Ambi Pur’s New TVC Focuses on Refreshing Monsoons        
Shrutee K/DNS

Mumbai, August 4, 2017:-Ambi Pur’s Smelly to Smiley campaigns have always challenged and conquered the toughest and most pungent odours in a real time set up with live experiments. The third edition of the Smelly to Smiley campaign focuses on yet another very relevant odour issue that most have us have encountered – the problem of the lingering monsoon odour that plagues all Indian households during the season. While monsoons have always stood for happy, fun times, growing up brings us face-to-face with monsoon-related issues. Akin to the advertisement format that has become synonymous to Ambi Pur, the new TVC is a real-life experiment at a real consumer’s home, where a unique sensorial challenge is conducted. After all, how often would you come across people with blind folds and pegs on their noses?

This interesting play on the senses reveals that a home, which may look immaculately clean, may, in reality, be perceived as unclean because it is doused with the damp monsoon odour. This TVC, conceptualized by Grey Group, features Brand Ambassador Boman Irani who presents a reality check in context to the damp, lingering odours that specially torment during monsoons. Launching nationally on August 03, the TVC positions the New and Improved Ambi Pur, with odour-clear technology, as the perfect solution to restore freshness to your favorite season. 

The recently released findings from a survey conducted by AC Nielsen, commissioned by Ambi Pur, unearthed the extent of suffering that these damp, musty odours impose on all of us. In fact, 9 out of every 10* women felt that monsoons bring issues within the household such as drying clothes inside, that lead to a musty damp odour.
 
Nidhish Garg, Brand Manager, P&G Home Care India, comments: “To drive awareness regarding the New & Improved Ambi Pur with patented odour-clear technology, we have launched the 3rdleg of the very popular Smelly to Smiley campaign. The brand stays with its ideology of putting the product to torture tests against relevant odour issues, and this time we take on the musty odour that all Indians face during monsoons. The TVC captures live reaction of a consumer who experiences the monsoon odour when visiting a friend’s home that looks perfectly clean. The same consumer sees Ambi Pur in action and how it completely eliminates the monsoon odour as opposed to temporarily concealing it with a fragrance. This format of communicating with our consumers through live experiments helps in building brand salience and credibility.”
 

Ambi Pur’s Brand Ambassador, Boman Irani further adds, “Monsoon is my favourite season but we all know the challenges that come with it, right from drying clothes inside to the rigorous cleaning regime. The new TVC shows that the house that looks clean may not actually smell clean due to the overwhelming moisture-heavy air giving out a feeling of lack of hygiene. It is always fun shooting for Ambi Pur ads, as well as extremely reassuring to witness the brand live up to toughest home odours in live experiments, year on year! This time too, Ambi Pur in its new avatar, truly eliminated the musty monsoon odour. So, it’s time to stop being enslaved by this moldy smell and refresh your monsoons with Ambi Pur.”

The New & Improved Ambi Pur uses a distinct formulation that focuses on odour removal, not just on emitting the fragrance. P&G has created a trademarked ‘Odour-clear technology’, which has been brought to India in July. The new technology fights odour at a molecular level, neutralizing it completely, and leaving behind a subtle fragrance, thus truly eliminating all tough odours.

All Ambi Pur fragrances, including the newly launched Sandalwood fragrance, are available across stores at a price of Rs. 299.

Agency Credits:
Lead Creative Agency: GREY Düsseldorf
Local Support: GREY Mumbai
Production House: Casta Diva Pictures, Mumbai

About Procter & Gamble
P&G serves consumers in India with one of the strongest portfolios of trusted, quality, leadership brands, including Vicks ®, Ariel®, Tide®, Whisper®, Olay®, Gillette®, AmbiPur®, Pampers®, Pantene®, Oral-B®, Head & Shoulders® and Old Spice®. P&G operates through 3 entities in India of which 2 are listed on NSE & BSE. The listed P&G entities are: ‘Procter & Gamble Hygiene & Health Care Limited’ and ‘Gillette India Limited’, whereas the unlisted entity (which is a 100% subsidiary of the parent company in the U.S) operates by the name ‘Procter & Gamble Home Products Private Ltd.’ In the last 12 years, P&G’s signature CSR program P&G Shiksha has built and supported 1000 schools that will impact the lives of 10,00,000 underprivileged children across the country by providing them with access to education. Please visit http://www.pg-India.com for the latest news and in-depth information about P&G India and its brands.

          Molecular Sales Consultant***Kansas Territory*** - Assurex Health        
Columbia, MO - All times are in Mountain Daylight Time.
Job ID 2017-6542
Location US
US-MO-Columbia
Location Details Kansas City, KS
Posted Date 7/28/2017
More information about this job:

Overview:

At Assurex The Molecular Sales Consultant plays a significant role in the success of Assurex
          Molecular Sales Consultant***Pittsburgh North Territory*** - Assurex Health        
Mason, OH - All times are in Mountain Daylight Time.
Job ID 2017-6569
Location US-OH-Mason
US
Location Details Pittsburgh, PA
Posted Date 8/9/2017
More information about this job:

Overview:

At Assurex The Molecular Sales Consultant plays a significant role in the success of Assurex
          ECO-IMPERIALISMO, HIDROELÉCTRICAS, MENTIRAS Y VERDADES        
Esta mañana me encontré este artículo en el muro de un amigo http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2705631/el_quimbo_colombia_enelendesas_low_carbon_hydroelectric_racket.html. El artículo por un imperialismo ecológico critica el imperialismo económico, pero su crítica, aunque razonable en algunos puntos, no deja de tener el trasfondo errado de muchos ecologistas: ¡imponer condiciones a los países subdesarrollados para que los ecologistas de los desarrollados sigan contaminando en paz! Pero lo irónico es que The ecologist critica una de las fuentes de generación de energía renovable más bonitas, eficientes y que puede darle a la gente que vive en ese territorio que llaman Colombia fuentes de riqueza. Además, la crítica se hace de manera ligera pasando por alto las consideraciones del International Panel on Climate Change acerca de sus ventajas.  En el punto que acierta es precisamente en los abusos del estado sobre las comunidades, donde vale la pena resaltar que el aprovechamiento del potencial hidroeléctrico no da derecho a expropiar, en favor del que sea. 

Este escrito consta de varias partes. El primero es que hay una confusión entre inversión extranjera y concesión de monopolios extranjeros, donde los ecologistas aciertan. Y para la aclaración cito a un a un profesor de la Universidad de New York, a Murray Rothbard. Luego, muestro que tras el ecologismo hay también imperialismo, pero uno que suele gustarle a ciertas izquierdas, uno que impone condiciones insoportables a los países pobres, para que los ecologistas nórdicos no tengan cargos de conciencia por prender la calefacción, dado que en las zonas tropicales hay selvas que se beneficiarán de su cariño al planeta. En ella explico que hay una falacia en cuanto a la consideración que hace el artículo de las hidroeléctricas, incluso basándome en el IPCC. Posteriormente, se muestra que las hidroeléctricas además de ser tecnologías que producen energía eficiente sin emisiones de CO2 (no se discute acá el tema de si el cambio climático es originado o no por el hombre) es una oportunidad de ofrecer energía barata. El precio de la energía se relaciona con el crecimiento económico, inclusive una disminución de la demanda de energía puede ser un indicio previo a una crisis económica. La energía eléctrica es clave en la industria y una energía más barata puede disminuir costos. Finalmente, ante un planteamiento del artículo que menciona las pérdidas de energía en transmisión y distribución (o sea los cables que llevan la energía de la planta a su casa) que denuncian a que se deben ¿a las leyes de la física? ¿a viabilidad técnica pero no económica? ¿a ineficiencia? Esto porque consideraban que era más importante disminuir las pérdidas que construir hidroeléctricas. Hasta cierto punto, por física, las pérdidas en transmisión son inevitables, no sé cuál sea el punto. Pero eso no es una excusa para no mejorar la oferta. 

IMPERIALISMO ECONÓMICO Y MONOPOLIO ESTATAL
El imperialismo ecológico es una realidad. Sin embargo, muchos partidos de izquierda al ser ecologistas están convencidos de que no es imperialismo. Ya Hayek denunciaba que existía una imposición de países ricos y contaminados que obligaban a países pobres y selváticos a generar amplias áreas protegidas. Esto genera como dice don Alpiniano en El Tomismo Desdeñado unos beneficios a unas personas que no les corresponden, imponiendo cargas a otros que no las merecen. Sin embargo, luego de que en estos países -como Colombia- nadie puede hacer nada, ni tiene cómo adquirir recursos para explotar sus ventajas ahí sí llegan empresas extranjeras que, haciendo convenios con el gobierno, adquieren los beneficios que los nacionales no han tenido. 

Hace Murray Rothbard, citado por el instituto Mises Hispano una distinción importante entre la sana inversión extranjera y la alianza de empresas ricas con gobiernos ineptos pobres:

"Los conservadores norteamericanos insisten en particular en resaltar ante los países retrasados las grandes posibilidades y la importancia de las inversiones privadas procedentes de los países avanzados, y les incitan a crear un clima favorable a las mismas, de modo que no se vean sujetas al instigamiento de los gobernantes. Todo ello es muy cierto, pero, una vez más, a menudo es irreal, dada la situación de estos países. Estos conservadores caen persistentemente en el error de no saber distinguir entre las inversiones exteriores legítimas del mercado libre y las basadas en concesiones monopolistas y en donaciones de vastas extensiones de tierras otorgadas por los Estados subdesarrollados. En la medida en que las inversiones exteriores se basan en monopolios y en agresiones contra el campesinado, en esa misma medida adquiere el capitalismo extranjero las características de los señores feudales y debe ser combatido con los mismos medios"

En este sentido, estoy de acuerdo con el artículo -y en contra del imperialismo económico- en que el estado confunde inversión extranjera con monopolio extranjero. Y el monopolio es desagradable venga de donde venga, sea el monopolio estatal tan "nacional", como cualquier otro. Por eso, cuando Robledo, senador del Polo, defendía a los arroceros por la imposición ridícula de tener que comprar nuevas semillas estaba promoviendo algo anarcocapitalista y liberal, aunque con argumentos de izquierda. 

Lo mismo pasa en este caso, si se trata de una inversión privada ¿por qué el estado entra y desaloja campesinos? ¿Por qué expropia? Y por más que la ley diga que la expropiación requiere una indemnización al precio del avalúo comercial, ¿es el avalúo comercial el precio de venta? Hombre, no estoy en momento de calcular las rentas campesinas vs las rentas hidroeléctricas, pero sospecho que las rentas hidroeléctricas son más altas. Ahora, si el campesino no quiere vender al precio que dice el avaluador ¿por qué le quita el estado su tierra bajo la excusa del "bien común" para las rentas particulares? No creo que si la transacción se diera en condiciones de libre mercado los campesinos salieran a protestar. Hay alrededor de un millón de kilómetros de líneas de transmisión eléctrica, y si uno viaja por carretera suele ver vacas o sembrados alrededor. ¿Por qué esos campesinos no protestan? Porque 1. esos terrenos no son expropiados sino que cuentan con servidumbres de paso, 2. Se suelen hacer arreglos de mercado. Hombre, hay casos de casos, pero en general no se ve un descontento generalizado. 

Pero, no, la herramienta de la expropiación es el arma para el bien común, como en Venezuela que hay mucho "bien común", siendo tan paradisiado que prefieren venirse para Colombia. La expropiación existe pero tiene sus límites. En todo caso, sin estado Â¿quién expropiaría para que se hicieran las vías? 

IMPERIALISMO ECOLÓGICO

Sin embargo, las razones ecológicas que plantean para oponerse a las hidroeléctricas son más bien pobres. En primer lugar, las consideran también causa del calentamiento global. ¿Cómo? No quiero citar el artículo porque me da pereza pero la idea se resume en 1. cortan bosques tropicales que recogen el CO2, 2. son fuentes de Metano. Hombre ¿cómo un artículo que cita el Panel Intergubernamental sobre el Cambio Climático para defender a los campesinos y el agro sale a decir que son más contaminantes? En primer lugar, si uno revisa lo que dice el IPCC en materia de energía hidoeléctrica (sacaron un documento sobre energías alternativas) su resumen -de la IPCC- arranca así: "Hydropower offers significant potential for carbon emissions reductions" http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/Chapter%205%20Hydropower.pdf. Creo que en ese punto "The ecologist" se equivoca. 

Por otro lado argumenta que las represas (reservoirs) son fuentes de Metano. La verdad, lo que dicen los científicos climáticos es que si bien el metano CH4 es un gas efecto invernadero, su absorción es más rápida que el CO2, una diferencia que va desde unas décadas en el metano, hasta miles de años para el dióxido de carbono. Además, de acuerdo con la siguiente imagen que proviene del último reporte del IPCC parte del CO2 proviene del uso de la tierra http://www.slideshare.net/fullscreen/IPCCGeneva/fifth-assessment-report-synthesis-report/11:
Francamente, si queremos disminuir TODAS las emisiones humanas de CO2 hay que empezar por dejar de respirar. ¿Y todas las artificiales? Dudo que la energía que utiliza "The ecologist" sea propiamente energía que no emita CO2 -bueno, puede ser nuclear que no les gusta tampoco- pero no es de las "terribles" hidroeléctricas. 

¿Qué otra razón puede tener "The ecologist"? ¿Proteger los bosques de los países subdesarrollados? ¿Para qué? ¿Para que haya bosques que puedan chuparse el CO2 que producen sus plantas a carbón, gas, petróleo, etc. a costa de energía más costosa, menor productividad, entre otras, en nuestros países? ¿Para que ellos puedan seguir subsidiando sus industrias a cambio de que las nuestras no puedan competir en sus mercados por el costo de la energía?

DEFENDIENDO LAS HIDROELÉCTRICAS

LAGO CALIMA
Lago Calima.
Uno de los embalses en Colombia.
En un apartado anterior cuestioné el manejo del monopolio estatal con la empresa. El estado es una asociación de políticos corruptos con empresarios ineficientes. Pero tanto la oportunidad a nivel de recursos hídricos que hay en Colombia, la eficiencia energética de las hidroeléctricas, su costo en comparación con las térmicas a base de carbón, gas, gasolina, su posibilidad de cambiar potencia (a diferencia de otras renovables de potencia inestable) y almacenar la energía, entre muchas otras, me hacen tenerle cariño a esta tecnología. Creo que en el punto anterior quedó desvirtuado que las hidroeléctricas tengan impactos a nivel global vía CO2 (lo que hacen es quitar el calmadero de conciencia de los ecologistas ricos que les permite seguir emitiendo CO2 bajo la tranquilidad que los bosques tropicales los recogerán). El metano no me preocupa realmente y creo que es una afirmación que no estaba fundamentada, al fin y al cabo, los embalses no son aguas estancadas. 

El potencial hidroeléctrico de ese territorio que llaman Colombia es una maravilla. Eso sin contar con el potencial energético de otras tecnologías renovables como las fotovoltaicas por su ubicación terrestre, las mareomotrices, entre otras. Que cualquiera venga y lo explote es necesario, aunque en condiciones de mercado, no monopólicas ni imperialistas. Adicionalmente, la energía hidroeléctrica es más barata. En el siguiente gráfico hay un promedio de los precios mensuales en comparación al porcentaje de generación térmica en Colombia:

Por puro azar puede observarse con claridad la correlación entre el porcentaje de generación térmica en Colombia y el precio constante (deflactado con IPC) de la energía. Como la gráfica de generación térmica de alguna manera encaja con la hidráulica (la cogeneración y la eólica representan porcentajes insignificantes) podría afirmarse que a mayor generación hidráulica en general menos precio. ¿Por qué se presentan esos baches en la generación? La razón es muy simple, el agua es renovable pero no predecible. Si uno mira las correlaciones de series de ingresos los caudales en dos o tres días tienen altas correlaciones, pero alrededor de dos meses -algo que corroboré con un ex empleado de ISA e ISAGEN- las correlaciones son nulas. 

Hay incertidumbre en el ingreso del agua. Adicionalmente, en unas ocasiones por década se presenta el fenómeno del niño. El fenómeno del niño genera lluvias en Perú -un país desértico- y trae sequía a un país lluvioso como Colombia. Como el agua escasea hay que producir la energía con un sustituto: las termoeléctricas. El costo de la energía se dispara. En este momento parece que están las condiciones para que se dé el fenómeno del Niño si es que no estamos ya en él. De ese fenómeno se ha venido especulando desde que empecé a investigar este tema en Junio del año pasado (o sea el 2014). Esa especulación posiblemente también influye en los precios, el aumento de la producción térmica y la disminución de la hidroeléctrica porque ante el riesgo de escasez se empieza a guardar el agua. El profesor John Jairo García y otros de EAFIT en un paper al respecto proponía medir las expectativas de aportes al sistema en relación con el precio: 

"Una variable importante sobre la determinación del precio en el mercado no regulado que debiera incluirse en estudios futuros son las expectativas climatológicas; en la medida en que se espere una disminución del recurso hídrico, generará expectativas de aumentos en el precio.". http://revistas.upb.edu.co/index.php/cienciasestrategicas/article/view/1093/1313

La intuición tras el análisis es muy buena, pero dudo que pueda encontrarse una variable de expectativas climatológicas. Aunque si algo me soprendió de John Jairo era esa capacidad de creatividad econométrica. El caso es que la ventaja de tener un sistema donde el "combustible"que es el agua es variable, permite inferir que, al menos en las condiciones geográficas de los Andes Colombianas, es más barato que el uso de otros combustibles.

Es así como la construcción de hidroeléctricas -aunque respetando los derechos de propiedad privada- es una necesidad para mantener bajos los precios de la energía. Hay muchos trabajos que buscan predecir el precio de la energía y lo hacen en función de variables hídricas. Pero nada mejor que leer los errores de las predicciones pasadas de los economistas. En este artículo participó mi amigo y profesor de econometría Mauricio Lopera y dice lo siguiente:

" La coherencia del resultado se corrobora en el mes de enero de 2014, donde se aprecia una caída grande en el precio producto de la entrada en operación de El Quimbo y Sogamoso, las cuales en conjunto aumentan la oferta de electricidad en 1220 MW" http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/1552/155226077004.pdf
Mauricio nos insistía mucho que verificáramos que el resultado econométrico coincidiera con la "intuición" económica.  El problema es que las predicciones se equivocan y fuertemente. En el artículo citado, se muestra que los precios caerían en enero de 2014, la razón sería lógica la entrada de hidrosogamoso y quimbo (que es la que menciona The ecologist). Los precios en 2014 en bolsa fueron altísimos, y apenas hoy 16/01/2015 leí que estaban inaugurando la planta de hidrosogamoso. Lo que es cierto es que esas plantas deberían influir en la disminución del precio por el aumento de la oferta, además, de un insumo mucho más barato como "combustible" que el carbón. En eso acertó el trabajo de Mauricio y otros. Pero el cómo o cuánto bajarán los precios no podemos calcularlo con exactitud. 

DEFICIENCIAS DEL SISTEMA
Los cables suelen dañar las fotos de paisajes.
Pero ¿no puede haber buenas fotos de cables de alta tensión?

El sistema de energía que nace con las leyes 142 y en concreto 143 de 1994 tiene muchas deficiencias. Aunque la L143/94 trataba de dar paso a un modelo más parecido al de un mercado, esa distinción del mercado regulado del consumidor de energía hace que nos saquen un ojo de la cara porque sus precios están muy por encima de los de bolsa; aunque relativamente influidos por ellos como lo mostraba el profesor John Jairo García. El modelo aunque avanza hacia tratar de liberar lo que considera de mercado y regular lo que considera "monopolio natural" se queda corto. Pero realmente si hay algo aburrido es la regulación del sistema de energía, como todas las regulaciones. Hablemos más bien de leyes bonitas, las del "fatum" o de la naturaleza... las humanas dan asco. 

Quiero enfocarme más en los problemas que mencionaba "The ecologist" y es las "pérdidas" de energía del sistema de transmisión y distribución. Una de las leyes de la física es la ley de la entropía. Básicamente consiste en que aunque la energía no se destruye, solamente se transforma, se degrada a formas de energía más "desordenadas". Básicamente la energía se transforma en "calor", o que es lo mismo que movimiento y vibración molecular. Utilizaremos el término "pérdida" de energía en un sentido amplio, o económico, pero entendiendo que solamente es una transformación no utilizable.  Esta es la razón por la cual no existe una máquina perfecta, sin desgaste y de movimiento absoluto. Por esta razón los relojes de péndulo necesitaban que les dieran "cuerda". 

De esta manera, por cada 1 KWh (3.600.000 Joules) que produce uno recibe una cantidad menor de energía porque esta se ha "pérdido" transformándose en calor. Esto se debe a que los transformadores -que no entiendo cómo funcionan pero cambian el voltaje- generan pérdidas, la transmisión de energía puede generar calor, en la costa el desgaste de los cables genera pérdidas. Todo esto, como me decía un ex trabajador del sector eso es parte del costo de la energía. Dice textualmente "The ecologist" que se pierde alrededor del 16% de la energía generada:

"Yet the Government is neglecting simple options to raise power supply - like reducing the high level of losses in transmission and distribution, which run at about 16% of power generation and amount to some 10,000 GWh per year - more than four times the energy production of El Quimbo."
Pero es que por las leyes de la física: ¡tiene que "perderse" parte de la energía generada! De la energía potencial del agua embalsada el 80%-90% se transmite por medio de la electricidad y el 10%-20% se "pierde" o sea se transforma en "calor". ¡Y es de las más bajas! Las térmicas pierden el 59% de la energía contenida en el combustible, las nucleares el 70%  (CARTA GONZÁLEZ, CALERO PÉREZ, COLMENAR SANTOS, CASTRO GIL, & COLLADO FERNÁNDEZ, 2013, pp. 113-114). Puede que pueda perderse menos bajo un mantenimiento mucho más costoso, o puede que efectivamente pueda perderse menos. El caso es que siempre se va a "perder" algo de la energía. 

Puede que The Ecologist tenga razón en que se aumente la eficiencia energética. Algo que puede ser inviable o física o económicamente. Pero eso no es razón para impedir que se produzcan plantas de producción de energía eléctrica, es bueno aumentar la oferta por todos los medios. 

Lo que no puede el gobierno es ordenar que se cree energía, ni que no se degrade una parte en otras formas. Gracias a Dios las leyes de la física son inderogables, imprescriptibles, inembargables, anteriores al ser humano mismo. ¿Puede imaginarse una ley que cree energía? El Congreso de Colombia Decreta "Créase energía a partir de la nada...". Gracias a Dios eso no es posible, no soy capaz de imaginarme la inflación energética lo que produciría, al menos la moneda de la naturaleza es absolutamente neutral. O una ley que diga "Derógase la gravedad", el totazo que se pegarían de cuenta de creer en su validez sería de lo lindo...

IN CONCLUSIÓN
En primer lugar pido perdón al lector por tratar la energía de una forma tan política. Es decir, es demasiado pobre, aunque no más pobre que el Ministro de Minas que confundió potencia con energía, pero ¿quién es uno para cuestionar a los "doctores" Ministros? ¡De pronto ignoro una ley que asimila energía con potencia! En segundo lugar, no es esta, ni más faltaba una defensa al régimen de energía eléctrica Colombiana, tan no lo es, que arranco dándole la razón a los ecologistas en que muchas de esas empresas grandes y concesionadas arrasan con las comunidades. El problema de esas empresas grandes, no es la falta de estado, por el contrario, su exceso, lo que falta es libertad. 

