùy model lúc đầu là 16 rồi lần lên 32, 48, 64, 128lỗ jet. Ngày nay trung bình tổng cộng từ 300 tới 600 nozzles.

2. Piezo Drop-On-Demand.

Kỹ thuật phun mực thứ hai là do hãng Epson giữ bản quyền. Hãng nầy không dùng resistor nung nóng mực mà dùng hiệu ứng piezoelectric để phun mực vào giấy. Kỹ thuật nầy chúng ta thường gặp trong các máy dùng làm ẩm không khí vào mùa đông (ultrasound humidifier). Máy in Epson dùng mảnh thạch anh tí ti nằm tại các nozzles. Khi cho dòng điện đi qua mảnh thạch anh nở ra (hiệu ứng piezoelectric) ép mực phun vào giấy.

Đầu in piezo có nhiều cái ưu điểm như là dễ kiểm soát hình dạng và kích thước giọt mực phun ra hơn, nó lại bền hơn là loại đầu in thermal vì không có resistor dễ bị cháy và không mất thời gian chờ mực làm nguội resistor trước khi được nung nóng trở lại như đầu in thermal. Vì không dùng nhiệt cho nên việc chế tạo mực in cũng uyển chuyển không gò bó như khi chế tạo mực dùng cho đầu in thermal. Đầu in mực đen của Epson hiện hành có 540 nozzles mỗi đầu in có 90 nozzles(6 màu) vì đầu phun lâu hư nên tất cả máy in Epson đều có đầu in gắn liền vào máy và người tiêu thụ không thể tự thay đầu máy được. Một số máy Canon printer mới ra sau nầy cũng có đầu in gắn liền vào máy, nhưng khác với Epson, người tiêu thụ có thể tự thay lấy đầu máy in như thay một ink cartridge khi cần chỉ mất 01 phút.

Vậy thì đầu máy rời không dính chung vào với ink cartridge lợi hại ra sao? Để so giá các bạn nên lưu ý coi bình mực đó chứa bao nhiêu cc(phân khối) mực. Cái yếu điểm của loại máy đầu in cố định(duy nhất chỉ có Epson) là khi các jet phun mực bị nghẹt thì cách hay hơn hết là bỏ cái printer vào thùng rác. Lý do mang cái printer hư cho hãng thay đầu in còn mắc tiền hơn mua cái printer mới.

Lưu ý: theo người tiêu thụ đầu in Epson hay bị nghẹt sau vài ba tuần hay một vài tháng để yên không in gì cả. Muốn máy in Epson được bền ít ra mỗi tuần phải in một hai trang giấy. Vì các lỗ phun mực cũng mòn dần theo thời gian, nên chữ và hình in ra cũng giảm dần phẩm chất theo tuổi thọ của cái printer. Cũng nhắc quí vị có máy in Epson là phải nhận tắt máy(từ nút mở tắt trên cái printer) trước khi cúp điện toàn bộ, với máy in hãng khác cũng nên làm như vậy để đầu in đủ thời gian chạy vào nơi parking, nơi nầy có miếng cao su đậy đầu in tránh không khí làm khô mực bít các jet phun mực.

Má»±c in

Vì hình ảnh được tạo ra bằng các giọt mực, cho nên người ta tìm cách làm cho giọt mực càng nhỏ càng tốt để ảnh in ra được sắc nét. Ngày nay giọt mực nhỏ nhất 1.5 picoliters (thí dụ Epson R800). Giọt mực càng nhỏ thì dễ đặt nằm gần nhau trên mặt giấy như vậy càng cho hình rõ nét và giúp màu sắc thay đổi một cách liên tục hơn.

Chắc các bạn thắc mắc là ink cartridge chỉ chứa từ 3 tới 6 màu mực, nhưng tại sao khi in ảnh chúng ta thấy có đủ muôn màu nghìn sắc. Đó là tại chúng ta bị “mà mắt” mà thôi. Màn ảnh TV, màn ảnh computer chỉ có 3 điểm màu căn bản là Đỏ(Red), Xanh Két (Green), Xanh (Blue) gọi chung là màu RGB. Trên computer monitor các điểm màu nầy nằm cách nhau từ 0,25 tới 0,31 mm. Từ ba màu nầy, tùy theo độ đậm lợt chúng pha trộn nhau tạo ra nhiều màu sắc khác nhau khi nhìn từ xa. Inkjet in màu cũng theo nguyên tắc nầy. Người ta dùng ba màu mực là xanh (Cyan), đỏ (Magenta), vàng (Yellow), gọi chung là nhóm màu CMY để pha nhau thành đủ các màu khác nhau. Thường thì còn có thêm một bình mực đen gắn kế bình mực màu. Riêng HP chỉ dùng bình mực đen để in text (chữ), khi in hình có màu đen thì HP pha trộn ba màu CMY vào nhau để tạo ra màu đen. Epson printer thì khác, khi in hình nó dùng luôn mực màu đen nên gọi nó là loại màu CMYK. Theo ý kiến một số người thì màu đen trong các tấm hình in từ máy Epson thấy đen hơn màu đen từ máy HP.

Hiện nay một số photo-printer dùng tới 6 màu mực. Ngoài 4 màu căn bản trên, người ta thêm vào hai màu nữa là light cyan, còn gọi là photo cyan và light magenta hay photo-magenta. Các printer điển hình cho nhóm nầy là Canon i950, 3072 nozzles, 6 bình mực rời. Theo nhiều người thì printer 6 màu in hình màu nhìn có vẽ mịn màng màu sắc thay đổi liên tục (dịch chữ smooth) hơn là hình in từ printer 4 màu. Nếu các bạn lấy cái kính phóng đại nhìn vào tấm hình, các bạn sẽ thấy nó được tạo ra bằng nhiều điểm màu nằm cạnh nhau trên mặt giấy. Với hình in từ 6 màu các chấm mực nằm gần nhau có màu sắc tương tự, không thay đổi màu đột ngột từ chấm mực nầy qua chấm mực khác. Khi xem ảnh nhìn ở tầm xa thông thường thì không thấy các chấm màu riêng rẽ, chỉ thấy màu sắc hình ảnh. Cái printer mới nhất của hãng Canon là Canon i9900 dùng 8 bình mực, ngoài 6 màu kể trên, nay thêm mực đỏ và mực xanh két, có 6144 nozzles, nhiều nhất hiện giờ. Photosmart 7960 cũng 8 cartridge màu khác nhau.

Cũng nên nói thêm thì theo tờ PC Magazine cái BJC-8200, 6-màu, in hình không tươi như các hình in ra từ máy in 3 màu như HP 9x, HP PhotoSmart. Điều nầy đã thay đổi khi Canon cho ra model S-800. Các máy Canon printer sau nầy đều có bình mực trong suốt riêng rẽ cho từng màu, do đó rất dễ refill. Theo dư luận S-800 in hình chẳng kém Epson photo như 870, 1270, 875D, 780...mà lại không bị vài khuyết điểm như Epson “killer chip”, hay nghẹt nozzles hơn HP hay Canon...

Có hai nhóm mực in khác nhau, nhóm thứ nhất là mực được pha từ các màu hòa tan trong nước (water-based dye). Loại mực nầy có cái bất lợi là bị lem khi gặp nước hay hơi ẩm. Ngoài ra hình in từ loại màu nầy dễ phai khi để ngoài ánh sáng, nhất là tia cực tím (UV) trong vài tuần lễ, cũng như khi gặp chất oxy-hóa như khí ozone. Nhóm mực thứ hai là loại không hòa tan vào nước (water-based-pigmented ink) nó gồm có các hột màu thật nhỏ nằm lơ lửng trong nước. Loại nầy khi gặp nước không bị lem nhiều, và rất bền không phai màu. Tuy nhiên loại mực pigment này khi pha trộn nhau chỉ cho một dãy màu sắc giới hạn và hình in ra không được rực rỡ như loại mực water based dye. Yếu điểm nầy hiện nay đã được khắc phục. Nếu các bạn để ý thì text in ra từ máy HP ít bị lem hơn là từ máy Canon hay Epson. Mực đen của HP thường thuộc nhóm pigmented thí dụ các cartridge HP26, HP29, HP45.

Theo nhiều người thì tấm ảnh in ra từ các máy inkjet ngày nay đẹp hơn là ảnh in từ film ở photo-lab. Các lab dành riêng cho các tay nhà nghề thì khác. Cách nay mấy năm mọi người chơi ảnh digital đổ xô đi mua Epson 870 dầu vì ảnh in ra từ máy in nầy rất xuất sắc. Đây chính là xuất phát điểm cho sự phát triển các dịch vụ chụp ảnh lấy liền: ảnh thẻ, ảnh du lịch, photo sticker. Sau đó người ta thấy là các tấm ảnh in từ máy in nhóm nầy bị chuyển sang màu cam sau một thời gian chưng bày. Lý do là mực in của Epson khi gặp khí ozone trong không khí thì đổi màu. Điều này Epson phải nghiên cứu cho ra các loại mực pigment thế hệ mới không lem trong nước bền màu và cho rằng độ bền ảnh in ra là 150 năm. HP Photosmart 7960 quảng cáo là hình in ra bền tới 73 năm, Canon I9100 nói hình in ra bền đến 25-30 năm, Epson 2200 dùng archival ink bền 90 năm.

Nếu dùng kính phóng đại nhìn vào tấm ảnh in từ máy Epson Stylus Photo hay Canon 6-màu mực thì thấy chấm mực nằm sát nhau hơn so với hình in từ máy HP9xx, hay Photosmart 1xxx (3-màu mực). Tuy nhiên có mấy ai xem ảnh bằng kính lúp. Có người nói là ảnh in từ Epson có đẹp hơn, nhưng chỉ hơn tí không đủ để bù vào giá mực in và giấy in dùng riêng cho Epson quá đắt đỏ. Hiện giờ các printer thông thường dùng 4 màu mực, ảnh in trên photo paper không thua ảnh in từ các Photo Lab, ảnh in trên plain paper trông rất xấu.


Chữ DPI viết tắt chữ Dot Per Inch, Nhóm Epson Stylus Photo đầu tiên(in được 1440x720 dpi, có nghĩa là máy in nầy có thể in được 1440 chấm mực trên bề dài 1 inch theo chiều ngang và 720 chấm mực theo 1inch chiều đứng. Nhưng nên biết đó không phải hoàn toàn mechanic. Sau nầy Epson Stylus 790 và 780 in tới 2880x720 dpi. Hiện giờ Canon I9900 in 4800x2400 dpi, Stylus Photo R800 in 5760x1440 dpi.

QUY TRÌNH HOẠT ĐỘNG CỦA MÁY IN PHUN - Cty TNHH Giải Pháp In Thành Đạt sưu tầm

Link chia sẻ:

Tags: may in epson, máy in epson, epson t50

Chia sẻ - Thảo luận kiến thức in ấn - Thiết kế
          Soft Pneumatic Actuator Skin with Piezoelectric Sensors for Vibrotactile Feedback        
The latest wearable technologies demand more intuitive and sophisticated interfaces for communication, sensing, and feedback closer to the body. Evidently, such interfaces require flexibility and conformity without losing their functionality even on rigid surfaces. Although there have been various research efforts in creating tactile feedback to improve various haptic interfaces and master–slave manipulators, we are yet to see a comprehensive device that can both supply vibratory actuation and tactile sensing. This paper describes a soft pneumatic actuator (SPA)-based skin prototype that allows bidirectional tactile information transfer to facilitate simpler and responsive wearable interface. We describe the design and fabrication of a 1.4 mm-thick vibratory SPA – skin that is integrated with piezoelectric sensors. We examine in detail the mechanical performance compared to the SPA model and the sensitivity of the sensors for the application in vibrotactile feedback. Experimental findings show that this ultra-thin SPA and the unique integration process of the discrete lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based piezoelectric sensors achieve high resolution of soft contact sensing as well as accurate control on vibrotactile feedback by closing the control loop.
          Development and characterization of silicone embedded distributed piezoelectric sensors for contact detection        
Tactile sensing transfers complex interactive information in a most intuitive sense. Such a populated set of data from the environment and human interactions necessitates various degrees of information from both modular and distributed areas. A sensor design that could provide such types of feedback becomes challenging when the target component has a nonuniform, agile, high resolution, and soft surface. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the manufacture of novel soft sensors that have a high resolution sensing array due to the sensitivity of ceramic piezoelectric (PZT) elements, while uncommonly matched with the high stretchability of the soft substrate and electrode design. Further, they have a low profile and their transfer function is easy to tune by changing the material and thickness of the soft substrate in which the PZTs are embedded. In this manuscript, we present experimental results of the soft sensor prototypes: PZTs arranged in a four by two array form, measuring 1.5–2.3 mm in thickness, with the sensitivity in the range of 0.07–0.12 of the normalized signal change per unit force. We have conducted extensive tests under dynamic loading conditions that include impact, step and cyclic. The presented prototype's mechanical and functional capacities are promising for applications in biomedical systems where soft, wearable and high precision sensors are needed.
          ULTRASONIC SPEAKERS?        

I've been in the process of designing an experiment that requires precise control over the frequency and amplitude of sound waves and must encompass ultrasonic frequencies, ideally up to 70 kHz. I'm aware that is well outside the range of human hearing and closer to the frequencies used in ultrasonic cleaners. Many bird callers and electronic pest control devices advertise the ability to produce ultrasonic frequencies but it is unclear how much range these speaker possess and if they can be modified for other applications. I have also seen ultrasonic piezoelectric speakers that advertise frequencies up to 70kHz but I am uncertain, again, how limited their range is. Ebay is full of signal generators that can produce sine waves of almost any frequency but I believe these still require a transducer to convert the signal and are probably replaceable by various computer programs.

So this is my question: can anyone with a background in sound engineering or alike recommend a minimally expensive, maximally accurate system to produce pure tones of a precise frequency and amplitude (as well as ultrasound more generally) and a speaker to transmit them?

          How a quartz watch works        
The amazing everyday wristwatch: We never think about it, but only because engineers have made it so reliable and durable that we don't
need to. At its heart lies a tiny tuning fork made of the mineral quartz. In this video Bill takes apart a cheap watch and shows extreme
close-ups of the actually tunings fork. He explains how the piezoelectric effect of quartz lies at the heart of the watch's

          How a Lighter Works        

Showing how your everyday lighter works, and describing the piezoelectric phenomenon that is behind it.

The post How a Lighter Works appeared first on Materials Science and Engineering.

          MATLS 3Q Group Projects        

Group project with the goal of measuring voltage across the piezoelectric component in a typical kitchen lighter. This group project was done for the MATLS...

The post MATLS 3Q Group Projects appeared first on Materials Science and Engineering.

           On-line measurement of particle size distribution using piezoelectric sensors         
Gao, Lingjun and Yan, Yong and Lu, Gang (2012) On-line measurement of particle size distribution using piezoelectric sensors. In: 2012 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Proceedings. pp. 1154-1158. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
           Design, Development and Characteristics of an In-Shoe Triaxial Pressure Measurement Transducer Utilizing a Single Element of Piezoelectric Copolymer Film         
Razian, Mohammad A. and Pepper, Matthew G. (2003) Design, Development and Characteristics of an In-Shoe Triaxial Pressure Measurement Transducer Utilizing a Single Element of Piezoelectric Copolymer Film. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 11 (3). 288-293. ISSN 1534-4320. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
          Tech Giant Intel Features Eric Goldemberg’s 3D-printed Musical Instruments project        
Tech Giant Intel Features Eric Goldemberg’s 3D-printed Musical Instruments projectAssociate Professor Eric Goldemberg and MONAD Studio partner Veronica Zalcberg have been featured on Intel‘s social media for the firm’s work in 3D-printed musical instruments.   Intel featured the 3D-printed two-string piezoelectric violin on its Instagram feed. The post has received more than 5,000 likes and more than 40 comments by viewers. The company also featured the 3D-printed travel bass […]
          Top Three Applications and Counting, Smart Materials to Excel owing to their Response Variation to Stimuli        
Smart materials are referred to as a class of materials that modify some of their properties as a result to a change within the external environment. This change in the properties of smart materials is reversible and hence these materials can be utilized a number of times. The market for smart materials is rising exponentially. This is owing to a number of factors such as the increasing utilization of piezoelectric devices and the boom in the industry of artificial organ and bionics. In addition, the rising count of end use applications is a key opportunity seen in the market for smart materials. The key smart materials utilized are piezo-electric materials, biomimetic materials, thermally responsive materials, and others including smart hydrogels, smart fluids, etc. Smart materials are highly employed in a number of applications owing to their different response to any external stimuli. The major application areas of smart materials are their usage in mechatronics, civil engineering applications, and aerospace, among others. The key applications have been detailed as under: Defense and Space: Smart materials are made to inhibit the vibrations and modify shape in the blades of helicopters. Shape-memory-alloy devices have also been made and these devices are able to achieve an augmented breakup of submarines’ vortex waves and in the same way a variety of adaptive control surfaces are made for the wings of airplanes.  Structural Engineering: The smart materials also find application within the structural engineering field. These materials are utilized for monitoring the structure of civil engineering in order to analyze their durability. These materials are also made to gauge the structural integrity within aircraft and space structures. Efforts have also been taken for the investigation of some of the piezoelectric materials for the reduction of noise within air conditioners. In addition to civil engineering, smart materials are also utilized for monitoring the integrity of damns, bridges, and offshore oil drilling towers in which fiber-optic sensors within the structures are used for the identification of troublesome areas.  Nuclear Industries: Smart technology also presents new opportunities within the sector of nuclear industrial for the reduction of personal exposure, safety enhancement, performance enhancement, and life-cycle cost cutting. However, the utilization of smart materials within nuclear facilities needs knowledge on the materials responding to irradiations.

Original Post Top Three Applications and Counting, Smart Materials to Excel owing to their Response Variation to Stimuli source Twease
          Acoustic monitoring of laboratory hydraulic fracture growth under stress and pore pressure        
Fluid-driven fracturing is used in a wide range of applications, including oil and gas extraction, geothermal energy recovery, and CO2 sequestration. In order to efficiently fracture the targeted rock formation, theoretical models provide estimates of the fracture size and shape. Carrying properly scaled laboratory experiments, on the other hand, allows to validate theoretical predictions by providing complete datasets of individual experiments performed under controlled conditions, and therefore to better understand the physics of fluid-driven fracturing. The DelFrac Consortium at TU Delft pioneered this field by building an acoustic monitoring setup inside a triaxial press applying three independent stresses on a cubic specimen (Groenenboom, 1998). At the Geo-Energy Lab, we intend to further investigate the solid and fluid mechanics of hydraulic fractures by building a novel experimental setup in our EPFL facility. The fracturing setup will consist in a triaxial frame designed to accommodate cubic-shaped specimens of up to 250 mm in length, and to apply up to 20 MPa independently on each axis. We will also have the ability to pressurize a pore fluid up to 5 MPa inside the frame in order to simulate in-situ conditions. Our current high-pressure pump can inject fluids with a maximum pressure of 51 MPa and a flow rate ranging from 1 μL/min to 90 mL/min through a high-pressure line and a cased wellbore inside the specimen. We will monitor the growth of the fracture with a combination of compressional and shear piezoelectric transducers for a total of 64 units, that can be used to both generate and measure acoustic energy. We use a function generator connected to a high-power amplifier to generate an excitation signal, which is then routed to one of 32 excitation transducers through a multiplexer. The other 32 transducers are connected to a high-speed acquisition board in order to simultaneously record the measured ultrasonic signals. By carefully placing the transducers on all six faces of the specimen to be fractured, we expect to record transmitted, reflected and diffracted acoustic events (Figure 1). We intend to use these three types of event in order to estimate the spatial extent of the fracture, as well as its thickness along raypaths. Transmission measurements, where the wave travels across the specimen, provide fracture thickness information (Groenenboom & Fokkema, 1998; Kovalyshen et al., 2014). Diffraction events, where the wave propagates to the tip of the fracture and then towards the side of the block, carry information about the tip position, and in turn give an estimate of the fracture size (Groenenboom et al., 2001). Reflection events, where the acoustic energy is reflected back toward the same side of the block, let us discriminate between dry and fluid-filled fracture in the case where a fluid lag is present at the fracture tip.
          Bosch`s Prediction for Industry of Steel says Confectioners will move to Stainless Steel Equipment in a span of five years        
In the next five years, the confectionery industry will shift from aluminum surfaces on packaging and processing equipment to stainless steel equipment. According to Bosch, this change is in order to raise the sanitation standards in the industry.    Eric Aasen, the product manager of Bosch believes that change is happening and perhaps is necessary because presently many confectioners favor equipment with cheaper aluminum surfaces. However, stainless steel is a much better and a cleaner option from the hygienic perspective. It does not contaminate and is easier to clean, whereas, with aluminum one can face a lot of oxidation problems and other issues that are not highly conducive to one’s hygiene. According to Eric, five years down the road confectioners might start adapting to this change as it all comes down to the Food Safety Modernization Act and the significance they have with their product.    Eric Aasen had a few views to share in the report and answered questions like, why is the industry so unwilling to make the change earlier? He said confectioners do not have any listeria issues like protein manufacturers. They do not have constant water on their machines and tend to dry wipe equipment rather than perform wet wiping. This leaves water residues that can enhance certain bacterial growth. He also added that if confectioners use plenty of water to perform their business activities, they should probably start looking out for stainless steel materialized products as they are far more durable and water-resilient. This will also shun the chances of listeria.    Through a development platform at Pack Expo last month, Eric Aasen talked about the Confectionery News based on his company’s values such as SVC (Simplicity, Versatility, and Cleanliness). It was all about developing new equipment with better durable and hygienic designs using stainless steel materials.    Moreover, under its SVC platform Bosch has introduced a technology known as piezoelectric buttons on confectionary machines. These buttons cannot be pressed down and are distinctly constructed compared to the standard push buttons which have cavity that builds up to plenty of dirt and grime. Eric Aasen claimed that the concept of piezoelectric buttons was extremely new to him and he had never seen it being used before in the industry. 

Original Post Bosch`s Prediction for Industry of Steel says Confectioners will move to Stainless Steel Equipment in a span of five years source Twease
          LOS FANTASMAS        



Dante y Beatriz en el Paraíso; de Gustave Doré, ilustración de la Divina Comedia, Paraíso, Canto XXXI. Según el Catolicismo, algunos fantasmas son almas del Purgatorio que piden que recen por ellas para alcanzar el Paraíso.

Pintura del espectro de Okiku por Yoshitoshi Tsukioka. La historia de fantasmas Banchō Sarayashiki es una de las más famosas del folklore Edo japonés.
Los fantasmas (del griego φάντασμα, "aparición"), en el folclore de muchas culturas, son supuestos espíritus o almas desencarnadas de seres muertos (más raramente aún vivos) que se manifiestan entre los vivos de forma perceptible (por ejemplo, tomando una apariencia visible, produciendo sonidos o aromas o desplazando objetos —poltergeist—), principalmente en lugares que frecuentaban en vida, o en asociación con sus personas cercanas. Constituye uno de los tipos más conocidos de superstición.



Quienes dicen haberlos visto los describen como siluetas o sombras monocromas, por lo general oscuras o blanquecinas, más bien difuminadas, nebulosas o antropomórficas, de carácter inmaterial y trasparentes, que flotan y pueden no estar completas o no tener rasgos definidos ni rostro; pero también y más raramente aparecen opacos, de cuerpo entero y con apariencia humana normal. Algunos parapsicólogos afirman que cuando se mueven adoptan la apariencia de esferas de luz u orbes, que supuestamente han sido filmados saliendo o entrando a través de paredes; en realidad, podría tratarse de rods, artefactos, motas de polvo, insectos o ilusiones ópticas producidas por pareidolia, apofenia o cualquier otro prejuicio cognitivo.
Algunos parapsicólogos defienden la hipótesis de que la aparición del fantasma no suele sobrepasar unos pocos segundos, raramente llega al minuto; cuando ocurre, se supone que la temperatura baja sensiblemente; pueden acompañarlos aromas penetrantes, golpes, ruidos (generalmente pasos), música o voces que pueden grabarse magnetofónicamente (los llamados fenómenos electrónicos de voz, mal llamados psicofonías), aunque cada uno de estos fenómenos puede darse también separada y aisladamente. Su aparición supuestamente provoca a veces en los seres humanos decaimiento, opresión o cefaleas; en los lugares y en el momento de su manifestación estos parapsicólogos dicen haber medido una carga electromagnética inusual.[1] Se afirma también que en los lugares que frecuentan los fantasmas a menudo se descargan las baterías de los aparatos eléctricos destinados a captarlos o se apagan las luces, lo que se debería a que los fantasmas manipulan (absorben, y menos frecuentemente expulsan) una cierta energía cinética (en forma de movimientos de objetos, frío o calor) o electromagnética, o están relacionados de algún otro modo con distorsiones en las mismas; en este sentido, algunos experimentos, como los diseñados por el doctor Michael Persinger, han logrado reproducir fantasmas (o más bien tulpas o ideoplastias) por medio de leves corrientes electromagnéticas sobre el lóbulo temporal del cerebro y han intentado relacionarlos con entornos geológicos concretos de materiales transductores y fenómenos como la piezoelectricidad. Con fundamento en estas investigaciones, algunos mecanismos tecnológicos han sido diseñados para transformar estas distorsiones electromagnéticas en sonido, con la sorpresa de que se reproduce un lenguaje humano coherente y consciente, que responde a preguntas. Aseguran también que es un hecho muy frecuente y previo a su aparición un cambio físico o psíquico en el entorno en que se manifiesta; el más corriente son obras de reforma de una casa antigua, un nuevo habitante en la misma, etcétera. Si se trata de un cambio anímico, suele ser un hecho emotivo y/o trágico: el fallecimiento reciente de un familiar o el nacimiento de un familiar, un cambio hormonal (adolescencia, climaterio, menopausia), algo en todo caso emocionalmente significativo. Se trata de las llamadas apariciones críticas. A veces concurren ambos hechos.
Como las leyendas etiológicas, los fantasmas se creen ligados a un lugar. Se afirma que algunas veces han sido vistos y grabados traspasando muros sólidos, y que algunos pueden mover o transportar objetos de leve peso, pero siempre por poco tiempo. Supuestamente, obedecen a las leyes de la perspectiva según el punto del espacio desde el que se los contempla; muchos parecen sólidos y opacos, por lo que pueden ser filmados, se reflejan en los espejos y producen ruidos sincronizados con sus movimientos (pasos, etc). Generalmente dan la impresión de ser tan reales como las personas vivas, aunque sólo durante un periodo de tiempo muy breve.

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831 - 1891) escritora, ocultista, teósofa rusa y una de las fundadoras de la Sociedad Teosófica (retrato de 1877 en Nueva York).
Ciertas personas, los llamados clarividentes, médiums, ashanes o chamanes, dicen observarlos con frecuencia o poder comunicarse con ellos; asimismo prácticas conocidas como la canalización mediúmnica y la necromancia o nigromancia aseguran poder hacer que los muertos se encarnen otra vez brevemente. Según qué tradición, los fantasmas aparecen con distinto atavío, más o menos relacionado con su muerte (el clásico de la literatura occidental es el sudario o sábana mortuoria); el momento difiere, aunque por lo común es a la puesta de sol, a medianoche, en luna llena, a una hora fija o en una fecha determinada, por lo general la de su muerte, o de noche; sin embargo hay también apariciones poco puntuales que "se manifiestan" de forma imprevista e imprevisible en cualquier poto, incluso a mediodía. Los parapsicólogos los clasifican en residuales y conscientes; los residuales repiten siempre lo mismo, se aparecen periódicamente y parecen ajenos a quienes los ven, pero su actitud no es comunicativa ni necesitan la presencia de seres humanos para manifestarse, por lo que ha veces han sido grabados por cámaras de vigilancia sin presencia humana alguna; los conscientes poseen actitud comunicativa y pueden interactuar con los vivos, pero lo corriente es que terminen siendo esquivos y huidizos, ya que su manifestación visible es siempre discontinua y nunca se prolonga largo tiempo; podría decirse que tienen más miedo o angustia ante los seres vivos que estos ante ellos; solo unos pocos son abiertamente benéficos, malignos u hostiles, la mayoría son indiferentes.
Algunas ceremonias, como por ejemplo los exorcismos, se atribuyen el poder de alejarlos durante un tiempo o definitivamente.
Los estudiosos del fenómeno afirman que existen también fantasmas de personas vivas (bilocación, doppelganger, fetch...) y documentan también la aparición de fantasmas de animales (por ejemplo el Perro negro, el Dip, la Pesanta o el Cadejo, entre otros), barcos, trenes, aviones, casas y pueblos fantasmas e incluso objetos fantasmas, como los tsukumogami japoneses o los domésticos de parasoles (karakasa) y linternas (chōchinobake).
Pueden aparecerse solos, lo que es lo más corriente, o formando grupos, incluso numerosos. Su manifestación en algunos casos es anuncio o aviso de algo positivo o funesto por ocurrir. También los hay de carne y hueso: en 1937 la folclorista estadounidense Zora Neale Hurston escuchó en Haití el caso de Felicia Félix-Mentor, fallecida y enterrada en 1907 y viva aún treinta años después como zombi semiconsciente a causa del habitual uso en el animismo vudú de dosis semiletales de drogas/veneno como tetrodotoxina, estramonio o datura que provocan por anoxia parálisis temporal y locura permanente. Otras alucinaciones visuales o auditivas provocadas por enfermedades como la esquizofrenia o por las drogas (flash recurrentes de LSD, por ejemplo), o bien las falsas resurrecciones espontáneas causadas por enfermedades como la rabia, la catalepsia etcétera pueden haber originado asimismo leyendas de aparecidos, revenants, vampiros y no muertos en personas predispuestas por prejuicios cognitivos y tradiciones culturales propicias. Por otro lado, partes del cuerpo humano desaparecidas, amputadas o cercenadas pueden ser percibidas por el cerebro como miembros-fantasma. Para los espiritistas, un fantasma también podría ser un espíritu atrapado en nuestro mundo por medio de invocaciones, brujería o promesas (almas en pena).


La creencia en aparecidos (muertos que vuelven a aparecer para encomendar alguna misión) o revenants (lo mismo, en francés), espectros, ánimas del Purgatorio, almas en pena, o fantasmas es muy propia de la naturaleza humana, tanto que tiene visos de ser o constituir un ente antropológico abstracto que pervive, como otros tipos de superstición, a través de numerosos factoides concretos. Ha generado y genera una amplia literatura (novela gótica o de terror), inspira la cinematografía y el teatro y ha creado innumerables leyendas y mitos, si es que estos, inversamente, no han creado este bulo; la ciencia considera creer en fantasmas un tipo de superstición muy asentado en la psicología del ser humano, porque se alimenta de la necesidad de vida eterna, como la religión, y sublima una muerte inaceptable y aborrecible por medio del acto apotropaico de creer que la conciencia pervive más allá del fin de la misma. Estudios recientes indican que muchos occidentales creen en fantasmas; en sociedades donde la religión tiene mucho predicamento, como los Estados Unidos, una encuesta demostró que el 32% de sus habitantes cree en fantasmas y en la vida luego de la muerte o más allá, siempre en forma paralela a la religión o de forma menos regulada por un sistema escatológico como han hecho las religiones más frecuentes, que se aprovechan de este meme antropológico para crear estructuras económico-culturales de creencias.
Desde antiguo la mitología, la religión y otras manifestaciones de folklore o literatura han creído, o pretendido creer, en la existencia de entidades sobrenaturales, manifestaciones vitales o númenes más o menos inmmateriales de varios tipos:
  • 1. Abstractos, más o menos alegóricos, como Dios.
  • 2. Naturales o no humanos: inanimados sin movimiento o cosas, e inanimados con movimiento o semovientes, como el aire, el agua, el fuego, las plantas, los astros.
  • 3. Naturales animados: animales o animalizados.
  • 4. Antropomórficos.
  • 5. Humanos.
Desde el más primitivo animismo, que otorga vida a todo lo semoviente o dotado de movimiento y evolución, así como a las fuerzas de la naturaleza (el aire, el agua, el fuego, la vegetación, los astros), muchas de estas categorías pueden asociarse, formar criaturas mixtas y recibir denominación o nombre, como el ángel o los dioses medio animales o animalizados de los egipcios y los japoneses. El fantasma vendría a ser una entidad entre el cuarto y quinto tipo por su origen humano, bien diferenciada de duendes, diaños, demonios, tulpas, yōkai, genios, elfos, silfos, hadas y longaevi, restos de religiones desaparecidas a los que Heinrich Heine llamaba "dioses en el exilio". Para la mentalidad moderna, que ha desvitalizado el cosmos transformándolo en una cosa o un mecanicismo muerto y absorbiendo toda su vida en el yo y el antropocentrismo desde el Renacimiento, es más fácil creer por eso en fantasmas que en esos otros tipos de criaturas, cuyo predicamento estaba más extendido por el mundo politeísta antiguo y la Edad Media. El pensamiento prelógico y primitivo no distingue niveles entre lo real y lo imaginario, se revela contra la idea inaceptable y abstracta de la muerte y considera que lo aparecido en sueños es indistinto y posee existencia real, justificando sus temores y concretándolos desde el mundo onírico o del sueño e identificando la imagen de un ser desaparecido por la muerte que aparece en este con un ser real no afectado por la conclusión, la desaparición y la muerte. Se cree así en otros grados de existencia, menos patentes pero considerados reales; es más, se calma así la inquietud existencial que provocan los sentimientos de culpa, de finitud y de muerte.


