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          10 Questions on the Conflict in Syria        
A potential military strike by Western powers on Syria now appears to be a fait accompli and is being touted as long overdue. Given the spiralling humanitarian disaster that has overtaken the country during the last two years of conflict, continued inaction appears to be an untenable reality. The death toll is now well over 100,000 (although the proportion of civilians to combatants is unclear). There are 2 million refugees, half of whom are children, and over 4 million more internally displaced persons (IDPs), amounting to a quarter of the country's overall population. Yet, it was the apparent chemical weapons attack in the suburbs around Damascus known as Ghouta last week that has served as the impetus for international military intervention into the conflict. Amidst the rhetoric and war rehearsals, clarity on what is really happening seems to be cast aside in the media, in favor of faux-spontaneous leaks, retired generals, and trumpeters of past wars. Here are ten questions to try to set the record straight.


1. Were chemical weapons used in Syria?

When the initial attack unfolded last Wednesday, August 21 in the suburbs in Damascus known as Ghouta (near the town/suburb of Jobar), news quickly spread to local, regional and international media. Claims were made of hundreds of deaths, with some activists claiming the death toll was 1,300. Moreover, the Government of Syria immediately denied responsibility and has continued to do so. However, the attack did unfold amidst a series of army strikes on Jobar, which is a rebel-held area, and has been for quite some time. The Government conversely claimed to find chemical weapons supplies in tunnels in the same area, and it is alleged that some Hezbollah fighters were also exposed to chemical toxins.

A week on, it appears incontrovertible that chemical weapons were used, not just from YouTube videos but also from visits by independent journalists, and of course by a report by Médecins Sans Frontières that has documented at least 355 deaths from local hospitals. It is likely that the chemical agent used was a neurotoxin or nerve gas, most likely sarin gas. What is still not clear, is how they were delivered (i.e. in what form and carried on what type of weapon) and from where.

It should also be kept in mind that this was not the first attack that has been alleged. There have been numerous claims by rebels, and counter-claims by the government on the use of chemical weapons in the conflict. Here's a map of those events. In fact, this is precisely why the team of UN inspectors had arrived in the country, the day before this latest incident (and massacre) took place. In fact, what is interesting is that their investigation of other sites has now been put on the back-burner due to the latest developments.

2. Do we know who actually used the chemical weapons? 

The United States, United Kingdom, and France have all stated they are certain that the Government of Syria has undertaken the attack last week. On the U.S. side, at the forefront of the rhetoric has been Vice President Biden - who has said there is 'no doubt' - and Secretary of State John Kerry, who made an evocative plea for action several days ago. Of course, the next speech is the most important, and it would be one made by President Barack Obama. In light of this certainty, it would be difficult to question the attribution of blame. A leak from the US government also claims to have intercepted a murky call between commanders in the Syrian army that supposedly is evidence of culpability on the Syrian side.

There is tremendous reason to doubt U.S. claims. Firstly, it should not be forgotten that then Secretary of State Colin Powell presented ironclad evidence to the United Nations Security Council of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) that Saddam Hussein possessed, a finding that was later proven to be utterly false, but which was the basis of a war that continues until today. Secondly, the U.S. claimed that there was incontrovertible proof that the Government of Syria was responsible for earlier chemical attacks this year, but that finding has been contested, and some experts apportioned blame to the rebels fighting the government. And finally, in this case, no evidence has been presented, as of yet to make such a determination, at least not conclusively.

Does that mean the Assad and his regime are not responsible? No. It is very likely given the ongoing military operations in the same area that the Syrian government launched such an attack. Yet, more evidence needs to be presented to make a definitive conclusion. The other scenarios that could be possible are:

- Extremists groups like Jubhat al-Nusra, who have previously seized advanced weaponry and possibly chemical weapons from Syrian army bases and positions, were attempting to use them on Syrian soldiers (or conversely to cast blame on the Syrian army);

- The Government of Syria inadvertently hit a stockpile of sarin gas releasing the toxins (although unclear if this would lead to the effects that we've seen); or

- Rogue elements within the chain of command used chemical weapons intentionally or inadvertently.

Russia, Iran and China have of course cast doubt on western claims but that is to be expected.

3. What would be the basis or justification for US intervention?

The U.S. intervention would likely be on the basis of Obama's previously stated red line on Syria, which would be the mass use/movement of chemical weapons. It is not in fact about humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect framework, developed in the 1990s to prevent genocide and mass civilian deaths. If it was, then the humanitarian case for intervention has been present for some time, and other massacres by the Syrian regime, such as in Houla in 2012, would have provided sufficient pretext. Obviously, the U.S. and other Western powers, and regional countries, have their own interests at play that are much more geopolitical in nature, but the justification or casus belli being offered is around the issue of chemical weapons, and chemical weapons alone.

4. Will anybody else be involved in the military strikes besides the US and will this affect whether they are 'legal'?

Given Russian and Chinese opposition, and a likely veto of any resolution by the United Nations Security Council supporting such a military strike on Syria - especially in light of the intervention in Libya, which Russia regretted supporting - a 'coalition of the willing' will need to be developed. This coalition would be broader than the Iraq War in 2003, and would be similar to the coalition carrying out the strikes against Serb positions vis-a-vis Kosovo in 1999. While the U.S., U.K. and France will likely lead an effort, Turkey would also be critical as a staging ground (as it borders Syria from the North), and thus there will be an attempt to launch such an attack under the auspices of NATO. Despite its reluctance, Jordan, given its reliance on the U.S. and Saudi Arabia politically and economically, will have no choice but to support . The two other neighbours of Syria, Iraq and Lebanon are squarely against any military strike. And of course, the other neighbor - Israel - would sit this one out but would provide intelligence to the U.S. and other parties on Syrian positions, given that it has already undertaken a number of air strikes on Syria in the past two years.

Further afield, it is likely the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) will support military intervention, with Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates possibly sending fighter jets to participate in a strike to give it regional cover and credibility. Finally, while many groups within the Arab and Muslim world, and the 'left' of the West, will oppose military intervention, many others will support it, because of the spiralling humanitarian situation in Syria.

Technically speaking if the military intervention is not sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council, and there is no imminent threat that the U.S. and other parties can point to towards its own territory or its assets, it would be illegal under international law. However, that has not stopped NATO or other countries (i.e. Russia in Georgia) form undertaking military action in the past. And before the Iraq War, some scholars claimed that while such an attack would be illegal it would be legitimate, and demonstrated retroactively to be legal. Given the state of world affairs, 'legality' is likely not a determining factor for a strike on Syria.

5. Are we seeing a repeat of Iraq in 2003? 

No. The situation today with Syria is different than it was in 2003 in Iraq, for many reasons, despite some passing similarities. In Iraq, the U.S. claimed that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction while in Syria, we already know Bashar al-Assad possesses chemical weapons, and the question is whether he used them (small aside, it was released this week that thirty years ago, the U.S. obstructed a UN investigation when it knew Saddam Hussein had used chemical weapons). In Iraq, the U.S. alleged that Saddam Hussein had links with Al Qaeda (and related groups), while in Syria, Bashar al Assad is widely acknowledged to be fighting Al Qaeda (and related groups) in addition to the 'Free Syrian Army' (and in addition to crushing peaceful demonstrators). In Iraq, there was no active state of conflict that was leading to a spiralling humanitarian catastrophe (and the potential use of WMDs), while in Syria there is not just a violent conflict, but also WMDs have been used by somebody (even if the culprit is not yet clear).

What should be noted, however, is that both Iraq in 2003 and Syria in 2013, are in complex environments, and any removal of government or sustained military intervention would have dramatic unforeseen consequences. It seems like the media debate in the U.S. is also similarly anaemic (but slightly better) this time around.

6. What is the real motivation for the United States and other powers?

As with all things in this world when it comes to international relations, the primary interest is not humanitarian but geopolitical. This is not absolute, however, and it could be argued that Turkey has been insisting on humanitarian intervention from an early stage. However, the regimes (not peoples) in the Gulf, most notably Saudi Arabia, are exclusively concerned with dislodging Syria from the Iranian orbit, and severing connections between Syria and Hezbollah. Humanitarian concerns are a by-product. And for the United States, something similar is at play. As noted above, if this was about humanitarian concerns, action would have been taken long before 100,000 deaths had occurred.

For the U.S. it has been looking for regime change in Syria for a while. However, these strikes if they occur, will be about sending a message and asserting America's position in the Middle East, given the red line that Obama drew. Ultimately, it may tip the scales in the rebels favour or improve the U.S.'s negotiating position vis-a-vis Iran. The chemical weapons attack in a morbid way, opened a door of opportunity for Western powers (with GCC support) to do something limited without a full-scale intervention.

7. Will military intervention solve the Syrian conflict?

No. Military intervention no matter how small or how big will not solve the Syrian conflict. In fact, it could very much exacerbate the situation on the ground even further (if that can be imagined). What is being reported currently is that the U.S. and allies will undertake a series of 'surgical strikes', a euphemism for a large-scale assault on key military and strategic installations, such as army positions, air bases, radar installations, communications infrastructure, supply routes, and, where appropriate, power stations (among other targets). More than anything this will be intended to send a message to the regime and weaken its capabilities. Yet, it would not be a fatal blow. And it would not necessarily tip the scales in favor of the rebels. It may in fact mobilize certain parties to support the regime, if there are civilian casualties from the intervention.

The solution to the Syrian situation has to be political, if it is going to lead to stability or peace. Yet, if the military intervention escalated and led to the removal of the Syrian regime, that would still not be the end of the conflict. After the Soviets were booted out of Afghanistan, the country devolved into a civil war for five years until the rise of the Taliban in 1996. Somalia has only recently stabilised (somewhat), more than 20 years after the assassination of its leader, President Siad Barre. And neighboring Lebanon, took 15 years of conflict (1975-1990) to reach an end, which was brought about by ironically Syrian military intervention (which committed its own crimes), that produced a - audible gasp - political settlement.

8. What could potentially go wrong?

Everything. The potential for disaster following military intervention in any country is great (see Black Hawk Down, Iraq, Afghanistan and the list goes on). Yet, in Syria it could be apocalyptic. Here is a list of what that could entail:

- Chemical weapons are used by Syria against its neighbors such as Jordan and Turkey, or U.S. military positions in those countries;
- U.S. planes/helicopters are shot down leading to an escalation of U.S. involvement requiring boots on the ground;
- Syria sends a volley of missiles into Tel Aviv and other places in Israel, leading to a regional war;
- Proxy forces of Iran, Hamas and Hezbollah, launch a sustained campaign against Israel/U.S. interests, including attacks embassies within Lebanon/Palestine/Israel but also in other countries, in the short and medium-term;
- Al Qaeda forces in the region, while opposing the Assad regime, oppose U.S. intervention especially if there are masses of civilian casualties, and use it as a pretext for attacks in places such as Yemen;
- Russia objects to the U.S. strike, and mobilizes warships to the Mediterranean, leading to a standoff with Europe and the U.S.;
- Negotiations with Iran, still in embryonic stages are suspended irrevocably;
- Six party talks with North Korea are suspended by Russia, China, and North Korea irrevocably;
- The Syrian regime goes all out in its conflict and begins to bomb with even more abandon civilian areas controlled by rebels, leading to thousands of casualties, and counter-massacres by enraged rebel fighters;
- The Syrian regime is removed by force from power by the intervention, leading to a power vacuum sinking the country further into civil war for over a decade of even more violent strife and a possible Al Qaeda style government;
- Tensions rise in the Middle East, especially in places of sectarian division (i.e. Lebanon, Yemen, Bahrain, Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia, and Iraq) leading to civil strife and attacks on governments, and counter-attacks on populations; and
- World War 3.

9. What could potentially go right?

It may seem that what is written above is slightly alarmist and that's true. Many things can go wrong (most of which, to be honest, are hard to predict as they will be unforeseen consequences or as Donald Rumsfeld, ironically calls them, unknown unknowns). However, the U.S.-led strikes could be quite effective. Firstly, if they are limited in scope, they can be completed in one day, reducing the risk for a military entanglement and civilian casualties. Secondly, if they are from the air, there is limited risk for casualties on the side of the intervening forces. Thirdly, an attack that is forceful and hits Syrian military positions, will send a message to Assad that there is a limit to what he can do, which thus far has not been the case, and may entice him to reach a political settlement. Fourthly, it is unlikely that the Syrian regime would retaliate, for a short strike on positions, against Israel, knowing that they cannot afford to fight a war on so many fronts (and thus far they have yet to retaliate to any Israel air strike). Finally, the systematic destruction of Assad's air capabilities could be instrumental in limiting civilian casualties by the regime in the future.

All of this is one possibility of what could occur.

10. Let's cut to the chase - should I support or not support military intervention?

There is no clearcut answer. Ultimately, military intervention should not be supported as a solution to the Syrian conflict. It is not, and whether we like it or not, a political solution/settlement is the only way the current situation moves towards peace and stability. The U.S. is negotiating with the Taliban. The Vietnamese negotiated with the U.S. The Lebanese negotiated with each other. The Dayton Accords to end the Bosnian War were signed with Slobodan Milosevic. It may not be easy, it may be unlikely, and it will not work perfectly, but political discussions involving all parties is the only way to find a real solution.

That being said, if a case is made with overwhelming evidence by independent parties (not U.S. conjecture) that chemical weapons were used by the Syrian regime, then military intervention on a limited scale, and for a period of 1-2 days only, should be undertaken, ideally with UN support - and if not with broad support of half of the members, i.e. 90, of the UN General Assembly to demonstrate legitimacy - against military targets only, which will both send a message about the use of these weapons and damage the capabilities of Assad.

What is clear is that whatever happens, there are no clear answers with regards to the conflict in Syria.

          I LEKARI Å OKIRANI: Kokosovo ulje ubija 93% ćelija raka debelog creva za samo 2 dana (VIDEO)        

Rak debelog creva je danas jedan od najrasprostranjenijih oblika raka među muškarcima i ženama, ali iako ima puno prirodnih lekova koji sprečavaju ovu bolest, medicinski zvaničnici i dalje smatraju da nema dovoljno istraživanja koja podržavaju te činjenice. Žalosno je to što naukom danas dominira farmaceutska industrija i što se najveći broj istraživanja finansira od strane

The post I LEKARI ŠOKIRANI: Kokosovo ulje ubija 93% ćelija raka debelog creva za samo 2 dana (VIDEO) appeared first on Ljepota i Zdravlje.


          FESTIVAIS DE CINEMA AMBIENTAL NO MUNDO        

FESTIVAIS AMBIENTAIS:
1. CinemAmbiente Environmental Film Festival, founding member of the network (Turin, ITALY)
http://www.cinemambiente.it/
2. Cine’Eco - Festival Internacional de Cinema Ambiental da Serra da Estrela (Seia, PORTUGAL)
http://www.cineecoseia.org/
3. Cinema Planeta - Festival Internacional de Cine y Medio Ambiente de México (Cuernavaca, MEXICO)
http://www.cinemaplaneta.org/
4.  CMS VATAVARAN - Environmental & Wildlife Film Festival and Forum(New Delhi, INDIA)
http://www.cmsvatavaran.org/
5. Dokufest International Documentary and Short Film Festival (Prizren, KOSOVO)
http://www.dokufest.com/2012/
6. ECOCUP Environmental Film Festival (Moscow, RUSSIA)
http://www.ecocup.ru/
7. Environmental Film Festival in the Nation’s Capital (Washington, USA)
http://www.dcenvironmentalfilmfest.org/
8. FFEM - Festival de Films de l’Environnement de Montréal (Montréal, QUÉBEC)
http://www.cinemaduparc.com/
9. FICA - Festival Internacional de Cinema e Video Ambiental (Goiás, BRAZIL)
http://www.fica.art.br/
10. FIFE – Festival International du Film d’Environnement (Paris, FRANCE)
http://www.iledefrance.fr/festival-film-environnement/
11. Filmambiente – Festival Internacional de Audiovisual Ambiental (Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL)
http://www.filmambiente.com/
12. GFFIS – Green Film Festival in Seoul (Seoul, KOREA)
http://en.gffis.org/
13. Interfilm Festival (Berlin, GERMANY)
http://www.interfilm.de/
14. Planet in Focus Environmental Film Festival (Toronto, CANADA)
http://planetinfocus.org/
15. RIEC-IWFE - Rencontres Internationales “Eau et Cinéma” International “Water and Film” Events (Montréal, QUÉBEC)
http://www.riec-iwfe.org/

          Senarai Pemain Kedah 2017 Helang Merah        
Senarai Pemain Kedah 2017 Helang Merah. Anda peminat skuad Hijau Kuning? Berikut adalah senarai pemain Kedah 2017 di bawah kendalian jurulatih Tan Cheng Hoe yang akan dikemaskini dari masa kesemasa. Untuk maklumat berkenaan pasukan Kedah FA, anda boleh layari FB di FB Kedah FA.


Pemain Kedah 2017 Helang Merah



Senarai Pemain Kedah 2017 Helang Merah

Jurulatih : Tan Cheng Hoe


PosisiNamaNo JersiNegara
GKAbdul Hadi Hamid1Malaysia
GKFarhan Abu Bakar30Malaysia
GKMuhd Ifwat Akmal31Malaysia
CB, RBSyawal Nordin3Malaysia
CB, LBOsman Mohd Yusoff5Malaysia
RB, CBRaphi Azizan Mariappen11Malaysia
CBKhairul Helmi (Captain)13Malaysia
RB,RWB, ST,Rizal Ghazali15Malaysia
CBSyazwan Tajuddin17Malaysia
RB,RWB, CMAriff Farhan27Malaysia
LB,LWBAsri Mardzuki28Malaysia
AM, CM, LM, RMBaddrol Bakhtiar7Malaysia
CM, AM, DMLiridon Krasniqi8Kosovo
CMAmirul Hisyam Awang Kechik16Malaysia
CMAbdul Halim Saari18Malaysia
LM, RM, LW, RWFarhan Roslan19Malaysia
LM, LWSyazwan Zainon22Malaysia
CMHanif Mat Dzahir23Malaysia
LM, RM, LW, RWSyazuan Hazani29Malaysia
STSandro da Silva Mendonça10Brazil
ST, LWSyafiq Ahmad20Malaysia
ST, RM, AM, RWFakri Saarani14Malaysia
ST, AM,Ken Ilsø Larsen
Denmark

          Recordar Gavrilo Princip        


O sérvio-bósnio Gavrilo Princip nasce em 1894. Filho de um carteiro, Gavrilo é o quarto de nove irmãos dos quais seis morrem durante a infância.

Frequenta a escola em Tuzla e Sarajevo, mas em 1912 muda-se para Belgrado. Na capital da Sérvia junta-se à organização nacionalista Mão Negra que defende a união entre a Bósnia-Herzegovina (anexada pela Aústria-Hungria em 1908) e a Sérvia.

Ao saber que o herdeiro do trono Austro-Húngaro tem uma visita programada a Sarajevo o Coronel Dragutin Dimitrijevic, chefe dos serviços secretos do exército sérvio e lider da Mão Negra, decide enviar um grupo para o assassinar: Gavrilo Princip, Nedjelko Cabrinovic and Trifko Grabez seguem para a capital da Bósnia um mês antes. A eles junta-se Danilo Ilic que recruta três outros homens. Vaso Cubrilovic e Cvijetko Popovic, dois jovens estudantes de 17 anos, e o muçulmano bósnio Muhamed Mehmedbasic. O grupo é armado com quatro pistolas sérvias e seis bombas. Cada um recebe ainda uma ampola de cianeto.

A 28 de Junho o Arquiduque Franz Ferdinand, herdeiro do trono Austro-Húngaro, inicia uma visita de estado a Sarajevo para inspeccionar as manobras militares de dois corpos de exército. Uma má escolha de data por coincidir ao mesmo tempo com o aniversário da derrota dos Sérvios no Kosovo em 1389 e com o dia nacional da Sérvia.

Curiosamente, Franz Ferdinand representa uma esperança credível para a renovação da velha e desgastada monarquia da Europa central. Simpatiza com as reivindicações eslavas e vê com bons olhos a concessão de mais autonomia às nacionalidades que compõem o império.

No meio da multidão que assiste ao desfile na solarenga manhã estão os seis conspiradores.

Cabrinovic atira uma das bombas para o carro do arquiduque, mas falha o alvo. Doze espectadores e dois membros da comitiva são feridos. O agente da Mão Negra tenta suicidar-se com uma ampola de cianeto e atira-se ao rio, mas acaba por ser capturado.

Franz Ferdinand insiste em continuar com o programa previsto. Mais tarde, pede para ir visitar um dos feridos. Um engano no percurso leva o condutor a virar para uma rua estreita. Por uma das maiores coincidências da história, foram ter a apenas dez metros de Gavrilo Princip. O jovem extremista dispara duas vezes. O carro acaba por conseguir recuar mas dois dos seus ocupantes estão feridos. O Arquiduque Franz Ferdinand e a sua mulher Sophie esvaiem-se em sangue e acabam por morrer.

Estes acontecimentos precipitam uma grave crise. A tensão latente entre o Império Austro-Húngaro e a Sérvia atinge um ponto de ruptura. Julho é um mês de ameaças e ultimatos. Os governos alinham-se segundo alianças pré-estabelecidas.

Apenas 30 dias após a morte de Franz Ferdinand e Sophie a Áustria-Hungria invade a Sérvia. A Europa está em guerra.


O destino dos conspiradores

Danilo Ilic, o único membro do grupo com mais de vinte anos, é condenado à morte e executado em 1915.

Os restantes membros do grupo escapam com penas de prisão.

Nedjelko Cabrinovic e Trifko Grabez são condenados a 20 anos e morrem de tuberculose em 1916.

Gavrilo Princip, o homem que premiu o gatilho naquela tarde de Verão em Sarajevo, morre da mesma doença em 1918.

Mais sorte tem Vaso Cubrilovic. Libertado no final da guerra, chega a professor universitário e Ministro das Florestas da Jugoslávia no governo de Tito. Morre em 1990.

Cvijetko Popovic também é libertado em 1919. Torna-se professor de história e, mais tarde, Curador do Departamento de Etnologia do Museu de Sarajevo.

O muçulmano Muhamed Mehmedbasic consegue fugir para Montenegro, é capturado pelas autoridades montenegrinas, mas consegue evadir-se. Em 1919 obtém o perdão total pela sua participação do atentado. É morto pelas milícias fascistas croatas em 1943, durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.


          Reading Comprenhension        


Reading Comprehension Test # ALPHA -1


Incident Report # SSU 007/2333

At 2325 hours on Sunday 14 April 2000, the UNMIK Police control received a telephone call, reporting the sound of gunshots from the area of the Bus Garage (Grid reference 125 185). An UNMIK police patrol and a KFOR patrol responded to the scene. On arrival, the police patrol found a large number of people gathered outside an apartment building, the patrol was directed to Apartment Number 4. Inside the apartment, a male person was found lying on the hallway floor, dead from gunshot wounds to the body and head.  Investigations revealed that the body was that of a 46 year old Goran male who lived in the apartment with his wife. The wife stated that at 2325 hours there was a knock at the door of the apartment and when her husband answered the door he was shot twice, the gunman then kicked him and ran off down the stairs. She described the gunman as being very tall, approximately 2 meters, wearing a red cap, blue jeans and white trainers. The police secured the scene and informed the Murder Squad. KFOR remained in the area to control the large crowd outside.

Follow up Report # SSU 007/2333/02

Investigations by the Murder Squad confirmed that the deceased was a 46 year old Goran male, who received two fatal gunshot wounds to the chest and head. One of these bullets passing through the body and lodging in the dining room table, this was recovered for forensic examination. Also recovered from the apartment hallway were three 10mm empty cartridges. The building landlord identified himself as making the initial call to Police control and had been in his apartment, number 1, at the time of the shooting. When interviewed he stated that at 2325 hours he heard five gunshots and when he looked out of his door he saw a tall male person run pass him out of the building door. He described this person as wearing a blue jacket, a dark ski mask and white trainers. A further search of the deceased's apartment produced a further two empty 10mm cartridge, found in the pocket of a coat hanging in the hallway.

Follow up Report # SSU 007/2333/03

A search of the whole area was carried out by the Police and KFOR, at the rear of the apartment building a military police dog found a red cap and a blue jacket in a rubbish skip. These items were seized for further examination. Further interviews revealed that, earlier in the day of the 11 April 2000, the deceased had been seen arguing with a young Albanian male, who wanted to buy his apartment. In the main those people interviewed were very uncooperative and no other witnesses came forward or were identified. The building landlord will be re-interviewed to obtain any information of persons wanting to buy the apartment. The investigation is continuing.







QUESTIONS        READING TEST ALPHA -1

Family Name: ………..…………… First name: ….…………….. CP #: ………………………..
Country:…………………..                                                                                                                   Date:……...…………………

Q1:    Who reported the gunshots to the Police Control?
Q2:    What was the ethnicity of the victim?
Q3:     How many empty cartridges were found in the victim's apartment?
Q4:    Who responded to the initial report of gunshots?
Q5:    What items were found at the rear of the apartment building?
Q6:    What was the date, of the incident? 
Q7:    Who was the victim seen arguing with and why?
Q8:     Why did the Police want to re-interview the building landlord?
Q9:    Why did KFOR remain at the scene?
Q10:    What was the caliber of the gun used?


ANSWERS    READING TEST # ALHPA-1

Q1:    Who reported the gunshots to the Police Control?
    The Building Landlord
Q2:    What was the ethnicity of the victim?
Goran
Q3:     How many empty cartridges were found in the victim's apartment?
Five
Q4:    Who responded to the initial report of gunshots?
UNMIK Police and KFOR.
Q5:    What items were found at the rear of the apartment building?
Red cap and a blue jacket.
Q6:    What was the date of the incident?
14 April 2000.
Q7:    Who was the victim seen arguing with earlier in the day and why?
A young Albanian male, who wanted to buy the apartment.
Q8:     Why did the police want to re-interview the Building landlord?
    Obtain any information of persons wanting to buy the apartment
Q9:    Why did KFOR remain at the scene of the shooting?
To control the large crowd.
 Q10:    What was the caliber of the gun used?
    10mm.





Reading Comprehension Test # BRAVO-1



Incident Report # SSU 007/00.

At 1745 hours on Sunday 09 April a Serbian male went to the UNMIK police station and reported that his 19year old son had been missing since the previous night. He stated that his son and their neighbor's son had left their house at 2000 hours to go to a café downtown. At 2150 hours the neighbor's son returned home, but their son did not and he was worried. The father had checked with the neighbor's son who informed him, that at 2130 hours last night they both went to the Café Bar near the Bank Building to have a drink. About five (5) minutes later his son left the café with a group of five (5) young people, who he had not seen before. At 0815 hours the next morning, the father went to the Café Bar and asked the owner whether anyone had seen his son. The owner informed him that one of his waiters had seen his son, the previous evening, quarreling with five young males outside the café. He described the males as being all about 20 years old, all had long black hair and one had a ring in his left ear, he had not seen them before.
 They then had forced the son into a White Mercedes, which then drove off at speed in the direction of the hospital. The father gave the police a picture of the missing boy and requested help to find his son. The police made a report and advised the father they would inform the Missing Persons unit.

Follow up Report # SSU 007/00/04

On the 10 April, UNMIK police Missing Person Unit conducted the primary investigation regarding the incident. A check was made at the local hospital, which proved negative. At the Café Bar the police interviewed the owner and a number of waiters who were working at the time of the incident. From this the Unit obtained information that the suspects were all local Kosovo Albanians and that one of the waiters had remembered the registration number of the Mercedes as SK0321. A police patrol located the suspect vehicle parked on the Airport road 15km from Pristina, at Grid reference 015156. The police seized the vehicle’s registration book, which identified the name and address of the vehicle owner and also a gold ring, which was identified as belonging to the missing boy. Enquiries are continuing.

Follow up Report: 0039/00/04

On 11 April, UNMIK police and KFOR searched the address shown in the seized registration book and arrested the owner of the Mercedes, who admitted to being involved in the abduction of the boy. He stated that the boy owed him money for drugs, he also gave the location of the house where the boy was being held. UNMIK police and KFOR conducted a search of this house and the missing boy was located, six (6) Kosovo Albanian males were arrested at the scene. The missing boy's injuries were a bruised chest and a broken left wrist, a result of beatings received when held. He was taken to the hospital and later returned to his parents. Also seized from the house was a Smith and Wesson revolver and 200 Ecstasy tablets.  The suspects were taken to the detention center and held for court. Case is closed.





QUESTIONS            READING TEST BRAVO-1


Family Name: ……………………First Name: …………….. CP #:……………..
Country:………………………..                                                                                Date:……………..

Q1:    What reason did the suspect give for abducting the boy?
Q2:    What was seized from the suspect's vehicle?
Q3:    What is the nationality of the suspects?
Q4:    The Grid Reference where the suspect vehicle was located?
Q5:    Who gave the police the description of the suspect's vehicle?
Q6:    Where was the missing boy last seen?
Q7:    What did the police seize from the second house they searched?
Q8:    Describe the suspect vehicle?
Q9:    Describe the injuries of the missing boy?
Q10:    How many suspects were arrested?


ANSWERS    READING TEST # BRAVO-1

Q1:    What reason did the suspect give for abducting the boy?
    He owed money for drugs.       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q2:    What was seized from the suspects' vehicle?
    Vehicle registration book and Gold Ring.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q3:     What is the nationality of the suspects?
    Kosovo Albanian.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q4:    The Grid Reference where the suspect vehicle was located?
    Grid Reference 015156
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q5:    Who gave the police the description of the suspect's vehicle?
    Café Bar waiter.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q6:    Where was the missing boy last seen?
    Outside the Café Bar.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:     What did the police seize from the second house they searched?
    Smith and Wesson revolver and 200 Ecstasy tablets.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q8:     Describe the suspect vehicle?
    White Mercedes, registration SK0321
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q9:    Describe the injuries of the missing boy?
    Bruised chest and broken left wrist
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q10:    How many suspects were arrested?
    Seven
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   

READING COMPREHENSION TEST CHARLIE-1

Incident Report # MSU 0010/137B

At 0055 hours on Wednesday 11 October 2000, Regional Murder Squad Investigator Jean PAIN received a radio message from Pristina Control. It reported a drive-by shooting in Dragodan, Pristina Grid Reference 125 230. The victim Arden GASHI, born 22 February 1928 had been taken to Pristina hospital and declared dead on arrival. Investigator PAIN arrived at the scene at 0115 hours, where he interviewed the wife of the victim, Fetija GASHI, born 20 April 1932. She stated that she and her husband had been walking along the street towards their house when a dark brown Opel Kadett drove by them, without any lights on. A man leaned out of the rear offside passengers' window opening fire at them from a gun he was holding, her husband fell to the ground bleeding from several bullet wounds he had received. She did not see how many people were in the Kadett and she only remembered the letters KS from the registration plate. Fetija was able to raise the alarm and the Police and Ambulance were called. The Forensic Identification Unit and the Investigative Judge arrived at the scene at 0120 hours. Two empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered at the scene, and then the area was sealed for further examination in daylight. Pristina Control circulated details of the suspect vehicle to all units.

Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/02

At 0145 hours a police patrol saw the suspect vehicle traveling on the Skopje road out of Pristina and they stopped the Kadett at the Swedish KFOR checkpoint Grid Reference 123 201. The police in co-operation with KFOR troops, searched the three male occupants and the vehicle. No firearms were found, however four empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered from the rear passenger area. The registration number of the Opel Kadett was 246 KS 673, the vehicle was impounded at Police Station Number 1. On the authorization of the Investigative Judge, the three male occupants were arrested on suspicion of murder and taken to the Detention Centre, Pristina.

Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/03

At 0215 hours the Investigative Judge attended the Mortuary, Pristina Hospital, where the body of Arden GASHI was examined. The examination revealed three gunshot wounds to the chest, two penetrated the left lung and one passed through the heart, death was instantaneous. Property removed from the victim included a silver wristwatch and an empty brown leather wallet, which were retained by the Investigative Judge. Investigations are continuing.













READING COMPREHENSION TEST CHARLIE-1


Incident Report # MSU 0010/137B

At 0055 hours on Wednesday 11 October 2000, Regional Murder Squad Investigator Jean PAIN received a radio message from Pristina Control. It reported a drive-by shooting in Dragodan, Pristina Grid Reference 125 230. The victim Arden GASHI, born 15 September 1936 had been taken to Pristina hospital and declared dead on arrival. Investigator PAIN arrived at the scene at 0115 hours, where he interviewed the wife of the victim, Fetija GASHI, born 20 April 1942. She stated that she and her husband had been walking along the street towards their house when a dark brown Volkswagen Golf drove by them, without any lights on. A man leaned out of the rear offside passengers' window opening fire at them from a gun he was holding, her husband fell to the ground bleeding from several bullet wounds he had received. She did not see how many people were in the Golf and she only remembered the letters KS from the registration plate. Fetija was able to raise the alarm and the Police and Ambulance were called. The Forensic Identification Unit and the Investigative Judge arrived at the scene at 0120 hours. Two empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered at the scene, and then the area was sealed for further examination in daylight. Pristina Control circulated details of the suspect vehicle to all units.

Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/02

At 0225 hours a police patrol saw the suspect vehicle traveling on the Skopje road out of Pristina and they stopped the Golf at the Swedish KFOR checkpoint Grid Reference 123 201. The police in co-operation with KFOR troops, searched the three male occupants and the vehicle. No firearms were found, however six empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered from the rear passenger area. The registration number of the Volkswagen Golf was 246 KS 673, the vehicle was impounded at Police Station Number 1. On the authorization of the Investigative Judge, the three male occupants were arrested on suspicion of murder and taken to the Detention Centre, Pristina.

Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/03

At 0245 hours the Investigative Judge attended the Mortuary, Pristina Hospital, where the body of Arden GASHI was examined. The examination revealed three gunshot wounds to the chest, two penetrated the left lung and one passed through the heart, death was instantaneous. Property removed from the victim included a gold ring and a copper bracelet, which were retained by the Investigative Judge. Investigations are continuing.












QUESTIONS                READING TEST CHARLIE-1
Family Name: ……………….…… First name:……..…………….. CP #: ………………………..
 Country:………..………………. .….                                                                                                  Date:…………………………

Q1:     What time was the suspect vehicle seen and stopped by the police?
Q2:     What is the name of the victim's wife?
Q3:     What was the date of birth of the victim?   
Q4:    How did the victim die?
Q5:    What was the nationality of the KFOR troops?
Q6:    Who reported the incident to Jean PAIN?
Q7:    What was the make and type of the vehicle involved
Q8:     How many empty cartridges were found?
Q9:    What property was recovered from the victim?
Q10:    Who authorized the detention of the suspects?