Lo que sí creo es que en sanas condiciones de mercado y con precios justos a los dueños de las tierras, la construcción de hidroeléctricas es una de las ventajas que tiene este territorio geográficamente llamado Colombia. Es vital empezar a utilizar en este territorio las ventajas que ofrece el desarrollo de miles de tecnologías de energía renovable, como la solar, la mareomotriz, la eólica y la más fuerte la hidroeléctrica. En esta región se podría utilizar un potencial enorme para producir energía barata, renovable y libre de elementos contaminantes. Esta energía se podría exportar. ¿Por qué no hay líneas de transmisión a Panamá y Centro América? ¿Por qué no hay líneas de transmisión al Perú? ¿Imposibilidad logística? ¿No serán más bien los elevados costos regulatorios -que agudizan las barreras de entrada- sumado al monopolio estatal? ¿O el monopolio de la transmisión es "natural"? 

 BIBLIOGRAFÍA
Casi todas las citas salen de internet así que si no refiero la fuente, está el link. Las formalidades APA o lo que sea me parecen demasiado engorrosas para escribir informalmente. Con el internet debería bastar con el link. El único libro que cito, con todas las normas mamonas para probar su existencia, es:

CARTA GONZÁLEZ, J. A., CALERO PÉREZ, R., COLMENAR SANTOS, A., CASTRO GIL, A., & COLLADO FERNÁNDEZ, E. (2013). Centrales de energías renovables. Generación eléctrica con energías renovables. (P. E. S.A. Ed. SEGUNDA ed.). Madrid, España.




          CARBON        
Introducing Carbon, the first full length book showcasing my personal ideas around science fiction art and design. This is a project I'm very excited about, a chance to delve deep and develop the various worlds and concepts that are the result of a life long passion for nature, science, technology, and futuristic science fiction ideas.

These images are explorations I have been working on to develop the design and art direction of the book. It's been a lot of fun to work with concepts springing from the Carbon name. Carbon is the workhorse element of nature, it forms the strongest bonds and is the basis for life as we know it in the universe. Carbon nanotubes and graphene take their hexagonal molecular structure and hold great promise for artificial muscle, advanced building materials, powerful motors, faster computing, and so much more.

Carbon will contain a wealth of exclusive artwork, design, and descriptive text breakdowns, including in depth development of several personal projects that I wish to evolve into short film and video game concepts. In this sense Carbon forms the first step towards turning these dreams into reality.

I'm looking forward to exploring the graphic design of the book, and want to create a bold and exciting product that will be much more than just a collection of art and ideas.

I'm also looking forward to exploring ideas in environment design and story telling, realms I rarely get to delve into with my regular conceptual design work.

I have a heap of artwork for Carbon already, but this is just the start and familiar to anyone who knows my work. The book will allow me the opportunity to really push myself and create fresh new work, to go crazy and expand on some of the more involved ideas I've been thinking about for years. I have a massive pile of sketches ready to be fleshed out, some real exciting stuff!

The kick starter campaign will have to wait till I get back from a trip to the US for Comicon (more on that later), so keep an eye out, it should be something special! Cheers!
          Comment on Vernissage: Austrian Painter Karl Winkler by Борка Шаула        
One day in my chemistry class we watched documentary about water and how her structure is always different even though it molecules are always H2O. Then it got to a point how water's structure is when you play classical music. It was so beautiful. Even though I listen to rock, but the water's structure when you listen rock is not so beautiful, to say at least. So I plan to play classical music to my children as well you do. When it comes to art, I love paintings, they always got me into thinking. I really like the pieces of Karl Winkler inspired by Salvador Dali. B, xx
          How Plastic We've Become        

Our bodies carry residues of kitchen plastics

Food for Thought

In the 1967 film classic The Graduate, a businessman corners Benjamin Braddock at a cocktail party and gives him a bit of career advice. "Just one word…plastics."

Although Benjamin didn't heed that recommendation, plenty of other young graduates did. Today, the planet is awash in products spawned by the plastics industry. Residues of plastics have become ubiquitous in the environment—and in our bodies.

A federal government study now reports that bisphenol A (BPA)—the building block of one of the most widely used plastics—laces the bodies of the vast majority of U.S. residents young and old.

Manufacturers link BPA molecules into long chains, called polymers, to make polycarbonate plastics. All of those clear, brittle plastics used in baby bottles, food ware, and small kitchen appliances (like food-processor bowls) are made from polycarbonates. BPA-based resins also line the interiors of most food, beer, and soft-drink cans. With use and heating, polycarbonates can break down, leaching BPA into the materials they contact. Such as foods.

And that could be bad if what happens in laboratory animals also happens in people, because studies in rodents show that BPA can trigger a host of harmful changes, from reproductive havoc to impaired blood-sugar control and obesity (SN: 9/29/07, p. 202).

For the new study, scientists analyzed urine from some 2,500 people who had been recruited between 2003 and 2004 for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Roughly 92 percent of the individuals hosted measurable amounts of BPA, according to a report in the January Environmental Health Perspectives. It's the first study to measure the pollutant in a representative cross-section of the U.S. population.

Typically, only small traces of BPA turned up, concentrations of a few parts per billion in urine, note chemist Antonia M. Calafat and her colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, with hormone-mimicking agents like BPA, even tiny exposures can have notable impacts.

Overall, concentrations measured by Calafat's team were substantially higher than those that have triggered disease, birth defects, and more in exposed animals, notes Frederick S. vom Saal, a University of Missouri-Columbia biologist who has been probing the toxicology of BPA for more than 15 years.

The BPA industry describes things differently. Although Calafat's team reported urine concentrations of BPA, in fact they assayed a breakdown product—the compound by which BPA is excreted, notes Steven G. Hentges of the American Chemistry Council's Polycarbonate/BPA Global Group. As such, he argues, "this does not mean that BPA itself is present in the body or in urine."

On the other hand, few people have direct exposure to the breakdown product.

Hentges' group estimates that the daily BPA intake needed to create urine concentrations reported by the CDC scientists should be in the neighborhood of 50 nanograms per kilogram of bodyweight—or one millionth of an amount at which "no adverse effects" were measured in multi-generation animal studies. In other words, Hentges says, this suggests "a very large margin of safety."

No way, counters vom Saal. If one applies the ratio of BPA intake to excreted values in hosts of published animal studies, concentrations just reported by CDC suggest that the daily intake of most Americans is actually closer to 100 micrograms (µg) per kilogram bodyweight, he says—or some 1,000-fold higher than the industry figure.

Clearly, there are big differences of opinion and interpretation. And a lot may rest on who's right.

Globally, chemical manufacturers produce an estimated 2.8 million tons of BPA each year. The material goes into a broad range of products, many used in and around the home. BPA also serves as the basis of dental sealants, which are resins applied to the teeth of children to protect their pearly whites from cavities (SN: 4/6/96, p. 214). The industry, therefore, has a strong economic interest in seeing that the market for BPA-based products doesn't become eroded by public concerns over the chemical.

And that could happen. About 2 years after a Japanese research team showed that BPA leached out of baby bottles and plastic food ware (see What's Coming Out of Baby's Bottle?), manufacturers of those consumer products voluntarily found BPA substitutes for use in food cans. Some 2 years after that, a different group of Japanese scientists measured concentrations of BPA residues in the urine of college students. About half of the samples came from before the switch, the rest from after the period when BPA was removed from food cans.

By comparing urine values from the two time periods, the researchers showed that BPA residues were much lower—down by at least 50 percent—after Japanese manufacturers had eliminated BPA from the lining of food cans.

Concludes vom Saal, in light of the new CDC data and a growing body of animal data implicating even low-dose BPA exposures with the potential to cause harm, "the most logical thing" for the United States to do would be to follow in Japan's footsteps and "get this stuff [BPA] out of our food."

Kids appear most exposed

Overall, men tend to have statistically lower concentrations of BPA than women, the NHANES data indicate. But the big difference, Calafat says, traces to age. "Children had higher concentrations than adolescents, and they in turn had higher levels than adults," she told Science News Online.

This decreasing body burden with older age "is something we have seen with some other nonpersistent chemicals," Calafat notes—such as phthalates, another class of plasticizers.

The spread between the average BPA concentration that her team measured in children 6 to 11 years old (4.5 µg/liter) and adults (2.5 µg/L) doesn't look like much, but proved reliably different.

The open question is why adults tended to excrete only 55 percent as much BPA. It could mean children have higher exposures, she posits, or perhaps that they break it down less efficiently. "We really need to do more research to be able to answer that question."

Among other differences that emerged in the NHANES analysis: urine residues of BPA decreased with increasing household income and varied somewhat with ethnicity (with Mexican-Americans having the lowest average values, blacks the highest, and white's values in between).

There was also a time-of-day difference, with urine values for any given group tending to be highest in the evening, lowest in the afternoon, and midway between those in the morning. Since BPA's half-life in the body is only about 6 hours, that temporal variation in the chemical's excretion would be consistent with food as a major source of exposure, the CDC scientists note.

In the current NHANES paper, BPA samples were collected only once from each recruit. However, in a paper due to come out in the February Environmental Health Perspectives, Calafat and colleagues from several other institutions looked at how BPA excretion varied over a 2-year span among 82 individuals—men and women—seen at a fertility clinic in Boston.

In contrast to the NHANES data, the upcoming report shows that men tended to have somewhat higher BPA concentrations than women. Then again both groups had only about one-quarter the concentration typical of Americans.

The big difference in the Boston group emerged among the 10 women who ultimately became pregnant. Their BPA excretion increased 33 percent during pregnancy. Owing to the small number of participants in this subset of the study population, the pregnancy-associated change was not statistically significant. However, the researchers report, these are the first data to look for changes during pregnancy and ultimately determining whether some feature of pregnancy—such as a change in diet or metabolism of BPA—really alters body concentrations of the pollutant could be important. It could point to whether the fetus faces an unexpectedly high exposure to the pollutant.

If it does, the fetus could face a double whammy: Not only would exposures be higher during this period of organ and neural development, but rates of detoxification also would be diminished, vom Saal says.

Indeed, in a separate study, one due to be published soon in Reproductive Toxicology, his team administered BPA by ingestion or by injection to 3-day-old mice. Either way, the BPA exposure resulted in comparable BPA concentrations in blood.

What's more, that study found, per unit of BPA delivered, blood values in the newborns were "markedly higher" than other studies have reported for adult rodents exposed to the chemical. And that makes sense, vom Saal says, because the enzyme needed to break BPA down and lead to its excretion is only a tenth as active in babies as in adults. That's true in the mouse, he says, in the rat—and, according to some preliminary data, in humans.

Vom Saal contends that since studies have shown BPA exhibits potent hormonelike activity in human cells at the parts-per-trillion level, and since the new CDC study finds that most people are continually exposed to concentrations well above the parts-per-trillion ballpark, it's time to reevaluate whether it makes sense to use BPA-based products in and around foods.


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          Troubling Meaty 'Estrogen'        

High temperature cooking can imbue meats with a chemical that acts like a hormone

Food for Thought

Women take note. Researchers find that a chemical that forms in overcooked meat, especially charred portions, is a potent mimic of estrogen, the primary female sex hormone. That's anything but appetizing, since studies have linked a higher lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogen in women with an elevated risk of breast cancer.

Indeed, the new finding offers a "biologically plausible" explanation for why diets rich in red meats might elevate breast-cancer risk, notes Nigel J. Gooderham of Imperial College London.

At the very high temperatures reached during frying and charbroiling, natural constituents of meats can undergo chemical reactions that generate carcinogens known as heterocyclic amines (see Carcinogens in the Diet). Because these compounds all have very long, unwieldy chemical monikers, most scientists refer to them by their abbreviations, such as IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP.

Of the nearly two dozen different heterocyclic amines that can form, PhIP dominates. It sometimes accumulates in amounts 10 to 50 times higher than that of any other member of this toxic chemical family, Gooderham says. Moreover, he adds, although heterocyclic amines normally cause liver tumors in exposed animals, PhIP is different: "It causes breast cancer in female rats, prostate cancer in male rats, and colon cancer in both." These are the same cancers that in people are associated with eating a lot of cooked meats.

However, the means by which such foods might induce cancer has remained somewhat elusive. So, building on his team's earlier work, Gooderham decided to probe what the heterocyclic amine did in rat pituitary cells. These cells make prolactin—another female sex hormone—but only when triggered by the presence of estrogen. Prolactin, like estrogen, fuels the growth of many breast cancers.

In their new test-tube study, Gooderham and coauthor Saundra N. Lauber show that upon exposure to PhIP, pituitary cells not only make progesterone, but also secrete it. If these cells do the same thing when they're part of the body, those secretions would circulate to other organs—including the breast.

But "what was startling," Gooderham told Science News Online, is that it took just trace quantities of the heterocyclic amine to spur prolactin production. "PhIP was incredibly potent," he says, able to trigger progesterone production at concentrations comparable to what might be found circulating in the blood of people who had eaten a couple of well-done burgers.

The toxicologist cautions that there's a big gap between observing an effect in isolated cells growing in a test-tube and showing that the same holds true in people.

However, even if PhIP does operate similarly in people, he says that's no reason to give up grilled meat. Certain cooking techniques, such as flipping hamburgers frequently, can limit the formation of heterocyclic amines. Moreover, earlier work by the Imperial College team showed that dining on certain members of the mustard family appear to detoxify much of the PhIP that might have inadvertently been consumed as part of a meal.

The human link

Three recent epidemiological studies support concerns about the consumption of grilled meats.

In the first, Harvard Medical School researchers compared the diets of more than 90,000 premenopausal U.S. nurses. Over a 12-year period, 1,021 of the relatively young women developed invasive breast cancers. The more red meat a woman ate, the higher was her risk of developing invasive breast cancer, Eunyoung Cho and her colleagues reported in the Archives of Internal Medicine last November. The increased risk was restricted, however, only to those types of breast cancers that are fueled by estrogen or progesterone.

Overall, women who ate the most red meat—typically 1.5 servings or more per day—faced nearly double the invasive breast-cancer risk of those eating little red meat each week.

Related findings emerged in the April 10 British Journal of Cancer. There, researchers at the University of Leeds reported data from a long-running study of more than 35,000 women in the United Kingdom who ranged in age from roughly 35 to 70. Regardless of the volunteers' age, Janet E. Cade's team found, those who consumed the most meat had the highest risk of breast cancer.

Shortly thereafter, Susan E. Steck of the University of South Carolina's school of public health and her colleagues linked meat consumption yet again with increased cancer risk, but only in the older segment of the women they investigated. By comparing the diets of 1,500 women with breast cancer to those of 1,550 cancerfree women, the scientists showed that postmenopausal women consuming the most grilled, barbecued, and smoked meats faced the highest breast-cancer risk.

These data support accumulating evidence that a penchant for well-done meats can hike a woman's breast-cancer risk, Steck and her colleagues concluded in the May Epidemiology.

PhIP fighters

Such findings have been percolating out of the epidemiology community for years. Nearly a decade ago, for instance, National Cancer Institute scientists reported finding that women who consistently ate their meat very well done—with a crispy, blackened crust—faced a substantially elevated breast-cancer risk when compared to those who routinely ate rare- or medium-cooked meats.

However, even well-done meats without char can contain heterocyclic amines, chemical analyses by others later showed. The compounds' presence appears to correlate best with how meat is cooked, not merely with how brown its interior ended up (SN: 11/28/98, p. 341).

At high temperatures, the simple sugar glucose, together with creatinine—a muscle-breakdown product, and additional free amino acids, can all interact within beef, chicken, and other meats to form heterocyclic amines. In contrast, low-temperature cooking or a quick searing may generate none of the carcinogens.

Because there's no way to tell visually, by taste, or by smell whether PhIP and its toxic kin lace cooked meat, food chemists have been lobbying commercial and home chefs to reduce the heat they use to cook meats—or to turn meats frequently to keep the surfaces closest to the heat source from getting too hot.

The significance of this was driven home to Gooderham several years ago when just such tactics spoiled an experiment he was launching to test whether Brussels sprouts and broccoli could help detoxify PhIP. "I bought 30 kilograms of prime Aberdeen angus lean beef," he recalls. "Then we ground it up and I gave it to a professional cook to turn into burgers and cook." Professional cooks tend to move meats around quite a bit, he found. The result: His expensive, chef-prepared meat contained almost no PhIP.

In the end, he says, "I sacked the cook, bought another 30 kilos of meat and prepared the burgers myself. It was a costly lesson."

Once restarted, however, that study yielded encouraging data.

One way the body detoxifies and sheds toxic chemicals is to link them to what amounts to a sugar molecule. Consumption of certain members of the mustard (Brassica) family, such as broccoli and Brussels sprouts (both members of the B. oleracea species)—can encourage this process. So Gooderham's team fed 250 grams (roughly half a pound) each of broccoli and Brussels sprouts each day to 20 men for almost 2 weeks. On the 12th day, the men each got a cooked-meat meal containing 4.9 micrograms of PhIP.

Compared to similar trial periods when their diets had been Brassica-free, the volunteers excreted up to 40 percent more PhIP in urine, the researchers reported in Carcinogenesis.

Experimental data suggest that two brews may also help detoxify heterocyclic amines. In test-tube studies, white tea largely prevented DNA damage from the heterocyclic amine IQ (SN: 4/15/00, p. 251), and in mice, extracts of beer tackled MeIQx and Trp-P-2 (see Beer's Well Done Benefit).

The best strategy of all, most toxicologists say, is to prevent formation of heterocyclic amines in the first place. In addition to frequently turning meat on the grill or fry pan, partially cooking meats in a microwave prior to grilling will limit the toxic chemicals' formation. So will mixing in a little potato starch to ground beef before grilling (see How Carbs Can Make Burgers Safer) or marinating meats with a heavily sugared oil-and-vinegar sauce (SN: 4/24/99, p. 264).


If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

Citations

Janet E. Cade

UK Women's Cohort Study

Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics

30/32 Hyde Terrace

The University of Leeds

Leeds LS2 9LN

United Kingdom


Eunyoung Cho

Channing Laboratory

Department of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

181 Longwood Avenue

Boston, MA 02115

Nigel J. Gooderham

Biomolecular Medicine

Imperial College London

Sir Alexander Fleming Building

London SW7 2AZ

United Kingdom

Susan Elizabeth Steck

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program

Arnold School of Public Health

University of South Carolina

2221 Devine Street, Room 231

Columbia, SC 29208
Further Reading

Raloff, J. 2007. Concerns over genistein, part II—Beyond the heart. Science News Online (July 7). Available at [Go to].

______. 2007. Concerns over genistein, part I—The heart of the issue. Science News Online (June 16). Available at [Go to].

______. 2006. Pesticides mimic estrogen in shellfish. Science News 170(Dec. 16):397. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

______. 2006. No-stick chemicals can mimic estrogen. Science News 170(Dec. 2):366. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

______. 2006. Meat poses exaggerated cancer risk for some people. Science News Online (March 25). Available at [Go to].

______. 2005. Beer's well done benefit. Science News Online (March 5). Available at [Go to].

______. 2005. Carcinogens in the diet. Science News Online (Feb. 19). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. How carbs can make burgers safer. Science News Online (Dec. 4). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Uranium, the newest 'hormone'. Science News 166(Nov. 13):318. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

______. 2001. Fire retardant catfish? Science News Online (Dec. 8). Available at [Go to].

______. 1999. Well-done research. Science News 155(April 24):264-266. Available at [Go to].

______. 1998. Very hot grills may inflame cancer risks. Science News 154(Nov. 28):341. Available at [Go to].

______. 1996. Another meaty link to cancer. Science News 149(June 8):365. Available at [Go to].

______. 1996. 'Estrogen' pairings can increase potency. Science News 149(June 8):356. Available at [Go to].

______. 1995. Beyond estrogens: Why unmasking hormone-mimicking pollutants proves so challenging. Science News 148(July 15):44. Available at [Go to].

______. 1994. Meaty carcinogens: A risk to the cook? Science News 146(Aug. 13):103.

______. 1994. Not so hot hot dogs? Science News 145(April 23):264-269.

______. 1994. How cooked meat may inflame the heart. Science News 145(March 12):165.

______. 1994. The gender benders. Science News 145(Jan. 8):24. Available at [Go to].

Smith-Roe, S.L., et al. 2006. Induction of aberrant crypt foci in DNA mismatch repair-deficient mice by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP). Cancer Letters. 244(Nov. 28):79-85. Abstract available at [Go to].

______. 2006. Mlh1-dependent responses to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a food-borne carcinogen. (Abstract # 514). Toxicologist 90(March):105.

______. 2006. Mlh1-dependent suppression of specific mutations induced in vivo by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP). Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 594(Feb. 22):101-112. Abstract available at [Go to].

          Diminishing Obesity's Risks        

Mouse data suggest that, properly managed, obesity can be benign.

Food for Thought

Health-care professionals typically refer to an extremely heavy person as being morbidly obese. The term reinforces the idea that the individual is at high risk of diabetes, fatty-liver disease, and heart attacks. Researchers who have been working with mice now report that certain chronic diseases don't have to be consequences of obesity.

The team accomplished the disconnect by tricking the animals' bodies into storing all their excess fat within their fat cells, or adipocytes.

That's not what the bodies of rodents—or people—typically do. Initially, excess lipids—fat—are stored in these cells, making up what's called adipose tissue or simply body fat. These deposits lie primarily in the breasts, belly, and thighs. However, once adipocytes fill up, new storage sites take up the overflow. Those new depots usually develop in muscle and the liver.

Of those two depots, the liver is more dangerous when it becomes fatty. Straightforwardly named, fatty liver disease can arise and lead eventually to hepatitis, cirrhosis, and death.

A drop in the hormone called adiponectin is the body's signal to store fat outside adipose tissue. Sometimes referred to as the starvation hormone, adiponectin normally remains high in lean animals. With obesity, however, blood concentrations of the molecule fall.

Philipp E. Scherer of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and his colleagues reasoned that keeping adiponectin concentrations high might fool the body into making extra adipocytes instead of sending surplus fat to muscles and the liver.

The team has now investigated the hypothesis in a strain of mice that make copious adiponectin regardless of how fat they become. In the Sept. 4 Journal of Clinical Investigation, the researchers report that as the novel mice mature, they become unbelievably huge. Indeed, muses Scherer, these are "the fattest mice ever reported," with fat comprising 60 percent or more of their body weight.

As hoped for, the mice deposit all their excess fat in adipose tissue. Also in sharp contrast to other obese mice, the high-adiponectin animals develop no signs of diabetes. They also avoid a metabolic disorder known as syndrome X, which puts animals, including people, at high risk of heart disease (SN: 4/8/2000, p. 236).

So, although these barely mobile, blubbery mounds of flesh look like wrecks, they don't appear to be at high risk for several chronic diseases associated with obesity, Scherer told Science News Online. Actually, he says, from the preliminary data, the mice "appear perfectly healthy."

He suspects that there's a lesson in this for investigators of human-obesity treatments. Drugs exist that raise adiponectin values in even overweight individuals. Most, like pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia), are prescribed to treat diabetes. However, data suggest these drugs also reduce the buildup of fat in the liver.

Unfortunately, diminishing health risks in morbidly obese people may require far more than just supersizing their treatment with the diabetes drugs—especially since data reported earlier this year linked rosiglitazone with an increased risk of heart attack (SN: 6/23/07, p. 397).

Fat signals

Tissues throughout the body communicate on a regular basis via signaling hormones. Adiponectin is one of those messengers released by adipocytes to inform the rest of the body about how full the fat cells are. If they aren't full, Scherer explains, the cells pour out copious adiponectin. The body then responds by directing its fat into those cells for storage. As adipocytes fill with lipids, they turn down the adiponectin signal, telling the body that it's time to find new fat depots.