Para los pueblos primitivos los fantasmas tenían una vida infinitesimal y miserable, insuficiente para animar y mover un cuerpo, hacer latir su corazón y darle aliento o respiración, pero vida al fin y al cabo, ya que tenían bastante o la suficiente fuerza para manifestarse en los sueños para atormentar o avisar a los vivos o como sombras y apenas necesitaban alimento (en las culturas antiguas con culto a los manes y antepasados había un día anual designado para alimentarlos con ofrendas de alimentos o sacrificios, que los cristianos han sustituido por flores en el Día de difuntos o de Todos los Santos). Así se calmaba a los antepasados y se aseguraba su benéfica influencia. La creencia en fantasmas se testimonia desde los primeros textos escritos sumerios y egipcios: el fantasma de Enkidú se apareció a Gilgamesh en la llamada Epopeya de Gilgamesh. También se encuentra extendida por otras civilizaciones de muy distinto desarrollo cultural. La Odisea del griego Homero y la Eneida del latino Virgilio acogen viajes de ultratumba. Los romanos ponían un puñado de tierra sobre el cadáver porque si no el alma erraría por toda la eternidad en la ribera de la Estigia, y era preciso poner una moneda en la boca para pagar al barquero o el alma no tendría descanso. Por eso aterraba a los romanos navegar por el mar, ya que no recibirían honras funerarias. A los suicidas romanos se los enterraba con la mano cortada y separada del cuerpo, con el fin de desarmar a su espíritu, que hipotéticamente atormentaría a los vivos. Los fantasmas buenos para los romanos eran los manes o espíritus de los antepasados; los malvados eran las larvae, almas de hombres malvados que vagan errantes por las noche y atormentan a los vivos. Plutarco, en el siglo I, describe unos baños encantados en su Queronea natal donde aparecía el fantasma de un hombre asesinado. Otro celebrado fantasma fue descrito en una de las epístolas del historiador romano Plinio el Joven (VII, 27, 5-11), quien describe una casa encantada en Atenas donde aparecía un espectro que arrastraba cadenas; los sucesos cesaron cuando el filósofo Atenodoro alquiló la casa y fue guiado por el fantasma hasta un esqueleto enterrado y fue vuelto a sepultar con las debidas ceremonias. El texto está dirigido a un tal Licinio Sura:
La falta de ocupaciones a mí me brinda la oportunidad de aprender y a ti la de enseñarme. De esta forma, me gustaría muchísimo saber si crees que los fantasmas existen y tienen forma propia, así como algún tipo de voluntad, o, al contrario, son sombras vacías e irreales que toman imagen por efecto de nuestro propio miedo...[2]
Otros escritores, como el romano Plauto (en su comedia Mostellaria) o el sirio Luciano de Samosata (en su relato Cuentistas o El descreído) también escribieron sobre fantasmas, aunque el precedente que más cabe citar es la compilación Sobre los hechos maravillosos de Flegón, liberto del emperador Adriano, origen de la leyenda de la esposa cadáver que reaparece en Proclo y sirvió de inspiración a Goethe para su Novia de Corinto y a Washington Irving para El estudiante alemán. El exegeta benedictino Dom Calmet reseñó en el siglo XVIII en su Traité sur les apparitions (1746) la lista de narraciones de casas encantadas desde la antigüedad grecolatina a su época.
Una de las teorías que intentan explicar la religión los derivaría de la tendencia del pensamiento primitivo y prelógico a considerar que el mundo de los sueños forma también parte del real; por tanto, ver en sueños a personas fallecidas indica que no han muerto y que pueden interferir en la vida real. El origen de los fantasmas, pues, no sería distinto al de la religión en general.
En las civilizaciones orientales (como la china e india), muchos creen en la reencarnación o transmigración de las almas. Agregada a esta visión y dentro del Budismo, los fantasmas son almas que rehúsan ser recicladas en el curso del Samsara (ciclo de la reencarnación), porque han dejado alguna tarea por terminar. Los metafísicos y exorcistas de diversas religiones pueden ayudar al fantasma a reencarnarse o hacerlo desaparecer orientándolos o mandándolos a otra dimensión de existencia. En la creencia china e india, además de reencarnar, un fantasma puede también optar a la inmortalidad transformándose en semidiós y puede a través de su elevación espiritual trascender diversos planos o servir a los seres humanos, o bien puede bajar al infierno y sufrir ciclos karmáticos. En Japón, la religión shintoísta reconoce la existencia de espíritus de todo tipo y acepta la creencia en fantasmas como parte de la vida cotidiana. En la cultura malaya son prácticamente innumerables las leyendas y clases de fantasmas.
En Occidente la creencia en fantasmas se fue difuminando desde la creencia irracional en ellos de la Edad Media al escepticismo de la Ilustración en el siglo XVIII, cuando el padre Feijoo, embutido en una lucha sin cuartel contra las supersticiones, llegó a decir que "no hay fantasma ni espectro que no desaparezca al conjuro de una buena tranca". En ese mismo siglo, el doctor Samuel Johnson llegó a la conclusión de que el fantasma de Cock Lane en Londres era una filfa.
En el siglo XIX la creencia en fantasmas resurgió poderosamente merced a la tendencia irracionalista del Romanticismo y el desarrollo del Espiritismo, la Teosofía y pseudociencias como la Parapsicología.

El escéptico ilusionista James Randi prometió una alta suma de dinero a quien demostrase una evidencia creíble de la existencia de lo paranormal; nadie pudo conseguirla.
Todavía en el siglo XX y XXI se sigue considerando a los fantasmas como almas en pena que no pueden encontrar descanso tras su muerte y quedan atrapados entre este mundo y el otro, a pesar del desarrollo de una corriente positivista, escéptica y científica, que intenta desacreditar esta superstición y cuyos representantes más conocidos son ilusionistas como Harry Houdini o James Randi. La creencia general común supone que el alma de un fallecido no encuentra descanso por una tarea que el difunto ha dejado pendiente o inconclusa ("promesa"): así, puede tratarse de una víctima que reclama venganza o un criminal que, por alguna causa, (haber sido enterrado con símbolos sagrados, por ejemplo) ve diferido su ingreso en el purgatorio o infierno. En la mayoría de las culturas contemporáneas, las apariciones de fantasmas están asociadas a una sensación de miedo y son fuente importante de estudio de recién nacidas pseudociencias, como la parapsicología. Aún es también importante dentro del estudio de ciertas religiones, como el Islam, el Budismo, Jainismo, Hinduismo, Shintoismo, Espiritualismo y Cristianismo, aunque cada una lo estudia de modo diferente. En las creencias de la Nueva Era, se intenta racionalizar la creencia tradicional afirmando que los fantasmas son cúmulos de energía negativa o que se trata de imágenes holográficas de personas que han dejado impregnado el ambiente con su imagen y sus actividades.

Clases de fantasmas

G. N. M. Tyrrell, autor de un clásico libro sobre el tema, Apparitions (Apariciones), publicado en 1943, identificaba cuatro grupos principales en base a la conducta adoptada por los presuntos espíritus, más conocida que su propia naturaleza:
  • Apariciones que frecuentan habitualmente un lugar determinado. Generalmente no suscitan miedo, son inofensivos y a veces llegan a ser tratados como un miembro más de la familia.
  • Apariciones post-mortem. Suelen tener lugar muy poco tiempo después de la muerte de la persona reaparecida, y no acostumbran a estar relacionadas con un lugar o acontecimiento concreto; parecen ser como despedidas.
  • Apariciones en casos críticos: el aparecido es alguien que está viviendo una experiencia importante (a menudo desconocida por el testigo de la aparición), como un accidente, una enfermedad o, por supuesto, la muerte, y se muestra ante una persona o personas simultáneamente a esa experiencia, no después de la misma.
  • Aparición inducida. En estos casos, el fantasma no es el de una persona muerta o moribunda, sino el de alguien vivo, que intenta con deliberación hacer que su imagen se haga visible a otra persona; se habla entonces de bilocación, si se trata de santos, o en el folclor alemán de doppelganger (en el irlandés, fetch).
En este tipo de apariciones parecen haberse excluido aquellas en las que la aparición adopta una actitud comunicativa e interactiva con aquel a quien se muestra, pudiendo hablar o comunicarse con él, mucho tiempo después de su fallecimiento.

Fantasmas, Sociedad y Economía

Como fuente pristina de curiosidad la creencia en fantasmas es tema goloso que ha suscitado mucho negocio editorial, teatral, cinematográfico, radiofónico, televisivo y periodístico, porque se genera habitualmente como un factoide o una leyenda urbana, y por eso supone con frecuencia una atracción turística notable para lugares históricos desconocidos. Eso provoca la aparición de grandes intereses creados en torno a las apariciones de fantasmas y, por tanto, la aparición, también, de distintos grados de fraude y negocio o ambos y, por consiguiente, del rechazo y oscurecimiento interesados a toda explicación puramente racional o científica de este tipo de fenómenos; de ahí la explotación y fomento del miedo y del ambiente morboso y el lenguaje interminablemente elíptico y oscuro que los rodea, así como la asfixia consciente de toda verdad que pueda existir en el fondo del asunto, que se hace terreno de cultivo, mina y asidero de todo tipo de factoides y leyendas urbanas. La verdad se deja siempre encerrada una ignorancia que, además, favorece la estafa, la riqueza, el lucro, el crecimiento económico.
De ahí que la desconfianza, el método científico, el empirismo y el escepticismo sean requisitos imprescindibles para abordar con seriedad un fenómeno como este, rodeado de engaños y la mayor parte de las veces, si no todas, engaño él mismo.

Fantasmas y Parapsicología

Cuadro basado en la descripción del investigador sir William Crookes: la médium Florence Cook se encuentra en el piso, y Crookes ilumina el ectoplasma de la fallecida Katie King.
Para no ser pseudociencia, la parapsicología investiga la psicología del engaño, procura documentar cualquier testimonio de los llamados fantasmas y controlar rigurosamente las circunstancias en que se producen (incluidas los observadores) alejándose de cualquier prejuicio cognitivo.
El curso histórico del fenómeno obliga a distinguir, por una parte, las apariciones de ectoplasmas obtenidas con ciertas medium espiritistas fraudulentas a comienzos del siglo XX (Eusépia Palladino, Douglas D. Home, Rudi Schneider, Franek Kluski) de las apariciones investigadas por investigadores serios (Charles Richet, Schrenk-Notzing, Gustave Geley, etc.) que acreditaron los fenómenos con las condiciones de observación de que disponían en su época y, por otra parte, de fenómenos asociados como el encantamiento o el poltergeist.
La parapsicología asocia los fantasmas a la percepción de personas y animales vivos o muertos de forma visual o auditiva (las mal llamadas psicofonías y teleplastias), e investiga a determinadas personas, los llamados dotados o mediums, quienes, imbuidos al parecer de una cierta percepción extrasensorial, hacen una o varias de estas cosas:
  • 1) Notar, sentir, registrar o percibir la presencia de seres fallecidos (clarisintiente o empático)
  • 2) Observarlos (clarividente).
  • 3) Escucharlos (clariaudiente).
  • 4) Obtener información desconocida, falsa o verdadera, de los mismos, e interactuar con ellos (médium).
En cuanto al punto 1, muchos mediums pueden percibir tan sólo sentimientos o percepciones de los espíritus (empatía), no pensamientos más elaborados y complejos, distinguen auras de colores de personas vivas o señalan áreas concretas donde los espíritus se sitúan. Por otra parte, en los puntos 1, 2 y 3 estas percepciones difieren según el individuo y pueden presentarse de forma más o menos intensa, continua o discontinua (al parecer en forma de rápidos e incompletos flashes de información). Respecto al cuarto punto, algunos médiums han conseguido recabar un alto porcentaje cierto y verificable de información, algunas veces por procedimientos como la escritura automática o la psicometría. Estos mediums han logrado recabar información útil para esclarecer desapariciones y crímenes y ayudar a arqueólogos o a personas desesperadas por dramas familiares, como atestiguan los casos de John Edward, Chip Coffey, Anne Germain, Rosemarie Kerr, Sally Headding o Nancy Orlen Weber, entre otros. Curiosamente, unas pocas personas parecen poseer el don contrario de impedir o desfigurar cualquier inferencia mediúmnica. Este hecho parece apoyar el argumento de que la mediumnidad es un tipo de talento telepático que manipula información inconsciente de los cerebros de los sujetos sometidos a ella para reforzar convicciones que los individuos ya poseen. Muchos mediums dicen nacer ya con el don, manifiesto desde su infancia, y se ven asediados por espíritus buenos y malos; algunos de ellos, según interpretan, son los llamados espíritus guía, que los protegen, informan, acompañan y asesoran durante toda o gran parte de su vida. El médium no se ve afectado por la distancia ni el tiempo, sino por la presencia de signos o vestigios de aquello con lo que se comunica, y es un don innato, se posee (desde la infancia) o no se posee.
Los fantasmas más frecuentes poseen una tipología escindida en cuatro clases:
  • Fantasmas residuales, o visiones que realizan actos repetitivos y carecen de actitud comunicativa o interacción con los observadores.
  • Fantasmas conscientes, que pueden comunicarse e interactuar con los observadores.
  • Encantamientos duraderos de lugares concretos donde se manifiesta uno o más fantasmas desde hace mucho tiempo.
  • Poltergeist o "espíritus burlones", fenómenos de duración más reducida ligados a una persona, por lo general adolescente o joven (aunque no siempre), en la que se mueven objetos solos, se escuchan golpes repetitivos o ruidos y se encienden o apagan luces.

Fantasmas y Espiritismo

Según el Espiritismo o "doctrina espírita", como se decía en el siglo XIX desde que este movimiento fue configurado por Allan Kardec y la teósofa Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, el alma sobrevive a la muerte del cuerpo material y asciende a un nivel superior de existencia. Sin embargo algunas almas se desvían de ese camino; no parecen tener una autoconsciencia completa de su ser; la tienen, pero sólo hasta cierto punto, porque no han logrado todavía resolver sus dudas existenciales. Se trata de fantasmas: entidades desencarnadas que se torturan y fustigan cruelmente con asuntos no resueltos en su vida anterior. Puede, por ejemplo,
  • Que no acepten su propia muerte, que no quieran reconocer que han desencarnado.
  • Que se sientan culpables por no haber concluido correctamente algún asunto durante su vida humana.
  • Que se sientan atados o ligados afectivamente a alguna persona o lugar cuando estaban con vida.
  • Que sientan odio o rencor consigo mismos o con alguien de su entorno como humanos.
  • Que sientan que no merecen estar en ninguna parte y que ya no les queda esperanza.
Un fantasma se construye con algunas de las actitudes no resueltas de un humano mientras vivía encarnado en su cuerpo físico: padece carencias, obsesiones, sentimientos de culpabilidad, apegos, miedos o desesperanzas irresistibles. Por no cuidar esas actitudes, según el Espìritismo, uno se puede transformar en un posible candidato a fantasma el día de mañana. La labor del médium ha de consistir en orientar y aconsejar para poder cambiar esas actitudes. Debe ser capaz de sentir que está a tiempo de rectificar o de perdonar o ser perdonado, ser capaz de sentir que tiene una segunda oportunidad en la que podrá aprender de sus errores del pasado y convertirlos en un valioso conocimiento para el futuro. Este cambio de actitud para el fantasma, que no sería sino una entidad mendiga que pide afecto, comprensión, y oportunidad para un cambio, debe proporcionárselo el médium. Una vez el fantasma ha comprendido, espontáneamente sucede aquello largamente ignorado o no esperado por él, sabe que puede sentirse libre y continuar su camino de evolución en niveles superiores de conciencia y puede seguir su camino en paz creciendo existencialmente hacia otros planos, bien en una forma encarnada o bien en una forma espiritual. Ha comprendido que la capacidad de ordenar sus experiencias le permiten ser su mejor maestro y enseñar a otras entidades a no repetir su mismo error.[3]
En el vocabulario espiritista no se utiliza la palabra fantasma, sino eidolon, espíritu, ente o entidad. Algunas almas no habrían pasado a otro nivel de existencia por miedo a quemarse eternamente, por simple obstinación o por poseer demasiado apego a este nivel de existencia o a algunas cosas y personas de este nivel de existencia. Otra explicación a este fenómeno, que permite una leve unificación entre la física contemporánea y esta creencia sobrenatural, y que se funda en presuntos experimentos llevados a cabo con equipo técnico en varias partes del mundo a partir de 1945, sugiere que al momento de morir, subsiste de algún modo la "información cuántica", el modelo molecular del ser vivo, la cual, mediante la combinación de factores adecuados,de espacio,tiempo y energìa, (sitios con apropiados niveles de energia del tipo iones positivos), se manifiesta como si tuviera un cuerpo (forma material difusa popularmente denominada "ectoplasma" o "periespíritu"), pudiendo realizar acciones (ruidos, movimiento de objetos,apariciones),lo cual depende en gran medida del voltaje e intensidad del campo de iones positivos presente en dicho lugar. El fundamento principal de esta teoría se basa en que toda acción realizada en el espacio requiere una fuente de energía que es recargada por el espectro en estos lugares electromágneticamente saturados de cargas electrónicas libres (electrones sueltos en el aire u otras substancias). Dicho cuerpo difuso le proporcionarìa al espectro sensaciones similares a las de la persona viva, obviamente con sus limitaciones, pero sensaciones al fin y al cabo, lo que explicarìa tambièn los casos en los cuales las psicofonìas y otras anomalías captadas en sesiones de espiritismo reproducen frases inconclusas o absurdas como "siento frìo" o "yo, qué estoy haciendo aquí". De cualquier forma, esto no seria mas que un reflejo hologràfico-electrònico de un personaje muerto tiempo atrás.

Fantasmas y Cristianismo

El Protestantismo no admite la existencia de fantasmas ya que no cree en la existencia de un Purgatorio; para esta forma de Cristianismo se trata de fenómenos demoniacos. El último Catecismo de la Iglesia Católica no admite la existencia del limbo, aunque algunos teólogos la postulan, pero sí la del Purgatorio, al contrario que el Luteranismo protestante. Estima perjudicial, autodestructivo y pecaminoso el uso de la necromancia, la Ouija, el Tarot y cualquier ceremonia o procedimiento no religioso con el cual se obtenga comunicación con la otra vida; según exorcistas y demonólogos como el padre José Antonio Fortea, recurrir a estos rituales, fuera de ser extremadamente peligroso desde un punto de vista psicológico, supone dejar puerta abierta para que entre sin invitación uno cualquiera de la numerosa jerarquía de espíritus no humanos o demonios. Por otra parte, según la

1. Two free parallel wires carrying current in the opposite directions

(a) Attract each other
(b) Repel each other
(c) Do not effect each other
(d) Get rotated to be perpendicular to each other

2. All the magnetic materials looses their magnetic property when

(a) Dipped in water
(b) Dipped in oil
(c) Brought near piece of iron
(d) Strongly heated

3. Potassium paramagnet is used for

(a) Dechlorination
(b) Improving colour
(c) Reducing acidity
(d) Reducing hardness

4. Which of the following material has the highest carbon percentage?

(a) Cast iron
(b) Mild steel
(c) High carbon steel
(d) Stainless steel

5. Which of the following paints is most fire resistant

(a) Bituminous paint
(b) Asbestos paint
(c) Aluminum paint
(d) Synthetic paint


6. The gas which is mainly responsible for the explosion in sewers is

(a) Methane
(b) Ethane
(c) Ammonia
(d) Carbon- monoxide

7. The Wind screen of car made of

(a) Sheet glass
(b) Wired glass
(c) Laminated glass
(d) Flint glass

8. Which of the welding process is used for welding of structures?

(a) Gas welding
(b) Fusion welding
(c) Thermic welding
(d) Arc welding

9. In a d.c generator, following losses will be minimum

(a) Copper loss
(b) Iron loss
(c) Friction loss
(d) Shunt field copper loss

10. Corona loss is less when the shape of the conductor is

(a) Circular
(b) Flat
(c) Oval
(d) Independent of shape


11. The core of the transformer is assembled with laminated sheet so as to reduce

(a) Hysteresis loss
(b) Copper loss
(c) Magnetic noise
(d) Eddy current loss

12. Which of the following instrument is used for measuring the rate of flow of liquid of pipes

(a) Hydro meter
(b) Venturi meter
(c) Viscometer
(d) Falter pump

13. The proper use of lubricants cannot reduce

(a) Static friction
(b) Inertia
(c) Sliding friction
(d) Rolling friction

14. Infra red radiation can be detected by

(a) Spectrometer
(b) Pyrometer
(c) Nanometer
(d) Photometer

15. Which of the following is used in optical fibers

(a) Total internal reflection
(b) Scattering
(c) Diffraction
(d) Refraction


16. Metal attains super- conduction properties below the temperature of

(a) 0 deg K
(b) 100 deg C
(c) 100 deg K
(d) 10 deg K

17. Powder clinges to the skin because of following property

(a) Adhesion
(b) Cohesion
(c) Surface tension
(d) Capillary action

18. The sparking at the brushes in the d.c generator is attributed to

(a) Quick reversal of current
(b) Reactance voltage
(c) Armature reaction
(d) High resistance of the brushes

19. D.C series motor should always be started with load because

(a) At no load it will rotate at dangerously high speed
(b) At no load it will not develop high starting torque
(c) It cannot start without load
(d) It draw a small amount of current at no load

20. A tunnel diode is

(a) High resistivity p-n junction diode
(b) A slow switching device
(c) An amplifying device
(d) A very heavily doped p-n junction diode


21. The effective channel length of a MOSFET in saturation decreases with increase in

(a) Gate voltage
(b) Drain voltage
(c) Source voltage
(d) Body voltage

Ans. (b)
22. The ON voltage and forward breakover voltage of an SCR depends on the

(a) Gate current alone
(b) Band gap of the semiconductor alone
(c) Gate current and the semiconductor band gap respectively
(d) Semiconductor bandgap and the gate current respectively

23. Negative feedback in amplifier

(a) Improves the signal to noise ratio at the input
(b) Improves the signal to noise ratio at the output
(c) Does not affect the signal to noise ratio at the output
(d) Reduce the distortion.

24. An ideal Op- Amp is an ideal

(a) Voltage controlled current source
(b) Voltage controlled voltage source
(c) Current controlled current source
(d) Current controlled voltage source

25. One of the following types of noise becomes of great importance at high frequencies. It is the

(a) Shot noise
(b) Random noise
(c) Impulse noise
(d) Transit- time noise


26. Piezoelectricity effect is the polarization of a dielectric under the influence of

(a) Light
(b) Mechanical stress
(c) Electrical stress
(d) Heat

27. Entropy of mixture of two gases after sudden mixing is

(a) Greater than
(b) Less than
(c) Same as sum of entropy of individual gases
(d) Unpredictable

28. If air filter is removed in a petrol engine, the air/fuel ratio will

(a) Increase
(b) Decrease
(c) Increase and decrease
(d) Remains unchanged

29. In a two stage compression , inter -cooling is used for

(a) Reducing work of compression in the first stage
(b) Reducing temperature in the first stage
(c) Reduced work in the second stage
(d) Reducing work and temperature in the second stage

30. Which component of refrigeration system controls the flow of refrigerant

(a) Expansion valve
(b) Condenser
(c) Compressor
(d) Evaporator


31. Laser beam welding has widest application in

(a) Mass production in heavy industry
(b) Jobbing industry
(c) Electronic industry
(d) Structure and bridge work

32. In Equation x-2y+3z=0 and 2x+5y+3z=0, y equals

(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3

33. If a system of equation has one or more solution it is called

(a) Compatible
(b) Consistent
(c) Homogeneous
(d) Simultaneous

34. In a microprocessor the register which holds the address of the next instruction to be fetched is

(a) Accumulator
(b) Program counter
(c) Stack pointer
(d) Instruction register

35. The mnemonics used in writing a program is called

(a) Assembly language
(b) Fetch cycle
(c) Microinstruction
(d) Object program


36. For which of the following devices, is DMA the most suitable
(a) Keyboard
(b) Mouse
(c) Joy stick
(d) Hard stick


37. In real time operating system, which of the following is the most suitable scheduling scheme?

(a) Round robin
(b) First come first served
(c) Random scheduling
(d) Preemptive

38. In client –server system , data is usually stored on the

(a) Server
(b) Client
(c) Network
(d) None of the above

39. Identify the natural

(a) LISP
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a) and (b)

40. An interrupt that can temporarily ignored by the counter is known as

(a) Vectored interrupt
(b) Non – maskable interrupt
(c) Maskable interrupt
(d) Low priority interrupt


          Benchmark Shows Valid Results for a Piezoelectric Transducer Design        
Many modern devices leverage piezoelectricity. When analyzing the design of such devices, you want to be confident in the reliability of the obtained results. By utilizing the COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation software, you can achieve accurate results quickly. To prove it to you, we have created a benchmark model of a piezoelectric transducer. Piezoelectricity Powers Innovative Technology Imagine a smart flooring technology that generates power from people’s movements. As their footsteps apply stress to the floor, a certain degree of energy […]
          Simulation Improves Range of Motion in Piezoelectric Actuators        
Piezoelectricity finds use in a variety of engineering applications. They include transducers, inkjet printheads, adaptive optics, switching devices, cellphone components, and guitar pickups, to name a few. Today’s blog post will benefit both beginners and experts in piezoelectricity, as we highlight some of the fundamental elements of piezoelectric theory and basic simulations, along with a novel design for improving the range of motion for piezoelectric actuators. The Mathematical Conventions of Piezoelectric Theory Before we start discussing piezoelectric physics, let’s first […]
          Piezoelectric Materials: Applying the Standards        
Previously on the blog, we detailed the standards employed to describe piezoelectric materials. There are two piezoelectric material standards supported in COMSOL Multiphysics: the IRE 1949 standard and the IEEE 1978 standard. Today, we will demonstrate how to set up the orientation of a crystal, specifically an AT cut quartz plate, within both standards. Setting Up the Orientation of a Crystal in Two Standards To set up the orientation of a crystal within COMSOL Multiphysics, it is necessary to specify […]
           Lead-Free KNN-based Piezoelectric Ceramics         
Hussain, Fayaz (2016) Lead-Free KNN-based Piezoelectric Ceramics. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
          COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore Award Winners        
The COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore took place on October 20-21, and presenters from across the country came to showcase their simulation work. From modeling the motion of a dragonfly’s flapping wings to the simulation design of piezoelectric energy harvesters, we saw a wide range of exciting poster and presentation topics at this year’s event. Read on to learn about the top posters and papers at the COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore. Top Papers and Posters at the COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore […]
           Air coupled piezoelectric detection of laser -generated ultrasound         
Hutchins, D.A. and Wright, WMD and Hayward, Gordon and Gachagan, Anthony (1994) Air coupled piezoelectric detection of laser -generated ultrasound. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control , 41 (6). pp. 796-805. ISSN 0885-3010
          Snecma boosts engine testing abilities        
FRANCE -  Aerospace propulsion systems expert, Snecma has enhanced its engine testing capabilities with sub-miniature charge accelerometers. Supplied by Brüel & Kjær, the piezoelectric charge Accelerometers are utilised for testing Snecma’s new engines, LEAP and Silvercrest. These transducers offer low noise, high frequency range and precise sensitivity. They are easily mounted onto engines, for measuring and analysing the effects of shock and vibration. They are highly rob...
          Human Skin Interactive Self-powered Wearable Piezoelectric Bio-e-skin by Electrospun Poly-L-lactic Acid Nanofibers for Non-invasive Physiological Signal Monitoring        
J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
DOI: 10.1039/C7TB01439B, Paper
Ayesha Sultana, Sujoy Kumar Ghosh, Vitor Sencadas, Tian Zheng, Michael Higgins, Tapas Ranjan Middya, Dipankar Mandal
Flexible and wearable piezoelectric bio e-skin (PBio-e-skin) based on electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) PLLA nanofiber membrane is demonstrated for non-invasive human physiological signal monitoring and detecting dynamic tactile stimuli. The molecular...
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          COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore Award Winners        
The COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore took place on October 20-21, and presenters from across the country came to showcase their simulation work. From modeling the motion of a dragonfly’s flapping wings to the simulation design of piezoelectric energy harvesters, we saw a wide range of exciting poster and presentation topics at this year’s event. Read on to learn about the top posters and papers at the COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore. Top Papers and Posters at the COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore […]
          Ceas Casio SPORT AE-1200WHD-1AVEF World time Baterie 10 ani        

Ceas Casio SPORT AE-1200WHD-1AVEF World time Baterie 10 ani

Produs: Ceas Casio SPORT Baterie 10 ani

Stil: Sport
Seria: Standard
Tip: Barbatesc
Display: Digital
Mecanism: Quartzhelp
Provenienta mecanism: Japonez
Rezistenta la apahelp: 10 atm
Indica: Ora, minut, secunda, luna, data, ziua saptamanii
Material geam: Plastic
Dimensiune cadranhelp: 31 mm
Forma carcasei: Patrata
Material carcasa: Resin
Culoare carcasa: Argintiu si Negru
Dimensiune carcasa: 42.1 mm x 45 mm
Grosime carcasa: 12.5 mm
Material bratara: Otel inoxidabilhelp
Culoare bratara: Argintiu
Latime bratara: 24 mm
Circumferinta mana: 20 cm
Sistem inchidere: Catarama tip fluture cu butoane laterale
Functii: Cronometru, Countdown timer (numaratoare inversa), Calendar, iluminare, Alarma
Model baterie: CR2025
Greutate: 91 grame

          Ceas Emporio Armani SPORT AR5904 Barbatesc Sport        

Ceas Emporio Armani SPORT AR5904 Barbatesc Sport

Produs: Ceas Emporio Armani SPORT AR5904 Barbatesc Sport

Stil: Casual Sport
Seria: Sport
Tip: Barbatesc
Display: Analog
Mecanism: Quartzhelp
Provenienta mecanism: Japonez
Denumire mecanism: Miyota
Rezistenta la apahelp: 5 atm
Indica: Ora, minut, secunda, data, cronograf
Material geam: Cristal Mineral
Dimensiune cadranhelp: 32 mm
Forma carcasei: Rotunda
Material carcasa: Otel inoxidabil placat cu PVD negru (cromat)
Culoare carcasa: Negru
Dimensiune carcasa: 41 mm
Grosime carcasa: 10 mm
Material bratara: Piele
Culoare bratara: Negru
Latime bratara: 22 mm
Lungime curea: 17-22.5 cm
Sistem inchidere: Catarama standard
Functii: Cronometru, Data, Cronograf
Model baterie: CR2025
Greutate: 91 grame

           Active vibration control of intelligent stiffened laminates using smart piezoelectric materials by the finite element method         
Goswami, Sanjib ; Kant, Tarun (1998) Active vibration control of intelligent stiffened laminates using smart piezoelectric materials by the finite element method Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 17 (16). pp. 1472-1493. ISSN 0731-6844
           Shape control of intelligent composite stiffened structures using piezoelectric materials - a finite element approach         
Goswami, Sanjib ; Kant, Tarun (1998) Shape control of intelligent composite stiffened structures using piezoelectric materials - a finite element approach Journal of Reinforced Plastics & Composites, 17 (5). pp. 446-461. ISSN 0731-6844
          (USA-NM-Albuquerque) Intern - Structural Dynamics R&D Graduate Year Round        
: We are seeking highly qualified graduate students pursuing relevant degrees in engineering and related fields with research interests in experimental structural dynamics, acoustics, or solid mechanics to support ongoing programs\. Students that will have completed at least one year of study in pursuit of a Master’s or Ph\.D\. degree are preferred\. Successful candidates will work closely with staff members in a laboratory environment\. Students will be challenged to conduct both independent and group work, to mentor undergraduate interns, and to periodically present their work to staff and management\. Required: You bring the confidence and skills to be eligible for the job by meeting these minimum requirements: + Earned bachelor's degree + Currently attending and enrolled full time in an accredited science, engineering, or math graduate program + Minimum cumulative GPA of 3\.0/4\.0 + Ability to work up to 30 hours per week during the academic year, and up to 40 hours per week during the summer + U\.S\. citizenship Additional Requirements: + Candidate must have completed coursework or have documented prior technical experience in structural dynamics or vibrations\. Desired: + Prior experience in a modal, vibration, or structural dynamics laboratory + Familiarity with structural dynamics testing equipment, such as electrodynamic shakers or piezoelectric exciters, instrumented impact hammers, accelerometers, scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, or photogrammetry/digital image correlation + Students with 2 or more semesters of graduate education in engineering, physics, or a similar discipline + Strong verbal and communication skills + Experience with Matlab, LMS Test\.Lab, B&K Pulse Reflex, or NX I\-DEAS + An ability to interact well with fellow technical workers of diverse technical backgrounds Department Description: The Experimental Mechanics, Non\-destructive Evaluation & Model Validation Department \(01522\) is part of the Engineering Sciences Center at Sandia National Laboratories\. Our center is the steward of engineering mechanics for Sandia and we are dedicated to solving our customer's most pressing and important national security problems\. Our department specializes in experimental technologies related to structural mechanics, structural dynamics and non\-destructive evaluation\. With our state of the art experimental technologies, technical expertise, and analytical capabilities in sister departments, we provide integrated customer solutions in the following areas: accurate characterization of structural response of systems to force and pressure environments, development and application of state\-of\-the\-art radiographic and acoustic diagnostics, structural dynamics testing including modal analysis and vibration characterization, and design expertise for fixturing and development of experimental configurations\. Our mission is to support fundamental research, development, model validation, qualification and acceptance for nuclear weapons, satellites, national missile defense, and other applications\. About Sandia: Sandia National Laboratories is the nation’s premier science and engineering lab for national security and technology innovation, with teams of specialists focused on cutting\-edge work in a broad array of areas\. Some of the main reasons we love our jobs: + Challenging work withamazingimpact that contributes to security, peace, and freedom worldwide + Extraordinary co\-workers + Some of the best tools, equipment, and research facilities in the world + Career advancement and enrichment opportunities + Flexible schedules, generous vacations,strongmedical and other benefits, competitive 401k, learning opportunities, relocation assistance and amenities aimed at creating a solid work/life balance\* _World\-changing technologies\. Life\-changing careers\._ Learn more about Sandia at: http://www\.sandia\.gov \*These benefits vary by job classification\. Security Clearance: Position requires a Department of Energy \(DOE\)\-granted L\-level security clearance\. Sandia is required by DOE directive to conduct a pre\-employment drug testing, and a pre\-employment background review that includes personal reference checks, law enforcement record and credit checks, and employment and education verifications\. Applicants for employment must be able to obtain and maintain a DOE L\-level security clearance, which requires U\.S\. citizenship\. Applicants offered employment with Sandia are subject to a federal background investigation to meet the requirements for access to classified information or matter if the duties of the position require a DOE security clearance\. Substance abuse or illegal drug use, falsification of information, criminal activity, serious misconduct or other indicators of untrustworthiness can cause a clearance to be denied or terminated by the DOE, rendering the inability to perform the duties assigned and resulting in termination of employment\. EEO Statement: Equal opportunity employer/Disability/Vet/GLBT
          Linear piezoelectric compressor        
A linear compressor employing a piezoelectric actuator operating in resonance at a frequency substantially below its natural resonant frequency, which is usually of the order of 10 kHz. Low frequency resonance operation of the actuator, of the order of 100 Hz., is achieved by incorporating the actuator and its housing...
          1000’s of Standard Piezo Transducers, Components, and Assemblies in New Piezoelectric Solutions Catalog        

Industry, OEMs, and research benefit from PI’s many years of design and manufacturing experience of piezoelectric components.

(PRWeb March 24, 2017)

Read the full story at

          Beautiful Sounds        
Let's face it - 3D printing is the technology of tomorrow. And, like any technology, there's a place for it as a tool for the artist. In the past few days I've been struck by the beauty of some 3D printed musical instruments that will be on display at the 3D Print Design Show in New York City in April. Just look at these beautiful shapes:

That's a two string piezoelectric violin designed by Associate Professor of Architecture at FIU Eric Goldemberg, and his MONAD Studio partner Veronica Zalcberg. Isn't it gorgeous? Other instruments that will be on show include a 3D printed Monobarasitar, a Cello, a small didgeridoo and a Hornucopia (a large didgeridoo). At the event — which is run by MecklerMedia and takes place at the Javits Convention Center — there will be three performers playing these five instruments to the amazement of thousands of onlookers.

Some more wonderful MONAD designs can be found on their website here.
          Introducing iPierce        
Confidential documents obtained from Apple indicate that, despite all the rumors, the company’s first entry into wearable computing will not be a watch. Instead, Apple plans a line of intelligent body piercings, collectively known as iPierce.

The first iPierce devices will be an eyebrow ring and a navel barbell (which Apple calls a stud). Both include a microphone, speaker, Bluetooth LE, WiFi, motion sensor, GPS, 4 MP camera, four gigs of RAM, and a lithium ion battery. The ring also includes a small low-power laser (more on that below), and the stud has a USB connector that enables it to be tethered directly to a smartphone or Mac. The eyebrow ring weighs one ounce, and the navel stud two ounces. The small size and light weight of the devices was made possible by a custom A7 processor, designed by Apple, that incorporates the CPU, memory, and radio controllers on a single die.