ANSWERS    READING TEST # CHARLIE-1

Q1:     What time was the suspect vehicle seen and stopped by the police?
     0225 hours.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q2:     What is the name of the victim's wife?
    Fetija GASHI   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q3:     What was the date of birth of the victim?
    15 September 1936   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q4:    How did the victim die?
    Three gunshots wounds to the chest   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q5:    What was the nationality of the KFOR troops?
    Swedish
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q6:    Who reported the Incident to Jean PAIN?
    Pristina Control
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:    What was the make and type of the vehicle involved?
     Volkswagen Golf
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q8:     How many empty cartridges were found?
    Eight
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q9:    What property was recovered from the victim?
    Gold ring, Copper bracelet
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q10:    Who authorized the detention of the suspects?
    Investigative Judge
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


READING COMPREHENSION TEST DELTA-1

Incident Report # SSU 007/141125


At 2315 hours on Thursday the 18 of July 2000 the UNMIK police station in Lipljan received a phone call reporting shots fired in the Bird’s Restaurant, grid reference EN009 008. UNMIK Police sent a patrol unit to the restaurant, a KFOR unit also responded to the call. When they arrived they were directed to a back room of the restaurant, where they found a body of a male person lying on the floor. A check of the body revealed that he had died from three gunshot wounds to the body. Beside the body was a table covered with playing cards, it appeared that there had been a game of cards in progress at the time of the shooting. A witness stated, that he with had been playing poker in the back room, with the deceased and 3 other men. He identified the dead man as Goran who had been having a lucky day at cards, winning several thousands German Marks. Goran became involved in an argument with one of the other players, a young Serbian who spoke with a Belgrade dialect. The young man accused Goran of being a cheat, Goran hit this person several times with his fists. Suddenly the young man pulled out a gun and shot him and then ran away. He was described as about 20 years old, 1.75 meters tall, had short brown hair, dressed in blue jeans and a blue pullover and he was known as Dejan.

Follow up Report # SSU 007/141125/02

The murdered Serbian, known as Goran BRESOVIC, was 37 years old living at 12 Main Road, Lipljan. The autopsy revealed that, he had been shot 4 times in the head and twice in the chest death was instantaneous. Three spent bullets were recovered from the body. The owner of the restaurant was interviewed, who stated that he heard 7 or 8 shots, and then he saw the young man run from the building. A further search of the room revealed three fresh bullet holes in the card table. Three spent bullets were recovered from the table for forensic examination. Nine empty bullet cases were found and retained for further examination.


Follow up Report # SSU 007/141125/03

A further witness, who lived next door to the restaurant, came forward and stated that at 2320 hours she saw a man running to a green and black Lada car, parked next to her house. The car had a Belgrade registration plates but she could not remember the number. Children, playing in the same area as where the Lada had been parked, found a 9mm FN semi-automatic pistol its magazine was empty.  No further information was forthcoming, investigations are continuing.


ANSWERS    READING TEST # DELTA-1

Q1:    What was the make of the revolver?
 Smith and Wesson.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q2:    How many persons were in the back room of the restaurant, at the time of the incident?
    Five.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q3:     How many empty cartridges were found?
    None.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q4:    How many shots were fired?
    Six.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q5:    What registration plate did the car have?
    Belgrade registration plate.   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q6:    Describe what the suspect was wearing? 
    Blue Jeans and Blue Pullover.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:    What was the victim's age?
    42 years.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q8:     What was the color of the car involved?
    Green and black.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q9:    What was the victim doing, at the time of the incident?
    Playing cards (poker).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q10:    Describe the wounds of the victim?
    Two shots to the head and one to the upper left arm.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


READING COMPREHENSION TEST PS#1/06
Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06

Incident Report #01

On 22 November 2006 at 0600 hours, Police Station # 4 of Laguna Region was reported of a dead body that was found in the Central Park. Alpha Unit responded to the scene of incident located at Grid Reference
114-253. At 0615 hours, two police officers arrived at the scene and observed a 165 cms tall female body lying in supine position behind the bush near the swimming pool. The face of the dead was disfigured and a U-shaped mark was seen on the right side of the neck. They searched the crime scene area and recovered a black leather bag, a 200ml empty bottle and a wrist watch. Two security guards were also interviewed. On the day before at 1830 hours, a guard named Daniel Seal had seen a girl with a man outside the changing room. He had inquired about their presence in the area as the swimming pool service of the Park had already closed an hour and a half before. The lights, then, suddenly went out and he went to see what had happened. He returned at 1900 hours after fixing the fused wire of the main switch but nobody was there. The guard identified the dead as the same young girl and claimed that he could recognize the man. He described the man as a 25-year-old muscular built about 180 cms tall with long dark brown hair, dark complexion and had the most unusual involuntary head movement. The description about the suspect was radioed to all police units and the dead body was sent to the hospital for post mortem.
Follow-up Report #02
On 23 November 2006 at 1000 hour, a woman from Brajislav Village came to the Police Station to report about her missing daughter Emilia Kusnova. She identified herself as Sejila Kusnova and reported to the Missing Person Unit that her 19-year-old daughter had left the house on 21 November at 1500 hours and did not come back since then. She expressed her concern over the disappearance of her missing daughter. At 1100 hour, she was taken to the mortuary; she noticed the birth mark on the right side of the neck and identified the dead as her own daughter. Three hours later, she arrived at the Police Station and informed the police about Emilia's fear from a man who lived in Vustri. She told the police that her daughter had once mentioned about a man named Roger Mulav who had asked her to marry him else she would face terrible consequences. At 1630 hours, 28-year-old Roger Mulav was arrested by Alpha Unit from his house in Vustri. The arrestee confessed threatening Emilia to marry him but he denied the allegation of murder.

Follow-up Report #03
On 24 November 2006, the post mortem report of Emilia revealed disfigurement of her face was due to acid and concluded her death due to asphyxia. From the report of the forensic lab it was determined that the empty bottle contained concentrated sulphuric acid and the fingerprint sample of Roger did not match with the fingerprint found in the surface of the empty bottle. Roger was released after receiving the forensic report and his features too did not match with the description of the suspect. At 1700 hours, Delta Unit, on the basis of the description of the suspect, arrested a person named James Blake from ‘Burmuda Café’ situated in the Hill Side. James told the police that he was a carpenter and denied the allegation. On the following day the guard from Central Park identified James as the same person he had seen in the park with the girl. The forensic test also confirmed that his fingerprint sample matched with the sample collected from the surface of the empty bottle. A charge sheet was filed against him for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova.


QUESTIONS      Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06          A

Family Name:..…………… ……First name: …………. CP. ..………
Country:…………………..                                                                                  Date:……...……………
Q1:    When was the swimming pool service of the Park closed?
Q2:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
Q3:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?
Q4:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
Q5:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
Q7:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform Police about Roger Mulav?
Q8:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake described by the guard?
Q9:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
Q10:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?

QUESTIONS      Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06          B
Q1:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
Q2:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform about Roger Mulav?
Q3:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?
Q4:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
Q5:    When did the swimming pool service of the Park close?
Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
Q7:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
Q8:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
Q9:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake described by the guard?
Q10:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?

ANSWERS     Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06   A

Q1:    When was the swimming pool service of the Park closed?
At 1700 hours
Q2:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
Sulphuric Acid
Q3:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?
Because he had threatened Emilia of terrible consequences if she did not marry him
Q4:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
Delta Unit
Q5:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
James Blake
Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
21 November 2006, at 1830 hours
Q7:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform Police about Roger Mulav?
1400 hours
Q8:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake as described by the guard?
Involuntary head movement
Q9:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
She noticed the birth mark on the right side of the neck
Q10:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?
Asphyxia

ANSWERS     Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06       B
Q1:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
James Blake
Q2:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform about Roger Mulav?
1400 hours
Q3:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?
Asphyxia
Q4:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
She noticed the birth mark on the right side of the neck
Q5:    When was the swimming pool service of the Park closed?
At 1700 hours
Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
21 November 2006, at 1.30 hours
Q7:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
Delta Unit
Q8:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
Sulphuric Acid
Q9:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake as described by the guard?
Involuntary head movement
Q10:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?
Because he had threatened Emilia of terrible consequences if she did not marry him

Reading Comprehension Test # 4.
“AIRPORT”
Situation report # 01
Airport is the place where people meet and depart. Airport is the place what UN peacekeepers see upon their arrival in the mission. United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) started peacekeeping operation on 1-st October 2003. The first international police officers came to Liberia by air and landed at the Roberts International Airport, located 60 kilometers east from Monrovia.
The state of Liberia was founded in 1847 by immigrants of African descent who returned from the US to their native continent. The first president of Liberia was Joseph Jenkins Roberts. He was born in Norfolk, USA, on March 15, 1809, and arrived in Liberia in 1828 with his widowed mother, four brothers and two sisters. He was one of the famous Liberian-political figures of the nineteenth century. He lead Liberia to independence in 1847.He served as President of Liberia from 1847-1856 and from 1872-1876.
The main International Airport was built in the second half of the previous century and named after the first Liberian President - Roberts International Airport.
The reconstruction of the Liberian economy after the Civil war requires broad air connection with neighboring African countries and Europe. Much humanitarian Aid is being sent to Liberia by air and received at the Roberts International Airport.

Situation report # 02
UN peacekeeping equipment was mainly transported to Liberia by air. United Nations heavyweight cargo aircrafts only within one month had completed a series of flights, delivering 560 tons of equipment and supplies for UN peacekeeping forces in Liberia.
The second Liberian airfield is located in Monrovia and called Spriggs Payne Airport. This airfield is mostly used for domestic flights within Liberia.
UNMIL has two helicopter bases located at the Roberts International Airport and the Spriggs Payne airport. Helicopters, located at the Roberts International Airport are operated by the UN military personnel from Ukraine and helicopters from Spriggs Payne Airport are operated by the Russian civilian helicopter crew. A high level of safety of flights and strong technological discipline of both divisions participating in implementing peacekeeping operation in Liberia is being observed.
Situation report # 03
The United Nations personnel are authorized to use UN flights to fly from Liberia to Ghana and Sierra Leone. With effect from 15 October 2004 these flights are operated from Roberts International Airport three times a week: Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays. There is no charge for official duty travels. UN members have to submit approved Movement of Personnel form to the booking office at least 48 hours prior to the proposed flight. All Movement of Personnel forms should indicate a valid telephone number, where the traveler can be reached in the event of changes to the flight. All passengers are authorized to carry up to 25 kgs of accompanied luggage and 5 kgs of hand luggage. A bus service is available to Roberts International Airport 3 hours prior to flight from the Mission Head Quarters.

QUESTIONS.      READING TEST.         “AIRPORT
Q1:         On what date did the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) start peacekeeping  
                       operation?
Q2:         By whom was the state of Liberia founded?
Q3:         Whom did Joseph Jenkins Roberts arrive with in Liberia in 1828?
Q4:        When did Joseph Jenkins Roberts serve his first Presidential term?
Q5:          What is the nationality of the helicopter crew located at the Spriggs Payne Airport?
Q6:           How was the UN peacekeeping equipment mainly sent to Liberia?.
Q7:          What is the name of the airfield which is mostly used for domestic flights within  
Liberia?
Q8:     To what countries the United Nations personnel are authorized to fly with UN flights
         from    Liberia?
Q9:          On which days of the week the UN flights are not operated from Roberts International 
                            Airport?          
           Q10:       What type of service the UNMIL makes available to Roberts International Airport from the
                        Mission Head Quarters?
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANSWERS:    READING TEST.          “AIRPORT”.            “A”


Q1:         On what date did the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) start peacekeeping  
                       operation?
                         1. October 2003
Q2:         By whom was the state of Liberia founded?
                      By immigrants of African descent.
Q3:         Whom did Joseph Jenkins Roberts arrive with in Liberia in 1828?
                       With his widowed mother, four brothers and two sisters.
Q4:        When did Joseph Jenkins Roberts serve his first Presidential term?
                 1847-1856.
Q5:          What is the nationality of the helicopter crew located at the Spriggs Payne Airport?
             Russian                 
Q6:           How was the UN peacekeeping equipment mainly sent to Liberia?.
                  By air    
Q7:          What is the name of the airfield which is mostly used for domestic flights within Liberia?
             Spriggs Payne                   
Q8:          To what countries the United Nations personnel are authorized to fly with UN flights from  
                 Liberia?
        Ghana and Sierra Leone.                  
Q9:       On which days of the week the UN flights are not operated from Roberts International 
                               Airport?          
                         Monday, Wednesday, Friday, Saturday.
Q10:       What type of service the UNMIL makes available to Roberts International     
               Airport from the  Mission Head Quarters?
                  Bus.








Listening Comprehension



ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEST                    # LC - 1
Name:                    D.O.B.    :            Date:   

Listening Comprehension            Time allowed 15 mins.    
Title: CivPol Monitor harassed by local police 
A civilian police monitor reports to his Station Commander that he was stopped by the local police at a checkpoint on the Highway about 100 meters west of Khilsa Bridge, Pristina. He was asked to take his vehicle to a side  in the highway. His vehicle was thoroughly searched and he was accused of selling some pornographic pictures  to the youngster Muslims of Pristina. He was stopped at 8:30 in the morning and was detained for three hours. He was not allowed to make radio calls to his station. The CivPol monitor did not recognize the police officers but he heard during discussion that one was Mohammed Janim and another Alice.
Monitor: Good Afternoon Sir!
Station Commander: Good afternoon officer, How are you?
Monitor: Sir, I have a complaint against the local Police.
Station Commander: What's the
          Short Form        

    Day = s/m/t/we/th/f/sa
    Date= 8/7/9
    Month = jan/feb/mar/apr/mar/jun/jul
    Year = 99/98/00/01
    National Police
    K.P.S.=KOSOVO Police Station
    L.P.= Local Police
    P.S.N- 4 = police station n 4
    K.P.S.n 2= KOSOVO Police station n 2
    L.N.P.S.= Liberian National Police station
    P.P.S. =Pristina Police Station
    E.T.P.S= East Timor Police service/Station
    H.N.P.S.= Haitian National Police service/Station
    S.P.S = Sudan Police Station
    SNPS= Sudan National Police Station/service
    TLNOC= Timor leste Netional Operation center
    PNTL= Timor Leste National Police
    F-FDTL= Timor Liste Defense Force
    Inter National Police
    UNP.S.N.4 = UNPOL Station n 4
    CIV.S.N.  2 = CIVPOL Station n 2
    UNL.S.N.5 = UNMIL Station  n 5
    I PS.= International police Service
    IPTF= International Police Task Force
    UNMISS = United Nation Mission in south Sudan
    PKF= Peace Keeping Force
    Kfor-  Kosovo force
    UNMISET = United National Mission of support in     East Timor
    UNMIK= United National Mission in Kosovo
    UNAMID = United National African Mission in     Darfur
    Wit- witness
    Vic - victim
    Mal - male
    Fem – female
    Ano-Caller- Anonymous Caller (अज्ञात कलर)
    Rec - received
    Dis- dispatched
    Inf- inforemed
    Arr - arrived
    St- street
    GR -
    GN -
    GC -
    Color
    Bla/whi/gra/tan/gre/yel/mar/blu
d.o. – duty officer
s.c. – station commander
i.o – investigation officer
p.t – patrol team
t.l. team leader
p.u. – patrol unit
c. pol. – chief of police
f.b. – fire brigade
b.u. – back up unit
r.c. – regional commander
u.a.  un advisor
r.t. – rescue team
p.v. – patrol vehicle
p.c. – patrol car
c. s. – call sign
c.t. – cordon team
re.t. –reserve team
se. c. - section commander
d.c.p – deputy chief of police
q.r.t. – quick response team
imm - immediately
sud - suddenly
hrs - hours
amb - ambulance
veh - vehicle
pol . c – police commissioner
res – responded
Att – attended
B d t – bomb disposal team


          READING COMPREHENSION        



1.HATES CRIMES

The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.
Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes
The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.





1.    How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
2.    How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
3.    Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
4.    How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
5.    How many hate groups are there nationwide?
6.    What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
7.    How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
8.    Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
9.    What was the increase in hate groups last year?
10.    Who is Hillary Shelton?   


2.PILOT  ACCUSED

Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .
 Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"
Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.
Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"
1.    When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
2.    How long has he been held in jail?
3.    Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
4.    What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
5.    What did he hide in 1993?
6.    Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
7.    What are the conditions of his bail?
8.    What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
9.    Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?



3.BOSNIA INJURIES

On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .
NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.
In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"
 And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".


1.    How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
2.    Where were the two American soldiers inured?
3.    Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
4.    Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
5.    How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
6.    Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
7.    What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
8.    Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
9.    Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
10.    Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4.CLONE SYSTEM

Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?
Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid .
as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .
After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.
A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.


1.    What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
2.    What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
3.    What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
4.    Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
5.    What is the main problem of cloning system?
6.    What does Australian scientist claim?
7.    What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
8.    For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
9.    What is the specific with mitochondria??
10.    Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?
5.    ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.
The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 
 The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.
The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.
The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.
 The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.
1.    When did the car stolen?
2.    What was the lost property?
3.    What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.    What was the demand of political party?
5.    What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.    What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.    How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.    En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.    What was the monitor action on the scene?
10. what action did the local police take ?

    

6.    Authoritarian regime

President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.
"We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.
It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 
The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.
The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.
    The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.
      Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

1.    Which countries are called golden triangle country?
2.    Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
3.    What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
4.    Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
5.    What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
6.    Where is the international court of Justice located?
7.    why were the thousands of people jailed ?
8.    What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
9.    How many political prisoners were jailed?
 10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?


7.  GAMBLE

November 27, 2001
Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.
Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested  one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports . And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.
 Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.
 The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.
The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved. 
1.    How may gang members arrested?
2.    What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.    Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.    How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.    How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.    What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.    What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.    What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.    What were weapons confiscated.
        10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?


8.  EBOLA

Sunday, December 9, 2001
An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in
France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.    What did government request to Media?
2.    Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.    Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.    When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.    What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.    What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.    How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.    What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.    Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    

9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

    US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .
    There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country .
    It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.    Who is Taras?

10. THE UNITED NATION

The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states.
    After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs

1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat

                                        1. International court of justice.

    The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

    America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

    Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


11.  UN FAILURE IN BOSNIA

    A long -awaited report into the failure of a Dutch UN peacekeeping force to prevent the murder of thousands of Muslims in the Bosnian town of Brebrenica will be published on Wednesday. The Netherlands is bracing itself for the results of the inquiry in to the worst massacre in Europe since world War second. The
    BBC's Europe correspondent says Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for their part in event leading up to the 1995 slaughter. In July 1995, Srebrenica was being protected by 110 Dutch troops who were supposed to ensure the safety of the town's mainly Muslim population against surrounding Bosnian Serb forces. The United Nations had declared it a safe area but when it  was attacked, the town fill with out the Dutch UN troops firings shot . Up to 8000 Muslim men and boys were then murdered.

Five years of research

                  While the Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for letting the town fall without a fight , fault is also set to be found with the over all UN commander for failing to order air strikes to protect the enclave. The report is also understood to criticize the Dutch government for showing lack of political will. The 7000-pages report by the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation is the official Dutch history of events in Srebrenica. It has taken more than five years to produce. In a 1999 report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan blamed the international community for its failure to protect the enclave but insisted that it was impossible " to say whether a more decisive action by the Dutch would have saved lives" .A report two weeks ago by the Interchurch Peace Council ( IKV) in the Netherlands condemned Dutch troops, generals and politicians for failing to evacuate and protect the Muslims.

Scenes from hell

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague has ruled that the massacre was genocide. Last August it sentenced Bosnian Serb General Radisav Krstic, considered a key commander in the episode, to 46 years in prison. The judge in the case said the massacre was characterized by " scenes from hell, written on the darkest pages of human history" Survivors' reports, aerial photography and grisly evidence exhumed from mass graves indicate the most victims in the massacre were summarily executed ,Dutch MPs may now call for a public inquiry. Seven military commanders of Royal Dutch army have been sentenced to seven years jail . Ten army personnel have been fired from the service and 20 have been restricted from the promotion as per the report of the criminal tribunal.   The BBC's correspondent Mr. Havel Eastward has been facilitated by the Dutch Government as a friends of mankind . After the massacre in the Srebrenica the Dutch government begs pardon with the Bosnian people and saying that her troops could not do any thing to save the life of the people and she is responsible to the accident.


1. How many Dutch troops were protecting Srebrenica?
2. What ethnic group were the people of Srebrenica?
3. Why the Dutch government begs pardon with the people of Bosnia ?
4. How many people were killed in Srebrenica?
5. How many army personnel were punished?
6. Who is criticized in the report?
7. Where is the International Criminal Tribunal based?
8. Would more positive action by the Dutch troops have saved lives?
9    What sentence was General Krstic given?
10    Who was facilitated by the Dutch government and why?


12.  SWARM ATTACK

    Six people were hospitalized after they were attacked by a swarm of bees in Singapore, a news report said on Tuesday. The bees attacked contractors who were trying to remove a beehive in the tropical city-state .Two police officers who were on the scene to keep back the public, were among those attacked and hospitalized. Police public affairs officers could not immediately be contacted to confirm the report. The incident occurred at approximately 12:30PM on Tuesday afternoon. Two of the people who were injured in the attack were still in the hospital on Tuesday night at 10:00 PM; however they were in good condition. Such incidents are rare in heavily urbanized Singapore. But two years ago , a 51 years old taxi driver died after he was stung by a swarm bees .The driver was changing his back left tire and he removed the deflated tire , a beehive was in the wheel well . Witnesses said that the swarm covered the man's face and hands and repeatedly sting him as he cried out in pain .He died later that night while being hospitalized. Singapore is a very small country covered by the see in the east of Asia and known as a well industrialized country.
    The big industry installations have many nooks and corners where the swarm bees get shelters. firstly people do not care about it because it seems harmless and small in the beginning but after  a year it  appeared in large scale and bees become escort free so they undermine their stung so they try to destroy their hives and got stung and the result  become very adverse. The same accident happened in The US in 1990 when a farmer had gone to his farmhouse to clean the room , he saw that there is a bee hive in the ceiling of the room he thought it was full of honey , unfortunately it was poisonous  swarm bee's hive.  He collected his two sons and a black servant to take the honey . In the mean time when they lit a fire to fly the bees , the swarm bees started stung them . The younger son who was in the door side escaped from the room after having a look at the victims and called the police . The house got in to the gutter by the fire and three injured had been hospitalize in the city centre . The house owner Mr. Kally died during the medical treatment and two had been discharged after 2 weeks with swollen face and bruises for the whole life.  The same accident happened in Nepal too on 23 September 2002. The Raute , who are famous for honey hunter ,had tried to collect honey from the very steep hill near Manang District. they made rope ladder to climb the hill and with the aid of fire they started collecting the honey .
    It was a documentary program filmed by Scottish Director visualized to broadcast in Britain  by BBC. Al together there were 15 men. When the honey hunter was climbing down from the steep hill after the successful visualization of the film. Unfortunately, one of the hunters touched the bees hive. Due to the finished job, they did not prepare for next attack and they all were on very thin cloths and without cloves . Three among five hunters fall down from the cliff and died. Two were severely bitten by the bees were died on the way to hospital and ten crew members of the visualization  were admitted in the hospital and discharged after 2 weeks .  It is said that the bees seems so calm if they are not hurt and if anyone hurt their queen , they become so terrifying and take revenge from the hunter . The queen is the most powerful among the bees. if the queen of the bees  safely removed from the hive it will be so easy to get the honey from the hive   which is considered as medicine  in eastern countries . The working bees always follow the queen bee , if she abandon the hive silently , all the bees left the hive with out revenge. so if you want to get honey remove the queen tactically and calmly.
         
1.    How many people had been killed according to the passage.?
2.    How many people had been injured according to the passage?
3.    Where was the bees's hive in the taxi?
4.    Who was the authentic person to provide informations about injured police officers according to the passage.
5.    What had happened to the two Americans who escaped from the death?
6.    What is the ideal idea to get honey?
7.    What did the team doing in Manning District?
8.    How did the taxi driver killed?
9.    Where was the bees's hive in the room?
10.    Who is the most powerful in the hive?

13.  ARAFAT POLITICS
    Arafat is not the point. As Israelis and Palestinians use ever more lethal means against each other's civilians, the question being asked in Israel and the US is not how to end the occupation, but whether or not to end the career, or even the life, of Arafat. At the time of writing this coverage trend in early February 2002, in a further escalation Israeli tanks have confined Arafat in an area of 200m square in Ram Allah. And have destroyed the remainder of his helicopter fleet that it began to destroy on the attack of his compound on 3 December 2001.
    If Israel killed Arafat or sent in to exile, nothing would change. It seems almost absurd to have to point out that forcing millions of people to live for decades under hostile military rule with no end on sight inevitably produces violent resistance. Only a mind -set that steadfastly refuses to recognize this can become captivated by a lone figure who's real and imagined failings became a smoke screen that obscures the machinery that actually drives the conflict.
    If Israel truly seeks the moral high ground it invokes in the international arena, it should stop seeking a relative high ground whose only elevation stems from the weakness and failing of its historical enemies. Rather Israel should address the most obvious things it dies to perpetuate the conflict.
    The bottom line is that the single most identifiable factor that perpetuates the Israeli- Palestinian conflict in all its forms, both legitimate, is the Israeli military occupation that exists to protect the continuing Israeli colonization of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem.
    Comparisons of Arafat with Bin Laden serve to legitimize Israel's continuing repression of the Palestinians and bear no reality to the dynamics that this particular conflicts, dynamics that Israel has played no small part in creating.
    Israel's killing of civilians is a form of terrorism. The United States  tacit support of Israel's so called retaliation in US support of terrorism .Although Israeli officials are occasionally note don record " apologizing" for the latest " accidental" death of a child , there comes a point -- after a year in which one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed were children and 50 percent of these children were killed for away from clashes- that it becomes imperative to note that Israel could always simply stop killing children , instead of merely apologizing for it.
    Israel's nightly shelling of Palestinian neighborhoods has accounted for one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed during the first year of the Second Intifada .  Israel's regular killing of innocent civilians including children as a "by product " of its ironically titled" targeted killings " of Palestinian activists most commonly with rockets fired from combat helicopters at these leader's vehicles while in cit streets offer more examples of the indiscriminate violence that characterizes 'terrorism' as most people understand the word.
    Following a series of suicide bomb attacks in February / March 1996, then Israeli President Weizmann bluntly described Israel's practice of using closure to turn Palestinian towns in to prisons for the entire population: "Sometimes, when you are searching for a needle in a haystack, you have to burn the haystack".
    Israel has been encouraged to carry out similar "retaliation" as in the case of the December 2001bombing, by the knowledge that the United States would not condemn it. America must refrain from "understanding" Israel's violence. This can only have the effect of encouraging the continued Israeli killing of innocent Palestinian civilians.

1.    How many Palestinian children have been killed this year?
2.    How many Palestinians have been killed during nightly shelling?
3.    Are children targeted by the Israelis?
4.    Who is Arafat compared to and why?
5.    Where is Arafat confined, and what size of area?
6.    How many people live under hostile military rule in Palestine?
7.    What is the question being asked in Israel and the US?
8.    Why is Israel not afraid to carry out retaliation attacks on Palestinians?
9.    What happened in 1996?
10.    What dies Israel do when it is faced with suicide bomb attacks?








14.  BUS LOOTED
    A bus, which started off in Kathmandu , at 5:30 PM , traveling to Biratnagar , was looted by some Indian dacoits, which had crossed the boarder in order to escape the authorities there. They had been in Nepal for at least a month and had been regularly stopping night buses and robbing the passengers of all their belongings as well as money.
    When the bus number Ba Ga 3987, first started off from Gongabu Bus Park there was a total of 30 passengers. Just near Thankot 3 more passengers got on. The journey was uneventful until they reached Muggling, where they stopped for dinner. Here, the bus conductor managed to find 4 more people wanting to travel to Biratnagar . After about half an hour stop for dinner, they set off again. At Bharatpur 2 of the passengers got off as they had only booked up to this point. The bus had to wait for about one hour as the engine had trouble and the driver had to fix it .After this they started  of again and had a short tea break at Hetauda where another 2 people got off and one got on.
    At about 2:00 PM in the morning, when most of the passengers were asleep, the driver suddenly stopped as there was a tree across the main road. The passengers all wake up as the bus had come to a sudden stop, and were all looking out of the windows. Two Indian men dressed in black were behind the fallen tree with country made rifles; at the same time 2 also came from the back and two on each side of the bus. At once they told all the passengers to come out of the bus and line up in front of the bus, even though it as a moonlight night, no body could make out the faces of the dacoits, and could tell only by the way they spoke that they were from India. Everybody was told to remove their watches, jewelries and to empty out their pockets and moneybags. One of the men colleted all this while the others told all the passengers to lie down with their faces facing down. During this time the dacoits all disappeared, as nobody wanted to follow them as they might get shot

1.    How many passengers were on the bus when it was robbed?

2.    How many dacoits were there in total?

3.    How long did they stop for dinner?

4.    Why did they stop a second time before the robbery?

5.    How did the passengers know that the dacoits were not Nepali?

5.    Where did the bus start first?

6.    How many got in the Baratpur?

7.    Why did the bus have to stop suddenly?

8.    How many we on the bus at Muggling?

9.    Although it was night time how could the passengers make out how many dacoits there were?  
15.    KOSOVO POLICE

    On Monday 17 March 2003 , at 0745 hours , two Kosovo Police Officers were on patrol duty in a police vehicle when they observed a white van type vehicle , license 496KS858 driving very fast. The officers stopped the white van type vehicle for questioning using their blue flash lights. When the driver stopped, the patrol team stopped five meters behind his vehicle, however the van did not turn off its engine. As the officers exited their vehicle, the drivers of the white van type vehicle sped away very quickly. The officers ran back to their vehicle and chased the white vehicle .They were driving on the road to the airport. The police vehicle was driving at almost 120 km/hour but was unable to catch up to the van. Suddenly, the van turned north on to an unpaved roadway. The officers continued the pursuit. The van drove for approximately a hundred meters more. There was a big hole by the side of the road which the van fell into as the driver had lost control of the van, then it rolled upside down into a deep ditch on the south side of the roadway at grid reference 184-846. The officers stopped their vehicle on the opposite side of the roadway and proceeded cautiously toward the offender's vehicle. When they were approximately two meters away form the white van type vehicle they could see that the offender was still in his vehicle but was not moving. There were no sign of blood or injury  to the offender .As the officers got closer they could see three bundles, approximately 35 cm by 20cm by 25cm in the rare cargo area of the vehicle . One of the bundles was ripped open and a dark green plant material was showing, the officers assumed that it was marijuana. The first officer proceeded to the front of the vehicle to check the physical condition to the driver. The offender was breathing but didn't respond to any of the officer's verbal commands.  The officer radioed for an ambulance and the offender was taken to the local hospital. The second officer searched the offender's vehicle and found another bundle under the front seat with a knife. The Knife was 20 cm long with old blood stains. There were no papers or registration found in the vehicle. All material were seized as evidence and taken to police station.

1.    What were the 2 officers doing at 0745 Hrs?
2.    Why did they ask the van to stop?
3.    What was their reason for stopping the van?
4.    At what distance behind did the police stop?
5.    How many bundles were seen?
6.    Approximately what speed was the van traveling when in pursuit?
7.    What did the officers assume it to be?
8.    Was the knife found before or after the suspect was taken to hospital?
9.    What distance did the van travel on the dirt road?
10.    How did the man crash the vehicle?
16.    GERMANY SOOTING

Germany was in shock yesterday after 19 years old, masked gunman shot 17 people, including two female students, before killing himself in a school massacre in the eastern city of Erfurt.
The black -clad gunman a recently - expelled student of the Gutenberg secondary school, burst into a classroom during an exam yesterday morning around 11 AM and started shooting with a pump action rifle mounted on his back. "He passed us in the corridor with out paying any attention and walked straight into the secretary's office and started shooting." He said. Witnesses said the gunman walked through the building, opening classroom doors and targeting staff, killing nine male teachers, four female teachers, a secretary and two female students all within minutes. Caretakers heard the shots and notified the local police. Two officers arrived on the scene and discovered two dead bodies in the entrance hall. Moments later the gunman appeared and opened fire, shooting dead one of the policemen. A special commando unit immediately surrounded the school, which has nearly 700 students. As the shooting continued, around 180 students were still trapped in the building. Commandos stormed the building shortly before noon and came upon what was described as terrible scenes. 'Bodies lay in the halls, in bathrooms and classrooms' said Mr.Rainer Grube, a police spokesman. The gunman, who had barricaded himself into a room, shot himself as officers approached. 'The gunman killed himself when he saw that there was no way out for him' said Mr., Grube.
    For the students trapped inside the building, their ordeals ended nearly three hours later when they were led, pale and shaking, out of the school to worried parents at the gate. They were all receiving counseling yesterday evening, while four people injured in the attack were brought to hospital. Police were last night still investigating students reports that there was a second gunman. They had no motive for the shootings yesterday evening. Friends of the as yet unidentified gunman described him as an intelligent student who was ' full of life' and often spoke of his wish to become famous. The massacre is one of the most violent attacks in German post -war history, and ranks alongside the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane and the 1999 massacre in Columbine , Arkansas. Yesterday evening Erfurt residents were in shock and German politicians speechless .
'We are stunned at this horrific crime. No explanation we could give would go far enough right now ' said the Chancellor, Mr. Gerhard Schroeder, expressing his sympathy for the families of the victims and the students who witnessed the attack. He ordered the German flag on the Reichstag in Berlin to flown to be flown at half mast. 'We are all in one room .One teacher is dead, we are crying.



1.    Which two other massacres are mentioned?
2.    How many people were injured in the attack?
3.    What time did the shooting start?
4.    What weapons were used?
5.    How many teachers were killed?
6.    Did the gunman target students?
7.     Who notified the police about the shooting?
8.    Who stormed the building and when?
9.    How many police men entered the building initially?
10.    How long it take to gunman to kill the people and was there only one gunman?



17.  DEAD BODY FOUND

Mr. John Edwards lives alone in his cottage in the southern part of Cambridge, UK. He was a retired officer who previously worked for the finance office which was based in London. He had been retired for 5 years now and spent most of his time in Cambridge. He had worked for 34 years and during that time lived in London. By the sides of his cottage, there was a husband and wife living who used to work for Mr. Edwards. The woman would cook his meals and the man would attend to the garden. Mr. Edwards had no close family or friends who would come to visit him regularly .On December 15 , 2002 ,Mr. Edwards was found dead in his study at 0700 hrs. His body was fund by the woman who did his cooking. She had informed the police when she had seen him lying on his desk at 0700hrs. All the doors were closed from the inside so the woman thought in quite suspicious so she looked through the window. This is when she saw Mr. Edwards at his desk. When the police arrived at 0730 hrs. They broke open the door and checked the body. Mr. Edwards was confirmed dead and his body sent for post mortem. By the side of the table there was a bottle and a letter which said that he was taking his life as he was fed up and didn't see any future in continuing. All these materials were sent to the police lab for the necessary testing. The reports all confirmed that Mr. Edwards did take the poison, traces of which were found in his blood and on his lips. On the latter, apart from Mr. Edward's finger prints, there were other prints found as well. When the police checked up they found that it belonged to the husband the woman who cooked for Mr. Edwards. The police found this very suspicious as the husband had said that he never came into the study at any time. The police brought the man in for questioning and under interrogation he at first denied that he had gone to the house ant any time. After 2 hours, he changed his story and said that he
          Airbus provides German troops with support communications at 15 sites worldwide        
Munich -  Airbus has successfully rolled out support communications to German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) troops deployed to military bases in Lithuania. Labelled “Connect-D”, Airbus now supplies telephone, internet and media services to a total of 15 deployed Bundeswehr units around the world, including Mali, Iraq, Djibouti, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Cyprus and Lithuania. The launch of Connect-D at the Lithuanian bases of Rukla and Pabrade was performed as part of a framework contract awarded b...
          Escultismo        
Me puedes oir en el susurro de una cremallera de tienda que se abre en una mañana llena de rocío.