Adipocytes release several other messengers, among them leptin. As lipids swell the adipocytes, the cells crank up production of this hormone. Once released into the bloodstream, leptin circulates to the brain, where it offers a status report on how full the fat cells are. If leptin signals that there's plenty of fat on hand, a healthy body not only experiences satiety but also reduces its food intake and burns more calories.

At some point, a spontaneous mutation in mice led to a strain of animals that lacked the ability to make leptin. The resulting rodents, always hungry and primed to store—not burn—any excess energy consumed, inevitably become obese. Scherer's group worked with this strain and engineered it also to make extra adiponectin. The new mice typically produce about twice as much adiponectin as a normal, svelte rodent does. This excess is comparable to what can occur when people take certain diabetes-controlling drugs.

In the new study, the researchers compared normal, lean, leptin-producing mice with leptinfree, obese ones and the new leptinfree-but-high-adiponectin animals. By adulthood, the new mice far surpassed the girth of the original obese line. But instead of having high blood sugar and insulin concentrations—characteristics of the original obese animals that mimic type-2 diabetes symptoms—the new megafatties exhibited normal insulin and blood-sugar values. In fact, Scherer says, the engineered animals had about the same insulin characteristics as healthy, lean mice.

"That was a real surprise," he concedes—"that the [new] mice could get so fat and yet remain very healthy, metabolically speaking."

One solution: More fat cells

Most people are like obese mice, chronically taking in more calories than they burn, Scherer says.

Lipid buildup in the liver is "really the driving force for insulin resistance," a metabolic change that precedes the development of diabetes, notes Scherer When this develops, the body makes normal amounts of insulin, but finds itself increasingly unable to use it. The end result: Too little insulin is used to move energy into cells, leaving high concentrations of sugar in the blood.

The new study with high-adiponectin mice shows that "if you can overcome this block of overexpansion of adipose tissue, there is no need for excess calories to deposit as fat in the liver," Scherer says. Instead, fat can accumulate where it does the least damage, "in the professional fat-storage cell, the adipocyte."

But Scherer doesn't want to say that excess calories are benign when they wind up in fat cells. Bulging adipocytes send out a number of inflammatory compounds (SN: 2/28/04, p. 139). It's not yet clear how important a role these compounds may play in chronic disease, but some have been linked to diabetes. Moreover, extra weight may strain an animal's joints and even its heart. So, it's premature to give a clean bill of health to mice whose physiques rival that of Jabba the Hutt.

Still, Scherer argues, "from a qualitative point of view, these [new] mice are relatively healthy." Indeed, he says, what happens in the animals' tissues may explain why some very obese people are able to retain good insulin sensitivity and dodge the diabetes bullet.

People who develop diabetes as adults tend to put all of their fat into a few big, inflammation-prone fat cells. However, some people's bodies employ a different strategy, Scherer says. They pack relatively small quantities of fat into an ever-proliferating number of fat cells, ones that never seem to undergo stress-induced inflammation. This approach is triggered by a "local overexpression of adiponectin in adipocytes." That, in turn, switches on production of a key signaling molecule—PPAR-gamma—that serves as a master switch "governing how many fat cells we have," he explains.

"None of this is an endorsement for obesity," Scherer cautions. "But it shows that if you can expand your fat stores in a healthy way to keep up with your caloric intake, this will improve insulin sensitivity."

Overall, he argues, "the best strategy is to eat less and exercise more. But for the many of us who continue to take in more calories than we burn, it would be better to expand our fat-cell numbers than to store excess lipids in other tissues. That's our take-home message."


If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

Citations

Philipp E. Scherer

Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research

Department of Internal Medicine

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

5323 Harry Hines Boulevard

Dallas, TX 75390-9077
Further Reading

Dormandy, J.A., et al. 2005. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366(Oct. 8):1279-1289. Abstract available at [Go to].

Harder, B. 2007. Fixes for fatty liver. Science News 171(March 3):136-137. Available at [Go to].

Pawlak, D.B., et al. 2001. High glycemic index starch promotes hypersecretion of insulin and higher body fat in rats without affecting insulin sensitivity. Journal of Nutrition 131(January):99-104. Available at [Go to].

Psaty, B.M., and C.D. Furberg. 2007. Rosiglitazone and cardiovascular risk. New England Journal of Medicine 356(June 14):2522-2524. Available at [Go to].

Raloff, J. 2007. Fattening carbs—Some promote obesity and worse. Science News Online (Sept. 29). Available at [Go to].

______. 2007. Infectious foie gras? Science News Online (June 30). Available at [Go to].

______. 2007. Super-size mice—Fast food hurts rodents. Science News Online (June 9). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Inflammatory fat. Science News 165(Feb. 28):139-140. Available at [Go to].

______. 2000. The new GI tracts. Science News 157(April 8):236-238. Available at [Go to].

Seppa, N. 2007. Diabetes drug might hike heart risk. Science News 171(June 23):397. Available at [Go to].

          Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse        

Food for Thought

Nutritionists call them carbohydrates. To most of us, they're simply sugars and starches. And although the fructose in soft drinks and the refined flour in white bread taste quite different, "nutritionally and metabolically they're the same as table sugar," explains endocrinologist David S. Ludwig. That's because the body digests all carbohydrate-rich foods into glucose, or blood sugar.

However, all carbs don't break down at the same rate. The body digests those in many whole-grain products quite slowly. Others become converted to glucose almost immediately.

Rapidly digested carbs aren't healthy for people with diabetes and others watching their blood sugar. A new study by Ludwig and his colleagues at Children's Hospital Boston suggests that such carbs are also problematic for people looking to shed body fat. Indeed, the findings indicate that consumption of the wrong carbs can spur the development of body fat, even with no gain in weight.

In the study, mice that chowed down on a type of rapidly digestible starch didn't gain any more weight than did animals eating a starch that digests slowly. But the first group did accumulate lots of excess fat. The data indicate that something about rapidly digesting carbs signaled the body to convert more of a meal's energy into body fat, into fatty lipids that circulate in blood, and into deposits of fat throughout the liver.

Ludwig considers the observed effect on the animals' livers the most troubling one. Fatty-liver disease has traditionally been regarded as the first stage of damage from alcoholism that can progress to hepatitis, cirrhosis, and death. But researchers in recent years have discerned the beginnings of an epidemic of fatty-liver disease unrelated to alcoholism but correlated strongly with being overweight. Recent data suggest that as much as one-third of children and even a higher proportion of adults have the condition. Ludwig told Science News Online that he suspects that "up to half of the [U.S.] population" now has fatty-liver disease.

The question has been what's fueling this epidemic. Because the disease so often accompanies obesity, many researchers have suspected that high-fat diets and junk foods are responsible. Ludwig's group had another idea.

In recent years, the mushrooming incidence of obesity in the United States has led to a push to get people to lower their intakes of fat. However, reducing fat consumption almost always translates into increasing the intake of carbs (see Counting Carbs). Moreover, the carbs most people reach for first are the refined—easy to digest—types found in white flour, white rice, pasta, and potatoes.

Ludwig's team decided to see whether a diet rich in a similar carb promotes fat buildup. They used a proportion of carbs that people on a low-fat diet might eat and compared its effects with that of a diet equal in all respects except that its carbs were mainly a slowly digested starch.

In the September Obesity, the researchers show that animals eating rapidly digested carbs accumulated more fat throughout their bodies—including their livers—than did animals eating primarily the slow-to-digest starch.

Says Ludwig, "This is the first study in which a single dietary factor—varied within normal ranges—affected whether the liver remained normal or accumulated seriously elevated levels of fat."

Recipe for pudge

In the new study, Ludwig's team fed 18 recently weaned mice food pellets containing 13 percent fat, 19 percent protein, and 68 percent carbohydrates from corn starch. Half the animals got pellets containing the starch called amylopectin, which is made up of a string of glucose molecules that the gut easily degrades into sugar. The remaining mice ate pellets containing some amylopectin but mostly the starch called amylose. That type of corn starch resists breakdown in the gut.

All the animals ate and drank as much as they wanted for 25 weeks. Throughout the study, the researchers charted weight gain, body fat, fecal excretion of starch, and blood concentrations of glucose and insulin. At the end, the researchers killed the animals and measured their livers' fat contents.

Weight gain didn't differ between the two groups of animals, suggesting that the mice found the diets comparably palatable. However, the animals' bodies responded differently to the two food-pellet recipes. Mice dining on amylopectin-enriched chow became twice as fat as those eating the slower-digested amylose recipe. Mice eating this starch grew a little longer in body, so they looked leaner that the "roly-poly" mice eating easily digested starch, Ludwig says. The latter mice "felt squishy," whereas the slow-digested-starch eaters felt firm, he adds.

Although blood sugar concentrations didn't differ between the two groups, mice on the amylopectin-rich food developed higher insulin values after a meal. The body uses the hormone to shepherd energy into its cells. Higher blood insulin after a meal, Ludwig explains, indicates that an animal needs more insulin to fully use the food it's eaten. Needing more of the hormone can be a first sign of insulin resistance and impending diabetes.

Ludwig notes, "Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone, meaning it promotes the storage of fat. In fact, that's arguably one of [the hormone's] main roles." One of the first places newly made insulin ends up is in the liver, where it can trigger the localized creation and stockpiling of fat.

Although the rodents' livers weighed the same whether they ate fast- or slow-digested starch, fat made up 12 percent of the liver in mice fed the amylopectin-rich diet. That's double the fat content of livers in animals that had eaten the slow-digested starch. For perspective, Ludwig notes, people whose livers contain 10 percent fat are considered to be suffering from "advanced" nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease.

What about people?

This isn't the first study to indicate that foods that rapidly break down to glucose in the body—characterized as having a "high glycemic index" (see The New GI Tracts)—can fuel nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. For instance, last year Silvia Valtueña of the University of Parma in Italy and her colleagues reported findings from a study of 247 apparently healthy men and women. The volunteers' diets were evaluated and given a glycemic-index (GI) rating.

Low GI foods included corn, dairy products, and fruit. High GI fare included bread, pizza, and baked snacks. The volunteers were grouped into four categories based on the ascending GI rankings of their diets.

Participants with the highest-GI diets were twice as likely to have undiagnosed fatty-liver disease as were other study participants. People in the highest group were also far likelier to be insulin resistant, the researcher reported in the July 2006 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

In an editorial accompanying the Valtueña report, David J.A. Jenkins and his colleagues at the University of Toronto argued that the "implication of this study is that a low-GI diet, or selection of lower-GI rather than higher-GI foods, may benefit persons with nonalcoholic fatty liver." Indeed, the commenters suggested, it might be possible for doctors to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver by lowering the glycemic index of an individuals' diets.

That's what Ludwig's group is now investigating: "We hope to enroll 46 kids to a diet for 6 months," he says. The 8- to 17-year-olds and their parents will receive dietary counseling. Half of the recruits will be assigned to a low-fat diet. The rest will receive counseling to lower the glycemic index of their diets. The general guidelines for a low-GI diet call for substituting whole-grain foods for ones made from highly processed cereal fibers and reducing refined sugars in favor of sweet fruits.

"Conceptually," Ludwig says, "fatty liver should be reversible—we've seen it anecdotally in practice many times, such as when someone loses weight or changes the quality of their diet."


If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

Citations

David J.A. Jenkins

Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center

St. Michael's Hospital

61 Queen Street, East

Toronto, ON M5C 3E2

Canada


David S. Ludwig

Children's Hospital Boston

Department of Medicine

333 Longwood Avenue

Boston, MA 02115


Silvia Valtueña

Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

University of Parma

43100 Parma

Italy
Further Reading

Pawlak, D.B., et al. 2001. High glycemic index starch promotes hypersecretion of insulin and higher body fat in rats without affecting insulin sensitivity. Journal of Nutrition 131(January):99-104. Available at [Go to].

Raloff, J. 2007. Super-size mice—Fast food hurts rodents. Science News Online (June 9). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Counting carbs. Science News 166(July 17):40-42. Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Coming soon—Spud lite. Science News Online (June 19). Available at [Go to].

______. 2000. The new GI tracts. Science News 157(April 8):236-238. Available at [Go to].

Sloth, I., et al. 2004. No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(Aug. 1):337-347. Available at [Go to].

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          ONL Therapeutics Receives Orphan Drug Designation for ONL1204 for Treatment of Retinal Detachment from FDA        
ANN ARBOR, MI – February 11, 2016 – ONL Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company developing novel therapies for preserving sight in a range of retinal diseases, today announced that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation to ONL1204 for the treatment of retinal detachment. ONL1204 is a novel, first-in-class small molecule peptide […]
          BRAIN Initiative        
President Obama recently announced a big new effort to map and understand the human brain. What are we trying to learn about our brains? One thing we will earn is how our brains are structured, "not this well-organized hierarchical control system where everything is in order." Another is how much of mental illness is shaped by experience and society, as opposed to chemical or structural factors. What do we already know about our brains? 12 Things We Know About How The Brain Works. And we know that unconcious processing improves decision-making. That brain structure may be linked to placebo response. And that unconcious brains can read and do math. We know a little bit more about how the brain responds to addiction. And we know that "genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms" in childhood can have permanent ill effects. We think that differences in our brain reflect political differences. But we know that a lot of pop neuroscience is bollocks. What could we do with new information? Could we reverse-engineer AI? Manipulate our brains, neuron-by-neuron? Make better soldiers? Or record dreams? Or activate neurons with light? Or make better, crowdsourced brain maps? Neurotechnology, Social Control, And Revolution
In our neuro-centric world-view, a person is equated to his brain. The neuro-discourse has penetrated all aspects of our lives from law to politics to literature to medicine to physics. As part of this neuro-revolution, huge military funding is supporting neuro-scientific research; a huge body of basic knowledge on memory, belief formation, cognition and sensory modalities has been gathered over years, with fieldslike social neuroscience, cultural neuroscience, neuroeconomics and neuromarketing has emerging to improve our lifestyle; neurotechnological know-how from wireless non invasive technologies to neuroelectronic interfaces is exponentially advancing; and neurotechnology business reports indicates the rapid increase in neurotechnological start ups and the willingness of bringing neurotechnological products to the market. In my opinion, all the aforementioned indicators indicate that neurotechnology can be potentially used to control social dynamics.

          Wake Forest Baptist Chosen for National Consortium to Study Molecular Changes Resulting from Physical ActivityWake Forest Baptist Chosen for National Consortium to Study Molecular Changes Resulting fr        
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          H2Viva Molecular Hydrogen Pills for Hydrogen-rich Water        
H2 Hydrogen pills that make hydrogen water is one of the amazing discoveries in alternative therapeutic natural health. As such we have been hearing some great testimonies especially from athletes in recovery. Drinking hydrogen water they experience anti-inflammation and pain relief. They simply take hydrogen pills that dissolves molecular hydrogen it in a glass of […]

          Alkaline Water’s Molecular Hydrogen Rich Therapeutic Health Benefits        
Alkaline ionized water is not only a powerful anti-oxidant, fights inflammation, but now is also proven to have therapeutic health benefits because it contains diatomic molecular hydrogen. This may be one of the most important preventive health article you will ever read. Please read on. We recently learned that the most important number related to […]

          The Epstein-Barr Virus G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Contributes to Immune Evasion by Targeting MHC Class I Molecules for Degradation        
Zuo, Jianmin and Currin, Andrew and Griffin, Bryan D and Shannon-Lowe, Claire and Thomas, Wendy A and Ressing, Maaike E and Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J. and Rowe, Martin (2009) The Epstein-Barr Virus G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Contributes to Immune Evasion by Targeting MHC Class I Molecules for Degradation. PLoS Pathogens, 5 (1). ISSN 1553-7366
           A szarvasmarha neonatalis Fc receptor (bFcRn) által mediált IgG katabolizmus és epithelialis transzport molekuláris szintű elemzése = Studies on the bovine FcRn mediated IgG catabolism and epithelial transport at molecular level         
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Collaborate with process technicians, molecular biologists and microbiologists, downstream recovery engineers as well as other members of our Research and...
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          CBS’s 60 Minutes Features the Fight Against Zika        
Author: Dr. Jenn Kruk, Molecular Biologist, IEM On the November 6th edition of CBS’s 60 Minutes, Dr. Jon LaPook spoke with the country’s top scientists about the fight against Zika and the U.S. government’s efforts to control it. I can’t speak for others in the public health field, but I was happy to see some national […]
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Author: Dr. Jenn Kruk, Molecular Biologist, IEM Unlike other vector-borne diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya, Zika can be spread through the traditional mosquito bite and through sexual transmission. To help stop the spread of Zika through sexual transmission, it is important to understand the risks of Zika as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) […]
          Cornell Postdoc Found Dead in Adirondack Mountain River        
Matthew Miller, a postdoc in the Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, died Monday in the Ausable river in the Adirondack Mountains.
          [commentary] Seeing Beyond "Traditional" Market Research + A Golden Opportunity for China's ISVs        
Sunday, August 8, 2004
Dateline: China
 
More general commentary than news commentary per se; let's dig in ...
 
Seeing Beyond "Traditional" Market Research
 
We're all familiar ad nauseum with market forecasts by firms such as Gartner, Forrester, IDC and even i-bankers (albeit i-bankers tend to have a shorter time horizon).  I've always been a bit suspect of IT market forecasts and was delighted that the META Group (where I was VP, Electronic Business Strategies) focused on qualitative and consultative approaches to serving our end-user and vendor clients.  We were more like a SWAT team version of McKinsey:  Get in, get it done, get out, move on.  The Kensington Group, an IT advisory services industry watchdog firm, has found that most forecasts are simply dead wrong.  Frankly, it's hard to blame the IT advisory services:  Forecasting is tough stuff!!  Some of the firms claim that they are not producing forecasts, but are producing projections.  Call it what you will:  It's a forecast -- and it's usually wrong.  (In defense of the IT advisory services, often the commentary which accompanies a forecast is quite useful.  The forecast may be wrong, but often other issues are adequately -- and usefully -- addressed.)
 
I've been a long-time proponent of more "advanced" forecasting techniques ranging from Delphi (pioneered by the RAND Corporation) to cellular automata to Lotka-Volterra (which in a plain vanilla and watered-down form was the basis of a lead article in an issue of Harvard Business Review) to the good 'ol Fisher-Pry technique -- and just about every flavor of forecasting in between.  Not only do I read Technological Forecasting & Social Change, but I annually read numerous papers published in a few hundred engineering journals and in all ACM, IEEE and SPIE conference proceedings which cite a paper published in TF&SC.  (Think CiteSeer.)  And something relatively new has captured my attention; I want to share this with the readers of this blog/e-newsletter.
 
MIT's Technology Review has embarked on a interesting project called "Innovation Futures".  (They may not view this as a "project," but it feels like a "project" to me.)  There is a fair amount of history behind the project -- and some may recall the related DARPA fiasco last year -- but I'd like to stick specifically to the MIT project.  To quote Technology Review, "Innovation Futures is a predictive market system that enables technologyreview.com users to predict the outcome of events related to emerging technologies."  Think of it as a futures and options market for emerging technologies -- NOT about companies, but about the underlying technologies.  For example, rather than betting for or against Nanosys as a pure-play nano firm, a "player" (think "trader") can bet for or against a definable nano event (e.g., commercial devices produced using molecular self-assembly techniques with combined annual sales of at least $100 million by 2006).  Something "easier" to phantom might be a bet that VoIP will be implemented in some form by at least 75% of G2000 companies by 2007.  Think about this:  Which would give a better indicator of buying intentions, the MIT predictive market system or an IT advisory service forecast?  I'll put my money on Innovation Futures or a clone.  (Frankly, I'd put my money on other technological forecasting techniques.  But if the choice is between the MIT system or Gartner, I'll go with MIT.  And the MIT market is a lot easier to follow than building a nonlinear model.  Leave the tough stuff to Pugh-Roberts; leave the everyday stuff to Innovation Futures.)
 
At this point, the MIT site doesn't have very much and most of what they have is focused on short(er)-term bets.  But this will be very interesting to watch, especially as broader -- and long(er)-term -- issues are market tested.  What happens when the marketing folks at IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, HP, Accenture, CSC, TCS, Infosys and SAP play?  And when the members of the Global Business Network and their brethren play?  And when IT advisory services analysts play?  And, perhaps most importantly, when CIOs representing companies of all different sizes and from all parts of globe start to play?  Food for thought.  I'll keep this readership posted:  I plan to have several long discussions with the folks running Innovation Futures.  I have many specific ideas to share with them.  For more information, see http://tinyurl.com/5bevb .
 
A Golden Opportunity for China's ISVs
 
In the past I've talked about the opportunities for SIs (systems integrators) in China to work with utility computing vendors in the States.  Well, I've given this a lot of thought and have another idea:  What about ISVs (independent software vendors) in China floating utility computing offerings in the States?  As one example, let's take Free CRM (see http://www.freecrm.com/ ).  The totally free version seems a bit worthless, but gives a smaller firm a chance to play with the idea with very little risk.  However, the "Professional" version is only $10 per month per user, far less than Salesforce.com's average of $70 per month per user.  Okay, the "Professional" version of Free CRM (maybe they should call it "Cheap CRM" -- or some B-school grad might name it "Value-Driven CRM) certainly doesn't have the industrial strength features of Salesforce.com.  However, think a modified Pareto strategy:  A good chuck of the functionality, but at a fraction of the cost.  Add a few zingers like syncing for a PDA/smartphone and/or pages automatically "modified" to fit any form factor (see the current issue of CACM for a great article on this; hot research area and tomorrow's urls listing will include a link to a downloadable paper on this subject) and the offering from the ISV in China becomes incredibly -- perhaps irresistibly -- enticing.  And guess what:  At least in theory the platform could be leveraged for both the market in the States and in China.  (I have some reservations about this, but it's theoretically doable.)  BTW, the Free CRM solutions are NOT hosted, but for in-house initiatives.  However, the same marketing principles apply in this analysis.
 
Bottom line:  This is truly a golden opportunity for ISVs in ChinaDon't target the F1000; go after SMEs, perhaps the same firms that are normally targeted by the largest ISVs using telemarketing.  (I'm not suggesting a telemarketing strategy; I'm simply segmenting the market in Oracle fashion.)  Think of a U.S. company with less than 500 employees.  The world (well, at least the U.S. part of it) will be your oyster ...
 
China: A Hotbed for Management Consulting?
 
An interesting article published on the China Economic Net site (in Chinglish, no less) kind of uses the phrase "management consulting" in a rather broad way.  But when it gets to specifics, it's illuminating.  First, there is the claim that "China has become the management consulting market with the most rapid growth rate."  Not sure if this is really true, but it's certainly one of the more interesting markets. 
 
For specifics, BearingPoint is cited.  Basically, they're bursting at the seams and projecting growth from about 1,000 today to 6,000 in 2008.  CapGemini went the acquisition route.  The average annual salary of a "good management consultant" is about US$40,000 -- a far cry from what a "good management consultant" makes in the States.  And what do the consultants bring to the table?  Well, this is where the article went from being written in English to Chinglish.  But if I can make out what they mean, it's the ability for management consultants to help with implementation and operational issues.  See http://tinyurl.com/43hlr .
 
Bottom line:  SIs in China should look to adding so-called "management consulting" services to their offerings.  I am NOT suggesting a massive move in this direction, but a selected approach.  Also, China's SIs should look to partner with Western management consulting firms already in or planning to enter China.  On the one hand, the BearingPoints of the world make good partners, especially for sub-contracting work.  On the other hand, the BCGs of the world are more complimentary and not directly competitive.  Have a strategy and plan for dealing with both types of management consulting firms, i.e., the strategy firms with a stake in IT (e.g., @McKinsey) and the IT consultancies/SIs with a strategy play (e.g., IGS, Accenture, ...).
 