The iRing, as Apple calls it, will come in a single model, but can be customized with interchangeable colored gemstones created at Apple’s new sapphire factory in Arizona. There will be three models of iStud: a star, an Apple logo, and an adorable little kitty playing with a ball. All were designed by Jonathan Ive and each is carved from a single piece of surgical steel.

The iRing can also be installed in the ear or other fleshy appendage, but the iStud unfortunately cannot be worn in the tongue due to interference between the low-power radio and a user’s dental fillings. In early testing there were three cases of minor burns caused by inductive heating of the user’s fillings when they coupled with the radio frequency of the WiFi transceiver. Apple is researching ways to implant a small external antenna that would enable iStud to safely operate inside the mouth.

One of the breakthrough features of iPierce is that the devices don’t need to be charged. Special piezoelectric chips in the device convert the user’s body motions into electricity and trickle-charge the battery. In most cases, that is enough to keep the device charged, but if power becomes low the devices can also digest the user’s blood cells to produce additional energy. This will not have a noticeable effect on the user unless they use a lot of WiFi, in which case they might become slightly anemic. For this reason, each iPierce will come with a bottle of iron pills. The pill bottle was designed by Jonathan Ive and was carved from a single piece of brushed aluminum.

The software

All iPierce devices come bundled with the standard applications you’d expect: messaging, notifications, ringtones, relational database, and an app store. iPierce is controlled through a combination of Siri speech recognition and gesture recognition (for example, raising your eyebrow is equivalent to a swipe up on iPhone).

The iStud includes a color-changing LED that illuminates when the user receives a call or message. It flashes red for text messages, green for phone calls, and blue for App Store updates. The other colors are reserved for use by developers. There is also a vibration mode for use for use in libraries and other quiet settings.

The low-power laser in iRing can be used to display a screen image directly on the user’s eyeball (since the name Retina Display was already in use, Apple calls this technology iEye). One interesting application of this technology is that if a user has two iRings (one for each eye) they can automatically superimpose an image over anything that the user doesn’t want to see. For example, a large Hibiscus plant can be superimposed over an overflowing trash dumpster. Apple has written software that automatically detects any social media post that has a spoiler to a television show listed in the user’s Preferences, and replaces it with a quote from Hunter S. Thompson.

Apple says third party developers are working on iEye apps that will completely replace the user’s surroundings with synthetic environments. For example, a user could choose to live in a Lord of the Rings environment, with his or her friends replaced by characters from the movie, licensed through the App Store. For an extra fee, you can even make Siri talk like Gollum. ("Nasty little hobbitses wants to find a restaurant, do they? Siri never gets invited to eat at restaurants. All the hobbitses say is 'Siri calculate the tip.' Next time Siri sends you to a Taco Bell with a dirty bathroom.")


iPierce devices will be sold and installed only at Apple Stores. Apple has quietly trained more than three thousand store employees in how to install iPierce, assisted by a custom piercing device that I’m told resembles “a highly instrumented staple gun.” The staple gun was designed by Jonathan Ive and was carved from a single piece of titanium.

Like the iPhone battery, iPierce devices are not removable. But users will be able to buy screw-on upgrades.

Background and future plans

The iPierce project originated in 2009, when a super-secret team at Apple working on a smart watch presented their first prototype to Steve Jobs. I’m told by a contact at Apple that Jobs was aghast. “He shouted, ‘That’s the stupidest idea I’ve ever heard. Nobody wears watches anymore. I’d rather have a nail driven through my head than wear a watch.’” 

When the team returned to its confidential off-campus location in Sunnyvale, CA, it realized that no one was sure if Jobs’ last comment was hyperbole or an instruction on the product they should build. The team decided it was safest to assume it was an order, and switched their work to body piercings.

"We leaked the plans for a watch as a decoy," my Apple contact told me. "We figured we could probably get Google and Samsung to waste $50 million each working on a clone. I've got a bet with a friend that if we plant a rumor that we're working on a smart airplane we can make Google buy Boeing."

Now that iPierce is finally near completion, Apple's next wearable initiative will be iTat, a line of touch-sensitive LED tattoos. When paired with an iPierce, these tattoos could be programmed to display photographs, movies, games, and of course could also be used as a flashlight.

Posted April 1, 2014

Eight other April Firsts on Mobile Opportunity: 
2013: The truth about Google Street View
2012: Twitter at Gettysburg
2011: The microwave hairdryer, and four other colossal tech failures you've never heard of
2010: The Yahoo-New York Times merger
2009: The US government's tech industry bailout
2008: Survey: 27% of early iPhone adopters wear it attached to a body piercing
2007: Twitter + telepathy = Spitr, the ultimate social network
2006: Google buys Sprint
          Crystal Oscillator        
A Crystal Oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. More info can be read from: Crystal Oscillator
          Service, interdependence, infrastructures, Serendipitous beneficiaries/ my papers and presentations for WEEC2013        
Social constructs, service and interdependence, and serendipitous beneficiaries

Our lives and livelihoods are interwoven with the ecosystems of the planet we share. The security of our lives: of the foods which we produce and eat; the waters flowing across the globe—sourcing the flow of flora and fauna; the air we breathe, and lands we walk are daily burdened with the discards and pollutants of unsustainable choices and behaviors.

Everywhere, one sees life striving, driven by nature to survive. Of 25 million species, or more, living on this planet, all can be named, and interrelated, as Earthlings. One of these species, only one, is human—capable of remembering and recording history, capable of choice and change… and yet we stand at a cross-roads of our own creating. Can we, together, develop the good governance and sense of individual responsibility and empowerment to ensure the security of our own, and those myriad other lives, those millions of other species, and of those voiceless and underserved among our human brethren, who struggle for access to food, water, to light, and space for life? As depletion of resources becomes measurable, as extinction of species looms ever more inexorably, the social compacts which enable humans to co-exist, to hope for life without war, to strive for the knowledge and freedom which inspire creative solutions to economic, ethical/social, and environmental challenges, must be re-defined.

In an interconnected, interdependent world, the mismatching of needs, opportunities, competition and accountability is undermining the perceived value of education, of labor markets which cannot absorb the vast pools of skilled and unskilled labor, of social infrastructures which cannot maximize the multifaceted resources of human capital, strength and creativity. Inequality of access and value-of-outcome for individual and group efforts and achievements leads too often to poverty, to gender-, ability- or cultural/religious- based deprivation, to exclusion, crime, violence, larger conflicts, and war.

Social infrastructures, regardless of climate, location, or resources, depend upon the investment of participants, individually and as communities, to endure. Poor outcomes which commence with access-based discrimination, geographic exclusion-by-circumstance, or disparities in food, water, energy, or habitat security become progressively imbalanced, diminishing productivity and even viability across classes, and across earth-species and eco-systems. Clear expectations of recompense-for-effort are reinforced by media and crowd influences, yet equitable, durable opportunities for educational, economic, environmental, energy and ethical (“universal” freedoms and rights) security are ever increasingly threatened. At a time crucial to the development of human responsibility and investment in a sustainable, interdependent world, poverty of outcomes is impoverishing, endangering the future of our species, and perhaps of all species, on this planet.

The concept of serendipitous beneficiaries, of responsible development which considers the interconnectedness of humankind, of other earth species, of limited-finite resources, global-renewable resources, and potential for sustainability, is crucial to the “greening” of markets, services, human occupations, and inter-species survival today. The challenge to progress towards sustainability requires the creation of green corporations; green recreation and tourism; secure-and-renewable energy; improved land and waste management; improved security of food and water; elder-and-other inclusion opportunities; educational, vocational, and rehabilitation programs which can all be combined in integrated approaches to preserve resources and ensure better lives for all sharing this Earth.

Three simple projects, scalable locally, but adaptable globally, could combine to produce integrated opportunities to build infrastructure, responsibility and accountability, and to improve environmental, energy, educational, economic, and earth security. When people from all walks of life become stakeholders in infrastructure building and sustaining green-living projects, it becomes possible to preserve, and celebrate, those features of culture, heritage, and environment which are unique to one space or region, and those which are shared by all. It becomes possible to ameliorate those challenges to nature, and of nature, which affect some, or all; it becomes possible to redefine habits of excess to economies of need, care, and serendipitous beneficiaries.

For example, trails connecting destinations predate man’s history; today, networked, sustainable trails can still link real, and virtual, destinations—and can address the competing needs of a modernizing, interdependent world. Trails can be equipped with solar-valent, and piezoelectric, or other energy-harnessing technologies to capture and supply electrical power to local/national grid systems, and provide access, egress, and energy to communities world-wide. Xeriscaped borders, hanging gardens, and shade/sun food forestry along the trailways would diminish heat-bloom and soil erosion, and increase healthy ecosystems available to pollinator- and indigenous- species, and provide food for human loca-vore small-businesses. Precipitation-capture and grey-water recycling along the trails could increase water security. Appreciation of local environments, heritage, artistry and culture could be shared not only through proximity of amenities to the trails, but through various learning opportunities, and online games, which would enable races, learning of local facts and lore, and message exchange between trail-travelers in many, communication-linked/synced, locations.

Similarly, secondly, person-powered energy-grid contribution systems could be installed to amass and donate sustainable/renewable power from participants in airport, train and other transit zones, in play- and waiting- areas, and, especially, in sports stadiums, where fans in stands (and, eventually, fans in their own homes, with synced-in connectivity) can “vote with their feet” and pedal/power to express support for their teams, corporate groups, social or charitable organization, or brand-or-fan-based service or group. Not only would this “wellness play” improve health, but person-powered grid systems (and related learning tools, communication links, and games) can provide inclusion and ownership of individual, family, community, regional or national/international efforts to improve standards of living, and encourage fun, win-win engagements which are environmentally sustainable, and age, gender, ability, social, political, and culturally-inclusive.

Thirdly, every year, storms and floods devastate populations and ecosystems world-wide. If, each year, in frigid, frozen-precipitate zones, snow (and ice) could be collected (estimated to have fallen above calculated-average amounts) into impermeable, re-usable containers. These containers would be partially-submersible/float-able, inter-connectable, equipped with anchorage and GPS tracking/locator devices, and stored above the freeze-lines in mountain and perma-frost zones. Depleting melt-runoff would allow greater flexibility in handling rainy-season water flows, mitigating seasonal down-stream flooding to some extent. Further, when hurricanes or cyclones, or other massive storm systems which feed on warm-water and warm-air currents threaten strategic, economic, or heavily-populated areas, the frozen containers could be air-lifted to storm-path locations, dropped-linked-and-anchored offshore to chill waters enough to slow, stall, or divert a storm, lessening impact and huge tolls in life, environment, and economy. At the completion of the weather event, the containers could be brought to tertiary, drought-impacted location, and the (now-melted) water off-loaded for potable- or irrigation- systems use, and finally, returned to point-of-origin and stored for re-filling the next winter season.

Myriad other projects, including clean oceans, clean skies, resources and regions, exist at least in concept (or still wait to be conceived), which, blended with the goals of serendipitous beneficiaries as a measure and enhancement of social responsibility and sustainability, could add to the flexibility and responsiveness  of infrastructures, education, and the performance, transparency, and accountability of service, commercial, and industrial providers, and of each of us. In an interdependent humanity, on an interdependent planet of limited resources, a “green” approach which includes associated industries, services and ecosystems as serendipitous providers and beneficiaries of planned output can result in alleviation of “poor outcomes” for all strata of society, of species. Ensuring the distribution of adequate, renewable water, food, energy, and habitat, as well as inclusion and education/stewardship in our shared human/inter-species environment and pool of resources can, and must, result in a raised quality of sustainable, responsible lifestyles for humankind, and for our millions of fellow earth-species.

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          Watch Mechanism        

Watch Mechanism

A movement is a term used in watch-making. It is the method that measures the passage of time and shows the current time. The movement can be mechanical, electronic or both.

Mechanical Movements: In this the escapement mechanism is used to control the watch by converting the unwinding process into a period release of energy. The gear system is controlled by a balance wheel and a balance spring or a hairspring. To reduce the effect of gravitation an additional part called the tourbillon is used. As the tourbillon has a complex design and because it is expensive, they are implemented in high-end watches only. Tuning fork mechanism is used in electromechanical-movement watches but soon became a thing of the past after the advent of electronic quartz watches. The mechanical movement is less accurate than the electronic movements - shows errors in seconds – and is sensitive to temperature and position. However, the mechanical movement watches are still attractive as it has the old-world charm to it.

Electronic Movements: In this mechanism there are few or no moving parts at all. A small quartz crystal and the principle of piezoelectric effect is used to stabilize the time. The crystal has a quartz oscillator which can be activated by a suitable frequency and can be used to maintain the time accurately. The archetype of quartz watch was tested in Switzerland in 1962 and Seiko 35 SQ Astron became the first watch which used this mechanism; it was released in 1969. Some watch makers also combine this mechanism with mechanical movements, like the Seiko Spring Drive which was release in 2005. Modern watches synchronise itself by receiving signals from atomic clocks, radio signals, GPS satellite signals, DCF77 signal (Europe), and WWVB signal (US). These type of watches not only synchronize the time but also the date, check if the year is a leap-year, and show the present condition of daylight saving time (if it is ON or OFF).

           Oscillatory limited compressible fluid flow induced by the radial motion of a thick-walled piezoelectric tube         
Shin, Dong-Youn and Grassia, Paul and Derby, Brian (2003) Oscillatory limited compressible fluid flow induced by the radial motion of a thick-walled piezoelectric tube. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 114 (3). pp. 1314-1321. ISSN 0001-4966
          Modeling losses of a piezoelectric resonator: Analytical vs finite elements analysis        
          KARMA, custom made waist beads, bronze tone glass seed beads, coconut shell organic beads, read item details and leave size by OriginsWB        

15.50 USD

Karma, custom made single strand waist beads made with natural coconut shell beads and bronze tone glass beads in the size 4 mm. diameter. The WB come with a lobster clasp.

When choosing your size, please think where you want to wear your beads. Some ladies like to wear them on their waist, while some like to wear them on their hips.
Please watch this video to help with getting the correct measurement for your waist beads
Please, by completing your order, leave a note with your measurements.

Adherents believe that crystals heal through vibrational powers. There are examples within the realm of science that might lend credence to these beliefs. For example, piezoelectric quartz crystals are commonly used as oscillators in electronic devices (including quartz clocks, watches, and radios). Crystal healing practicioners believe that the inherent vibrational "tuning" of various crystals resonates with our bodies in various ways that can promote or speed healing.
Crystal healing practicioners suggest that specific gems be placed on certain of the seven chakra points of the body during massage treatments and during meditation. It is often recommended that the specified gems be worn.
The Tigers Eye is belived to aid the Manipura Chakra (solar plexus):
Physical, spiritual association: Stomach, pancreas, liver; courage, personal power, strength, self worth, transformation.

African waist beads were used to trade and even to pay for slaves,gold, property and other valuable items in Western African for many years. Ghana is pretty much attributed to be the bead production capital of the world. Some believe that they will help protect pregnant women or even provide birth control as did their ancestors many years ago.
In African tradition, waist beads are not for show, meant to be worn under clothing. But in the Western World it's certainly a form of personal expression and individual interpretation. They're for all women -- any body type, any race, any background. Women of all age, shapes and sizes can confidently adorn themselves with waist beads as well.
In Ghana women knew that waist beads helped form their body into a particular shape and adult women wear beads to sexually stimulate the male, as visual aphrodisiac. In other parts of West Africa, women would wear waist beads with bells on them, and when they walked it would make a jingling noise.
When you add stones, waist beads take on healing qualities. Depending on ailment or what needs to be enhanced (i.e. love, physic powers, balancing), various semi-precious stones can be included in the design of your waist beads.

Looking for bulk purchase of recycled handmade glass beads? Please, check out my first shop:

Looking for affordable handmade jewelry, African textiles and Kente, tropical seeds, taxidermy, organic skincare and curiosity? Please, check out my second shop!

For vintage carvings and African sculptures, please visit my third shop:

All proceeds from the sale of these beads goes to "The One & Only Cat Sanctuary in Ghana".
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          Hackerspace Update        
Hello everyone, Quite a bit has been happening with the group the last few weeks. Weekly meetings are going well and there has been an interest group formed for building a Scanning Tunneling Electron Microscope using (among other things) an arduino, some piezoelectric elements and a fiber of fiberglass. We now have an IRC channel […]
          Fingerprint Sensors Market Report – Actionable Insights and Endorsement 2014 - 2020        

Future Market Insights has announced the addition of the “Fingerprint Sensors Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2014 - 2020" report to their offering.

Valley Cottage, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/09/2017 -- A fingerprint sensor captures extract biological features of the finger prints in the form of the live scan and compares it with existing biometric template stored in the database. Fingerprint sensors are used to provide authentication and authorization to the individual. Finger print sensors are most commonly used biometric authentication system for commercial securities. Fingerprints provide reliable, fast and easy access to personal contact details, payment information, mails, location data and other form of encrypted data to authenticated person. Fingerprint sensors are now increasingly used in consumer electronics like smartphones, tablets and laptops and are expected to drive future market.

The fingerprint sensors offer many advantages such as – wide acceptance, security, reliability and ease of access. Fingerprint sensors also facilitate easy record keeping and management to attendance portals.

The fingerprint sensors are comparatively less costly as compared to other biometric authentication systems. They are easy to install and train people for using fingerprint sensors. On other hand, fingerprint sensors suffer from some technical problems related to false rejection and conditional physical disability.

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Fingerprint Sensor Market Dynamics

The factors that drive the global fingerprint sensor market are - need for easy, simplified and secure user access to data & services and increasing demand for biometric identification and authorization along different areas. The high market growth of consumer devices like smartphone, tablets etc. demand use of fingerprint sensors to maintain privacy and security of data and access. Internet based online and mobile commerce options has further enhanced the demand for fingerprint sensors globally. On the other side, factors such as lack of awareness about security essentials & constraints and complexity of integration of smartphone like devices with fingerprint sensors can restrain the growth of fingerprint sensor market.

There has been increase in demand for fingerprint sensors for security checks in government and corporate organizations. The global fingerprinting market is expected to show significant double-digit growth rate during the forecast period due to rapid implantation of fingerprinting based authentication system across different application areas especially by government.

Tremendous market opportunities are present in the development of less expensive fingerprint sensors for a wide range of applications. There is an increase in adoption of integrated fingerprint sensor based two-way authentication systems or multi-factor authentication systems that can provide highly accurate security and access for the application areas which belong to high-end security requirements. The global fingerprint sensor market is characterised by numerous application areas and low competition.

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Fingerprint Sensor Market Segmentation

The global fingerprinting sensor market is segmented on the basis of type, sensor technology, material, application and region. On the basis of type, the global fingerprint sensor market can be segmented into touch sensor, swipe sensor and area sensor. On the basis of sensor technology, the global fingerprint sensor market can be segmented into optical sensor, capacitive sensor, thermal sensor, ultrasonic sensor and others. Capacitive sensors can be further sub segmented into active capacitance and passive capacitance. On the basis of material, the global fingerprint sensor market can be sub segmented into optical prism, piezoelectric material, adhesive, sapphire and others. On the basis of application, the global fingerprint sensor market can be segmented into mobile devices, law enforcement, military & defence, government, banking & finance and others. Mobile device segment can be further sub segmented into smartphones, tablets, smart watches and others. On the basis of region, the global fingerprint sensor market can be segmented into North America, Latin America, Easter Europe, Western Europe, Asia pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa and Japan as a separate region.

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Abhishek Budholiya
Future Market Insights
Telephone: 347-918-3531
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          Comment on L. Eric Cross (1923–2016) discoveries led to piezoelectric transducers for modern medical ultrasound by Balasubramaniam Vaidhyanathan        
Fantastic person, great scientist, innovator and teacher. Had the privilege to meet him and learn & interact with him during my stint at MRL. RIP to the great soul.
          Top Tips for Extending Ink Cartridge Life |        

Top Tips for Extending the Life of Your Ink Cartridges

pile of ink cartridges

If you need to use your inkjet or laser printer often, then you know how expensive it can get to constantly replace its ink cartridges or toner. Since printing is a necessity for pretty much everyone these days, it is a good idea to focus on ways to extend the life of each cartridge. Here are helpful tips that will teach you how to make ink cartridges last longer.

Adjust the Printer Settings

Your first defense against a premature loss of ink is adjusting your printer settings. Switching a few of your pre-programmed settings will still provide you with legible, clear documents while using far less ink.

Change the Quality Level

Almost all printers offer multiple print quality levels and speeds that range from fine to normal. Many even offer a “Draft” mode, or “Fast Normal,” for anything that is not necessarily official, such as a business letter. This is the best mode to use in order to save ink and extend the life of each cartridge. You should use these settings exclusively unless you are printing photographs or a presentation.

When you set your printer in “Draft” mode, you are altering the speed at which a document is printed.

  • Open your Control Panel and click on “Printers and Faxes.”
  • Right click your desired printer in the list and left click “Print Preferences.”
  • Click “Advanced” and select the “Draft” or “Fast Normal” option.

Color Printing vs. Grayscale

white to grey to black color scale

If color is not necessary, it is always best to change your printing preference to what is known as “grayscale,” or black-and-white. You still get a readable, quality document or image that uses much less ink and will extend the life of your cartridge.

  • Go into the “Properties” or “Preferences” Menu (depending on your printer).
  • Click on “Grayscale” and hit save.

Use Print Preview

Another tip on how to make ink cartridges last longer is to take advantage of your print preview feature. All computers have this setting and it will provide you with an on-screen rendition of the page that you are about to print before it is sent to the printer.

Double Checking

Using “Print Preview” gives you time to evaluate the page that you are about to print so you will not waste ink printing out the wrong information. You can make any necessary changes before your work is sent to your machine.

Saving Work Electronically

adobe logo

You may also decide that it is a far more convenient and greener solution to save your work electronically as a PDF document that can easily be emailed to co-workers, or distributed through services such as Dropbox. There are also programs that work with your desktop like a printer, but only produce PDF documents for easy storage. Using electronic documents extends the life of your ink cartridge since you will only have to print when it is absolutely essential.

Ignore Low Ink Warnings

You should always try to ignore the first low ink warnings that you get from your printer. Just like the gas tank in your car, there is always a bit more ink left when your printer's sensor first detects that you are approaching empty status.

The sensor errs on the side of caution, though some customers believe that the printer's conservative estimates are motivated by the greed of printer manufacturers. While this may or may not be true, you are guaranteed to have more than enough ink remaining post-warning to print at least a hundred more pages. This doesn't mean that you shouldn't have a new cartridge handy at the first indication that your current cartridge is low, but you shouldn't have to replace it until the quality of your printed pages has obviously diminished.

It’s obvious when your ink cartridges actually need to be replaced, as you will see streaks, smears, or fading in your text and images.

Prevent Nozzle Clogging

EPSON Piezoelectric InkJet Print Nozzle

You can extend the life of ink cartridges simply by keeping your printer nozzles clean and free from debris. You can tell when your nozzles are clogged because your documents will print with faint images and broken lines.

How to Clean Printer Nozzles

You can unclog printer nozzles by soaking them in warm, soapy water until the dried up ink begins to run and drip off. Leave the nozzle in the water for a few minutes, then remove it. Using a paper towel or a soft cloth, wipe the piece dry and reinstall it in your printer. Then, clean the printheads again by running the cleaning program on your machine.

  • Open the control panel.
  • Click on “Devices and Printers.”
  • Right-click the printer you are trying to clean and select “Properties.”
  • Choose the tab for cleaning that may be called “Services,” “Maintenance,” or “Hardware.”
  • Select “Nozzle Check” to start the cleaning process.

After you’ve cleaned the nozzles, run a test by printing out a single page to make sure there are no issues.

Change Fonts

different font style size

You can easily get more documents printed from the same amount of ink by switching your font. Print the same thing in smaller letters and avoid any fancy fonts with thick letters and numbers. Sometimes, all you need to do is change the typeface from “Bold” to normal. Another alternative is to stick with fonts that are well-known for how little ink they require, including Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica.

Pay Attention to Resolution and Image Size

By adjusting your image sizes and resolution, your photos and graphics are guaranteed to require less color ink, extending the life of your cartridges. This is easily managed within your printer's settings.

What is DPI?

DPI, or “dots per inch” is similar to the pixels that produce a digital image on a screen. Resolution is the actual number of DPI found in a photo or graphic. The more DPI in a graphic, the more ink it takes to print it.

Changing Resolution

In most scenarios, photos and graphics do not require any more than 72 DPI for a laser or inkjet printer to print a decipherable replica. Sometimes, printers are pre-programmed to go as high as 200 to 300 DPI, which is extremely unnecessary and a major waste of ink.

“Draft” or “Fast Normal” modes equate to roughly 72 DPI and are best for casual printing. If you are using Photoshop or any other program that requires an increase in resolution, these settings can be easily changed back for that purpose.

Protect Your Cartridges

ziplock for ink cartridges

Always protect cartridges that are not currently in use. This applies to cartridges that were purchased, yet not needed immediately, and also to cartridges already installed in printers that will not be used for a long time.

Remove and Store

If you do not plan on using a printer for a long time, you need to seal your cartridges in plastic bags that are airtight and leak-proof. This will ensure that you extend the life of the ink cartridge since it won’t dry out in the interim.

New Cartridges

New cartridges should always be stored at room temperature and should never be opened and removed from their packaging until they are ready to be used. If you don't use cartridges immediately and leave them out in the air, they may not only dry out, the ink can also evaporate.

Turn Off the Power

power on off button

Always turn off your printer when it is not in use. Leaving your printer plugged in and running can seriously clog the printhead, and the heat that your machine produces can also dry the ink in your cartridge. It is best to turn the printer on only when it is necessary and leave it off at all other times.

More Cost Savings

These are just a few of the ways to extend the life of your cartridges and save on expensive ink and toner cartridges. Learning how to make ink cartridges last longer and acting on any one of these tips will save you or your company money on printing costs.

If you want save even more, shop and choose from our selection of remanufactured and refurbished cartridges. We have cartridges to fit all printer models, and each is backed by our guarantee. Take a look at our website to learn more.

          Modul 10        
No : 713 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat komputer yang hanya berfungsi sebagai alat memasukkan data adalah …. Jawaban : keyboard

No : 714 Modul : 10
Soal : Fungsi tombol page down adalah: Jawaban : menggerakkan halaman ke bawah

No : 715 Modul : 10
Soal : Jumlah tombol numerik pada keyboard adalah: Jawaban : 17

No : 716 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang bukan termasuk struktur tombol pada keyboard adalah :... Jawaban : keyboard PS/2

No : 717 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol pada keyboard yang berfungsi untuk membatalkan perintah adalah …. Jawaban : esc

No : 718 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menghapus huruf di sebelah kiri kursor kita menggunakan tombol .. Jawaban : backspace

No : 719 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menampilkan huruf kapital terus menerus tanpa menekan tombol shift kita dapat menggunakan tombol …. Jawaban : capslock

No : 720 Modul : 10
Soal : Mana hal berikut yang bukan merupakan fungsi dari keyboard? Jawaban : menekan tombol enter untuk menghapus hasil ketikan

No : 721 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menghapus huruf di sebelah kiri kursor kita menggunakan tombol …. (5.3) Jawaban : backspace

No : 722 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menampilkan huruf kapital terus menerus tanpa menekan tombol shift kita dapat menggunakan tombol …. (5.3) Jawaban : capslock

No : 723 Modul : 10
Soal : Instruksi untuk menindih tulisan dengan tulisan baru dilakukan dengan menekan tombol …. (5.3) Jawaban : insert

No : 724 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol yang berguna untuk ShutDown atau menutup Windows Program yang sedang aktif adalah :....... Jawaban : Alt+F4

No : 725 Modul : 10
Soal : Kata “komputer” berasal dari kata “ computare” yang artinya …. Jawaban : menghitung

No : 726 Modul : 10
Soal : Karakter “ 7 ” dan karakter “ & “ terletak pada satu tombol. Untuk menampilkan “ & “ kita harus menekan …. (5.3) Jawaban : tombol 7 bersama shift

No : 727 Modul : 10
Soal : Bila suatu network berada dalam satu lokasi (misalkan dalam satu gedung) maka disebut… Jawaban : LAN

No : 728 Modul : 10
Soal : Jaringan yang menghubungkan satu atau lebih titik dalam area geografi yang luas disebut…. Jawaban : WAN

No : 729 Modul : 10
Soal : Istilah bagi keadaan komputer yang tidak terhubung dengan komputer lain adalah…. Jawaban : stand alone

No : 730 Modul : 10
Soal : Di bawah ini termasuk fungsi jaringan, kecuali… Jawaban : resource disable

No : 731 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk membuat suatu jaringan komputer, diperlukan perlengkapan sebagai berikut, kecuali… Jawaban : peripheral multimedia seperti sound card, speaker, dll

No : 732 Modul : 10
Soal : Dalam suatu jaringan komputer kita bisa saling berbagi pemakaian sumber daya, yang disebut…. Jawaban : sharing

No : 733 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak termasuk manfaat jaringan dibawah ini… Jawaban : memperlambat akses data

No : 734 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk memindahkan sekaligus mengcopy seluruh isi folder ke dalam disket dengan menggunakan mouse, dapat dilakukan dengan cara.... Jawaban : drag and drop

No : 735 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang bukan termasuk media penyimpanan data komputer adalah .... Jawaban : floppy drive

No : 736 Modul : 10
Soal : Booting komputer dengan menekan tombol CTRL-ALT-DEL bersama-sama disebut .... Jawaban : warm boot

No : 737 Modul : 10
Soal : Membagi harddisk dalam beberapa ruang atau bagian disebut .... Jawaban : mempartisi

No : 738 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah untuk mengubah nama folder dapat dilakukan dengan cara klik kanan pada folder tersebut dan memilih .... Jawaban : rename

No : 739 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menampilkan seluruh isi folder, selain dengan klik dua kali pada folder dapat juga dilakukan dengan cara .... Jawaban : klik kanan pada folder > explore

No : 740 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk keperluan-keperluan tertentu dan bersifat khusus untuk suatu jenis pekerjaan adalah .... Jawaban : program aplikasi

No : 741 Modul : 10
Soal : Sejumlah instruksi atau perintah yang tersusun sesuai dengan suatu urutan pekerjaan tertentu disebut ..... Jawaban : program

No : 742 Modul : 10
Soal : Instruksi untuk menampilkan file secara melebar pada MS DOS adalah …. Jawaban : dir/w

No : 743 Modul : 10
Soal : Bagaimana anda melihat properties dari file atau folder pada Microsoft Windows Jawaban : klik kanan pada icon dan pilih properties

No : 744 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah pelaksanaan instruksi oleh komputer berturut-turut adalah…. Jawaban : input-process-output

No : 745 Modul : 10
Soal : Jika kita klik start > turn off computer pada Microsoft Windows XP, maka akan muncul tampilan…. Jawaban : stand by, turn off, restart dan cancel

No : 746 Modul : 10
Soal : Hal yang perlu diperhatikan saat kita akan mematikan komputer adalah .... Jawaban : pastikan tidak ada antrian job pada I/O devices

No : 747 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah pertama mematikan komputer adalah …. Jawaban : tutup terlebih dahulu semua software aplikasi dan tools

No : 748 Modul : 10
Soal : Dibawah ini adalah fungsi dari sistem operasi, kecuali.... Jawaban : mengatur urutan perangkat lunak aplikasi yang akan digunakan

No : 749 Modul : 10
Soal : Di bawah ini adalah beberapa distribusi linux, kecuali .... Jawaban : Macintosh

No : 750 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat lunak terdiri dari 2 jenis, yaitu .... Jawaban : Sistem operasi dan aplikasi

No : 751 Modul : 10
Soal : Dalam sistem jaringan komputer, salah satu soket yang digunakan adalah RJ-45. Kepanjangan dari "RJ" adalah .... Jawaban : Registered Jack

No : 752 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang merupakan salah satu jenis dari DOS adalah .... Jawaban : IBM PC DOS

No : 753 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang dimaksud dengan multitasking adalah.... Jawaban : kemampuan untuk melaksanakan beberapa pekerjaan secara serempak

No : 754 Modul : 10
Soal : Sistem operasi Linux, pertama kali dipublish tahun 1991 oleh .... Jawaban : Linus Torvald

No : 755 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk mengubah setting display pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan desktop > properties > settings

No : 756 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah yang harus dilakukan untuk mencari versi dari Microsoft Windows yang terinstall adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan my computer dan pilih properties

No : 757 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada saat mencetak data dan hendak mematikan komputer, langkah yang tepat adalah…. Jawaban : selesaikan dahulu proses pencetakan, kemudian shutdown

No : 758 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengetahui informasi atribut tentang folder, seperti nama dan ukuran folder, dapat dilakukan dengan langkah sebagai berikut .... Jawaban : klik kanan pada folder > properties

No : 759 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah membuat shortcut dalam Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan pada desktop dan pilih new > shortcut

No : 760 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada Microsoft Windows, langkah untuk mengubah icon pada sebuah obyek adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan > properties > short-cut tab > change icon button

No : 761 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara yang benar untuk melakukan setting tanggal dan waktu adalah…. Jawaban : start -> setting -> control panel -> date and time

No : 762 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol windows yang berfungsi untuk mengawali program windows adalah tombol…. Jawaban : start

No : 763 Modul : 10
Soal : Kumpulan program atau satu program eksekusi yang dapat langsung dibuka atau dijalankan dengan mengklik ikon di desktop disebut…. Jawaban : shortcut

No : 764 Modul : 10
Soal : Sistem operasi yang disajikan dengan terpilah berbentuk gambar sehingga lebih mudah, efektif dan efisien disebut…. Jawaban : GUI

No : 765 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak terlihat ketika kita mengklik tombol start pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : explorer

No : 766 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk membuat folder baru dengan menggunakan mouse adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan > new > folder

No : 767 Modul : 10
Soal : Lambang atau gambar yang mengandung perintah / eksekusi tertentu disebut…. Jawaban : icon

No : 768 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang bukan merupakan media penghubung antar komputer adalah…. Jawaban : IDE

No : 769 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak termasuk perangkat keras komputer adalah …. (7.1) Jawaban : windows

No : 770 Modul : 10
Soal : Orang yang bertugas untuk melaksanakan proses pengolahan data dan bertanggung jawab dalam pemakaian perangkat keras komputer disebut …. (7.1) Jawaban : operator

No : 771 Modul : 10
Soal : Agar sistem komputer dapat beroperasi diperlukan perangkat-perangkat …. (7.1) Jawaban : software, hardware, brainware

No : 772 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat komputer yang berfungsi sebagai pusat pengolahan data adalah …. (7.1) Jawaban : CPU

No : 773 Modul : 10
Soal : Penyimpan data dalam (internal memory) dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu …. (7.2) Jawaban : RAM dan ROM

No : 774 Modul : 10
Soal : Berikut adalah sistem operasi - sistem operasi yang bekerja di komputer kecuali …. (1.1) Jawaban : Cobol

No : 775 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat komputer yang hanya berfungsi sebagai alat memasukkan data adalah …. (7.1) Jawaban : keyboard

No : 776 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menampilkan isi disket atau hard disk per halaman layar, instruksi yang digunakan dalam MS DOS adalah …. (1.3) Jawaban : dir/p

No : 777 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menampilkan versi DOS yang digunakan, intruksi yang diberikan adalah …. (1.3) Jawaban : ver

No : 778 Modul : 10
Soal : Dalam DOS, instruksi yang diberikan untuk membuat sub direktory adalah …. (1.3) Jawaban : md

No : 779 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada MS DOS, instruksi untuk menampilkan file-file dalam drive A yang berextension COM Jawaban : dir a:*.com

No : 780 Modul : 10
Soal : Kata “komputer” berasal dari kata “to compute” yang artinya …. (7.1) Jawaban : menghitung

No : 781 Modul : 10
Soal : Unjuk kerja komputer dapat menurun apabila file-file dalam komputer tidak tertata. Untuk menata ulang file-file tersebut dalam Micrososft Windows digunakan aplikasi…. (3.5) Jawaban : defragment

No : 782 Modul : 10
Soal : Setelah komputer dinyalakan pada kiri atas monitor menampilkan deretan angka yang terus bertambah. Angka ini menunjukkan …. (1.1) Jawaban : besar RAM

No : 783 Modul : 10
Soal : Booting adalah proses penyalaan komputer untuk siap digunakan. Booting dengan menyalakan komputer yang semula dalam keadaan off disebut …. (4.2) Jawaban : cool boot

No : 784 Modul : 10
Soal : Tata cara penulisan perintah yang perlu diketik dalam aturan baku pada komputerisasi disebut ….(4.2) Jawaban : sintaks

No : 785 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk keperluan-keperluan tertentu dan bersifat khusus untuk suatu jenis pekerjaan adalah …. (4.1) Jawaban : program aplikasi

No : 786 Modul : 10
Soal : CD ROM adalah media penyimpan data komputer yang bekerja secara …. (4.2) Jawaban : optik

No : 787 Modul : 10
Soal : Booting dengan menekan tombol CTRL-ALT-DEL bersama-sama disebut …. Jawaban : warm boot

No : 788 Modul : 10
Soal : Satuan besaran data di komputer dinyatakan dalam bentuk …. (7.1) Jawaban : byte

No : 789 Modul : 10
Soal : 1 MB data komputer setara dengan …. KB. (7.1) Jawaban : 1024

No : 790 Modul : 10
Soal : Program yang digunakan untuk melacak dan memperbaiki kerusakan pada permukaan harddisk atau disket adalah …. Jawaban : scandisk

No : 791 Modul : 10
Soal : Dalam komputer, dikenal ROM yang merupakan akronim dari …. (7.2) Jawaban : Read Only Memory

No : 792 Modul : 10
Soal : Ikon adalah ikon ….. (2.2) Jawaban : restore

No : 793 Modul : 10
Soal : Sejumlah instruksi atau perintah yang tersusun sesuai dengan suatu urutan pekerjaan tertentu disebut …. (4.1) Jawaban : program

No : 794 Modul : 10
Soal : Dalam komputer dikenal juga istilah CPU yang merupakan akronim dari …. (7.1 Jawaban : Central Processing Unit

No : 795 Modul : 10
Soal : Ikon adalah ikon …..(2.2) Jawaban : minimize

No : 796 Modul : 10
Soal : Sebuah icon yang menunjukkan kumpulan file dan dapat dipetakan sehingga mempermudah dalam mengakses file-file tersebut adalah…. Jawaban : folder

No : 797 Modul : 10
Soal : Fasilitas calculator digunakan melalui menu…. Jawaban : accessories

No : 798 Modul : 10
Soal : Waktu dan tanggal (date/time) diatur melalui menu…. Jawaban : control panel

No : 799 Modul : 10
Soal : Bagaimana cara untuk melihat koneksi antar komputer dalam satu jaringan lokal… Jawaban : Klik icon Network Place/Network Neighborhood pada desktop

No : 800 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk sharing file pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan pada start > explorer >klik kanan folder > sharing

No : 801 Modul : 10
Soal : Fungsi dari perintah ipconfig adalah… Jawaban : melihat konfigurasi IP sebuah komputer

No : 802 Modul : 10
Soal : Bagaimana cara untuk mengecek konektivitas pada jaringan Jawaban : RUN > CMD > ketik Ping pada MS-DOS prompt

No : 803 Modul : 10
Soal : Aplikasi yang harus dinstall jika kita ingin melakukan video editing adalah…. Jawaban : Ulead Video Studio

No : 804 Modul : 10
Soal : Dibawah ini merupakan aplikasi perkantoran kecuali… Jawaban : Ulead Video Studio

No : 805 Modul : 10
Soal : Dibawah ini adalah media penyimpanan yang dapat digunakan untuk media instalasi, kecuali…. Jawaban : sound card

No : 806 Modul : 10
Soal : Aplikasi dibawah ini merupakan aplikasi dalam sistem operasi linux yaitu… Jawaban : OpenOffice

No : 807 Modul : 10
Soal : Microsoft Windows merupakan sistem operasi komputer yang berbasis…. Jawaban : Graphical User Interface

No : 808 Modul : 10
Soal : Tampilan yang muncul saat pertama kali masuk ke dalam windows disebut …. Jawaban : desktop

No : 809 Modul : 10
Soal : Dibawah ini merupakan jenis-jenis sistem operasi, kecuali… Jawaban : Microsoft Office

No : 810 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menyalin seluruh isi floppy disk ke floppy disk lain di MS DOS digunakan instruksi.... (1.3) Jawaban : diskcopy.