Me puedes escuchar en el griterío de cien voces cantando el "ani-kuni" alrededor del fuego.

Me puedes ver desde lejos en el círculo multicolor de camisas en el prado.

Me puedes oler, con un matiz ligeramente mohoso, al entrar en una tienda que se acaba de instalar bajo los árboles.

Me puedes gustar en el sabor incierto de una comida preparada al aire libre sobre una fogata.

Me puedes palpar, con mucho cuidado, en el filo de un hacha recientemente afilada.

Me puedes tocar en la frescura de una camiseta que seca al sol después de lavarla en el río.

Me puedes ver, si miras bien, entre el desorden de un montón de mochilas junto a la fuente.

Me puedes notar en la emoción de alguien de 13 años que dice solemnemente: "Por mi honor..."

Me puedes observar en la actitud de unos niños que van aprendiendo a compartir.

Me puedes sentir en el grupo de jóvenes que van notando cómo su felicidad consiste en hacer felices a los demás.

Yo he servido en lugares cercanos y también en sitios como Kosovo, Honduras, Mozambique, ... y aún sigo sirviendo a millones.

Yo soy el Espíritu del Escultismo.

PÁSAME A OTROS!!
          THETH, IL VILLAGGIO REMOTO DELLE ALPI ALBANESI        
Theth è un piccolo villaggio remoto situato nelle impervie montagne albanesi,  nel nord del paese.  E’ incastonato tra valli e vette tra le più alte dell’Albania che raggiungono i 25000 metri sopra il livello del mare, questo incredibile villaggio nel cuore delle Alpi Albanesi è un luogo remoto, dominato dalla natura e  dai suoi rumori ancestrali. Durante il nostro viaggio nella Terra delle Aquile  abbiamo visitato posti incredibilmente affascinanti e incontrato gente gentile e disponibile, ma è a Theth che abbiamo conosciuto il volto più autentico e intatto dell’Albania. Le Alpi Albanesi  Le Alpi Albanesi sono  una catena montuosa della penisola balcanica,e fanno parte del gruppo montuoso Prokletije che  si  estendono dall’Albania settentrionale fino al Kosovo e al Montenegro orientale,  il Maja Jezercë o Cresta del Lago, situata in Albania,  è la vetta più alta e raggiunge una quota di  a 2,694 m. Canyon profondi,  corsi d’acqua d’alta quota scendono nelle profonde valli ricoperte da foreste di pini e faggi, e annidati tra le alte vette delle montagne sorgono i Parchi Nazionali di Theth e Valbona, queste sono tra  le zone alpine più suggestive dei Balcani Occidentali, un vero paradiso per chi ama la natura incontaminata e l’escursionismo. Il Parco Nazionale di Theth Arrivare nel villaggio di Theth non […]
          arteBA 2017 Contemporary Art Fair        

arteBA Contemporary Art Fair, that will take place from May 24 to May 27, 2017, is the most popular cultural event in the city of Buenos Aires and the most important one of its kind in Latin America. arteBA is an art exhibition where art galleries display their best artworks, offering the general public the chance to come face to face with truly unique collectors’ pieces. It is also an opportunity for the newer art centers from all over the region to present their younger artists and reveal the very latest trends, which are simply absent from other art fairs.

This year the fair will showcase the most outstanding works from 91 art galleries from 20 different countries, including Germany, Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Spain, the United States, France, Japan, Kosovo, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela.

The Fair will be divided into several sections, such as, among others:
  • Main Section: Established galleries chosen by a renowned selection committee.
  • Cabinet: A specific area within the galleries booths in the main section of the fair. In Cabinet, one or more works by a single artist are exhibited. The aim of the section is to show important, unique, or emblematic works by modern and contemporary artists.
  • U-TURN Project Rooms by Mercedes Benz: A curator invites galleries to present a specific project featuring up to three artists and selects each work to be exhibited.
  • Solo Show Zurich: this section focuses on Latin American artists who, along with their galleries are developing a critical conversation regarding contemporary art in their own countries.
  • Barrio Joven Chandon: Section for young Argentine and foreign galleries focused mainly on Latin American artists.
  • Isla de Ediciones: sale of individual volumes and collections that provide theoretical support and information on contemporary art.
The OPEN FORUM 2017 will be held with free admission in the fair’s auditorium with conferences by international lecturers. Claudia Fontes, who was chosen to represent our country at the Venice Biennale, Marta Minujín who is presenting her Parthenon of banned books at Documenta 14 in Kassel, and Fernanda Laguna that will be present at LACMA, will all be present at arteBA, participating in the Art Conversations series, part of the Open Forum program.

These are just a few of the many activities programmed for this year's exhibition. For more information, visit arteBA'17 official website.

Location: La Rural Exhibition Center. Blue and Green Pavilions. Av. Sarmiento 2704, Buenos Aires
Dates and hours: May 24 - 27, 2017 / 2:00 pm to 9:00 pm

Admission fees:
General: AR $160
Students and Senior citizens: AR $80
2 day pass: AR$ 250
4 day  pass: AR$ 320

          Roma International Scholarship Program (RISP), 2014-2015        

This scholarship has been extracted from the BEST SCHOLARSHIP WEB: Scholarships 2017 - 2017 =)

Roma Education Fund is inviting application for international scholarship program for pursuing bachelor, master, doctoral or postdoctoral program at a state accredited university in other than applicant’s home country. The Program is designed to provide partial support to Roma students who are citizens of one of the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey and Ukraine. REF can support under RISP scholarship scheme the same applicant throughout his/her studies for maximum 5 years.. Roma Education Fund’s Scholarship Program (REF SP) announces the opening of its yearly scholarship cycle of the Roma International Scholar

All the complete information in Roma International Scholarship Program (RISP), 2014-2015 !


          SMALL PEOPLE WITH HATS        

There are small people wearing hats in the society.

Graduation film from the Royal College of Art, 2014
Hand-drawn on paper

A film by Sarina Nihei

Sound design by Horret Kuus B6 STUDIOS
et-ee.facebook.com/B6Studios.Sound
imdb.com/name/nm1841731/

Awards

Grand Prize and Best Sound prize at Ottawa International Animation Film Festival 2015
Grand Prix of Primanima 2014, Budaörs, Hungary
Best Student Film at Anim'est 2014 in Bucharest, Romania
Korea Animation Producers Association President’s Prize at PISAF, Puchon, Korea
Special mention Anima 2015, Brussels
Grand Prix student film at HAFF 2015
Grand Prix of IdeasTap Graduate award Short Film
Special mention at Countryside Animafest Cyprus 2015

SCREENINGS

Anim'est 2014 Bucharest, Romania
PISAF 2014 Puchon, Korea
ReAnimania 2014 Yerevan, Armenia
Primanima 2014 Budaörs, Hungary
London International Animation Festival 2014
Greenhorn short film festival, London
IFF Etiuda&Anima 2014 Kracow, Poland
Animated Dreams, Tallinn Estonia
GIRAF, Calgary
Sommets du cinema d'animation
Animateka, Ljubljana Slovenia
Istanbul Animation Festival, Turkey
Clermont-Ferrand International Short Film Festival 2015
Anima 2015, Brussels
HAFF, Netherlands
Flatpack film festival, UK
Animex awards 2015, UK
EYEWORKS festival 2015, US
Mecal 17, Spain
IndieLisboa, Portugal
Athens Animfest, Greece
Anifilm, Czech Republic
Northwest animation festival
Annecy International Animated Film Festival 2015
Rooftop Films, NY 2015
Lago Film Fest 2015
Countryside Animafest Cyprus 2015
Anima Mundi, Brazil
Guanajuato International Film Festival
Anibar Animation Festival 2015, Kosovo
Concorto Film Festival, Italy
Fantoche 2015
Ottawa International Animation Festival 2015
Encounters short Film and Animation Festival 2015
ARS Independent Festival, Katowice, Poland 2015
Uppsala international short film festival, Sweden 2015

Cast: Sarina Nihei

Tags: graduation film, RCA, Royal College of Art and Sarina Nihei


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Il Kosovo è una zona ancora poco frequentata per turismo, ma offre delle attrattive culturali molto interessanti. Ne parliamo con un’amica di Voiaganto, che si è trasferita a Pristina dall’Italia e potrà darci delle notizie in diretta! Da quanto tempo vivi in Kosovo? Due anni. Per la precisione abito a Pristina. Come mai hai scelto di andarci? Diciamo [...]
          Ronald A. Brand        
Ronald A. Brand
First Name: 
Ronald
Middle Name / Initial: 
A.
Last Name: 
Brand
Academic Director, CILE
Chancellor Mark A. Nordenberg University Professor and John E. Murray Faculty Scholar
Room: 
(412) 648-1307
rbrand@pitt.edu
Degrees: 
Degree: 
JD, Cornell University
Degree: 
BA, University of Nebraska

Ronald A. Brand was the driving force behind the creation of the University of Pittsburgh's Center for International Legal Education (CILE) and its Master of Laws Program for Foreign Law Graduates. His reputation as a scholar on international and comparative law has helped the University of Pittsburgh School of Law attract prominent visiting scholars and lecturers from around the world and enhance opportunities for students to study and work abroad.

Professor Brand's scholarship includes a number of books and many articles in major journals. His books include: Transaction Planning Using Rules of Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments (Hague Academy of International Law, Pocketbook Series, 2014); Fundamentals of International Business Transactions, Vols I and II (4th edition, CILE, 2013); International Civil Dispute Resolution (with Charles Baldwin, David Epstein, and Michael Gordon, West Group, 2d edition, 2008); The 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements: Commentary and Documents (with Paul M. Herrup, Cambridge University Press, 2008); The CISG and the Business Lawyer: The UNCITRAL Digest as a Contract Drafting Tool, (with Mark Walter and Harry Flechtner, Oxford University Press, 2008); Forum Non Conveniens: Past, Present and Future, 3 CILE Studies (with Scott Jablonski, Oxford University Press, 2008); and Private Law, Private International Law, and Judicial Cooperation in the EU-US Relationship, (West 2005).

Professor Brand has been a Fulbright Scholar at the Universiteit Brussel, a Research Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Studies at the University of Bologna, and a visiting professor at the University of Augsburg. He has lectured on international trade and business law matters at universities in the U.S. and abroad. His excellence in the classroom has earned Professor Brand both the Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award, a University-wide honor, and the Law School's Excellence-in-Teaching Award. He has also received the Chancellor's Distinguished Public Service Award.

Professor Brand represented the United States at Special Commissions and the Diplomatic Conference of the Hague Conference on Private International Law that produced the 2005 Convention on Choice of Court Agreements.

Courses Previously Taught: 
Course Name: 
International Trade Law Seminar
Course Name: 
Transnational Litigation
old_person_id: 
1486
Key/Recent Publications: 

Books:

  • Transaction Planning Using Rules Of Jurisdiction And The Recognition And Enforcement Of Judgments, Hague Academy Collected Courses (Hague Academy of International Law, Pocketbook Series)
  • Transaction Planning Using Rules Of Jurisdiction And The Recognition And Enforcement Of Judgments, 358 Hague Academy Collected Courses (Recueil des cours) (2013)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions Vols I and II (4th edition, CILE, 2013), (3rd edition, CILE, 2012); (2nd edition, CILE, 2011)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions: Documents Supplement (4th edition, CILE, 2013), (3rd edition, CILE, 2012); (2nd edition, CILE, 2011)
  • Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments (Federal Judicial Center International Litigation Guide 2012) available from FJC.gov.
  • The Export Of Legal Education: Its Promise And Impact In Transition Countries (with D. Wes Rist, Ashgate Press 2009)
  • International Civil Dispute Resolution (with Charles Baldwin, David Epstein, and Michael Gordon, West Group, 2d edition 2008) (with Documents Supplement and Teacher’s Manual)
  • The 2005 Hague Convention On Choice Of Court Agreements (with Paul M. Herrup, Cambridge University Press 2008)
  • Drafting Contracts Under The CISG, 4 CILE Studies (with Harry Flechtner and Mark Walter, Oxford University Press 2008)
  • Forum Non Conveniens:  History, Global Practice And Future Under The Hague Convention On Choice Of Court Agreements, 3 CILE Studies (with Scott Jablonski, Oxford University Press 2007)
  • Private Law, Private International Law, And Judicial Cooperation In The EU-US Relationship, 2 CILE Studies (West 2005)
  • The Draft Uncitral Digest And Beyond – Cases, Analysis And Unresolved Issues In The U.N. Sales Convention, 1 CILE Studies (with Franco Ferrari and Harry Flechtner, 2005) (reissue of the original work published by Sellier European Law Publishers in 2004)
  • International Civil Dispute Resolution (with Charles Baldwin, David Epstein, and Michael Gordon, West Group, 2004) (with Documents Supplement and Teacher’s Manual)
  • The Draft Uncitral Digest And Beyond – Cases, Analysis And Unresolved Issues In The U.N. Sales Convention (with Franco Ferrari and Harry Flechtner, Sellier European Law Publishers, 2004)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions (Kluwer Law International, 2000)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions: Documents (Kluwer Law International, 2000)
  • Enforcing Foreign Judgments In The United States And United States Judgments Abroad (American Bar Association Section of International Law and Practice, 1992)
  • Basic Documents Of International Economic Law (with Stephen Zamora, Commerce Clearing House, Inc. 1990)
  • Disclaimers In Estate Planning:  A Guide To Their Effective Use (with William P. LaPiana, American Bar Association Section on Real Property, Probate and Trust Law 1990)

Books (Series Editor):

  • Michael Karayanni, Conflicts In A Conflict: A Conflict Of Laws Case Study On Israel And The Palestinian Territories, 5 CILE Studies (Oxford University Press, 2014)

Articles and Chapters:

  • State Recognition, Private International Law, and Kosovo, __ Review Of Central And East European Law (RCEEL) (forthcoming 2014)
  • The Unfriendly Intrusion of Consumer Legislation into Freedom to Contract for Effective ODR, Liber Amicorum Johan Erauw 365-380 (Maud Piers, Henri Storm, Jinske Verhellen, eds., Intersentia 2014)
  • Federal Judicial Center International Litigation Guide: Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 74 University Of Pittsburgh Law Review 491-548 (2013)
  • The Evolving Private International Law/Substantive Law Overlap in the European Union, Festschrift Für Ulrich Magnus Zum 70. Geburtstag 371-384 (Peter Mankowski & Wolfgang Wurmnest, eds.,  Sellier European Law Publishers, 2014)
  • Special Report: Kosovo After the ICJ Opinion, Introduction, 74 University Of Pittsburgh Law Review 593-597 (2013)
  • Cooperation in Legal Education and Legal Reform, 74 University Of Pittsburgh Law Review 650-657 (2013)
  • Shaping the Rule of Law Through Legal Education, 75 Augsburger Rechtsstudien: Gerechtigkeitsfragen In Gesellschaft Und Wirtschaft, 40 Jahre Juristische Facultät Augsburg 11 (Arnd Koch & Matthias Rossi, eds. 2013)
  • Challenges to Forum Non Conveniens, 45 NYU Journal Of International Law And Politics 1003-1035 (2013)
  • Implementing the 2005 Hague Convention: The EU Magnet and the US Centrifuge, Liber Amicorum Alegria Borrás 267-76 (Forner Delaygua-González Beilfuss-Vinñas Farré, ed. 2013)
  • Forum Non Conveniens, Max Planck Encyclopaedia Of Public International Law (updated version 2013)
  • Jurisdictional Developments and the New Hague Judgments Project, A Commitment To Private International Law: Essays In Honour Of Hans Van Loon 89-99 (2013)
  • Party Autonomy and Access to Justice in the UNCITRAL Online Dispute Resolution Project, 10 Loyola University Chicago International Law Review 11-36 (2012)
  • Access-to-Justice Analysis on a Due Process Platform, review of Christopher A. Whytock and Cassandra Burke Robertson, Forum Non Conveniens and The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 112 Columbia Law Review Sidebar 76-82 (2012).
  • Recognition Jurisdiction and the Hague Choice of Court Convention, Liber Amicorum Kresimir Sajko 155-187 (Hrvoje Sikirič, Vilim Bouček & Davor Babič, eds., 2012)
  • The Rome I Regulation Rules on Party Autonomy for Choice of Law: A U.S. Perspective, (Dec. 2011).
  • Mr. Bergsten’s Neighborhood: The Vis Moot, Legal Education, and Rule of Law, International Arbitration and International Commercial Law, Convergence and Evolution, Liber Amicorum Eric Bergsten 687-696 (Stefan Kröll, Loukas Mistelis, Pilar Perales Viscasillas & Vikki Rogers, eds., 2011)
  • U.S. Implementation vel non of the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements, 2010 Yearbook of Private International Law 107-122 (2011)
  • Promoting the Rule of Law: Cooperation and Competition in the EU-US Relationship, 72 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 163-169 (2010)
  • Exporting Legal Education: Lessons Learned from Efforts in Transition Countries, 32 Harvard International Review 43-47 (Issue 2, Summer 2010)
  • Arbitration or Litigation? Choice of Forum After the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements, LVII Belgrade Law Review 23-35 (Issue No. 3, 2009), also reprinted at 7 Transnational Dispute Management (Issue 1, April 2010).  
  • Effective Techniques for Teaching About Other Cultures and Legal Systems, International Association of Law Schools Educational Program, Effective Teaching Techniques About Other Cultures and Legal Systems 209, May 30, 2008.
  • Consent, Validity, and Choice of Forum Agreements in International Contracts, Liber Amicorum Hubert Bocken 541-553 (I Boone, I. Claeys, & L. Lavrysen, eds., Die Keure, 2009). On SSRN.
  • Treaties and the Separation of Powers in the United States: A Reassessment after Medillín v. Texas, 47 Duquesne Law Review 707-729 (2009). 
  • The European Magnet and the U.S. Centrifuge: Ten Selected Private International Law Developments of 2008, 15 ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 367- 393 (2009).
  • The Export of Legal Education: Its Promise and Impact in Transition Countries, The Export of Legal Education: Its Promise and Impact In Transition Countries, chapter 1 (Ronald A. Brand & D. Wes Rist, eds., Ashgate, 2009).
  • Competition in and from the Harmonization of Private International Law, Economic Law as an Economic Good, Its Rule Function and Its Tool Function in the Competition of Systems 353-368 (Karl M. Meessen, Marc Bungenberg and Adelheid Puttler, eds. Sellier European Law Publishers, Munich, 2009). 
  • An American Perspective on the New Japanese Act on General Rules for Application of Laws, Japanese Yearbook of International Law 298-313 (2009) (with Tabitha Fish). 
  • External Effects of Internal Developments: A US Perspective on Changing Competence for Private International Law in Europe, Liber Fausto Pocar: New Instruments of Private International Law 163-179 (Stefania Bariatti and Gabriella Venturini eds. 2009).
  • Forum Non Conveniens, Max Planck Encyclopaedia of Public International Law (2008).
  • The Road to Vindabona: Preparing for the Moot, The VIS Book: A Participant's Guide to the Willem C. VIS International Commercial Arbitration Moot, Chapter 3 (Janet Walker, ed. 2008). 
  • A New Role for Litigation in CISG Contracts: The 2005 Hague Choice of Court Convention, Drafting Contracts Under the CISG 149-166 (Harry Flechtner, Ronald A. Brand and Mark Walter eds., 2007).
  • Judicial Review and United States Supreme Court Citations to Foreign and International Law, 46 Duquesne Law Review 423-437 (2007).
  • Balancing Sovereignty and Party Autonomy in Private International Law: Regression at the European Court of Justice, in Universalism, Tradition and the Individual, Liber amicorum dedicated to Professor Petar Å arèiviè 35 (Johan Erauw, Vesna Tomljenovic, and Paul Volken, eds., 2006)
  • Federalism and the Allocation of Sovereignty Beyond the State in the European Union, 44 Duquesne Law Review 71-79 (2005)
  • CISG Article 31: When Substantive Law Rules Affect Jurisdictional Results, 25 Journal of Law and Commerce 181-202 (2005).
  • The European Union’s New Role in International Private Litigation, 2 Loyola University Chicago School of Law International Law Review 277-293 (2005)
  • Punitive Damages Revisited: Taking the Rationale for Non-Recognition of Foreign Judgments Too Far, 24 Journal of Law and Commerce 181-196 (2005)
  • The 1999 Hague Preliminary Draft Convention Text on Jurisdiction and Judgments: A View From the United States, The Hague Preliminary Draft Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments 3-40 (Fausto Pocar and Constanza Honorati, editors, 2005)
  • Private Law, Private International Law, and Judicial Cooperation in the EU-US Relationship (West, 2005). Abstract available on SSRN.
  • ASIL Insight: The New Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements ASIL Insight, July 26, 2005
  • Community Competence for Matters of Judicial Cooperation at the Hague Conference on Private International Law: A View from the United States, 21 Journal of Law and Commerce 191-208 (2002)
  • Sovereignty: The State, the Individual, and the International Legal System in the Twenty-First Century, 25 Hastings International & Comparative Law Review 279-295 (2002)
  • Forum Selection and Forum Rejection in US Courts: One Rationale for a Global Choice of Court Convention, in Reform and Development of Private International Law: Festschrift for Sir Peter North 51-87 (James Fawcett, ed., 2002)
  • Comparative Forum Non Conveniens and the Hague Judgments Convention, 37 Texas International Law Journal 467-498 (2002)

Selected Presentations:

  • “Understanding Judgments Recognition,” Symposium on “The Changing Relationship Between International Law and U.S. Law,” sponsored by the North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, University of North Carolina School of Law, January 30, 2015
  • Comments on “When U.S. Treaty Powers and State Law Collide — The Controversy over Implementing the 2005 Hague Convention” by Peter D. Trooboff.  New York University Law School Center for Transnational Litigation, Arbitration and Commercial Law Program, November 24, 2015.
  • “Kosovo Accession to International Organizations: Private International Law,” Workshop on “Kosovo as a Member of the International Community – Accession to International Organisations,” University of Graz, Austria, March 21, 2014
  • “Protecting Consumers in Online Transactions:  Why EU Consumer Protection Rules Should be Replaced with Rules from ‘the Titanic of Worst Decisions’ by the U.S. Supreme Court,” Foreign Chair Lecture at the University of Ghent Faculty of Law, Ghent, Belgium, March 13, 2014
  • “The Recognition of Foreign Judgments in the U.S. and Europe and the Hague Conference Judgments Project,” Institute for European Studies (IES), Brussels, Belgium, March 11, 2014
  • Moderator, panel “Private International Law: The Year in Review” at the International Law Weekend hosted by the American Branch of the International Law Association, New York, Oct. 25, 2013
  • “Contract Drafting Lessons From Rules on Jurisdiction and Choice of Forum in Europe,” at the 2013 International Law Weekend-Midwest, held at Washington University School of Law in St. Louis, Missouri, Sept. 20, 2013
  • “Making U.S. Judgments Recognition Law: A Three-dimensional Chess Game,” presented as part of a panel on “Responsible Enforcement of Foreign Judgments,” at a symposium on “Transnational Forum Shopping,” at Pepperdine University School of Law, Sept. 19, 2013
  • “The European Court of Justice and Private International Law: An American Perspective,” lecture at the University of Prishtina Faculty of Law, Kosovo, June 7, 2013
  • “An Introduction to U.S. Law” and “U.S. Legal Education,” lectures at Moi University School of Law, Eldoret, Kenya, January 14-15, 2013
  • “A Comparative Law Perspective on Forum Non Conveniens,” panel discussion titled “Regulating Forum Shopping: Courts’ Use of Forum Non Conveniens in Transnational Litigation” at the 18th Annual Herbert Rubin and Justice Rose Luttan Rubin International Law Symposium at the New York University School of Law, On October 25, 2012
  • “Legal Education and Legal Reform,” Conference on “Kosovo After the ICJ Opinion,” Center for International Legal Education, University of Pittsburgh School of Law, October 24, 2012
  • “International Law, Diplomacy, and National Politics: Reflections on the Negotiation and Implementation of the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements,” combined meeting of the Honorable Amy Reynolds Hay Chapter and the W. Edward Sell Chapter of The American Inns of Court, May 17, 2012
  • “Improving the World of Electronic Commerce:  Synthesizing Online Dispute Resolution, Consumer Protection, Private International Law, and International Arbitration,” at the Loyola Chicago University Law School conference on “U.S. Impact On International Commercial Arbitration:  Positive or Negative?” February 10, 2012
  • “What is the Effect of an International Arbitration Agreement?”  Teach-in on International Arbitration, Ramallah, West Bank, Palestinian Territories, December 7, 2011
  • “Shaping Rule of Law Through Legal Education,” Symposium on “The Shaping of Society and Economy Through Law” at the University of Augsburg Faculty of Law, November 18, 2011
  • “Private International Law in Action,” panel at the International Law Weekend, American Branch of the International Law Association, New York, NY, October 21, 2011 
old_room_id: 
1312
Awards: 
  • 2011 Doctor Juris Honoris Causa, University of Augsburg
  • 2011 ABA Section of International Law, Leonard J. Theberge Award for Private International Law
  • 2003 Chancellor’s Distinguished Public Service Award
  • 1990 University Center for International Studies Senior Research Fellowship
  • 1989 Fulbright Fellowship for Research in Belgium
  • 1989 Chancellor’s Distinguished Teaching Award
  • 1988 Student Bar Association Excellence in Teaching Award
Other Activities: 
  • Member, Inaugural Advisory Committee, Global Studies Center, University of Pittsburgh, 2012-present
  • Invited Expert Observer, United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, Working Group III on Online Dispute Resolution, 2010-present
  • Member, Advisory Committee, Center for Russian and East European Studies, University of Pittsburgh, 2010-present
  • Member, Advisory Board, Sultan Qaboos University College of Law, Muscat, Oman. 2010-present
  • Member, ASIL Working Group on Implementation of the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements, Washington, D.C..
  • Observer, National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) Drafting Committee for the International Choice of Court Agreements Implementation Act, 2009-2012
  • Member, Executive Committee, American Branch of the International Law Association, 2006‑present (Chair, Nominating Committee, 2009-11), (Member, Committee on ABILA Committee Rules of Procedure, 2011)
  • Member, American Law Institute 2000‑present; Member Consultative Groups: International Jurisdiction and Judgments Project; Intellectual Property:  Principles Governing Jurisdiction, Choice of Law, and Judgments in Transnational Disputes; International Arbitration Restatement; Principles of World Trade Law
  • Member, U.S. Delegation to Special Commission of The Hague Conference on Private International Law negotiation of convention on jurisdiction and effects of foreign judgments in civil and commercial matters, and concluding the Hague Choice of Court Convention 1993‑2005
  • Associate Member, International Academy of Comparative Law, 2008-present
  • Member, Editorial Advisory Board, The Journal of Private International Law, 2003-present
  • Member, Board of Editors, American Journal of Comparative Law
  • Member, American Society of International Law, 1977-present
  • Chairman, Ad hoc Committee to study international economic law programs, 1994‑1995; Member, Interest Group on International Economic Law, 1983-present (Chairman 1987‑1989; Vice-Chairman 1985‑1987; Member, Advisory Committee, 2007-present)
  • Special Master, appointed by Federal District Judge Robert Cindrich, in Dow Chemical Co. v. Federal Ins. Co., C.A. No. 94‑0649, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • Member, Advisory Committee, EU Center of Excellence, University of Pittsburgh
  • Member, University Center for International Studies Global Studies Faculty Advisory Committee, 2003-present
  • Open Society Institute Academic Fellows Program International Scholar to support Kyiv-Mohyla Faculty of Law, 2007-08
  • Member, Open Society Institute selection committee for 2000‑2001 Muskie/FSA Graduate Fellows in Law; selection committee for Palestinian Rule of Law Fellows 2007
  • Reviewer, ABA Central and East European Law Initiative Draft Law on Foreign Investment for the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Report issued June 1, 1995
  • Member, ABA Central and East European Law Initiative Working Group for Concept Paper on International Trade for Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Poland, 1994‑1995
  • Member, Nominating Committee, American Society of International Law, 1992‑1993
Program(s): 

Director, Center for International Legal Education

Director, LL.M. and S.J.D. Programs for Foreign Law Graduates

Program Director, International and Comparative Law Certificate Program

Areas of Specialization: 

International Business|International Trade|Transnational Litigation

Hi-Res Photo: 

          Futbol and Drones and Flamethrowers, Oh My!        

In what came as a surprise to no one, the Albania-Serbia soccer game, held in Belgrade last night, was discontinued midway through the game due to totally expected insanity. (I tried to find a video to embed from YouTube but literally every video had either "Exterminate the Albanians!" or "Die, Serbian scum!" as the tag line and that's not really my cup of tea. So here's the link to a video at ESPN Go.)

In efforts to prevent violence, Albanians were not allowed to attend the game (risking arrest if they attempted to access the stadium - though why any Albania would want to get past Serbian border control is beyond me), so some enterprising young shqiptar decided that a flag-flying drone would bring some Albanian spirit to the game. For reasons beyond my comprehension, they decided to attach the flag (showing a map of Albania plus the contested Kosovo region - which Serbia still claims to possess, despite its independence being recognized by, like, everyone) to said drone with insanely long string...long enough that a Serbian player was able to grab the flag and pull down the drone.

Off course, the mature response to this is to FIGHT. This immediately incendiary act led to actual incendiaries - as the fight continues, check out the flame thrower action occurring in the upper right hand corner. Fans started throwing garbage onto the field, before breaking past barriers to rush the field. The Albanian team quickly abandoned the fight and ran to the safety of their locker room, but not before a invigorating round of "ubi ubi ubi siptare" chants from the Serbian fans ("Kill kill kill the Albanians!" - charming, no?).

Officials waited over an hour for tempers to cool - because, you know, fifteen years has worked so well to calm ethnic hatred between the two countries since the civil war ended - but eventually declared it hopeless and cancelled the game, upsetting soccer brackets everywhere.

For hours last night, Lushnje was insane with men screaming, whistling, parading down the main street, honking their car horns, singing Kosovar pride songs (Kosovo is largely ethnically Albanian), chanting, running, and wreaking general havoc.

Honestly. Sports.


                  
Some people think that not going to war is a prescription for nuclear war. Sorry for not representing that pov in the above. It is a possibility I suppose. Another possibility is using the goodwill we've gotten with Hussein's neighbors to solve some other problem that saves lives instead of killing people. Wouldn't that blow people's minds? But don't pay attention to me, when it comes to war I'm usually the one arguing against it. I guess I was wrong about Kosovo, for example. I thought it was another Vietnam, for sure. It wasn't.
          BAHAN PEMBUATAN NUKLIR        
Deuterium
Deuterium disebut juga Hidrogen-2, atau hidrogen berat (simbol ditulis D atau 2H) merupakan salah satu daripada tiga bentuk isotop hidrogen yang terdiri daripada protium, deuterium, dan tritium. Deuterium merupakan isotop stabil dengan kelimpahan alami di samudra Bumi kira-kira satu dari 6500 atom hidrogen (~154 PPM). Dengan demikian deuterium merupakan 0.015% (0.030% berat) dari semua hidrogen yang terbentuk secara alami. Inti deuterium, disebut deuteron, mengandung satu proton dan satu netron, sementara inti hidrogen paling umum terdiri dari hanya satu proton dan tanpa netron. Nama isotop berasal dari bahasa Yunani, deuteros yang berarti “dua”, untuk menunjukkan 2 partikel sub-atomik yang menyusun inti.
Lambang kimia, keberadaan, dan sifat
Sebagai sebuah isotop hidrogen, lambang kimia yang disetujui untuk deuterium adalah 2H. Meskipun demikian, lambang tidak resmi, D, sering juga digunakan. Perbedaan signifikan pada berat atom relatif dibandingkan dengan protium murni (1H) mungkin adalah alasan mengapa lambang D, yang mirip lambang sebuah unsur, digunakan. Berat atom dari deuterium adalah 2,014 amu, sementara berat rata-rata hidrogen sebesar 1,007947 amu, dan protium 1,007825 amu. Pada unsur-unsur kimia yang lain, rasio berat isotop sangat tidak signifikan, yang menjelaskan mengapa tidak ada simbol isotop yang unik digunakan di tempat lain.
Secara alami, deuterium ditemukan dalam jumlah kecil sebagai gas deuterium, ditulis 2H2 atau D2, tetapi kebanyakan keberadaanya secara alami di alam semesta terikat dengan atom 1H membentuk gas yang disebut hidrogen deuterida (HD atau 1H2H).[1]
Deuteron memiliki spin +1, sehingga merupakan sebuah boson. Frekuensi resonansi magnetik nuklir (NMR = Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) dari deuterium berbeda secara signifikan dari hidrogen ringan yang biasa. Spektroskopi inframerah juga dengan mudah dapat membedakan banyak senyawa yang bersifat deuterium, karena perbedaan besar dalam frekuensi serapan inframerah dapat terlihat dalam vibrasi sebuah ikatan kimia yang mengandung deuterium, dibandingkan dengan yang mengandung hidrogen ringan. Kedua isotop stabil hidrogen tersebut juga bisa dibedakan dengan memakai spektrometri massa.
Sifat-sifat fisik senyawa-senyawa deuterium dapat berbeda dari senyawa-senyawa hidrogen yang analog dengannya; sebagai contoh, D2O lebih kental daripada H2O.
Secara kimia, kelakuan deuterium sama dengan hidrogen biasa, tetapi ada perbedaan dalam energi ikat dan panjang senyawa isotop-isotop hidrogen berat yang lebih besar daripada perbedaan isotopik di unsur mana pun. Ikatan yang melibatkan deuterium dan tritium sedikit lebih kuat daripada ikatan serupa pada hidrogen ringan, dan perbedaan ini cukup untuk membuat perubahan signifikan di dalam reaksi-reaksi biologis (lihat air berat).
Deuterium dapat menggantikan hidrogen normal dalam molekul air untuk membentuk air berat, yang 10,6% lebih padat daripada air biasa (es yang terbuat darinya akan tenggelam di air biasa). Air berat cukup beracun bagi organisme eukariota, dimana penggantian 25% air di dalam tubuh dengan air berat dapat menyebabkan masalah pembelahan sel dan kemandulan, 50% penggantian menyebabkan kematian yang disebabkan oleh sindrom sitotoksik (kegagalan sumsum tulang dan pelapisan gastrointestinal). Organisme prokariota masih mampu untuk bertahan dalam air berat murni (meskipun dengan pertumbuhan yang lambat). Konsumsi air berat bukan merupakan ancaman bagi manusia kecuali dalam jumlah yang sangat besar (melebihi 10 liter). Dosis kecil air berat (beberapa gram adalah jumlah yang sebanding dengan yang ada di dalam tubuh) secara rutin digunakan sebagai pelacak metabolis yang tak berbahaya bagi manusia dan binatang.
Keberadaan deuterium di Bumi, di Tata Surya (sebagaimana yang telah dikonfirmasi oleh wahana-wahana keplanetan), dan pada spektrum bintang, adalah sebuah fakta penting di dalam kosmologi. Reaksi fusi nuklir dalam bintang yang menghancurkan deuterium, dan tidak ada proses alami penciptaan deuterium yang diketahui selain nukleosintesis Big Bang, yang bisa jadi telah memproduksi deuterium dalam kelimpahan yang teramati saat ini. Kelimpahan ini nampak sebagai fraksi hidrogen yang tidak berubah banyak dimanapun hidrogen ditemukan. Jadi, keberadaan deuterium adalah salah satu argumen yang mendukung teori Big Bang.
Kanada adalah negara terdepan dalam pengayaan deuterium dalam bentuk air berat. Kanada menggunakan air berat sebagai moderator netron untuk operasi reaktor model reaktor CANDU.
Plutonium(IV) oksida




Plutonium(IV) oksida adalah senyawa kimia dengan rumus kimia PuO2. Padatan bertitik lebur tinggi ini merupakan senyawa utama plutonium. Warna senyawa bervariasi dari kuning sampai hijau zaitun tergantung pada metode produksi, temperatur, dan ukuran partikel.[1]
Plutonium(IV) oksida  Nama IUPAC Plutonium(IV) oksida Nama lain Plutonium dioksida
Identifikasi Nomor CAS [12059-95-9] Sifat Rumus molekul PuO2 Massa molar 276,06 g/mol Penampilan Padatan kuning kecoklatan. Densitas 11,5 g/cm3 Titik leleh ~2400 Â°C Titik didih
~2800 Â°C
Kelarutan dalam air tak larut Struktur Struktur kristal Fluorit (kubik), cF12 Grup ruang Fm3m, No. 225 Geometri
koordinasi
Tetrahedral (O2–);
kubik (PuIV) Bahaya Bahaya utama Radioaktif Titik nyala Tak terbakar Senyawa terkait Senyawa terkait Uranium(IV) oksida
Neptunium(IV) oksida
Amerisium(IV) oksida Kecuali dinyatakan sebaliknya, data di atas berlaku
pada temperatur dan tekanan standar (25°C, 100 kPa)
Sangkalan dan referensi

Plutonium-239

Plutonium-239 adalah isotop plutonium yang penting dan dihasilkan/ diproduksi melalui reaktor nuklir, yang memiliki waktu paruh 24110 tahun (atau 2,411 x 104 tahun).
Plutonium-239 dan uranium-235 , digunakan sebagai bahan bakar (fisi nuklir), dalam reaktor nuklir dan bom nuklir.