What I'm Reading (and Why I Didn't Post as Often as Usual Last Week)
 
The new proceedings for SIGIR04 are out and I've been sifting through dozens of papers.  Google seems like child's play compared to what is brewing.  However, I have it on good authority that Google is brewing many of the same things.  But so is Microsoft.  In the future, we all benefit.
 
Cheers,
 
David Scott Lewis
President & Principal Analyst
IT E-Strategies, Inc.
Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
 
http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
http://tinyurl.com/2azkh (current blog postings for viewing in other browsers and for access to blog content archives in the US & ROW)
http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
 
 
To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
 

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          DNA Structure        
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An examination of mechanical and biological machines. Spontaneous generation vs. concept and design. The fantastic complexity at the molecular level.
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A theory in crisis in light of the tremendous advances we've made in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics and information theory.
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          Glutathione Select the Best Antioxidants for Anti Aging        
It has long been accepted and practiced that eating food with antioxidants slows down aging. This has been practiced even before the term antioxidants was used. Ancient Chinese (and even the Chinese of today) prescribe special food that will enhance an attribute, cure an ailment,  improve metabolism, or increase vitality and vigor. In India, certain herbs are mixed with their foods,  similar to what the Chinese do. The same goes with Brazilians and Peruvians.


While almost all plants have sterols that are good for the metabolism in the body, foods that are generally known to contain high concentration of antioxidants are usually those that are present in plants  and other fruits containing amino acids, omega 3,6, and 9, and other useful fatty acids. The category also includes those that contain high concentrations of resveratrol and glutathione. The presence of antioxidants in diets will help protect the cells of the body from free radicals and toxins.


This is so because antioxidants work in a way that its molecules slow down and in some conditions, prevent the oxidation of other molecules. Anti-aging treatments that contain antioxidants often come in the form of capsules, tablets and energy drinks and other forms of dietary supplements.


Oxidation, while crucial at maintaining life, could be damaging. Animals and even plants maintain a high level and need complex anti-oxidant systems in multiple types. Many of these types come from plants in the form of sterols and enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and other peroxides. The most common and readily available antioxidant though is the Vitamin C and the Vitamin E.


One of the tangible reasons that a person lacks antioxidants in the body is tiredness and stress. A body that lacks antioxidants results to oxidative stress which damages and kills cells. Aside from anti oxidants being effective as anti-aging agents is their capacity to prevent a host of illnesses from occurring. Some types of antioxidants have demonstrated capacity to prevent the development of certain cancer cells, diabetes, heart ailments and other maladies. This is one of the reasons that foods that are high in anti-oxidant properties are highly sought after. Others are even in such a demand to command high prices.


Examples of foods that have vast concentration of antioxidant properties are coffee, grapes and berries. In fact the grapes in red wine have been known to have impressive anti-oxidizing properties that are usually attributed to the cause of the French being more fit in spite of the cholesterol rich food that they consume.  The skin of the grape is the part that is truly rich in antioxidants. Coffee has vast concentration too although what is mixed with the coffee is what causes the worry. The acai berry of Brazil is also widely advertised to have vast concentration of anti oxidant properties, pity that it is not consumed fresh in the rest of the world except Brazil.


In addition to its ability to repair and preserve cells making it an excellent anti aging agent, anti oxidants are also widely used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Anti oxidants are also widely used in industrial applications where prevention of degradation is important.


Learn more information at No More Aging

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          Antioxidants The Health Benefits of Glutathione        
Glutathione is a molecular structure of amino acids that occurs naturally in the body. Its purpose is to help in the ability of the body to maintain immunity to infection and illness, as well as acting as an antioxidant agent when the so-called free radicals are produced by cells.





Food intake is one main source the body uses to produce glutathione, as well as the other antioxidant agents like vitamins C and E. Asparagus and watermelon are two good food sources for producing the material the body needs to create amino acids. It also aids in healthy liver function, which is crucial to the vital processes of the body.





There are now nutritional supplements that include glutathione as an ingredient, due to its ability to decrease oxidation of cells which can lead to some health problems. Glutathione, when combined with other components, can actually aid in the treatment of some blood infections, including the very debilitating and potentially life-threatening HIV virus.





Some studies have found that glutathione does not absorb well into the body when taken orally. As a response, some products have been developed which contain what are known as precursors, or molecules which induce the production of glutathione, such as cysteine. These can be taken orally, and preclude the necessity of taking glutathione intravenously for maximum effect.





There are many other illnesses that it has been tested on, such as cancer, high blood pressure, Parkinson's disease, and infertility. While there are less conclusive results in the others, cancer seems to be affected by the administering of glutathione. It should be remembered that these studies are not conclusive as to the successful elimination of diseases, but there have been what many consider to be very positive indications that glutathione can be very beneficial in addressing many of these illnesses and diseases.





Due to the increased ability of the liver to remove toxins from the body when adding a form of glutathione to the system, many researchers have touted its ability to fight the aging process as well. While this is another assertion that has yet to be proven conclusively, the logic behind the theory is sound enough. Toxins and other cellular problems actually will increase the body???s stress levels as it tries to process damaging entities in its system. This increased stress will tax the entire body and all of its functions, which naturally will cause the rapidity of the weakening of the body.





There are some warnings that glutathione should not be administered to those with milk protein allergies or those who have recently received an organ transplant. While it has been touted for cancer concerns, some researchers are concerned about its prolonged usage in any treatment program. Of course, this can also be stated about nearly any substance or compound that is introduced to the body over long periods of time.





The best advice that can be given would be to always consult a qualified medical professional, especially those who specialize in immunology and hematology, before embarking on any regimen of supplement dosage.


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          Goma gelana: Função, Origem, Propriedades e Aplicações na cozinha        
Agente gelificante produzido na fermentação de algas. A goma gelana é muito utilizada na gastronomia molecular para formar todo o tipo de géis com diferentes texturas. Origem A goma gelana é obtida por fermentação provocada pelo microrganismo Sphingomonas Ler mais
          TOP10: Sites de Relacionamento Bizarros!        

Hoje em dia é uma tarefa difícil encontrar uma pessoa bacana para ter um relacionamento, mas graças a tecnologia ela tem ajudado a formar muitos casais, mesmo que seja para algo passageiro como o caso de alguns aplicativos como Tinder. O problema desses métodos é que nem todo mundo fala a verdade sobre si, e no final acaba sendo uma grande perca de tempo...
Mas, se você procurar bem, poderá descobrir muitas opções de busca de relacionamentos, então veja abaixo uma lista de sites de relacionamentos que com certeza estão entre os mais bizarros de todos os tempos.


1 – Um site dedicado a encontrar um amor para quando você tiver virado fantasma

Se de repente não deu certo em vida, a esperança, como já diz o ditado, é a última que morre. A proposta do Ghost Singles é justamente essa: garantir que a pessoa que tenha morrido solteira chegue à vida espiritual com outra perspectiva amorosa.

Na hora de procurar pelo homem ou mulher dos seus sonhos pós-vida, o Ghost Singles pede para que o candidato especifique até a forma como morreu: horrivelmente, misteriosamente, tragicamente ou de uma hora para a outra. Aí está um requisito com o qual não estamos acostumados a lidar. Pelo menos não nesse plano.


2 – Um site de relacionamento para caçadores de fantasmas

Porque afinal estamos realmente falando sobre como agradar a todos os públicos. Se você não se vê como um fantasma carente, mas ainda assim a temática fantasmagórica é algo de seu interesse, nós temos a indicação de site ideal para você: o Supernatural Dating.

Fundado pelo respeitado The Amazing Kreskin, conhecido por seus estudos sobrenaturais, o site propõe a união amorosa entre pessoas que dedicam suas vidas a estudar fantasmas, teorias conspiratórias, alienígenas e vampiros.


3 – Um site para quem busca o par geneticamente perfeito

Saindo do campo espiritual, mergulhamos de cabeça no universo científico. O Gene Partner promete encontrar o par ideal de seus inscritos com base não nos hobbies, nas profissões ou no estilo musical, mas nas características genéticas de cada um dos candidatos.

A ideia do site veio da especialista em genética molecular Tamara Brown, que fundou o Gene Partner em 2008. Encontrar compatibilidade genética entre os participantes é a meta de Tamara, que acredita nas explicações científicas de amor.

Como o cadastro no site implica em uma avaliação genética, ele não é exatamente barato. O usuário precisa pagar uma parcela de US$ 249 – aproximadamente R$ 845 – para fazer parte da seleção genética. Por meio de coleta de saliva, testes são realizados e, assim que o mapeamento genético do participante for revelado, o site já começa a procurar alguém compatível, automaticamente. Sheldon Cooper aprovou a metodologia.


4 – Um site para encontrar sua outra metade da salada

Para que um relacionamento dê certo, é preciso que o casal tenha o mínimo de afinidade, e isso inclui preferências culinárias. Se salada é o que faz você morrer de prazeres na cozinha, o Salad Match pode fazer com que você encontre alguém com quem dividir aquele prato de rúcula com tomate seco no capricho. Tem aplicativo também!

Só não vale usar a boa e velha conversinha de “não vou contar para os seus pais onde nos conhecemos”. Na verdade, o contrário é o ideal. Imagina que fantástico conhecer um casal que se encontrou por ter preferências parecidas no quesito salada!


5 – Um site para quem ama fraldas

Se salada não faz sentido para você, talvez esteja na hora de encontrar aquela pessoa apaixonada por fraldas — e se casar com ela, caso você também tenha essa estranha preferência por um material poluente que costuma ser descartado com um belo recheio de dejetos humanos. Ah, o amor...

Na verdade, a questão aqui tem mais a ver com fetiche mesmo. Algumas pessoas simplesmente se sentem atraídas por quem usa fralda e outras pessoas adoram apostar na fralda como um acessório de conquista.

Felizmente, agora elas têm onde se encontrar: o Diaper Mates, que, além de reunir apaixonados por fraldas, também tem uma vasta galeria de imagens e vídeos das últimas tendências no mercado de fraldas para adultos. Imperdível.


6 – Um site para reunir pessoas que trabalham com mortos

De seis itens até agora, três têm objetivos meio mórbidos. O que é isso, humanidade? Mas enfim... Agora é hora de falar do Dead Meet, que nada mais é do que um lugar acolhedor para aquelas pessoas que, por algum motivo, trabalham em necrotérios, funerárias, cemitérios e por aí vai.

Se lidar com gente morta é o que você faz durante oito horas do seu dia, que tal namorar alguém que também não tem muitos colegas de trabalho com vida? A gente faz piada, mas a verdade é que, pelo jeito, médicos legistas, profissionais de necrotérios e afins enfrentam dificuldades na hora de encontrar um parceiro. Você se incomodaria se a pessoa com quem está saindo trabalhasse fazendo autópsias, por exemplo?


7 – Um site para celíacos

Não poder ingerir alimentos à base de glúten deve ser realmente um grande incômodo e, nesse sentido, sair para jantar com um novo pretendente pode ser uma péssima ideia. Para não passar por apertos, o Gluten-free Singles promete unir casais com as mesmas restrições alimentares. Uma ótima ideia. Mesmo.

E não somos apenas nós aqui do Mega que achamos isso – em 2014, o Gluten-free Singles recebeu o título de melhor novo site de relacionamento. É isso aí: celíacos, se a restrição ao glúten for um problema, uni-vos!


8 – Um site para quem ama gatos

Ou seja: um site para todo mundo. Corre lá , pois talvez seja melhor mesmo do que o Tinder. Se você é aquele tipo de pessoa que passa horas olhando fotos, vídeos, GIFs, produtos e sites sobre gatos, você obviamente não é o único, e o Purrsonals promete encontrar alguém tão apaixonado por felinos quanto você. Não era basicamente o que faltava para a sua vida fazer sentido?

A sacada é tão obviamente boa que o site já tem muitos inscritos – muitos mesmo. A ideia não fica limitada apenas a fazer com que você encontre alguém para namorar. Se o namoro não rolar, você vai poder fazer bons amigos que também deliram com a existência dos felinos no mundo. Ou seja: só as melhores pessoas parecem estar por lá. Corra logo fazer o seu cadastro!


9 – Um site que pode também ser o seu pior pesadelo

Se você é do tipo que tem medo de palhaços, nem pense em se cadastrar no Clown Dating. A ideia do site é justamente mostrar que palhaços também amam e que, inclusive, podem amar outros palhaços – imagina só os bonequinhos do bolo de casamento, que coloridos seriam!

O legal do site é que ele não é apenas um local para arrumar encontros, mas também para novos empregos ou um “bicos”. Aí sim, hein! Duas grandes utilidades em apenas um clique.


10 – Um site para pessoas feias


Chega de tratar imagens no Photoshop ou de publicar apenas a foto do seu sorriso ou dos olhos. Ainda que beleza seja algo relativo e que provavelmente você seja menos feio do que acredita ser, se você insiste em bater nessa tecla, talvez esteja na hora de visitar o Ugly Schmucks, que reúne pessoas que se julgam feias e que gostariam de encontrar um novo amor.
          Hard Cosmic Ray Sea in the Galactic Center: a consistent interpretation of H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT $\gamma$-ray data        
We present a novel interpretation of the gamma-ray diffuse emission measured by H.E.S.S. in the Galactic Center (GC) region and the Galactic ridge. Our starting base is an updated analysis of PASS8 Fermi-LAT data, which allows to extend down to few GeV the spectra measured by H.E.S.S. and to infer the primary CR radial distribution above 100 GeV. We compare those results with a CR transport model assuming a harder scaling of the diffusion coefficient with rigidity in the inner Galaxy. Such a behavior reproduces the radial dependence of the CR spectral index recently inferred from Fermi-LAT measurements in the inner GP. We find that, in this scenario, the bulk of the Galactic ridge emission can be naturally explained by the interaction of the diffuse, steady-state Galactic CR sea interacting with the gas present in the Central molecular zone. The evidence of a GC PeVatron is significantly weaker than that inferred adopting a conventional (softer) CR sea.
          Latest Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Drugs and Companies Pipeline Review, H1 2020        

Latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Burkholderia Infections – Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market - Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides an overview of the Burkholderia Infections pipeline landscape.

The Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Neuropathic Pain, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Development Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/burkholderia-infections-pipeline-review-h2-2020-10512142   

Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market Report Highlights:

The Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the Burkholderia Infections report provides an overview of key players involved in therapeutic development for Burkholderia Infections and features dormant and discontinued projects.

Keyplayers in Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market - Pipeline Review, H1 2020
- Novabiotics Ltd
- Aridis Pharmaceuticals LLC
- NanoBio Corporation
- iQur Ltd.
- Among others

Purchase a Report Copy at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10512142   

Scope Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review Report-

- The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease).

- The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.

- The pipeline guide covers pipeline products based on several stages of development ranging from pre-registration till discovery and undisclosed stages.

- The pipeline guide features descriptive drug profiles for the pipeline products which comprise, product description, descriptive licensing and collaboration details, R&D brief, MoA & other developmental activities.

- The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects.

- The pipeline guide evaluates Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

- The pipeline guide encapsulates all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects.

- The pipeline guide reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease)

Sample PDF of Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review H1 2020 Research Study at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10512142   

The Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market report helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage.

Reasons to Buy Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Market Report:

- Procure strategically important competitor information, analysis, and insights to formulate effective R&D strategies.

- Recognize emerging players with potentially strong product portfolio and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage.

- Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease).

- Classify potential new clients or partners in the target demographic.

- Develop tactical initiatives by understanding the focus areas of leading companies.

- Plan mergers and acquisitions meritoriously by identifying key players and it's most promising pipeline therapeutics.

- Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Burkholderia Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics.

- Develop and design in-licensing and out-licensing strategies by identifying prospective partners with the most attractive projects to enhance and expand business potential and scope.

- Adjust the therapeutic portfolio by recognizing discontinued projects and understand from the know-how what drove them from pipeline.

Ask Discount on Burkholderia Infections Therapeutics Companies Review H1 2020 Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10512142   

About Absolute Report
Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/latest-burkholderia-infections-therapeutics-drugs-and-companies-pipeline-review-h1-2020-769437.htm

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          Discover Liver Cancer Therapeutic Pipeline H1 2020, Drug Profile and Major Key Players        

Latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Liver Cancer – Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Liver Cancer (Oncology) pipeline landscape.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market- Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides an overview of the Liver Cancer pipeline landscape.

The Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Neuropathic Pain, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Liver Cancer Therapeutics Development Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/liver-cancer-pipeline-review-h2-2020-10512140   

Therapeutics Market Report Highlights:

The Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the Liver Cancer report provides an overview of key players involved in therapeutic development for Liver Cancer and features dormant and discontinued projects.

Keyplayers in Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market- Pipeline Review, H1 2020
- NF-B
- STAT3
- Signaling Transduction
- Inflammation
- Carcinogenesis
- Liver Cancer
- HCC
- Others

Purchase a Report Copy at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10512140  

Scope Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review Report-

- The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Liver Cancer (Oncology).

- The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Liver Cancer (Oncology) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.

- The pipeline guide covers pipeline products based on several stages of development ranging from pre-registration till discovery and undisclosed stages.

- The pipeline guide features descriptive drug profiles for the pipeline products which comprise, product description, descriptive licensing and collaboration details, R&D brief, MoA & other developmental activities.

- The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Liver Cancer (Oncology) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects.

- The pipeline guide evaluates Liver Cancer (Oncology) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

- The pipeline guide encapsulates all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects.

- The pipeline guide reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Liver Cancer (Oncology)

Sample PDF of Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review H1 2020 Research Study at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10512140

The Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market report helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage.

Reasons to Buy Liver Cancer Therapeutics Market Report:

- Procure strategically important competitor information, analysis, and insights to formulate effective R&D strategies.

- Recognize emerging players with potentially strong product portfolio and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage.

- Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Liver Cancer (Oncology).

- Classify potential new clients or partners in the target demographic.

- Develop tactical initiatives by understanding the focus areas of leading companies.

- Plan mergers and acquisitions meritoriously by identifying key players and it's most promising pipeline therapeutics.

- Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Liver Cancer (Oncology) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics.

- Develop and design in-licensing and out-licensing strategies by identifying prospective partners with the most attractive projects to enhance and expand business potential and scope.

- Adjust the therapeutic portfolio by recognizing discontinued projects and understand from the know-how what drove them from pipeline.

Ask Discount on Liver Cancer Therapeutics Companies Review H1 2020 Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10512140

About Absolute Report
Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/discover-liver-cancer-therapeutic-pipeline-h1-2020-drug-profile-and-major-key-players-769422.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ameya Pingaley
Absolute Reports
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          Insights of Hypertriglyceridemia Pipeline Review H1 2020 and Therapeutic Development        

Latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Hypertriglyceridemia – Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders) pipeline landscape.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Market - Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides an overview of the Hypertriglyceridemia pipeline landscape.

The Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Market report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Neuropathic Pain, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Development Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/hypertriglyceridemia-pipeline-review-h2-2020-10512139

Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Market Report Highlights:

The Hypertriglyceridemia report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the Hypertriglyceridemia report provides an overview of key players involved in therapeutic development for Hypertriglyceridemia and features dormant and discontinued projects.

Keyplayers in Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Market- Pipeline Review, H1 2020
- Obesity
- Inflammation
- Insulin Resistance
- Dyslipidemia
- Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
- Adipose Tissue
- Adipokine

Purchase a Report Copy at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10512139  

Scope Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review Report-

- The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders).

- The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.

- The pipeline guide covers pipeline products based on several stages of development ranging from pre-registration till discovery and undisclosed stages.

- The pipeline guide features descriptive drug profiles for the pipeline products which comprise, product description, descriptive licensing and collaboration details, R&D brief, MoA & other developmental activities.

- The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects.

- The pipeline guide evaluates Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

- The pipeline guide encapsulates all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects.

- The pipeline guide reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders)

Sample PDF of Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review H1 2020 Research Study at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10512139

The Hypertriglyceridemia report helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage.

Reasons to Buy Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Market Report:

- Procure strategically important competitor information, analysis, and insights to formulate effective R&D strategies.

- Recognize emerging players with potentially strong product portfolio and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage.

- Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders).

- Classify potential new clients or partners in the target demographic.

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- Plan mergers and acquisitions meritoriously by identifying key players and it's most promising pipeline therapeutics.

- Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Hypertriglyceridemia (Metabolic Disorders) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics.

- Develop and design in-licensing and out-licensing strategies by identifying prospective partners with the most attractive projects to enhance and expand business potential and scope.

- Adjust the therapeutic portfolio by recognizing discontinued projects and understand from the know-how what drove them from pipeline.

Ask Discount on Hypertriglyceridemia Therapeutics Companies Review H1 2020 Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10512139

About Absolute Report
Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/insights-of-hypertriglyceridemia-pipeline-review-h1-2020-and-therapeutic-development-769416.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ameya Pingaley
Absolute Reports
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Web: https://www.absolutereports.com/hypertriglyceridemia-pipeline-review-h2-2016-10512139


          Discover Colon Cancer Therapeutic Pipeline H1 2020, Drug Profile and Major Key Players        

Latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Colon Cancer – Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Colon Cancer (Oncology) pipeline landscape.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- Colon Cancer- Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides an overview of the Colon Cancer pipeline landscape.

The Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Neuropathic Pain, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/colon-cancer-pipeline-review-h2-2020-10512136   

Report Highlights:

The Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market report provides an overview of key players involved in therapeutic development for Colon Cancer and features dormant and discontinued projects.

Keyplayers in Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market - Pipeline Review, H1 2020
- Cancer Screening
- Colorectal Cancer
- Rural
- Health Inequities
- Social Networks
- Qualitative

Purchase a Report Copy at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10512136   

Scope Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market Pipeline Review Report-

- The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Colon Cancer (Oncology).

- The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Colon Cancer (Oncology) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.

- The pipeline guide covers pipeline products based on several stages of development ranging from pre-registration till discovery and undisclosed stages.

- The pipeline guide features descriptive drug profiles for the pipeline products which comprise, product description, descriptive licensing and collaboration details, R&D brief, MoA & other developmental activities.

- The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Colon Cancer (Oncology) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects.

- The pipeline guide evaluates Colon Cancer (Oncology) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

- The pipeline guide encapsulates all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects.

- The pipeline guide reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Colon Cancer (Oncology)

Sample PDF of Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market Pipeline Review H1 2020 Research Study at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10512136

The Colon Cancer Therapeutics Development Market report helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage.

Reasons to Buy Colon Cancer Therapeutics Market Report:

- Procure strategically important competitor information, analysis, and insights to formulate effective R&D strategies.

- Recognize emerging players with potentially strong product portfolio and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage.

- Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Colon Cancer (Oncology).

- Classify potential new clients or partners in the target demographic.

- Develop tactical initiatives by understanding the focus areas of leading companies.

- Plan mergers and acquisitions meritoriously by identifying key players and it's most promising pipeline therapeutics.

- Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Colon Cancer (Oncology) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics.

- Develop and design in-licensing and out-licensing strategies by identifying prospective partners with the most attractive projects to enhance and expand business potential and scope.

- Adjust the therapeutic portfolio by recognizing discontinued projects and understand from the know-how what drove them from pipeline.