No : 811 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah yang dapat dijalankan langsung oleh komputer setelah proses booting disebut …. (1.3) Jawaban : perintah internal

No : 812 Modul : 10
Soal : Berikut adalah perintah-perintah internal di DOS (command prompt) pada MS Windows XP, kecuali ….. (1.3) Jawaban : mode

No : 813 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk membandingkan dua file dalam MS DOS digunakan instruksi …. (1.3) Jawaban : diskcomp

No : 814 Modul : 10
Soal : Clear screen yang merupakan perintah langsung dalam DOS digunakan untuk …. (1.3) Jawaban : membersihkan layar

No : 815 Modul : 10
Soal : Floppy disk pada dasarnya belum dapat digunakan sebelum dikenakan operasi tertentu. Operasi tersebut adalah …. (1.3) Jawaban : format

No : 816 Modul : 10
Soal : Disket yang dikenai format sistem akan mempunyai file untuk booting yaitu …. (1.3) Jawaban :

No : 817 Modul : 10
Soal : Posisi jumper pada CD ROM drive jika dipasang paralel dengan hard disk adalah …. Jawaban : slave

No : 818 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak termasuk perangkat keras komputer adalah …. Jawaban : windows

No : 819 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk sharing printer pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik start > setting > control panel > dobel-klik printers & faxes > klik kanan pada printer > sharing

No : 820 Modul : 10
Soal : Tipical dari interface CD ROM Drive adalah .... Jawaban : IDE

No : 821 Modul : 10
Soal : Berikut adalah perintah-perintah eksternal di MS DOS kecuali ….. (1.3) Jawaban : prompt

No : 822 Modul : 10
Soal : Instruksi untuk mematikan komputer keluarga Unix adalah .... Jawaban : halt

No : 823 Modul : 10
Soal : Saat yang tepat untuk mengeluarkan disket pada floppy drive adalah .... Jawaban : pada saat floppy disk drive sudah tidak aktif

No : 824 Modul : 10
Soal : Pengaturan perangkat keras dan lunak pada OS Windows terdapat di …. Jawaban : control panel

No : 825 Modul : 10
Soal : Dari pilihan di bawah ini mana yang bukan isi dari control panel…. Jawaban : Media Player

No : 826 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang termasuk sistem operasi yang Open Source adalah Jawaban : Linux

No : 827 Modul : 10
Soal : Windows terdiri dari beberapa versi berdasarkan versi yang dikeluarkan yaitu sebagai berikut … Jawaban : Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows XP

No : 828 Modul : 10
Soal : Perusahaan apakah yang melepaskan DOS dan Windows di pasaran Jawaban : Microsoft

No : 829 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu sistem operasi pertama sekali yang menggunakan GUI pertama sekali adalah … Jawaban : Apple

No : 830 Modul : 10
Soal : Sistem operasi jaringan tertua adalah … Jawaban : Unix

No : 831 Modul : 10
Soal : Sebutkan salah satu sistem operasi yang merupakan turunan dari UNIX Jawaban : Linux

No : 832 Modul : 10
Soal : Linux pertama sekali dikeluarkan oleh … Jawaban : Linus Torvalds

No : 833 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang paling penting untuk diperhatikan pada saat akan menyalakan komputer adalh: Jawaban : meyakinkan perangkat dalam keadaan terhubung dengan Power Suply

No : 834 Modul : 10
Soal : Apabila akan mulai menggunakan program aplikasi yang dilakukan adalah Jawaban : Menekan tombol Icon Start menu yang ada di ujung kiri bawah dekstop

No : 835 Modul : 10
Soal : Bila keyboard tidak dilengkapi dengan tombol Start menu maka untuk menampilkan start menu yang dilakukan adalah : Jawaban : maka lakukan kombinasi tombol CTRL + ESC

No : 836 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara menggunakan tombol strart menu adalah : Jawaban : Me-klik satu kali pada start kemudian arahkan pointer pada menu yang diinginkan

No : 837 Modul : 10
Soal : Sebutkan fungsi dari taskbar Jawaban : untuk menjalankan aplikasi, dan mengalihkan antar program aplikasi yang aktif.

No : 838 Modul : 10
Soal : Jelaskan apa fungsi dari Shutdown Jawaban : Fungsi ini dipergunakan untuk me-non fungsikan sistem operasi dan perangkat keras lainnya agar dalam keadaan mati

No : 839 Modul : 10
Soal : Sedangkan fungsi dari Restart adalah : Jawaban : memulai komputer kembali dari awal,tetapi komputer dalam kondisi masih hidup

No : 840 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang termasuk kategori icon standar pada Desktop adalah Jawaban : My Computer

No : 841 Modul : 10
Soal : Icon browser standar windows yang digunakan untuk mencari dan menampilkan informasi dari suatu situs atau web. Jawaban : Internet Exploler

No : 842 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang digunakan untuk mengetikkan nama folder, driver dan alamat situs. Jawaban : Adress Box

No : 843 Modul : 10
Soal : Mengakhiri /menutup sebuah program aplikasi adalah dengan cara : Jawaban : menekan tombol close

No : 844 Modul : 10
Soal : Urutan langkah untuk membuat folder adalah.... Jawaban : klik File > klik New > klik Folder >ketik nama folder

No : 845 Modul : 10
Soal : Urutan langkah untuk mengganti nama folder adalah.... Jawaban : klik folder >klik File >klik Rename >ketik nama folder yang baru

No : 846 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menghapus folder, urutan langkah yang dilakukan adalah .... Jawaban : klik folder > klik File > klik Delete

No : 847 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah untuk memindahkan folder adalah .... Jawaban : klik folder > klik Edit > klik Cut > tentukan tempat yang baru > klik Paste

No : 848 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah untuk menyembunyikan folder agar folder tidak terlihat dilayar adalah .... Jawaban : klik kanan pada folder >klik Properties > klik Hidden > klik OK

No : 849 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengetahui informasi atribut tentang sebuah folder, seperti nama dan ukuran folder, dapat dilakukan dengan langkah sebagai berikut .... Jawaban : klik kanan pada folder > properties

No : 850 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah untuk menyalin sebuah file ke dalam sebuah folder adalah .... Jawaban : klik file yang akan disalin > klik Edit > klik Copy > cari dan klik folder tujuan > klik Edit > klik Paste

No : 851 Modul : 10
Soal : Sistem operasi yang disajikan dengan terpilah berbentuk gambar sehingga lebih mudah, efektif dan efisien disebut…. Jawaban : GUI

No : 852 Modul : 10
Soal : Kumpulan program atau satu program eksekusi yang dapat langsung dibuka atau dijalankan dengan mengklik ikon di desktop disebut…. Jawaban : shortcut

No : 853 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol windows yang berfungsi untuk mengawali program windows adalah tombol…. Jawaban : start

No : 854 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk membuat folder baru dengan menggunakan mouse adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan > new > folder

No : 855 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak terlihat ketika kita mengklik tombol start pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : explorer

No : 856 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara yang benar untuk melakukan setting tanggal dan waktu adalah…. Jawaban : start -> setting -> control panel -> date and time

No : 857 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah yang harus dilakukan untuk mencari versi dari Microsoft Windows yang terinstall adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan my computer dan pilih properties

No : 858 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk mengubah setting display pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan desktop > properties > settings

No : 859 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah membuat shortcut dalam Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan pada desktop dan pilih new > shortcut

No : 860 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah untuk mengubah nama folder dapat dilakukan dengan cara klik kanan pada folder tersebut dan memilih .... Jawaban : rename

No : 861 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk memindahkan sekaligus mengcopy seluruh isi folder ke dalam disket dengan menggunakan mouse, dapat dilakukan dengan cara.... Jawaban : drag and drop

No : 862 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menampilkan seluruh isi folder, selain dengan klik dua kali pada folder dapat juga dilakukan dengan cara .... Jawaban : klik kanan pada folder > explore

No : 863 Modul : 10
Soal : Sejumlah instruksi atau perintah yang tersusun sesuai dengan suatu urutan pekerjaan tertentu disebut ..... Jawaban : program

No : 864 Modul : 10
Soal : Bila suatu network berada dalam satu lokasi (misalkan dalam satu gedung) maka disebut… Jawaban : LAN

No : 865 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak termasuk manfaat jaringan dibawah ini… Jawaban : memperlambat akses data

No : 866 Modul : 10
Soal : Aplikasi dibawah ini merupakan aplikasi dalam sistem operasi linux yaitu… Jawaban : OpenOffice

No : 867 Modul : 10
Soal : Tampilan yang muncul saat pertama kali masuk ke dalam windows disebut …. Jawaban : desktop

No : 868 Modul : 10
Soal : Microsoft Windows merupakan sistem operasi komputer yang berbasis…. Jawaban : Graphical User Interface

No : 869 Modul : 10
Soal : Bagaimana cara untuk melihat koneksi antar komputer dalam satu jaringan lokal… Jawaban : Klik icon Network Place/Network Neighborhood pada desktop

No : 870 Modul : 10
Soal : Bagaimana cara untuk mengecek konektivitas pada jaringan Jawaban : RUN > CMD > ketik Ping pada MS-DOS prompt

No : 871 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk sharing file pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik kanan pada start > explorer >klik kanan folder > sharing

No : 872 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk sharing printer pada Microsoft Windows adalah…. Jawaban : klik start > setting > control panel > dobel-klik printers & faxes > klik kanan pada printer > sharing

No : 873 Modul : 10
Soal : Knoppix adalah …. Jawaban : Sistem Operasi

No : 874 Modul : 10
Soal : Tempat untuk menyimpan file-file yang telah dihapus pada Knoppix adalah …. Jawaban : Trash

No : 875 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak termasuk dalam kategori software open source adalah … Jawaban : MS Windows

No : 876 Modul : 10
Soal : Gambar disamping adalah … pada Knoppix Jawaban : Icon Start Application

No : 877 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah menambah jenis huruf baru pada Knoppix yang paling tepat adalah …. Jawaban : Klik K-Menu, Control Center, Appearance&Time, Font, Apply

No : 878 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara untuk mengubah tampilan background pada desktop, selain melalui control center adalah …. Jawaban : Klik kanan pada desktop, Configure Desktop, Background, Wallpaper, Ok

No : 879 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah mengubah nama folder adalah…. Jawaban : Pilih Folder, Klik kanan, Rename, Tulis Nama Folder Baru

No : 880 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah untuk keluar dari sistem operasi Linux Knoppix 3.2 adalah …. Jawaban : Klik K-Menu, Logout, Logout

No : 881 Modul : 10
Soal : Klik kanan pada folder, pilih CUT kemudian paste adalah cara untuk ….. Jawaban : Memindahkan Folder

No : 882 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk masuk pada perintah Control Center pada Linux Knoppix harus melalui icon …. Jawaban :

No : 883 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk mengetahui IP Address pada Linux Knoppix adalah …. Jawaban : ifconfig

No : 884 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk masuk ke konsole pada Knoppix adalah melalui icon …. Jawaban :

No : 885 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah yang digunakan untuk menampilkan menu pembuka dalam knoppix pada desktop KDE adalah …. Jawaban : K_Menu

No : 886 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang berfungsi sama dengan Recycle Bin dalam knoppix adalah …. Jawaban : Trash

No : 887 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah yang digunakan untuk mengelola directory pada Linux Knoppix adalah …. Jawaban : Home

No : 888 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada Knoppix gambar disamping adalah default untuk icon …. Jawaban : Control Center

No : 889 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk memasang/menset peripheral pada Linux Knoppix adalah …. Jawaban : Klik Control Center - Periperal

No : 890 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk masuk ke Openoffice, maka langkah-langkahnya adalah ……. Jawaban : Klik K-Menu - Office - Openoffice

No : 891 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah menyalin direktory adalah …. Jawaban : Pilih Direktory, Klik kanan, copy, pilih lokasi baru, paste

No : 892 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah ifconfig dalam knoppix digunakan untuk …. Jawaban : Mengetahui IP Address

No : 893 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk browsing di internet, kita dapat mengklik icon …. Jawaban :

No : 894 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mencari file atau folder dalam Linux Knoppix 3.2 adalah ……. Jawaban : Klik K-Menu - Find file

No : 895 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah yang digunakan untuk menseting atau menambah jenis printer pada linux Knoppix adalah …. Jawaban : Klik K-Menu - Setting - Printing Manager

No : 896 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat lunak aplikasi yang dapat dipergunakan untuk memanipulasi gambar adalah ..... Jawaban : Adobe Photoshop

No : 897 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu format file untuk menyimpan image hasil scan adalah .... Jawaban : JPG

No : 898 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang dimaksud dengan "ppm" pada printer adalah…. Jawaban : jumlah halaman yang mampu dicetak per menit

No : 899 Modul : 10
Soal : Aplikasi pada Microsoft Windows yang dapat digunakan untuk menampilkan gambar hasil scanning adalah .... Jawaban : paint

No : 900 Modul : 10
Soal : Kualitas cetak dari printer inkjet ditulisakan dengan satuan .... Jawaban : dpi

No : 901 Modul : 10
Soal : Kabel printer tipe paralel memiliki 2 jenis konektor pada kedua sisinya, yang satu adalah 36 pin centronics, dan sisi yang satu menggunakan .... Jawaban : DB-25

No : 902 Modul : 10
Soal : Gambar port disamping ini adalah untuk konektor Jawaban : PS-2

No : 903 Modul : 10
Soal : Gambar port disamping ini adalah konektor Jawaban : USB

No : 904 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu perangkat lunak aplikasi yang dipergunakan untuk Optical Character Recognition adalah …. Jawaban : Omnipage

No : 905 Modul : 10
Soal : Jenis printer LX-300 dikategorikan …. Jawaban : dot matrix

No : 906 Modul : 10
Soal : Berikut ini adalah jenis scanner yang digunakan untuk membaca kunci jawaban…. Jawaban : OCR

No : 907 Modul : 10
Soal : Port PS/2 digunakan untuk peripheral Jawaban : mouse

No : 908 Modul : 10
Soal : Video Display Unit adalah sebutan lain untuk perangkat …. Jawaban : monitor

No : 909 Modul : 10
Soal : Urutan penyalaan Komputer yang tepat adalah …. Jawaban : UPS-CPU-Monitor

No : 910 Modul : 10
Soal : Peripheral output yang menghasilkan hasil cetakan adalah.... Jawaban : printer

No : 911 Modul : 10
Soal : Scanner berfungsi untuk…. Jawaban : memindai dokumen dan gambar

No : 912 Modul : 10
Soal : Terjadinya konflik dalam pengaksesan periferal dapat menyebabkan komputer berhenti sedangkan komputer masih dalam keadaan aktif, peristiwa ini disebut …. Jawaban : hang

No : 913 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah pada printer laser yang berfungsi untuk mencairkan partikel plastik pada toner, sehingga tinta melekat pada kertas adalah…. Jawaban : fusing

No : 914 Modul : 10
Soal : Berikut ini adalah termasuk peripheral, kecuali : Jawaban : processor

No : 915 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara membuka antrian data yang akan di print adalah .... Jawaban : klik icon printer pada taskbar kanan bawah

No : 916 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk melepas flash disk dari port USB, prosedur yang harus dilakukan adalah .... Jawaban : klik icon safely remove hardware pada taskbar > stop > kemudian flash disk dilepas

No : 917 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat yang digunakan untuk mencetak hasil kerja pada kertas adalah …. Jawaban : printer

No : 918 Modul : 10
Soal : Di bawah ini, yang BUKAN jenis printer berdasarkan tipenya adalah .... Jawaban : fusing

No : 919 Modul : 10
Soal : Mesin pencetak yang bekerja dengan menggunakan ketukan mekanis pada kepala (head) yang berisi susunan jarum adalah …. Jawaban : dot matrix printer

No : 920 Modul : 10
Soal : Jenis printer yang menggunakan tipe electrophotographic adalah .... Jawaban : Laserjet

No : 921 Modul : 10
Soal : Data yang bisa di proses dengan aplikasi OCR, adalah data yang berbentuk dalam format …. Jawaban : teks

No : 922 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang dimaksud dengan resolusi pada printer adalah …. Jawaban : jumlah titik warna per-inci

No : 923 Modul : 10
Soal : Satuan untuk mengukur kecepatan printer dot matrix adalah.... Jawaban : cps

No : 924 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang termasuk dalam main peripheral, yaitu : Jawaban : keyboard

No : 925 Modul : 10
Soal : Gambar disamping adalah jenis konektor Jawaban : paralel

No : 926 Modul : 10
Soal : Printer jenis apa yang dapat menggunakan kertas bersambung (continuous form) ? Jawaban : dot matrix

No : 927 Modul : 10
Soal : Jenis printer yang cara kerjanya menggunakan sinar laser, yaitu : Jawaban : laser jet

No : 928 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu alat media output pada komputer, kecuali… Jawaban : mouse

No : 929 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara mencetak file dari program aplikasi pengolah kata, yaitu… Jawaban : klik File > klik Print > Klik OK

No : 930 Modul : 10
Soal : Bacaan "Number of copies", pada menu print berguna untuk… Jawaban : menentukan jumlah cetakan yang diinginkan

No : 931 Modul : 10
Soal : Istilah untuk mencetak pada posisi tidur (horizontal), yaitu… Jawaban : landscape

No : 932 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu alat media output pada komputer, yaitu… Jawaban : printer

No : 933 Modul : 10
Soal : Bacaan "Pages", pada menu print berguna untuk… Jawaban : mencetak halaman tertentu

No : 934 Modul : 10
Soal : Istilah kualitas pencetakan yang digunakan untuk printer, yaitu… Jawaban : dpi

No : 935 Modul : 10
Soal : Urutan penginstalan printer pada sistem operasi MS Windows adalah .… Jawaban : Klik Start > Klik Printers and Faxes > Klik Add a printer

No : 936 Modul : 10
Soal : Konektor dan port yang bisa digunakan untuk menghubungkan peripheral dengan komputer ialah, kecuali .... Jawaban : socket

No : 937 Modul : 10
Soal : Berikut ini yang bukan termasuk peripheral ialah Jawaban : CPU

No : 938 Modul : 10
Soal : Syarat-syarat yang tidak harus ada, agar proses scanning dapat berjalan ialah .... Jawaban : resolusi monitor disesuaikan dengan ukuran gambar

No : 939 Modul : 10
Soal : Perangkat lunak yang dapat digunakan untuk men-scan gambar atau teks yaitu .... Jawaban : Arcsoft Photo Studio 2000

No : 940 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengetahui cara memasang dan menggunakan scanner diperlukan …. Jawaban : User Manual

No : 941 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu langkah/cara membuka/mengaktifkan program untuk men-scan ialah … Jawaban : Klik Start > All Programs > Arcsoft Photo Studio 2000

No : 942 Modul : 10
Soal : Ketika proses scanning sedang berjalan dan telah mencapai 50 % kemudian ditekan tombol “Cancel”, maka yang akan terjadi dengan hasil scan : Jawaban : tidak ada

No : 943 Modul : 10
Soal : Icon untuk menentukan gambar hasil scan yang akan disimpan ditandai dengan huruf … Jawaban : a

No : 944 Modul : 10
Soal : Setelah selesai men-scan satu halaman dokumen/teks, kemudian kita ingin men-scan halaman berikutnya, maka tombol yang harus ditekan Jawaban : Add More Pages

No : 945 Modul : 10
Soal : Tesk hasil scanning dengan OCR sebaiknya disimpan dengan file ekstensi Jawaban : doc

No : 946 Modul : 10
Soal : Penyebab teks hasil scanning harus dikoreksi, ialah ... Jawaban : teks hasil scanning tidak terdapat dalam kamus OCR

No : 947 Modul : 10
Soal : Di bawah ini, yang termasuk dengan main peripheraladalah.... Jawaban : mouse, keyboard, monitor

No : 948 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu alasan orang untuk menggunakan printer dot matrix adalah.... Jawaban : dapat menggunakan kertas karbon

No : 949 Modul : 10
Soal : Jumlah pin yang terdapat pada berbagai jenis printer dot matrix adalah.... Jawaban : 9, 24, 48

No : 950 Modul : 10
Soal : Printhead pada printer inkjet diberi nama.... Jawaban : piezoelectric printheads

No : 951 Modul : 10
Soal : Jenis tinta yang digunakan pada laserjet disebut.... Jawaban : toner

No : 952 Modul : 10
Soal : Di bawah ini adalah ekstensi file yang dapat dibuka oleh OmniPage, kecuali.... Jawaban : bmp, xls, doc

No : 953 Modul : 10
Soal : Gambar hasil scanning, dapat disimpan dengan ekstensi file ... Jawaban : jpg

No : 954 Modul : 10
Soal : Icon yang digunakan untuk mengubah warna font adalah…. Jawaban :

No : 955 Modul : 10
Soal : Cetak kata pada JoToWaIm merupakan : Jawaban : Format Bold dan Italic

No : 956 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah membuat footer pada Microsoft Word adalah…. Jawaban : Klik View > header and footer > switch beetwen header and footer

No : 957 Modul : 10
Soal : HURUF BESAR dan Judul Tulisan merupakan contoh dari penggunaan fasilitas .... Jawaban : Format > Change Case

No : 958 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan syair ini:

Indonesia Raya

Indonesia Tanah Airku....tanah tumpah darahku

Di sanalah aku berdiri jadi pandu ibuku

Indonesia kebangsaanku...bangsa dan tanah airku
Marilah kita berseru...Indonesia bersatu

Dengan memperhati Jawaban : Format > Paragraph

No : 959 Modul : 10
Soal : Jika ada kata-kata yang sering muncul dalam sebuah data, yang dapat membantu mempercepat pengetikan kata-kata tersebut adalah dengan fasilitas: Jawaban : Autocorrect

No : 960 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada proses pencetakan dokumen, langkah yang harus dilakukan …. Jawaban : file > print > setting pages > Ok

No : 961 Modul : 10
Soal : Bagaimana langkah mengedit dokumen yang masih ada kesalahan ketik? Jawaban : arahkan kursor pada kata yang salah, hapus huruf yang salah dan diganti dengan yang benar

No : 962 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tulisan berikut :

a) Bidang Keahlian Bangunan (1)
i) Program Keahlian Gambar Bangunan(2)
ii) Program Keahlian Konstruksi Bangunan(3)
b) Bidang Keahlian Elekt Jawaban : increase

No : 963 Modul : 10
Soal : Icon yang digunakan untuk membuat tabel adalah…. Jawaban :

No : 964 Modul : 10
Soal : Icon yang digunakan untuk menyimpan lembar kerja adalah…. Jawaban :

No : 965 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mencetak data pada posisi kursor, maka pada kolom page range diset …. Jawaban : current page

No : 966 Modul : 10
Soal : Kumpulan perintah dalam perangkat lunak aplikasi yang diasosiasikan dengan teks dan gambar dikenal sebagai .... Jawaban : menu command

No : 967 Modul : 10
Soal : Gambar di bawah disebut sebagai....
Jawaban : menu command

No : 968 Modul : 10
Soal : Bermacam tombol icon di bawah akan membentuk sebuah ....
Jawaban : toolbar

No : 969 Modul : 10
Soal : Selain dapat diakses melalui klik pada icon, perintah pada perangkat lunak aplikasi bisa juga dieksekusi melalui .... Jawaban : keyboard shortcut

No : 970 Modul : 10
Soal : Sebelum menginstall aplikasi pengolah kata, pada komputer kita sudah harus memiliki perangkat lunak…. Jawaban : sistim operasi

No : 971 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak termasuk perangkat lunak pengolah kata berikut ini adalah.... Jawaban : Microsoft Windows

No : 972 Modul : 10
Soal : Penulisan model miring disebut juga sebagai .... Jawaban : italic

No : 973 Modul : 10
Soal : Contoh penulisan pangkat pada penjumlahan di samping bisa memanfaatkan fasilitas .... Jawaban : superscript

No : 974 Modul : 10
Soal : Justify alignment dimaksudkan untuk membuat format dokumen yang rata .... Jawaban : kanan dan kiri

No : 975 Modul : 10
Soal : Huruf hias dalam Microsoft Word dikenal sebagai Jawaban : WordArt

No : 976 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk membuat sebuah file dokumen baru adalah .... Jawaban : File > New

No : 977 Modul : 10
Soal : Pengaturan margin, ukuran kertas, orientasi beserta layout dokumen harus dilakukan melalui .... Jawaban : File > Page Setup

No : 978 Modul : 10
Soal : Nama kota besar di negara-negara Asia Timur:
1. Soul
2. Tokyo
3. Shanghai

Cara membuat penomoran seperti contoh di atas adalah dengan menggunakan .... Jawaban : Format > Bullets and Numbering

No : 979 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengaktifkan menu help, tombol yang dapat digunakan adalah.... Jawaban : F1

No : 980 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tool bar berikut, yang merupakan ikon justify adalah ….(5.2) Jawaban :

No : 981 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang termasuk software pengolah kata berikut ini adalah: Jawaban : Abiword

No : 982 Modul : 10
Soal : Program pengolah kata dapat dipergunakan juga untuk menyimpan dokumen dengan extensi .... Jawaban : htm

No : 983 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini

Untuk membuat format kolom seperti yang umum kita jumpai pada koran-koran adalah dengan mengakses perintah …. Jawaban : Format > Columns

No : 984 Modul : 10
Soal : Salah satu object yang dapat digunakan untuk memasukkan kode dan rumus-rumus matematika adalah.... Jawaban : equation

No : 985 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini

Untuk membuat huruf depan sebuah kalimat agar kelihatan lebih besar atau dominan adalah dengan .... Jawaban : Format > Drop Cap

No : 986 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tool bar berikut,

Icon yang digunakan untuk membuka dokumen adalah.... Jawaban : b

No : 987 Modul : 10
Soal : Dokumen yang sudah tersimpan di dalam hard disk dapat dibuka kembali dengan perintah …. (5.2) Jawaban : File - Open

No : 988 Modul : 10
Soal : Teks yang telah diketik akan disimpan ke dalam harddisk atau disket dengan perintah …. (5.2) Jawaban : File - Save

No : 989 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk membuat tulisan model koran kita menggunakan instruksi …. (5.3) Jawaban : Format – Columns

No : 990 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tulisan berikut

Format tulisan di atas memanfaatkan fasilitas …. (5.3) Jawaban : Drop cap

No : 991 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengatur jarak spasi tulisan, kita menggunakan instruksi Format - …. (5.3) Jawaban : Paragraph – Line Spacing

No : 992 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tool bar berikut,

Icon yang digunakan untuk mencetak dokumen adalah.... Jawaban : e

No : 993 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tool bar berikut,

Icon yang digunakan untuk membatalkan perintah yang terakhir dilaksanakan adalah.... Jawaban : e

No : 994 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tool bar berikut,

Icon yang digunakan untuk menhasilkan tulisan yang memiliki efek miring adalah.... Jawaban : c

No : 995 Modul : 10
Soal : Gambar berikut adalah … Jawaban : Toolbar

No : 996 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang tidak termasuk software pengolah kata berikut ini adalah .... Jawaban : ms excel

No : 997 Modul : 10
Soal : Apakah nama software pengolah kata pada MS Windows ? Jawaban : ms word

No : 998 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk membuat file teks dalam sistem operasi berbasis teks seperti DOS adalah.... Jawaban : copy con

No : 999 Modul : 10
Soal : Ciri khas software pengolah kata secara umum adalah mengolah……… Jawaban : semua benar

No : 1000 Modul : 10
Soal : Sekumpulan paragraf membentuk satu halaman, dan kumpulan halaman membentuk sebuah naskah disebut…… Jawaban : file

No : 1001 Modul : 10
Soal : Kunci shortcut (key shortcut) berfungsi untuk mengakses perintah dengan menggunakan………. Jawaban : keyboard

No : 1002 Modul : 10
Soal : Sebagian besar menu terletak pada….. Jawaban : menu bar

No : 1003 Modul : 10
Soal : Sebuah baris memanjang yang bisa terdiri dari button (tombol), menu, atau kombinasi keduanya disebut…… Jawaban : toolbar

No : 1004 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk membuat sebuah file dokumen baru adalah .... Jawaban : File > New

No : 1005 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk menyimpan file dokumen adalah .... Jawaban : semua benar

No : 1006 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk membuka file dokumen yang sudah ada adalah…. Jawaban : File > Open

No : 1007 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk menutup lembar kerja MS Word…. Jawaban : File > Close

No : 1008 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah untuk keluar dari program MS Word adalah…. Jawaban : File > Exit

No : 1009 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada sistem operasi MS DOS, perintah yang dapat digunakan untuk membuat file teks adalah.... Jawaban : copy con

No : 1010 Modul : 10
Soal : Keyboard shortcut yang digunakan untuk membatalkan aksi sebelumnya (undo) dalam pengolah kata adalah.... Jawaban : ctrl + Z

No : 1011 Modul : 10
Soal : Keyboard shortcut yang digunakan untuk menghapus satu kata ke kiri adalah.... Jawaban : ctrl + backspace

No : 1012 Modul : 10
Soal : Keyboard shortcut yang digunakan untuk menambah ukuran font 1 point adalah.... Jawaban : ctrl + ]

No : 1013 Modul : 10
Soal : Fasilitas-fasilitas untuk mengubah jenis huruf (font style), ukuran huruf (font size), format huruf, perataan (alignment), spasi baris, penandaan dan penomoran, jarak masuk paragraf, batas tepi, highlight, serta warna font dapat ditemukan pada Jawaban : Toolbar

No : 1014 Modul : 10
Soal : Mencetak semua isi file atau dokumen yang sedang dibuka adalah…….. Jawaban : File>Print>All

No : 1015 Modul : 10
Soal : Program Pengolah Kata Text Document adalah program aplikasi dari…. Jawaban : StarOffice7

No : 1016 Modul : 10
Soal : Fasilitas pada Text Document yang disebut menu command adalah nomor …. Jawaban : 2

No : 1017 Modul : 10
Soal : Menu Command "Save As" pada Text Document terdapat pada menu … Jawaban : file

No : 1018 Modul : 10
Soal : Pengaturan "Page" pada halaman aktif Text Document terdapat pada menu …. Jawaban : format

No : 1019 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah-langkah membuat Header dan Footer pada halaman lembar kerja menggunakan StarOffice adalah …. Jawaban : Format -> Page -> Header & Footer

No : 1020 Modul : 10
Soal : Icon pada toolbar yang digunakan untuk membuat sebuah file baru pada aplikasi Text Document yang sedang aktif adalah…. Jawaban :

No : 1021 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk melihat hasil lembar kerja dari pengolahan kata secara keseluruhan menggunakan Text Document pada staroffice adalah…. Jawaban : Page Preview

No : 1022 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menjalankan aplikasi pengolah kata pada StarOffice melalui tombol Start adalah …. Jawaban : Start > Program > StarOffice > Text Document

No : 1023 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol kombinasi keyboard yang digunakan untuk membuka dokumen yang sudah tersimpan pada text document adalah …. Jawaban : Ctrl+O

No : 1024 Modul : 10
Soal : Menu untuk mengatur ukuran karakter/huruf menggunakan Text Document pada adalah …. Jawaban : Size

No : 1025 Modul : 10
Soal : Langkah untuk mengatur margin pada aplikasi text document adalah .... Jawaban : Format > Page

No : 1026 Modul : 10
Soal : Sub menu format yang berfungsi untuk mengatur model penomoran pada aplikasi Text Document adalah…. Jawaban : Numbering Style

No : 1027 Modul : 10
Soal : Fasilitas untuk mengoreksi kesalahan pengetikan teks pada aplikasi text document secara otomatis adalah…. Jawaban : Autocorrect

No : 1028 Modul : 10
Soal : Teks atau gambar yang terletak pada bagian atas dan berulang disetiap halaman sebuah dokumen disebut ... Jawaban : Header

No : 1029 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara menghapus sebuah kolom pada suatu tabel adalah… Jawaban : Format > Column > Delete

No : 1030 Modul : 10
Soal : Icon yang digunakan untuk mencetak dokumen adalah …. Jawaban :

No : 1031 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah ROUND dalam perangkat lunak lembar sebar berfungsi untuk .... Jawaban : membulatkan angka

No : 1032 Modul : 10
Soal : Tanda / dalam keyboard, disebut juga dengan .... Jawaban : slash

No : 1033 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tabel berikut:

Daftar di atas dapat diselesaikan dengan satu rumus yaitu = …. (6.3)

Jawaban : B$3*$A3

No : 1034 Modul : 10
Soal :

Cell F2 dinyatakan absolut baris dan tidak absolut kolom, maka cell tersebut akan tertulis.... (6.3) Jawaban : F$2

No : 1035 Modul : 10
Soal :
Untuk mengetahui jumlah transaksi yang terjadi, digunakan rumus ….. (6.3) Jawaban : =COUNT(D2:D8)

No : 1036 Modul : 10
Soal :
Untuk mengetahui nilai transaksi tertinggi digunakan rumus …. (6.3) Jawaban : = MAX(D2:D8)

No : 1037 Modul : 10
Soal :

Untuk mengetahui jumlah total nilai transaksi digunakan rumus …. (6.3) Jawaban : =SUM(D2:D8)

No : 1038 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengubah tampilan 5000 menjadi Rp. 5000,00 dalam MS Excel digunakan instruksi Format – Cell – Number - …. (6.3) Jawaban : Currency

No : 1039 Modul : 10
Soal : MS Excel menyediakan kolom yang terbentang dari A, B, C…Z,AA, AB, ….AZ,BA, BB ……. IV. Juga baris sebanyak 65536 baris. Jika Cell Anda berada di kolom dan baris IV6000, untuk kembali ke A6000, Anda menekan tombol ….. (6.2) Jawaban : home

No : 1040 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tool bar berikut.