Produksi Plutonium-239

Reaktor neutron lambat

Dalam reaktor nuklir yang menghasilkan/ memproduksi plutonium, batangan-batangan uranium-238 digunakan sebagai sumber neutron lambat ( thermal neutron ), dan batangan-batangan uranium-238 lain-nya sebagai sasaran-nya.
Reaktor ini, butuh Air berat ( Heavy water ), yang mana penting, air berat tidak menyerap neutron, mendukung keberhasilan Uranium-238 dalam menangkap neutron lambat.
Reaktor ini, lebih murah, tidak menggunakan uranium-235, tetapi kurang efisien, uranium-238 lebih mudah untuk menangkap neutron cepat daripada menangkap neutron lambat.

Reaktor neutron cepat

Dalam reaktor nuklir yang menghasilkan/ memproduksi plutonium, batangan-batangan uranium-235 digunakan sebagai sumber neutron cepat, dan batangan-batangan uranium-238 sebagai sasaran-nya.
Air biasa ( H2O ), digunakan sebagai pendingin. Air berat ( Heavy water ) tidak dibutuhkan.
Reaktor ini, lebih mahal, tetapi jauh lebih efisien, uranium-238 lebih mudah untuk menangkap neutron cepat daripada menangkap neutron lambat.
Uranium-238 menangkap neutron, dan berubah menjadi uranium-239, suatu unsur yang tidak stabil, yang akan meluruh menjadi neptunium-239, yang selanjutnya akan meluruh lagi, dengan waktu paruh 2,355 hari, menjadi Plutonium-239.
Dalam reaksi itu, juga dibantu oleh beryllium (Be), yang mana untuk memantulkan dan menghasilkan lebih banyak neutron, dan otomatis mempercepat reaksi nuklir tersebut.

n+9Be→ 8Be
+ 2n – 1.67 MeV
(energi yang diserap jauh terlalu kecil, neutron-neutron tetap bergerak pada level energi yang tinggi)
Uranium-238 , umumnya digunakan selama beberapa minggu saja dalam reaktor nuklir, kemudian diangkat/ diambil untuk diproses secara kimia, untuk didapatkan plutonium-239. Hal ini untuk mencegah kandungan plutonium-240 yg terlalu banyak, yang mana juga terbentuk disamping plutonium-239.
Plutonium-240 tidak dapat dibedakan secara kimia, dan sangat mahal serta sulit untuk dipisahkan dari plutonium-239. Plutonium-240 tidak digunakan dalam bom nuklir, karena radiasi-nya yang terlalu kuat, menyebabkan kerusakan dan kesulitan untuk menanganinya, kandungan Plutonium-240 tidak boleh dari 7% dalam bom nuklir.
Plutonium-239 , juga harus dicampur dengan bahan galium ( antara 0,9 hingga 1% per kg plutonium ), ini untuk menstabilkan radiasi dari plutonium, sehingga lebih mudah menanganinya, dan sesuai untuk digunakan dalam bom nuklir dan reaktor nuklir.

Plutonium-244

Plutonium-244 memiliki waktu paruh selama 80 juta tahun. Ini berarti lebih lama daripada berbagai isotop plutonium lainnya, dan lebih lama daripada aktinida manapun kecuali tiga jenis alami yang dapat diperoleh secara berlimpah, yaitu U-235 (700 juta tahun), U-238, dan Torium-232. Waktu peruh tersebut juga lebih lama daripada isotop lainnya kecuali Samarium-146 (103 juta tahun), Potasium-40 (1.25 miliar tahun), dan sejumlah isotop-isotop hampir stabil yang memiliki waktu paruh lebih lama dari usia alam semesta.
Pengukuran yang lebih akurat yang dimulai pada awal tahun 1970-an telah mendeteksi adanya Pu-244 primordial.[1] Mengingat usia Bumi adalah sekitar 50 waktu paruh, maka jumlah Pu-244 yang ada kini seharusnya sangatlah sedikit. Namun karena Pu-244 tidak dengan mudah dapat dihasilkan dalam penangkapan neutron alami yang terjadi pada lingkungan dengan aktivitas neutron rendah pada bijih uranium (lihat di bawah), keberadaannya tersebut tidak dapat dijelaskan secara masuk akal selain melalui penciptaan yang terjadi oleh proses r pada nukleosintesis di supernova. Pu-244 dengan demikian demikian adalah isotop primordial berusia terpendek dan terberat yang telah terdeteksi atau terprediksi secara teoritis.
Tidak seperti Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, dan Pu-242, 244Pu tidak diproduksi dalam kuantitas banyak oleh siklus bahan bakar nuklir, karena penangkapan neutron selanjutnya terhadap 242Pu menghasilkan 243Pu yang memiliki paruh waktu singkat (5 jam) dan cepat mengalami peluruhan beta menjadi Amerisium-243, sebelum memiliki cukup kesempatan untuk menangkap lebih banyak neutron di lingkungan yang seharusnya memiliki fluks neutron yang sangat tinggi. Namun demikian, suatu ledakan senjata nuklir dapat menghasilkan sejumlah Pu-244 melalui penangkapan neutron secara pesat berturutan.

Uranium terdeplesi

Peluru DU dari meriam GAU-8 Avenger
Uranium terdeplesi (‘Depleted uranium’ atau ‘DU’), adalah uranium yang mempunyai kadar isotop U235 yang lebih rendah dari uranium alam, biasanya sebagai akibat dari proses pengayaan uranium .
Uranium yang tersedia di alam mempunyai 3 isotop yaitu U238 , U235 dan U234, yang ditemukan di alam dengan komposisi 99,28 % U238, 0,72% U235 dan 0,0057 % U234 dengan aktivitas jenis 25,4 Bq/mg (1Bq=1 peluruhan atom radioaktif/detik). U235 adalah isotop yang fissil dan dapat meluruh sembari mengeluarkan sejumlah energi, yang digunakan dalam industri nuklir. Industri nuklir dalam bentuk bahan bakar reaktor dan persenjataan membutuhkan uranium dengan kadar isotop U235 yang lebih banyak (antara 2 – 94 % massa), sehingga diperlukan proses ‘pengayaan’ (enrichment) terhadap uranium alam. Dalam proses pengayaan ini, U235 disaring dan dipekatkan secara terus menerus. Uranium sisa saringan ini yang kemudian dikenal sebagai DU, dengan komposisi 99,8 % U238, 0,2 % U235 dan 0,001 % U234.
Prinsip dari penerapan senjata berbasis DU ini dapat dijelaskan sbb:
Bayangkanlah ada sebuah Tabung. Didalamnya ada rongga yang berbentuk Kerucut dengan dasar kerucut tepat beririsan dengan dasar tabung. Dinding kerucut ini terbuat dari lapisan DU, sementara ruang antara kerucut dan tabung diisi dengan bahan peledak konvensional (anggaplah TNT). Di dasar kerucut terdapat sebentuk ‘pipa’ kecil (lebih kecil dari tabung) yang sumbunya tepat berada pada sumbu tabung dan kerucut, mengarah keluar. Pipa ini tertutup, diujungnya terdapat detonator dan sekering sumbu waktu. Karena tertutup, maka rongga tadi dibuat hampa udara. Jika TNT yang mengelilingi rongga kerucut tadi diledakkan, tekanan dan panas yang dihasilkannya akan membuat DU yang menyusun ujung dan bagian tengah dinding kerucut mencair dalam derajat yang berbeda. Di ujung kerucut DU mencair sempurna dan oleh tekanan ledakan ia akan bergerak mengalir keluar (menyusuri pipa) dengan kecepatan 10 km/detik (ini diistilahkan dengan jet). Sementara DU yang menyusun bagian tengah dinding kerucut hanya mengalami pencairan sebagian sehingga membentuk gumpalan-gumpalan kecil logam (pasir logam) yang larut dalam cairan DU (dinamakan slug), dan melesat dengan kecepatan 1000 m/detik melalui pipa. Jet dan slug inilah yang dengan mudah mampu menembus dinding lapis baja (setebal apapun) akibat kecepatan dan sifat cairnya. Penembusan ini menyebabkan bagian dalam kendaraan lapis baja itu terpanaskan dengan hebat, dan membuat tanki bahan bakar solar-nya meledak sehingga kendaraan lapis baja ini akan terbakar dan personel yang ada didalamnya terpanggang. Jet dan slug inilah yang merupakan bagian dari efek Munroe, dan belum ada material baja yang mampu menangkalnya (meski material baja tersebut sanggup menahan gelombang tekanan produk ledakan senjata nuklir sekalipun)[rujukan?].
Senjata-senjata yang mengandung DU itu seluruhnya merupakan senjata anti tank dan anti kendaraan lapis baja, seperti rudal TOW (jarak jangkau 2 km), rudal Hellfire (yang dipasang di helikopter serang AH-64 Apache ), rudal LAW (milik Inggris, mirip dengan TOW), rudal Matra (milik Perancis, mirip dengan TOW) atau peluru bazooka model RPG-7 (buatan Uni Soviet, sangat populer di kalangan gerilyawan).

Pelapis kendaraan tempur

Tank M1 Abrams dipajang di museum senjata Amerika serikat. Tank ini dilapisi oleh Chobham yang diantara variannya mengandung DU.
Digunakan oleh militer Amerika Serikat sebagai pelapis tank M1 Abrams, yaitu campuran antara DU dan 0,7% Titanium.

Kegunaan non-militer

  • Sebagai pigmen keramik
  • Kontrabalans berat pesawat[1]

Kontroversi

Penggunaan DU memang menjadi kontroversi berkait dengan bahan Radioaktif Uranium yang digunakannya. DU sendiri telah digunakan secara luas dalam kasus Perang Teluk I (1991) dan medan pertempuran Balkan (terutama pada saat krisis Kosovo 1999). Beberapa personel memang terekspos partikel DU ini, dan di kawasan teluk diduga terdapat 300 kg DU yang telah digunakan. Namun penyelidikan IAEA menunjukkan angka kematian yang sangat kecil (sehingga tidak signifikan secara statistik) pada ekspos DU ini.

Efek terhadap tubuh manusia

Secara kimiawi Uranium merupakan logam penekan kerja Ginjal. Sementara secara fisis, sebagai unsur radioaktif Uranium akan terkonsentrasi dalam Paru-paru, ginjal dan sistem peredaran darah serta beberapa jaringan lunak lainnya untuk sementara waktu. Dalam beberapa negara, konsentrasi Uranium di dalam tubuh dibatasi pada angka 3 mikrogram pergram jaringan tubuh. IAEA sendiri memberikan batas maksimal dosis serapan tahunan 1 mSv bagi penduduk yang berada di daerah peperangan dengan penggunaan senjata DU. Ini dilakukan untuk menghindari efek buruk Uranium pada tubuh manusia, diantaranya gangguan ginjal (secara kimiawi) ataupun kanker (akibat aktivitas radioaktifnya).

Uranium-235

Uranium-235 adalah isotop uranium yang penting disamping uranium-238. Hanya 0,72% uranium alami adalah uranium-235, yang memiliki waktu paruh 7,038 x 108 tahun.
Uranium-235 juga digunakan sebagai sumber utama penghasil neutron dalam reaksi nuklir, yang mana neutron-neutron ditembakkan ke arah uranium-238, dalam hal ini untuk membuat/ memproduksi plutonium.
Uranium-235 dan plutonium-239 digunakan sebagai bahan bakar (fisi nuklir), dalam reaktor nuklir dan bom nuklir.

Produksi Uranium-235 & Uranium-238

Biji-biji uranium diambil/ dikeruk dari pertambangan, yang kemudian dihancurkan/ dihaluskan, dan kemudian diproses secara kimia (bertahap-tahap), hingga akhirnya dihasilkan/ didapatkan uranium murni (dalam bentuk U308 ).
Kemudian diproses lagi (bertahap-tahap), dengan menggunakan bahan-bahan kimia, dari: U308 menjadi UO2(NO3)2 ,kemudian menjadi ADU ,lalu menjadi UO2 ,menjadi UF4 ,dan akhirnya menjadi UF6 ( Uranium hexafluoride ).
UF6 , sudah bisa diproses secara kimia, untuk didapatkan uranium dalam bentuk logam murni, Uranium-238 .
Dalam bentuk UF6 , untuk meningkatkan kandungan Uranium-235 dalam materi tersebut, yang mana kandungannya kurang dari 1% (sisanya 99% lebih adalah uranium-238), maka perlu dilakukan pengayaan uranium ( uranium enrichment ).
Setelah kandungan Uranium-235 nya, mencapai lebih dari 90%, yang mana sudah sesuai untuk senjata nuklir, materi UF6 diproses lagi secara kimia, untuk didapatkan uranium dalam bentuk logam murni, Uranium-235 .
Sisanya, dalam bentuk UF6 ,yang mana kandungan Uranium-238 nya, lebih dari 99% ,diproses lagi secara kimia, untuk didapatkan uranium dalam bentuk logam murni, Uranium-238.
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http://blog.uin-malang.ac.id/sholehchemistry/2011/03/20/bahan-pembuatan-nuklir/
          Precisely due to the arguments used by Russia about Crimea,         
Rasmus Sønderriis: Precisely due to the arguments used by Russia about Crimea, Moscow should now recognise Kosovo. Of course, the rest of the world should also recognise Crimea as part of Russia, but if Russia wants to be consistent and principled, Russia should recognise Kosovo no matter what.
          Kosovo 1981 Issue Resolved        
Our webmaster has resolved the aforementioned issue with the Kosovo 1981 country-year, so there should be no more need to manually remove those 0s from the dataset. Thanks for bearing with us on this! Sincerely, The CIRI Team
          Kosovo 1981        
We are experiencing a technical glitch where the server is replacing blanks (no data) with 0s for the row of Kosovo, 1981. We're working on remedying this, but pleased be advised for the moment to remove those 0s from the dataset before analysis. Sincerely, The CIRI Team
          La nostra destra        
La destra crede in una cosa sopra tutte le altre: la Libertà.

La destra vuole meno tasse. E vuole meno stato.

La destra crede negli italiani, e per questo rispetta la volontà che hanno espresso alle elezioni politiche.

La destra crede che lo stato, come il Governo, siano troppo spesso un  problema. Non la soluzione dei problemi.

Per questo la destra vuole più mercato e sa bene che, anche in italiano, le parole "sono del governo e sono qui per aiutarla" suonano molto male.

La destra ritiene meritevoli di apprezzamento tutti i cittadini che fanno impresa, non solo quelli che danno da lavorare agli immigrati onesti.

La destra è orgogliosa delle proprie missioni in Kosovo, Afghanistan e Iraq perché è convinta di essere stata e di essere, come molte altre volte è accaduto, dalla parte giusta della storia. Non si vergogna di dirlo, e per questo lo ribadisce con forza. E cita tutte queste missioni di pace, non una soltanto.

La destra ricorda Falcone e Borsellino come due eroi e ricorda con altrettanta chiarezza quelli che stavano contro Falcone e Borsellino.

La destra crede che siano per se stesse evidenti queste verità: che tutti gli uomini sono creati eguali; che essi sono dal Creatore dotati di certi inalienabili diritti, che tra questi diritti ci sono la Vita, la Libertà, e il perseguimento della Felicità.

(cross-posted @ Freedomland)
          South East Europe Six: From Double-Dip Recession to Accelerated Reforms         
This note discusses the external environment, economic outlook, and key policy challenges for the six South East European Countries (SEE6) -- Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia -- as they seek to reignite economic recovery. After two years of fragile recovery from the global recession, as a group, SEE6 countries experienced a double-dip recession in 2012. Deteriorating external conditions, the impact of the severe winter on economic activity, and a continuing rise in unemployment early in the year took a toll on consumption, investments, and exports. The rise in unemployment continues to threaten the social fabric. Credit recovery and fiscal consolidation are under threat. Nonperforming loans (NPLs) -- thought to be stabilizing only a few months ago -- are again on the rise. As a result, both within and outside the region, the environment has become much more difficult to navigate, and the policy trade-offs necessary to stabilize economies and reignite growth have become more difficult to make. To overcome these challenges, SEE6 countries need more intensive policy reform to reduce public debt and accelerate structural reforms, especially in fiscal consolidation and the financial sector, labor markets, and business environment. Additional external financing from international financial institutions (IFIs) for growth and jobs could prove effective, but only if accompanied by intensified fiscal and structural reforms.
          SL/Ol' McDonald's        

My first chance to talk to a Serbian in roughly two weeks...

I remember Milo telling me there was a McDonald's in Serbia (which has since burned down due to rioting). I wanted to ask about the McDonald's as soon as I could.

Patric Styrian: How is Serbia?
Konza Roundabout*: like always...bad
Patric Styrian: are you there right now?
Konza Roundabout: yes, im in Belgrade
Patric Styrian: is the mcDonalds back up yet?
Konza Roundabout: hahahahahaha
Konza Roundabout: i hate them
Konza Roundabout: i mean not McD
Konza Roundabout: hypoctrites
Konza Roundabout: they're destroying and tomorrow will eat big mac
Patric Styrian: true
Konza Roundabout: they didn't destroy pizza hut
Patric Styrian: i wonder why not
Konza Roundabout: i dont know
Konza Roundabout: stupid Serbs didnt know that hut is also american
Patric Styrian: poor things
Konza Roundabout: yea it's kinda..i feel sorry coz of ppl
Patric Styrian: as an American, i can't show my face there right now
Konza Roundabout: lol
Patric Styrian: i dodged milo earlier today
Konza Roundabout: we will say that you r from Kosovo
Konza Roundabout: :)
Patric Styrian: i like spelling Kosovo
Konza Roundabout: ahhh
Konza Roundabout: why must it be so complicated here
Patric Styrian: according to milo, serbia is surrounded by countries it dislikes and distrusts
Konza Roundabout: not really
Konza Roundabout: dont trust milo
Konza Roundabout: he's radical
Patric Styrian: milo and i share a house, and i remember coming home and seeing portrait of slobodan milosevic on wall
Konza Roundabout: pih
Konza Roundabout: i was in prison 1998
Konza Roundabout: political dissident
Patric Styrian: did they treat you well?
Konza Roundabout: what u think?
Patric Styrian: well, we have some prisons over here that are considered white collar
Konza Roundabout: ppl in america don't go to prison because of their political opinions
Patric Styrian: well, some do for not paying taxes
Konza Roundabout: hahaha
Konza Roundabout: yea
Konza Roundabout: you can even find hundreds of pages about our situation on net
Patric Styrian: one day and night, i'm going to do nothing but read about serbia
Patric Styrian: better yet, i think i'll give serbia an entire weekend
Konza Roundabout: ahh you dont have enough time for it in your life
Patric Styrian: i want serbia monday-tuesday, albania tuesday-wednesday, Bosnia wed-th...
Patric Styrian: i never will have time for america
Konza Roundabout: well you will finish albania in one week
Patric Styrian: lol
Konza Roundabout: Serbia is toooo old
Patric Styrian: Serbia is very young in our eyes
Patric Styrian: they haven't caught up to our technology yet, so they are young
Konza Roundabout: ahhh
Konza Roundabout: we don't have many kids
Patric Styrian: no?
Konza Roundabout: nope
Konza Roundabout: we r duying
Patric Styrian: awwww
Patric Styrian: i hope serbia can hang in there
Konza Roundabout: i dont know...first time since shit started i cant handle it anymore
Patric Styrian: conflict gets old
Patric Styrian: boring
Patric Styrian: predictable
Konza Roundabout: i want to come to usa
Patric Styrian: i want to go to holland
Patric Styrian: holland is full of nice people on here
Konza Roundabout: my best friend is living in amsterdam
Konza Roundabout: they all get high
Patric Styrian: mmm
Patric Styrian: country seems to run itself
Patric Styrian: everyone can get high there and country gets away with it
Konza Roundabout: And you can buy weed when you r not sick
Konza Roundabout: ;)
Patric Styrian: they allow weed there for when you're perfectly "well"
Patric Styrian: and it makes you "weller"
Konza Roundabout: yapo

*a pseudonym


          Albanian Women’s Retreat Reaches beyond Women and Adventists        
It’s a women’s retreat—so you expect women, with possibly the odd spouse hanging around at the back or helping with logistics, but when you find the back row filled with elderly Muslim men you know something special is happening.

It’s a women’s retreat—so you expect women, with possibly the odd spouse hanging around at the back or helping with logistics, but when you find the back row filled with elderly Muslim men you know something special is happening.

The occasion was the Albanian Mission women’s retreat in Durres, June 2–4. This annual retreat has always been evangelistic as the church members bring their friends and relatives. This year was no exception with 20 of the 38 women in attendance coming from outside the church, some hearing the Good News of Jesus for the very first time.

What was exceptional, and demonstrated the interest and relevance of the program, was that several elderly Muslim men from Kosovo who were staying in the same hotel, chose to join in and listen very attentively – including taking part in the spiritual activities such as pinning prayer requests to the prayer tree.

Using the theme, “Jesus in all four seasons of your life,” Clair Sanches, Trans-European Division Women’s Ministries director, helped each participant reflect on how winter is the time to get to know yourself and to be honest with God; how Jesus brings joy to our life in spring; how Jesus is with us even in summer heat; and how we can bear fruit just like trees in autumn if we let Jesus into our heart.

Each woman created a prayer journal throughout the three days. This would serve as a reminder to regularly spend time with God. However, the most remembered activity was the tree of prayers. This was created during the program, but Clair promised to take it home where she could continue to share the requests and thanks with God. Such a promise, together with God’s presence which could be felt throughout the meetings, touched many hearts and inspired them to open themselves up to Jesus.

While the weekend is over, its impact is still being felt. Flora and Ana from Tirana have decided to come to church more regularly and to start baptismal classes. Flutura had her first encounter with Jesus at the retreat and is now regularly attending the Elbasan church. In addition, her daughters are going to enroll in Pathfinders. The weekend touched many lives and will continue to have an effect for years to come.

 

This article was written by Sanda Veidemane-Thomollari and originally published by the TED News Network.

Image Credit: ted.adventist.org

 

If you respond to this article, please:

Make sure your comments are germane to the topic; be concise in your reply; demonstrate respect for people and ideas whether you agree or disagree with them; and limit yourself to one comment per article, unless the author of the article directly engages you in further conversation. Comments that meet these criteria are welcome on the Spectrum Website. Comments that fail to meet these criteria will be removed.


          Commenti su Kosovo, non solo Balcani di Il salto triplo del South Stream - rivista italiana di geopolitica - Limes        
[...] di Laura Canali Carta del 2008 tratta da Kosovo, non solo Balcani | Tutte le carte del numero (Clicca sulla carta per ingrandirla - carta di Laura Canali)   [...]
          Family Tea Party 7 Piece Russian Nesting Doll        
Family Tea Party 7 Piece Russian Nesting Doll

Adorable and cute family is hand painted on the Russian set of 7 wooden nesting dolls. The largest doll depicts a head of the family dressed in traditional Russian folk cloth such as kosovorotka shirt and kartuz hat holding samovar. Mother, who is dressed in traditional Russian sarafan, holds g..

Price: $149.95


          2014 World Cup: Foreign Born Players        
Players in the final 2014 World Cup squads that were born outside of the country they are representing.


GROUP A

Brazil
NONE

Cameroon
Charles Itandje (France)
Benoît Assou-Ekotto (France)
Allan Nyom (France)
Joël Matip (Germany)
Maxim Choupo-Moting (Germany)

Croatia
Dejan Lovren (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Vedran Ćorluka (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Nikica Jelavić (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Ivan Rakitić (Switzerland)
Mateo Kovačić (Austria)
Sammir (Brazil)
Eduardo (Brazil)

Mexico
Miguel Ángel Ponce (USA)
Isaác Brizuela (USA)



GROUP B

Australia
Dario Vidošić (Croatia)

Chile
Miiko Albornoz (Sweden)
Jorge Valdívia (Venezuela)

Netherlands
Bruno Martins Indi (Portugal)
Jonathan de Guzmán (Canada)

Spain
Diego Costa (Brazil)



GROUP C

Colombia
NONE

Cote d'Ivoire
Sol Bamba (France)
Jean-Daniel Akpa-Akpro (France)
Giovanni Sio (France)
Mathis Bolly (Norway)

Greece
Loukas Vyntra (Czech Republic)
José Holebas (Germany)
Panagiotis Kone (Albania)

Japan
Gōtoku Sakai (USA)


GROUP D

Costa Rica
Óscar Duarte (Nicaragua)

England
Raheem Sterling (Jamaica)

Italy
Gabriel Paletta (Argentina)
Thiago Motta (Brazil)

Uruguay
Fernando Muslera (Argentina)


GROUP E

Ecuador
NONE

France
Patrice Evra (Senegal)
Rio Mavuba (Born at Sea; link)

Honduras
NONE

Switzerland
Valon Behrami (Kosovo)
Xherdan Shaqiri (Kosovo)
Blerim Džemaili (Macedonia)
Admir Mehmedi (Macedonia)
Gelson Fernandes (Cape Verde)
Johan Djourou (Cote d'Ivoire)


GROUP F

Argentina
Gonzalo Higuaín (France)

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Emir Spahić (Croatia)
Mensur Mujdža (Croatia)
Sead Kolašinac (Germany)
Zvjezdan Misimović (Germany)
Muhamed Bešić (Germany)
Izet Hajrović (Switzerland)

Iran
Daniel Davari (Germany)
Steven Beitashour (USA)

Nigeria
Peter Odemwingie (Uzbekistan)



GROUP G

Germany
Miroslav Klose (Poland)
Lukas Podolski (Poland)

Ghana
Adam Kwarasey (Norway)
Kevin-Prince Boateng (Germany)
André Ayew (France)
Jordan Ayew (France)
Albert Adomah (England)

Portugal
Pepe (Brazil)
Nani (Cape Verde)
William Carvalho (Angola)
Éder (Guinea-Bissau)

United States
Fabian Johnson (Germany)
Timothy Chandler (Germany)
John Brooks (Germany)
Jermaine Jones (Germany)
Mix Diskerud (Norway)



GROUP H

Algeria
Raïs M'Bolhi (France)
Cédric Si Mohamed (France)
Carl Medjani (France)
Liassine Cadamuro-Bentaïba (France)
Faouzi Ghoulam (France)
Aïssa Mandi (France)
Medhi Lacen (France)
Hassan Yebda (France)
Mehdi Mostefa (France)
Sofiane Feghouli (France)
Saphir Taïder (France)
Yacine Brahimi (France)
Nabil Bentaleb (France)
Riyad Mahrez (France)
Nabil Ghilas (France)

Belgium
Anthony Vanden Borre (DR Congo)

Russia
NONE

South Korea
NONE

          2014 World Cup: Foreign-Born Players        
Players in the provisional 2014 World Cup squads that were born outside of the country they are representing.


GROUP A

Brazil
NONE

Cameroon
Charles Itandje (France)
Benoît Assou-Ekotto (France)
Allan Nyom (France)
Jean-Armel Kana-Biyik (France)
Raoul Loé (France)
Joël Matip (Germany)
Maxim Choupo-Moting (Germany)

Croatia
Dejan Lovren (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Vedran Ćorluka (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Nikica Jelavić (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Ivan Rakitić (Switzerland)
Mateo Kovačić (Austria)
Sammir (Brazil)
Eduardo (Brazil)
Mario Pašalić (Germany)

Mexico
Miguel Ángel Ponce (USA)
Isaác Brizuela (USA)



GROUP B

Australia
Dario Vidošić (Croatia)

Chile
Marcos González (Brazil)
Miiko Albornoz (Sweden)
Jorge Valdívia (Venezuela)
Pablo Hernández (Argentina)

Netherlands
Bruno Martins Indi (Portugal)
Jonathan de Guzmán (Canada)

Spain
Diego Costa (Brazil)



GROUP C

Colombia
NONE

Cote d'Ivoire
Sol Bamba (France)
Jean-Daniel Akpa-Akpro (France)
Giovanni Sio (France)
Mathis Bolly (Norway)

Greece
Loukas Vyntra (Czech Republic)
José Holebas (Germany)
Panagiotis Kone (Albania)

Japan
Gōtoku Sakai (USA)


GROUP D

Costa Rica
Óscar Duarte (Nicaragua)

England
Raheem Sterling (Jamaica)

Italy
Gabriel Paletta (Argentina)
Thiago Motta (Brazil)
Rômulo (Brazil)
Giuseppe Rossi (USA)

Uruguay
Fernando Muslera (Argentina)


GROUP E

Ecuador
NONE

France
Patrice Evra (Senegal)
Rio Mavuba (Born at Sea; link)

Honduras
NONE

Switzerland
Valon Behrami (Kosovo)
Xherdan Shaqiri (Kosovo)
Blerim Džemaili (Macedonia)
Admir Mehmedi (Macedonia)
Gelson Fernandes (Cape Verde)
Johan Djourou (Cote d'Ivoire)


GROUP F

Argentina
Gonzalo Higuaín (France)

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Emir Spahić (Croatia)
Mensur Mujdža (Croatia)
Sead Kolašinac (Germany)
Zvjezdan Misimović (Germany)
Muhamed Bešić (Germany)
Izet Hajrović (Switzerland)

Iran
Daniel Davari (Germany)
Steven Beitashour (USA)

Nigeria
Peter Odemwingie (Uzbekistan)


GROUP G

Germany
Miroslav Klose (Poland)
Lukas Podolski (Poland)

Ghana
Adam Kwarasey (Norway)
Jeff Schlupp (Germany)
Kevin-Prince Boateng (Germany)
André Ayew (France)
Jordan Ayew (France)
Albert Adomah (England)

Portugal
Pepe (Brazil)
Nani (Cape Verde)
William Carvalho (Angola)
Éder (Guinea-Bissau)

United States
Fabian Johnson (Germany)
Timothy Chandler (Germany)
John Brooks (Germany)
Jermaine Jones (Germany)
Terrence Boyd (Germany)
Mix Diskerud (Norway)


GROUP H

Algeria
Raïs M'Bolhi (France)
Cédric Si Mohamed (France)
Carl Medjani (France)
Liassine Cadamuro-Bentaïba (France)
Faouzi Ghoulam (France)
Aïssa Mandi (France)
Medhi Lacen (France)
Adlène Guedioura (France)
Hassan Yebda (France)
Foued Kadir (France)
Mehdi Mostefa (France)
Sofiane Feghouli (France)
Ryad Boudebouz (France)
Saphir Taïder (France)
Yacine Brahimi (France)
Nabil Bentaleb (France)
Amir Karaoui (France)
Riyad Mahrez (France)
Rafik Djebbour (France)
Nabil Ghilas (France)

Belgium
Anthony Vanden Borre (DR Congo)

Russia
NONE

South Korea
NONE

          Uvodnik / Vesna MaliÅ¡ić        

Dijalog u minskom polju Verujem da je Kosovo Gordijev čvor svih naših posrtanja, centralna tačka svih naših istorijskih zabluda, epicentar promašenih političkih poteza i tragično uporne ideje ovdašnjih vlasti da se ratnim sredstvima mogu postizati ciljevi mira. Verujem i da su od najskuplje srpske reči mnogi od onih koji su se u junačka prsa busali ...
          Thaci Says Pence Pledges To Support Kosovo's NATO Bid        
U.S. Vice President Mike Pence pledged to help eliminate obstacles to Kosovo becoming a full member of NATO, Kosovo President Hashim Thaci said after meeting with Pence on August 2 at the end of his tour of Eastern Europe.
          Im Kosovo des Nordens        
Ende 2012 wird die Journalistin Susanne Gaschke Oberbürgermeisterin von Kiel; sie überlebt kein Jahr im Amt. In einer Nahaufnahme jener Zeit rechnet sie nun ab.
          A Solution From Hell        

The following essay is excerpted from the latest issue of n+1 magazine. It is available online only in Slate. To read the complete version, click here to purchase n+1 in print.