Ask Discount on Colon Cancer Therapeutics Companies Review H1 2020 Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10512136

About Absolute Report
Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/discover-colon-cancer-therapeutic-pipeline-h1-2020-drug-profile-and-major-key-players-769401.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ameya Pingaley
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Email: Click to Email Ameya Pingaley
Web: https://www.absolutereports.com/colon-cancer-pipeline-review-h2-2016-10512136


          Latest Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Drugs and Companies Pipeline Review, H1 2020        

Latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Gaucher Disease – Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders) pipeline landscape.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- The Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Market report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Neuropathic Pain, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Development Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/gaucher-disease-pipeline-review-h2-2020-10512134

Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Market Report Highlights:

The Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Market report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in therapeutic development for Gaucher Disease and features dormant and discontinued projects.

Keyplayers in Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Market - Pipeline Review, H1 2020

- Actelion Ltd
- Bioorganic Research and Services S.A.
- Genzyme Corporation
- greenovation Biotech GmbH
- JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.
- Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc.
- Neuraltus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
- Okklo Life Sciences BV
- Pharming Group N.V.

Purchase a Report Copy at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10512134  

Scope Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review Report-

- The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders).

- The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.

- The pipeline guide covers pipeline products based on several stages of development ranging from pre-registration till discovery and undisclosed stages.

- The pipeline guide features descriptive drug profiles for the pipeline products which comprise, product description, descriptive licensing and collaboration details, R&D brief, MoA & other developmental activities.

- The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects.

- The pipeline guide evaluates Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.

- The pipeline guide encapsulates all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects.

- The pipeline guide reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders)

Sample PDF of Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Market Pipeline Review H1 2020 Research Study at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10512134

The Gaucher Disease report helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage.

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- Procure strategically important competitor information, analysis, and insights to formulate effective R&D strategies.

- Recognize emerging players with potentially strong product portfolio and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage.

- Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders).

- Classify potential new clients or partners in the target demographic.

- Develop tactical initiatives by understanding the focus areas of leading companies.

- Plan mergers and acquisitions meritoriously by identifying key players and it's most promising pipeline therapeutics.

- Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Gaucher Disease (Genetic Disorders) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics.

- Develop and design in-licensing and out-licensing strategies by identifying prospective partners with the most attractive projects to enhance and expand business potential and scope.

- Adjust the therapeutic portfolio by recognizing discontinued projects and understand from the know-how what drove them from pipeline.

Ask Discount on Gaucher Disease Therapeutics Companies Review H1 2020 Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10512134

About Absolute Report
Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/latest-gaucher-disease-therapeutics-drugs-and-companies-pipeline-review-h1-2020-769389.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ameya Pingaley
Absolute Reports
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           Analysis of intraspecific and interspecific variation using reproductive and molecular evidence to interpret evolutionary relationships in a scleractinian coral species complex         
Wolstenholme, Jacqueline K. (2004) Analysis of intraspecific and interspecific variation using reproductive and molecular evidence to interpret evolutionary relationships in a scleractinian coral species complex. In: 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, p. 141. From: 10th International Coral Reef Symposium Abstracts: stability and degradation of coral reef ecosystems, 28 June - 2 July 2004, Okinawa, Japan. (Unpublished)
           The historical biogeography of groupers: clade diversification patterns and processes         
Ma, Ka Yan, Craig, Matthew Thomas, Choat, John Howard, and van Herwerden, Lynne (2016) The historical biogeography of groupers: clade diversification patterns and processes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 100. pp. 21-30.
           Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: a case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia         
Goetze, Márcia, Schulte, Katharina, Palma-Silva, Clarisse, Zanella, Camila M., Buttow, Miriam V., Capra, Fernanda, and Bered, Fernanda (2016) Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: a case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 98. pp. 346-357.
           Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: a phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae)         
Huang, Jian-Feng, Li, Lang, van der Werff, Henk, Li, Hsi-Wen, Rohwer, Jens G., Crayn, Darren M., Meng, Hong-Hu, van der Merwe, Marlien, Conran, John G., and Li, Jie (2016) Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: a phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 96. pp. 33-44.
           Intestinal microbiota in fishes: what's known and what's not         
Clements, Kendall D., Angert, Esther R., Montgomery, W. Linn, and Choat, Howard (2014) Intestinal microbiota in fishes: what's known and what's not. Molecular Ecology, 23 (8). pp. 1891-1898.
           Combining morphometrics with molecular taxonomy: how different are similar foliose keratose sponges from the Australian tropics?         
Abdul Wahab, Muhammad, Fromont, J., Whalan, S., Webster, N., and Andreakis, N. (2014) Combining morphometrics with molecular taxonomy: how different are similar foliose keratose sponges from the Australian tropics? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 73. pp. 23-39.
           Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus         
Yeoh, Suat Hui, Ho, Simon Y.W., Thornhill, Andrew H., and Foley, William J. (2013) Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 68 (3). pp. 498-501.
           The Sahul–Sunda floristic exchange: dated molecular phylogenies document Cenozoic intercontinental dispersal dynamics         
Crayn, Darren M., Costion, Craig, and Harrington, Mark G. (2015) The Sahul–Sunda floristic exchange: dated molecular phylogenies document Cenozoic intercontinental dispersal dynamics. Journal of Biogeography, 42 (1). pp. 11-24.
           Rapid microsatellite marker development for African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis, Meliaceae) using next-generation sequencing and assessment of its intra-specific genetic diversity         
Karan , M., Evans, D.S., Reilly, D., Schulte, K., Wright, C., Innes, D., Holton, T.A., Nikles, D.G., and Dickinson, G.R. (2012) Rapid microsatellite marker development for African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis, Meliaceae) using next-generation sequencing and assessment of its intra-specific genetic diversity. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12 (2). pp. 344-353.
           Molecular phylogeny of the Brazilian endemic genus Orthophytum (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae) and its implications on morphological character evolution         
Louzada, Rafael B., Schulte, Katharina, Wanderley, Maria das Graças L., Silvestro, Daniele, Zizka, Georg, Barfuss, Michael H.J., and Palma-Silva, Clarisse (2014) Molecular phylogeny of the Brazilian endemic genus Orthophytum (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae) and its implications on morphological character evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 77. pp. 54-64.
           Detecting Holocene divergence in the anadromous-freshwater three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) system         
Raeymaekers, J.A.M., Maes, G.E., Audenaert, E., and Volckaert, F.A.M. (2005) Detecting Holocene divergence in the anadromous-freshwater three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) system. Molecular Ecology, 14 (4). pp. 1001-1014.
           Adaptive radiation, correlated and contingent evolution, and net species diversification in Bromeliaceae         
Givnish, Thomas J., Barfuss, Michael H.J., Van Ee, Benjamin, Riina, Ricarda, Schulte, Katharina, Horres, Ralf, Gonsiska, Philip A., Jabaily, Rachel S., Crayn, Darren M., Smith, J. Andrew C., Winter, Klaus, Brown, Gregory K., Evans, Timothy M., Holst, Bruce K., Luther, Harry, Till, Walter, Zizka, Georg, Berry, Paul E., and Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2014) Adaptive radiation, correlated and contingent evolution, and net species diversification in Bromeliaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 71. pp. 55-78.
           Population genetics in nonmodel organisms: II. natural selection in marginal habitats revealed by deep sequencing on dual platforms         
Zhou, Renchao, Ling, Shaoping, Zhao, Wenming, Osada, Naoki, Chen, Sufang, Zhang, Meng, He, Ziwen, Bao, Hua, Zhong, Cairong, Zhang, Bing, Lu, Xuemei, Turissini, David, Duke, Norman C., Lu, Jian, Shi, Suhua, and Wu, Chung-I (2011) Population genetics in nonmodel organisms: II. natural selection in marginal habitats revealed by deep sequencing on dual platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28 (10). pp. 2833-2842.
           Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the amplification of five nuclear introns in vertebrates         
Friesen, V.L., Congdon, B.C., Kidd, M.G., and Birt, T.P. (1999) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the amplification of five nuclear introns in vertebrates. Molecular Ecology, 8 (12). pp. 2147-2149.
           Intron variation in marbled murrelets detected using analyses of single-stranded conformational polymorphisms         
Friesen, V.L., Congdon, B.C., Walsh, H.E., and Birt, T.P. (1997) Intron variation in marbled murrelets detected using analyses of single-stranded conformational polymorphisms. Molecular Ecology, 6 (11). pp. 1047-1058.
           Conservation of the introgressed European water frog complex using molecular tools         
Holsbeek, G., Maes, G.E., De Meester, L., and Volckaert, F.A.M. (2009) Conservation of the introgressed European water frog complex using molecular tools. Molecular Ecology, 18 (6). pp. 1071-1087.
           Cassytha pubescens and C. glabella (Lauraceae) are not disjunctly distributed between Australia and the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan: evidence from morphological and molecular data         
Kokubugata, Goro, Nakamura, Koh, Forster, Paul I., Wilson, Gary W., Holland, Ailsa E., Hirayama, Yumiko, and Yokota, Masatsugu (2012) Cassytha pubescens and C. glabella (Lauraceae) are not disjunctly distributed between Australia and the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan: evidence from morphological and molecular data. Australian Systematic Botany, 25 (5). pp. 364-373.
           Connectivity of Caribbean coral populations: complementary insights from empirical and modelled gene flow         
Foster, Nicola L., Paris, Claire B., Kool, Johnathan T., Baums, Iliana B., Stevens, Jamie R., Sanchez, Juan A., Bastidas, Carolina, Agudelo, Claudia, Bush, Phillippe, Day, Owen, Ferrari, Renata, Gonzalez, Patricia, Gore, Shannon, Guppy, Reia, McCartney, Michael A., McCoy, Croy, Mendes, Judith, Srinivasan, Ashwanth, Steiner, Sascha, Vermeij, Mark J.A., Weil, Ernesto, and Mumby, Peter J. (2012) Connectivity of Caribbean coral populations: complementary insights from empirical and modelled gene flow. Molecular Ecology, 21 (5). pp. 1143-1157.
           The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae)         
Hodge, Jennifer R., Read, Charmaine I., Van Herwerden, Lynne, and Bellwood, David R. (2012) The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 62 (2). pp. 653-663.
           Evolutionary origins and diversification of dragon lizards in Australia's tropical savannas         
Melville, J., Ritchie, E.G., Chapple, S.N.J., Glor, R.E., and Schulte II, J.A. (2011) Evolutionary origins and diversification of dragon lizards in Australia's tropical savannas. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 58 (2). pp. 257-270.
           The history and relationships of northern platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) populations: a molecular approach         
Kolomyjec, Stephen H. (2010) The history and relationships of northern platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) populations: a molecular approach. PhD thesis, James Cook University.
           Genetic consequences of introducing allopatric lineages of bluestriped snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) to Hawaii         
Gaither, Michelle R., Bowen, Brian W., Toonen, Robert J., Planes, Serge, Messmer, Vanessa, Earle, John, and Robertson, D. Ross (2010) Genetic consequences of introducing allopatric lineages of bluestriped snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) to Hawaii. Molecular Ecology, 19 (6). pp. 1107-1121.
           Putting placozoans on the (phylogeographic) map         
Ball, Eldon E., and Miller, David J. (2010) Putting placozoans on the (phylogeographic) map. Molecular Ecology, 19 (11). pp. 2181-2183.
           Strong phylogeographic pattern of cpDNA variation reveals multiple glacial refugia for Saruma henryi Oliv. (Aristolochiaceae), an endangered herb endemic to China         
Zhou, Tian-Hua, Li, Shan, Qian, Zeng-Qiang, Su, Hai-Lun, Huang, Zhao-Hui, Gou, Zhi-Gang, Dai, Pan-Feng, Liu, Zhan-Lin, and Zhao, Gui-Fang (2010) Strong phylogeographic pattern of cpDNA variation reveals multiple glacial refugia for Saruma henryi Oliv. (Aristolochiaceae), an endangered herb endemic to China. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 57 (1). pp. 176-188.
           Snakes across the Strait: trans-Torresian phylogeographic relationships in three genera of Australasian snakes (Serpentes: Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, and Pseudechis)         
Wüster, Wolfgang, Dumbrell, Alex J., Hay, Chris, Pook, Catharine E., Williams, David J., and Fry, Bryan Grieg (2005) Snakes across the Strait: trans-Torresian phylogeographic relationships in three genera of Australasian snakes (Serpentes: Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, and Pseudechis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34 (1). pp. 1-14.
           Isolation and characterization of 16 microsatellite loci in the humbug damselfish, Dascyllus aruanus (family Pomacentridae)         
Fauvelot, C., Smith-Keune, C., Jerry, D.R., Buston, P.M., and Planes, S. (2009) Isolation and characterization of 16 microsatellite loci in the humbug damselfish, Dascyllus aruanus (family Pomacentridae). Molecular Ecology Resources, 9 (2). pp. 651-653.
          Neu5Gc in Red Meat and Organs May Pose a Significant Health Hazard        

Neu5Gc, a non-human sialic acid sugar molecule common in red meat that increases the risk of tumor formation in humans, is also prevalent in pig organs, with concentrations increasing as the organs are cooked, a study by researchers from the UC Davis School of Medicine and Xiamen University School of Medicine has found.

(PRWeb October 19, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/10/prweb13779640.htm


           Phylogenetics and evolution of bell frogs (Litoria aurea species-group, Anura: Hylidae) based on mitochondrial ND4 sequences         
Burns, Emma L., and Crayn, Darren M. (2006) Phylogenetics and evolution of bell frogs (Litoria aurea species-group, Anura: Hylidae) based on mitochondrial ND4 sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 39 (2). pp. 573-579.
           Molecular ecology of the endangered Gouldian Finch Erythrura gouldiae         
Esparza Salas, Rodrigo (2008) Molecular ecology of the endangered Gouldian Finch Erythrura gouldiae. PhD thesis, James Cook University.
           Geographic and habitat partitioning of genetically distinct zooxanthellea (Symbiodinium) in Acropora corals on the Great Barrier Reef         
Ulstrup, K.E., and Van Oppen, M.J.H. (2003) Geographic and habitat partitioning of genetically distinct zooxanthellea (Symbiodinium) in Acropora corals on the Great Barrier Reef. Molecular Ecology, 12 (12). pp. 3477-3484.
           Molecular phylogeny and dating reveals an Oligo-Miocene radiation of dry-adapted shrubs (Tremandraceae) from rainforest tree progenitors (Elaeocarpaceae) in Australia         
Crayn, Darren M., Rossetto, Maurizio, and Maynard, David J. (2006) Molecular phylogeny and dating reveals an Oligo-Miocene radiation of dry-adapted shrubs (Tremandraceae) from rainforest tree progenitors (Elaeocarpaceae) in Australia. American Journal of Botany, 93 (9). pp. 1328-1342.
           Ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus         
Kolomyjec, Stephen H., Grant, Tom R., and Blair, David (2008) Ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8 (5). pp. 1133-1135.
           Patterns of lineage diversification in the Genus Naso (Acanthuridae)         
Klanten, Selma O., van Herwerden, Lynne, Choat, J.Howard, and Blair, David (2004) Patterns of lineage diversification in the Genus Naso (Acanthuridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32 (1). pp. 221-235.
          UC Davis Study Shows Popular Molecular Tests Over Diagnose C. Difficile Infections Up To 50 Percent        

Clostridium difficile is a common cause of infection and diarrhea in hospitalized patients, but a new study by UC Davis pathologists suggests that many patients are mistakenly diagnosed and do not need antibiotic treatment.

(PRWeb September 08, 2015)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/09/prweb12948442.htm


           Comparative study of the evolution of nuclear ribosomal spacers incorporating secondary structure analyzes within Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae and Xanthoceroideae (Sapindaceae)         
Harrington, Mark G., Biffen, Ed, and Gadek, Paul A. (2009) Comparative study of the evolution of nuclear ribosomal spacers incorporating secondary structure analyzes within Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae and Xanthoceroideae (Sapindaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 50 (2). pp. 364-375.
           The phylogeography and connectivity of the latitudinally widespread scleractinian coral Plesiastrea versipora in the Western Pacific         
Rodriguez-Lanetty, M., and Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2002) The phylogeography and connectivity of the latitudinally widespread scleractinian coral Plesiastrea versipora in the Western Pacific. Molecular Ecology, 11 (7). pp. 1177-1189.
           Phylogenetic relationships of Australian members of the family Percichthyidae inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence data         
Jerry, D. R., Elphinstone, M. S., and Baverstock, P. R. (2001) Phylogenetic relationships of Australian members of the family Percichthyidae inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 18 (3). pp. 335-347.
          Dana Spence        
Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
B.S., 1992, Grand Valley State Univ.
Ph.D., 1997, Michigan State Univ.

Solving biological problems at the molecular level with the help of novel biotechnology method development is the primary goal in the Spence group. To accomplish this goal, our group blends a variety of methods found not only in the chemical sciences, but also bioengineering, pharmacology, and physiology. Our publication record is exemplary of this broad approach to solving problems; specifically, in the past 3 years, our group has published papers in journals whose primary focus is analytical chemistry, diabetes, pharmacology, and microfluidic devices, to name a few. We employ any measurement scheme necessary to find answers and make new discoveries. Therefore, it is not uncommon for students in the Spence group to be experts in cell culture and cell preparation, but also understand the basics behind laser-induced flow cytometry, chemiluminescence techniques, or how to prepare microfluidic devices from 3D-printing technology. During the past year or so, we have also used NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy, absorbance spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, HPLC, amperometry, cyclic voltammetry, and scintillation counting in our efforts.

All of the work performed in the Spence group is problem-based and hypothesisdriven. Moreover, most of our work is centered around the bloodstream and complications that arise in, or from, the bloodstream during disease onset. For example, since 2006, our group has been interested in studying C-peptide, a 31 amino acid peptide secreted from the pancreatic beta cells with insulin. Recently, our group has discovered that C-peptide demonstrates activity on red blood cells (something insulin does not do), but only when bound to zinc. We are also in the process of determining how this zinc binds to C-peptide, and if it induces structure in the peptide that subsequently leads to its binding to the red cell. Our ultimate objective with this project is to prepare a correct formulation of Zn-bound C-peptide that can be re-administered to people with Type 1 diabetes, who no longer produce C-peptide in their bodies due to beta cell destruction.

In addition to our work in diabetes, we also have recently reported findings concerning hydroxyurea, the only proven therapy for people with Sickle Cell Disease. We also dedicate resources and time to studies involving platelets for Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke. Finally, a new branch of our laboratory efforts focus on improving stored red blood cells for Transfusion Medicine. Here we are formulating new, yet simple, storage solutions for the blood cells. Preliminary evidence suggests that some of the properties of our stored red cells are as fresh on day 35 of storage as they are on day 1! We hope to continue these efforts in the next few years to improve human health.

A new technique in our group involves 3D-printing. Nearing 30 years since its introduction, 3D printing technology is set to revolutionize research and teaching laboratories. With regard to research settings, 3D printing has been limited to biomedical applications and engineering, although it shows tremendous potential in the chemical sciences. The Spence group aims to utilize 3D printing technology to help us solve the problems listed above, especially those related to cell-cell communication, blood flow, and tissue-on-chip applications.

Research currently underway in the Spence group is focused on (a) platelets, (b) sickle cell disease, and (c) stored blood, in addition to our long-standing investigations involving diabetes.

Microfluidic evaluation of red cells collected and stored in modified processing solutions used in blood banking?, Wang, Y.; Giebink, A.W.; Spence, D.M., Integrative Biology 2014, 6, 65-75. (C&E News full page story, Feb 3, 2014 issue, page 30) Evaluation of 3D Printing and Its Potential Impact on Biotechnology and the Chemical Sciences, Gross, B.C.; Erkal, J.L.; Lockwood, S.Y.; Chen, C.; Spence, D.M. Analytical Chemistry 2014, 86, 3240-3253. (Cover Article) Endothelium Nitric Oxide Production is Increased by ATP Release from Red Blood Cells Incubated with Hydroxyurea, Lockwood, S.Y.; Erkal, J.L.; Spence, D.M., Nitric Oxide 2014, 38, 1-7. 3D-Printed Microfluidic Devices with Integrated Versatile and Reusable Electrodes, Erkal, J.L.; Selimovic, A.; Gross, B.C.; Lockwood, S.Y.; Walton, E.L.; McNamara, S.; Martin, R.S.; Spence, D.M., Lab on a Chip 2014, 2023-2032. 3D-printed Fluidic Devices Enable Quantitative Evaluation of Blood Components in Modified Storage Solutions for use in Transfusion Medicine, Chen, C.; Wang, Y.; Lockwood, S.Y.; Spence, D.M., Analyst 2014, 139, 3219-3226. (Cover Article)

          Sophia Lunt        
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Ph.D., Chemistry, Princeton University, 2010
B.S., Chemistry, Lebanon Valley College, 2005
2016 AACR-Incyte NextGen Grant for Transformative Cancer Research
2015 DoD CDMRP Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) Breakthrough Award
2015 Mayo Clinic Metabolomics Research Core Pilot and Feasibility Award
2014 Best Oral Presentation Award, Michigan Physiological Society
2012 DoD CDMRP PRCRP Visionary Postdoctoral Fellowship Award
González-Reymúndez A, de los Campos G, Gutiérrez L, Lunt SY, Vazquez AI. Prediction of Years of Life after Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using Omics and Omic-by-Treatment Interactions. European Journal of Human Genetics; 25 (5): 538–544; 2017.
Nault R, Fader KA, Ammendolia DA, Dornbos P, Potter D, Sharratt B, Kumagai K, Harkema JR, Lunt SY, Matthews J, Zacharewski T. Dose-dependent metabolic reprogramming and differential gene expression in TCDD-elicited hepatic fibrosis. Toxicological Sciences; 2016.
Young M, Suddard-Bangsund JD, Patrick TJ, Pajares N, Lunt SY, Lunt RR: Organic Heptamethine Salts for Photovoltaics and Detectors with Near-Infrared Photoresponse up to 1600 nm. Advanced Optical Materials; 4 (7):1028-1033; 2016.
Nault R, Fader KA, Kirby MP, Ahmed S, Matthews J, Jones AD, Lunt SY, Zacharewski TR: Pyruvate kinase isoform switching and hepatic metabolic reprogramming by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Toxicological Sciences; 149 (2): 358-371; 2016.
Degree Programs: 
Chemical Engineering
Materials Science and Engineering

          Componentes del Cuerpo Humano!        
El cuerpo humano se compone de Cabeza, Tronco y Extremidades; los brazos son las extremidades superiores y las piernas las inferiores.

Uno de los sistemas de clasificacion del cuerpo humano, respecto a sus componentes contituyentes, es la establesida por Wang y col. en 1992:

  • Nivel atomico: Hidrogeno, nitrogeno, oxigeno, carbono, minerales.
  • Nivel Molecular: Agua , proteinas, lipidos, hidroxi-apatita.
  • Nivel celula: Intracelular, extracelular.
  • Nivel anatomico: Tegidomuscular, adiposo, oseo, piel, organos y visceras.
  • Nivel cuerpointegro: Masa cultural, volumen corporal y densidad corporal.



El agua del cuerpo humano.!

El agua esel principal componente del cuerpo humano, que posee un 75% de agua al necer y el 60% en la edad adulta. Aproximademente el 60% de dicha agua se encuentra al interior de las celulas y el resto circula en la sangre y baña los tejidos. Es impresindible para la existencia del ser humano.





          Science game with Water .        

We should keep trying something new and off the hook, which is not been done or tried before. So today going a little away from technology we will peep into a little scientific stuff. Today i'll tell you How to instantly turn water into ice by trying 'Supercooling'.
'Supercooling' is when you chill a liquid below its freezing point without it becoming solid. Try this amazing trick by following Mark's simple step-by-step instructions.