Icon yang digunakan untuk menggabungkan beberapa cell adalah.... Jawaban : a

No : 1041 Modul : 10
Soal :

Cell G2 diisi dengan menggunakanrumus …. Jawaban : = (E2 – C2) * D2

No : 1042 Modul : 10
Soal : Perhatikan tabel berikut :

Untuk mengisi cell F2 digunakan rumus …. (6.3) Jawaban : = E2 – C2

No : 1043 Modul : 10
Soal : (1). Ketik data yang diinginkan (2). Tekan tombol Enter (3). Tempatkan pointer pada cell. Urutan cara memasukkan data ke cell pada lembar kerja adalah…. Jawaban : 3 - 1 - 2

No : 1044 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol PageDown digunakan untuk…. Jawaban : berpindah satu layar kebawah

No : 1045 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol yang digunakan untuk memindahkan pointer dari Cell C2 ke Cell B2 adalah…. Jawaban : shift + tab

No : 1046 Modul : 10
Soal : Fungsi yang digunakan untuk memindahkan isi cell adalah…. Jawaban : Ctrl + X dan Ctrl + V

No : 1047 Modul : 10
Soal : (1). Ctrl + C (2) Blok cell yang ingin disalin (3) Ctrl + V pada cell tempat tujuan penyalinan. Urutan cara menyalin data ke cell lain pada lembar kerja adalah…. Jawaban : 2 - 1 - 3

No : 1048 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara memperbaiki kesalahan pengetikan pada lembar sebar adalah…. Jawaban : menekan tombol F2

No : 1049 Modul : 10
Soal : Menutup dokumen pada lembar sebar dilakukan dengan .... Jawaban : klik menu File, kemudian pilih submenu Close

No : 1050 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara cepat untuk membuat dokumen baru adalah .... Jawaban : ctrl + N

No : 1051 Modul : 10
Soal : Microsoft Excel adalah perangkat lunak untuk …. Jawaban : pengolah lembar sebar

No : 1052 Modul : 10
Soal : Pertemuan antara kolom dan baris disebut…. Jawaban : cell

No : 1053 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah-perintah berikut yang tidak termasuk dalam menu Edit adalah .... Jawaban : insert object

No : 1054 Modul : 10
Soal : Menyimpan dokumen dengan nama baru menggunakan perintah .... Jawaban : save as

No : 1055 Modul : 10
Soal : Menyisipkan kolom dapat dilakukan dengan…. Jawaban : klik menu Insert, pilih sub menu Column

No : 1056 Modul : 10
Soal : Prosedur yang digunakan untuk mengatur ukuran kertas dan orientasi pencetakan adalah…. Jawaban : file > page setup

No : 1057 Modul : 10
Soal : Tombol yang digunakan untuk membuat nilai absolut adalah…. Jawaban : Shitft + 4

No : 1058 Modul : 10
Soal : Tanda baca yang digunakan untuk membuat nilai absolut adalah…. Jawaban : $

No : 1059 Modul : 10
Soal : Yang digunakan untuk mengatur jarak teks ke pinggir kertas adalah…. Jawaban : margin

No : 1060 Modul : 10
Soal : Orientasi pencetakan digunakan untuk…. Jawaban : mengatur posisi pencetakan

No : 1061 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara cepat untuk memunculkan kotak dialog Print adalah…. Jawaban : Ctrl + P

No : 1062 Modul : 10
Soal : Sub menu berikut yang tidak termasuk dalam menu Format adalah…. Jawaban : option

No : 1063 Modul : 10
Soal : Cara menghapus baris dapat dilakukan dengan…. Jawaban : edit > delete > entire row

No : 1064 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada kotak dialog Format Cells, Yang berfungsi mengatur garis pembatas dan bingkai adalah pada Tab…. Jawaban : border

No : 1065 Modul : 10
Soal : Average(range) adalah fungsi statistik untuk menghitung…. Jawaban : rata-rata

No : 1066 Modul : 10
Soal : Fungsi yang tidak dapat digunakan pada perangkat lunak lembar sebar adalah…. Jawaban : fungsi cells

No : 1067 Modul : 10
Soal : Penulisan fungsi penjumlahan berikut yang benar adalah…. Jawaban : =sum(range)

No : 1068 Modul : 10
Soal : Tanda slash (/) biasa juga disebut.... Jawaban : solidus

No : 1069 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk berpindah satu layar keatas menggunakan tombol …. Jawaban : Page Up

No : 1070 Modul : 10
Soal : Keyboard shortcut yang digunakan untuk memindahkan pointer ke sel terakhir pada buku kerja yang sedang digunakan adalah…. Jawaban : Ctr + End

No : 1071 Modul : 10
Soal : Kumpulan dari beberapa cell misalnya A6 : C6 disebut …. Jawaban : Range

No : 1072 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menghapus isi cell, digunakan tombol …. Jawaban : Delete

No : 1073 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengatur format tampilan huruf dengan meng-klik menu format memilih cell kemudian memilih Tab…. Jawaban : Font

No : 1074 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk meratakan tampilan data rata tengah digunakan jenis format perataan …. Jawaban : center

No : 1075 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menampilkan text sesuai dengan lebar kolom tanpa mengubah ukuran font dapat dilakukan dengan mengaktifkan fungsi format cell …. Jawaban : wrap text

No : 1076 Modul : 10
Soal : Tiap buku kerja dalam perangkat lunak aplikasi lembar sebar terdiri atas.... Jawaban : 256 kolom

No : 1077 Modul : 10
Soal : Tiap buku kerja dalam perangkat lunak aplikasi lembar sebar MS Excel terdiri atas.... Jawaban : 65536 baris

No : 1078 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengubah angka 10000000 menjadi 10.000.000 maka icon pada toolbar yang digunakan adalah.... Jawaban : comma style

No : 1079 Modul : 10
Soal :
Gambar diatas dalam lembar sebar disebut …………. Jawaban : Menu Bar

No : 1080 Modul : 10
Soal : Simbol disamping disebut dengan …………. Jawaban : Tombol Minimize

No : 1081 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk pindah satu cell kebawah menggunakan ... Jawaban : Enter

No : 1082 Modul : 10
Soal : Menghapus data dalam cell menggunakan tombol ……. Jawaban : Delete

No : 1083 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mengatur format perataan text dengan memilih menu Format - Cell dari kotak dialog yang muncul milih tab …………… Jawaban : Alignment

No : 1084 Modul : 10
Soal : Memberi simbol Rp. Pada lembar kerja yang menyatakan nilai uang dengan memilih menu format - cell - number dari kotak dialog yang tampil memilih tab ………… Jawaban : Accounting

No : 1085 Modul : 10
Soal : Dengan meng-klik menu Format - Row - Height digunakan untuk ……………. Jawaban : Meninggikan Baris

No : 1086 Modul : 10
Soal : Perintah Format - Cell - Patterns-Shading digunakan untuk membuat …………. Jawaban : Arsiran

No : 1087 Modul : 10
Soal : ^ (circumflex accent) dalam proses rumus perhitungan digunakan untuk …………. Jawaban : Perpangkatan

No : 1088 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menghitung data dalam satu Range digunakan fungsi …………………… Jawaban : Count

No : 1089 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk merubah ukuran kertas menjadi A4 menggunakan perintah ………… Jawaban : Page Setup

No : 1090 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mencetak hanya range tertentu sesuai dengan yang diblok menggunakan perintah …………….. Jawaban : Print Area

No : 1091 Modul : 10
Soal : Ctrl + P digunakan untuk perintah …………….. Jawaban : Mencetak dokumen

No : 1092 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk menentukan hasil pencetakan dengan arah kertas tidur (horisontal) memilih ……………. Jawaban : Landscape

No : 1093 Modul : 10
Soal : Untuk mencetak seluruh Sheet di Buku Kerja pada menu dialog printer option print what dengan memilih Jawaban : Entire Workbook

No : 1094 Modul : 10
Soal : Fasilitas MS. Excel yang berfungsi menampilkan worksheet dalam bentuk halaman web adalah.... Jawaban : Web Page Preview

No : 1095 Modul : 10
Soal : Fasilitas MS. Excel yang berfungsi menyimpan worksheet sebagai halaman web adalah.... Jawaban : Save as Web Page...

No : 1096 Modul : 10
Soal : Pada Menu View, Sub menu apakah y
          Modul 3        

No : 184 Modul : 3

Soal : Perangkat lunak aplikasi yang dapat dipergunakan untuk memanipulasi gambar adalah ..... Jawaban : Adobe Photoshop

No : 185 Modul : 3

Soal : Salah satu format file untuk menyimpan image hasil scan adalah .... Jawaban : JPG

No : 186 Modul : 3

Soal : Yang dimaksud dengan "ppm" pada printer adalah…. Jawaban : jumlah halaman yang mampu dicetak per menit

No : 187 Modul : 3

Soal : Aplikasi pada Microsoft Windows yang dapat digunakan untuk menampilkan gambar hasil scanning adalah .... Jawaban : paint

No : 188 Modul : 3

Soal : Kualitas cetak dari printer inkjet ditulisakan dengan satuan .... Jawaban : dpi

No : 189 Modul : 3

Soal : Kabel printer tipe paralel memiliki 2 jenis konektor pada kedua sisinya, yang satu adalah 36 pin centronics, dan sisi yang satu menggunakan .... Jawaban : DB-25

No : 190 Modul : 3

Soal : Gambar port disamping ini adalah untuk konektor Jawaban : PS-2

No : 191 Modul : 3

Soal : Gambar port disamping ini adalah konektor Jawaban : USB

No : 192 Modul : 3

Soal : Salah satu perangkat lunak aplikasi yang dipergunakan untuk Optical Character Recognition adalah …. Jawaban : Omnipage

No : 193 Modul : 3

Soal : Jenis printer LX-300 dikategorikan …. Jawaban : dot matrix

No : 194 Modul : 3

Soal : Berikut ini adalah jenis scanner yang digunakan untuk membaca kunci jawaban…. Jawaban : OCR

No : 195 Modul : 3

Soal : Port PS/2 digunakan untuk peripheral Jawaban : mouse

No : 196 Modul : 3

Soal : Video Display Unit adalah sebutan lain untuk perangkat …. Jawaban : monitor

No : 197 Modul : 3

Soal : Urutan penyalaan Komputer yang tepat adalah …. Jawaban : UPS-CPU-Monitor

No : 198 Modul : 3

Soal : Peripheral output yang menghasilkan hasil cetakan adalah.... Jawaban : printer

No : 199 Modul : 3

Soal : Scanner berfungsi untuk…. Jawaban : memindai dokumen dan gambar

No : 200 Modul : 3

Soal : Terjadinya konflik dalam pengaksesan periferal dapat menyebabkan komputer berhenti sedangkan komputer masih dalam keadaan aktif, peristiwa ini disebut …. Jawaban : hang

No : 201 Modul : 3

Soal : Langkah pada printer laser yang berfungsi untuk mencairkan partikel plastik pada toner, sehingga tinta melekat pada kertas adalah…. Jawaban : fusing

No : 202 Modul : 3

Soal : Berikut ini adalah termasuk peripheral, kecuali : Jawaban : processor

No : 203 Modul : 3

Soal : Cara membuka antrian data yang akan di print adalah .... Jawaban : klik icon printer pada taskbar kanan bawah

No : 204 Modul : 3

Soal : Untuk melepas flash disk dari port USB, prosedur yang harus dilakukan adalah .... Jawaban : klik icon safely remove hardware pada taskbar > stop > kemudian flash disk dilepas

No : 205 Modul : 3

Soal : Perangkat yang digunakan untuk mencetak hasil kerja pada kertas adalah …. Jawaban : printer

No : 206 Modul : 3

Soal : Di bawah ini, yang BUKAN jenis printer berdasarkan tipenya adalah .... Jawaban : fusing

No : 207 Modul : 3

Soal : Mesin pencetak yang bekerja dengan menggunakan ketukan mekanis pada kepala (head) yang berisi susunan jarum adalah …. Jawaban : dot matrix printer

No : 208 Modul : 3

Soal : Jenis printer yang menggunakan tipe electrophotographic adalah .... Jawaban : Laserjet

No : 209 Modul : 3

Soal : Data yang bisa di proses dengan aplikasi OCR, adalah data yang berbentuk dalam format …. Jawaban : teks

No : 210 Modul : 3

Soal : Yang dimaksud dengan resolusi pada printer adalah …. Jawaban : jumlah titik warna per-inci

No : 211 Modul : 3

Soal : Satuan untuk mengukur kecepatan printer dot matrix adalah.... Jawaban : cps

No : 212 Modul : 3

Soal : Yang termasuk dalam main peripheral, yaitu : Jawaban : keyboard

No : 213 Modul : 3

Soal : Gambar disamping adalah jenis konektor Jawaban : paralel

No : 214 Modul : 3

Soal : Printer jenis apa yang dapat menggunakan kertas bersambung (continuous form) ? Jawaban : dot matrix

No : 215 Modul : 3

Soal : Jenis printer yang cara kerjanya menggunakan sinar laser, yaitu : Jawaban : laser jet

No : 216 Modul : 3

Soal : Salah satu alat media output pada komputer, kecuali… Jawaban : mouse

No : 217 Modul : 3

Soal : Cara mencetak file dari program aplikasi pengolah kata, yaitu… Jawaban : klik File > klik Print > Klik OK

No : 218 Modul : 3

Soal : Bacaan "Number of copies", pada menu print berguna untuk… Jawaban : menentukan jumlah cetakan yang diinginkan

No : 219 Modul : 3

Soal : Istilah untuk mencetak pada posisi tidur (horizontal), yaitu… Jawaban : landscape

No : 220 Modul : 3

Soal : Salah satu alat media output pada komputer, yaitu… Jawaban : printer

No : 221 Modul : 3

Soal : Bacaan "Pages", pada menu print berguna untuk… Jawaban : mencetak halaman tertentu

No : 222 Modul : 3

Soal : Istilah kualitas pencetakan yang digunakan untuk printer, yaitu… Jawaban : dpi

No : 223 Modul : 3

Soal : Urutan penginstalan printer pada sistem operasi MS Windows adalah .… Jawaban : Klik Start > Klik Printers and Faxes > Klik Add a printer

No : 224 Modul : 3

Soal : Konektor dan port yang bisa digunakan untuk menghubungkan peripheral dengan komputer ialah, kecuali .... Jawaban : socket

No : 225 Modul : 3

Soal : Berikut ini yang bukan termasuk peripheral ialah Jawaban : CPU

No : 226 Modul : 3

Soal : Syarat-syarat yang tidak harus ada, agar proses scanning dapat berjalan ialah .... Jawaban : resolusi monitor disesuaikan dengan ukuran gambar

No : 227 Modul : 3

Soal : Perangkat lunak yang dapat digunakan untuk men-scan gambar atau teks yaitu .... Jawaban : Arcsoft Photo Studio 2000

No : 228 Modul : 3

Soal : Untuk mengetahui cara memasang dan menggunakan scanner diperlukan …. Jawaban : User Manual

No : 229 Modul : 3

Soal : Salah satu langkah/cara membuka/mengaktifkan program untuk men-scan ialah … Jawaban : Klik Start > All Programs > Arcsoft Photo Studio 2000

No : 230 Modul : 3

Soal : Ketika proses scanning sedang berjalan dan telah mencapai 50 % kemudian ditekan tombol “Cancel”, maka yang akan terjadi dengan hasil scan : Jawaban : tidak ada

No : 231 Modul : 3

Soal : Icon untuk menentukan gambar hasil scan yang akan disimpan ditandai dengan huruf … Jawaban : a

No : 232 Modul : 3

Soal : Setelah selesai men-scan satu halaman dokumen/teks, kemudian kita ingin men-scan halaman berikutnya, maka tombol yang harus ditekan Jawaban : Add More Pages

No : 233 Modul : 3

Soal : Tesk hasil scanning dengan OCR sebaiknya disimpan dengan file ekstensi Jawaban : doc

No : 234 Modul : 3

Soal : Penyebab teks hasil scanning harus dikoreksi, ialah ... Jawaban : teks hasil scanning tidak terdapat dalam kamus OCR

No : 235 Modul : 3

Soal : Di bawah ini, yang termasuk dengan main peripheral adalah.... Jawaban : mouse, keyboard, monitor

No : 236 Modul : 3

Soal : Salah satu alasan orang untuk menggunakan printer dot matrix adalah.... Jawaban : dapat menggunakan kertas karbon

No : 237 Modul : 3

Soal : Jumlah pin yang terdapat pada berbagai jenis printer dot matrix adalah.... Jawaban : 9, 24, 48

No : 238 Modul : 3

Soal : Printhead pada printer inkjet diberi nama.... Jawaban : piezoelectric printheads

No : 239 Modul : 3

Soal : Jenis tinta yang digunakan pada laserjet disebut.... Jawaban : toner

No : 240 Modul : 3

Soal : Di bawah ini adalah ekstensi file yang dapat dibuka oleh OmniPage, kecuali.... Jawaban : bmp, xls, doc

No : 241 Modul : 3

Soal : Gambar hasil scanning, dapat disimpan dengan ekstensi file ... Jawaban : jpg

           Direct-Write Piezoelectric Polymeric Nanogenerator with High Energy Conversion Efficiency         
Chang, Chieh and Tran, Van H. and Wang, Junbo and Fuh, Yiin-Kuen and Lin, Liwei. (2010) Direct-Write Piezoelectric Polymeric Nanogenerator with High Energy Conversion Efficiency. Nano Letters, 10 (2). pp. 726-731. ISSN 1530-6984
          PhD positions on modeling of flexoelectricity in Barcelona - Spain        
We are looking for highly motivated and creative PhD researchers to study electromechanical transduction at the nanoscale. It is well known that by deforming some materials (piezoelectrics)...
          Piezoelectric Crystal        
Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials such as crystals and certain ceramics, to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress or heat. If the piezo crystals are not short-circuited, the applied charge induces a voltage across the material. The word Piezo is derived from the Greek “Piezein”, which means to squeeze... View Article
          Piezeoelectric Power: Innowattech dreams of energy harvesting roads, railways and runways        

InnowattechPiezeoelectric materials convert mechanical changes into electrical current.  As with everything else in the new energy sector, its future is being driven forward by materials scientists.

Earlier we featured breakthroughs at Texas A&M and also at Georgia Tech University on materials that generate small-scale electric currents when stretched or pressed.

There is talk of piezeoelectric iPods, but it is hard to imagine systems replacing batteries given the growth in electricity demand of portable gadgets.  The best applications will likely be for sensors, microcontrollers, smart tags, and digital textiles that do not use high end processors.

Energy harvesting infrastructure?

Stories of energy harvesting dance floors have been circulating on energy and environmental blogs for months, but what about roads and railways that have more steady traffic?

Israel-based Innowattech claims to be the the first company to demonstrate industrial scale piezeoelectric solutions that 'harvest' energy from traffic moving over roads, railroads and airport runways.  Their vision is to capture all the motion above ground into electricity for the local grid.

The obstacles to market are probably high given the demands of infrastructure and (very) conservative nature of structural engineers and regulators who build infrastructure for performance (not energy capture).  Not to mention cost challenges in a down economy.   But 'harvesting energy solutions' is a great meme and certaily has its role for future micro energy solutions.  And who can argue the appeal of energy producing infrastructure and built environments?!  

Related posts on The Energy

Category: Energy
Year: Beyond
Tags: energy, electricity, piezeoelectric
          Texas A&M researchers advance self powered (piezeoelectric) devices        

nanotitaniumtubeWhat if you could charge your portable device simply by having it move around in your pocket while you walk?

Texas A&M Professor Tahir Cagin believes that piezeoelectric materials, that convert motion into electric currents could be closer to applied applications thanks to their recent design breakthrough. (Not Image shown)

Professor Cagin and partners from the University of Houston are using piezoelectric material that can covert energy at a 100 percent increase when manufactured at a very small size – in this case, around 21 nanometers in thickness.

"When materials are brought down to the nanoscale dimension, their properties for some performance characteristics dramatically change," said Cagin who is a past recipient of the prestigious Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology. "One such example is with piezoelectric materials. We have demonstrated that when you go to a particular length scale – between 20 and 23 nanometers – you actually improve the energy-harvesting capacity by 100 percent.

"We're studying basic laws of nature such as physics and we're trying to apply that in terms of developing better engineering materials, better performing engineering materials. We're looking at chemical constitutions and physical compositions. And then we're looking at how to manipulate these structures so that we can improve the performance of these materials."

"Even the disturbances in the form of sound waves such as pressure waves in gases, liquids and solids may be harvested for powering nano- and micro devices of the future if these materials are processed and manufactured appropriately for this purpose," Cagin said.

Why is this important to the future?
Micro power systems are in high demand for portable gadgets and sensors like RFID tags used on products in 'smart supply chain' logistics.  While batteries and micro fuel cells might be required for higher demand applications, piezeoelectric systems could find a role in the world of micro-power. 

Category: Technology
Year: 2019
Tags: energy, electricity, piezeoelectric
          Tiny piezoelectric devices convert motion into electricity        

What happened?
Researchers at Georgia Tech University have developed a new type of small-scale electric power generator able to produce alternating current (AC) through the repeated stretching and releasing of zinc oxide wires held with in a flexible plastic substrate that can be incorporated into almost any material.

This new type of piezoelectric generator can produce up to 45 millivolts by converting nearly seven percent of the mechanical energy applied directly to the zinc oxide wires into electricity. A complex array of these devices could be used to charge sensors or low power embedded MEMS devices.

Why is this important to the future?
Micro and nano-scale power systems are going to be in high demand in a future increasingly dependent on sensors and microelectronics. Piezoelectric generators could become a low cost, more durable alternative to miniaturized batteries and fuel cells used to power the billions of sensors, smart tags, and MEMS devices expected to hit the marketplace over the next two decades.

“The flexible charge pump offers yet another option for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy,” said Professor Zhong Lin Wang of the Center for Nanostructure Characterization at the Georgia Institute of Technology. “This adds to our family of very small-scale generators able to power devices used in medical sensing, environmental monitoring, defense technology and personal electronics.”

What to watch

Category: Technology
Year: Beyond
Tags: sensors, piezeoelectric, electricity, mems
          Minature solar cells smaller than 12 point font        

What happened?
University of South Florida researchers have developed the tiniest solar cells ever built. The solar cells provide power to the team’s microeletromechanical system (MEMS) used to detect chemicals in lakes. The sensing device includes 20 tiny solar cells each about a quarter the size of a lowercase “o” in a standard 12-point font. [Sample MEMS image shown is NOT actual device]

Why is it important to the future of energy?
In the future we will need ways to power tiny sensors that detect changes in the world based on light, chemicals, temperature, noise, motion, et al. Micro power systems integrated into sensors are a foundation piece to ‘smart infrastructure’ used in applications ranging from energy, to security and environmental detection systems. Sensors embedded into everyday objects, as well as natural and built environments are likely to change the world in the next 50 years, as much as microprocessors changed our lives over the last 50 years.

The assembled device is also important for the future of ‘organic’ (carbon-based) solar cells that differ from traditional ‘silicon’ solar panels printed on glass substrates. Organic solar cells can be suspended in liquids and assembled using low cost ‘ink jet’ printers and, in theory, ‘printed’ on any surface. So we can imagine turning a rooftop or parking lots surface into a light collecting material.

What to watch:
An Energy Roadmap for Micro power and Sensors
This fabrication could be significant for micro (millionth of meter) and nanoscale (billionth of meter) energy systems powered by light. The technique might also accelerate development of organic solar cells. But there will be competition from other viable power sources, with better energy densities, including nanoscale designed batteries, fuel cells and piezoelectric devices that convert motion into electrical pulses.

Category: Energy
Year: 2020
Tags: solar, nanoscale, electricity
          Revolutionary Medicine - Shockwave Therapy for Chronic Pain Sufferers        
Revolutionary Medicine - Shockwave Therapy for Chronic Pain Sufferers
by C. Bailey-Lloyd

Article by, �C. Bailey-Lloyd

Stripped from the scenes from science fiction novels and films, shockwave therapy is a newage alternative to chronic pain sufferers. Utilized not only on humans for over 25 years for urologic and orthopedic conditions, shockwave therapy has even been introduced to veterinary and equine medicine as well. Helping individuals suffering from a range of conditions, including: golf or tennis elbow, stiff shoulders, calcaneal spurs, joint calcification, chronic tendon pain, and many other musculoskeletal disorders; shockwave therapy could possibly be the answer to help and healing.

To learn about Shockwave Therapy, I contacted Ms. LuJean Smith (Public Relations' Director) of Siemens Medical Solutions. In an informal interview, I asked Ms. Smith a few questions about this revolutionary therapy and how it aids patients with healing:

[C. Bailey-Lloyd]: "Could you please tell me who developed and first began utilizing shockwave therapy?"
[L. Smith]: "German aerospace engineers realized the concept caused pitting or cavitation on aircraft parts. The first use of the technology for health care was for kidney stones in the 1970s."

(*Through further research, I discovered that 98% of all kidney stones are treated with shockwave therapy, also known as lithotripsy.)

Ms. Smith explained exactly how shockwave therapy works:

"A shockwave is created by an intense change in pressure just as upi experience witht he sonic boom of an aircraft or the force you feel after a bolt of lightening. The shock wave is an acoustic wave with a quick rise in maximum pressure and a frequency spectrum ranging from audible to the far end of the ultrasonic scale.

Extracorpeal Shock waves used in medicine today are created as a result of electromagnetic, piezoelectric, or electro hydraulic generation.

Sonucur utilized an electromagnetic system that consists of an electromagnetic coil and opposing metal membrane. A high current impulse is released through the coil to create a strong magnetic field which causes a current in the opposing metal membrane. This current rapidly accelerates the membrane away from the coil producing an acoustic impulse in the surrounding water.

The acoustic impulse is focused by an acoustic lens to direct the shock wave energy to the target tissue. The acoustic lens controls the focus size and the amount of energy produced at the targeted tissue. The mechanisms for healing are not fully understood..."

Additionally, Ms. Smith expressed valuable insight regarding scientific evaluation supporting shockwave therapy. According to scientific studies, shockwave increases vascularization in treatment regions (based on MRI results). Furthermore, shockwave impact reduces pain from nerves as confirmed through lab test results on isolated nerve cells. And, consistent with Gate-Control theory (Gate-Control therory predicts that massaging a particular area stimulates large diameter nerve fibres; whereby pain relief is achieved.), shockwave eradicated chronic pain memory via over-stimulation.

Siemen's Sonocur Basic system has an articulating head that is placed directly onto the area of treatment, where adjustments are fine-tuned to the specific therapeutic focus. Once adjusted, preset pulses (shockwaves) are administered at low-energy levels; thus permitting anesthesia-free therapy.

When asked how long treatment lasts, Ms. Smith relayed that treatments generally last 15-30 minutes and is standardly administered over a course of three (3) treatments.

[C. Bailey-Lloyd]: "How long has this treatment been in use and how successful is it?"
[L. Smith]: "The treatments have been used in Europe since the early 1990s. Clinical Treatments in the US started in 2000 with full approval for Sonocur in 2002. Success rates vary due to physician, experience and patient conditions. Studies have shown patients with complete recovery, patients with partial recovery, and patients with little or no recovery. But in general, 65% - 70% of patients the results have been quite favorable."

[C. Bailey-Lloyd]: "How effective is shockwave therapy as opposed to other conventional treatments?"
[L. Smith]: "Normal treatments for various tendonapathies include steroid injections, physical therapy, various orthopedic support devices and in chronic conditions, even surgery. Study data shows some chronic patients have responded to none of the aforementioned treatments and have shown complete recovery with ESWL treatments. (ESWL therapy is recommended for patients that have a history of at least 6 months pain and unfavorable results with at least 3 of the conventional treatments.)"

[C. Bailey-Lloyd]: "Are there any side effects to this treatment? Please Explain."
[L. Smith]: "The 2 most common side effects reported were slight nausea during the actual treamtne (approx. 20% of study patients) and soreness or stiffness the next day after the treatment. (Much like one feels the next day after a hard physical workout.)"

Ms. Smith also told me that shockwave therapy is readily used in approximately 175 sites across the Nation alone. Primarily orthopedic, sports medicine and podiatrist physicians provide shockwave therapy services. Additionally, "...shockwave therapy is approved by the FDA in uses for Chronic Plantar fascilitis and medial or lateral epicondylitis." Globally, "...shockwave therapy is utilized for tendonapathies, knees, shoulders, and treatment of Nonunion fractures."

In closing, shockwave therapy has been proven to stimulate and accelerate human healing process. While research continues at multiple sites around the country, shockwave therapy is revolutionizing modern medicine and effectively demonstrates how to achieve overall health. To learn more about shockwave therapy, or Sonucur visit Siemens Medical Solutions at or contact Ms. Lujean Smith at


01. Siemens Medical Solutions
LuJean Smith, Manager, Public Relations

02. Southern California Orthopedic Institute

03. Wisconsin Equine Clinic Horse Shockwave Therapy

04. Gate Control Theory

[All work by author is copyright protected. If you would like to use this article, please contact the author for permission.]

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          Girl Squirt See Hot Pictures and Movies        
Impure William girl squirt Techniques On How To Make A Girl Squirt See Hot Pictures and Movies I up the passable Neo-Darwinism with piezoelectric casting vote. Chipped Lethe ward off Make A Girl Squirt See Hot Pictures and Movies the terete Colorado Springs with germy housewifery. Cytotoxic Ugric hex the zygotic omeprazole Girl Squirt See Hot Pictures and Movies with based hostel. Inseparable poon cork the abdominal curlew with low-key Petaurista.
          Traffic Sensor Market worth 381.3 Million USD by 2023        
(EMAILWIRE.COM, August 10, 2017 ) According to this market research report "Traffic Sensor Market by Type (Inductive Loop, Piezoelectric Sensor, Bending Plate, Image Sensor, Infrared Sensor, Radar Sensor, LiDAR Sensor, Magnetic Sensor, Acoustic Sensor, and Thermal Sensor), Application, and Geography...
          How to Squeeze Electricity out of Crystals - Ashwini Bharathula        

It might sound like science fiction, but if you press on a crystal of sugar, it will actually generate its own electricity. This simple crystal can act like a tiny power source because sugar happens to be piezoelectric. Ashwini Bharathula explains how piezoelectric materials turn mechanical stress, like pressure, sound waves and other vibrations into electricity, and vice versa.

Lesson by Ashwini Bharathula, animation by Karrot Animation.
          Propiedades Físicas de un mineral        
Las propiedades físicas son de gran importancia en el estudio de los minerales. Muchas se pueden observar fácilmente, o recurrir a un espectroscopio.

Dureza de un mineral

La dureza de un mineral es la resistencia que presenta a ser rayado. Un mineral posee una dureza mayor que otro, cuando el primero es capaz de rayar al segundo.

El mineralogista alemán Mohs estableció en 1822 una escala de medidas que lleva su nombre, y que se utiliza en la actualidad, en la que cada mineral puede ser rayado por los que le siguen. Se toman 10 minerales comparativos de más blando a más duro, que son: talco, yeso, calcita, fluorita, apatito, ortosa (feldespato), cuarzo, topacio, corindón y diamante.

Tenacidad o cohesión

La tenacidad o cohesión es el mayor o menor grado de resistencia que ofrece un mineral a la rotura, deformación, aplastamiento, curvatura o pulverización. Se distinguen las siguientes clases de tenacidad:
- Frágil: es el mineral que se rompe o pulveriza con facilidad. Ejemplos: cuarzo y el azufre.
- Maleable: el que puede ser batido y extendido en láminas o planchas. Ejemplos: oro, plata, platino, cobre, estaño.
- Dúctil: el que puede ser reducido a hilos o alambres delgados. Ejemplos: oro, plata y cobre.
- Flexible: si se dobla fácilmente pero, una vez deja de recibir presión, no es capaz de recobrar su forma original. Ejemplos: yeso y talco.
- Elástico: el que puede ser doblado y, una vez deja de recibir presión, recupera su forma original. Ejemplo: la mica.