The current age is uncommonly preoccupied with human rights. The story of how we got here can be traced from various points, whether from the Enlightenment and its great American spokesman Thomas Jefferson, or from the interventions and non-interventions following the European upheavals of 1848, or from the founding of the United Nations after World War II and the Holocaust, or from 1977, the year when post-'60s dismay, Jimmy Carter, and the Cold War intersected to place a commitment to "human rights" at the center of Western consciousness. Whichever way, for whatever reason, or for half a dozen reasons, human rights have at least rhetorically come to the fore of American and European foreign policy, with the result that it is now possible for the U.S. to wage war for humanitarian purposes in campaigns that seem otherwise irrelevant to the national interest. In this telling of the story of the "rights revolution," as the philosopher and Iraq war proponent Michael Ignatieff has called it, the end of the Cold War has opened up new vistas for the enforcement of human rights across the globe.

There is another way to tell the story, however. In this telling, the march of rights took a wrong turn as early as 1948, when the U.N. adopted its Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The U.N. Charter had established state sovereignty as the basis for international law. This meant that weaker states would be protected against stronger states by the international community—and for all its flaws, the U.N. was instrumental in helping postwar, post-colonial states get on their feet. At the same time, the Universal Declaration promoted the principle of human rights in general, independent of sovereignty. Writing in the wake of World War II and the founding of the U.N., Hannah Arendt in The Origins of Totalitarianism echoed Edmund Burke's famous critique of the French revolutionaries' Declaration of the Rights of Man. "The calamity of the rightless," wrote Arendt, "is not that they are deprived of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, or of equality before the law and freedom of opinion—formulas which were designed to solve problems within given communities—but that they no longer belong to any community whatsoever. Their plight is not that they are not equal before the law, but that no law exists for them." Surveying the history of refugees and other stateless people over the prior 30 years, Arendt found that "not only did the loss of national rights in all instances entail the loss of human rights; the restoration of human rights, as the recent example of the State of Israel proves, has been achieved so far only through the restoration of national rights." There could be no rights without belonging to a sovereign jurisdiction; the U.N., by enshrining sovereignty on the one hand and "universal rights" on the other, had tried to solve the problems revealed in the interwar period, but ended up simply restating them.

The contradiction in the U.N. founding documents between inviolable human rights and inviolable state sovereignty remained essentially obscured throughout the Cold War, when neither the Americans nor the Soviets could seriously claim to believe in either. Even when the U.S. championed human rights under Carter, it retained its priorities: Forced to choose between socialists (or just serious land reformers) and human rights abusers, the U.S. always sided with the abusers. Suddenly in 1991, the choice became unnecessary. You no longer had to decide between leftists and rightists, since everywhere you looked there were only capitalists. And by the end of the Cold War, aerial weapons systems had advanced to the point where the military could conduct basically gratuitous wars, with little risk to soldiers' lives, at comparatively low cost—and without raining explosives indiscriminately on foreign populations. The new precision-guided weaponry offered the hope of truly distinguishing the good guys from the bad guys, as long as they stayed far enough apart.

In the '90s, the language of human rights came into its own. The people of Kuwait, when a U.S.-led, U.N.-approved coalition drove Iraq out of their country, were the citizens of a sovereign state invaded by Saddam Hussein—but not so the Iraqi Kurds, who were Saddam's own citizens when he invaded their lands. Nevertheless the U.S., Britain, and France established a no-fly zone to protect the Iraqi Kurds from their internationally recognized head of state. Likewise, the Tutsis of Rwanda and the Albanians in Yugoslav Kosovo were victims of the state in which they lived, and their rights, insofar as they had any, could only be defended by an international community. In one case those rights were defended, in the other they were not. What were the U.S.'s principles, and what was its practice, when it came to human rights? Neither seemed clear, and the debate about them was equally confusing and confused.

The only people who seemed consistent about intervention were too far right or left to get much of a hearing. Throughout the 1990s, the right opposed intervention from a "realist" perspective, arguing that it was not in the national interest to go on humanitarian adventures abroad. The left, which was in the process of forming a powerful movement against the "structural adjustment" policies of the giant international financial institutions, and also promoting a humane globalization (carelessly labeled "anti-globalization" by the mainstream press), opposed the interventions on anti-imperialist grounds. In the end, neither view had much effect, as a strong hawkish core emerged: Bob Dole, the Republican leader in the Senate and 1996 presidential candidate, was a strong proponent of intervention in Bosnia; so too, eventually, was Bill Clinton. Among respectable pundits, the right-leaning hawks were neoconservative, the left-leaning hawks neoliberal. If there was a real distinction it was in their attitudes toward international institutions like the U.N. Neoconservatives loathed the U.N.; neoliberals liked it. But it was the Kosovo intervention, which most egregiously circumvented international institutions (in the name of a good cause), that was the final Clinton intervention. Thus at the end of the '90s neoconservatives and neoliberals had reached the same place, disdainful of seeking "multilateral" permission for their wars.

Perhaps the liberals would soon have returned to their more traditional interest in international institutions; perhaps the conservatives would have gotten out of the human rights business altogether; perhaps not. In any case the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11 altered—or scrambled—people's thinking. The next American war was an unusual operation: a mission to overthrow a government (the Taliban) that almost nobody recognized as legitimate, in order to deprive a belligerent non-state actor (al-Qaida) of a staging ground. Realists on the left—few remained on the right—argued for a narrowly defined police action to root out al-Qaida. Supporters of all-out war, soon the only respectable position, invoked the liberation of Afghan women as a bonus legitimation. And a year and a half later came Iraq. The war was sold to the public under many pretexts, but for liberal hawks the dominant reason to invade was Saddam Hussein's former crimes (and potential future crimes) against his people. There was no question that from a humanitarian perspective a world without Saddam would be a better world. And we were going to take him out.

In retrospect, it's easy to see that the argument over humanitarian intervention that should have taken place in the years after Kosovo was replaced and muddled by an argument over the Bush doctrine of pre-emptive war. In 2000–01, a high-powered international commission convened to discuss what the international community should do in the event of a human rights crisis in a failing state; one of their recommendations was that the concept of "humanitarian intervention" be scrapped, as being needlessly prejudicial (like "pro-life"), and replaced with the more capacious, less necessarily violent "responsibility to protect." The group's report was humane and intelligent, though not without problems; it was also presented before the U.N. Security Council in December 2001, at which point it had been "OBE," as they say in Washington—overtaken by events. The same happened with Samantha Power's "A Problem From Hell": America and the Age of Genocide, the summa theologica of liberal interventionist historiography, which was published in 2002. The book immediately became part of the debate over Iraq, with George W. Bush famously scribbling NOMW ("not on my watch") in a memo outlining its arguments. Not long after, he launched Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The argument over pre-emptive war was decided, resoundingly, against, though not because Stephen Holmes wrote essays in the London Review of Books or Jacques Rancière contributed an elegant elaboration of Hannah Arendt's argument about rights in the South Atlantic Quarterly (subscription required). The argument was decided by the 126,000 or so Iraqis killed during the U.S. invasion and in the civil war that followed. No one will be invading a terrible but stable regime to hang its leader anytime soon; at least we won't. Now, in 2011, we are bringing the troops gradually home from Afghanistan and Iraq, the results mixed. Neither war was waged for human rights, and it seems clear that humanitarianism shouldn't have been part of the discussion, not in the way it was. How humanitarian is it to unleash one civil war and reignite another?

In Libya, we find ourselves faced with a more classic, '90s-style intervention. The background could not be more stark: A courageous rebellion against a brutal and unbalanced 40-year dictatorship was inspired by the nearby uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia. Unlike the dictators of those countries, Muammar Qaddafi gave no thought to stepping down. The rebels armed themselves and began to march toward Tripoli, capturing several towns on the way. They carried Kalashnikovs and RPGs. Qaddafi's days were numbered! But his army had jets, and tanks, and heavy artillery. Once it began a counteroffensive, the rebels proved powerless. They retreated and retreated, until Qaddafi's forces reached the outskirts of Benghazi, the largest city in the Libyan east and the heart of the rebellion. Qaddafi took to the radio. "It's over," he told the rebels. "We are coming tonight. Prepare yourselves. We will find you in your closets. We will show no mercy and no pity." People on the ground began to predict the massacre of Benghazi. They even used the word genocide, if only to disclaim it: "Not a slaughter amounting to genocide," clarified the New York Review of Books, "but almost certainly a bloodbath." (And what was the exact word these exquisite splitters of hairs had in mind for the killing resulting from NATO bombardment?) TheNew Yorker's understated Jon Lee Anderson was in Benghazi as Qaddafi's army approached. He had been watching the hapless rebels for weeks, growing increasingly alarmed at their inadequate arms and training. Now artillery could be heard on the edge of town; in the city's lone functioning Internet cafe the young people updated their Facebook profiles. Social media weren't going to help them now. "The war was finally coming to Benghazi," Anderson wrote.

And then it didn't. NATO jets swooped in, forcing Qaddafi's army back. Benghazi was saved. Nor was it a unilateral mission. The Arab League had sought the intervention; none other than Lebanon, home of Hezbollah (still furious at Qaddafi for the "disappearing" of a Lebanese Shiite chief in the late '70s), sponsored the resolution in the U.N. Security Council. The White House had the finesse to "lead from behind," as they put it. And the rebels, having taken several cities in the first weeks of the uprising, had established what international law calls "belligerent rights"—they were a force that could claim some legitimacy both inside and outside the country. Many of the arguments that should have given pause to American policymakers before the Iraq war, and to some extent during the Kosovo bombing, were moot here. This intervention was U.N.-approved, and seemed to emerge from a genuine concern for the casualties that would have ensued had Qaddafi's forces been allowed to proceed into Benghazi. (A more realpolitik consideration was to place the U.S., belatedly, on the side of the Arab Spring; we would be less resented as the old enabler of Mubarak if we were also the newfoe of Qaddafi.) Ryan Lizza's New Yorker article describing the days leading up to Obama's decision for war singled out Samantha Power, senior director for multilateral affairs on Obama's National Security Council, as one of the motors for the intervention. America was finally choosing values over money.

And yet somehow it gave one a toothache—like the toothache Vronsky had at the end of Anna Karenina, when he went off to Belgrade to humanitarianly aid the Orthodox Christians in their uprising against the Turks. Wars waged by the U.S. are inevitably imperialist; that is part of the toothache. But are they also irredeemably so? Can the local good—the protection of these people or that city—never outweigh the global problem that human rights are, at best, invoked inconsistently and hypocritically, and at worst to excuse any and every war? Humanitarian warfare, clearly bad in principle, often looks good from the standpoint of a particular people at a particular moment, when they are threatened with death. And so the temperamental opponent of intervention can come to feel that while in general he opposes this kind of thing, well, in this case he guesses he supports it—and in that case too, and the next one. He can come to feel like somebody who has principles only for the sake of suspending them. This was the real cause of the toothache—it was déjà vu all over again. In general, you reject humanitarian war—but have you ever met one you didn't initially like? For liberals or leftists who neither automatically support nor automatically oppose all interventions, the Libya war has prompted something paradoxical: mixed feelings in especially pure form. Here the humanitarian motive for intervening has seemed more genuine and decisive than in any prior case. And the chances of doing real good looked favorable. Yet we've got to stop doing these things!

What has been the result? NATO almost immediately expanded the concept of "civilian protection" granted in the U.N. resolution to include regime change—what safety could there be for the rebels if Qaddafi stayed in power? Again, it was hard to argue: Qaddafi was a maniac and a murderer. But Qaddafi held on. One of his residences was bombed, killing a son and several grandchildren, and still he held on. The rebels, while increasing in number and confidence, did not suddenly transform themselves into a well-armed, well-trained fighting force, and militarily a stalemate ensued. Here we were again: An idea that on the face of it was reasonable, and in a certain way "humane," was leading to further deaths, further damage to a country's infrastructure, and a political situation in which the rebels, emboldened by the NATO jets (and, eventually, attack helicopters), refused to negotiate until Qaddafi was gone. Meanwhile the International Criminal Court, the pride and joy of the liberal interventionists, filed suit against Qaddafi for crimes against humanity, thereby putting him beyond the pale. How could you negotiate with someone with nothing to lose? So a nonmilitary solution to a conflict that, Obama said, would be a matter of "days, not weeks," is, as of this writing, further away than ever, even after five months of bombing.

All this could simply be regretted as a well-intentioned plan not working well enough. But that issue of abrogated sovereignty cuts both ways—the American people are supposed to be sovereign, too. The Obama White House's attitude in this has been telling. Not only has Obama failed to seek congressional approval; his lawyers filed a laughable legal brief that argued that America was not even at war. As congressional Republicans correctly pointed out, the administration could not be serious! What could explain this fealty to the letter of international law, and utter contempt for the president's duty to get his wars through Congress?

The answer, it seems to us, can be found in the work of the humanitarian hawks; they have turned the world into a morality play, a ceaseless battle of good versus evil. In Power and the Idealists, his ambivalent farewell to the moralism of the generation of 1968, Paul Berman traced this worldview to the 1960s student left. Born too late to fight Nazis the way their parents did, idealistic young leftists in the prosperous countries of the West looked for Nazis where they could: in university administrations, in American carpet bombers, in the colonialist Israeli state. Even as they grew older and wiser, the hunt for Nazis continued, and continued; in 1999, it led them into Kosovo, and in 2003 it led some of them into the catastrophic invasion of Iraq. Berman was the most perceptive analyst of the humanitarian hawk mindset; Samantha Power was its most compelling exemplar. There are only three kinds of people in her A Problem From Hell: evildoers (Hitler, Pol Pot, Milosevic); saints (Raphael Lemkin, Jan Karski, George McGovern, Peter Galbraith); and cowards (everyone else). You're either with Power or with Pol Pot. The word evil is sprinkled liberally throughout the text (35 appearances), as are slaughter (65), mass murder (25), bloodbath (13), and massacre (99). The function of these words—as well as the word genocide, to whose propagation the book is partly devoted—is to place the evil people beyond the pale of politics, of negotiation, of human intercourse. Would you shake hands with a mass murderer? With the invocation of the word genocide, we move into some other sphere of human relations. Thought, strategy, negotiation shut down; there is only right and wrong, only fight or flight. Which is precisely, in fact, the point.

A politics this morally coercive may explain why a president who is a former law professor, and who came to power with the mandate to restore the rule of law, would so brazenly ignore the Constitution. But a politics this morally coercive is not a politics at all.

What has happened to human rights in the last 20 years is a hijacking, of the sort Napoleon managed with the Declaration of the Rights of Man when he turned Europe into a bloodbath, as Power would put it, under its banner. The search around the globe for genocides to eradicate is the ultimate rights perversion, for it reduces human rights to the right not to be brutally murdered in a particular way that fits the definition of genocide given in the Genocide Convention. This cannot be anyone's idea of a robust human rights. If human rights are to be reclaimed they need first of all to be restored to the realm of politics. Not the realm of morality, which is always and ever a discussion of good versus evil, but politics, a discussion and argument over competing legitimate aims—e.g., the aim of honoring sovereignty and not waging war, versus the aim of protecting the defenseless and ensuring their rights. Morally, it would clearly be better to be a democracy liberated by George W. Bush than a tyranny under Saddam Hussein. Politically, it may be better to bide your time under Saddam than be plunged into a civil war that will kill 100,000 or twice that many. A political rather than moral discussion of human rights might even lead us to acknowledge that a mass murderer like Muammar Qaddafi or George W. Bush has a legitimate constituency whose rights must also be kept in mind.

Meantime the historical record grows long enough for us to ask: Has there ever been a truly successful, truly humanitarian humanitarian intervention? Not of the Vietnamese in Cambodia, who deposed the Khmer Rouge for their own reasons (the Khmer kept crossing the border, and also murdered their entire Vietnamese population), and then replaced them with Hun Sen, who has been ruling Cambodia with an iron fist for more than 30 years. Not the Indian intervention in Bangladesh, under whose cover the Indian government arrested all student protesters in India. And not NATO in Kosovo, which, while it stopped Milosevic and ensured the safety of Kosovo, could not make it a viable state (it is now a failing state likely to be swallowed by Albania), and also led to the ethnic cleansing of the Serb population. Too bad for the Serbs, to be sure; but the creation of a safe space for the expulsion of a civilian population cannot be what anyone had in mind when they launched the planes. That there has never been a successful humanitarian intervention does not mean that there cannot be one in the future. But the evidence is piling up.


          Company Spotlight: CSA Kuwait        
   CSA Kuwait has always been one of those companies that provided the stepping stone to bigger and better contracts for guys.  In essence, it has been one of those gigs to cut your teeth on, in order to prepare for the war zone stuff.  I consider the Kosovo contract with ITT(or whoever owns that […]
          The First Drone Strike        

On Nov. 14, 2001, five weeks into America’s war against al-Qaida, a small, unmanned, remote-controlled airplane called a Predator took off from a U.S. air base in Uzbekistan, crossed the border into Afghanistan, and—with a video camera attached to its belly—started tracking a convoy of vehicles believed to be carrying jihadi leaders along a road in Kabul. A group of officers and spies, monitoring the streamed footage from inside a trailer in a parking lot at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, watched the convoy stop outside a building. With the push of a button, the Predator fired a Hellfire missile at the building, the back half of which exploded. Seven people, survivors of the blast, were seen fleeing to another nearby structure. A second Hellfire destroyed that shelter, too. Among the dead was Mohammed Atef, al-Qaida’s military chief and Osama Bin Laden’s son-in-law. Five weeks earlier, on Oct. 7, a drone strike had been launched against another caravan, this one carrying the Taliban leader Mullah Omar, but the missile missed; doubts about this newfangled technology remained. But now, after the Atef killing, the era of the armed drone—the weapon that has since come to define American-style warfare in the 21st century—had unambiguously begun.*

It’s an unlikely story how this weapon, and this era, came to be. The idea had been hatched all the way back in the early 1970s, the brainchild of the Pentagon’s chief scientist at the time, a nuclear physicist named John S. Foster. A model-airplane enthusiast, Foster envisioned loading a somewhat larger version of his hobbyist toy with a ground-scanning camera that could send back real-time images to a command post and a bomb that could be released by remote control. None of this technology existed yet, but as a crude experiment, Foster commissioned the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to build two “remotely piloted vehicles,” each powered by a lawn-mower engine and capable of staying aloft for two hours while carrying a 28-pound payload.

Foster’s experiment coincided with two developments in the real world. The first was the microprocessor revolution, which created the possibility of what came to be called “smart bombs”—weapons, either fired by missiles or dropped by planes, that could explode within a few feet of a target, thus allowing specific objects to be destroyed without doing much damage to the surroundings.

The second trend was the Soviet Union’s growing military strength. The USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies had long outnumbered American and NATO armies on the ground in Europe, but the United States compensated with nuclear supremacy. By the late 1960s, the Russians had achieved “nuclear parity”: If the United States launched a nuclear attack on Russia, the Russians could respond in kind. In order to deter and repel a Soviet invasion of Western Europe, NATO would need a qualitative edge in non-nuclear weapons. Foster’s souped-up model airplane seemed to fit the bill.

The idea was that, in the event of a invasion, these remotely piloted vehicles (much smaller and thus harder to detect than manned combat planes) could destroy targets well behind enemy lines—knocking out air bases, supply depots, follow-on echelons of tanks and other armored vehicles—and could thus disrupt and delay the Soviet offensive, giving NATO a chance to regroup and fight back, without having to fire back with nukes.

Prototypes were developed in the 1980s but few officers evinced any interest in the project until the 1991 Gulf War, when

U.S. Air Force and Navy planes dropped the first smart bombs, which were guided to their targets by laser beams. There weren’t as many smart bombs as cable-news coverage of that war suggested (they comprised only about 9 percent of all the American bombs dropped), and quite a few of them veered off course (a fact not known till well after the war). But some Pentagon officials began to talk about a “revolution in military affairs” (even calling it by its acronym, RMA), in which the qualitative edge provided by technology—super-accurate weapons, super-fast data transmission, and the ability to connect the two—would transform the nature and pace of warfare. The smart bombs were different from Foster’s vision—for one thing, they were dropped from manned aircraft—but they relied on similar technology, so drones too fell into the discussion of RMA.

In the spring of 1996, William Perry, President Bill Clinton’s secretary of defense, approved production of the first remotely piloted drone, the Predator RQ-1, and placed it in the hands of the Air Force. The “R” in RQ-1 stood for reconnaissance: For the moment, this drone was purely an intelligence tool, transmitting video footage back to base, where a “pilot” would steer its course with a joystick and analysts would scrutinize its images. In 1999, these new weapons provided vital intel about targets and troop movements for NATO’s air war in Kosovo, but the drones didn’t carry, much less fire, any weapons.

Around the same time, al-Qaida started looming as a serious threat. CIA Director George Tenet and White House counterterrorism chief Richard Clarke argued that Predators should help track down Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan. The first flights for this mission occurred in October 2000. The Predators’ video feeds were beamed back to a monitor at CIA headquarters. Clarke recalls his first viewing as something out of science fiction, “this idea that I could tell someone ‘Can you move it a little to the left’ and, halfway around the world, something moved to the left.”

On one of the video feeds, a tall, bearded man could be seen. The image wasn’t sharp; in fact, it was fuzzy, but CIA counterterrorism analysts guessed—though they couldn’t be certain—that this tall man was Bin Laden. This inspired Clarke, then others, to push for putting a missile on the Predators so that the next time they spotted the al-Qaida leader, they could kill him.

This suggestion sparked a debate that, in retrospect, seems quaint. Top Air Force officers didn’t want to use Predators to kill Bin Laden because the United States wasn’t officially at war with Afghanistan or with al-Qaida. Top CIA officials were leery of the notion as well: They felt an intelligence agency shouldn’t take military action.

In January 2001, the final month of Bill Clinton’s presidency, these legal and bureaucratic issues were untangled. Top officials acknowledged the absurdity of legally permitting the U.S. government to kill Bin Laden with a submarine-launched cruise missile, as President Clinton had tried to do, but not with a smaller missile fired from a drone. And so, a modified Predator—carrying not just a camera but also a laser-seeker and a Hellfire air-to-ground missile, which could be fired by the same sort of joystick that guided the drone’s flight path—was successfully tested.

Most Air Force officers were still dubious of the new weapon, some because they doubted it would respond to signals from halfway across the world, others because the weapon’s very nature (a slow, unmanned, hovering aircraft) was anathema to the dominant Air Force culture (which cherished fast, manned jet fighters).

But the Air Force chief of staff at the time, Gen. John Jumper, was more visionary than most and backed the program. The previous May, while the debate was still raging, Jumper wrote an Air Force mission statement for a Hellfire-armed Predator, saying the weapon would be ideal for hitting “fleeting and perishable” targets. During the Cold War, this phrase would have meant Soviet armored vehicles on the plains of Europe. Now it clearly referred to cars that carried, or buildings that sheltered, al-Qaida terrorists in the mountains of Southwest Asia. In a memo to Condoleezza Rice, President-elect George W. Bush’s national security adviser, Clarke spelled out the history of the Hellfire-armed drone and urged “going forward” with new missions exploiting this new feature.

As is now well-known, Rice and the rest of Bush’s team were slow to heed Clarke and Tenet’s warnings about Bin Laden. (The first Cabinet meeting to discuss al-Qaida took place on Sept. 4, one week before the attack on the twin towers and the Pentagon.) But within the Pentagon bureaucracy, the armed drone moved ahead with unusual speed. In February 2001, three Hellfire missiles were fired from Predators at targets on a test range in Nevada. Deployment of the new weapon was scheduled for Sept. 1. Technical problems delayed shipment, but after the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, the drones and their missiles were rushed to U.S. air bases near Afghanistan. The U.S. bombing campaign against al-Qaida commenced on Oct. 7. Five weeks later, the Predators were ready, and on Nov. 14, a Hellfire missile tore out of the seemingly empty sky and killed Mohammad Atef and six of his comrades—though it wasn’t known at the time that Atef was among those killed, and it’s still unclear, 15 years later, whether the U.S. officials running the operation even knew Atef was in the building.

A weapons system originally conceived to destroy Soviet tanks in the opening phases of World War III (even the Hellfire missile was designed as an anti-armor weapon) emerged, after a quarter-century’s gestation, as a device to kill specific people—or even a specific person—in a prolonged, global, and often secret war on terror.

Bush was keen to send more drones into action, in Afghanistan and elsewhere, but production was slow, owing in part to deliberate stalling by the Air Force chiefs. (Jumper had retired, and his successor was of a more traditional bent.) Robert Gates, who replaced Donald Rumsfeld as secretary of defense in Bush’s final two years, ordered a speed-up both in the drones’ production and delivery. By the time Barack Obama entered the White House in January 2009 (and kept Gates on for his first two years in office), drone factories were cranking out Predators and a few follow-on models nearly as fast as the U.S. commanders, mainly in Afghanistan and Iraq, were requesting them.

The new drones were a perfect fit for Obama’s philosophy of military intervention. Obama wasn’t averse to using force, but he was averse to throwing thousands of American troops into battle unless the nation’s vital interests were at stake. If the United States or its allies had a less-than-vital interest in a conflict, or if some less-than-urgent threat were posed, he preferred sending small squads of Special Forces or teams of military advisers—or, the ultimate tool of unrisky warfare, drones.

The upside of drones was that they let a president kill bad guys and ward off potential dangers without putting American troops in danger. The downside was that they made war too easy, so easy that a president, even one as smart as Obama, could convince himself that the nation wasn’t really at war—a perception belied by the people under the drone’s fire, not least the victims’ friends and family, who often started supporting or even joining America’s enemies as a result.

The reliance on drones—and the tendency to regard them as the default tool for taking out jihadi suspects on the battlefield—subsided in Obama’s second term, in part because the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were winding down, in part because the drones weren’t having the dramatic effect that they seemed to promise. It turned out that killing a key terrorist or destroying a terrorist hangout—while sometimes fruitful and always tempting—has little impact on the course of the war. Al-Qaida had a seemingly endless line of No. 3–ranking officials to replace the ones just killed. And to the extent terrorist groups have been decimated on the battlefield, it’s been due to a combination of conventional airstrikes and forces on the ground. (When very “high-value targets” have been spotted, such as Ayman al-Zawahiri or Osama Bin Laden himself, the job is considered too important—the accuracy of a target’s ID is too vital—to leave to drones.) And sometimes, in drone strikes, innocent people get killed, not because the Hellfire missile veers off course but because the intelligence was poor, the images were fuzzy, someone has made a mistake about who was (or wasn’t) in the crosshairs. And when innocent people get killed, new terrorists—their husbands, cousins, fathers, sons, or neighbors—are often created.

The future may see more drastic blowback still. In the annals of warfare, no nation has preserved a monopoly on a new weapon for very long, and the armed drone isn’t likely to prove an exception. (It is harder to replicate than most weapons—besides the drone and the missile, you need fast data processing, communications satellites, and an airstrip near the target—but these are impediments, not brick-wall obstacles.) For now, terrorists and other enemies of America still have reason to fear the drone. It’s likely that, someday, the American officers, officials, and even presidents who decide to launch these drones will have reason to fear them too.

*Update, Sept. 14, 2016: The article has been updated to note the unsuccessful strike against Mullah Omar that preceded the successful attack that killed Mohammed Atef. (Return.)


          The Hillary Clinton Doctrine        

With last week’s massacre in Orlando, Florida, the dread of terrorism and the anxiety of national security threats across the unstable globe broke through to the surface of our grim-enough electoral politics. The mass shooting also offered a preview of how the two parties’ presumptive candidates might handle a crisis.

The Republican, Donald Trump, proved himself an empty suit with a loud mouth, a set of dangerously shallow ideas, and an ego enormous enough to mistake them for wisdom. Hillary Clinton delivered a very different sort of speech. She was measured and thoughtful, unifying in places and aggressive in others, scrupulous about getting the analysis and the action right. You might call it a “presidential” address.

But what kind of president—what kind of commander in chief—did it suggest she might be, and how did it align with her long-standing positions on national security issues? How would her approach differ from the legacy of Barack Obama or the specter of Trump? How would those differences—not just in general rhetoric but in specific actions—shape American policies and the world they touch? Can one detect in her response to Orlando the outlines of a “Hillary Clinton doctrine”?

The widespread wisdom is that Clinton is a hawk. A recent headline in the New York Times Magazine blared, “How Hillary Clinton Became a Hawk,” as if the question of whether she is one had long ago been settled. But there are many species of hawks. What kind is she? Compared with her predecessor and her rival, will Hillary’s brand of hawkishness make us safer or less secure—raise or reduce the odds of plunging us into war?

And are these the right questions, or in any case the only ones, to ask? During one of her first briefings on China as secretary of state, Clinton asked, to the surprise of everyone in the room, highly detailed questions about several dam projects that Beijing had begun—referring to them by name—and wanted to know how neighboring India was reacting to them. “She understood that water resources were a national-security issue in the region,” the briefer recalls.

It was a small moment, but it reveals something important about how Clinton sees the world, beyond the hawk-dove binary. It suggests that, in much the same way she sees domestic policy as a series of interlocking problems, Clinton takes a more expansive view than most hawks (or doves) of what “national security” entails.

* * *

Hillary’s hawkish reputation is not undeserved. In the high-level debates over war and peace in Obama’s first term, when she served as secretary of state, Clinton almost always aligned herself with Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and his generals. She supported their case for sending 40,000 more troops to Afghanistan (Obama reluctantly approved 30,000 and then only with a pullout-date attached). She advocated keeping 10,000 troops in Iraq (Obama decided to bring them all home, in part because an agreement signed by George W. Bush required a total withdrawal). She sided with Gen. David Petraeus’ plan to arm “moderate” rebels in Syria (Obama rejected the idea, concluding it would have little effect on Bashar al-Assad’s regime or much else).

The only issue on which Clinton parted ways with the Pentagon was Libya, and in that case, she was more hawkish: she favored armed intervention to help resistance fighters who wound up toppling Muammar Qaddafi, while Gates and the top brass opposed getting involved.

Yet in her time as secretary, Clinton also took positions anathema to most hawks. She launched the “reset” with Russia (which accomplished a great deal, in nuclear arms-reduction and counterterrorism policies, until Vladimir Putin resumed control of the Kremlin). She was a champion of international women’s rights and children’s welfare, seeing these causes as vital for development, diplomacy, and global stability. She grasped the gravity of climate change earlier than most senior officials.

Even in her support for sending arms to Syrian rebels, one of her more conventionally hawkish positions, she opposed still more aggressive proposals to deploy tens of thousands of U.S. troops as an occupying force. And while she called for a no-fly zone to protect Syrian civilians, she linked the proposal to consultations with Russia, in order to minimize the risks of escalating conflict. (By contrast, some Republican presidential candidates who supported a no-fly zone salivated at the prospect of shooting down a Russian combat plane.) Similarly, on Libya, she called for armed intervention by a coalition, not by the United States alone. (Like Obama, she accepted assurances from NATO allies, especially France and Italy, that they would take the lead on reconstruction and “stability operations” after the fighting stopped—assurances that proved hollow.)

It’s hard to predict how Hillary Clinton will act or make decisions when she’s the one who’s alone in the Oval Office. The calculations of a senator, or the arguments of a cabinet officer, are different from the deliberations of a commander-in-chief. Still, judging from the long record of her votes and recommendations, it’s fair to say that she is more hawkish than Obama—but less hawkish than, say, John McCain, Lindsey Graham, the neo-cons who surrounded President Bush, or nearly all the Republicans who ran for president this year, including Trump. Her stance lies somewhere in between the poles, though, in her case, that’s not the same as saying she’s middle-of-the-road.

“She’s not very shy about using military power,” says Kurt Campbell, her former assistant secretary of state for East Asian affairs, now chairman and CEO of the Asia Group. “Some Democrats talk about using the military as a last resort. That’s not a natural way for her to think.” To Clinton, military force is but one of several tools of national power, and her mode of thinking, he says, involves “welding or integrating all of them together.”

A hallmark of President Obama’s thinking, dating back at least to his 2009 Nobel address, has been an acknowledgment of the limits of American power, especially in the post–Cold War era of global fragmentation. By contrast, Campbell says of Clinton, “The idea of ‘limits of American power’—that’s not in her. She was not humble about American power. She was always about leadership, took it as a given and a guiding star.”

Another former State Department official who worked with Clinton says, “She is inclined to take action—not necessarily military action, but she believes American inaction can leave a power vacuum, which could make us less safe in the long run.”

This is a key distinction between Obama and Clinton. Obama’s recognition of the limits of power, and his reluctance to act just for the sake of acting, has kept the nation from doing (as he put it) “stupid shit.” But this trait has also sometimes made him appear ambivalent, an apt pose for a scholar-statesman but riskily indecisive for a president. Clinton’s confidence in American power may make her look more resolute as president—but it may also lead the nation more determinedly into war.

* * *

Clinton was born in 1947, at the dawn of what Time magazine heralded as “the American Century,” and she has long adhered to its assumptions about America’s central role in world affairs. Many of her contemporaries, as they came of age, were seared by the Vietnam War and emerged more skeptical about U.S. military power—and U.S. military advisers. But if Vietnam planted seeds of fundamental doubt in Hillary Clinton’s mind, she hasn’t let them show. Her views seem to have been shaped more by experiences in her husband’s presidency—especially his regret at not acting to stop the genocide in Rwanda and his redemptive decision to act, with a combination of airstrikes and firm diplomacy, to protect Kosovo from the savagery of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic.

In his new book, Alter Egos: Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and the Twilight Struggle Over American Power, Mark Landler, a New York Times reporter, tells a story about the 2010 incident in which North Korea torpedoed a South Korean navy vessel, killing 46 sailors onboard. State and Defense Department officials devised a plan to send an aircraft carrier into coastal waters just east of North Korea, as a show of force. But the top U.S. admiral in the Pacific suggested that the carrier be rerouted, more aggressively, into the Yellow Sea, between North Korea and China. In the ensuing debate, Clinton supported the admiral, saying, “We’ve got to run it up the gut!” (Obama rejected the idea, in part because the mission was already in progress and, as he put it, extending the football metaphor, “I don’t call audibles with aircraft carriers.”)

Russia’s seizure of Crimea and a swath of eastern Ukraine occurred during Obama’s second term, after Clinton had left Foggy Bottom. But during the Q&A section of a speech at the Brookings Institution in September, Clinton said, “I am in the category of people who wanted us to do more in response” to Russia’s moves. Though acknowledging that the economic sanctions, which Obama coordinated with Western Europe, may “have had some impact” on Russian behavior, she said that the West “had to up the cost” to Russia and “to put more pressure on Putin,” noting that his objective was “to stymie and to confront and to undermine American power”—not just in Eastern Europe but “whenever and wherever [he] can.”