Things you'll need:

  • Two 1 litre bottles of water (deionised water for car batteries works best, but you could use filtered water)
  • A thermometer (optional)
  • A clear mixing bowl
  • Two buckets
  • 8kg of ice cubes
  • 3kg of table salt
  • Towel

How to do it:

The experiment can sometimes fail if a bottle is knocked by accident. You can increase your chances of success by putting two bottles of deionised water in each bucket.
1.
Place a bottle of deionised water into a bucket and pack 3kg of ice around the base of the bottle. Leave a few ice cubes aside in the freezer, to use later. Pour 1.5kg of salt over the ice and top up with water until it fills the bucket to the level of the bottle's lid. Repeat the process with the second bucket and bottle.
2.
Do not disturb your bottles while they are cooling, as the smallest knock can start the ice crystallisation process. Carefully check the temperature of the water using a thermometer. You need to wait for it to cool down to -8C. This process will take around 30 minutes.
3.
Carefully take one of your bottles out of its bucket and check it is still liquid water. Place it on the table.
4.
Take the ice cubes you set aside and place into a mixing bowl. Now gently unscrew the top of your water bottle and slowly pour onto the ice cubes. Watch in amazement as the water turns instantly into ice!
5.
Now carefully lift out the other bottle of water from its ice bucket. Gently wipe it over with a towel. Then, holding it firmly by the lid, give it a sharp tap on the table. You should soon see ice begin to form at the top of the bottle and 'creep' downwards.

Why doesn't the water freeze at 0C?

Ice cold water in bottleWater tends to freeze at 0C but there needs to be a 'nucleus' around which the crystalline structure of ice can form. So filtered water can be chilled well below this as there are no impurities for ice crystals to form around, unlike normal water.
In this experiment, the ice cubes in the bowl, and the bubbles that form when you tap the bottle, act as the 'nucleus' to kick-start crystallisation.

Why does adding salt to ice water make it get colder?

When water and ice are mixed together some molecules of ice are melting and some of the water molecules are freezing.
When the temperature reaches 0C the two processes balance each other out in what is known as dynamic equilibrium.
However, salt upsets this balance. This is because salt dissolves in water but can't interact with ice.
The salt molecules start to replace the water molecules so there are fewer water molecules freezing compared to the number of ice molecules melting.
The water cools down below 0C so more molecules will freeze to achieve balance once again. The more salt you add, the colder the icy water gets.

          Carros de Sucesso no Cinema e na TV        




Máquina do Mistério (Scooby-Doo)



Com sua pintura hippie do final dos anos 60, a Máquina do Mistério leva um pouco de cor ao universo sombrio de Scooby-Doo. O furgão psicodélico, que carrega os garotos aos lugares mais assustadores, na verdade é do pai de Daphne que patrocina a empresa Mistérios S.A.



Carro dos Flintstones (Flintstones)



Na idade da Pedra Lascada, para se ter um carro resistente só mesmo de...bem...Pedra Lascada. O primeiro automóvel da história, só tem um problema: é impulsionado pelos pés dos passageiros! Imagine o esforço que Fred Flintstone tem que fazer.



ThunderTank (ThunderCats)



Construído pelo mecânico Panthro, o ThunderTank é uma perfeita máquina de combate, composto por diversas armas e capaz de cruzar qualquer tipo de terreno. Em forma felina, o veículo dos ThunderCats impõem respeito só com a aparência.

Ecto-1 (Os Caça-Fantasmas) Construído pelo mecânico Panthro, o ThunderTank é uma perfeita máquina de combate, composto por diversas armas e capaz de cruzar qualquer tipo de terreno. Em forma felina, o veículo dos ThunderCats impõem respeito só com a aparência.



Ecto-1 (Os Caça-Fantasmas)



Uma velha ambulância cadilaque 1959 precisou receber alguns reparos para auxiliar os Caça Fantasmas em seu trabalho. Cheia de sirenes, luzes e detectores, ela pode parecer até meio bagunçada, mas quando chega não há fantasma que descanse em paz.



General Lee (Os Gatões)




O Dodge Charger RT, ano 1969, com a bandeira Confederada e o número 01 estampados, possue um charme todo especial. Com sua buzina que toca as notas iniciais do hino confederado "Dixie", o General Lee teve as portas soldadas para aguentar tantos saltos.



DeLoreon (De Volta Para o Futuro)



Criado em 1981, o DeLorean existe na vida real, mas no filme ele foi inventado pelo Dr. Emmett Brown e é capaz de se deslocar no tempo. Quando ele recebe energia em seu reator, atinge 88milhas/h ativando o capacitor para que haja a remoção temporal...o resto você já sabe!



K.I.T.T. (Super Máquina)



K.I.T.T. (Knight Industries Two Thousand) é um veículo Pontiac Trans AM preto com inteligência artificial. O mais rápido carro do mundo é protegido por uma camada molecular que o tornava indestrutível. Possui um sequencial que acompanha o seu tom de voz, ou seja...o carro fala! Não precisa dizer mais nada.



Mach 5 (Speed Racer)




O Mach 5 é um carro de corrida equipado com os mais variados acessórios, acionados através de sete botões em seu volante, para superar qualquer obstáculo. Criado por Pops Racer, ele pode atingir mais de 350Km/h, por isso é tão cobiçado pelos adversários.



Batmóvel (Batman)



Construído sob o chassis de um Ford Futura, o carro do Homem Morcego tinha todas as Bat-maravilhas que você puder imaginar: Batscópio, Bat-câmera, Bat-computador, Bat-cortina de fumaça, Bat-lança-mísseis, tudo pra facilitar a luta do herói contra o crime. De todas as suas versões a de 1966 certamente é a melhor.



Herbie (Se Meu Fusca Falasse)



Ele não está equipado com nenhuma arma, componente especial ou possuí uma tecnologia avançada, mas Herbie lidera o ranking porque é o único da lista que possui personalidade própria. O simpático fusquinha 1963 é imbatível quando está afim de correr, por isso é objeto de desejo de todos.



          Yes, yes, yes, yes, YES.        
Those who know me well know how I feel about birth control: bad idea. I don't mean contraception is a bad idea; contraception is basically the best idea EVER. But hormonal birth control methods (pill, patch, ring, shot, whatever) have always sounded suspicious to me. Why do women think we can keep our bodies in a perpetual artificial state and suffer no consequences? I fully support everyone doing their part to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and I believe in the right to have access to all forms of birth control. I just think we can't possibly know the long-term effects of gobbling up hormones, individually and as a species, and wish people would consider more natural methods.

Thankfully, research is finally backing me up a bit. Thank you, Science.


(Thank you, Nick, also, for posting this article.)

Original article:
http://www. livescience. com/culture/080812-contraceptive-smell. html

By Jeanna Bryner, Senior Writer
posted: 12 August 2008 08:04 pm ET

Birth-control pills could screw up a woman's ability to sniff out a compatible mate, a new study finds.


While several factors can send a woman swooning, including big brains and brawn, body odor can be critical in the final decision, the researchers say. That's because beneath a woman's flowery fragrance or a guy's musk the body sends out aromatic molecules that indicate genetic compatibility.


Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are involved in immune response and other functions, and the best mates are those that have different MHC smells than you. The new study reveals, however, that when women are on the pill they prefer guys with matching MHC odors.


MHC genes churn out substances that tell the body whether a cell is a native or an invader. When individuals with different MHC genes mate, their offspring's immune systems can recognize a broader range of foreign cells, making them more fit.


Past studies have suggested couples with dissimilar MHC genes are more satisfied and more likely to be faithful to a mate. And the opposite is also true with matchng-MHC couples showing less satisfaction and more wandering eyes.


"Not only could MHC-similarity in couples lead to fertility problems," said lead researcher Stewart Craig Roberts, an evolutionary psychologist at the University of Newcastle in England, "but it could ultimately lead to the breakdown of relationships when women stop using the contraceptive pill, as odor perception plays a significant role in maintaining attraction to partners.
"

Sexy scents

The study involved about 100 women, aged 18 to 35, who chose which of six male body-odor samples they preferred. They were tested at the start of the study when none of the participants were taking contraceptive pills and three months later after 40 of the women had started taking the pill more than two months prior.


For the non-pill users, results didn't show a significant preference for similar or dissimilar MHC odors. When women started taking birth control, their odor preferences changed. These women were much more likely than non-pill users to prefer MHC-similar odors.


"The results showed that the preferences of women who began using the contraceptive pill shifted towards men with genetically similar odors," Roberts said.


Pregnant state

Based on the work by Claus Wedekind, a University of Lausanne researcher who preformed similar studies in the 1990s, Roberts suggests a likely reason for the pill's effect on a woman's odor preferences. The pill puts a woman's body into a hormonally pregnant state (the reason she doesn’t ovulate), and during that time there would be no reason to seek out a mate.


"When women are pregnant there's no selection pressure, evolutionarily speaking, for having a preference for genetically dissimilar odors," Roberts said. "And if there is any pressure at all it would be towards relatives, who would be more genetically similar, because the relatives would help those individuals rear the baby.
"

So the pill puts a woman's body into a post-mating state, even though she might be still in the game.


”The pill is in effect mirroring a natural shift but at an inappropriate time,” Roberts told LiveScience.


The results are detailed in the current issue of the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

          Researchers suggest existence of new Ebola-like strain        

Researchers from the University of Kent have published a new study that suggests the Reston virus may be capable of mutating into a virus with an Ebola-like impact.

The Reston virus is in the same biological family as Ebola, but in its current form is not known to cause death. It typically infects pigs in Asia, though it has been known to infect humans as well. The research, lead by Senior Lecturer in Computational Biology Mark Wass, Professor of Molecular Medicine Martin Michaelis, and Lecturer in Virology Jeremy Rossman, found that given a few mutations to a specific protein, the Reston virus could take on fatal characteristics.

The findings were recently published in the journal Scientific Reports.


          FDA gives clearance for Great Basin E.coli test        

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently gave the clearance for Great Basin Scientific Inc. to conduct its Shiga Toxin Direct Test.

The FDA gave them 510(k) clearance for the test, which is intended as a molecular test to detect E.coli that produces Shiga toxins. The test will most likely be tested on the Great Basin Analyzer, which also performs tests for Clostridium difficile and Group B Streptococcus.

The Great Basin Shiga Toxin Direct Test will allow lab techs to get immediate results from samples. It will require under one minute of hands-on contact. It will detect stx1 and stx2, while providing results quickly

“We are pleased to receive 501(k) clearance for our Shiga Toxin Direct Test, and are excited about the opportunity to drive new site placements with this unique test,” Ryan Ashton, co-founder and CEO of Great Basin Scientific, said. “By offering the only direct-from-patient specimen test, and identifying the O157 strain and quickly detecting stx1 and stx2 genes, we are providing clinicians a powerful tool to provide a better outcome for their patients. The clearance of this test is particularly timely given the growing number of multi-state outbreaks for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) infections.”



          Pfizer to participate in Human Vaccines Project        

Pfizer has decided to play a part in the Human Vaccines Project, which seeks to develop vaccine protection for infectious diseases such as HIV, dengue fever and cancer.

“Over the last decade, we’ve seen unprecedented technological advances in our understanding of the biology of diseases -- and new tools in designing vaccines including therapeutic vaccines,” Kathrin Jansen, head of vaccines research and development at Pfizer, said. “Yet, the translation from preclinical to clinical vaccine research has often been hampered by a lack of understanding of the desired human immune responses required to obtain optimal vaccine protection. With our strong heritage of translating scientific findings into the development of medicines and vaccines, Pfizer is proud to contribute to the consortium’s research efforts.”

Public and private research groups are teaming up on the project. The groups seek to apply the latest in medical technologies and knowledge to fight infectious diseases.

“We look forward to Pfizer’s contribution to the Human Vaccines Project as we launch an unprecedented public-private partnership in human immunology discovery, to decipher the human immunome and principles of protective immunity, to usher in a new era in global disease prevention,” Wayne Koff, founder of the Human Vaccines Project, said. “The human immune system holds the key to preventing and controlling a broad spectrum of infectious diseases, cancers, autoimmune diseases and allergies. By bringing together leading vaccine researchers, institutions and biopharmaceutical companies -- and harnessing recent technological advances in molecular and cellular biology and bioinformatics -- the project may potentially enable accelerated development of vaccines and immunotherapies for some of the most devastating diseases of our time.”


          Uncovering Molecular Mysteries        
Researchers use supercomputer to create 1 million-atom model of protein synthesis

ProthrombinaseProthrombinase is a three-protein complex that catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, which is a critical step in the sequence of blood clotting called the coagulation cascade. Researchers have developed significant theoretical evidence of how prothrombinase binds to cellular membranes and jumpstarts the catalysis process that generates thrombin. However, the computing power has previously not existed to actually model the reaction and test how different variables may impact the process.

Thanks to a grant from the Ohio Supercomputing Center, a research team from Cleveland State University is developing the first full scale model of prothrombinase catalysis which will provide new insights on how blood clotting actually works in the body. Including water molecules and counter-ions, the entire model consists of approximately 1.3 million atoms.

“Even as late as a year ago, the computing power to analyze this large of a model did not exist,” notes Will Martin, a doctoral student in chemistry at CSU who is leading the project. “We are really operating at the cutting edge of biochemistry and will be able to provide new knowledge that could improve drug development and treatments for numerous diseases.”

Martin is working with David W. Ball, chair of the Department of Chemistry at CSU, and Michael Kalafatis, professor of chemistry and a member of CSU’s Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease. He is utilizing experimental data generated by Kalafatis on how prothrombinase binding causes the catalysis that leads to the creation of thrombin. Errors in this process, either producing too much or too little thrombin, are factors in a host of blood diseases and disorders. Martin will also test the impact of different gene mutations on the process to see how different variables impact catalysis and the clotting process as a whole.

“By being able to model the system as it actually occurs, we can test and improve our theoretical analysis and better assess potential treatments designed to increase or decrease thrombin production, based on the needs of a patient,” Ball adds. “This is also a fabulous opportunity for our students to get real world expertise while making a major contribution to chemistry and medicine.”

Established in 1987, the Ohio Supercomputer Center partners with Ohio universities and industries to enhance discovery, education and product development. It provides researchers with high performance computing, advanced cyberinfrastructure, and computational science education services. The CSU team received a grant of 150,000 units, the equivalent of 150,000 hours of supercomputing time, for the project. It is the largest OSC award ever received by the University.


          CSU Team Seeks to Unravel the Mysteries of Aging        

Group led by Roman Kondratov receives NIH renewal to further research

Aging Research

A research team in Cleveland State University’s Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease is helping to unravel the mysteries of aging and develop better therapies to address age related illnesses. The team, led by Roman Kondratov, a professor of biological sciences at CSU, has been awarded an R01 renewal grant from the National Institute of Aging, within the National Institutes of Health, to study the impact of diet on the body’s natural circadian rhythms and the master circadian clock that controls them. Data obtained as a result of this study will help to understand the molecular basis of aging and to develop physiological and pharmacological strategies for the treatment and prevention of age-associated diseases.

“Over the last decade, research has found that dietary restriction (i.e., reducing calorie intake without malnutrition) is a powerful intervention for increasing longevity in a variety of organisms,” says Kondratov.  “Specifically, calorie restriction may reduce the occurrence of age-associated illnesses, including osteoporosis, and Parkinson’s disease. In contrast, disruption of the body’s natural circadian rhythms through bad diet has been associated with the negative effects of aging on physiology, metabolism, and behavior.”

Kondratov and his associates have uncovered biochemical clues to how these opposing mechanisms may function. The team is studying the master circadian clock, located in the hypothalamus region of the brain and modeling how the clock controls and coordinates the function of diverse organs and synchronizes bodily activities with the environment. They are also assessing how varying diet, including both calorie amount and timing of caloric intake, impacts circadian function.

“Our previous research indicates that calorie restriction and bad diet disrupt the circadian system and can lead to accelerated aging and a reduced lifespan,” adds Kondratov. “This next study will seek to better understand how dietary changes impact biochemical function and the potential therapies that can be used to correct the negative effects we have documented.”

###


          Tim Tam Slam...or meditation on a cookie        
For best results, start the video below and let it completely buffer before you start reading. If things of an erotic nature disturb you, please close this tab/window now. While probably completely safe for most work environments, some may find the content of this post objectionable. My apologies, but I've given fair warning. Forewarned is fore-armed. With love and daisies. For those of you still here, start the video when it's buffered. It will probably end before you finish reading. Yeah...I tried to pare it back, but the words wouldn't stop and wouldn't be edited out.

I turn off the lights and light a single scented candle, the one that is reminiscent of a burning fireplace. Cuppa hot tea? Check. Tim Tam biscuit (cookie)? Check. The good headphones instead of the earbuds that won't stay in my itsy-bitsy ears? Check. E.S Posthumus' "Arise" (from their new Makara album) cued and ready to go? Check. I think I'm ready. I click play.

I slide off my socks and stretch my bare feet, wiggling my toes. Ooooh, that does feel nice. I sit back in the papasan nest, carefully holding the cup in one hand as it warms my cool fingertips and a bickie (cookie; yes, my vocabulary is eclectic, culturally diverse, and sometimes, even, very made up, like my world) in the other hand. Stretching out my legs feels good; I rest them on a pillow on the ancient steamer trunk I use as a desk/table/storage for subversive civil disobedience fliers for a peace protest (just making sure you're paying attention). As my eyes trace my candle-shadowed surroundings and I begin to well and truly groove with the magical, celestial music, I sink into the chair, very relaxed and comfortable. Am I ready to turn One?

I take the wee smallest nibble of an upper corner of my Tim Tam biscuit. Chocolate-covered chocolate biscuit with...{unexpected anticipatory pause with fancy brackets}...creamy chocolate filling. Mmm...this is tasty. Then, I flip it top to bottom and bite off the diagonal corner. Nice, if not delectable. I have the attention of my taste buds, which are beginning to ping and spark, wondering if mayhaps there's more coming, and mayhaps it's even better stuff. Ya never know, it's happened before.

Slowly, carefully, I raise my cup to meet my bickie, and use it as a straw. I suck the tea slowly and steadily into my mouth until I begin to feel the bickie begin to cave and give in under the pressure of the gentle grasp of my thumb and fingers. At this point, I lower my cup and shove the whole Tim Tam into my eagerly-waiting mouth. As soon as I slide my lips closed around this concoction that is ever-so-quickly having its molecules melted, it literally just explodes. It instantly transforms from the solid it was into these gooey, triple-chocolatey waves that just kind of swell and roll around in my mouth, teasing my tongue and caressing my palate. Simultaneously, the music also swells into this magnificently tense pause before going orgasmic, turning mercuric, finding even the hidden-away hidey-holes of my Being. There are fireworks shooting almost violently into a sky so dark, even with the brightest-ever stars twinkling my wonder. I am melting into this sweet pool of stickiness. My taste buds are now changing the frequency of their vibration and are indistinguishable from the atoms, those nearly-empty containers of g*d, with whoom they are dancing and mingling and intertwining and becoming yummily and foreverly quantumly entangled. I am spinning and twirling, grooving and celebrating my divine Amness, naked and true.

And now these tastes and sounds and feelings and sensations swirl and dance around and into me before gobbling me up and swallowing me and separating my soul from my body while its toes begin to curl, its fingers clutch tightly the quilt on the papasan, and its back lightly arches.

I'm gone. I don't exist. There's no chocolate. There's no Tim Tam. There's no music. There's no tea. There's no sleepy, purring cat curled up next to me. There are no thoughts from me. There is no me. There is only this One perception of everything being so completely perfect at this moment that it truly doesn't matter what happened in the last moment nor what may happen in the next because this moment is perfect and why the hell would I want to go anywhere else? This is all there is. This perfect nothingness that contains an empty everything.

Singularity. In this very moment, I am One.

I am abandonedly lost and lost with abandon and time does not exist and I believe that because my bicycle buddy, Einstein, said so, so there is no time and nothing is wrong and I want this to last forever. Wait..."I want"? Who said that? And who is thinking "How long is forever?" The height of the orgasmic musical note decreases, and I hear the next note so gently whisper into the room to try and sustain me here just an iota longer. But the next musical notes are already on the stage, gently playing me back into my empty body lying down there in the papasan.

All of a sudden, I am gently aware of my curled toes and fingers and of my heart beating and my chest moving as I breathe. The shadowed surroundings come into focus again and I hear the almost-liturgical strains of the next track, "Saint Matthew Passionate". No wonder it sounds monk-tested and giant cathedral-approved. But passionate? Oooh...ladles and jellyspoons, you have no idea. Methinks Matthew was peeking through the window.

Oh.My.g*d.That.Was.So.Awesome.I.Almost.Want.A.Cigarette.And.Now.I.Need.A.Snuggle.

          The New Ultra-Compact Medical Gamma-Ray Camera Fits in the Palm         
The two most common molecular imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine are single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET).

          Snails' speedy insulin        

University of Utah researchers have found that the structure of an insulin molecule produced by predatory cone snails may be an improvement over current fast-acting therapeutic insulin. The finding suggests that the cone snail insulin, produced by the snails to stun their prey, could begin working in as few as five minutes, compared with 15 minutes for the fastest-acting insulin currently available. Biologist Helena Safavi, co-author on a paper describing the cone snail insulin published September 12 in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, says that studying complex venom cocktails can open doors to new drug discoveries.

read more


          Bacteria supply their allies with munitions        

Many bacteria possess molecular spear guns, which they fire at enemies and rivals, thus putting them out of action. The tips of these nano-spear guns, known as Type VI secretion system (T6SS), are loaded with toxic molecules that lead to death of their adversaries. However, sometimes close related bacteria come under fire.

read more


          CÓMO ELABORAR ACEITE CASERO        
Desde el BlogALEA queremos invitaros, esta vez, a hacer un recorrido por el proceso de elaboración de aceite de oliva casero. Para aquellos, como el caso de los vecinos alcalaínos que buscaron abastecerse de aceituna, si quieren, pueden vistar esta entrada en la que se expondrá cómo realizar el proceso, a partir de las grandes recomendaciones del blog de Rogelio Fernández García:

Recolección de las aceitunas:
 
El proceso para recoger las aceitunas puede hacerse de forma manual, con rastrillo, con vara o sistema de vibración con maquinaria.

Proceso de limpieza de la aceitunas: 

Es importante que la aceituna quede limpia de restos de hoja ya que éstas dan acidez al aceite obtenido. Para conseguir esto preciso tener un sistema de criba o zaranda que permite que la aceituna corra y caiga dentro de un recipiente y la hoja se cuele por las ranuras y caiga al suelo.

En ocaciones durante las recogida pueden caer piedras pequeñas en los toldos. Es muy importante quitarlas ya que pueden estropear la cuchillas del molino. Un truco bastante bueno es echar las aceitunas en un recipiente grande con agua. De esta forma se depositan abajo y las aceitunas quedan arriba.

Tambien de paso se limpian de tierra, suciedad, insectos..etc.

Triturado de las aceitunas:

El proceso de molienda de las aceitunas se realiza mediante un pequeño molino compacto que incorpora un motor, una tolva y el tambor de de triturado.

La máquina dispone de un pequeño tornillo sinfin que va empujando la aceitunas hasta la entrada del triturador (tambor). Ésta, una vez que se cuela es aplastada y desmenuzada mediante unas palas y salen por unos agujeros hacia el exterior. (La que entra no sale más en la vida). El resultado es una pasta compuesta de pulpa, hueso, agua y aceite.

Cuando se lleva un cierto tiempo las palas se calientan y la masa resultante coge un poco te temperatura de forma que suelta ese olor caracteristico a aceite. 