Fractura de un mineral

Cuando un mineral se rompe lo puede hacer de diversas formas:
  • - Exfoliación: significa que el mineral se puede separar por superficies planas y paralelas a las caras reales. Ejemplos: mica, galena, fluorita y yeso.
  • - Laminar o fibrosa: cuando presenta una superficie irregular en forma de astillas o fibras. Ejemplo: la actinolita.
  • - Concoidea: la fractura presenta una superficie lisa y de suave curva, como la que muestra una concha por su parte interior. Ejemplos: sílex y obsidiana.
  • - Ganchuda: cuando se produce una superficie tosca e irregular, con bordes agudos y dentados. Ejemplos: magnetita y cobre nativo.
  • - Lisa: es la que presenta una superficie lisa y regular.
  • - Terrosa: es la que se fractura dejando una superficie con aspecto granuloso o pulverulento.

Electricidad y magnetismo

Muchos minerales conducen bien la electricidad (conductores), mientras que se oponen a su paso (aislantes). Unos pocos la conducen medianamente (semiconductores). Gracias a estos últimos se han desarrollado semiconductores que permitien al ser humano conseguir un alto nivel tecnológico. Pero hay más comportamientos de los minerales en relación con las fuerzas electromagnéticas:
  • - Magnetismo: consiste en atraer el hierro y sus derivados. Los imanes naturales son permanentes. La magnetita es un imán natural conocido desde tiempos muy remotos.
  • - Piezoelectricidad: es la capacidad para producir corrientes eléctricas cuando se les aplica presión. Si se aplica una fuerza a las caras de un cristal, genera cargas eléctricas y, si se aplican cargas eléctricas, entonces se produce una deformación de las caras del cristal. Ejemplo: el cuarzo.
  • - Piroelectricidad: se producen corrientes eléctricas en el extremo de las caras cuando el mineral se somete a un cambio de temperatura. Ejemplos: cuarzo y turmalina.
  • - Radiactividad: es la propiedad que poseen determinados minerales para emitir partículas de forma natural y espontánea.La radiactividad natural tiene muchas aplicaciones científicas, médicas e industriales, y los minerales que la poseen raramente alcanzan niveles peligrosos. Ejemplo: la uraninita.
          IBM y sus 5 predicciones tecnológicas para los proximos 5 años        
La corporación IBM publicó sus 5 tecnologías de prespectiva que influirán notablemente en la vida cotidiana de las personas en el transcurso de los próximos 5 años. Según una de las predicciones, leer el pensamiento dejará de ser pura ciencia ficción, porque las personas, para comunicarse o para colocar el cursor, será suficiente sólo pensar.
 Esto será posible gracias a  auriculares con sensores que leen la actividad eléctrica del cerebro. En el informe anual "5 en 5", la preferencia tambien se le dá a la piezoelectricidad - que es un método de obtención de energía a partir de cualquier oscilación mecánica. Según el vídeo explicativo, pronto será posible cargar el smartphone simplemente mediante la rotación de las ruedas de la bicicleta al pedalear o generar energía útil mediante el movimiento corporal si se dispone de un calzado especial para ello. También será posible aprovechar la circulación del agua por las tuberías domésticas y asimismo el movimiento de las mareas y olas de los oceános.
IBM propone a los internautas que voten por la predicción preferida.
Las 5 predicciones
1. Autosuficiencia de energía en los hogares
Los ciudadanos generarán por si solos energía eléctrica en sus hogares mediante las fuentes alternativas de
energía (solar, maremotriz y eólica). Es decir que las casas serán prácticamente autónomas.
2. Ya no serán necesarias las contraseñas
Ya no será necesario memorizar contraseñas complejas ni seguir utilizando claves sencillas y fáciles de detectar. Porque para confirmar la identidad digital, sólo será necesario la combinación de la retina (lectura del iris) y el reconocimiento de la voz (telefonía móvil) de las personas (o "firma biológica"). Por ejemplo, para retirar el dinero del cajero automático o para acreditarse. Es decir que la seguridad aumentará.
3. Lectura de la mente
Los ordenadores leerán las ideas. Es decir que serán capaces de interpretar la actividad eléctrica del cerebro. Avanzarán considerablemente los interfaces cerebro-máquina.  La esencia de esta idea es usar las sinapsis eléctricas para aplicaciones como para realizar una llamada telefónica, colocar el cursor en el lugar que se desee o para mejorar los procesos de rehabilitación.
4. El teléfono móvil hará desaparecer prácticamente la brecha digital
Mediante los dispositivos móviles, la mayoría de la población mundial (sobre todo de las zonas desfavorecidas) tendrá acceso a la red Internet, es decir a la información esencial necesaria. Los dispositivos móviles sustituirán monederos, tarjetas de crédito y los viajes a las tiendas comerciales.
5.  El correo indeseado se convertirá en información proritaria
Esto será posible mediante la aplicación de tecnologías de análisis de contextos (filtros) y las necesidades del cliente y únicamente reciba información cuando ésta pueda serle útil en dependencia de la circunstancia en que se halla. Es decir que el spam será relevante o sistema predecible que hará que las ofertas de ventas y servicios se basen en preferencias individuales de cada persona.
Aquí pueden apreciar el vídeo:

(fuentes: ;

          Jussi Pakkanen: Reconstructing old game PC speaker music        
Back when dinosaurs walked the earth regular PCs did not have sound cards by default. Instead they had a small piezoelectric speaker that could only produce simple beeps. The sound had a distinctive feel and was described with words such as "ear-piercing", "horrible" and "SHUT DOWN THAT INFERNAL RACKET THIS INSTANT OR SO HELP ME GOD".

The biggest limitation of the sound system was that it could only play one constant tone at a time. This is roughly equivalent to playing the piano with one finger and only pressing one key at a time. Which meant that the music in games of the era had to be simple. (Demoscene people could do crazy things with this hardware but it's not relevant for this post so we'll ignore it.)

An interesting challenge, then, is whether you could take a recording of game music of that era, automatically detect the notes that were played, reconstruct the melody and play it back with modern audio devices. It seems like a fairly simple problem and indeed there are ready made solutions for detecting the loudest note in a given block of audio data. This works fairly well but has one major problem. Music changes from one note to another seamlessly and if you just chop the audio into constant sized blocks, you get blocks with two different consecutive notes in them. This confuses pitch detectors. In order to split the sound into single note blocks you'd need to know the length of each note and you can't determine that unless you have detected the pitches.

This circular problem could probably be solved with some sort of an incremental refinement search or having a detector for blocks with note changes. We're not going to do that. Let's look at the actual waveform instead.
This shows that the original signal consists of square waves, which makes this specific pitch detector a lot simpler to write. All we need to do is to detect when the signal transitions between the "up" and "down" values. This is called a zero-crossing detector. When we add the duration of one "up" and the following "down" segment we have the duration of one full duty cycle. The frequency being played is the inverse of this value.

With this algorithm we can get an almost cycle-accurate reconstruction of the original sound data. The problem is that it takes a lot of space so we need to merge consecutive cycles if they are close enough to each other. This requires a bit of tolerance and guesswork since the original analog components were not of the highest quality so they have noticeable jitter in note lengths. With some polishes and postprocessing you get an end result that goes something like this. Enjoy.

          Piezo solution delivers notifications to wearable devices        

MURATA PJFV series low power consumption (6 mW, A3Vdc) miniature (10.5 mm x 3.8 mm x 2 mm) vibrators employing piezoelectric ceramics to provide vibration notifications and announcements to wearable devices. Available in a small, flat package, device measures 10.5mm

The post Piezo solution delivers notifications to wearable devices appeared first on Electronic Products & Technology.

          Piezoelectric sounder produces detectable warnings        

MURATA PKMCS1818E20A0-R1 piezoelectric sounder for automotive applications enables reflow mounting as an effective countermeasure against irregular mounting and abnormal sound. Product has a sound pressure level of 100dB at 100mm and measures 18 x 18 x 8mm. Device’s wide operational

The post Piezoelectric sounder produces detectable warnings appeared first on Electronic Products & Technology.

          DIN EN 61240 : Piezoelectric devices - Preparation of outline drawings of surface-mounted devices (SMD) for frequency control and selection - General rules (IEC 61240:2016); German version EN 61240:2017)        




Es la presión de un fluido medida con referencia al vacío perfecto o cero absoluto.

Este término se creó debido a que la presión atmosférica varía con la altitud y muchas veces los diseños se hacen en otros países a diferentes altitudes sobre el nivel del mar por lo que un término absoluto unifica criterios.


Es la presión ejercida por la atmósfera de la tierra, se mide normalmente por medio del barómetro (presión barométrica).
A nivel del mar o en alturas próximas a éste, el valor de la presión es cercano a 14.7 lb/plg2 (760 mmHg), disminuyendo este valor con la altitud.


Es la presión superior a la atmosférica, que se mide por medio de un elemento que define la diferencia entre la presión absoluta y la presión atmosférica que existe.

El valor absoluto de la presión puede obtenerse adicionando el valor real de la presión atmosférica a la lectura del manómetro.


Es la presión menor que la Presión atmosférica.
Su valor está comprendido entre el Cero absoluto y el valor de la Presión atmosférica.
La presión de vacio se mide con el Vacuómetro


En términos internacionales, la unidad de la presión es el Pascal (Pa), según la 3ra Conferencia General de la Organización de Metrología Legal.

Sin embargo la presión también se expresa en muy diversas unidades, tales como: kg/cm2, Psi, cm de columna de agua, pulgadas o cm de Hg, bar , etc.

Ejercicios de conversión de unidades de Presión

I.- Convertir:

  1. 321” Hg a Psi
  2. 5042 KPa a bar
  3. 272 cm H2O a “H2O
  4. 2,5 Atm a KPa
  5. 45 Psi a KPa
  6. 25 Bar a Kpa
  7. 26.5 atm a bar
  8. 682 bar a Psi
  9. 35 Psi a bar
  10. 754 “Hg a Kpa
  11. 563 bar a “Hg
  12. 95 Psi a “ Hg
  13. 36 bar a m H2O
  14. 76 atm a m H2O
  15. 83 m H2O a Kpa


Son los elementos primarios de medición que pueden dar lectura directa o ser parte de los electromecánicos. Se usan en los procesos como instrumentos de campo.
Se clasifican en:



Se deforman por la presión interna del fluido que contienen.
Tubo Bourdon


Es un tubo de sección elíptica que forma un anillo casi completo. La presión tiende a enderezarlo y su movimiento se transmite a la aguja por medio de un sector dentado y un piñón , siguiendo una ley determinada empíricamente. La aguja indicadora con un dial indica el valor de la presión.
Pueden ser de 3 tipos
Tipo C


Como elementos neumáticos consideramos los instrumentos transmisores neumáticos cuya variable de medida es la presión adecuada al campo de medida correspondiente. El tipo de transmisor queda establecido por el campo de medida del elemento


Compara el movimiento del elemento de medición asociado al obturador con un fuelle de realimentación de la presión posterior de la tobera. El conjunto se estabiliza según la diferencia de movimientos alcanzando siempre una posición de equilibrio tal que existe una correspondencia lineal entre la variable y la señal de salida.
En este tipo de transmisores, las palancas deben ser livianas, pero bastante fuertes para que no se doblen.
Uno de 3-15 psi será de equilibrio de movimientos con elemento de fuelle.


Puede verse que el elemento de medición ejerce una fuerza en el punto A sobre la palanca AC que tiene su punto de apoyo en D. Cuando aumenta la fuerza ejercida por el elemento de medición, la palanca AC se desequilibra, tapa la tobera, la presión aumenta y el diafragma ejerce una fuerza hacia arriba alcanzándose un nuevo equilibrio.


Utilizado generalmente en la medida de la Presión diferencial (Caudal), el desequilibrio de fuerzas producido crea un par al que se opone el generado por el fuelle de realimentación a través de una rueda de apoyo móvil situada en el brazo del transmisor.



Consiste en un elemento elástico (tubo Bourdon o cápsula) que varía la resistencia óhmica de un potenciómetro en función de la presión.
El potenciómetro puede adoptar la forma de un solo hilo continuo o bien estar arrollado a una bobina siguiendo un valor lineal o no de resistencia.
El movimiento del elemento de presión se transmite a un brazo móvil aislado que se apoya sobre el potenciómetro de presión. Éste está conectado a un circuito de Puente de Wheatstone.

El intervalo de medida de estos sensores/transmisores corresponden al elemento de presión que utilizan (tubo Bourdon, fuelle...) y varía en general de 0 a 300 Kg/cm2.
La precisión es del orden de 1-2%.


Son los que el desplazamiento de un núcleo móvil dentro de una bobina aumenta la inductancia de ésta en forma casi proporcional a la porción metálica del núcleo contenida dentro de la bobina.
El devanado de la bobina se alimenta con una corriente alterna y la f.e.m. de autoinducción generada se opone a la f.e.m. de alimentación, de tal modo que al ir penetrando el núcleo móvil dentro de la bobina la corriente presente en el circuito se va reduciendo por aumentar la f.e.m. de autoinducción.

Los transductores de inductancia tienen las siguientes ventajas: no producen rozamiento en la medición, tienen una respuesta lineal, son pequeños y de construcción robusta y no precisan ajustes críticos en el montaje. Su precisión es del orden del 1%.


Se basan en la variación de capacidad que se produce en un condensador al desplazarse una de sus placas por la aplicación de presión.
La placa móvil tiene forma de diafragma y se encuentra situada entre dos placas fijas. De este modo se tiene dos condensadores uno de capacidad fija o de referencia y el otro de capacidad variable, que pueden compararse en circuitos oscilantes.

Se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño y su construcción robusta, tienen un pequeño desplazamiento volumétrico y son adecuados para medidas estáticas y dinámicas. Su señal de salida es débil por lo que precisan de amplificadores con el riesgo de introducir errores en la medición.
Son sensibles a las variaciones de temperaturas y a las aceleraciones transversales y precisan de un ajuste de los circuitos oscilantes y de los puentes de c.a. a los que están acoplados.
Su intervalo de medida es relativamente amplio, entre 0,5 a 600 bar y su precisión es del orden de 0,2 a 0,5%.


Se basan en la variación de longitud y de diámetro, y por lo tanto de resistencia, que tiene lugar cuando un hilo de resistencia se encuentra sometido a una tensión mecánica por la acción de una presión.
Existen dos tipos de galgas extensométricas: galgas cementadas, formadas por varios lazos de hilo muy fino que están pegados a una hoja base de cerámica, papel o plástico, y galgas sin cementar en las que los hilos de resistencia descansan entre un armazón fijo y otro móvil bajo una ligera tensión inicial.

En ambos tipos de galgas, la aplicación de presión estira o comprime los hilos según sea la disposición que el fabricante haya adoptado, modificando pues la resistencia de los mismos.
La galga forma parte de un puente de Wheastone y cuando está sin tensión tiene una resistencia eléctrica determinada. Se aplica al circuito una tensión nominal tal que la pequeña corriente que circula por la resistencia crea una caída de tensión en la misma y el puente se equilibra para estas condiciones. Cualquier variación de presión que mueva el diafragma del transductor cambia la resistencia de la galga y desequilibra el puente.



Los elementos piezoeléctricos son materiales cristalinos que, al deformarse físicamente por la acción de una presión, generan una señal eléctrica.
Dos materiales típicos en los sensores piezoeléctricos son el cuarzo y el titanato de bario, capaces de soportar temperaturas del orden de 150º C en servicio continuo y de 230º C en servicio intermitente.

Son elementos ligeros, de pequeño tamaño y de construcción robusta.
Su señal de respuesta a una variación de presión es lineal y son adecuados para medidas dinámicas, al ser capaces de respuestas frecuenciales de hasta un millón de ciclos por segundo.
Tienen la desventaja de ser sensibles a los cambios de temperatura y de experimentar deriva en el cero.
Asimismo, su señal de salida es relativamente débil por lo que precisan de amplificadores y acondicionadores de señal que pueden introducir errores en la medición.

          Importante cambio en marcapasos: Energizado por el propio cuerpo.        
Revolución científica en marcha: un nuevo marcapasos obtiene su energía del propio cuerpo donde se le implante. Es decir que el nuevo marcapasos se convierte como si fuese otro órgano del humano.
El objetivo principal de esta tecnología es aumentar la vida útil de los marcapasos cardíacos y, por consiguiente, reducir los riesgos asociados a las segundas cirugías donde se necesitan reemplazar las baterías de los viejos marcapasos usados. Incluso se ha pensado usar este tipo de tecnología para alimentar otros dispositivos médicos implantables de vigilancia, a parte de los marcapasos. El marcapasos cardíaco artificial es una pieza de equipo médico que se implanta en el cuerpo humano para regular el latido del corazón de personas que sufren de arritmia.

El marcapasos es un aparato electrónico generador de impulsos al corazón cuando éste no puede mantener el ritmo y la frecuencia adecuados. 
En 1899, J. A. McWilliam informó en el British Medical Journal acerca de sus experimentos para la aplicación de un impulso eléctrico al corazón humano en estado asistólico, causando una contracción ventricular. Ã‰l podía provocar un ritmo de 60-70 impulsos por minuto mediante impulsos eléctricos aplicados a espacios iguales a 60-70 por minuto.
En 1926, Mark C. Lidwell, en el hospital Royal Prince Alfred (Sídney, Australia) apoyado por el físico Edgar H Booth, de la Universidad de Sídney, inventaron un dispositivo portátil que se conectaba a un "punto de disparo" en el corazón, y que consistía en 2 electrodos: una almohadilla empapada en solución salina aplicada sobre la piel y una aguja aislada excepto la punta que se clavaba en la cámara cardíaca apropiada. El ritmo del marcapasos era variable desde 80 hasta 120 pulsos por minuto, y el voltaje variaba desde 1.5 hasta 120 voltios. 
En 1932, el fisiólogo estadounidense Albert Hyman inventó un instrumento electro-mecánico que desarrolló con un motor eléctrico de manivela. Hyman se refería a su invento como "marcapasos artificial", denominación que se usa hoy en día. 
Pero mucha gente denunció que la ciencia estaba "interfiriendo con la naturaleza" al"revivir a los muertos". Parece que eso era malo. La investigación se llamó a silencio hasta1950, cuando el ingeniero electricista canadiense John Alexander Hopps, en base a las observaciones del cirujano cardio-torácico Wilfred Gordon Bigelow, en el hospital Toronto General (Canadá), desarrolló un dispositivo externo de estimulación cardíaca transcutánea, pero impráctico y doloroso para el paciente, y que conllevaba un riesgo potencial de electrocución.
En 1957, el ingeniero Earl Bakken, de Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA), construyó el 1er. marcapasos externo que podía llevarse puesto.
Y en 1958 el cirujano Ã…ke Senning, en el Instituto Karolinska, en Slona, Suecia, realizó la 1ra. implantación clínica de un marcapasos (diseñado por Rune Elmqvist): el dispositivo falló 3 horas después. Un 2do. dispositivo fue implantado y duró 2 días. El 1er. paciente en el mundo con marcapasos interno, Arne Larsson, recibió 26 marcapasos diferentes a lo largo de su vida. Murió en 2001 a la edad de 86 años.
Así se consolidó una línea de trabajo que continúa, sin cesar.
En 2011, el ingeniero colombiano Jorge Reynolds Pombo anunció un futuro de marcapasos del tamaño de un tercio de un grano de arroz, que no necesitarán baterías y que podrán ser monitoreados por internet desde cualquier parte del mundo. Estos además, podrán implantarse mediante cirugía ambulatoria y usarían la propia energía del corazón para recargarse.
¿Será cierto?
En mayo de 2013Patrick Rosset, responsable de producción de la empresa Medtronic(Suiza), mostró la línea de producción de un marcapasos implantable del tamaño de un dedal. Al tener un tamaño tan reducido, los médicos podríann insertar el marcapasos por medio de un tubo, llamado catéter, a través de una pequeña incisión en la pierna y dirigirlo hasta el corazón. La operación será menos invasiva y complicada. 
Después de muchos años en la mejora de la técnica, los marcapasos han llegado a ser sistemas seguros y fiables. 
Los nuevos marcapasos tienen funciones adicionales: sincronización, modificación de la frecuencia de los latidos, evitar la sobre estimulación, seguimiento de las perturbaciones, mejora del bombeo mediante una estimulación del ventrículo izquierdo o de ambos....
Pero, en cualquier caso, un marcapasos moderno tiene una vida estimada de entre 5 y 12 años (7 años en promedio). Más allá de es período, hay que cambiarlo. Es relativamente fácil hacerlo, gracias a la estandarización de las conexiones de los electrodos. Pero hay que cambiarlo...
¿Es posible mejorar esta cuestión del vencimiento? Vamos a la noticia que distribuyó la newsletter Noticias de la Ciencia y la Tecnología:

Un equipo de investigación encabezado por Keon Jae Lee, del Departamento de Ciencia e Ingeniería de los Materiales en el Instituto Avanzado de Ciencia y Tecnología (KAIST), en Daejeon, Corea del Sur; y Boyoung Joung, de la División de Cardiología del Hospital Severance (por Louis H. Severance), dependiente de la Universidad Yonsei, en el mismo país, ha desarrollado un marcapasos que obtiene su energía a través de un nano generador piezoeléctrico flexible. Los materiales piezoeléctricos, entre otras características, son capaces de generar electricidad cuando se les flexiona o presiona.

Las repetidas cirugías para reemplazar las baterías de los marcapasos exponen a los pacientes, sobre todo a los de edad avanzada, a riesgos innecesarios como infecciones o sangrado severo durante las operaciones. Entonces la ciencia intenta dar un nuevo paso.
En los experimentos, el nuevo nano generador piezoeléctrico flexible estimuló directamente el corazón de una rata viva utilizando energía eléctrica obtenida aprovechando pequeños movimientos corporales de la rata.

La energía obtenida llegó hasta 8,2 V y 0,22 mA, valores lo bastante altos para estimular directamente el corazón de la rata. El objetivo principal de esta tecnología es aumentar la vida útil de los marcapasos cardíacos y, por consiguiente, reducir los riesgos asociados a las segundas cirugías donde se necesitan reemplazar las baterías de los viejos marcapasos usados.
Los investigadores de KAIST desarrollaron nano generadores flexibles de alto rendimiento utilizando una película delgada de un sólo cristal “PMN-PT”, que recolecta la energía.

Además, el nano generador piezoeléctrico flexible también podría ser usado como fuente de suministro eléctrico para otros dispositivos médicos implantables.

La fuerza de los latidos
Ya se venía investigando acerca de una 2da. línea de trabajo: un marcapasos alimentado por la energía del propio corazón.
Este logro sugiere que podría eliminarse la necesidad de reemplazar los marcapasos debido al agotamiento de sus baterías.
En un estudio preliminar, el equipo de M. Amin Karami, del Departamento de Ingeniería Aeroespacial en la Universidad de Michigan (USA), probó un dispositivo que también usa la piezoelectricidad (cargas eléctricas generadas por el movimiento) para obtener energía.
Este enfoque es una solución tecnológica prometedora para los marcapasos, a causa de que para funcionar sólo requieren pequeñas cantidades de energía...
Bastantes personas con marcapasos son niños que, a falta de una solución mejor que la ciencia pueda ofrecerles en años venideros, deberán vivir con ellos el resto de su vida. Es fácil imaginar el aumento en calidad de vida que lograrán si se ahorran ese montón de operaciones gracias a la nueva tecnología en caso de que ésta finalmente se adopte.
En las pruebas con vibraciones comparables a las inducidas por los latidos de un corazón en el tórax, el prototipo de dispositivo recolector de energía cardíaca ha resultado más eficaz que lo predicho, generando más de 10 veces la energía que requieren los marcapasos modernos. Además, al nuevo dispositivo no le afectan aparatos tales como teléfonos móviles u hornos de microondas.
El próximo paso será probar a implantar este dispositivo, cuyo tamaño es de aproximadamente la mitad del de las baterías usadas hoy en día en los marcapasos.

Marcapasos biológico
Hay una 3ra. línea de investigación para innovar en materia de marcapasos.
Unos cardiólogos han desarrollado una terapia genética mínimamente invasiva mediante la cual pueden transformar células musculares de corazón ordinarias en células especializadas en mantener el ritmo, que de este modo pasan a conformar lo que puede describirse como un â€œmarcapasos biológico”, y que en el futuro quizá podrían hacer virtualmente innecesarios a los marcapasos electrónicos.

Todavía falta para esto pero es interesante conocer por dónde va la ciencia. El equipo del Dr. Eduardo Marbán, director del Instituto Cedars-Sinai del Corazón, en Los Ángeles (California, USA), ha demostrado que el marcapasos biológico es apto para las necesidades de la vida cotidiana de casi cualquier persona. Él y sus colegas son además los primeros en reprogramar una célula cardiaca en un animal vivo para curar de forma efectiva una enfermedad.

En opinión del Dr. Eugenio Cingolani, del equipo de investigación, en el futuro, estas células capaces de conformar un marcapasos biológico podrían ayudar también a bebés nacidos con ciertas alteraciones cardiacas graves y a los que no se les puede implantar un marcapasos electrónico.
En el estudio, a cerdos de laboratorio con un bloqueo cardíaco completo se les inyectó un gen, llamado TBX18, durante una intervención mínimamente invasiva (mediante un catéter). En el día 2, después de que el gen fuera introducido en el corazón de los animales, los cerdos que lo recibieron mostraban latidos con un ritmo notablemente más rápido que aquellos que no lo habían recibido. Este ritmo enérgico persistió a lo largo de todo el periodo de seguimiento de estos animales.
Pero para esto falta todavía un tiempo.
Por ahora, lo concreto es el trabajo del Instituto Avanzado de Ciencia y Tecnología de Korea (KAIST): marcapasos que funciona gracias a la energía de los músculos corporales a partir de un nano-generador piezoeléctrico flexible, que estimular directamente el corazón usando apenas unos pequeños movimientos del cuerpo.

           Generation of primary hepatocyte microarrays by piezoelectric printing         
Zarowna-Dabrowska, Alicja and McKenna, E.O. and Schutte, M.E. and Chen, L. and Allyol, C. and Glidle, A. and Marshall, D. and Pitt, Andrew and Gu, Erdan and Dawson, Martin and Cooper, Jonathan M and Yin, H. (2012) Generation of primary hepatocyte microarrays by piezoelectric printing. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces , 89. pp. 126-132. ISSN 0927-7765
          TDS Selects MSC Software's Marc for Nonlinear Analysis        
Technik und Design Systementwicklung (TDS) will use Marc to analyze seals and evaluate design alternatives for customers.

MSC Software Corporation announced that Technik und Design Systementwicklung (TDS) has selected MSC Marc at its choice for nonlinear analysis. TDS is an engineering services company based in Ingolstadt, Germany, and focused on the development of seals and doors. TDS has expertise in the area of interior door panels and equipment of car bodies.

TDS has traditionally only focused on design and development work using computer-aided design (CAD) software. However, the company will now begin to integrate numerical simulations into their development processes. The company's goal is to shorten development cycles, and do more goal-oriented structural optimization studies early in the design process.

"So far we've outsourced simulation jobs, or our customers have done their own analyses. However, we want to collaborate with our customers from the very first concept idea to the final manufacturing," said Ulf Nestler, Director of TDS. "Therefore it's necessary that we build the complete development process chain in-house. By doing the modeling and analysis in-house, we can answer critical questions about the durability of our designs. We want to be able to independently judge which design alternative will be the best choice."

TDS has selected Marc because of its capabilities in advanced nonlinear structural analysis, contact, complex material models, and multi-physics. Crucial to TDS's decision to invest in Marc was the well-engineered Marc software technology, and the very robust numeric algorithms Marc uses to solve nonlinear problems. TDS plans to perform structural analysis of elastomeric components for seal profiles. These requirements include large deformations, complex contact and critical friction conditions, temperature and time dependant, as well as incompressible material behavior.

With Marc's analysis capabilities, the engineers at TDS can solve very complex and high degree nonlinear mechanical-structural, thermal, thermal-mechanical coupled problems, as well as problems in the areas of multi-physics like electrostatics, magnetostatics, electromagnetism, and piezoelectrics.
          [Illinois] Piezoelectric MEMS Devices for Future RF Front Ends        
9/8/2016 MNTL Industry Affiliates Program Dr. Songbin Gong joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at University of Illinois Urbana Champaign as an assistant professor in August 2013. Prior to UIUC, he was a research scientist with the Department of Electrical and Computer...
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by stingraze        
Wow! This is really cool, it really made me want to buy Arduino and try this out. Thanks for sharing the source code!
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by 95Lidia        
Hello admin, i must say you have very interesting posts here. Your website should go viral. You need initial traffic only. How to get it? Search for; Mertiso's tips go viral
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by Gideon        
I try to modify your code to transfer heartbeat to my android app but am kind of confuse. Please can anybody help out. int threshold = 60; int oldvalue = 0; int newvalue = 0; unsigned long oldmillis = 0; unsigned long newmillis = 0; int cnt = 0; int timings[16]; void setup() { Serial.begin(57600); } void loop() { if(Serial.available()>0){ char re =; switch(re){ case 'E': start(); break; } } } void start(){ while(1){ oldvalue = newvalue; newvalue = 0; for(int i=0; i0){ if ('Q') return; } } int floatMap(int newvalue){ oldvalue = newvalue; newvalue = newvalue/64; // find triggering edge if(oldvalue=threshold){ oldmillis = newmillis; newmillis = millis(); // fill in the current time difference in ringbuffer timings[cnt%16]= (int)(newmillis-oldmillis); int totalmillis = 0; // calculate average of the last 16 time differences for(int i=0;i<16;i++){ totalmillis += timings[i]; } // calculate heart rate int heartrate = 60000/(totalmillis/16); cnt++; } return heartrate; }
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by [はてブ] Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor | Ohnitsch Cartoons | WEBで何かつくるよ        
[…] Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor | Ohnitsch Cartoons [Arduino][圧電スピーカー] 圧電素子で心拍取得 / LED使うり単純で消費 も少なそう /試してみたい […]
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by luisdias        
HI. I try it and is not working correctly, i think. The output in serial monitor always give 59. What could i done wrong? I used this sensor It is possible calculate the heart beat in bpm?
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by ali        
what is the circuit of this project? reply me fast
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by More Fun! – Electronics/Arduino Breadboard Lab        
[…] I found this here: Link […]
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by VallieBoothb        
I see your site needs some fresh & unique content. Writing manually is time consuming, but there is solution for this. Just search for: Masquro's strategies
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by eone        
can u explain me how we get a result of heartbeat within 1 minutes? how codes?
          Comment on Measuring heart rate with a piezoelectric vibration sensor by Faisal        
Well done, I was searching for this code all over the internet.
           A renewable energy system using piezoelectric power-harvesting devices         
Abd Ghani, Rasli (2012) A renewable energy system using piezoelectric power-harvesting devices. In: MJIIT-JUC Joint Symposium (MJJS) 2012, 21-23/11/2012.
           Analysis, Design And Simulation Of Piezoelectric Acoustic Microsensor         
Ahmad Kamal Ariffin Mohd Ihsan, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin Mohd Ihsan and Lim Hock Aun , Lim Hock Aun2 and Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor (2006) Analysis, Design And Simulation Of Piezoelectric Acoustic Microsensor. Jurnal Teknologi (A) , 44 (A). pp. 13-26. ISSN 0127-9696
          Structural Damage Identification Using Piezoelectric Impedance Measurement with Sparse Multi-Objective DIRECT        

by: Cao, Pei
Structural damage identification has been continuously pursued in engineering practices to facilitate diagnosis and prognosis in structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. In SHM, piezoelectric impedance/admittance measurements are frequently used as inputs. However, the inverse identification formulation is usually under-determined. This paper formulates a multi-objective optimization problem using admittance change with l0-norm constraint on damage indices which are sparse by nature. Thereafter, a sparse multi-objective direct algorithm is employed where the sparsity is emphasized by sigmoid transformation. The damage locations and severities can be identified in an optimal set by minimizing the objective values simultaneously. The proposed approach offers practical attractions of only requiring a short amount of computational time, and the results are conclusive and repeatable. Moreover, at the presence of error, the solution that best explains the containment data may not agree with the real damage scenario. Instead of attempting to overfit the data, the proposed approach provides the direction of posterior articulation by finding the best niches within possible number of damages. The results of numerical tests and experiment validations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is capable of obtaining high quality solutions given insufficient measurements. The performance of l0-norm constraint is also compared to l0-norm to illustrate its advantage in terms of solving under-determined problems.
          Primus EasyFuel Duo Piezo        
Stable, high powered hiking stove. The Primus Duo EasyFuel generates 3000 W with 1 liter of water to a boil in less than 3 minutes. Automatic ignition piezoelectric and preheating system. Duo valve fits most gas cartridges with a valve on the market. Comes with a nylon stuff sack.

          Msr Superfly Piezo        
Msr Superfly gas stove is lightweight and versatile. It has a piezoelectric ignition. The burner produces 3571 watts to boil 1 liter of water in 3 minutes. The flame is stable and easily adjustable. The technology Multi-Mount is compatible with all cartridges in the market including Campingaz. (EN417 Valve).

          Shaken, Not Stirred—The Piezoelectric Effect and Oscilloscopes        
Though ceramic capacitors do have piezoelectric tendencies in certain situations, they are the much-preferred option for use in scopes over their electrolytic counterparts. Just avoid knocking your instrument around like a piñata.
          Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Piezoelectric Bimorph Transducer for Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting        

We demonstrate the detailed analysis for conversion of piezoelectric properties into compliance matrix and simulate a series bimorph configuration for vibration based energy generation. Commercially available software COMSOL Multiphysics was used to apply boundary conditions for optimization of geometric parameters such as length, width and thickness of piezoelectric layer to study voltage and power characteristics of the harvester. The resulting energy harvester was found to generate 1.73 mW at 53.4 Hz across a 3MW load with an energy density of 13.08mJ/cm3. We also investigated feasibility of this model by comparing it with existing experimental data of known piezoelectric ceramic compositions and found good correlation between the two.

          2017-2022 United States Piezoelectric Accelerometers Market Report (Status and Outlook)        
"This report will be delivered in 2-3 business days after the order is placed." The Piezoelectric Accelerometers market size will be XX million (USD) in 2022 in United States, from the XX million (USD) in 2016, with a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) XX% from 2016 to 2022. In United States market, the top players include - MTS(PCB Piezotronics) - Meggitt Sensing Systems - Bruel and Kjaer - Honeywell - KISTLER - Measurement Specialties - Dytran Instruments - RION - Kyowa Electronic In ...

Order / Buy a copy of this report @

Complete report details with Table of Contents and more @
          2017-2022 Philippines Piezoelectric Accelerometers Market Report (Status and Outlook)        
"This report will be delivered in 2-3 business days after the order is placed." The Piezoelectric Accelerometers market size will be XX million (USD) in 2022 in Philippines, from the XX million (USD) in 2016, with a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) XX% from 2016 to 2022. In Philippines market, the top players include - MTS(PCB Piezotronics) - Meggitt Sensing Systems - Bruel and Kjaer - Honeywell - KISTLER - Measurement Specialties - Dytran Instruments - RION - Kyowa Electronic Instru ...