Obama’s logic, in declining to send Ukraine offensive arms, was that Putin would outplay us in that realm. Russia has a far greater strategic interest in Ukraine and could match or exceed our efforts very quickly, since the two countries share not just a long history but a long border. Better, Obama decided, to supply Ukraine with defensive military equipment, to share intelligence, and to focus more sharply on economic sanctions, where the West had an advantage over Russia (and where Obama has done a better-than-expected job of keeping the Western European nations onboard).

More recently, in her speech in Cleveland on June 13, the day after the Orlando shootings, Clinton first noted that not all the facts were yet known about the shooter, Omar Mateen (was he inspired by ISIS or a troubled, violent homophobe who used jihadist social media as an excuse to vent his self-hatred?), and she invoked the fundamental unity and tolerance of American society. Then she laid out her plan for defeating ISIS. It involved “ramping up the air campaign” in Syria and Iraq, “accelerating support” for Arab and Kurdish soldiers on the ground, pressing ahead with the diplomatic efforts to settle sectarian political divisions, and “pushing our partners in the region to do even more,” not least pressuring the Saudis, Qataris, and Kuwaitis to stop funding extremist organizations. At home, she called for an “intelligence surge,” upping the budgets of intelligence and law enforcement agencies, improving their coordination on a local and federal level, working with Silicon Valley to track and analyze jihadist recruiters on social media networks, and working with responsible leaders in Muslim neighborhoods (rather than alienating them by suggesting—as Trump did, in his speech on the same day—that all American Muslims are somehow complicit in the actions of extremists).

Some of these proposals are new, especially the “intelligence surge,” and seem tailored to the evolving domestic threats. It’s true, as Politico recently reported, that the FBI has enough agents to track just 48 suspected terrorists in the U.S., 24/7, at any one time. But it may also be true that, in order to find and relentlessly pursue possible “lone-wolf” terrorists (those with no direct connections to jihadist organizations), the FBI would have to change its nature from a law enforcement bureau to a domestic intelligence agency, with broad powers going beyond the restrictions of prosecutorial probes. Is that a path we want to go down? Does Clinton want to pave that path? It’s unclear.

As for the military and diplomatic aspects of her plan, these are things Obama has been doing for some time. (I asked some of Clinton’s advisers to clarify what she meant by “ramping up the air campaign” and “accelerating support” for ground forces—where, by how much, to what end?—but responses were vague.) The fact is, nobody quite knows how to deal with an organization like ISIS in a region like the modern Middle East, where the jihadists’ most natural and most powerful enemies are unable to fight together because they fear and loathe one another more than they fear and loathe ISIS.

Which leads to a larger point—that, in their basic policies and outlook on the world, the differences between Obama and Clinton are relatively minor. Even Mark Landler, whose book chronicles their competing views on military power, acknowledges in his first chapter that, during her time as secretary of state, she and Obama “agreed more than they disagreed. Both preferred diplomacy to brute force. Both shunned the unilateralism of the Bush years. Both are lawyers committed to preserving the rules-based order that the United States put in place after 1945.” Their disputes, he writes, stemmed mainly from their “very different instincts for how to save” this post-WWII order as it has fractured in the aftermath of the Cold War.

Their common ground is highlighted by their common, stark contrast with Donald Trump. The “rules-based order” that Clinton and Obama both cherish holds no interest for Trump; nor does he seem to know anything about its history, its institutions, or its value to American security.

Trump has said that, as president, he would torture suspected terrorists and murder their families, reflecting an indifference or hostility to international law. His idea for beating ISIS is to “bomb the shit out of them” (not realizing, or perhaps caring, that ISIS fighters live among innocent civilians, whose killing by U.S. air power would rouse their friends and relatives into alliance with the jihadists), to ban all Muslims from entering our borders (unaware that this would energize jihadist propaganda), and—in his post-Orlando speech—to throw Muslim American citizens in jail if they don’t report their suspicious neighbors. Trump dismisses NATO as “obsolete” and says, with a shrug, that he’d abandon allies in Europe and Asia if they didn’t pony up more money for their defenses, even if our withdrawal would prompt them to develop their own nuclear arsenals. Yet he also believes that, all on his own, he can negotiate “great deals”—of what sort, he’s never specified—with Putin and North Korea’s Kim Jong-un. (He strikes a peculiar, if clueless, affinity with authoritarian leaders.)

Trump is neither hawk nor dove, but rather some vague mutant hybrid—part isolationist, part international hoodlum, at once a byproduct and aggravator of the era’s teeming resentment, rage, and incipient global anarchy.

By contrast, Clinton is less a hawk or a dove than a traditionalist, and a cautious one at that. Amid the exuberance of the Arab Spring and the street protests in Cairo, she advised against cutting off Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, fearing that his successors might be worse. Had she remained secretary of state in Obama’s second term, she probably wouldn’t have stretched out the ill-fated Israeli-Palestinian talks for as long as John Kerry did; yet she might also not have stuck so long with the Iran nuclear talks, which resulted in a remarkable deal that she now fully supports. On the occasions when she called for the use of force, she usually did so in the context of an alliance or coalition, and for the purpose of upholding a regional order rather than toppling one.

Her vote as a senator in 2002, authorizing President Bush to invade Iraq, is of course the action that most vividly emblazoned her image as a hawk. It may also have cost her the Democratic contest in 2008 (to Obama, who had spoken out against the war), and it animated much of the support for Sen. Bernie Sanders in the 2016 primaries. (Her Iraq vote was the only example Sanders cited—and cited repeatedly—of Clinton’s “poor judgment.”)

Early on in this year’s race for the Democratic nomination, during a town hall debate in New Hampshire, Clinton explained that Bush had made a “very explicit appeal,” pledging to use the Senate’s authorization as “leverage” to prod Saddam Hussein into readmitting U.S. inspectors, so they could resume their mission of verifying whether Iraq was building weapons of mass destruction. In other words, she claimed that she voted the way she did in the interests of diplomacy; the problem, she said, was that Bush went back on his word.

The transcript of the 2002 Senate debate reveals that Clinton was telling the truth at the 2016 town hall: This was the rationale she gave, in a long, seemingly anguished speech, for supporting the resolution. (It was also the reason many other Democratic senators—including John Kerry and Joe Biden, whose subsequent careers did not suffer—also gave in authorizing an invasion.) Still, Clinton’s logic does not explain why she didn’t oppose the war after the invasion got under way (though she did later vote against the troop-surge), or why she never read the full pre-invasion intelligence report (which included some agencies’ doubts about whether Iraq actually possessed chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons), or why she took so long—not until very late in the 2008 campaign—to admit that her vote had been a mistake.

She has a genuinely strategic mind. Just as she sees the linkages between development and stability, water resources and national security, she understands that diplomatic pursuits require leverage and that leverage often entails a display (with an implied threat) of force. But Iraq stands as a case in point where strategic thinking of this sort can overcomplicate matters. Even aside from the errors in her assumptions (that Iraq had a WMD program and that Bush was really interested in using the Senate vote as a lever for diplomacy), she downplayed—perhaps evaded—the flip side of her calculations: What if Bush had tried to persuade Saddam to readmit the inspectors and Saddam still refused? Would that have been reason enough to invade? Given its risks and America’s competing priorities in the region, was war the wise course? Her vote—and her long delay in expressing regret for the vote—suggests that she thought it was. As president, would she exert leverage against some other nations, in an attempt to prod their leaders to accept her demands or alter their behavior—and take the slippery slide to war if they don’t?

Then again, it’s false to suggest that Clinton has a consistent tendency to swerve onto risky paths. She may not be shy about using force, as Kurt Campbell says, but that doesn’t mean she’s gung-ho to do so.

For instance, when it came to drone strikes, the Obama administration’s preferred instrument of military power, she was sometimes more cautious than the president, less prone to favor an attack. As a matter of protocol, when the CIA proposes secret drone strikes in a foreign country, the State Department is given a chance to weigh in. On the occasions when the U.S. ambassador in a country (usually Pakistan) advised that a strike’s location, timing or target would have politically disruptive consequences, Clinton opposed the attack. When David Petraeus was CIA director, he ceded to Clinton’s judgment in those cases and called the strike off. Petraeus’ predecessor, Leon Panetta, always ignored her objections, once, in a National Security Council meeting, even growling at her, “I don’t work for you!” (Obama, at least in his first term, almost always sided with the CIA.)*

Finally, there’s the case of Obama’s most dramatic decision: the very high-level debate over whether to order the raid on Osama Bin Laden’s compound in Pakistan. It was a question racked with dilemmas and uncertainties; the intelligence agencies were divided over whether Bin Laden was really even there. Clinton filled a legal pad, listing the many pros and cons of acting or not acting. She came down in favor of the raid, but just barely. Her position wasn’t that of an impetuous, adventurous hawk; it was precisely the same position as Obama’s.

The president and his former secretary of state are also speaking in harmony, if not unison, in the wake of Orlando. Notwithstanding her tendency to do more, faster, stronger, the approach she’s prescribed is very similar to his. It’s an approach based on analyzing the facts, understanding the vital role of allies (at home and abroad), and grasping the motives of terrorist groups, what makes their recruitment drives appealing, and what responses from the West might intensify or slacken their appeal. The difference between Clinton and Trump is the same as the difference between Obama and Trump: It’s the difference between someone who has a sophisticated knowledge of international relations (granting that this doesn’t always lead to the most successful policies) and someone who has no knowledge whatsoever.

As one of her assistants in the State Department puts it, “The differences between Obama and Clinton are real, but they’re not huge. She’s on the slightly tougher side of the spectrum.” Call it the Obama-plus-a-bit doctrine.

*Correction, June 19, 2016: The article originally misstated that Leon Panetta suceeded Gen. David Petraeus as CIA director. Petraeus served after Panetta. (Return.)


          Vive la Commune         

Le scrutin est clos, le contenu de l’urne est retourné sur la table, le dépouillement commence.
Affecté au comptage des voix, je tire la langue en traçant des petits bâtons en face des noms égrenés par les scrutateurs. Les mêmes patronymes peuplent les deux listes en lutte, y’a des cousins, des pères et des fils en bisbille, pas se planter de case, l’heure est grave !
Deux listes dans un village de 36 habitants à l’année, c’est pas encore le Kosovo, mais l’ambiance est tendue. Le maire sortant et son challenger ont couvé l’urne toute la journée en se matant en chiens de faïence.

500 euros d’indemnité mensuelle pour le maire, un peu plus de 200 pour le premier adjoint, on est loin des fastes élyséens, mais ça excite tout de même bien des convoitises une telle manne. En plus c’est cumulable avec les Assedic ou le RMI, aucun risque de connaitre les soucis de Gérard Gaudron, le député chômeur. Tant mieux parce qu’ici c’est trente bornes qui séparent la mairie de l’ANPE, pas deux cents mètres comme à Aulnay.

Aux élections municipales précédentes, un jeune plein de projets, dynamique en diable, s’était présenté et avait obtenu le poste de premier adjoint. Deux mois plus tard, il partait vivre et bosser aux Antilles, il a continué, six ans durant, à percevoir son indemnité.

Avec mon copain, un immigré auvergnat, on voulait monter une liste, histoire de comprendre comment ça marche tout ça, s’impliquer comme on dit, arrêter de râler et voir ce qu’on peut faire, essayer de concilier nos intérêts particuliers avec le bien commun. Comprendre par exemple les mécanismes présidant à l’attribution des permis de construire, les plans d’urbanisme.
La terre et l’eau, de plus en plus rare, sont les deux gros enjeux d’une région en voie de désertification, promise au tout touristique puisque la viticulture c’est fini. A l’heure où des lotissements concentrationnaires sortent de terre, imaginés par des architectes qui ont dû se faire la main en construisant des prisons, on aimerait ramener du monde dans un village où la moyenne d’âge flirte avec les 70 ans, tout en évitant ce genre d’horreur.

Pour ça, il faut trouver les subventions qui permettraient de retaper l’appart au dessus de la mairie et le transformer en logement social. L’ADSL est réclamé par la plupart des néos, mais les antennes qui donnent la migraine aux abeilles, ça nous tente moyennement, surtout l’apiculteur. Le satellite peut-être... Bref, se mouiller et faire les choix les moins péraves possible que permet le petit pouvoir du conseil municipal.

Mais les colistiers potentiels se faisaient rares, et puis trois listes de neuf candidats dans un aussi petit patelin, c’était un coup à se retrouver dans le journal de Jean-Pierre Pernaut.
Nous nous sommes donc sagement ralliés au maire sortant, militaire de carrière en retraite, socialiste tendance «ne nous énervons pas», afin de barrer la route à son concurrent, militaire de carrière en retraite lui aussi, mais pas socialiste du tout.

Du coup, grosse affluence pour le dépouillement, il faut rajouter des chaises dans la salle commune. Les octogénaires sont présents, en charentaises et en treillis. On prend des nouvelles, le vent a fait tomber un bout de la cheminée d’Aimé.

Grosse participation, 42 votants sur 51 inscrits, pas un bulletin blanc. On a pas droit aux habituels panachages, aux insultes ou aux vannes. Y’a bien une voix pour l’idiot du village, mais sinon ce sont des listes entières qui sortent du bulletin, on a peu joué du stylo. Le suspense est de courte durée, la liste du maire sortant est réélue avec plus de 70% des voix. Ça va du dreadlockeux de 25 ans au sourcier de 75 ans, des représentants des vieilles familles et des néos, des gens du «centre» et des gens des écarts. Pour la parité c’est loupé, on a qu’une seule femme.

Le prétendant battu quitte la salle sans mot dire, dents serrées, son co-listier est décu, c’est encore raté pour la rente de premier adjoint. C’était bien la peine de se fâcher avec papa !

Je tire toujours la langue, m’appliquant autant qu’un gaucher le peut, en recopiant la liste des élus sur le procès-verbal. Je dois indiquer ma profession sur un document officiel, j’hésite entre travailleur social, écrivain et ouvrier agricole, j’opte finalement pour gardien de nuit.

On a jusqu’à la fin de la semaine pour faire plouf plouf, choisir le maire et ses adjoints.

(Caravan par les Mills Brothers)

• Thierry Pelletier •

 Réagissez à l’article


          Q&A: Einschätzung zu einem Kosovo-Albaner. Bitte, beruflich wirklich wichtig?        
by Christiane Necker Question by Armin Mok: Einschätzung zu einem Kosovo-Albaner. Bitte, beruflich wirklich wichtig? Uiuiui, nun muss ich mal probieren, diese Frage zu stellen, ohne dass dann wieder jemand schreit, dass das Ganze irgendwas mit Rassismus zu tun hat. Die Sache ist die, ich arbeite hier in Berlin in der Jugendhilfe und wir haben … Q&A: Einschätzung zu einem Kosovo-Albaner. Bitte, beruflich wirklich wichtig? weiterlesen
          Overcoming the Middle Income Trap         

The Western Balkans Case

ZM-SE003 World Bank The Western Balkans have a lot going for them: ideal location next to the world’s largest economic bloc, a well-educated workforce, relatively low wages and decent infrastructure. FDI and investors should be rushing in … but are they?

Southeast Europe is the next frontier of EU expansion and includes six countries: Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. These countries have a lot in common and an equal amount of differences. They are all relatively small open economies, with a growth strategy premised on deeper international integration. Some, especially Macedonia, are more advanced in attracting international investors but as a whole, the region seems to be stuck in a classical Middle Income Trap: they are too rich to compete on low-cost manufacturing but are too poor to be global innovators. After a strong recovery following war and conflicts in the 1990s, the growth momentum has stalled over the last five years and the region has been particularly vulnerable to external shocks.


          NAJJJJLEPÅ I GRAFITI...........        
kada tje Srbija dati Kosovo???
kada gdja Olbrajt nadje dechka!!!





Srbija nije Monika Lewinski, Srbija ka*a
wink wink wink
          NAJJJJLEPÅ I GRAFITI...........        
Nemoj se neko natripovao ovo je tuzno i smesno;
Sta siptari kazu za Kosovo-Srpsko a nase))))
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauEurope is the second smallest continent in the world .Here is the list of 47 countries in Europe and their capitals.

 Europe




S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Albania
Tirana
2.
Andorra
Andorra la Vella
3.
Austria
Vienna
4.
Belarus
Minsk
5.
Belgium
Brussels
6.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sarajevo
7.
Bulgaria
Sofia
8.
Croatia
Zagreb
9.
The Czech Republic
Prague
10.
Denmark
Copenhagen
11.
Estonia
Tallinn
12.
Finland
Helsinki
13.
France
Paris
14.
Germany
Berlin
16.
Greece
Athens
17.
Hungary
Budapest
18.
Iceland
Reykjavík
19.
Ireland
Dublin
20.
Italy
Rome
21.
Kosovo
Pristina
22.
Latvia
Riga
23.
Liechtenstein
Vaduz
24.
Lithuania
Vilnius
25.
Luxembourg
Luxembourg City
26.
Macedonia
Skopje
27.
Malta
Valletta
28.
Moldova
Chisinau
29.
Monaco
Monaco
30.
Montenegro
Podgorica
31.
The Netherlands
Amsterdam
32.
Norway
Oslo
33.
Poland
Warsaw
34.
Portugal
Lisbon
35.
Romania
Bucharest
36.
Russia
Moscow
37.
San Marino
San Marino
38.
Serbia
Belgrade
39.
Slovakia
Bratislava
40.
Slovenia
Ljubljana
41.
Spain
Madrid
42.
Sweden
Stockholm
43.
Switzerland
Bern
44.
Turkey
Ankara
45.
Ukraine
Kiev (Kyiv)
46.
The United Kingdom
London
47.
The Vatican City
Vatican City

          Esteri di mer 23/09        
1-A Bruxelles il vertice straordinario sui migranti nel segno della divisione..est-ovest. Ma in Europa quasi tutti pensano ai loro interessi nazionali (Maria Maggiore, Bruxelles).2-Non solo le frontiere dell'Europa dell'est. ..Profughi siriani respinti anche al confine tra Turchia e Grecia (Fazila Mat, Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso Istanbul).3-Kosovo. Il fallimento dimenticato dell'occidente. Decine di migliaia di persone stanno lasciando il paese (Andrea Lorenzo Capussela, ex capo dell'ufficio economico della missione internazionale in Kosovo).4-I diritti umani sono importanti, ma ci sono anche gli affari.....Il ministro britannico delle finanze nella provincia cinese dello Xinjiang...La regione da tempo al centro di tensioni etniche (Gabriele Battaglia).5-Progetti sostenibili: Valposchiavo, la valle svizzera che fa solo prodotti bilogici (Fabio Fimiani).6-Nuove tecnologie: le prospettive dello streaming musicale per il 2016 (Niccolò Vecchia).
          Esteri di mar 09/12        
1-Aumentato ulteriormente il divario tra ricchi e poveri. Secondo il rapporto dell'Ocse la disuguaglianza ha rallentato la crescita economica. ( Intervista di Lele Liguori a Thomas Piketty) 2-No all'acqua tassata: domani nuova manifestazione a Dublino. ( Flavia Mosca Goretta) ..3-Ucraina: riprese le forniture di gas russo nel giorno della nuova tregua. Ma il negoziato di pace ancora fermo. ( Emanuele Valenti) 4-Germania : Angela Merkel rieletta per l'ottava volta alla guida della Cdu. Per il 2017 la cancelliera tedesca punta a una alleanza con i verdi. ..5-Olimpiadi, la svolta: il Kosovo diventa membro ..del Cio e potrà partecipare ai giochi di Rio. ..6-la procreazione assistita nel resto del mondo: ..oggi il caso irlandese. ( Chiara Ronzani) ..7-Land Grabbing : quando il cotone proviene da terre accaparrate in etiopia. ( Marta Gatti)
          Esteri di mer 15/10        
1-crollano le borse: è il monito dei mercati alla grecia che vuole liberarsi dalla Troika ? 2-Spagna: chiesti 74 anni di carcere per gli Indignados (Giulio Maria Piantadosi) 3-Gaza, tra assedio e ricostruzione. Ritorno nella città rasa al suolo. ( Dario Franchetti Ong Vento di Terra ) 4-A Donetsk, nel palazzo dei dirigenti separatisti. ..La popolazione non si accontenta delle promesse e comincia a battere cassa. ( Emanuele Valenti) ..5-Serbia – Albania, il giorno dopo il caos. Le ferite del Kosovo, ancora un ostacolo alla riconciliazione. 6-musica e nuove tecnologie: la vecchia guardia di fronte a l'evoluzione del mercato discografico 7-progetti sostenibili, una sfida slovena: una raccolta differenziata al 100%...
          Esteri di sab 11/10        
1-Europa, prima vittoria contro gli Ogm. l'europarlamento ha approvato il diritto del singolo paese di vietare le loro coltivazioni...2-conferenza Apec : A Pechino si stringe il legame Cina – Russia. La giornata odierno sotto il segno dell'incontro Obama – Putin. 3-Siria: nuovo piano di pace. Questa volta l'Onu punta a salvare salvare Aleppo, città simbolo della tragedia nazionale. ..4-10 anni fa la morte di Arafat. Pace ancora lontana, tensioni interpalestinesi e nuovi insediamenti israeliani. ..5-Albania- Serbia: la questione del Kosovo rovina l'incontro storico di Belgrado. 6-la procreazione assistita nel resto del mondo: oggi il..caso finlandese ( Chiara Ronzani) 7-Land Grabbing tra appelli del Papa e promesse di Bruxelles ( Marta Gatti ) ..
          Esteri di gio 05/12        
1- “ il diritto al cibo non e’ negoziabile “: da Bali l'aut aut dell'india ai paesi ricchi e al Wto. ..2-Germania: la base del Spd decide sulla grossa coalizione. ..3-USA: contro le paghe da fame i lavoratori dei fast food oggi in piazza...4-Kosovo: il successo delle ultime elezioni apre la strada a un accordo tra Belgrado e Pristina...5-Cuochi e assassini: quello che non dice il palinsesto della tv globale: è il tema degli appunti di Alfredo Somoza. ..6-Olanda, la notte di san nicola una festa razzista ? ..l'Onu chiede la revisione dell'iconografia tradizionale. ..7-le recensioni di Vincenzo Mantovani: Il grande mare. Storia del Mediterraneo, di David Abulafia.....Esteri torna il 9 dicembre !!
          Esteri di gio 14/11        
1-Germania: al via il congresso del Spd. ..2-Cile, ultimo giorno della campagna elettorale. ..3-Sri Lanka: il paese accusato di crimini contro..la minoranza tamil ospita il vertice del commonwelath...4-Kosovo: domenica si rivota a Mitrovica...5-Conferenza sui Balcani a Bergamo (Intervista a Luisa Chiodi direttrice dell'OBC )..6-Uruguay, lo spinello di stato per sconfiggere il narcotraffico.( Alfredo Somoza)..7-Le recensioni di Vincenzo Mantovani:  Il bonobo e l’ateo, di Frans de Waal. Esteri torna lunedì 18 novembre !!
          Ernsthafte und ehrliche Personen in 48 Stunden 52        
Ernsthafte und ehrliche Personen in 48 Stunden 52 Kontaktieren Sie WhatsApp: + 4917665401259 Hallo, Sie sind Menschen, die arbeitslos sind oder arbeitslos sind? In CDD, CDI, Schauspielern? In schwierigen finanziellen Situation? Die Überschuldung, stecken Bank (FICP)? Anleger, Trader, die ihre Kapital nutzen? Mehr Sorgen über irgendetwas. Ich schlage vor, eine neue Finanzierungsformel. Sie sind Individuen in Europa (Albanien, Andorra, Österreich, Belgien, Bosnien und Herzegowina, Bulgarien, Kroatien, Zypern, Dänemark, Estland, Färöer (Inseln), Finnland, Frankreich, Griechenland, Grönland, Ungarn, Irland Island, Italien, Jersey, Guernsey, Kosovo, Lettland, Liechtenstein, Litauen, Luxemburg, Malta, Mazedonien, Moldawien, Monaco, Montenegro, Norwegen, Niederlande, Polen, Portugal, Tschechische Republik, Rumänien, Großbritannien, Russland, San Marino, Serbien, Slowakei, Slowenien, Schweden, Schweiz, Ukraine, Vatikan) und auf der ganzen Welt. FINANZIERUNG alle Ihre Projekte: * - Auto Kredit * - Verbraucherkredit * - Erwerb von Kredit * - Privatkredit * - Credit Works * - revolvierenden Kredit * - Kredit Motorrad * - Immobilien-Darlehen * - Kredit Heirat * - Kredit Reisen * - Darlehen zwischen bestimmten * - Kredit Boat Und das alles von 3 000,00 bis 500 000,00 € auf 6-300 Monat. Der Zinssatz kann die gesamten Kredit- und Kreditangebotsbedingungen sind sehr einfach gehen. Die Darlehen werden gebeten, innerhalb von 72 Stunden nach der Einreichung der Anträge erhalten. Mein Angebot ist ernst, können Sie durch das Verfahren realisieren, das ist das rechtliche Verfahren von Darlehen zwischen bestimmten gewähren. Kontaktieren Sie mich noch heute und lassen Sie mich wissen, wie viel Geld Sie leihen wollen. grüßen; orianemartinez100@gmail.com
          Clean Bombs and Dirty Wars: Air Power in Kosovo and Libya.        
Air & Space Power Journal; 06/01/2016
(AN 115641199); ISSN: 1555385X
Military & Government Collection
          ajd ovde pishite viceve ;x))        
Odu Buš, Putin i Tadić u pakao.

Pita Buš satanu:
- Mogu li da pozovem Vašington samo na jedan minut i vidim kako stvari stoje u mojoj zemlji? Izbori su pa me zanima šta ćemo sa terorizmom.
Satana kaže:
- Može.
Zove Buš, zavrsi razgovor i satana mu kaže:
- To te košta milion dolara.
- Ok - kaze Buš i plati.

Pita Putin satanu:
- Satano, daj i meni da pozovem Moskvu, i kod nas su izbori, Čečenija, masa problema.
Satana kaže:
- Može, ali plati dva miliona dolara.
Putin obavi razgovor i plati.

I Tadić se obrati satani:
- Satano, daj i meni da pozovem Beograd, da vidim da l' smo zadržali Kosovo, rešili nezaposlenost, podigli standard i ušli u EU. Satana kaže:
- Može, naravno.

Zavrsi Tadić razgovor i upita koliko treba da plati.
- Ništa, reče satana.
- Kako, bre, ništa? Pa ove si rebnuo po milion i dva miliona?
Na to će satana:
- Znas kako?! Kad zoveš iz jednog pakla u drugi, to se računa kao lokalni poziv. twisted twisted
          Portugal U-16 – Kosovo U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Portugal U-16 – Kosovo U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Estonia – Kosovo maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Estonia – Kosovo maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Faroe Islands U-17 – Kosovo U-17 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Faroe Islands U-17 – Kosovo U-17 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Girl From Kosovo Gets Interrupted Giving Head In A Car        
Watch Girl From Kosovo Gets Interrupted Giving Head In A Car at ExSexTape.com - best homemade sex videos and amateur porn movies.
          Why We Think Donald Trump Will Go To War with Iran (and It Won't Go Well)        

The President and the executive branch wield enormous power that has become less and less checked by Congress over the years, giving the sitting President has the power to push America into conflict or avoid it altogether. Bill Clinton guided NATO air strikes in Kosovo. George W. Bush vigorously pursued war in Iraq. Obama avoided war in Syria, but launched air strikes in multiple countries.

Last week, I wrote about some potential countries Donald Trump could go to war with/in, but one country deserves it’s own post: Iran. The election of Donald Trump makes a potential war with Iran much more likely.

The (Yuge!) Potential Costs of a War with Iran

A lot of media coverage discusses “Will we go to war with Iran?”. But that’s framing the issue incorrectly, as we’ve bemoaned in our coverage of a war with Iran. The more important question is “How bad could this be?”, so we’ll start there.

We’ve done a ton of writing about a war with Iran. We wrote a whole paper at the Small Wars Journal based on our series of posts on the subject. And recently repeated our thoughts as Iran hit the news again last month. We bring this up because, even as the drums start to beat for war with Iran, cable news, broadcast news, and print media almost entirely fail/failed to mention that a war means dead American troops, dead Iranian troops and civilians, and possibly dead American civilians. And potentially dead civilians throughout the Middle East.   

One could counter: look at Afghanistan, Panama, Iraq (twice); didn’t we dominate those wars?

Iran is a different, more difficult country to wage war in than our previous two overseas military excursions. Iraq had a military, but Iran’s is vastly superior in almost every category. Afghanistan is large and rugged, but Iran is larger and rugged-er. Iran also has more people and land mass than both those two countries combined, not to mention a more stable political system.

I can’t see the future, and if past wars are any example, no one can. But I can look at the risks, and as a former intelligence officer—I’ll repeat this for emphasis: as a person who used to do this very work for the U.S. Army—the possibilities of a war with Iran are terrifying.

To start, Iran could use its unconventional navy to down aircraft carriers. They have an armada of speed boats armed with torpedoes, designed to overwhelm our large ship’s defenses.

Or Iran’s anti-aircraft weaponry could prove much more effective than anything we have seen, downing many more aircraft than we lost in Iraq. Iran has better anti-aircraft weaponry than either Afghanistan or Iraq possessed. We could eventually defeat these, but airmen could die in the process.

If our troops hit the ground, we’d deal with both conventional and unconventional attacks on multiple highways of death. Iran wouldn’t fight us straight up. Harassing attacks would be the order of the day. They’ll could take the lessons learned from Iraq and Afghanistan as models, improving on techniques that hampered our counter-insurgency efforts and apply them to this conflict. (Many IRGC troops probably practiced these techniques from firsthand experience.) Our helicopters would have to deal with those same anti-aircraft weapons.

Which isn’t to say American air, naval and ground forces wouldn’t “win” a war with Iran. We would. Eventually. But the invasion could shatter casualty records not seen since the Korean war. And then we would have to conduct “stability operations” which at least three wars (Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq) have shown the U.S. military doesn’t do very well. Especially since we’d be overthrowing a democratically elected government, which may come as a surprise to casual viewers of the news. Given that overthrowing a democratically elected leader in Iran started the entire conflict, winning hearts and minds will be much harder than Iraq or Afghanistan.

And that’s the “conventional” side of it. Iran could start flinging missiles around the Middle East. Or launch targeted terror campaigns, either individual assassinations or bombings in retaliation. Or it could have a way to block the Straits of Hormuz of the Persian/Arabian Gulf, which could send the global price of oil skyrocketing, with disastrous effects.

Those are the first order effects. Just the initial things we could see happening. A failed occupation could spawn new generations of terrorists. Or US intervention could send allies scrambling to create new counter-alliances to counter another American invasion of another sovereign country without broad international support. Why would our allies abandon us this time? Because we had a signed international deal that made this whole war unnecessary. (We loathe people invoking Munich, but it is useful to note that Hitler was the one who tore up agreements with his allies.)

Why The Trump Administration Makes War With Iran More Likely

First, Trump has advisors with an expressed anti-Iran leaning. CIA chief Mike Pompeo. Steve Bannon. (Formerly General Flynn in the NSA.) Even General Mattis, a moderate in his administration, is an ardent Iran opponent. Each has advocated for war with Iran at one time or another. If Congress will give Trump his war, these advisers will make it happen. It is unclear how the new National Security Advisor, General H.R. McMaster, feels, but also unclear how much influence he has. (The analogy here is the George W. Bush administration, which was filled with anti-Iraq voices and we saw what happened there.)

Second, Trump doesn’t understand international diplomacy as opposed to deal making. Trump’s ego thinks he could make a better deal with Iran than Obama did. He can’t. Donald Trump comes from a world where he could pick and choose his deals and partners. Part of his success was making an awful deal, reneging on his promises, then moving on to another sap to make the next deal. The problem is Iran already has a deal with America and tearing it up has consequences. Donald Trump can’t just declare bankruptcy and move on to the next deal, though he believes he can.

Third, the war hawks in Congress have his ear. By this I mean the never-satisfied former neo-cons (and pseudo-realists) who always search for the next dragon to slay. When the Russians went away as enemies at the end of the Cold War, they looked to the “Axis of Evil” to fill the vacuum. Some war hawks in Congress just want to have enemies. For conservatives like Senator Tom Cotton or columnist Charles Krauthammer, Iran fills the void

Fourth, Trump’s campaign had strong backing from pro-Israeli groups. One of the biggest drivers of anti-Iran sentiment is a variety of pro-Israeli think tanks in Washington D.C. from the Heritage Foundation to the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies. (Which I should really do a post on. The FDD is allegedly about defending all democracies, but mainly publishes papers critical of Iran, which has as much claim to democracy as Israel. And way more than Saudi Arabia, who the FDD hasn’t ever mentioned as a threat to democracy.) This think tank works with SuperPACs to push both the ideology and the money backing pro-Israeli policies, which include a possible war with Iran.

Fifth, Donald Trump has a tendency to say and do rash things. My evidence? The campaign. Want more evidence? His first month in office, including putting Iran “on notice”. In the high stakes world of international diplomacy, this isn’t good. I fully believe if Iran had captured US sailors during the Trump administration, we would have gone to war. When air strikes can be launched in hours without Congressional approval (this isn’t 100% legal, but definitely true), a rash leader could cause huge problems.

Sixth, we’ve already seen the drums for war starting pounding. It took less than a week for him to insult Iran, and the escalation started. Just look at the CNN breakdown of relations between Iran and America since Trump started his administration.

Not one of those six reasons has to do with protecting America or its ally Israel. They are about forces who want to go to war or a personality that isn’t suited to international diplomacy. I just don’t see a world where Donald Trump rationally assesses threats and expectations about a war with Iran (or any country) and that’s what makes it so likely.

The sad part about writing this? It doesn’t have to be this way. The Iranian deal is diplomacy at its finest and it is already working. In an optimistic time, it would be a sign of a better world. But we don’t live in those times, and now we may have to pay a price.


          South East Europe Six: Growth, please!        

Just six months ago, in the previous South East Europe Regular Economic Report (SEE RER) covering the six Western Balkan countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia (SEE6), we looked at the double-dip recession in this region, and structural policies needed for recovery.
 
Now, we are happy to report that recovery is, indeed, under way in each of these countries. In 2013, the SEE6 region is projected to grow 1.7 percent, thus ending the double-dip recession of 2012. Electricity, agriculture, and even some exports are helping with this rebound of output. Kosovo is leading the pack with a growth rate of 3.1 percent, with Serbia (which accounts for nearly half of the region’s GDP) expected to grow by 2 percent on the heels of increased FDI, exports, and a return to normal agricultural crops. (In 2012, by contrast, agricultural output in Serbia dropped 20 percent on account of a severe drought). Albania, FYR Macedonia, and Montenegro are all expected to grow by between 1.2-1.6 percent. Rounding out this group is Bosnia and Herzegovina – with expected growth of 0.5 percent.
 
So, are things finally looking up in the Balkans? Not exactly.

Figure 1: SEE6 Unemployment Rates, 2012



Source: LFS data and ILO. Kosovo’s tentative data suggest unemployment as high as 35 percent.