Batido de la masa (Opcional):
 
Este proceso es utilizado para que se despoje el aceite de la masa con mucha más rapidez. Se puede hacer de dos formas, utilizando calor o en frío.
  • Proceso en caliente: 

La temperatura de la masa no debe superar lo 40 º C . Existen pequeñas batidoras que pueden amasar de 100 a 300 kilos y disponen de unas resitencias que calientan agua que permiten transferir calor a la masa a medida que se va batiendo mediante palas accionadas por un motor.

También se puede hacer de forma artesanal echando la masa en un recipiente. Éste se puede calentar con gas y la masa debe ser movida a mano o con una batidora pequeña. La temperarura no debe pasar nunca de 40 º C.

Transcurrido un tiempo se observará que el aceite aflora encima de la masa y desprenderá un olor insuperable.
  • Proceso en frío: 

Es el mismo que el anterior pero no se aplica calor. Si se hace de esta forma el aceite obtenido será de una calidad superior.

El tiempo estimado de batido es de unos 45 minutos a una hora.

Capachos y capachetas:

Elemento imprescindible en la elaboración del aceite. Realmente son un filtro elaborado con cuerdas entrelazadas que permiten que el agua y el aceite se filtre por sus fibras dejando la masa (pulpa y hueso) en su interior. El aceite y alpechín aflorarán al exterior cayendo por gravedad al plato donde se recoge.

Existen dos tipos de capachos. Capachos en sí y capachetas. El capacho tiene un seno el cual impide que la masa se salga de éste cuando se ejerce la presión. La capacheta no dispone de este seno. Al capacho se le puede echar mas masa ya que el seno impide que ésta se salga para el exterior.

Hay varias medidas. 55 cm, 60 cm, 70 cm y 80 cm. Mientras mayor sea el diámetro mejor será ya que puede contener mayor cantidad de masa. En el centro existe un agujero de unos 5 cm o más para poder colocarlo en el mástil de la prensa.

El material con el que están elaborados los capachos pueden ser de fibra sintética como Nylon y fibra natural como la rafia o la pita.

Recomiendo el de Nylon ya que no deja ningún sabor y se pueden limpiar con mucha más facilidad.

La prensa:

Es elemento mas importante en la elaboración del aceite. Existen de dos tipos. Manuales o hidráulicas. 

Prensa manual: Es un tipo de prensa que tiene en el centro un tornillo helicoidal roscado. Una vez que se ponen los capachos se coloca encima una plataforma metálica o palos de madera y el tornillo. Su accionamiento es manual y consiste en darle vueltas al tornillo para que se produzca el prensado.


Prensa hidráulica: Dispone de un motor eléctrico, una bomba de aceite y un pistón hidráulico. La fuerza que ejerce es bastante considerable pero no pudiendo competir con las industriales. Mediante una palanca se acciona el pistón para que suba o baje el plato. Su peso ronda unos 200 Kg (lo digo para quien intente moverla...), una altura de 1.80 cm aproximadamente y está fabricada con perfiles de hierro. El plato es de 80 cm y tiene una agujero por el cual sale el aceite del prensado. En el centro tiene un mástil que se puede retirar para la colocación o retirada de los capachos. Mediante un manómetro se puede ver la presión ejercida y la presión máxima alcanzada es de 220 Bares. Tiene muy buena estabilidad.

Proceso de prensado:

  • Número de capachos: A la prensa se le puede poner como máximo entre 25 y 30 capachos.
  • Carga máxima (cargo): Aproximadamente la carga máxima de masa que se le puede echar es de 80 a 90 Kg.
  • Tiempo de prensado: El tiempo aproximando de prensado puede oscilar entre una hora y media y dos horas.
  • Molienda diaria: En un día se podrían hacer de 4 a 5 cargos lo que arroja una cantidad de 400 kg. aproximadamente.
Para empezar colocamos los capachos en el plato introduciendolos por el mástil. Con un cuenco cogemos masa y la esparcimos con las manos sobre estos. El proceso debe contiuar hasta llenar todo el cargo. Aconsejo utilizar guantes de látex.

Para empezar se debe accionar el interruptor del motor y empujamos la palanca de hacia bajo para abrir la válvula que manda aceite al pistón. Se observara que el plato comienza a subir muy lentamente.

Llegará el momento que el capacho de arriba contacte con la plancha superior y así comenzará el proceso de prensado o estrujado. Veremos cómo empieza a aflorar el aceite y el alpechín que van cayendo suavemente al plato y se van acumulando.

La técnica consite en estrujar un poco y parar hasta que deje de aflorar y así sucesivamente ya que si se estruja mucho la masa empieza a salir por los lados (lo que se denomida parirse).

El aceite acumulado en el plato saldrá por un agujero existente en éste y será conducido mediante un sitema de gomas o tubos hasta los depósitos de decantación.

Proceso de decantación:

El proceso de obtención del aceite es muy sencillo. Se consigue mediante la decantación. Éste, posibilita que el agua (alpechín) por diferencia de densidades se separe del aceite ya que su peso molecular es mayor quedando flotando el aceite.

Para dicho proceso se necesitan 2 depósitos unidos por vasos comunicantes (aunque puede ser uno solo). El primero tendrá un grifo en su base y un tubo en su parte superior que comunica con el otro depósito. La mezcla de fluido proveniente de la prensa cae al depósito, empieza a separarse lentamente quedando el aceite arriba y el agua debajo. Una vez que el aceite llega al agujero superior pasará al otro depósito limpio pero pudiendo llevar impurezas. Si se observa que sale demasiada se abre el grifo para retirar el alpechín y seguir con el proceso.

Si en el depósito se observan muchos grumos flotando, impurezas, etc., se puede echar un poco de agua caliente a 40ºC con cuidado y se obervara enseguida que el aceite se pone muy claro y la suciedad se va a abajo. 

En el segundo depósito se produce una segunda decantación dejando los residuos en el fondo. Éste mismo dispone de otro grifo para poder envasar el aceite en los recipientes que se estimen.
    
Limpieza de los capachos:
 
Una vez prensado el cargo, se quita el mástil que sobresale por arriba, bajando el plato hasta abajo y se procede a retirar los capachos uno a uno. Se podrá comprobar que están muy pegados pero es fácil despegarlos.

Se observará que el orujo que queda tiene restos de humedad. Eso depende un poco de la variedad de la aceituna y del tiempo de prensado.

Para quitar el orujo del capacho basta con sacudirlo un poco y darle con un palo para quitar los restos que no se despeguen.

Recomendación: Para quitar los restos de aceite que hay introducidos en la fibras de los capachos se puede echar agua caliente para que los limpie bien y volver a darles un prensado.

¿Qué hacer con el orujo y el alpechín?:

El orujo es bastante útil y se le puede sacar mucho provecho. Existen tres utilidades posíbles.
  • Alimento para otros animales no humanos: Gallinas, cerdo.
  • Abono orgánico: Se deja secar y que fermente. Luego se puede echar perfectamente a la tierra como abono orgánico. Hay que decir que es bastante fuerte.
  • Fuente de calor: Una vez seco se puede usar en estufas, chimeneas, hornos..etc. Arde muy bien y tarda en quemarse lo cual permite sacar bastante calorías de él.
El alpechín es muy tóxico ya que contiene polifenoles y toxinas. Está totalmente prohíbido tirarlo a la red de alcantarillado, rios, arroyos..etc.

Lo indicado es echarlo en un alberca y dejar que se vaya evaporando por la accion del calor en verano.

Resultado final:

 

          Best Of: Posts        
As I've done with the restaurants I've visited and the recipes I've interpreted and/or created, I tried to hone down my 1,700+ posts into 10 favorites.  I failed utterly.  So below, in chronological order, are my favorite 25ish posts of this blog.  Okay, I know you're thinking "John, damnit, man, winnow this down a bit!"  To which I say, "Well, I would but this blog only has a few more days to go, so what the heck, why not do more?"  Besides, I've never been all that decisive anyway.  So here, in chronological order, are my favorite posts from The Baltimore Snacker.

"Trailer Park Cooking Special with Jolene: Pinto Bean Fudge" (published December 10, 2006) - Why the hell doesn't Jolene Sugarbaker, the Trailer Park Queen, have her own cooking show on LOGO yet?  Or at least the Country Music Channel?


A spray of hons - not in the post mentioned below.  I just liked the photo.

"Baltimore Festivals: Festival-a-Go-Go! Part III - Honfest" (published June 10, 2007) - Not my most interesting writing, but I am amused by the people I snapped shots of while there.

"Artscape - in haiku" (published July 25, 2007) - My first Artscape trip. / Felt the urge to blog about / it all in haiku.  Blogging in poem format has been one of the sillier things I've done, and I get a kick out of it.  Other silly notable examples include one memorable trip to Rehoboth Beach (in haiku), one live blog of an episode of The Next Food Network Star season 5 (also in haiku format) and 2008's Great Tastes Show (not in haiku this time, but enclosing rhyme quatrains!)


"Amsterdam Trip Part Vijf: Wagamama" (published March 28, 2008) - Ever since some friends living in London introduced me to Wagamama during a New Year's visit in 2006/07, I've been eager to try them out wherever I can find them.  I dragged my friend Jim to the one in Amsterdam when we visited a few years ago.  Since then I've been waiting for them to expand their stateside offerings to just more than the three they have in Boston.

"NFNS4 Live-Blogging: Finale!" (published July 27, 2008) - Today we have a ridiculous bevy of cooking challenge shows, from celebrity wanna-be chefs to amazing food truck races to CUPCAKE WARS!!! (the phrase "cupcake wars" should not exist).  Way back when there were really only three to speak of - Top Chef, Iron Chef and the Next Food Network Star - I enjoyed snarking over the Top Chef show in live blog format.  I enjoyed it so much in fact that I decided one day in June 2008 to do the same to season 4 of the Next Food Network Star.  Yes, the same season that gave us Aaron McCargo and his long-forgotten Big Daddy's Kitchen, silly man Adam Gertler and the incredibly perky!!!1! Kelsey Nixon (now on the Cooking Channel, still incredibly perky!!!1! too).  And runner-up Lisa Garza?  She is a restaurateur in Dallas.


"Rebuilding the Enchanted Forest" (published July 15, 2008) - When I finally got to Clark's Elioak Farm in Ellicott City, a flood of childhood memories came rushing back.  So many of the iconic monuments that had once lay decaying Life After People-style somewhere off Route 40 were now in a farm in Howard County that anyone with a few bucks could go visit and recapture some of that youthful magic that Baltimoreans of a certain age lost when the original Enchanted Forest burned down in 1990.  Plus there are baby goats, because, well, baby goats.  I kid you not.

"Cochinita Pibil" (published August 3, 2008) - Ah yes, that favorite Yucatecan cousin to pork barbecue, which I have eaten so much of in Mexico and the US.  I tried to recreate it using a Rick Bayless recipe, with satisfying results.


"Semi-Homemade Halloween Craziness 2008" (published October 27, 2008) - Watch as pseudo-chef-lebrity Sandra Lee dazzles as a bevy of various historical queens for her 2008 Halloween special.  Thrill as she gets drunk off crappy cocktail after crappy cocktail, and makes some sort of strange ham ball appetizer.  Oh yes, and somehow I interject RuPaul into all of this. She actually topped herself in 2011 with this hour-long Alice in Cray-Cray-Land Halloween special, which I gave the same treatment a year later.

"I should not be allowed into Wegman's, like, ever" (published November 25, 2008) - I got a little pissy after a pre-Thanksgiving visit to Wegman's.


"Snacking around the Beltway - Final Assessment" (published January 18, 2009) - I didn't rank any particular Beltway Snacking post as a favorite.  How could I?  Each was a piece of a larger project that just can't really be parsed apart.  The final assessment is a nice summary of the whole project and really sums up my attitude towards it.

I must have written my best stuff in 2009 from the looks of it...

"Kitchen Experiments: Popping Sorghum" (published March 19, 2009) - Easily my most popular post with those who don't follow me on a regular basis (31 comments as of this writing), it seems like my initial failed attempt to do this attracted a lot of people trying to do the same.  All because of Andrew Zimmern's Ethiopia episode of Bizarre Foods.  My recent follow up post was much more successful.


"How to Pack Beer and Wine into Your Luggage" (published June 3, 2009) - Back before New Belgium hit the Chesapeake region, I had to resort to this to get it at home.  Also works with other beers we can't get back here.

"Georgia on My GPS Part 3: Moon River Brewing Company / Savannah Candy Kitchen" (published June 27, 2009) - Dang, I did a lot of traveling that summer of 2009, didn't I?  When I was visiting my sister and her family, now firmly ensconced in Savannah, we hit up the Moon River Brewing Company for some grub.  Apparently, it's haunted.  I didn't see anything. I was too busy with my microbrew sampler to notice.

"LP Steamers... and several local food bloggers" (published July 26, 2009) - Crabs, friends, colleagues, crabs, oysters, beer, crabs...


"On 'Julie & Julia' and the act of food blogging" (published August 14, 2009) - I think Julie & Julia - the legendary American chef who made French cooking accessible and really the first true food blogger in America - affected a lot of food bloggers in different ways.  The post ended up being more about Powell's observations in an article in The Atlantic about how the movie "Julie" is not the real life Julie.  She also writes a bit about food blogging being a narcissistic venture.  That's not meant in a bad way, but I had to agree with her that it is, in part, exactly that for all of us - otherwise, why write about what you are doing?  I still haven't gotten around to making boeuf bourgignon, but that's a task for another day.

"Moon Pie vs Whoopie Pie: The Taste Test" (published October 1, 2009) - The Yankees have truly invaded, as the favorite dessert of Maine has swept across the country in spectacular fashion. I remember prior to 2008 I thought a whoopie pie was some kind of Moon Pie.  Maryland is still Moon Pie country, but I had to taste the two to find out the difference.  I must admit I have eaten a larger share of whoopie pies since, though a good Moon Pie is rarely something to pass up.

"Bacon Cook-Off: Bacon & Pancetta Wot" (published June 3, 2010) - Thanks to Dara Bunjon for this experience.  This was fun.  I was in a bacon cooking contest at the Great Grapes Wine Fest with Kathy "MinxEats" Patterson and Kit "Mango & Ginger" Pollard.  I combined two things that just don't get seen together - pork in various formats and Ethiopian food (Ethiopians for the most part do not eat pork - not Jewish, Muslim or Orthodox Christian Ethiopians).  The result was delicious. I think I came in second or something.  I won some wine from Boordy.

"Food Network vs Cooking Channel" (published July 31, 2010) - Here I lay out why I pretty much stopped watching the Food Network and made the switch to the eminently more informative Cooking Channel (both made by the same folks): one emphasizes its personalities, the other its food.  Update: I barely watch the Food Network anymore, but often cannot get away from the Cooking Channel.  Here's to Nadia, Ching-He and Chuck, and yes even the aforementioned Kelsey the Perky!1!!! and Bobby Dean trying to slim down Mama Paula's recipes.


"Food Truck Crawl on the Miracle Mile in LA!" (published May 25, 2011) Move over, Portland!  LA has some awesome food trucks, too, serving up everything from Korean-Mexican fusion tacos to samosas to hot dogs to frybread, and soooo much more.  And what better place to shill all this stuff than across the street from the gorgeous LA County Museum of Art?

"Snacking State-by-State: Illinois V - She Fed Me... with Science!" (published June 2, 2011) - I could do a list of my favorite State-by-State posts alone.  This project easily lasted about a third of the blog's entire lifespan, and most of the posts in the last year have been specifically tied to this series.  Why did I choose this post instead of the one where I bought myself a nice 12" cast iron skillet to make Chicago deep dish pizza (also Illinois), or the one where I peeled crawfish to make a buttery, silky étouffée (Louisiana), or the one where I taught myself how to make poi of all things (Hawaii)?  I chose this post because it taught me a thing or two about molecular gastronomy.  Using a free sample of tapioca maltodextrin, I turned olive oil into something almost dry and powdery.  While this experiment didn't go quite the way it should have, by the time I got to the ensuing mashup recipe I made a truly successful nutella powder.  I'm going to have to explore this stuff some more.


"Snacking State-by-State: Maryland I - Crab cakes like mah great-great-aunt used tah make, hon" (published August 28, 2011) - After digging out my Aunt Florence's hand-scrawled ledger book filled with recipes (some were probably not hers, others probably were), I had to try out one of her two crab cake recipes, which ended up tasting just like one my mother ate often as a little girl.  And I got to go back in time with food.


"Wedding in Provincetown I: Civil Marriage is a Right" (published September 20, 2011) - Sure, same-sex marriage is now legal right in my own backyard, but my friends Alan & Eric didn't have that luxury when they decided to finally tie the knot a few years ago.  They wanted to go to where it all first became legal: the Bay State, and the gayest, most lesbiany city in America, Provincetown.  It really was a beautiful wedding in a lovely gay resort I had never visited before, and hopefully can again.  But when the time comes (meaning when I land myself a man.  Still looking...) I probably won't be going all the way to New England to do it.  I won't have to.

I didn't have a lot of favorites from 2012 it seems.  A few of those are covered in the recent best of recipe post.  But a few of the posts I remember fondly from the last twelve months include:

"Snacking State-by-State: North Carolina I - East Is East, West Is West, Never the Twain Shall Meet" (published March 11, 2012) and "Snacking State-by-State: North Carolina II - It's All About the Lexingtons" (published March 14, 2012) - Out of all the barbecue recipes I've done for the State series and not, I choose these two together because with this I learned how to convert my slow cooker into a food smoker.  Honestly, it can be done.  This is best for the things that have to smoke for a very long time.  You can also transform your oven into a food smoker, as I did for these Kansas City and Memphis ribs (Missouri and Tennessee respectively).  Plus, it's pork barbecue!


"Austin City, Unlimited Part I - Of Barbecue and Barbacoa" (published June 5, 2012) - I went to Austin for a conference and came back with a few extra pounds, as would anyone.  While I didn't find the heat that bad (Palm Springs in August: now that's bad, and I lived with that sort of heat for several summers in my life), I was happy to get indoors nonetheless and experience some of the delicious Texas barbecue and Mexican / Tex-Mex barbacoa the city had to offer.  Someday I will return, Austin, oh yes.

That was difficult - as many posts as I have mentioned above, it was still pretty tough to winnow down the list to just a few of these favorites.  But this is a good representative sample of the stuff I wrote that I remember most fondly from these past 6 1/2 years, and it works for me.  Besides, this post is long enough as it is.

          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-13-2017 with Marco Mangione        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
Bappi Lahiri Shreya Ghoshal- Ooh La La - The Dirty Picture Original Motion Picture Soundtrack EP
Arijit Singh- Tum Hi Ho - Aashiqui 2 Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
- voicebreak -
Peppino Gagliardi- Signori Toilketo Itallano - The Man From UNCLE Deluxe Version Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Dactah Chando- Positivo - Ansestral
Negritage- Diente De Leon - Greetings From Planet Dub
Rebelution- Lazy Afternoon - Bright Side Of Life Bonus Track Version
- voicebreak -
Stick Figure- Smokin Love feat Collie Buddz - Smokin Love feat Collie Buddz Single
Roots Noir- Labrotronics Dub - Human Nature
Cookin On 3 Burners- Kebs Bucket - Baked Broiled Fried
The New Mastersounds- Pure Feat Sam Bell - This Is What We Do
The New Mastersounds- Idle Time - Remixed
- voicebreak -
Baloji- Spoiler 9remix Featuring Coley - 64 Bits Malachite Remixes EP
Atmosphere- Good Times Sick Pimpin - Sevens Travels
WE DREAM DAWN- Theresas Song - The Return Of The Lightep
Brasstracks- Get Your Way feat Roses Gabor - Good Love
Motion Trap- Molecule - Molecule Single
Handmade Moments- Invisible Things - Handmade Moments
Shane Burke- Get Along With Me - Headlight Skyline
Ani DiFranco- Play God - Binary
Andrew Sturtz- Not Meant For Me - Andrew Sturtz
Break Science- Force Of Nature feat Paperwhite - Force Of Nature feat Paperwhite Single
Dirtwire- Struttin - Showdown
Brother Ali- Special Effects feat DeM AtlaS - All The Beauty In This Whole Life
- voicebreak -
Sunsquabi- Anytime - Anytime EP
- voicebreak -
Skydyed- I Dont Know - New Horizons EP
Brasstracks- Say U Wont - Say U Wont Single
Lettuce- The Force - Crush
- voicebreak -


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2017-07-13
          Contact lenses: A molecule from pig stomach mucus prevents corneal damage        
Technische Universität München News
          Katherine S. Ryan – winner of the 2017 Natural Product Reports Emerging Investigator Lectureship        
Congratulations to Katherine S. Ryan on winning the 2017 Natural Product Reports Emerging Investigator Lectureship. Katherine is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of British Columbia where her research group investigates the biosynthetic pathways to microbial natural product molecules. The Natural Product Reports Emerging Investigator Lectureship is an annual event […]
          The Best Hydration Formula        
NOAH₂: BEST HYDRATION FORMULA Water with NOAH₂ is so micro-clustered to efficiently enter & hydrate the cells in our body thus ‘ repairing ’ the otherwise hard to penetrate human body cells ravaged and damaged by acidity and oxidative stress. Ordinary water molecule clusters are too big to get into the cells. NOAH₂ HYDRATES 8X […]
          The Best Makeup Remover Is Different For Every Skin Type        

For YouTuber Kyne Santos (aka OnlineKyne) one of his inventive makeup looks can take up to three hours to create. To take it all off? Anywhere from five to 20 minutes — but it's a must.

On Instagram and YouTube, Santos has transformed into Christina Aguilera (circa Dirrty), Poison Ivy, and even a glammed-up Donald Trump. The looks usually consist of several different and "heavy duty" products. To remove all the makeup and keep his skin healthy, he's adapted some tricks.

"On the eyes, I try to use a proper makeup remover, or petroleum jelly ... since it's really gentle and a tub of it lasts forever," says Santos, 19, who is studying math when he's not wowing his followers online.

"For really heavy, stubborn makeup, you can also use shampoo or dish soap in a pinch. It's probably horrible for your skin, but takes way more off than a regular cleanser — when you wear as much heavy duty stage makeup as I do, you learn a few tricks — I'm always sure to moisturize my face after the harsh cleansing strips away everything on the surface."

Recommended by Santos:

Garnier SkinActive Micellar Cleansing water, $9.99 (400 mL), available at mass retailers across Canada.

Even if your day-to-day makeup looks may not be as complicated as Santos', you should still follow his lead, no matter how much or how little you have on, says dermatologist Dr. Julia Carroll, founder of Compass Dermatology.

"Make sure you remove your make-up every night. Even if you just do a quick swipe with a cleansing cloth, I would prefer that over nothing," Dr. Carroll says.

Keep in mind your skin type also, Dr. Carroll says. Those with sensitive skin should avoid products with alcohol. If you break out easily or have oily skin, avoid or limit oil-based removers.

Recommended by Dr. Carroll:

Clarisonic Mia 1 Skin Cleansing System, $169.99, Sephora

For beauty expert Jessica Jara, makeup removal is just as unique as your daily skin and makeup routine, and while it may feel like a drag sometimes, it shouldn't be an afterthought.

"Makeup removers are very personal — what feels great for you, may not work well for others. Sensitivities and lifestyle comes into play," Jara says.

You may have to try multiple formulations to figure out the best makeup remover for yourself.Beauty expert Jessica Jara

"You may have to try multiple formulations to figure out the best makeup remover for yourself."