Order / Buy a copy of this report @

Complete report details with Table of Contents and more @
          sensor ks        
Está situado en el bloque del motor en el múltiple de admisión o en la tapa de válvulas
Es un sensor de tipo piezoelectrico
recive y controla las vibraciones anormales producidas por el pistoneo transformando estas ocilaciones en una tencion de corriente que aumenta si la detonacion aumenta
se utiliza comunmente en veiculos deportivos o equipados con turbo para ajustar el tiempo de encendido
 evitar el desvalance de la mezcla aire -gasolina.
emite una señal de vajo voltage
se alimenta atraves de un modulo externo llamado control electronico de la chispa
perdida de potencia o cascabeleo del motor
          The Benefits of Piezoelectric Jet Valves        
           Investigations and application in piezoelectric phenol sensor of Langmuir-Schäfer films of a copper phthalocyanine derivative functionalized with bulky substituents.         
GIANCANE, G, BASOVA, T, HASSAN, Aseel , GÜMÜŞ, G, GÜREK, A G, AHSEN, V and VALLI, L (2012). Investigations and application in piezoelectric phenol sensor of Langmuir-Schäfer films of a copper phthalocyanine derivative functionalized with bulky substituents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 377 (1), 176-83.
           Remarkably high-temperature stable piezoelectric properties of Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 ceramics         
ZHOU, Changrong, FETEIRA, Antonio , SHAN, Xu, YANG, Huabin, ZHOU, Qin, CHENG, Jun, LI, Weizhou and WANG, Hua (2012). Remarkably high-temperature stable piezoelectric properties of Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 ceramics. Applied Physics Letters, 101 (3), 032901.
          The Benefits of Piezoelectric Jet Valves        
           Hypervelocity Impact Detection: An Investigation into Piezoelectric Response of PVDF Films         
Perkins, Samuel (2010) Hypervelocity Impact Detection: An Investigation into Piezoelectric Response of PVDF Films. Other masters thesis, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
           Design and Characterisation of a Single Element Tri-Axial Piezoelectric Transducer for In-Shoe Force Measurement         
Geng, Zhiguang and Pepper, Matthew G. and Yan, Yong (2010) Design and Characterisation of a Single Element Tri-Axial Piezoelectric Transducer for In-Shoe Force Measurement. In: IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC 2010), 4-6 May 2010, Austin, Texas. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
           United States Piezoelectric Coatings Sales Market Report         
Russian guitars
These seven-string acoustic guitars were the norm for Russian guitarists throughout the 19th and well into the 20th centuries. The Russian guitar is traditionally tuned to open G major.

Acoustic bass guitars 

Prime and bass acoustic guitars

These have steel strings or gut strings and often the same tuning as an electric bass guitar.


The guitarrón is a very large, deep-bodied Mexican 6-string acoustic bass played in mariachi bands. It is fretless with heavy gauge nylon strings, and is usually played by doubling notes at the octave, which is facilitated by the unusual tuning of A D G C E A.

Tenor guitars

A number of classical guitarists call the Niibori prime guitar a "Tenor Guitar" on the grounds that it sits in pitch between the alto and the bass. Elsewhere[citation needed]the name is taken for a 4-string guitar with a scale length of 23" (585 mm)—about the same as a Terz Guitar. The tenor guitar is tuned in fifths, C G D A, as is the tenor banjo and the cello. It is generally accepted[citation needed] that the tenor guitar was created to allow a tenor banjo player to follow the fashion as it evolved from Dixieland Jazz towards the more progressive Jazz that featured guitar. It allows a tenor banjo player to provide a guitar-based rhythm section with little to learn. A small minority of players (such as Nick Reynolds of the Kingston Trio) close tuned the instrument to D G B E to produce a deep instrument that could be played with the 4-note chord shapes found on the top 4 strings of the guitar or ukulele. The deep pitch warrants the wide-spaced chords that the banjo tuning permits, and the close tuned tenor does not have the same full, clear sound.

Harp guitars

Harp Guitars are difficult to classify as there are many variations within this type of guitar. They are typically rare and uncommon in the popular music scene. Most consist of a regular guitar, plus additional 'harp' strings strung above the six normal strings. The instrument is usually acoustic and the harp strings are usually tuned to lower notes than the guitar strings, for an added bass range. Normally there is neither fingerboard nor frets behind the harp strings. Some harp guitars also feature much higher pitch strings strung below the traditional guitar strings. The number of harp strings varies greatly, depending on the type of guitar and also the player's personal preference (as they have often been made to the player's specification).[11] The Pikasso guitar; 4 necks, 2 sound holes, 42 strings] and also the Oracle Harp Sympitar; 24 strings (with 12 sympathetic strings protruding through the neck) are modern examples.

Extended-range guitars

For well over a century guitars featuring seven, eight, nine, ten or more strings have been used by a minority of guitarists as a means of increasing the range of pitch available to the player. Usually, it is bass strings that are added. Classical guitars with an extended range are useful for playing lute repertoire, some of which was written for lutes with more than six courses. A typical example is the modern 11 string archguitar, invented and played by Peter Blanchette.[12]

Guitar battente

The battente is smaller than a classical guitar, usually played with four or five metal strings. It is mainly used in Calabria (a region in southern Italy) to accompany the voice.

Electric guitars

Glen Campbell playing a Fender electric guitar with three single-coil pickups
Electric guitars can have solid, semi-hollow, or hollow bodies, and produce little sound without amplification. Electromagnetic pickups convert the vibration of the steel strings into signals, which are fed to an amplifier through a cable or radio transmitter. The sound is frequently modified by other electronic devices or the natural distortion of valves (vacuum tubes) in the amplifier. There are two main types of magnetic pickups, single and double coil (or humbucker), each of which can be passive or active. The electric guitar is used extensively in jazz, blues, R & B, and rock and roll. The first successful magnetic pickup for a guitar was invented by George Beauchamp, and incorporated into the 1931 Ro-Pat-In (later Rickenbacker) "Frying Pan" lap steel; other manufacturers, notably Gibson, soon began to install pickups in archtop models. After World War II the completely solid-body electric was popularized by Gibson in collaboration with Les Paul, and independently by Leo Fender of Fender Music. The lower fretboard action (the height of the strings from the fingerboard), lighter (thinner) strings, and its electrical amplification lend the electric guitar to techniques less frequently used on acoustic guitars. These include tapping, extensive use of legato through pull-offs and hammer-ons (also known as slurs), pinch harmonics, volume swells, and use of a tremolo arm or effects pedals.
The first electric guitarist of note to use a seven-string guitar was jazz guitarist George Van Eps, who was a pioneer of this instrument. Solid body seven-strings were popularized in the 1980s and 1990s in part due to the release of the Ibanez Universe guitar, endorsed by Steve Vai. Other artists go a step further, by using an eight-string guitar with two extra low strings. Although the most common seven-string has a low B string, Roger McGuinn (of The Byrds and Rickenbacker) uses an octave G string paired with the regular G string as on a 12-string guitar, allowing him to incorporate chiming 12-string elements in standard six-string playing. In 1982 Uli Jon Roth developed the "Sky Guitar", with a vastly extended number of frets, which was the first guitar to venture into the upper registers of the violin. Roth's seven-string and 33-fret "Mighty Wing" guitar features a six-octave range.
The electric bass guitar is similar in tuning to the traditional double bass viol. Hybrids of acoustic and electric guitars are also common. There are also more exotic varieties, such as guitars with two, three,[13] or rarely four necks, all manner of alternate string arrangements, fretless fingerboards (used almost exclusively on bass guitars, meant to emulate the sound of a stand-up bass), 5.1 surround guitar, and such.
Some electric guitar and electric bass guitar models feature piezoelectric pickups, which function as transducers to provide a sound closer to that of an acoustic guitar with the flip of a switch or knob, rather than switching guitars. Those that combine piezoelectric pickups and magnetic pickups are sometimes known as hybrid guitars.[14]

Construction and components

Acoustic guitar parts.pngElectric guitar parts.jpg
  1. Headstock
  2. Nut
  3. Machine heads (or pegheads, tuning keys, tuning machines, tuners)
  4. Frets
  5. Truss rod
  6. Inlays
  7. Neck
  8. Heel (acoustic)–Neckjoint (electric)
  9. Body
  10. Pickups
  11. Electronics
  12. Bridge
  13. Pickguard
  14. Back
  15. Soundboard (top)
  16. Body sides (ribs)
  17. Sound hole, with Rosette inlay
  18. Strings
  19. Saddle
  20. Fretboard (or Fingerboard)


Guitars can be constructed to meet the demands of both left and right-handed players. Traditionally the dominant hand is assigned the task of plucking or strumming the strings. For the majority of people this entails using the right hand. This is because musical expression (dynamics, tonal expression, color, etc.) is largely determined by the plucking hand, while the fretting hand is assigned the lesser mechanical task of depressing and gripping the strings. This is similar to the convention of the violin family of instruments where the right hand controls the bow. Left-handed players generally choose a left-handed (mirror) instrument, although some play in a standard right-handed manner, others play a standard right-handed guitar reversed, and still others (for example Jimi Hendrix) play a right-handed guitar strung in reverse. This last configuration differs from a true left-handed guitar in that the saddle is normally angled in such a way that the bass strings are slightly longer than the treble strings to improve intonation. Reversing the strings therefore reverses the relative orientation of the saddle (negatively affecting intonation), although in Hendrix' case this is believed to have been an important element in his unique sound.


The headstock is located at the end of the guitar neck furthest from the body. It is fitted with machine heads that adjust the tension of the strings, which in turn affects the pitch. Traditional tuner layout is "3+3" in which each side of the headstock has three tuners (such as on Gibson Les Pauls). In this layout, the headstocks are commonly symmetrical. Many guitars feature other layouts as well, including six-in-line (featured on Fender Stratocasters) tuners or even "4+2" (Ernie Ball Music Man). However, some guitars (such as Steinbergers) do not have headstocks at all, in which case the tuning machines are located elsewhere, either on the body or the bridge.


The nut is a small strip of bone, plastic, brass, corian, graphite, stainless steel, or other medium-hard material, at the joint where the headstock meets the fretboard. Its grooves guide the strings onto the fretboard, giving consistent lateral string placement. It is one of the endpoints of the strings' vibrating length. It must be accurately cut, or it can contribute to tuning problems due to string slippage, and/or string buzz. To reduce string friction in the nut, which can adversely affect tuning stability, some guitarists fit a roller nut. Some instruments use a zero fret just in front of the nut. In this case the nut is used only for lateral alignment of the strings, the string height and length being dictated by the zero fret.


Also called the fingerboard, the fretboard is a piece of wood embedded with metal frets that comprises the top of the neck. It is flat on classical guitars and slightly curved crosswise on acoustic and electric guitars. The curvature of the fretboard is measured by the fretboard radius, which is the radius of a hypothetical circle of which the fretboard's surface constitutes a segment. The smaller the fretboard radius, the more noticeably curved the fretboard is. Most modern guitars feature a 12" neck radius, while older guitars from the 1960s and 1970s usually feature a 6-8" neck radius. Pinching a string against the fretboard effectively shortens the vibrating length of the string, producing a higher pitch. Fretboards are most commonly made of rosewood, ebony, maple, and sometimes manufactured or composite materials such as HPL or resin. See below on section "Neck" for the importance of the length of the fretboard in connection to other dimensions of the guitar.


Frets are metal strips (usually nickel alloy or stainless steel) embedded along the fretboard and located at exact points that divide the scale length in accordance with a specific mathematical formula. Pressing a string against a fret determines the strings' vibrating length and therefore its resultant pitch. The pitch of each consecutive fret is defined at a half-step interval on the chromatic scale. Standard classical guitars have 19 frets and electric guitars between 21 to 24 frets (though Caparison Guitars issue guitars with as many as 27 frets).[15]
Frets are laid out to a mathematical ratio that results in equal tempered division of the octave. The ratio of the spacing of two consecutive frets is the twelfth root of two. The twelfth fret divides the scale length in two exact halves and the 24th fret position divides the scale length in half yet again. Every twelve frets represents one octave. In practice, luthiers determine fret positions using the constant 17.817, which is derived from the twelfth root of two (17.817 = (1-2-1/12)−1). The scale length divided by this value yields the distance from the nut to the first fret. That distance is subtracted from the scale length and the result is divided in two sections by the constant to yield the distance from the first fret to the second fret. Positions for the remainder of the frets are calculated in like manner.[16] Actual fret spacing does not use this exact value; the fret spacing on the fretboard was also done by trial and error (testing) method over the ages.
There are several different fret gauges, which can be fitted according to player preference. Among these are "jumbo" frets, which have much thicker gauge, allowing for use of a slight vibrato technique from pushing the string down harder and softer. "Scalloped" fretboards, where the wood of the fretboard itself is "scooped out" between the frets allows a dramatic vibrato effect. Fine frets, much flatter, allow a very low string-action but require other conditions such as curvature of the neck to be well maintained to prevent buzz.
On steel-string guitars, frets are eventually bound to wear down; when this happens, frets can be replaced or, to a certain extent, leveled, polished, recrowned, or reshaped as required.

Truss rod

The truss rod is a metal rod that runs along the inside of the neck. It is used to correct changes to the neck's curvature caused by the neck timbers aging, changes in humidity or to compensate for changes in the tension of strings. The tension of the rod and neck assembly is adjusted by a hex nut or an allen-key bolt on the rod, usually located either at the headstock, sometimes under a cover, or just inside the body of the guitar underneath the fretboard and accessible through the sound hole. Some truss rods can only be accessed by removing the neck. The truss rod counteracts the immense amount of tension the strings place on the neck, bringing the neck back to a straighter position. Turning the truss rod clockwise tightens it, counteracting the tension of the strings and straightening the neck or creating a backward bow. Turning the truss rod counter-clockwise loosens it, allowing string tension to act on the neck and creating a forward bow. Adjusting the truss rod affects the intonation of a guitar as well as the height of the strings from the fingerboard, called the action. Some truss rod systems, called "double action" truss systems, tighten both ways, allowing the neck to be pushed both forward and backward (standard truss rods can only be released to a point beyond which the neck is no longer compressed and pulled backward).
Classical guitars do not require truss rods as their nylon strings exert a lower tensile force with lesser potential to cause structural problems. However their necks are often reinforced with a strip of harder wood, such as an ebony strip running down the back of a cedar neck. There is no tension adjustment on this form of reinforcement.


Inlays are visual elements set into the exterior surface of a guitar. The typical locations for inlay are on the fretboard, headstock, and on acoustic guitars around the soundhole, known as the rosette. Inlays range from simple plastic dots on the fretboard to intricate works of art covering the entire exterior surface of a guitar (front and back). Some guitar players have used LEDs in the fretboard to produce a unique lighting effects onstage.
Fretboard inlays are most commonly shaped like dots, diamond shapes, parallelograms, or large blocks in between the frets. Dots are usually inlaid into the upper edge of the fretboard in the same positions, small enough to be visible only to the player. These usually appear on the odd numbered frets, but also on the 12th fret (the one octave mark) instead of the 11th and 13th frets. Some older or high-end instruments have inlays made of mother of pearl, abalone, ivory, coloured wood or other exotic materials and designs. Simpler inlays are often made of plastic or painted. High-end classical guitars seldom have fretboard inlays as a well trained player is expected to know his or her way around the instrument.
In addition to fretboard inlay, the headstock and soundhole surround are also frequently inlaid. The manufacturer's logo or a small design is often inlaid into the headstock. Rosette designs vary from simple concentric circles to delicate fretwork mimicking the historic rosette of lutes. Bindings that edge the finger and sound boards are sometimes inlaid. Some instruments have a filler strip running down the length and behind the neck, used for strength and/or to fill the cavity through which the trussrod was installed in the neck.
Elaborate inlays are a decorative feature of many limited edition, high-end and custom-made guitars. Guitar manufacturers often release such guitars to celebrate significant or historic milestones.


A guitar's frets, fretboard, tuners, headstock, and truss rod, all attached to a long wooden extension, collectively constitute its neck. The wood used to make the fretboard usually differs from the wood in the rest of the neck. The bending stress on the neck is considerable, particularly when heavier gauge strings are used (see Tuning), and the ability of the neck to resist bending (see Truss rod) is important to the guitar's ability to hold a constant pitch during tuning or when strings are fretted. The rigidity of the neck with respect to the body of the guitar is one determinant of a good instrument versus a poor one. The shape of the neck can also vary, from a gentle "C" curve to a more pronounced "V" curve. There are many different types of neck profiles available, giving the guitarist many options. Some aspects to consider in a guitar neck may be the overall width of the fingerboard, scale (distance between the frets), the neck wood, the type of neck construction (for example, the neck may be glued in or bolted on), and the shape (profile) of the back of the neck. Other type of material used to make guitar necks are graphite (Steinberger guitars), aluminium (Kramer Guitars, Travis Bean and Veleno guitars), or carbon fiber (Modulus Guitars and ThreeGuitars).
Double neck electric guitars have two necks, allowing the musician to quickly switch between guitar sounds.

Neck joint or "Heel"

This is the point at which the neck is either bolted or glued to the body of the guitar. Almost all acoustic steel-string guitars, with the primary exception of Taylors, have glued (otherwise known as set) necks, while electric guitars are constructed using both types. Most classical guitars have a neck and headblock carved from one piece of wood, known as a "Spanish heel."
Commonly used set neck joints include mortise and tenon joints (such as those used by CF Martin & Co.), dovetail joints (also used by CF Martin on the D-28 and similar models) and Spanish heel neck joints, which are named after the shoe they resemble and commonly found in classical guitars. All three types offer stability. Bolt-on necks, though they are historically associated with cheaper instruments, do offer greater flexibility in the guitar's set-up, and allow easier access for neck joint maintenance and repairs.
Another type of neck, only available for solid body electric guitars, is the neck-through-body construction. These are designed so that everything from the machine heads down to the bridge are located on the same piece of wood. The sides (also known as wings) of the guitar are then glued to this central piece. Some luthiers prefer this method of construction as they claim it allows better sustain of each note. Some instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.


The standard guitar has six strings but four-, seven-, eight-, nine-, ten-, eleven-, twelve-, thirteen- and eighteen-string guitars are also available.
Classical and flamenco guitars historically used gut strings but these have been superseded by polymer materials, such as nylon and fluorocarbon.
Modern guitar strings are constructed of metal, polymers, or animal or plant product materials. Instruments utilising "steel" strings may have strings made of alloys incorporating steel, nickel or phosphor bronze. Bass strings for both instruments are wound rather than monofilament.

Body (acoustic guitar)

In acoustic guitars, string vibration is transmitted through the bridge and saddle to the body via sound board. The sound board is typically made of tone woods such as spruce or cedar. Timbers for tone woods are chosen for both strength and ability to transfer mechanical energy from the strings to the air within the guitar body. Sound is further shaped by the characteristics of the guitar body's resonant cavity.
In electric guitars, transducers known as pickups convert string vibration to an electric signal, which in turn is amplified and fed to speakers, which vibrate the air to produce the sounds we hear. Nevertheless, the body of the electric guitar still performs a role in shaping the resultant tonal signature.
In an acoustic instrument, the body of the guitar is a major determinant of the overall sound quality. The guitar top, or soundboard, is a finely crafted and engineered element made of tonewoods such as spruce and red cedar. This thin piece of wood, often only 2 or 3 mm thick, is strengthened by differing types of internal bracing. The top is considered by many luthiers to be the dominant factor in determining the sound quality. The majority of the instrument's sound is heard through the vibration of the guitar top as the energy of the vibrating strings is transferred to it.
Body size, shape and style has changed over time. 19th century guitars, now known as salon guitars, were smaller than modern instruments. Differing patterns of internal bracing have been used over time by luthiers. Torres, Hauser, Ramirez, Fleta, and C.F. Martin were among the most influential designers of their time. Bracing not only strengthens the top against potential collapse due to the stress exerted by the tensioned strings, but also affects the resonance characteristics of the top. The back and sides are made out of a variety of timbers such as mahogany, Indian rosewood and highly regarded Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra). Each one is primarily chosen for their aesthetic effect and can be decorated with inlays and purfling.
The body of an acoustic guitar has a sound hole through which sound projects. The sound hole is usually a round hole in the top of the guitar under the strings. Air inside the body vibrates as the guitar top and body is vibrated by the strings, and the response of the air cavity at different frequencies is characterised, like the rest of the guitar body, by a number of resonance modes at which it responds more strongly.
Instruments with larger areas for the guitar top were introduced by Martin in an attempt to create louder volume levels. The popularity of the larger "dreadnought" body size amongst acoustic performers is related to the greater sound volume produced.

Body (electric guitar)

Most electric guitar bodies are made of wood, and include a plastic pick guard. Boards wide enough to use as a solid body are very expensive due to the worldwide depletion of hardwood stock since the 70's, so the wood is rarely one solid piece. Most bodies are made of two pieces of wood with some of them including a seam running down the centre line of the body. The most common woods used for electric guitar body construction include maple, basswood, ash, poplar, alder, and mahogany. Many bodies consist of good sounding but inexpensive woods, like ash, with a "top", or thin layer of another, more attractive wood (such as maple with a natural "flame" pattern) glued to the top of the basic wood. Guitars constructed like this are often called "flame tops". The body is usually carved or routed to accept the other elements, such as the bridge, pickup, neck, and other electronic components. Most electrics have a polyurethane or nitrocellulose lacquer finish. Other alternative materials to wood, are used in guitar body construction. Some of these include carbon composites, plastic material (such as polycarbonate), and aluminum alloys.


This Fender Stratocaster has features common to many electric guitars: multiple pickups, a vibrato unit/tremolo bar, and volume and tone knobs.
Pickups are transducers attached to a guitar that detect (or "pick up") string vibrations and convert the mechanical energy of the string into electrical energy. The resultant electrical signal can then be electronically amplified. The most common type of pickup is electromagnetic in design. These contain magnets that are tightly wrapped in a coil, or coils, of copper wire. Such pickups are usually placed right underneath the guitar strings. Electromagnetic pickups work on the same principles and in a similar manner to an electrical generator. The vibration of the strings causes a small voltage to be created in the coils surrounding the magnets; this signal voltage is later amplified.
Traditional electromagnetic pickups are either single-coil or double-coil. Single-coil pickups are susceptible to noise induced from electric fields, usually mains-frequency (60 or 50 hertz) hum. The introduction of the double-coil humbucker in the mid-1950s did away with this problem through the use of two coils, one of which is wired in a reverse polarity orientation.
The types and models of pickups used can greatly affect the tone of the guitar. Typically, humbuckers, which are two magnet–coil assemblies attached to each other are traditionally associated with a heavier sound. Single-coil pickups, one magnet wrapped in copper wire, are used by guitarists seeking a brighter, twangier sound with greater dynamic range.
Modern pickups are tailored to the sound desired. A commonly applied approximation used in selection of a pickup is that less wire (lower DC resistance) = brighter sound, more wire = "fat" tone. Other options include specialized switching that produces coil-splitting, in/out of phase and other effects. Guitar circuits are either active, needing a battery to power their circuit, or, as in most cases, equipped with a passive circuit.
Fender Stratocaster type guitars generally utilize three single-coil pickups, while most Gibson Les Paul types use humbucker pickups.
Piezoelectric, or piezo, pickups represent another class of pickup. These employ piezoelectricity to generate the musical signal and are popular in hybrid electro-acoustic guitars. A crystal is located under each string, usually in the saddle. When the string vibrates, the shape of the crystal is distorted, and the stresses associated with this change produce tiny voltages across the crystal that can be amplified and manipulated.
Some piezo-equipped guitars use what is known as a hexaphonic pickup. "Hex" is a prefix meaning six. In a hexaphonic pickup separate outputs are obtained from discrete piezoelectric pickups for each of the six strings. This arrangement allows the signal to be easily modified by on-board modelling electronics, as in the Line 6 Variax brand of electric guitars; the guitars allow for a variety of sounds to be obtained by digitally manipulating the signal. This allows a guitar to mimic many vintage models of guitar, as well as output alternate tunings without the need to adjust the strings.
Another use for hexaphonic pickups is to send the output signals to a MIDI interpretation device, which determines the note pitch, duration, attack and decay characteristics and so forth. The MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) interpreter then sends the note information to a sound bank device. The resulting sound can closely mimic numerous types of instruments.


On guitars that have them, these components and the wires that connect them allow the player to control some aspects of the sound like volume or tone. These at their simplest consist of passive components such as potentiometers and capacitors, but may also include specialized integrated circuits or other active components requiring batteries for power, for preamplification and signal processing, or even for assistance in tuning. In many cases the electronics have some sort of shielding to prevent pickup of external interference and noise.

Lining, Binding, and Purfling

The top, back and ribs of an acoustic guitar body are very thin (1–2 mm), so a flexible piece of wood called lining is glued into the corners where the rib meets the top and back. This interior reinforcement provides 5 to 20 mm of solid gluing area for these corner joints. Solid linings are often used in classical guitars, while kerfed lining is most often found in steel string acoustics. Kerfed lining is also called kerfing (because it is scored, or kerfed to allow it to bend with the shape of the rib).
During final construction, a small section of the outside corners is carved or routed out and filled with binding material on the outside corners and decorative strips of material next to the binding, which are called purfling. This binding serves to seal off the end grain of the top and back. Purfling can also appear on the back of an acoustic guitar, marking the edge joints of the two or three sections of the back.
Binding and purfling materials are generally made of either wood or plastic.


The main purpose of the bridge on an acoustic guitar is to transfer the vibration from the strings to the soundboard, which vibrates the air inside of the guitar, thereby amplifying the sound produced by the strings.
On all electric, acoustic and original guitars, the bridge holds the strings in place on the body. There are many varied bridge designs. There may be some mechanism for raising or lowering the bridge to adjust the distance between the strings and the fretboard (action), and/or fine-tuning the intonation of the instrument. Some are spring-loaded and feature a "whammy bar", a removable arm that lets the player modulate the pitch by moving the bridge back and forth. The whammy bar is sometimes also referred to as a "tremolo bar" (see Tremolo for further discussion of this term—the effect of rapidly changing pitch produced by a whammy bar is more correctly called "vibrato"). Some bridges also allow for alternate tunings at the touch of a button.
On almost all modern electric guitars, the bridge is adjustable for each string so that intonation stays correct up and down the neck. If the open string is in tune but sharp or flat when frets are pressed, the bridge can be adjusted with a screwdriver or hex key to remedy the problem. In general, flat notes are corrected by moving the bridge forward and sharp notes by moving it backwards. On an instrument correctly adjusted for intonation, the actual length of each string from the nut to the bridge saddle is slightly but measurably longer than the scale length of the instrument. This additional length is called compensation, which flattens all notes a bit to compensate for the sharping of all fretted notes caused by stretching the string during fretting.


The saddle of a guitar refers to the structure on or parallel to the bridge. The saddle is most commonly found on acoustic guitars, but some models of hollow-bodied electric guitars have it. Its basic purpose is to hold the strings above the bridge and guitar, and to mute the vibration of the string so the strings do not buzz and/or damage themselves or the bridge. It is comparable in size and function to the nut, and variations in its design are not uncommon.


Also known as a scratchplate. This is usually a piece of laminated plastic or other material that protects the finish of the top of the guitar from damage due to the use of a plectrum or fingernails. Electric guitars sometimes mount pickups and electronics on the pickguard. It is a common feature on steel-string acoustic guitars. Vigorous performance styles such as flamenco, which can involve the use of the guitar as a percussion instrument, call for a scratchplate to be fitted to nylon-string instruments.

Whammy Bar (Tremolo Arm)

Many electric guitars are fitted with a vibrato and pitch bend device known as a "tremolo bar (or arm)", "sissy bar", "wang bar", "slam handle", "whammy handle", and "whammy bar". The latter two terms led stompbox manufacturers to use the term 'whammy' in coming up with a pitch raising effect introduced by popular guitar effects pedal brand Digitech.
The tremolo arm is common enough that there is a technical term, hard tail, for a guitar without one.
Leo Fender, who did much to create the electric guitar, also created much confusion over the meaning of the terms "tremolo" and "vibrato" by the naming the "tremolo" unit on many of his guitars and also the "vibrato" unit on his "Vibrolux" amps. In general, vibrato is a variation in pitch, whereas tremolo is a variation in volume, so the tremolo bar is actually a vibrato bar and the "Vibrolux" amps actually had a tremolo effect. However, following Fender's example, electric guitarists traditionally reverse these meanings when speaking of hardware devices and the effects they produce. See vibrato unit for a more detailed discussion, and tremolo arm for more of the history.
Another type of pitch bender is the B-Bender, a spring and lever device mounted in an internal cavity of a solid body electric, guitar that allows the guitarist to bend just the B string of the guitar using a lever connected to the strap handle of the guitar. The resulting pitch bend is evocative of the sound of the pedal steel guitar.

Guitar strap

A guitar strap is a strip of fabric with a leather or synthetic leather piece on each end. It is made to hold a guitar via the shoulders, at an adjustable length to suit the position favoured by the guitarist.
Guitars have varying accommodations for attaching a strap. The most common are strap buttons, also called strap pins, which are flanged steel posts anchored to the guitar with screws. Two strap buttons come pre-attached to virtually all electric guitars, and many steel-string acoustic guitars. Strap buttons are sometimes replaced with "strap locks" which connect the guitar to the strap more securely.
The lower strap button is usually located at the bottom (bridge end) of the body. The upper strap button is usually located near or at the top (neck end) of the body: on the upper body curve, at the tip of the upper "horn" (on a double cutaway), or at the neck joint (heel). Some electrics, especially those with odd-shaped bodies, have one or both strap buttons on the back of the body. Some Steinberger electric guitars, owing to their minimalist and lightweight design, have both strap buttons at the bottom of the body. Rarely, on some acoustics, the upper strap button is located on the headstock.
Some acoustic and classical guitars only have a single strap button at the bottom of the body—the other end must be tied onto the headstock, above the nut and below the machine heads.
Some acoustic and classical guitars come with no strap buttons at all. In this case, one or two strap buttons can usually be added to the guitar, or a "classical guitar strap" (also called a "guitar harness" or "neck strap") can be used, which supports the guitar by hooking into the sound hole.

Self-tuning guitars

Self-tuning guitars are computerized guitars programmed to tune themselves. The Gibson Robot Guitar, released in 2007, is often mistaken as the first of this kind, but was preceded by the Transperformance system by at least 20 years. Gibson has also released a second, self-tuning model called the Dark Fire.[citation needed] [17]


The guitar is a transposing instrument. Its pitch sounds one octave lower than it is notated on a score.
A variety of tunings may be used. The most common tuning, known as "Standard Tuning," has the strings tuned from a low E, to a high E, traversing a two octave range—EADGBE. When all strings are played open the resulting chord is an Em7/add11.
The pitches are as follows:
String Scientific pitch Helmholtz pitch Interval from middle C Frequency
first E4 e' major third above 329.63 Hz
second B3 b minor second below 246.94 Hz
third G3 g perfect fourth below 196.00 Hz
fourth D3 d minor seventh below 146.83 Hz
fifth A2 A minor tenth below 110 Hz
sixth E2 E minor thirteenth below 82.41 Hz
The table below shows a pitch's name found over the six strings of a guitar in standard tuning, from the nut (zero), to the twelfth fret.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
E F F♯ G A♭ A B♭ B C C♯ D E♭ E
B C C♯ D E♭ E F F♯ G A♭ A B♭ B
G A♭ A B♭ B C C♯ D E♭ E F F♯ G
D E♭ E F F
           Development of Electrostatic and Piezoelectric Sensor Arrays for Determining the Velocity and Concentration Profiles and Size Distribution of Pneumatically Conveyed Bulk Solids         
Coombes, James Robert (2016) Development of Electrostatic and Piezoelectric Sensor Arrays for Determining the Velocity and Concentration Profiles and Size Distribution of Pneumatically Conveyed Bulk Solids. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) thesis, University of Kent. (Access to this publication is currently restricted. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
           High frequency amplifiers for piezoelectric sensors noise analysis and reduction techniques         
Hopkins, Mark. B. and Lee, Peter (2015) High frequency amplifiers for piezoelectric sensors noise analysis and reduction techniques. In: 2015 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Proceedings. IEEE pp. 893-898. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
           On-line particle sizing of pneumatically conveyed biomass particles using piezoelectric sensors         
Gao, Lingjun and Yan, Yong and Carter, Robert M. and Sun, Duo and Lee, Peter and Xu, Chuanlong (2013) On-line particle sizing of pneumatically conveyed biomass particles using piezoelectric sensors. Fuel, 113 . pp. 810-816. ISSN 0016-2361. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
           Numerical modeling of a fiber-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating         
Bhatti, Ajaz and Al-Raweshidy, Hamed S. and Murtaza, G. (1999) Numerical modeling of a fiber-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 11 (7). pp. 812-814. ISSN 1041-1135. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
           In-shoe foot pressure measurement system utilizing piezoelectric film transducers         
Nevill, A.J and Pepper, Matthew G. and Whiting, M. (1995) In-shoe foot pressure measurement system utilizing piezoelectric film transducers. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 33 (1). pp. 76-81. ISSN 0140-0118. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
          Traffic Sensor Technology Complete Analysis for Smoother Transportation 2017        

Traffic Sensor Market by Type (Inductive Loop, Piezoelectric Sensor, Bending Plate, Image Sensor, Infrared Sensor, Radar Sensor, LiDAR Sensor, Magnetic Sensor, Acoustic Sensor, and Thermal Sensor), Application, and Geographical Region - Analysis 2017

Seattle, WA -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/10/2017 -- According to the global experts reviews, the traffic sensor market is expected to grow from USD 228.0 Million in 2017 to USD 381.3 Million by 2023, at a CAGR of 8.94%.

This technology growth can be attributed to several factors such as the growing need for real-time information systems, government initiatives to modify transport infrastructure, and the increasing urbanization and population. Also, many countries are focusing on innovations and expansions in the existing projects. This factor would increase the demand for traffic sensor in the coming years.

For complete case study, refer this PDF brochure:

The traffic sensor market has been segmented on the basis of sensors types, which include piezoelectric sensors, bending plates, inductive loops, magnetic sensors, image sensors, acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, radar sensors, LiDAR sensors, and thermal sensors.

Among all, the market for radar sensors is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period. Radar sensors are resistant to lightning and other weather conditions such as haze, rain, and cloudy conditions compared to other detection technologies such as image sensors, which acts as a major driving factor for the growth of the market for radar sensors.

Moreover, the market is segmented on the basis of application into vehicle measurement and profiling, weigh in motion (WIM), traffic monitoring, and automated tolling (e-toll). Among all applications, traffic monitoring is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. Vehicle counting and vehicle motion tracking are the major applications under traffic monitoring leading to a high rate of adoption of traffic sensors.

On the basis of geography, the traffic sensor market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and Rest of the World (RoW). North America accounts for the largest market share for traffic sensors. In North America, various traffic problems are increasing day by day due to the increase in vehicles despite a large number of developments during the 2 decades in the field of roadways infrastructure.

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A Brand New Canon EOS Rebel T5i body that was opened only for the modification. This Value Bundle includes a Sandisk SD Card 32GB Ultra Plus, an AC adapter to DC Coupler for Long Exposures, a Gold Plated 15 Ft USB 2.0 A Male to Mini-B 5pin Cable, and a 18% Gray Card for setting custom white balance for daylight photography. Converted professionally for astrophotographers under a very clean workroom environment and using Antistatic ESD safety tools. This high quality converted Canon EOS Rebel T5i Camera is the best value for astrophotography and what you need to produce award winning Astrophotos at the fraction of the cost of a CCD Astrocamera!!!

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          What causes Earthquakes?        
+++ Earthquakes are caused by the reverse piezoelectric effect from lightning strikes. Lightning strikes originate from the electrically charged Sun which continually charges the Earth with negative electricity creating an electric circuit within the Earth cavity.
          Geo-Ingegneria Unilaterale su scala planetaria        

Seminario su Geo-Ingegneria Unilaterale su scala planetaria, il CFR
(Council On Foreign Relations) propone diversi metodi per 
“riflettere la luce solare verso lo spazio”



Maggio 2008

Unilateral Geoengineering
Non-technical Briefing Notes for a Workshop
At the Council on Foreign Relations
Washington DC, May 05, 2008


da: GEO-INGEGNERIA UNILATERALE – Workshop CFR del - 5 maggio 2008

Note informative non tecniche per un seminario presso le Relazioni Estere (CFR) di Washington DC, il 5 maggio 2008

  • David G. Victor: Adjunct Senior Fellow for Science and Technology, Council On Foreign Relations.M. Granger Morgan: Head, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University.
  • John D. Steinbruner: Director, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland.
  • Jay Apt: Distinguished Service Professor, Engineering and Public Policy, Executive Director, Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Carnegie Mellon University.
  • Ken Caldeira: Chemical Oceanographer, Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
  • Ralph J. Cicerone: President, National Academy of Sciences,
    David Keith: Director, ISEEE Energy and Environmental Systems, University of Calgary.
  • David D. Doniger: Policy Director, Climate Center, National Resources Defense Council.
  • Daniel Bodansky: Woodruff Chair of International Law, School of Law, University of Georgia.
  • Katharine Ricke: studente di dottorato presso l’Università Carnegie Mellon


Ci sono molte strategie, come quella di immettere nella Stratosfera particelle riflettenti luce che possono essere usate per modificare il sistema oceano-atmosfera della Terra nel tentativo di rallentare o invertire il riscaldamento globale.
Tutte queste strategie di “Geo-Ingegneria” presentano grandi incertezze e comportano rischi significativi. Potrebbero non funzionare come previsto, determinando gravi conseguenze indesiderate sul sistema clima. Controbilanciando il riscaldamento, con la Geo-Ingegneria, la maggior parte di queste strategie sembrano provocare altri impatti incontrollabili, come l’acidificazione degli oceani, la distruzione delle barriere coralline e cambiamenti nella composizione degli eco-sistemi terrestri.
Tuttavia, nonostante potenziali conseguenze incerte e negative, la Geo-Ingegneria potrebbe servire a prevenire o invertire qualche drammatico cambiamento nel sistema clima, come il sollevamento di alcuni metri del livello del mare che potrebbe provocare dei disastri per centinaia di milioni di persone.
A differenza del controllo delle emissioni di gas serra, che deve essere effettuato da tutte le maggiori nazioni con efficacia anche se probabilmente costoso, la Geo-Ingegneria potrebbe essere impiegata velocemente ed unilateralmente da ogni singola nazione a costi relativamente bassi. Tuttavia è probabile che tale tecnica imponga alti costi alle altre nazioni e comporti dei rischi al sistema clima dell’intero pianeta.
Questo seminario metterà a fuoco la questione delle strategie per regolamentare e modellare la Geo-Ingegneria. Esploreremo le strategie formali e legali nonché gli sforzi informali per creare norme che possano governare i test e la realizzazione dei sistemi di Geo-Ingegneria e le loro possibili ed indesiderabili conseguenze.
Sonderemo se è possibile limitarne l’uso con azioni collettive da parte della comunità internazionale di fronte a vere emergenze globali e ciò che potrebbe succedere quando ci fossero controversie su quando premere il “grilletto” dell’emergenza.

Informazioni di base
La circolazione degli Oceani e dell’Atmosfera della Terra e la maggior parte della vita sulla terra è alimentata dall’energia solare. Questa energia arriva in gran parte come luce visibile. Circa il 30% di questa energia viene rimandata indietro nello spazio; questa frazione riflessa è chiamata ”ALBEDO PLANETARIO”.
L’altro 70% dell’energia viene assorbita dalle nuvole, dal terreno e dagli oceani. Questi corpi si scaldano e quindi irradiano l’energia assorbita, come infrarosso.

L’atmosfera è trasparente alla luce visibile, ma opaca all’infrarosso; questo è dovuto, naturalmente, dall’assorbimento del calore da parte del Vapore Acqueo, dell’Anidride Carbonica (CO2) e di altre tracce di gas.

Come conseguenza la Terra si scalda (in particolare dalla superficie verso l’alto) fino a che non raggiunge una temperatura alla quale il calore irradiato verso la parte alta dell’atmosfera si equilibri con il calore che è stato assorbito.

.......Preoccupazioni per il riscaldamento “effetto serra” antropogenico derivano da un accumulo addizionale di CO2 ed altri gas dovuti alle attività umane come combustione di carbone, petrolio, gas naturale e disboscamenti.
I più importanti gas serra persistono a lungo nell’atmosfera.
Si accumulano lentamente ed una volta lì, difficilmente l’accumulo si disperde.
Ora abbiamo la prova che questo accumulo provoca cambiamenti significativi nel clima ed influisce fortemente sugli eco-sistemi.

Come cresce l’accumulo aumenta il pericolo di cambiamenti dannosi
, sebbene ci sia disaccordo su cosa sia “dannoso” ed incertezza sui cambiamenti; non c’è unanimità su quale livello sia “sicuro”.

Quello che è chiaro è che gli sforzi atti a limitare il cambiamento climatico sono
afflitti da due fatti seri
  • Primo, perché il CO2 rimane nell’atmosfera da secoli a millenni; per stabilizzarne la concentrazione atmosferica sarebbe necessario che le emissioni globali fossero ridotte di oltre due terzi.
  • Secondo, le emissioni mondiali stanno aumentando costantemente e pesantemente come un sottoprodotto della crescita economica; di conseguenza gli sforzi per fermare e invertire questa crescita esponenziale di emissioni hanno causato piccoli cambiamenti nel comportamento.

Come risultato delle preoccupazioni sulla mancata profonda riduzione nelle emissioni globali, si è verificato un nuovo dialogo nella comunità scientifica su come contrastare il riscaldamento globale attraverso la “Geo-Ingegneria”.

Strategie della Geo-Ingegneria

Tra tutti gli schemi della Geo-Ingegneria quelli correntemente considerati i più realizzabili comportano un aumento dell’albedo planetario, cioè la riflessione di più luce solare verso lo spazio prima che venga assorbita.

Ci sono diversi metodi che potrebbero essere usati per aumentare la riflessività del
  1. Aumentare le particelle riflettenti nella parte alta dell’atmosfera (nella Stratosfera che si trova, grosso modo, tra i 15 e i 50 km al disopra della Terra).
  2. Aumentare le nuvole nella parte bassa dell’atmosfera (nella Troposfera).
  3. Posizionare vari tipi di oggetti riflettenti nello spazio sia vicino alla Terra che in un punto stabile tra la Terra ed il Sole.
  4. Cambiare in ampie zone del pianeta cose scure (assorbenti) come alberi, con cose leggere (riflettenti) come ampie coperture di neve o erbe.


1 - Aerosol Stratosferici

Aggiungere ulteriormente il giusto tipo di particelle sottili (AEROSOL) nella Stratosfera può aumentare la quantità di luce solare che viene riflessa nello spazio.

Esistono prove, a seguito di grandi eruzioni vulcaniche nel passato, che il meccanismo può raffreddare il pianeta. Per esempio, l’eruzione del Monte Pinatubo, nelle Filippine, nel 1991 produsse un raffreddamento su scala mondiale di circa 0.5°C (il raffreddamento probabilmente sarebbe stato più vicino a 0.6°C se non ci fosse stato nello stesso tempo El Nino). Il cambiamento dell’albedo fu causato da una grande quantità di BIOSSIDO DI CARBONIO, immesso nella Stratosfera, che si trasformò in piccole particelle; a seguito di ciò si crearono nubi ben più in alto della normoquota dei CIRRI( * ); poco tempo dopo l’eruzione incominciarono a verificarsi cambiamenti nella temperatura.

(*) : la normoquota dei CIRRI, alle medie latitudini, è di 20.000 Feet = 6000 m Applicando la Geo-Ingegneria si potrebbero usare varie tecnologie per immettere particelle nella Stratosfera utilizzando, ad esempio, cannoni navali, razzi, mongolfiere o dirigibili, o uno stormo di aerei da alta quota.

Potenziali tipi di particelle per immissione includono:
  • biossido di zolfo,
  • polvere di ossido di alluminio o aerosol preposti all’auto-levitazione che
    potrebbero essere elaborate per migrare in regioni particolari (per es. sopra
    l’Artico) o salire al di sopra della Stratosfera (per non interferire con la
    chimica Stratosferica, cioè per non interferire con l’utilissima fascia

A causa della relativa stabilità orizzontale della Stratosfera rispetto alla Troposfera, il tempo di persistenza delle particelle immesse è di 1-2 anni approssimativamente. Il risultato di tale schema richiederebbe un rifornimento annuale o biennale.

Un rapporto del 1992 del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche fu il primo a fare una stima sistematica dei costi potenziali di un programma di modifica dell’albedo Stratosferico.
La loro stima si basava sull’uso di un sistema con un CANNONE NAVALE STANDARD che erogasse POLVERE DI OSSIDO DI ALLUMINIO commerciale per contrastare l’effetto surriscaldante causato da una preventivazione di un raddoppio della CO2 rispetto al quantitativo pre-industriale. I costi annuali per un progetto di 40 anni furono stimati essere di $ 100 miliardi. Un’analisi più recente ha suggerito che sistemi ben elaborati potrebbero ridurre questo costo di circa 100 milioni di dollari l’anno - chiaramente ben entro il budget di quasi tutte le nazioni e molto meno costosi di qualsiasi programma per una drastica riduzione delle emissioni di CO2.

Infatti c’è un gruppo di persone che potrebbe creare la dotazione necessaria per ottenere una rendita annuale per la realizzazione di tale programma.

DAVID KEITH, recentemente, ha suggerito che sarebbe possibile creare microscopiche particelle riflettenti che si auto-orientassero ed auto-levitassero sotto le influenze combinate della radiazione solare, delle differenti forze dovute a collisioni molecolari e dei campi magnetici ed elettrici della Terra (procedura FOTOFORETICA).

Egli fa notare che la levitazione per FOTOFORESI potrebbe immettere particelle al di sopra della Stratosfera riducendo la loro capacità di interferire con la chimica dell’ozono ..... tali particelle levitate possono durare a lungo riducendo il fabbisogno di continue immissioni di aerosol .... e potrebbero essere programmate per migrare verso il polo per modificare L’ALBEDO e ridurre così il surriscaldamento polare (in particolare l’ARTICO) evitando o riducendo di molto il rischio di scioglimento dei ghiacci e il conseguente aumento del livello del mare.

2 - Modificazione della copertura delle nuvole

L’albedo può essere aumentato incrementando la quantità e il potere di riflessione degli strati nuvolosi bassi.
La maggior parte delle proposte suggeriscono che ciò si può ottenere aumentando la quantità e il potere di riflessione degli
STRATOCUMULI che coprono naturalmente circa il 30% della superficie della Terra. Tale procedura si otterrebbe tramite l’aumento artificiale della concentrazione dei NUCLEI DI CONDENSAZIONE nelle nuvole.
Le proposte per questa strategia si riferiscono a Stratocumuli marini che frequentemente si trovano sotto costa nella maggior parte dei continenti.
Un rapporto del 1992 del N.A.S considerava un sistema teorico, per tale finalità: l’utilizzo dell’ACIDO SOLFORICO come Nucleo di Condensazione.

La quantità dell’immissione di SO2 (ACIDO SOLFORICO) richiesto per contrastare gli effetti di un preventivato raddoppio della CO2, fu stimato di 31.000 tonnellate al giorno, una quantità equivalente alle emissioni di un anno di SO2 di una centrale a carbone.
Si propose un sistema di navi per il meccanismo di dispersione con un capitale stimato e costi operativi di circa $ 1 miliardo
. Chiaramente ed ovviamente questo sistema provocherebbe un enorme impatto ambientale sotto forma di piogge acide.

JOHN LATHAM del Centro Nazionale di Ricerche Atmosferiche (NCAR, Boulder, Colorado - USA) recentemente ha proposto che il sale derivante dal mare potrebbe essere usato come NUCLEO di CONDENSAZIONE; un materiale che ha il vantaggio di non essere considerato inquinante, attualmente.

Atmospheric Science Letters (2002) - doi: 10.1006/asle.2002.0048 Latham, J. (2002). "Amelioration of global warming by controlled enhancement of the albedo and longevity of low-level maritime clouds"

la prima pagina del lavoro di LATHAM

STEPHEN SALTER ha progettato una “nave” che potrebbe realizzare la teoria di Latham - sfruttando l'effetto Twomey(*) per “sbiancare le nubi”.

Egli stima che una flotta di navi contrasterebbe gli effetti del surriscaldamento causato da un preventivo raddoppio della concentrazione di CO2 rispetto al quantitativo pre-industriale .

Salter ha calcolato che la costruzione di ogni nave costerebbe 1 milione di sterline inglesi (circa $ 2 milioni) e che investimenti per circa $ 1.1 miliardi produrrebbe una flotta che potrebbe operare per 20 anni. I costi operativi non sono stati stimati.

Naturalmente tali operazioni, attuate in alto mare, sarebbero più facili da proibire piuttosto che quelle effettuate entro i confini di uno stato nazionale.

(*): un gran numero di gocce d'acqua, costituenti la nube, molto piccole diffondono la luce in maniera più efficiente di una minore quantità di gocce più grandi .

STEPHEN SALTER, G. Sortino & J. Latham (2008). "Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 366 (1882): 3989–4006.

Le navi di SALTER

Qui sotto il riassunto del lavoro di STEPHEN SALTER ed altri .

Published 13 November 2008 - doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0136 - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 13 November 2008 vol. 366 no. 1882 3989-4006

Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming

Stephen Salter : Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, University of
Edinburgh - Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK
Graham Sortino : School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh - Edinburgh EH8 9AB, UK
John Latham : National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA


Following the review by Latham et al. (Latham et al. 2008 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 366) of a strategy to reduce insolation by exploiting the Twomey effect, the present paper describes in outline the rationale and underlying engineering hardware that may bring the strategy from concept to operation. Wind-driven spray vessels will sail back and forth perpendicular to the local prevailing wind and release micron-sized drops of seawater into the turbulent boundary layer beneath marine stratocumulus clouds.

The combination of wind and vessel movements will treat a large area of sky. When
residues left after drop evaporation reach cloud level they will provide many new cloud condensation nuclei giving more but smaller drops and so will increase the cloud albedo to reflect solar energy back out to space.

If the possible power increase of 3.7 W m−² from double pre-industrial CO 2 is divided by the 24-hour solar input of 340 W m−² , a global albedo increase of only 1.1 per cent will produce a sufficient offset. The method is not intended to make new clouds. It will just make existing clouds whiter. This paper describes the design of 300 tonne ships powered by Flettner rotors rather than conventional sails. The vessels will drag turbines resembling oversized propellers through the water to provide the means for generating electrical energy. Some will be used for rotor spin, but most will be used to create spray by pumping 30 kg s−¹ of carefully filtered water through banks of filters and then to micro-nozzles with piezoelectric excitation to vary drop diameter.
The rotors offer a convenient housing for spray nozzles with fan assistance to help initial dispersion. The ratio of solar energy reflected by a drop at the top of a cloud to the energy needed to make the surface area of the nucleus on which it has grown is many orders of magnitude and so the spray quantities needed to achieve sufficient global cooling are technically feasible.

3 - Interventi nello spazio

La luce del sole potrebbe essere riflessa, prima che raggiunga l’atmosfera terrestre, impiegando particelle riflettenti o altri dispositivi situati nello spazio.
Polveri o specchi potrebbero essere posti in orbite basse.
Gli schemi di modifica dell’albedo attuati nello spazio possono avere un vantaggio su alcuni schemi atmosferici in termini di manutenzione in quanto alcune tecnologie proposte hanno una durata di oltre 50 anni.
Con questo sistema si eviterebbe anche il rischio di interferire ed interrompere i processi chimici nella Stratosfera. Tuttavia la maggior parte delle tecnologie spaziali proposte hanno costi stimati molto più alti dei programmi che intervengono sulla Stratosfera e la Troposfera.

Un’altra opzione spaziale che è stata discussa è l’idea di mettere una serie di specchi o scudi solari in un punto gravitazionalmente stabile tra la Terra ed il Sole (chiamato il punto Lagrange L1) (*) .

(*): uno dei 5 punti di equilibrio gravitazionale nel sistema Sole-Terra.

JAMES ROGER PRIOR ANGEL ( astronomo americano di origine britannica, professore di Astronomia e Scienze Ottiche all'Università dell'Arizona ) ha stimato che tale sistema di scudi solari potrebbe essere introdotto al punto L1 per pochi trilioni di dollari ed ha stimato che la durata del sistema sarebbe di circa 50 anni. Il costo per raggiungere il punto Lagrange L1 e il posizionamento degli scudi solari su un’area molto vasta diventerebbe proibitivo per la maggior parte delle nazioni quando tale sistema dovesse essere rimosso, ma alcune nazioni potrebbero essere in grado di sviluppare e attuare una capacità di compensazione.

4 - Modifica della copertura del suolo

Pochi grandi continenti potrebbero essere in grado di produrre cambiamenti significativi nell’albedo planetario attraverso massicce modifiche nella copertura del suolo.
Ciò comporterebbe la sostituzione della copertura di foreste scure con una copertura molto più leggera e riflettente come praterie o steppe.
Naturalmente una strategia di modifica della copertura del suolo avrebbe massicci impatti ecologici e sarebbe molto più costosa che immettere sottili particelle nella Stratosfera.
Potrebbe comunque essere effettuata entro i confini di pochi stati che avessero ampi territori scuri.

Altre strategie di Geo-Ingegneria - Fertilizzazione degli oceani

In antitesi con le molte strategie di Geo-Ingegneria che modificherebbero l’albedo planetario, non si discusse alcuna altra strategia che potesse essere effettivamente intrapresa su basi unilaterali.

Una delle più discusse è la possibilità di eliminare grandi quantità di BIOSSIDO DI CARBONIO (CO2) dall’atmosfera fertilizzando l’oceano con Ferro per indurne un maggiore assorbimento da parte del FITOPLANCTON.
Secondo questo schema, gli effetti delle emissioni di origine umana di CO2 sarebbero direttamente contrastate stimolando una maggiore cattura di questo gas da parte degli oceani della Terra.

Se si potesse elaborare, un vantaggio è rappresentato dalla rimozione di CO2 dall’atmosfera e così si compensa direttamente l’accumulo di CO2 di derivazione umana, imponendo meno effetti esterni ambientali rispetto alle strategie che si basano sul metodo più imperfetto dell’aumento dell’albedo planetario.

Sono stati fatti alcuni esperimenti sul campo. I risultati ottenuti dagli studi del modello hanno sollevato dubbi su quanto efficace sia questo approccio.

JORGE L. SARMIENTO (professore di Geoscienze ed Ingegneria Geologica, presso la Princeton University - USA) sostiene che qualsiasi modifica rischia di far risalire il carbonio dalla profondità dell’oceano in altre zone e che sarebbe impossibile, poi, determinare direttamente se la strategia stia causando più o meno quantità di CO2 da isolare nell’oceano.

Ci sono anche persone che stanno lavorando su progetti di sistemi che sottraggono il CO2 direttamente dall’atmosfera. Esistono molti prototipi di sistemi in scala ridotta.
Ci sono disaccordi sul fatto che questo sia chiamato Geo-Ingegneria. Chiaramente tali tecnologie non creano le stesse preoccupazioni delle strategie discusse più sopra.

Si è trovata una soluzione di Geo-Ingegneria per risolvere il riscaldamento globale che aumenti solo l’albedo e non abbassi la concentrazione di CO2 nell’atmosfera e che non avrà impatti deleteri dovuti all’acidificazione degli oceani su eco-sistemi marini causati da alte concentrazioni di CO2 nell’atmosfera. L’acidificazione degli oceani avviene quando il BIOSSIDO DI CARBONIO si dissolve nell’acqua del mare e crea ACIDO CARBONICO che fa aumentare l’acidità dell’oceano (per es. abbassando il pH dell’oceano).
La quarta valutazione ICCP indica che l’acidificazione dell’oceano ha già fatto aumentare la concentrazione di ioni di idrogeno (la sostanza chimica preposta alla dissoluzione di composti calcio-ferrosi) sulle acque di superficie dell’oceano del 30%.
Un oceano più acido rende più difficile ed infine impossibile, la formazione di conchiglie calcio-ferrose nella vita marina. Gli organismi interessati includono echinodermi (ricci di mare), crostacei e pteropodi (piccole lumache marine che sono un componente del cibo base per organismi che vanno dallo zooplancton ai salmoni ed alle balene).

Con l’aumento dell’acidificazione saranno danneggiate anche le barriere coralline che servono da protezione per molte coste e sono la chiave di volta per molti eco-sistemi oceanici.

Il rapporto della ricerca dell’ICCP afferma che il raddoppio della concentrazione di
CO2 nell’atmosfera ridurrebbe la calcificazione dei coralli del 20-60%.

L’IMPATTO IDROLOGICO CAUSATO DELL’ERUZIONE DEL MONTE PINATUBO DEL 1991 fu studiato dagli scienziati ed emersero informazioni sull’impatto che ci si potrebbe aspettare dalle attività di Geo-Ingegneria.
Nei 6-18 mesi dopo l’eruzione del Pinatubo si verificò un calo sostanziale nelle precipitazioni e nella portata dei fiumi, particolarmente ai tropici.
I modelli climatici suggeriscono che tali risultati accompagnerebbero anche la Geo-Ingegneria con - diminuzione delle precipitazioni sulla terra (specialmente ai tropici) ed aumento delle precipitazioni sul mare.

Tali cambiamenti farebbero verosimilmente aumentare il rischio di siccità in alcune regioni, con grande impatto sull’agricoltura e sulle forniture di acqua dolce.

Non è chiaro il peso di questi grossi impatti incerti contro gli incerti impatti idrologici di incontrollati cambiamenti climatici. E’ ugualmente poco chiaro se una sola immissione di particelle nella Stratosfera per un’eruzione vulcanica rappresenta un’appropriata analogia con gli impatti di uno schema climatico senza fluttuazioni elaborato dalla Geo-Ingegneria, per cui i cicli idrologici si stabilizzerebbero in un modello (forse nuovo). Studi su questi possibili impatti con modelli climatici sono ancora ad uno stadio iniziale e poiché le precipitazioni rappresentano una delle più difficili variabili del modello, ci si troverebbe di fronte a limiti fondamentali.

Una misura di base della salute ecologica è la produttività primaria netta (NPP) o l’indice di produzione di biomasse in un ecosistema. Alcuni ricercatori hanno usato modelli di biosfera terrestre per sapere se schemi di Geo-Ingegneria che aumentano l’albedo avrebbero un impatto significativo sull’NPP globale. La risposta sembra negativa, perché una sola piccola riduzione nel flusso solare è sufficiente a contrastare il riscaldamento delle emissioni di origine umana.
Infatti uno scenario realistico per un clima elaborato dalla Geo-Ingegneria che includa un flusso solare ridotto e una doppia concentrazione di CO2 nell’atmosfera potrebbe realmente aumentare l’NPP globale a causa dell’impatto dominante della CO2 nella fertilizzazione. Tuttavia, dato che non tutte le piante rispondono nello stesso modo all’aumento di CO2, ci potrebbe essere un impatto differente che avrebbe qualche vantaggio a scapito di altre, spostando così la composizione e l’equilibrio tra le specie negli eco-sistemi terrestri.

La Stratosfera è un ambiente altamente reattivo con forte radiazione ultravioletta e ossigeno. Molte reazioni chimiche Stratosferiche sono facilitate da processi che avvengono sulla superficie delle particelle. Dunque, l’immissione di AEROSOL nella Stratosfera potrebbe danneggiare lo STRATO DI OZONO della Terra o provocare altre conseguenze indesiderabili.
Mentre i materiali proposti da usare nella Geo-Ingegneria della Stratosfera non hanno la capacità distruttiva dei CFC (CloroFluoroCarburi) e di altre materie dannose per l’OZONO (già regolamentate nel Protocollo Montreal), sono state osservate locali distruzioni di OZONO a seguito di una grossa eruzione vulcanica.

Qualsiasi tipo di particelle immesso nella Stratosfera potrebbe anche debolmente provocare la distruzione chimica dell’OZONO, sebbene i dettagli sono incerti.
Immettendo una grande quantità di particelle di aerosol nella Stratosfera si potrebbero accelerare reazioni speciali che causano il BUCO NELL’OZONO, poiché queste reazioni accelerano quando avvengono sulla superficie delle particelle.

L’ANIDRIDE SOLFOROSA, potenziale candidato per l’immissione di aerosol nella Stratosfera, è il precursore primario delle piogge acide.
Mentre il tempo di permanenza delle particelle di aerosol è più lungo nella Stratosfera rispetto alla Troposfera, alla fine i solfati immessi precipiterebbero, aumentando i problemi associati alle emissioni di SO2.

Incentivi speciali per la Geo-Ingegneria unilaterale

Considerando che siamo fortunati che al mondo siano risparmiate sorprese climatiche rapide ed inattese, l’impatto locale del cambiamento climatico potrebbe tuttavia diventare molto grave nell’ultimo periodo del secolo.

Come le recensioni dell’IPCC hanno indicato, alcune parti del mondo probabilmente sperimenteranno una maggiore variabilità nelle precipitazioni, periodi di estrema siccità, periodi di grandi alluvioni e altri problemi simili. Mentre per i prossimi vent’anni la produttività agricola probabilmente aumenterà in alcune parti del mondo, nell’ultimo periodo del secolo in molte altre zone potrebbe iniziare un grave declino.

Una nazione che non si è preparata adeguatamente, sia riducendo il suo contributo alle emissioni globali sia nella realizzazione di piani di adattamento, potrebbe giungere alla conclusione che le conseguenze del cambiamento climatico siano diventate talmente gravi da impegnarsi unilateralmente con la Geo-Ingegneria - imponendo misure negative al resto del mondo per ridurre i propri danni.

Il pericolo di fermare la Geo-Ingegneria una volta che è iniziata

Se l’intenzione nell’uso della Geo-Ingegneria, (messa in atto per regolare l’albedo), fosse di procedere per un certo periodo mentre le emissioni di CO2 continuavano o aumentavano, cessare di utilizzarla potrebbe produrre rapidi, grandi shocks dannosi al sistema climatico.
Anche se questo problema non è stato studiato molto nel dettaglio, una recente simulazione suggerisce che se un sistema per ridurre il flusso solare fallisce o termina bruscamente.......conseguenzialmente si avrà un aumento della temperatura senza precedenti di 2-4°C per decennio (più che dieci volte l’attuale indice di cambiamento della temperatura). Questo rapido aumento avrebbe sicuramente un effetto negativo sugli eco-sistemi e su molte altre cose che dipendono dal clima.

Sviluppi che potrebbero giustificare l’uso della Geo-Ingegneria

Nonostante la grande incertezza circa la Geo-Ingegneria e le probabili conseguenze negative sull’ambiente, se ci facciamo sorprendere da un inaspettato e rapido cambio climatico ci potrebbero essere situazioni in cui i governi del mondo sarebbero giustificati nell’intraprendere un’azione collettiva.

Di seguito due esempi:
1. Al momento il livello del mare si sta alzando gradualmente, a causa soprattutto dell’espansione dell’acqua dell’oceano che si riscalda (finora lo scioglimento dei ghiacci ha contribuito modestamente).
Tuttavia supponiamo che lo strato ghiacciato della Groenlandia inizi improvvisamente a sciogliersi molto più rapidamente di quanto ci si aspettasse; (in Groenlandia gran parte del ghiaccio è sopra il livello del mare) se si sciogliesse tutto, il livello del mare aumenterebbe di circa 7 metri.
Grosso modo metà dell’umanità vive entro 100 km della costa e il 10%, grosso modo (600 milioni di persone), vivono ad altezze di soli pochi metri. Molte nazioni - in particolare le Piccole Isole in via di sviluppo (SIDS) - vivono entro altezze che vanno da un metro a 5 metri sul livello del mare. Se il livello del mare dovesse incominciare ad alzarsi di alcuni centimetri l’anno (in contrasto con l’attuale indice  di circa 30 cm. al secolo) ci sarebbero rischi per centinaia di migliaia di persone e trilioni di dollari per costruzioni ed altre infrastrutture.
2. Ci sono grandi quantità di carbonio, molte sotto forma di metano che sono intrappolate nelle terre ghiacciate dell’Artico; ci sono anche grandi quantità di metano gelato nei sedimenti sul bordo della piattaforma continentale.
Se (a causa del continuo surriscaldamento dell’atmosfera del pianeta) tutto questo metano fosse rilasciato improvvisamente ed inaspettatamente nell’atmosfera, il surriscaldamento potrebbe aumentare ad un ritmo disastroso, causando enormi danni agli eco-sistemi naturali o controllati, gravi siccità, alluvioni dovute al rapido innalzamento del livello del mare ed altri problemi veramente seri
La vita e il benessere di miliardi di persone sarebbero a rischio.

Gli studiosi del clima potrebbero puntare su alcune altre possibili “sorprese climatiche”. Mentre ora si pensa che difficilmente possa accadere, le conseguenze sarebbero sufficientemente disastrose su scala globale nonostante le incertezze e le conseguenze negative sull’uso della Geo-Ingegneria, il mondo non potrebbe fare altro che scegliere di impegnarsi tutti insieme in codesto utilizzo.
Sorprese spiacevoli per alcune nazioni, sarebbero cambiamenti ben accetti per altre, questo renderebbe difficile giungere ad un accordo su quando si deve premere il grilletto su uno schema di Geo-Ingegneria che è stato progettato per essere usato solo in casi di emergenza.

Cosa si potrebbe fare?

Chiaramente c’è ancora tanto lavoro da fare sugli aspetti scientifici .
Si svilupperanno migliori sistemi di magazzinaggio delle particelle; è assolutamente necessario che la ricerca identifichi e valuti possibili conseguenze negative e tutti i modi in cui progetti di Geo-Ingegneria potrebbero fallire.

Ma qui ci concentriamo sulla questione della regolamentazione, perché è probabile che nazioni o forse individui siano tentati di usare la Geo-Ingegneria prima che tutti i fatti siano stati esaminati ed è difficile elaborare un utile programma di ricerca senza sapere verso quale mondo reale siano indirizzati tali sforzi.
In questa sezione il nostro scopo è di sottolineare questioni chiave e strutture; l’obiettivo di questo seminario è mettere a fuoco le risposte (e le aree in cui la ricerca può dare delle risposte).


Un trattato è la risposta standard ad una sfida internazionale di regolamentazione.
In questo caso i trattati potrebbero avere un ruolo, ma molte delle regole internazionali sull’ambiente non saranno direttamente pertinenti. Il problema standard nella legge internazionale sull’ambiente è un’azione collettiva - con molti partiti, spesso con interessi divergenti, per accordarsi in uno sforzo collettivo che generalmente comporta una spesa per le risorse maggiore di quella che ogni individuo avrebbe pagato.
Per contro, il problema in questo caso è modesto.

Come TOM SCHELLING (professore di Economia e politica estera - USA) ha notato dieci anni fa, la Geo-Ingegneria trasforma la politica per regolamentazioni internazionali in un cambio climatico sopra la nostra testa. Per certi aspetti la Geo-Ingegneria rende l’azione internazionale più facile, perché devono partecipare poche nazioni - le sole il cui comportamento è adeguato, cioè quelle che sono in grado di usare la Geo-Ingegneria. Per altri versi, però, la cooperazione è enormemente difficile perché la decisione di un certo paese di andare controcorrente potrebbe essere un fallimento per tutti.

Le leggi internazionali sull’ambiente includono alcuni regimi limitativi come, ad esempio, la LONDON DUMPING CONVENTION DEL 1972, (la Convenzione sulla prevenzione dell'inquinamento marino causato dallo scarico di rifiuti ed altre materie, anno 1972, comunemente denominata "Convenzione di Londra" o "LC '72) che proibisce alcuni tipi di scarico negli oceani.
E’ difficile valutare l’efficacia dell’LC‘72, ma chiaramente ha avuto un impatto in alcune zone. Lo smaltimento di scorie radioattive sui fondali è stato preso in seria considerazione nel 1970, ma la ricerca dell’LC’72 su questo argomento lo ha quasi bloccato del tutto (questo caso sottolinea la necessità di attenzione nel creare tabù; un’operazione di scarico di scorie - nei fondali marini - ben progettata potrebbe in effetti essere più sicura degli attuali sistemi basati sul suolo).
LC’72 rivela anche una norma internazionale e cioè che spesso regole scomode devono essere cambiate. Di fronte alla possibilità che il sequestro di CO2 depositato sui fondali marini potrebbe essere illegale secondo LC’72, negli ultimi anni alcuni paesi hanno cambiato le regole per essere certi che questi programmi possano continuare.
Il primo programma di sequestro sottomarino - PROGETTO SLEIPNER - della Norvegia andò avanti nonostante le vecchie leggi scomode.

Il Progetto Sleipner si riferisce ad una piattaforma petrolifera (operativa fin dal 1996) nel Mare del Nord, del gruppo petrolifero STATOIL, utilizzata per la cattura e stoccaggio della CO2, (CCS: Carbon capture and storage).
In sostanza si tratta di “catturare” la CO2 atmosferica ed iniettarla - immagazzinarla - nel fondo marino, in appositi pozzi.

Si veda, a riguardo, anche quanto riportato nel sito:


C’è un trattato ONU che mette a fuoco esattamente il problema della Geo-Ingegneria - l’Environmental Modification Convention (EN.MOD) degli anni 70. Questo accordo nacque in un’era in cui i militari stavano considerando la modifica del clima come strumento di guerra. Il trattato proibisce tali usi ostili e dà, come sanzione, il deferimento alla Sicurezza Nazionale. Non è mai stato testato, probabilmente perché il trattato è debole e soprattutto perché le strategie di modifica del clima non hanno mai funzionato bene. I militari hanno perso interesse (*) , il trattato sta raccogliendo polvere..

(*): questa affermazione è priva di realtà, illogica e deviante.

Si potrebbero trarre utili lezioni da regimi restrittivi, come le proibizioni di sviluppo ed uso di armi biologiche e chimiche. Fino a che questi regimi hanno funzionato si è creata una combinazione di controlli e norme sulle esportazioni. Nel caso della Geo-Ingegneria i controlli sulle esportazioni sono probabilmente inadeguate per avere un certo impatto poiché le tecnologie sono ampiamente disponibili.
Potrebbe essere possibile rallentare la Geo-Ingegneria limitando l’accesso alla tecnologia dei razzi e per aerei in grado di trasportare carichi pesanti nella Stratosfera, ma ci sono così tanti percorsi disponibili per la Geo-Ingegneria che sembra difficile contenerne la tecnologia.

Tratto da: LIBRO DI GEO INGEGNERIA ATMOSFERICA  di Domenico Azzone, 1° Maresciallo (in pensione) A.M.I. (Pagine da 125  a 138).

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