For a start, don't treat every area of your face the same — no matter how tempting it might be to just wipe your face all over with a cleansing cloth.

"Eyes require a gentle cleansing... remove all eye makeup by using a cotton pad saturated with your favourite oil-free or waterproof eye makeup remover," she says.

Recommended by Jara:

For dry skin: Sekkisei Facial Cream Wash, $45, BeautyBoutique.ca

For oily skin: Paul and Joe Creamy Facial Foam, $28, BeautyBoutique.ca

For full makeup users: KORRES Greek Yoghurt 3-in-1 Emulsion, $30, BeautyBoutique.ca and Sephora

"For lips, in addition to using your cleanser, I would always recommend exfoliating this area to maintain a soft, supple and smooth surface... I find using brown sugar does the trick. Cheeks are most receptive to environmental elements. I would recommend using a product that is balanced and comfortable."

Makeup remover cloths are always good to have on you, especially if you're on the go or in and out of the gym, but another quick option that's good for all skin types is micellar water, says Adi Lando, Sephora Pro Lead Artist.

"The beauty of micellar waters is that it's rinse-free because the tiny micellar molecules will actually grab onto any makeup, oil or dirt, dissolve them and remove them from your skin. It's great for any lifestyle," Lando said.

A few of Lando's tips? Don't forget to wash your hands before touching your face, dampen your skin before applying a cleanser and gently massage your face with your fingertips in circular motions to help with circulation.

"We all know that taking your makeup off before bed is crucial to allow your skin to breathe and naturally renew itself while you sleep and prevent early signs of aging."

Recommended by Lando:

For the gym, travel, or those on the go: Sephora Collection Black Magic Eye Makeup Remover Cloths, $13, Sephora

For the eyes: Make Up For Ever Sens'eyes Waterproof Sensitive Eye Cleanser, $30, Sephora

For all skin types: Sephora Collection Micellar Cleansing Water & Milk, $10 (100 ML), Sephora

Also on HuffPost:


          Pandemix        
Micro-organisms are back in Pandemix, a very addictive html5 puzzle game inspired by the japanese classic Puyo Puyo, where you will have to join at least four cells to form a molecule and make them disappear. As you try to solve this, some bombs (really angry-faced ones) will stand in your way, so you will have to find out how to solve the puzzle. Be the fastest of your community, get all the achievements and reach the top of the rankings in this colourful puzzle game. Pandemix is compatible with any mobile device (iPhone, Android, iPad, tablet), PC or Mac. Beat all your enemies in thrilling Pandemix battles! Think your strategy through to place the viruses wisely and send your enemies as many bombs as possible! Your grid must never be full of molecules and micro-organisms, otherwise you will lose! The objective of the free online game Pandemix is quite simple: match four or more viruses of the same color to make them disappear. There are many ways of combining the viruses to make all sorts of combos in order to get rid of as many viruses as you can in only one move. Take into account that each time you eliminate one of your viruses unmatchable black bombs will drop into your enemy’s grid. But be careful because in this browser game your opponent can also send you bombs that will increase the difficulty of matching the viruses and you will have less space to place the micro-organisms. To play Pandemix you just need to use the arrow keys and a good strategy. It’s very easy! To move the virus from side to side press the left and right arrows, and if you want to rotate it just press the space bar or the up arrow key. Drop the virus faster by pressing the down arrow key. Be careful because as the game goes on the difficulty will increase and your opponent will get stronger, faster and smarter. You can choose between three levels: easy, medium and hard. In each level you will have to win 24 battles. Will you be able to confront and beat 24 opponents? Grab your iphone, Android, iPad or Tablet, or sit down in front of your computer and start getting rid of viruses and sending bombs. Lots of fun!
          5 Easy Slime Recipes for Kids        

Polymers are really big molecules, made up of lots and lots of smaller molecules joined together. They can make materials bouncy like a rubber ball, stiff like a plastic toy, or stretchy like a piece of gum. One great way … Continue reading

The post 5 Easy Slime Recipes for Kids appeared first on KiwiCo.


          Lidia Vallarino Memorial Lecture        
Hybrid Inorganic Materials. From Fundamentals to Applications  April 7th, 2017, 4-5:30 pm, MCAL 2100 Luisa De Cola   University of Strasbourg, France Dedicated to the memory of Prof. Lidia Vallarino (Dr. V) My passion for luminescent molecules has started during my post-doc, in Dr. V.‘s lab. Such an interest continued during my entire career and in […]
          Altria Seminar        
Probing the Transition from Molecules to Particles Richard C. Flagan 3:30 PM, Oliver 1024 March 23rd, 2017 Particles in the low nanometer size regime are formed from the vapor phase throughout the atmosphere, some when hot, vapor-laden gases are released into cooler air, contributing to high near-roadway concentrations of ultrafine particles that have been linked […]
          Who *isn't* afraid of Alzheimer's?        
ResearchBlogging.org I have found microglia interesting to learn about in the past, and have written here, here, here, here, and here, about their proposed relationship to pain.

Yesterday I saw a news story about researchers in Germany who carefully studied the relationship between microglia and neurons undergoing Alzheimer-like changes in mice, Dangerous custodians: Immune cells as possible nerve-cell killers in Alzheimer's disease,
and was immediately intrigued.

An advance online publication of the paper, Microglial Cx3cr1 knockout prevents neuron loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, is freely accessible, at least for now.

That stressed neurons exude the chemokine, fractalkine, or that this substance attracts microglia,
isn't fresh news. Like a bunch of little cellular opportunists, microglia catch the "scent" and begin moving toward it. Like any bunch of scavengers converging on a picnic, in this case, the amyloid-β forming and piling up, they also secrete/excrete (while gorging and multiplying, I suppose). What they signal/secrete/excrete isn't really explained, but what is news, is that it, or else just the sheer numbers of microglia converging, apparently sickens the affected neurons even more, kills them, according to this story.

In the paper, the authors, Fuhrmann etal., state,
"In Alzheimer's disease, microglia represent a double-edged sword. On the one hand, microglia can have a beneficial effect by secreting neurotrophic factors and phagocytosing amyloid beta (Aβ)2, the latter of which remains controversial3. On the other hand, microglia may also be neurotoxic4. Little is known about the neurotoxic role of microglia in Alzheimer's disease. Human peripheral blood monocytes that are stimulated with Aβ induce neuron loss in vitro5. Neurons cultured without microglia are resistant to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity6."
The authors decided to interfere, genetically, with the receptors in the microglia that allow them to sense fractalkine; CX3CR1,
"the unique receptor for fractalkine/CX3CL1, which is expressed in neurons and presumably acts as a membrane-bound adhesion molecule and/or cleaved chemoattractant and is important for recruiting CX3CR1-expressing microglia to injured neurons9, 10."
They managed to show that it was definitely the microglia causing the neuron death, not any other factor. Furthermore, knocking out the ability of microglia to "smell" fractalkine didn't seem to interfere with their ability to clear the amyloid material associated with Alzheimer's. Moreover, the same treatment of the microglial receptor gives inconclusive results in other kinds of conditions - only in Alzheimer's does it seem to be a helpful intervention.

Supplementary information for this paper.

Fuhrmann, M., Bittner, T., Jung, C., Burgold, S., Page, R., Mitteregger, G., Haass, C., LaFerla, F., Kretzschmar, H., & Herms, J. (2010). Microglial Cx3cr1 knockout prevents neuron loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease Nature Neuroscience DOI: 10.1038/nn.2511
          Pandemix        
Micro-organisms are back in Pandemix, a very addictive html5 puzzle game inspired by the japanese classic Puyo Puyo, where you will have to join at least four cells to form a molecule and make them disappear. As you try to solve this, some bombs (really angry-faced ones) will stand in your way, so you will have to find out how to solve the puzzle. Be the fastest of your community, get all the achievements and reach the top of the rankings in this colourful puzzle game. Pandemix is compatible with any mobile device (iPhone, Android, iPad, tablet), PC or Mac. Beat all your enemies in thrilling Pandemix battles! Think your strategy through to place the viruses wisely and send your enemies as many bombs as possible! Your grid must never be full of molecules and micro-organisms, otherwise you will lose! The objective of the free online game Pandemix is quite simple: match four or more viruses of the same color to make them disappear. There are many ways of combining the viruses to make all sorts of combos in order to get rid of as many viruses as you can in only one move. Take into account that each time you eliminate one of your viruses unmatchable black bombs will drop into your enemy’s grid. But be careful because in this browser game your opponent can also send you bombs that will increase the difficulty of matching the viruses and you will have less space to place the micro-organisms. To play Pandemix you just need to use the arrow keys and a good strategy. It’s very easy! To move the virus from side to side press the left and right arrows, and if you want to rotate it just press the space bar or the up arrow key. Drop the virus faster by pressing the down arrow key. Be careful because as the game goes on the difficulty will increase and your opponent will get stronger, faster and smarter. You can choose between three levels: easy, medium and hard. In each level you will have to win 24 battles. Will you be able to confront and beat 24 opponents? Grab your iphone, Android, iPad or Tablet, or sit down in front of your computer and start getting rid of viruses and sending bombs. Lots of fun!
          Hey Probiotics! What’s Up?        
Danielle Morissette | Ph.D. Molecular Biology Nowadays, probiotics are everywhere. If I ask you if you know what probiotics are, you’ll probably answer yes, of course. But if I was to ask you to explain what probiotics really are and how they can contribute to...
          A fost descoperita o planeta a IADULUI         
Un grup de astronomi de la Universitatea Exeter, din Marea Britanie, a analizat pentru prima data proprietatile stratosferei uneia dintre exoplanetele gigant si au descoperit ca este incinsa pana la temperaturi care pot evapoa fierul si alte metale."Cand am indreptat Hubble spre WASP-121b, am vazut stralucirea moleculelor de apa, ceea ce indica existenta unei stratosfere bine conturata pe aceasta planta fierbine", a relatat Tom Evans.
          Nutrition of Wound        
Describe the process of screening to identify nutritional problem/ concernsAnswer:
The screening process should identify risk factors for the development of pressure ulcer as well as identify those individuals who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition:
Significant weight loss
Disease states and condition (diabetes, dementia, malnutrition, cancer, renal disease, obesity
Immobility and inactivity (hip fracture, spinal cord injury, stroke)
Chewing and swallowing problems (dysphagia, stroke, parkinson disease, cerebral palsy)
Poor food and fluid intake
Medication adverse effect

Identify the parameters involved in completing a nutritional assesment
Answer:
Anthropometry (the measurement of body size, weight and proportions) is used to evaluate a patient`s nutritional status. Because a change in anthropometric value can signal problems such as wasting or edema, reflecting nutritional excess or deficit.

Describe the role of nutrients in wound prevention and healingAnswer:
There are six major classes of nutrients:
Carbohidyrates; Carbohidyrates provide energy and prevent gluconeogenesis from protein store. 50%-60% of the patients total caloric needs. An inadequate supply of carbohidyrates results in muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous tissue and poor wound healing.
Protein and amino acids; is responsible for repair and synthesis of enzymes involved in wound healing, cell multiplication, and collagen and connective tissue synthesis. Protein is a component of antibodies needed for immune system function (20%-25%). Protein requirement for patient with pressure ulcer is debatable, but it`s higher than the adult recommendation of 0.8 g/kg/day. The elderly patient ranges between 1.2and 1.5 g/kg/day.
Fats and Fatty acids; Fat is the most concentrated source of energy and provides a reserve source of energy in the form of stored triglycerides in adipose tissue (20%-25% of the total calories)
Vitamins; Vitamins are organic compounds that the body requries in small amounts for proper functioning. Vitamin A, D, E and K (fat soluble vitamins), Vitamin A is responsible for epithelium maintenance, stimulates cellular differentiation in fibroblast and collagen formation, Vitamin E is an antioxidant and responsible for normal fat metabolism and collagen synthesis.
Vitamin C and B, play a role in wound healing. Vitamin C is essential for collagen synthesis. Vitamin B are necessary for the production of energy from glucose, amino acid and fat.
Minerals; zinc is a cofactor for collagen formation, also metabolizes protein liberates vitamin A from storage in the liver, interacts with platelets in blood clotting and assists in immune function. Copper is responsible for collagen cross linking and erythropoesis. Iron is a constituent of hemoglobin, collagen transport, and oxygen transport.
Water; 60% of the adult body weight, water is vital functions in the body for: aids in hydration of wound sites and in oxygen perfusion, acts as a solvents for minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose and the orther small molecules and enables them to diffuse into and out of cell, and water for transport vital material to cells as well as waste away from cells.

Define the role of nutrition management for malnutritionAnswer:
Nutritional support is the variety of techniques available for use when a person can not meet his nutritional needs by ingestion of food. It`s include such strategies as providing additional liqiud nutritional supplements or various snack foods to the person`s oral diet, feeding via a tube placed in the GI tract or the most invasive method-giving nutrients via the venous system as a total parenteral nutrition when GI tract isn`t functional. Nutritional support is used to place the patient into positive nitrogen balance, according to the goals of care and whether it`s compatible with the patient`s and family`s wishes.



Reference
Baranoski S & Ayello EA. Wound care essential: Practice principle. 2004. Lippincott William & Wilkins. Pp.157-183
          PRUEBAS DE DETECCION DEL VIH        

¿en que consiste la prueba del vih?

La prueba del VIH es un sencillo análisis de sangre. Es gratuita, voluntaria y confidencialSe trata de una prueba del VIH específica Ningún análisis de sangre que se realice con otro fin detectará el virus: debe solicitarse específicamente la prueba del VIH.
El organismo tarda un tiempo, diferente en cada persona, en generar anticuerpos específicos frente al VIH. Hay personas que los tienen a las dos o tres semanas, sin embargo, estadísticamente se sabe que a las 8 semanas (2 meses) la gran mayoría de las personas (95%) ya los han generado. Para cubrir ese 5% que falta, se alarga el tiempo hasta 12 semanas (3 meses), momento en que se considera un negativo concluyente y definitivo. Lo de los 6 meses, o un año es un protocolo antiguo que no responde a las pruebas actuales.El protocolo sanitario actual, establece que a los 3 meses un resultado negativo del test de anticuerpos se considera concluyente y definitivo.Es cierto que existen casos especiales en los que el médico especialista podría recomendar repetirla a los 6 meses: en el caso de padecer enfermedades inmunodepresoras como el cáncer, el lupus…el estar tomando medicación inmunodepresora para evitar el rechazo de algún injerto o transplante de órganos, la radioterapia o la quimioterapia etc. son casos muy especiales que podrían en algún caso, retrasar la aparición de los anticuerpos.Si ninguno de los expuestos tiene relación con el paciente , se considera negativo y concluyente el resultado negativo obtenido a  los 3 meses. Sin embargo aquí en veneuzela aunque No existe posibilidad de positividad después de 3 meses. Se aconseja una nueva prueba a los 6 meses como parte de una contraprueba de seguridad. 



Tipos de exámenes para el VIH actualmente disponibles

La serología tradicional existe desde 1985 y es conocida como ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay). El ELISA puede ser usado para varias enfermedades además del VIH, y es una técnica que permite la detección de anticuerpos específicos en la sangre. En este tipo de examen no se investiga directamente la presencia de virus, mas sí la existencia de anticuerpos contra el mismo. Existen otras metodologías además del ELISA para detectar anticuerpos contra el virus VIH, como el MEIA, EQL y ELFA y CMIA, pero el ELISA es el método más popular, por ello hablaremos del mismo.
El tiempo que transcurre entre el momento de la contaminación por un virus y la producción de anticuerpos suficientes para ser detectados en la serología es llamado de ventana inmunológica. Por lo tanto, cuando decimos que un examen tiene una ventana inmunológica de 3 meses, eso significa que el examen sólo dará positivo 3 meses después de que el paciente haya entrado en contacto con el determinado virus o bacteria.

En las últimas décadas, la serología para el VIH evolucionó mucho. La primera generación, usada en la década de 1980, demoraba hasta 6 meses para conseguir detectar hoy día estamos en la tercera y cuarta generación del ELISA, que son superiores a las generaciones antiguas por el hecho de identificar anticuerpos contra el VIH más precozmente.

  • Elisa de 3ª generación
El organismo tarda un tiempo, diferente en cada persona, en generar anticuerpos específicos frente al VIH.
Hay personas que los tienen a las dos o tres semanas, sin embargo, estadísticamente se sabe que a las 8 semanas (2 meses) la gran mayoría de las personas (95%) ya los han generado. Para cubrir ese 5% que falta, se alarga el tiempo hasta 12 semanas (3 meses), momento en que se considera un negativo concluyente y definitivo.


  • Elisa de 4ª generación o Prueba combinada
Actualmente, se realiza la llamada Elisa de 4ª generación o prueba combinada. Consiste en la detección, en la misma muestra, de los anticuerpos y del antígeno P24 del virus.Esta prueba, realizada a partir de la 3ª semana de la posible infección, permite en muchos casos la detección precoz de la presencia del VIH. Por tanto un resultado positivo, que siempre se ha de confirmar (generalmente con la Western Blot), permitiría el acceso al tratamiento de forma temprana.No obstante, un resultado negativo, aunque tiene bastante fiabilidad (80% / 85%), requiere la repetición de la prueba al concluir los 3 meses del periodo ventana, para que sea definitivo. En algunos países como Francia y el Reino Unido, la dan por definitiva al mes y medio (45 días).el antígeno P24, es una proteína existente en el virus VIH. El ELISA 4ª generación es, por lo tanto, un examen doble que busca anticuerpos y al propio virus. De este modo, la ventana inmunológica es mucho más corta y el examen logra detectar infecciones en menos de 4 semanas (en algunos casos en hasta 2 semanas).Las serologías actuales buscan la presencia de anticuerpos contra el VIH-1 (subtipo más común y agresivo) y VIH-2 (subtipo menos contagioso y menos agresivo).
  • prueba de antiguenos 4ta generacion: 
esta prueba consiste ne la deteccion del antigueno p24 proteína directa y principal del virus del vih que desencadena reacciones inmuologicas anticuerpos esta prueba es bastante fiable y en muchos casos permite la deteccion precoz del vih sin embargo  esta prueba solo detecta el antigueno p24 para que el negativo obtenido en esta prueba sea fiable y definitivo tiene que ser confirmado con un tes de anticuerpos concluido el periodo ventana de 3 meses 
  • PCR
Es una prueba de detección directa del virus. A partir de los 15 días de la exposición de riesgo, tiene una alta fiabilidad.Se trata de la demostración de genoma vírico mediante técnicas de biología molecular (PCR). Este método se reserva para situaciones especiales: estudios de variabilidad genética, diagnóstico de recién nacidos, screening de donantes, seguimiento de pacientes VIH positivo, etc.Sin embargo, como en los casos anteriores, no es concluyente y se debe hacer una prueba de detección de anticuerpos cuando hayan pasado las 12 semanas, para considerar el resultado negativo definitivo.Esto se debe a que en algunas ocasiones se han descrito falsos resultados, tanto negativos como positivos.
Esta prueba no se realiza habitualmente en la Sanidad Pública, excepto en los hospitales en casos muy concretos..
  • Pruebas rápidas
Son analíticas de detección de anticuerpos, que se pueden realizar en sangre, tejido gingival (saliva) y orina.En la actualidad, algunas de ellas son combinadas, detectan tanto los anticuerpos como el antígeno P24 (aunque no siempre).La rapidez de la prueba se refiere al hecho de que los resultados se obtienen en unos 30 minutos.Sin embargo, es importante saber que un resultado negativo obtenido antes de los 3 meses, no es concluyente y se debe repetir la prueba cuando hayan pasado las 12 semanas (3 meses), para considerarlo definitivo.Cualquier resultado positivo se debe confirmar con otra analítica más específica, generalmente la Western Blot. Hay distintas farmacéuticas que fabrican pruebas rápidas (no todas son exactamente iguales) y se venden en todo el mundo.

  • WESTERN BLOT 
esta prueba es obligatoria en terminos normativos generalmente se usa como prueba confirmatoria ante un resultado positivo (reactivo) obtenido por una prueba elisa de 3sera o 4tageneracion,El Western blot, o inmunoblot, es una técnica analítica usada para detectar proteínas específicas en una muestra determinada (una mezcla compleja de proteínas, como un extracto tisular). Mediante una electroforesis en gel se separan las proteínas atendiendo al criterio que se desee: peso molecular, estructura, hidrofobicidad, etc. Hay casi tantas posibilidades como tipos de electroforesis existen. Luego son transferidas a una membrana adsorbente (típicamente de nitrocelulosa o de PVDF) para poder buscar la proteína de interés con anticuerpos específicos contra ella.1 2 Finalmente, se detecta la unión antígeno-anticuerpo por actividad enzimática, fluorescencia entre otros métodos. De esta forma se puede estudiar la presencia de la proteína en el extracto y analizar su cantidad relativa respecto a otras proteínas.
Esta técnica es hoy en día imprescindible en varios campos de la biología, como la biología molecular, la bioquímica, la biotecnología o la inmunología. Existe toda una industria especializada en la venta de anticuerpos (monoclonales y policlonales) contra decenas de miles de proteínas diferentes.


¿Dónde se realiza el examen de detección del VIH?


El examen está disponible en establecimientos de salud de atención del sistema público, tales como: Establecimientos o Centros de atención primaria, Centros ambulatorios de especialidad, Centros de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual, (UNACESS) y Unidades o servicios clínicos de los Hospitales.

Asimismo, el examen se puede realizar en el sector privado en: Clínicas, laboratorios clínicos, Mutuales, Centros médicos, Hospitales clínicos universitarios y Hospitales institucionales.

en la ciudad de San Cristobal estado Tachira Venezuela

  • laboratorio medical Center 
    pruebas disponibles : prueba rapida y prueba PCR
    Dirección: Cl. Principal, Quinta Blancarol, Urbanización Coromoto
    0276-3471268
  • policlinica tachira:
    pruebas disponibles : prueba rapida y ELISA 3sera generacion
    Dirección: Av. 19 de Abril, Edif. Policlínica Táchira, San Cristobal
    Telefono(s): (0276)349.0300/0400/0387

  • laboratorio Clinico Alfa
    pruebas Disponibles: ELISA 4ta generacion y prueba confirmatoria Western Blot
    Direccion : av carabobo Nro 13-29 entre carrera 13 y 14 San Cristobal edo tachira
    telefonos : (0276) 3446997/3434397/3420833

  • Centro Diagnostico Clínico San Cristóbal C.A.
    pruebas Disponibles: prueba de antiguenos HIV 1 Y HIV 2
    Ubicación Av. Las Pilas, Urbanización Santa Inés cruce con Av. Guayana
    San Cristóbal laboratorio Edif. Centro Clínico, Planta baja
    Telefono :0276-3406179
    Telefax: 0276-3431689

  • Coordinación Regional de VIH/SIDA del Táchira SANIDAD
    telefonos :(0276) 516.8011, 344.7437, y 344.7011 aqui puden hacerse las pruebas de manera gratuita
Haste la prueba del vih  

El virus del vih no discrimina ataca a todos tanto hombres como mujeres sin importar su orientación sexual o edad, por eso ante el vih es mejor no bajar la guardia y usar siempre el condón la prevención del vih es un acto de Amor si tenemos dudas es mejor hacerse la prueba si es positivo podemos acceder a un tratamiento temprano y tener una vida digna y si es negativo podemos seguir con nuestra sexualidad de manera responsable por eso siempre es mejor elegir  prevenir "el placer dura una noche el VIH/SIDA para toda la vida" 


Campaña contra el VIH