          Borderline Christianity        

During Mass each Wednesday at Casa Juan Diego in Houston, immigrants speak of not eating for days, having nothing to drink for a week, seeing people die of thirst or because they drank irrigation water with chemicals in it.

"The journey north to the border is a real Way of the Cross," says Mark Zwick, who with his wife, Louise, founded the Casa, a Catholic Worker House. "Most of the men are robbed on the way here. The majority of the women, I would bet, are violated. A man who has cancer of the eyelids but came because he has to earn money for his family said: 'It is an awful journey coming here.'"

But on this Way of the Cross there are also Simons of Cyrene who help shoulder the burden and Veronicas who wipe away the blood and tears-people who, like the Zwicks, help the immigrants, who take them into their homes.

Though for most immigrants that Calvary begins in Mexico or Central and South America, for others it begins in Angola, Rwanda, Pakistan, China, or other places where death stalks. Ruben Garcia, founder and director of Annunciation House in El Paso, which provides hospitality and other services to immigrants, says: "As Kosovo is torn apart, eventually you see refugees from Kosovo on the El Paso border. It is an incredible journey but not really different from that of a Guatemalan or a Salvadoran. Whether they are from Iran or Bulgaria, Guatemala or Ecuador, they say: 'We have to migrate to survive.'"

As happened to Jesus, the journey all too often ends in death. Death comes on a deceptive stretch of the Rio Grande, by drowning, or in the deserts, where people succumb to extreme cold or heat, or to hunger and thirst. Bullets fired by U.S. Border Patrol guards or vigilantes bring down others.

Since Operation Gatekeeper began in 1994-a policy that doubled the size of the border patrol and sealed off the easiest crossings with steel walls and sophisticated surveillance technology-more than 600 immigrants have died trying to enter California. During 1998, 1999, and 2000, the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Relations counted 1,186 deaths along both sides of the entire 2,000-mile U.S.-Mexican border. (During the same time, the U.S. Border Patrol counted 861 deaths on the U.S. side alone.) The toll has risen so alarmingly that, according to news reports, border patrol guards are now receiving training in first aid and carrying water and high-energy bars to aid those in trouble.

Death, in some ways similar and in other ways different, also overtakes many in the unending stream of migrants from Mexico's interior to its burgeoning border cities. Juarez-its 1.5 million population already three times as large as that of its sister city of El Paso across the Rio Grande-receives 100 new residents every day. In the past seven years, 196 people disappeared and 215 women between the ages of 17 and 25 were murdered, crimes that remain unsolved. Maryknoll Father Paul Masson, who works in Our Lord of the Afflicted Parish, tells of a young couple stoned to death by juveniles, of a young woman attacked in her home, of a 7-year-old child kidnapped.

 But there is another kind of death in the shacks of cardboard, scrap wood, or cinder block clinging precipitously to hillsides or dotting the barren desert and lacking pota-ble water, sewers, or paved streets. It is the crucifixion of an entire people by the global economy. Assembly plants, called maquiladoras, employing hundreds of thousands and owned by U.S., European, and Japanese companies, pay workers only $3.50 to $5 a day, a wage that does not even begin to cover the most basic necessities of life.

Mercy Sister Betty Campbell and Carmelite Father Peter Hinde, founders of a community of contemplation and political action called Tabor House and living in a barrio of maquiladora workers in Juarez, say it takes three maquiladora wages to support a family.

No room in the inn?
In December each year hundreds of people gather for a religious ceremony at the place where the steel wall dividing Mexico and the United States goes into the Pacific Ocean. Those from Mexico ask for refuge and the U.S. group responds, "We cannot let you in." The ceremony is a modern-day twist on the posadas, a Latin tradition dramatizing the search of Joseph and Mary for refuge on the night Jesus was born.

Last December, the participants-organized in the U.S. by the Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights (ICIR), an organization with chapters throughout California, and in Mexico by the Scalabrini Fathers-read the names of the more than 600 people who died trying to cross into California since 1994.

"We try to connect the search of Joseph and Mary for a place for the child to be born with the rejection that many immigrants experience crossing the border," says Franciscan Brother Ed Dunn, a member of ICIR from San Diego.

On All Souls Day, in Mexico called the Day of the Dead, Catholics from both sides of the border gather for Mass at the fence between Anapra and Sunland Park, New Mexico. On the California border the bishops of Mexicali and Tijuana join the representatives of the ICIR in a vigil. During Lent, groups in El Paso and Juarez reenact the Way of the Cross. The underlying message of all these observances is that the border demands a response from people of faith.

At their annual meeting in November, the U.S. bishops approved a resolution urging revision of immigration laws and policies in order to legalize the maximum number of undocumented persons and respect the human dignity and human rights of all immigrants. Specifically, they asked for changes to 1996 laws that undermine due process rights, limit protection of asylum seekers, and severely restrict public benefits for legal immigrants. "At the advent of a new Congress and new administration, now is a good time to reevaluate our nation's immigration laws and policies," the resolution states.

Meanwhile, the Way of the Cross continues. The Simons and Veronicas dispense hospitality at Casa Juan Diego and Annunciation House, advocate for political asylum at an organization called Las Americas in El Paso, and struggle for human rights in the American Friends Service Committee border project in southern California.

Some Simons and Veronicas represent parishes along the border or as far away as Independence, Missouri. Others are missionaries-religious and laypeople-from Maryknoll, the Columbans, Claretians, Marists, and other groups, and some are freelancers like Mexican Dr. San Juana Mendoza Bruce, an obstetrician who has set up a rudimentary clinic built on a landfill over a former dump in Juarez.

"I am an independent worker of the Lord,"

Mendoza Bruce says, explaining that she is a full-time volunteer, dividing her time between the clinic at the dump and another one at Anapra, a dusty barrio on the barren desert on the northwest edge of Juarez.

"My husband provides my daily bread and pays my expenses. Our monthly budget includes a portion for the mission." Her husband, Charles Bruce, who has a doctorate in physics and does research at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, built the two clinics where his wife works. "I tell him he is a man of a thousand skills," says Mendoza Bruce. "He is a carpenter, an electrician, a welder, and a plumber."

Other Simons and Veronicas can commit only their weekends, vacations, or perhaps a year like a 72-year-old retired man working as a volunteer at Annunciation House. But they are all drawn to the border by the conviction that they are taking part in something that is very important, as Maryknoll lay missioner Susan Tollefson put it. 

In Juarez, Casa Peregrino, founded in 1989 by Garcia of Annunciation House, helps Mexico's internal migrants find jobs, child-care, and housing and has a program for abused women. The Community of the Holy Spirit, a mission founded for rag pickers, sells food at less than wholesale cost, provides free medical and dental care, and has a day-care center. Tollefson founded and runs the only Montessori school for the poor in Juarez.

The mission with the widest scope, however, may be that of St. Mark Parish in Independence, Missouri, now in its 17th year and started when a group from the parish responded to an invitation from Garcia.

The parish invests nearly $70,000 a year in Juarez. "This is totally funded by the parishioners themselves; it does not come from a line item in the parish budget," says Deacon Ross Beaudoin, founder of the mission. "The parish paid my salary, but I had other responsibilities, too. But as far as the direct work of the mission, that has come from the parishioners. A mission board of eight guides it."

Jim Kennedy, a retiree from the Missouri Department of Social Services became the director last year when Beaudoin went to work for the diocese. He says the parish's 1,900 families "are all very middle of the road, neither poor nor rich, just working class people."

Beaudoin says it was difficult at first because parishioners simply did not understand. "We would have raffles, bake sales, and carwashes. Nowadays we sell trash bags ('Mission is our bag') but mostly for public relations. Ninety percent of the money comes from direct donations, at least 15 percent from outside the parish and from as far away as Rochester, New York; Chicago; and Albuquerque, New Mexico. It has touched people way beyond the parish." Moreover, the parish also has a mission in Chinle, Arizona, serving Navajos, and in New Rochelle, New York, helping families of men who are in prison.

St. Mark's has two long-term missioners in Anapra, currently Kelly O'Brien and Michael Anderson. It provides scholarships to about 100 children beginning in primary grades and continuing through college. "After 6th grade the school fees run about $60 a month and $120 in high school," Kennedy says. "The families cannot afford them." The mission also pays for supplies at a dental clinic for the rag pickers and the salaries of two medical assistants at Mendoza Bruce's clinic in Anapra.

In 1997 St. Mark's built Casa de La Cruz, a large cinder block building to house various activities, its permanent missioners, and the constant stream of visitors from the parish. "We give classes in English, typing, and computer skills," Kennedy says. "The students also do their homework there. Over the years we have built about 40 cinder block houses. Five local women decide what families get assistance or houses. Every two weeks they buy a supply of rice, beans, and pasta to distribute to the most needy families. They coordinate our efforts."

Students from Jesuit Rockhurst College go there on their spring break. In May another group checks the hearing, sight, weight, and height of about 400 children. High school students, mainly confirmation candidates, go in family-size groups in the summer for two weeks to do service projects.

By now, between 200 and 300 families have participated directly in the mission. "There is a mutual sharing back and forth," Beaudoin says. "Over the years parishioners have found that their view of the world has changed, their understanding of injustice and poverty, of the reality of the border. They have found their own lives transformed by sharing in the lives of the people of Anapra, whom they see as 'our friends, our brothers and sisters, our families in Anapra.' Their beautiful sense of community, their tremendous discernment skill, has been a great lesson for all of us. Decision by consensus is the buzzword here; in Anapra they really do it."

"I was a stranger, ..."
Among the Simons and Veronicas on the U.S. side one can even find officials of the border patrol and of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) who maintain a respectful distance from Casa Juan Diego and Annunciation House, allowing them to operate.

"We are really breaking the law by working with undocumented people," admits Zwick in Houston. Recently the INS sent 31 Chinese to Casa Juan Diego. When Hurricane Mitch devastated Central America in 1999 and President Clinton suspended deportations to that area, the INS sent about 100 Central Americans each day for five days. "We housed them in a big old warehouse," Zwick says. "A motel donated 100 mattresses. Since then, the INS has been quite comfortable sending us people."

Casa Juan Diego also provides hospitality in Matamoros across the Rio Grande from Brownsville, Texas, in a community outside of Mexico City, and in Tecun Uman, Guatemala. In Matamoros, 70 communities in the huge parish of Nuestra Señora de Lourdes take turns staffing what Zwick describes as a "bed and breakfast." In Tecun Uman, there are two houses for people deported from Mexico, one for women and one for men built with help from the Scalabrini Fathers. In Mexico and Guatemala, the Oblate Sisters of the Most Holy Redeemer collaborate in the operation of the houses.

In Houston, Casa Juan Diego averages between 125 and 150 guests each day. It has a house for women and one for men and a dozen apartments for families of deported men, who were jailed for trying to enter the U.S. a second time or for a traffic violation.

"We have two clinics, one open two days a week and the other three days," Zwick says. "These are very important. The undocumented cannot get medication. They can go to the emergency room and the kids can go to school, but that is about the limit of services. We deal with a lot of people in the community who can't get Medicaid, don't have insurance or money to go to a doctor. Our medical care for the poor has increased markedly. We spend about $150,000 a year for medicine and prostheses for men who lost their legs jumping from trains.

"We need $2,000 a day just to survive," Zwick says. Some of the funds come from the 63,000 people all over the United States who receive the Houston Catholic Worker newspaper Zwick edits. But most of the funds come from the local Catholic community, Zwick says. The diocese allows the Zwicks to speak in three parishes each year. "A local family foundation gave us $10,000. The clergy, when they die, remember us in their wills. The Sisters of Charity also help us. There is a lot of help from all over. We can't complain about a lack of support."

The 1996 immigration law allowed the "expedited removal" (without a hearing before an immigration judge) of 76,000 asylum seekers in 1998. But refugees still come from all over the world and Annunciation House's Casa Vides, established to provide long-term housing for asylum cases, still has an average daily population of 20.

At an old hotel in downtown El Paso, the INS detains about 40 juveniles, generally between 14 and 16 years of age but some as young as 12, who have come by themselves. A recent class action suit has forced the INS to allow these youths, most of them from Central America, to live with relatives in the U.S. while their cases are adjudicated. Staff members of Las Americas interview each of these detainees within 10 days of their apprehension to see if there is a legal remedy. About 80 percent are eventually sent to live at least temporarily with relatives.

Planting seeds
As touching and inspiring as the work of the Simons and Veronicas is, it does not, after all, prevent the migrant and the immigrant from being condemned to the Way of the Cross. That is why many groups, including the ICIR, the Maryknoll Border Project, and Annunciation House, have consciousness-raising programs.

The ICIR gives workshops in parishes, churches, and synagogues. "We focus on the migrant face of God and we do theological-scriptural background on our call to welcome the stranger," Brother Dunn says. "The most powerful part is when participants share their own immigrant stories." These workshops are trying to change the notion that the migrant or the immigrant is an alien, a word often used to refer to a life form from another planet.

ICIR representatives have been urging INS officials to allow them to undertake human rights training for border patrol agents.

"They have been willing to start the process," Dunn says. "But I think it is going to take a few more meetings even to get them to agree on the curriculum. The negotiations are like the peace process in the Middle East."

Annunciation House focuses on the link between the miserable wages maquiladora workers get and consumerism in the United States. Garcia, who hosts about 15 delegations annually from universities such as Notre Dame, Georgetown, Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia, says, "Most come with the idea that the issue is immigration and how well the border patrol functions. Here they realize that the issues are much broader and complex. They leave with an intimate sense that the pair of shoes they are wearing has something to do with all of this and that they are not disinterested observers.

"I think we are planting seeds that later on are going to affect how people participate in society and will have an effect on legislation and policy."

One Veronica's conversion
Destroying the stereotypes Americans have of Mexicans is another challenge. "We Americans have the illusion that if Mexicans just worked a little harder and cleaned their houses better, everything would be fine," Tollefson says. Finding a different truth changed the life of Kay Spinella of Boerne, Texas and the other members of a five-family delegation that visited families in Juarez in a tour led by Maryknoll lay missioner West Cosgrove. "These families were working very hard," Spinella says. "They just weren't being paid enough."

The Spinellas had moved to Texas from Westchester County, New York, where they did not have a large house. Finding building costs much more favorable in Boerne, Spinella says she "got carried away." She and her husband built a house with four and a half bathrooms, a swimming pool, a hot tub, and five bedrooms-one for themselves, one for each of their three children (two of whom do not live there), and one for guests.

Six weeks after returning from Juarez, they sold the house and bought a smaller one. "I just couldn't live there any more," Spinella says. "I felt so greedy. Here we had three empty bedrooms, and the families we met in Juarez were living in one room."

Resolving not to forget what they had seen in Juarez, the five families formed a mission council in their parish, St. Peter, and persuaded their pastor, Father Tony Cummins, to start a sister relationship with Santa Maria de Los Angeles Parish in Juarez.

When Thanksgiving came, some of the families drove about 550 miles to Juarez to share their feast with families they met there. St. Peter's sponsors 30 students in Juarez, at an annual cost of $400 each, so they can continue their schooling beyond the sixth grade. When St. Peter's built a new church, it sent the old pews, baptismal font, and Stations of the Cross to Santa Maria. It also donated an ultrasound machine to the parish clinic.

Moreover, Spinella and another mission council member give classes in English as a second language to poor Mexican immigrant families in a mobile home park in Boerne. Spinella also organized a chapter of the Maryknoll Affiliates, people who do mission work in their own neighborhoods. The Spinellas are converting a stall in their garage into a room to provide temporary sanctuary to immigrants.

What may be the most important benefit, however, is the continuing dialogue and exchange. Nine of the Juarez scholarship students have visited Boerne and stayed with families with children their own age. The pastor of Santa Maria has visited St. Peter's several times and addressed the congregation. Mission council members visit the parish in Juarez at least twice a year. A sense of solidarity and friendship grows.

Perhaps the most thankless work on the border is the struggle for human rights, carried out principally by the American Friends Service Committee's border project, headed since 1983 by Roberto Martinez, a fifth-generation Mexican American.

With a small staff, Martinez documents abuses, talks to victims, monitors high-speed chases that have killed dozens and injured hundreds of immigrants, and brings violations to the attention of federal officials. On at least 10 occasions over the years he has received death threats from individuals or groups, including one from the Ku Klux Klan and a local militia.

Four years ago he was wondering how long he could endure. "But every time I ask myself why I am doing this, thinking that I have to get out, one more person comes in injured," Martinez says. "I see the pain and suffering and think I am not doing too badly. I just have to deal with the mental anguish.

There are so few voices out there to protect the immigrants. If I can do something to make their lives better, I should do it."

Martinez is still there fighting human rights violations. He says agents on the border often detain U.S. citizens who are Latinos, confiscating their birth certificates and sometimes actually deporting them. "I sent over 50 complaints to the INS and customs asking why they are violating the rights of U.S. citizens who are born here," he says. "This is racial profiling. There is a double standard of justice. We are considering a class-action suit."

Martinez and the other Simons and Veronicas would agree with the conclusion of the bishops' 2000 resolution on immigration reform: "At the threshold of a new millennium, our nation must revisit its historic roots and reexamine attitudes, laws, and policies toward newcomers who come to our land in search of a better life. We call upon all Catholics and citizens of good will to heed our Lord's call and challenge: 'For I was a stranger, and you welcomed me' (Matt. 25:35)."

Image: 

          Famous People With “Fadil Hoxha”        
Born 1916-03-15. Fadil Hoxha, Kosovar commander and politician, 2nd President of Kosovo (d. 2001)
          Le Parole più ricercate in WIkipedia        
Ecco, ce l'ho fatta! Vi presento l'elenco delle parole più ricercate in Wikipedia nel mese di febbraio 2008.
Questa volta l'elenco è riferito agli articoli ITALIANI, questo vi può aiutare molto nel scrivere uno Knol che susciti interesse e che quindi massimizi e vostri ricarvi.

Riporto le prime 150, se qualcuno volesse le altre lo chieda


Le parole più ricecate in Wikipedia

Rank Article Page views
1 Pagina principale 17986714
2 Speciale:Ricerca 16047813
3 Speciale:PaginaCasuale 789150
4 Speciale:Search 664719
5 Special:Search 531674
6 Immagine:Wikiquote-logo-15px.png 376131
7 Special:Export 308064
8 Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio 268774
9 Speciale:OsservatiSpeciali 204568
10 Wiki 171994
11 Lost 154352
12 Naruto 151839
13 Italia 150857
14 Wikipedia 146885
15 Speciale:UltimeModifiche 141981
16 Wikipedia:Vetrina 102056
17 Aiuto:Benvenuto 80010
18 Episodi di Naruto: Shippūden 79808
19 YouTube 79716
20 EMule 77963
21 Wikipedia:Bar 76369
22 EMule Adunanza 75536
23 Cloverfield 75278
24 I Cesaroni 74471
25 Kosovo 73923
26 Pene 73242
27 Dr. House - Medical Division 70909
28 San Valentino 69803
29 Roma 69528
30 Emo 69346
31 Masturbazione 67891
32 Silvio Berlusconi 64277
33 Wikipedia:Trama 64195
34 Wikipedia:Cita le fonti 63404
35 Episodi di Lost (quarta stagione) 60790
36 Prima guerra mondiale 59683
37 Episodi di Naruto 57438
38 Aiuto:Aiuto 56957
39 The O.C. 56886
40 Walter Veltroni 56540
41 Foibe 53246
42 Seconda guerra mondiale 53082
43 Episodi di Dr. House - Medical Division (quarta stagione) 50141
44 Vagina 50108
45 Wikipedia:Wikipediano 48345
46 Harry Potter 48185
47 Sesso orale 48048
48 Mononucleosi infettiva 47946
49 Dante Alighieri 47258
50 Stati Uniti d'America 46794
51 Leonardo da Vinci 46757
52 Milano 46008
53 Francia 44779
54 Vincent van Gogh 44692
55 Spagna 44209
56 Carnevale 42995
57 Categoria:Scienze matematiche, fisiche e naturali 42742
58 BitTorrent 42152
59 Speciale:Export 42052
60 2008 41909
61 Posizioni sessuali 41851
62 Londra 41298
63 Fascismo 41227
64 Johnny Depp 40886
65 Europa 40853
66 Cuore 40809
67 Parigi 40565
68 Tokio Hotel 40426
69 Desperate Housewives 39633
70 Rocco Siffredi 39600
71 Germania 39572
72 Zac Efron 39227
73 Sesso anale 38991
74 Immagine:RedDot.png 38560
75 Coordinate bancarie 38478
76 Una mamma per amica 38420
77 Naruto Uzumaki 38036
78 Vasco Rossi 37768
79 Benito Mussolini 37696
80 Amy Winehouse 37643
81 Napoli 37531
82 Settimo cielo (serie televisiva) 37457
83 Caravaggio 36927
84 Mahatma Gandhi 36682
85 Portale:Musica 36360
86 Clitoride 36328
87 Unione Europea 36279
88 Amici di Maria De Filippi 36152
89 Queen 35959
90 Portale:Matematica 35546
91 Organizzazione Alba 35485
92 Array 35447
93 Olocausto 35423
94 Dinosauri 35227
95 Barack Obama 35107
96 Immagine:Wikimedia-logo.svg 34878
97 Pornografia 34744
98 Sylvester Stallone 34389
99 Cina 34186
100 Portale:Medicina 34129
101 Michelangelo Buonarroti 34071
102 Acqua 33881
103 Amore 33780
104 Michael Jackson 33618
105 I promessi sposi 33282
106 Galileo Galilei 33274
107 Papillomavirus 33213
108 Pink Floyd 33170
109 Giovanni Pascoli 32983
110 Pasqua 32736
111 Locuzioni latine 32619
112 Giovanni Verga 32474
113 William Shakespeare 32381
114 2007 32350
115 Quaresima 32344
116 Associazione Calcio Milan 32308
117 Aiuto:Ricerca 32287
118 Giappone 32258
119 Sicilia 31949
120 Mafia 31829
121 Lingua italiana 31793
122 Venezia 31657
123 Africa 31589
124 The Beatles 31225
125 Sistema elettorale 31126
126 Heath Ledger 31025
127 Hunter x Hunter 30805
128 New York 30782
129 Massoneria 30626
130 Template:Quote/man 30625
131 Orgasmo 30570
132 Baustelle 30532
133 Luigi Pirandello 30452
134 Sasuke Uchiha 30423
135 Napoleone Bonaparte 30394
136 Speciale:Carica 30365
137 Rivoluzione francese 30246
138 Britney Spears 30236
139 Rino Gaetano 30008
140 Bob Marley 29809
141 Pablo Picasso 29766
142 Metallica 29630
143 Svizzera 29510
144 Premio Oscar 29499
145 Speciale:PagineSpeciali 29270
146 Wikipedia:Contatti 29040
147 Luciano Ligabue 29016
148 Stati Uniti d'America 28999
149 One Piece 28954
150 Pornostar
          Belgrad sucht Lösung für Hauptproblem auf Weg in EU        
Serbiens Präsident Alexandar Vučić hat einen gesamtnationalen Dialog zum Kosovo initiiert. Damit will er das bislang größte Problem auf dem Weg zum EU-Beitritt lösen, schreibt die Zeitung „Kommersant“ am Mittwoch.
          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Through the mill: Rehabs haven’t been 
easy in the Great Recession         
The former Premiere Manufacturing Knitting Co. plant in Morganton has a new lease on life, since it’s now home to City Hall and residential and commercial properties. About 10 years ago, the 100,000-square-foot Burke County building was a decaying hulk at the edge of the central business district. “People called it Kosovo,” said Sally Sandy, ...
          Stuck In Transition        
The EBRD Transition Report for 2013, published last November, was entitled Stuck in Transition? By the time of the EBRD Annual Meeting of 14-15 May 2014 the cosmetic question mark was no longer appropriate.

In 1991 the EBRD – European Bank for Reconstruction and Development – was set up in London in order to assist the post-socialist transition countries, and to promote their sustainable development as open market economies. Initially the EBRD operated in 28 countries: the 15 Republics from the Former Soviet Union, 6 countries from Central-Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia), 5 Republics from Former Yugoslavia, plus Albania and Mongolia.  Soon the Czech Republic was declared to have completed its transition and dropped out, but two additional members from the further split of Former Yugoslavia were added: Kosovo and Montenegro. Then 6 countries from Eastern and Southern Mediterranean were added, assimilated to transition economies because of similar problems of stabilization, re-structuring, and the change of their political and economic institutions: Cyprus; Turkey; Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia. Today the EBRD has 35 countries of operation, and 66 shareholders. Next Libya is lined up for membership.

Since 1994 the EBRD has published in November every year a Transition Report, monitoring economic and institutional developments and constructing synthetic indices summarizing the progress of individual countries in various aspects of their transition process. In November 2013 their Transition Report was entitled: Stuck in Transition?, with a cosmetic question mark at the end. The Report acknowledged that since the mid-2000s the reform process seemed to have stagnated in transition countries, actually registering some reversals reflected in the “downgrading” of EBRD indices. The inflow of Foreign Direct Investment had slowed down and in some countries was reversed, also as a result of the end of US Monetary Easing pre-announced by Ben Bernanke. Economic growth, as a result of the 2008-2009 global crisis and the Eurozone Crisis of 2011-2012, had slowed down to well below pre-crisis levels: only 2% was expected in 2013. Productivity growth - under current policies and institutions – was going to be modest during the current decade and decline further in the next decade: therefore economic convergence with developed countries was at risk. Further economic reform meets social, political, human and capital constraints.

But for the EBRD Stuck In Transition? was only a rhetorical question. The preannounced end of US Monetary Easing did not materialise under Bernanke or his successor Janet Yellen. The Eurozone Crisis was countered by the ECB unorthodox new measures introduced by Mario Draghi. FDI was bound to resume its course. In November 2013 economic growth in the area was projected to accelerate to 2.7% in 2014. There was said to be a virtuous circle between democratization and institutional development, and between the progress of institutions and economic growth. For the EBRD all was well really in the Transition.

The question mark may or may not have been justified in November 2013, but by the time of the EBRD Annual Meeting in Warsaw on 14-15 May 2014 it undoubtedly was no longer appropriate. The virtuous circle between institutional development and economic performance would turn into a vicious circle if exogenous shocks adversely affected either factor. In 15 of the EBRD countries of operation, as a result of the global crisis, public opinion had turned against market reforms, especially in the more democratic countries, thus breaking the link between democratization and the development of institutions. “Private capital flows to the transition region as a whole had remained relatively low and a continuation of cross-border deleveraging was delaying the resumption of credit growth” (EBRD, May 2014). Turkey took a turn for the worse, with widespread political unrest and its violent repression, and associated economic slowdown. There were adverse political developments and serious new economic problems in Egypt. And above all the confrontation between Russia and Ukraine caused a slowdown in Russia (with consequent rouble devaluation and stock exchange fall) and a recession in Ukraine, which adversely affected other Central European countries, especially the Baltics and Serbia. The end of recession in Slovenia is not enough of a compensatory factor.

The latest EBRD growth forecasts for 2014 in the transition area have been cut back from 2.7% to 1.4%, and an improvement to 1.9% in 2015 was regarded as possible but problematic. The EBRD most likely outcome is near zero growth in Russia this year and minimal growth in 2015, and in Ukraine a 7% decline this year and stagnation next year. But the EBRD worst-case scenario is extremely worrying: the implementation of threatened economic sanctions against Russia would immediately precipitate a Russian recession, and bring growth in the whole area to a complete halt, with serious contagion implications for the entire global economy.

On 26 July in Saint Petersburg Professor Ruslan Grinberg, Director of the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciances, convened a Founding Conference with the purpose of setting up a new Centre for the Economic and Socio-Cultural Development of the CIS and Central-Eastern Europe.  Against the background illustrated above a renewed focus on these countries, with their distinctive features due to the common Soviet-type starting model, is undoubtedly most opportune, timely, indeed absolutely necessary.

In brief, the Agenda of such a Centre ought to include a re-consideration of alternative models of capitalism other than the hyper-liberal, crony [“oligarch” in Russian] capitalism that has prevailed in the transition; re-thinking the role of the State in the transition process, re-vamping its functions in market regulation and the very creation of market institutions, infrastructure investment, the financing of research and innovation, the alleviation of poverty and unemployment and the guarantee of social peace.  On this last point the EBRD 2013 Report rightly lays great emphasis on the need for “economic inclusion” for the success of any market economy. Inclusion is understood as broad access to economic opportunities regardless of gender, social class and urban/rural background, especially for young adults. 

More generally, intellectual inspiration could be drawn from the comparative analysis of transition experiences to-date but also from recent publications including for instance Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2013), Mariana Mazzucato’s The Entrepreneurial State (2011) and Grzegoz Kolodko’s monumental work on transition and on globalization. Inter-disciplinarity is essential. We wish Professor Grinberg every success with his new venture.

          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Das neue Deutschland        

SWR2: "Es ist Wahlkampf. Möglicherweise werden bald sieben Parteien im Bundestag sitzen – so viele wie nie zu vor. Doch wofür steht Deutschland heute? Nach Wirtschaftswunder und Wiedervereinigung ist Deutschland heute so stark wie nie zuvor: das bevölkerungsreichste und wirtschaftlich erfolgreichste Land in Europa. Welche Rolle spielt unser Land in der Welt – und welches Bild hat die Welt von uns?" Weiter

01. Der mächtige Vermittler (mp3)
Deutschland gibt in der EU den Ton an. Der gefällt vor allem nicht allen Nachbarn. Dabei sind die Erwartungen an Deutschlands Rolle enorm.

02. Touristenattraktion - Warum wir sehenswürdig sind (mp3)
Deutschland gilt seit einigen Jahren für Reisende aus aller Welt als eines der beliebtesten Reiseziele. Doch was zieht die ausländischen Touristen an?

03. Wirtschaftsmacht - Made in Germany (mp3)
Wenig Arbeitslose, viel Export - doch Skandale bei Siemens, Deutscher Bank oder VW schaden dem Image. Auch gibt es Zweifel an der Innovationskraft der deutschen Wirtschaft.

04. Einwanderung - Was uns für Migranten attraktiv macht (mp3)
Die Bundesrepublik braucht kluge Köpfe und wirbt um qualifizierte Arbeitsmigranten. Doch ihr Weg ist gepflastert mit bürokratischen Hürden, Sprachproblemen und Heimweh.

05. Auswanderung - Schlager und Schwarzbrot in Afrika (mp3)
"Über 100.000 Deutsche ziehen jedes Jahr ins Ausland - manche für immer. Sie gelten als fleißig, ordentlich, leicht ruppig. Viele pflegen, was sie für deutsche Tradition halten."

06. Der Tugendstaat - Ordnung muss sein (mp3)
"Schnell zur Sache kommen, Ordnung schaffen: So sehen viele "die Deutschen". Würde uns etwas mehr Chaos und Kreativität guttun?"

07. Die Fußballnation (mp3)
Panzer wurde die Fußballnationalmannschaft einst genannt. Heute spielt sie weniger brachial – und steht für Deutschlands neue multikulturelle Identität."

08. Die Bundeswehr im Ausland (mp3)
Deutsche Soldaten sind im Kosovo, in Afghanistan, in der Türkei und in Mali stationiert. Welche Rolle spielt die Bundeswehr im Ausland, und wie wird sie wahrgenommen?

09. I love Grundgesetz (mp3)
Deutscher Rat ist weltweit gefragt, wenn es um den Aufbau demokratischer Strukturen geht. Lässt sich Demokratie tatsächlich exportieren?

10. Dichter und Denker (mp3)
Beethoven läuft: Deutsche Sinfonieorchester erleben selbst in Asien großen Zuspruch. Deutsche Popmusik kommt weniger gut an. Woran liegt das? Wo stößt deutsche Kultur im Ausland auf Resonanz, wo nicht? Welches Bild von Deutschland entsteht dadurch? Und welches Ziel verfolgt die auswärtige Kulturpolitik überhaupt?


          News In Brief         

The US

The White House and congressional negotiators narrowed the gap on the spending bill needed to avoid a federal shutdown, top Republicans said. But Democrats said wide gulfs remain in the $500 billion-plus omnibus measure. Education and environmental issues top their list. The House and Senate vote today on the last legislation before Congress adjourns to campaign for Nov. 3 elections.

President Clinton returned to Washington after Republicans criticized him for attending Democratic Party fund-raisers in New York while Congress grappled with the stopgap spending measure. Aides said the president canceled fund-raising appearances in Miami to be present during the negotiations.

The House approved a $9.2 billion tax cut over nine years that would extend credits for business research and for employers who hire individuals from group such as high-risk youth, ex-felons, and food-stamp recipients. A Senate plan would extend tax credits for a shorter period and include credits for employers who hire welfare recipients. Meanwhile, the White House proposed an additional $11.7 billion tax cut over nine years to the House plan, offset by a $13.1 billion tax increase.

The House unanimously approved a bill that would crack down on pedophiles who use the Internet to lure minors into sexual relations. It also would increase penalties for other crimes against children, including increasing to 15 years the maximum sentence for transporting a minor across state lines in order to engage in illegal sex or prostitution.

Three US-based scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics for discovering how electrons acting together in strong magnetic fields and extremely low temperatures can exhibit fractions of the supposedly indivisible unit electrical charge. This is like finding half a baseball. Robert Laughlin of the US, Horst Stoermer of Germany, and Daniel Tsui of China, who is now a US citizen, will share the $978,000 prize.

Uncle Sam is charging more greenbacks for green cards. The Immigration and Naturalization Service raised several of its fees affecting immigrants, including its application to apply for permanent residency from $130 to $220. But newcomers were given a reprieve on the cost of applying for citizenship: That won't change until Jan. 15, when application will soar from $95 to $225.

In a major gay-rights case, the Supreme Court let stand a voter initiative that barred Cincinnati from protecting homosexuals against discrimination. The justices, in a 6-to-3 decision, refused to hear a challenge to the controversial measure - which was approved by 62 percent of the voters in a 1993 referendum. It repealed two laws that had barred discrimination based on sexual orientation.

The court also planned to hear arguments on who should set some of the rules, such as price guidelines, when local phone markets open up to long-distance companies. Congress set a goal of opening the $100-billion industry two years ago. Now the federal government and AT&T and MCI are squaring off against state regulators and local phone companies over the competitive market. The court is expected to issue a decision next July.

American Home Products and Monsanto called off a proposed $33.5 billion merger, which would have been the biggest yet in the pharmaceutical industry. The merger, announced June 1, would have created a company with $3 billion in expected annual profits and a market value of $96 billion.

A former US Army intelligence analyst was arrested on charges of spying for Russia by allegedly passing highly classified documents to KGB agents. David Boone, who worked for the military's super-secret National Security Agency, was scheduled to appear in federal court in Alexandria, Va.

The World

NATO's capacity for air strikes against Yugoslav targets will remain in place despite the breakthrough in peace talks between President Milosevic and US envoy Richard Holbrooke, senior officials said. To stave off punitive attacks, Milosevic agreed to a withdrawal of Serb forces from Kosovo, inspections by international observers in the troubled province, reconnaissance flights by NATO planes, and opening negotiations with Albanian separatists for a peace deal.

Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu won his Cabinet's go-ahead to negotiate a land-for-peace deal with the Palestinian Authority at their three-day meeting with US diplomats beginning tomorrow outside Wash ington. A US proposal calls for Israel to yield a further 13 percent of West Bank territory in exchange for tough measures by the Palestinians against terrorism.

"Talks about talks" between China and Taiwan are scheduled to resume today after a three-year lull. Delegations from the two sides are to meet in Shanghai to try to agree on a formula for reopening the dialogue that China broke off in 1995 over Taiwan's attempt to raise its international profile. China has insisted on reunification, although Taiwan would be allowed to keep its capitalist system. Taiwan is demanding recognition as an equal with the mainland.

Senior military commanders called the loss of their last stronghold in eastern Congo a "reversal" but not the end of the war with rebels seeking to topple President Laurent Kabila. Kindu, on the Congo River, fell after an eight-day battle, blunting a counteroffensive by Kabila's troops and opening the way to mining provinces to the west and south.

A vote of no confidence in Ukraine President Leonid Kuchma appeared possible in parliament after legislators defied his plea not to debate the government's handling of the worsening national economic crisis. A simple majority is needed to approve such a motion, which - under the Constitution - would require the government to resign. Kuchma pledged not to interfere with such a vote, but said, "No political force would benefit."

Despite official promises to act on student demands, street protests spread across France, and a nationwide demonstration was scheduled for tomorrow. Some of the protests - in Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, and other cities - deteriorated into fighting and looting as students and teachers called for smaller classes, new high schools, and updated curricula. The Education Ministry has said action on some demands must wait until the 1999 academic year.

A wider welcome mat for immigrants is being put out by the government of New Zealand in a bid to speed up economic growth, reports said. They said the immigration quota would be raised from the current 35,000 a year to an unspecified level. Recruiting offices for skilled workers are to be opened in China, Russia, and South Africa, and the proficiency standard in English has been lowered. Only last year, cutting immigration was a key issue in New Zealand's elections.

By a 113-to-4 vote, members of parliament in Lebanon amended the Constitution to clear the way for the country's Army chief to become president. Gen. Emile Lahoud's accession to the post was virtually assured after his endorsement last week by Syria, which stations 35,000 troops in Lebanon. Formal election, in a follow-up vote by lawmakers, is expected tomorrow. He'd be Lebanon's first military head of state since 1964. The Constitution had required senior "public employees" to leave their jobs two years before seeking the presidency.

Etceteras

"I think it's fair to say I've had more success out in the country - and maybe out in the world - than I have in Washington, D.C." - President Clinton, joking with celebrity guests at a fund-raiser for medical research in New York.

Even the police had to laugh at the image they projected early last Sunday in northern New Jersey. As we cut to the chase, cruisers from there and New York State were in hot pursuit of a vehicle traveling at high speed at 3 a.m. after it had been hijacked. The thief drove from Morristown, N.J., to the New York State Thruway, made a U-turn, and returned to New Jersey before he was caught. He was driving a van with the Dunkin' Donuts logo. It was making deliveries when it was stolen. Said a cop: "Imagine us chasing that in broad daylight. People would think: 'What, didn't they get enough cream?' "

If you're keeping score at home, Lindsey Thompson is your new winner of Easy-Bake Oven's baker of the year contest. The Little Rock, Ark., resident's toffee trifle cake triumphed over four other finalists last week. So what, you ask? Well, Lindsey is 9, and the oven is a toy that's heated by one 100-watt light bulb.

The Day's List

Family Problems Are Top Absent-Employee Cause

For the first time in seven years, illness no longer ranks as the leading cause of absenteeism in the workplace, results of a new national survey indicate. CCH Inc., a Riverwoods, Ill.-based provider of legal and human-resource information, polled personnel managers for 401 US employers and found that "family issues" were the main reason why employees did not report for work. The top reasons, the percentage of respondents who cited each, and what their companies have found to be the most effective solutions to reduce absenteeism:

Causes

Family issues 26%

Personal illness 22%

Stress 16%

"Entitlement mentality" (taking advantage of annual sick-day limit even when not ill) 16%

Solutions

Flexible scheduling

On-site child care

Emergency child care

Compressed work-week

School-function leave

- Reuters

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          Beyond School Books Podcast 41 After the conflict, young people work to bring about social change in Kosovo        
UNICEF Radio moderator Amy Costello talks to three young people who are working in Pristina, Kosovo’s capital, to bring social change in their communities.
          BOSNIA: IL GEN. VINCENZO COPPOLA CEDE IL COMANDO DELLA MISSIONE EUPM        

Busta Ufficiale dell'uscente Comandante della Missione EUPM - Gen. C.C. Vincenzo COPPOLA - postalizzata in Italia ed inoltrata da Padova-CMP * Dalla Collezione privata di Antonello



Il 1° novembre 2008, dopo circa tre anni, il Generale dei Carabinieri Vincenzo COPPOLA cede il Comando della Missione Europea "EUPM" al tedesco Generale Stefan FELLER.


Il Gen. Vincenzo COPPOLA ha assunto il Comando della Missione il 1° gennaio 2006, precedentemente, tra gli incarichi ricoperti, è stato Capo della Unita’ di Polizia del Segretariato Generale del Consiglio della UE a Bruxelles (2001-2004) e ha già operato nei Balcani sia nell’ambito della Missione SFOR in Bosnia (1998) che della K-FOR in Kosovo (1999-2000).


          Bosnian Lessons        

What are the prospects for success in Iraq and Afghanistan? Our nation-building record in Bosnia and Kosovo isn’t encouraging.

Gordon N. Bardos

 To understand the limits of what can be achieved militarily and politically in Iraq and Afghanistan, a good starting point is looking at what we have done in Bosnia and Kosovo over the past 10-15 years. The comparison is not encouraging.


          Walk Away from the Balkans        

Washington should not give foreign-policy priority to Kosovo. Merry responds to Abramowitz and Hooper’s prescriptions.

E. Wayne Merry

Messrs. Abramowitz and Hooper have very well reviewed the state of play on Kosovo for readers who might be forgiven for not having thought about the place in years. The upcoming advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice will insert the “Kosovo question” into Western newspapers for a day or two, but few Americans are likely to consider it of even tertiary importance. As Washington turns its back on the Balkans, we might consider some lessons for our pursuits in southern Asia and for understanding developments in the Caucasus.


          A Separate Peace?        

U.S., EU ready to dissect Serbia. But Kosovo’s independence would not be a surgical solution.

Doug Bandow

Most people think of Kosovo in the past tense. Democratic critics of the Bush Administration cite Kosovo as a "good war." Allied negotiators refer to Kosovo's final status-independence in some form-as a foregone conclusion.

The Western alliance would prefer to forget the Kosovo war, having become responsible for one of the largest episodes of ethnic cleansing in the Balkans. The ninth round of U.N.-sponsored talks on Kosovo recently ended with no agreement. Observes Albert Rohan, in charge of the Vienna negotiations: "We're approaching a moment where by talking alone we won't accomplish the goal. We could talk for another ten years and not change anything."


          Letters        
Essay Types
Essay
Francis FukuyamaIan RaineyMike RoskinGary SchmittGeorge ModelskiJohn M. Owen IVEric ChenowethKenneth MinogueMax Singer

Fukuyama Responds

I HAD NOT intended to respond to Charles Krauthammer's "In Defense of Democratic Realism" (Fall 2004), since my aim was to stimulate a debate over the Bush Administration's foreign policy and not to spend time in an extended exegesis of Krauthammer's writings. I am compelled to respond, however, by one thing he wrote.

Krauthammer says I have a "novel way of Judaizing neoconservatism", and that my argument is a more "implicit and subtle" version of things said by Pat Buchanan and Mahathir Mohamad. Since he thinks the latter two are anti-Semites, he is clearly implying that I am one as well. If he really thinks this is so, he should say that openly.

What I said in my critique of his speech was, of course, quite different. I said that there was a very coherent set of strategic ideas that have come out of Israel's experience dealing with the Arabs and the world community, having to do with threat perception, pre-emption, the relative balance of carrots and sticks to be used in dealing with the Arabs, the United Nations, and the like. Anyone who has dealt with the Arab-Israeli conflict understands these ideas, and many people (myself included) believe that they were well suited to Israel's actual situation. You do not have to be Jewish to understand or adopt these ideas as your own, which is why people like Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld share them. And it is not so hard to understand how one's experience of Arab-Israeli politics can come to color one's broader view of the world: The 1975 "Zionism is racism" resolution deeply discredited the UN, in the eyes of Jews and non-Jews alike, on issues having nothing to do with the Middle East. This is not about Judaism; it is about ideas. It would be quite disingenuous of Charles Krauthammer to assert that his view of how Israel needs to deal with the Arabs (that is, the testicular route to hearts and minds) has no impact on the way he thinks the United States should deal with them. And it is perfectly legitimate to ask whether this is the best way for the United States to proceed.

I understand perfectly well that Krauthammer has a narrower interpretation of American interests than William Kristol or Robert Kagan, and that he wants to use democracy promotion primarily as a tool to achieve realist ends. I would say that both of these positions are wrong: What we need is not democratic realism, but a realistic Wilsonianism that matches means to ends better than the Bush Administration has done. Krauthammer should consider that if democracy is merely a means and not an end of our policy, we would never support Israel as strongly as we do.

Now that the partisanship of the election is past, it is important for American policymakers to sit down quietly and reflect a bit on the past four years. A lot of mistakes and poor judgment calls were made; some were by individuals and others were failures of institutions. Charles Krauthammer joins the Bush Administration in doggedly defending everything that has been said and done in U.S. foreign policy over the past three years. Let's hope this doesn't remain the pattern as we move into the first year of the new administration.

Francis Fukuyama
Johns Hopkins University

Friends in Need?

I WOULD LIKE to offer a point of clarification regarding Nikolas K. Gvosdev's and Travis Tanner's "Wagging the Dog" (Fall 2004). The authors stated: "The United States has on many occasions demonstrated its resolve to Beijing through weapons sales, public statements and deployments of the Sixth Fleet." I suspect they actually meant the Seventh Fleet, which is responsible for the Taiwan Straits. The Sixth Fleet is based in Gaeta, Italy. Its area of responsibility is Europe, Africa and Israel.

Ian Rainey
Johns Hopkins University

HANS MORGENTHAU said it in 1948, and it bears repeating here: "Never allow a weak ally to make decisions for you." Those who do "lose their freedom of action by identifying their own national interest completely with those of the weak ally."

Mike Roskin
Chair, Political Science Dept.
Lycoming College

NIKOLAS GVOSDEV and Travis Tanner would have you believe that the tail is "Wagging the Dog"; that reckless leadership by allies in Taiwan and Georgia is putting at risk the larger national security interests of their key benefactor, the United States. However, the evidence they present for this conclusion is scant at best.

They over-dramatize the actions of tiny Taiwan with respect to its enormous neighbor. How irresponsible indeed of the Taiwanese to discuss defending themselves from some 600 PRC missiles pointed their way, and how worse it is to begin amending a constitution written nearly fifty years ago for a one-party dictatorship! These changes will not, as President Chen has promised, touch on any issue that might be construed as changing the status quo in cross-Strait relations. As for Beijing accepting the current situation-China spends enormous amounts on developing a military capability to coerce Taiwan; routinely practices invasion scenarios; publicly states that it reserves the right to settle the dispute militarily if Taiwan does not agree to talks leading to unification in the near future; and works assiduously at denying Taiwan any semblance of international legitimacy.

Nor should Beijing's cooperation with the United States on non-proliferation and the War on Terror be overstated. China's cooperation on these issues has been perfunctory: No serious pressure has been applied to North Korea, Chinese companies continue to assist states like Iran with their weapons program, and the only "terrorists" Beijing sees are those who are opposed to its dictatorial ways, such as the Uighur Muslims.

With regard to Georgia and Russia, it is Putin's increasingly open accretion of authoritarian power that is creating a new rift in U.S.-Russian relations. Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili may have taken steps with which the United States was not comfortable, but no ally should be expected to ignore its own pressing national interests-especially when they involve the neutralization of three large, Russian-supported, criminal pseudo-states within the country's borders. Gvosdev and Tanner cite the tension with Russia over Abkhazia but fail to mention that the Russian government played major role in the Abkhazia problem devolving into its current dangerous state. Ultimately, U.S. national security interests lie not with placating an increasingly anti-democratic and unreliable Russia, but rather with ensuring that a democratic Georgia succeeds in becoming a beacon of hope for the rest of the region. In turn, Russia should be working with the United States and Europe to stabilize Georgia and sustain its territorial integrity, especially after the tragedy in Beslan. Such cooperation will lead to the most realistic benefits in terms of advancing the fight against terror and preventing the deadly disintegration of states in the Caucasus along ethnic lines.

If managed with common sense and a long-term strategy in mind, the United States does not have to choose between having good relations with Russia and China and supporting allies like Taiwan and Georgia. In any case, China will cooperate with the United States when Beijing decides such cooperation is in its interest, even if it is not happy with the approach of the United States toward Taiwan at any given moment. The United States should certainly avoid unnecessary acrimony with Russia, but managing the partnership does not mean always having to yield to Russian demands, especially when they conflict with America's overriding security goal of creating a democratic, stable Eurasia.

America's conception of its own vital interest is shifting. The United States has now placed at the top of its foreign policy agenda the advance of democracy in the broader Middle East and neighboring regions as a bulwark against Islamist radicalism and extremism there. Democracy and realpolitik go hand in hand in the post-9/11 world. The new enemy is transnational and cannot be contained by exclusive reliance on large state actors, especially those that aggravate extremist tensions through repressive policies.

Gvosdev and Tanner end by citing Ronald Reagan, who stated, "I am hardline and will never appease [the Soviets]. But I do want to try to let them see there is a better world if they'll show by deed that they want to get along with the free world." This is indeed the right approach-in dealing with China and Russia.

Gary Schmitt
Executive Director
Project for the New American Century

GVOSDEV & TANNER RESPOND: We would like to thank Gary Schmitt for his thoughtful reply to our essay. For reasons of space, we cannot present a comprehensive response to his points. We would disagree, however, with his assertion that the United States "does not have to choose" between keeping good relations with Russia and China and supporting allies like Taiwan or Georgia. This, to us, seems like wishful thinking. Sometimes we have to choose. And as realists, we feel that our choices must be grounded in a clear assessment of America's foreign policy priorities.

In combatting the new threats of the 21st century-terrorism and WMD proliferation-the United States cannot do it alone, and it cannot do it via cosmetic coalitions where the United States bears almost all of the burden. We do not advocate "exclusive" reliance on large state actors, but their essential contributions cannot be minimized. Beijing, for example, encouraged Islamabad to cooperate with Washington in the run-up to the American offensive against the Taliban, cooperated with the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and allowed an fbi office in Beijing. Certainly, China or Russia can deliver more than they have. But the cooperation we are already receiving from both-including on Afghanistan and North Korea-is not inconsequential. And Schmitt doesn't explain how the United States can ignore vital Chinese or Russian concerns and yet expect a complete and full accommodation of American priorities.

The United States will never abandon its friends, but it should emphasize that it will never risk its relations with major powers by offering unconditional support for optional policies and maximalist agendas that complicate America's foreign policy efforts. The United States is not obligated to back any course of action simply because an ally chooses one preference over others. After all, the United States had little difficulty telling another island democracy facing both internal separatists and a hostile mainland neighbor not to move forward on steps we thought would needlessly inflame a volatile region. In 1998, Washington applied a great deal of pressure to dissuade the Cypriot government from installing the S-300 missile batteries, even though it had legitimate security concerns, on the grounds that this could escalate tensions throughout the eastern Mediterranean. To argue that Georgia should seek to reunify through peaceful means rather than a military campaign fraught with risks of further destabilizing an already explosive region, or that Taiwan should be satisfied with de facto rather than formal sovereignty does not qualify as appeasement of Moscow or Beijing, but as a level-headed approach to managing volatile situations.

Nor did we argue that it was unwise for Taiwan to be concerned about its security. But given that Taiwan's defense budget has declined annually over the past decade-which is certainly not the trend one expects to see from a territory under direct threat-one wonders whether Taipei genuinely feels that the PRC poses an imminent threat. This underscores Taipei's assumption of U.S. military intervention in the event of an unprovoked attack by the mainland. With regard to Abkhazia, we believe that Charles King's essay in this issue helps to illuminate what is a more complex situation than simply a Russian-backed plot to create a criminal pseudo-state on Georgian territory.

In a post-9/11 environment, we believe it is vital for the United States to have a consistent approach to foreign policy, one that is clear to friends and foes alike. Schmitt's logic is difficult to follow. Should democratic governments in Serbia and Cyprus, following his line on Georgia, feel they can take whatever means are necessary to reunify their countries? Or should ethnic separatists in Kosovo and Northern Cyprus take comfort, citing his position on Taiwan? Such conflicting signals give rise to charges about "double standards" in U.S. policy. They also give the appearance that U.S. foreign policy is based on special interests rather than national ones.

We don't harbor illusions about Russia or China (although both today are much more liberal and pluralist than they were twenty years ago). And we recognize the important contributions that smaller states can make in helping to spread zones of stability and prosperity around the world. But we remain committed to the principle that how other states aid American efforts to deal with the core threats that affect our survival should be the principal factor in shaping our foreign policy.

Working in Theory

AS A LIFE-LONG student of international relations with a penchant for theory, I feel challenged to comment on the theoretical portion of Clifford Kupchan's "Real Democratik" (Fall 2004)-in particular the prediction that "the contemporary international order", viewed as both "normatively good" and "empirically inevitable", will be marked for the next several decades by "unprecedented American unipolarity."

Like its cousins, bipolarity and multipolarity, unipolarity has been a key term of international relations. But the time has come to take another look at it. The conventional view equates polarity with raw power-a concentrated distribution of military and economic capacity. (I used this approach in my 1974 monograph, World Power Concentrations, one of the first, if not the first, attempts actually to measure unipolarity.) That is the metric (indexed by military expenses) basically used by Kupchan.

The main reason for taking another look at the "raw power" metric is the rising complexity of contemporary world politics. Most day-to-day international problems are increasingly processed in institutional and multilateral contexts, such as summit meetings, regional bodies, international financial institutions and the like. In this context, institutional power means decisional or voting power. Unipolarity here means control of a "one-party" system, and is measured by the ability to obtain favorable outcomes-and one of the relevant metrics is world public opinion.

I tend to agree with Kupchan that in today's international system, unipolarity probably prevails in terms of raw (military) power, but I do not think it obviously does so in relation to institutional power. In fact, some recent trends point toward the growth of a "bi- or multi-party" system in that area. Multipolarity is a fact in the world economy. Two or three decades ahead, unipolarity is still probable for forces of global reach (commanding sea, air and space) but not for all the aspects of military power.

If unipolarity claims to be the unique source of the public goods of world order, then its exercise labors under all the well-known burdens and criticisms of monopoly power: excessive costs combined with underperformance. Because it yields high profits but deteriorates into incompetence, a monopoly attracts competition and generates serious conflicts.

On such grounds, a monopoly is morally suspect, but there is an exception: when a monopoly naturally emerges from a process of innovation. In public life, the general interest in innovation is usually protected by patent law that grants the inventor a temporary privilege. Similarly, in world politics we might argue that world powers earn a temporary relief from the inevitable pressures and criticisms of monopoly in recognition of their inventive solutions of critical global problems. The early phases of the exercise of global leadership by the United States, Britain (twice), the Dutch republic and Portugal demonstrate that point. But does this hold for the current situation? Claims of benignity or benevolence are not enough.

All in all, Kupchan would be well advised not to use "inevitable" or "entrenched" unipolarity as the principal pillar of his analysis. As for the longevity of unipolarity, he might consider looking into the findings of the theory of long cycles.

George Modelski
Professor Emeritus
University of Washington

CLIFFORD KUPCHAN is to be congratulated for his thoughtful and timely call on his fellow Democrats to attend to the fact, and the desirability, of unipolarity-that is, that the United States has unprecedented international power and that it ought to seek to preserve that power. Indeed, as one of those rare academics who tend to vote Republican, I would like to see a corresponding Real Republikan approach that would recognize the common interest that the United States and its democratic allies have in preserving and extending the post-World War II international order. It would strive to keep the bargain on which that order is based, including the agreement to render U.S. actions predictable by binding America to some extent through international institutions. It would also insist that catastrophic terrorism is a grave threat to that order and the countries that subscribe to it.

Real Republikan would differ from Real Demokratik, however, by recognizing just how difficult unipolarity makes voluntary international cooperation. Unipolarity not only tempts America to act in ways and regions previously off limits, it also causes other countries to worry more about whatever the United States does. When America uses force in Afghanistan or Iraq, more people than ever around the world suspect that we are building a world empire. Most concerned countries have good reasons not to try to form a serious anti-U.S. alliance, but they use various low-cost tools, including diplomacy and passivity, to block perceived expansions in U.S. power. Iraq is where the costs of this resistance are felt most keenly today.

And of course Islamist terrorism is itself partly a product of unipolarity. Absent America's unchallenged military, economic and cultural presence in the Middle East, it is difficult to imagine 9/11. The Real in Real Republikan is an acknowledgment that in an anarchical international system the weak are bound to worry about the powerful. It thus implies that the recent surge in anti-Americanism is by no means entirely the fault of the Bush Administration.

In such a world, where even America's friends try to contain it and its enemies are capable of harming it grievously without defeating it militarily, America has less freedom of action than many understand-less, in fact, than it had during the Cold War. Its dilemma is to keep itself safe and prosperous while reassuring the world that it is not seeking global domination. America must find the correct tradeoff between, on the one hand, vigor in attacking terrorism and WMD proliferation, and on the other, rendering its own future actions predictable. Excessive unilateralism against terror will alienate countries otherwise inclined to help. But excessive self-binding will lead to excessive passivity against terrorism, for even many of its friends are bound to want America to under-invest in its own security.

The frontier along which the right amounts of vigor and self-binding are traded is hard to find. But Real Republikan would insist that the frontier exists, and that America's grand strategy after 9/11 must find it and stay on it.

John M. Owen, IV
Associate Professor
University of Virginia

That Magic Moment

FRANCIS FUKUYAMA'S critique of Charles Krauthammer's doctrine of a unipolar America ("The Neoconserv-ative Moment", Summer 2004), properly scolds Krauthammer for ignoring clearly unfortunate "facts on the ground." For Krauthammer does not just skip over inconvenient facts, he mistakes his judgement for fact-most importantly, the judgement that our transatlantic allies no longer count for much. But does the current "coalition of the willing" (wherein American forces take nearly all the burden) really equal a coherent NATO force willing to take action against radical Islamism? Might it not have been better to take Lord Robertson and nato up on their pledge after 9/11 to stand with the U.S. against terrorism? It was the imprudence of the current foreign policy, consonant with the democratic realism put forward by Krauthammer, that has placed America in the current position of temporal alliances having no common (or lasting) values, when a different diplomatic and ideological approach could have strengthened America's efforts.

The neoconservative argument that I knew during the Cold War was a moral one that reaffirmed the inherent rightness of upholding freedom against totalitarianism. Clearly, the neoconservative argument has gone way off course in trading sound policies of containment using democratic alliances for a doctrine of pre-emption that insisted on war in Iraq. But let this cold warrior state the case plainly: Pre-emption leads nations to unnecessary and therefore immoral wars and the harmful consequences such wars bring, including ruptured alliances and the consequent reduced influence of the United States in world affairs.

That there were no weapons of mass destruction found in Iraq, that there are now a thousand American fatalities (and untold numbers of Iraqis), that traditional alliances with nations possessing real military strength have been broken, that there is a breakdown in civil order in Iraq-nothing can dissuade the purveyors of pre-emption that Iraq was a wrong course to take. Thus, Krauthammer's attempts to put limits on democratic idealism begs the question: Where does such reasoning end when it begins with an unnecessary war?

There is no doubt America is the sole superpower. But there is also no doubt that America will not be able to prosecute the War on Terror alone or with ad hoc alliances. Even our current "coalition of the willing" is a bow to this reality that the superpower cannot be the sole policeman. But if America's new foreign policy has alienated such sturdy democratic allies as France and Germany (because, as Fukuyama points out, we have simply lost the capacity to listen), one cannot hope that the perpetuation of that foreign policy will create sturdy (and equally powerful) new ones. Instead, America's allies will have the color of dictatorships like Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan, and our antagonists that of a greater number of NATO members and democracies. This is neither prudent nor moral foreign policymaking.

Eric Chenoweth
Washington, DC

Nobody's Fault But Mine

NEIL MCINNES'S remarkable account of the rise and fall of "Australian genocide" ("Requiem for a Genocide", Summer 2004) is a case study in one of the more striking Western pathologies of recent times: that of the volunteer scapegoat. The common, in some ways rational, response when individuals or nations are reproached is to argue, "It's not my fault." In many cases, of course, this response is self-serving. The strange thing in these political cases is that the response of "it is our fault" often turns out to be no less irrational. Similarly, the rational response to being kidnapped or hijacked is resentment and an attempt to frustrate the crime. But the so-called "Stockholm syndrome" is a pathology in which the victims identify with their abductors. Some light is shed on these moral attitudes if we remember Orwell's view that many people (and especially intellectuals) find power hard to resist. They feel they must try to understand why Stalin, Hitler, Bin Laden and the like have the power and the passions they do. In the Australian case, most of the voluntary scapegoats belonged to the academic classes, and they went further. They not only embraced but virtually fabricated the case for national self-accusation. Many of them came to think that Australia must collectively and institutionally say "sorry" in order to sustain its place in the comity of morally acceptable states.

One can only speculate about the thoughts that went into this curious collective enthusiasm. These must include a Christian belief about repentance warranting forgiveness-the illusion that moral immaculacy is possible. Another line of thought was clearly an ill-informed induction from realism. Similar bad things have happened in other encounters between Europeans and indigenous peoples: Who are we in Australia to think that we are better than others? We may also guess that the vanity of liberal elites disposes them easily to think of themselves as honest, frank and sensitive, by contrast with the self-serving civic partialities of what politicians these days call "ordinary people." No doubt many other impulses are at work, but among the lessons we may derive from these strange attitudes is that rationally benevolent dispositions can sometimes lead to a ruthless indulgence in untruth.

Kenneth Minogue
London, UK

Fueling Debate

THE ARTICLE "The New Geopolitics of Oil" (Special Energy Supplement, Winter 2003/04) by Joe Barnes, Amy Jaffe and Edward L. Morse, unfortunately contains a good deal of old, in-the-box thinking, as well as a strange fascination with what they call "neoconservative" policy.

They use the old chestnut that Saudi Arabia has a quarter of global petroleum reserves. This would be a reasonable estimate for "conventional" oil. But conventional oil is an outdated category from the time that unconventional oil, principally Canadian tar sands and Venezuelan heavy oil, could not be produced at competitive costs. Including "unconventional" oil, the Western Hemisphere has more reserves than the Persian Gulf region. While Persian Gulf oil mostly costs much less than $15 per barrel to produce, there is not enough very low cost oil on the market to keep the price below the current cost of unconventional oil.

They stress that the key element of Saudi oil power is the ability to expand production by 1.9 million barrels per day (BPD). But they ignore the fact that the OECD countries also have the possibility of putting an additional 1.9 million BPD into the market from their strategic stockpiles. This can dramatically affect the great fear that the Persian Gulf oil producers might someday shut their spigots and leave the West without the oil on which we have become dependent. OECD storage is enough to enable the world to do without Persian Gulf oil for about half a year. Can the Persian Gulf countries do without the dollars they get from selling oil for six months?

A real "New Geopolitics of Oil" would recognize that dependency in the relationship between buyers and sellers of oil runs in both directions and is much more complex than the old notion of consumers being at the mercy of the Persian Gulf producers.

Also, it is a little hard to understand why Barnes et al. think it is only "neoconservative ideology" that leads to the conclusion that the billions of dollars of Saudi oil money being spent annually to promote the Wahhabi brand of Islamism is playing a "pernicious" role in the world. Do liberals think the madrassas are helping the world?

Although they make a number of sound recommendations and provide some useful information, they seem to need windmills to tilt at, such as the idea that the Bush Administration decision to remove Saddam Hussein was partly motivated by the idea that a grateful Iraq would force oil prices to low levels. Producing a somewhat more pluralistic and free government in Iraq, in order to start the process of making the Middle East less of a source of danger to the world, would amply justify the U.S. removal of Saddam, and there is not and never was any reason to think that a free Iraq would want to pursue very low oil prices.

Max Singer
Hudson Institute

Topics
Failed StatesGrand StrategyNuclear ProliferationWMDSecurity
Tags
neoconservatismMuslimYugoslaviaheads of stateSerbs
Issue:
Winter 2004-2005
Regions
Americas

          The Theological Iron Curtain        
Essay Types
Essay
Joseph Lieberman

TWO YEARS after the fateful attacks of September 11, the United States remains locked in an epic struggle with a new nemesis--international terrorism. Like fascism and communism before it, terrorism poses a direct threat to our interests and values, and fundamentally challenges the international order on which our security, liberty and prosperity depend. Eliminating this threat must be one of the highest priorities of U.S. foreign policy.

Winning this war requires that the United States maintain its military dominance and forcefully apply it to deter and defeat tyrants and terrorists alike. Destroying the Taliban in Afghanistan and removing Saddam Hussein's brutal regime in Iraq--both of which were incubators of hateful violence--were critical to our global counter-terrorism campaign. These wars were just, and our military victories in each have made the United States and the world safer by depriving terrorists of safe havens, funding and support.

The war against terrorism will not be won by military means alone, however. The September 11 attacks epitomized the larger, more amorphous threat we face from fanatics who find justification for evil behavior in Islam. These militants are not only targeting the United States and our allies, but are also engaged in a great civil war with the vast majority of their fellow Muslims who do not share their beliefs or behaviors. It is a war of ideas as much as it is a war of arms. And as such, we cannot rely just on the use of force to protect ourselves.

The Islamic world is beset by political, economic and cultural trends that have limited freedom and increased isolation, repression and anti-American anger over the last generation. These include vast income inequalities, economic and political isolation, cultural balkanization and little or no popular participation in government through which to constructively channel and resolve this strife. Islamic terrorism grew in this swamp--not in a vacuum.

Yet, there are extensive traditions of tolerant and moderate Islam, ones that can support and engender political and economic reform. These types of Islam, practiced by the vast majority of people in the Muslim world, are targeted by the radicals. The moderate majority--which understands that there is great promise for progress for nations that undergo internal modernization and seek to engage with the rest of the world--is under assault by the ethnocentric, extremist few who blame external powers for all their ills. And they see jihad--the virtueless cycle of violence, repression and revenge--as the only answer.

Half a century ago, ideological extremists drew a political iron curtain across Europe. Today, the fanatical forces of jihad are trying to build a "theological iron curtain" to divide the Muslim world from the rest of the globe--a Berlin Wall built with bricks made from the frustrations and anger that arise from conditions of poverty and tyranny, and cemented by the mortar of hatred and violence.

It is still not too late to stop this theological iron curtain from falling. But the more we wait, the more we risk. The United States must act now--proactively, aggressively and in cooperation with our allies--to help moderate Muslims throughout the world who are being besieged by isolation and intolerance. For if the curtain should someday fall, it would be a grave danger to our own security and could bring awful repression to the hundreds of millions of Muslims trapped behind it. In Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, we had a glimpse of the horrors fanatics can perpetrate against the populations under their control--as well as the destruction that could be wrought by terrorists living under their protection.

American actions since September 11 showed that we can have a powerful impact. During a bipartisan Senate delegation trip to Central Asia in the wake of our victory in Afghanistan two years ago, I saw heartening evidence of the secondary effects of America's resolve, with regional leaders taking a clearer and stronger stand for moderation and modernity than they had before September 11. We have empowered them to give voice to their moderate message and to provide leadership to fight the forces of fanaticism.

The Bush Administration, however, has too often failed to capitalize on our progress. In a pattern emerging in post war Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere, the United States takes forceful action to drain the swamps that breed terrorism, but fails to adequately seed the garden to enable peace, prosperity and democracy to take root and to prevent terrorism from returning. Moderates are competing with extremists for control in the vacuum our military victories leave, with precious little support from the United States and its allies. Should the forces of fanaticism prevail in these postwar struggles, the theological iron curtain will undoubtedly descend, and behind it, terrorism will fester.

Reorienting, Diplomacy Around Human Rights

OUR STRATEGY to stop the theological iron curtain from falling should begin with a fundamental reassessment of our diplomatic relations with many Muslim nations. We should start with a clear and correct understanding of the diversity and breadth of the world's population of 1.2 billion Muslims. Less than a fifth of the world's Muslims are Arabs. Many Muslims live under democratic governments in countries like India, Indonesia and Turkey, and also across Western Europe and the United States. Islam, one of the world's great religions, is a powerful and positive presence all throughout the globe.

But it is also true that too many people in Islamic countries are struggling to thrive against difficult odds. According to a recent Freedom House survey, 38 of the 47 Muslim-majority countries in the world are not democracies; 19 percent of countries in the Islamic world have democratically-elected governments, compared to 77 percent in the non-Islamic world. And over the last twenty years, the nations of the Islamic world have grown increasingly less free, experiencing a "significant increase in repressive regimes" as the world at large moved dramatically in the opposite direction.

Where has American policy been? For too long, our government has looked the other way while many regimes in Muslim nations have denied their citizens human rights and economic opportunity. Our alliances with and aid to some of these regimes naturally make us targets of citizens of those countries. The American people know the United States has a proud record, in the last decade alone, of protecting Muslim people around the world from oppression--in Kuwait, Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo and now Afghanistan and Iraq. We have an equally proud tradition of creating and nurturing freedom of religion here at home--enabling Islam to flourish within our own borders. But many in the Muslim world are blinded to these realities by our close alignment with regimes whose behavior is inconsistent with the American values we otherwise work so hard to uphold and defend. The United States should steer a new course--one closer to American values and closer to the values that grow from our common humanity.

We can and must demonstrate to ordinary people throughout the Islamic world that the United States will take risks to support their freedom, aspirations and quality of life. We must make those values a premise of our alliances and a condition of our aid. The inalienable, God-given rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness do not end at America's borders. That means, among other things, that the United States must be a vocal proponent of women's rights throughout the Muslim world. For years, the United States has muted its support for the rights of women for fear of upsetting its relationship with existing regimes. It is time to become a more outspoken advocate for the right of women to be educated, to live freely and to rise as far as their talents and hard work will take them, as they do in many Muslim countries today such as Turkey. A nation's economic productivity and quality of life can only increase when women, who comprise at least half of the human talent and skill in any economy, are more fully integrated into society.

Stagnating economies and stifling poverty also feed the fanaticism that has begun to emerge in many Muslim countries. Some there blame globalization for their woes, and a handful of American commentators have supported that thesis. In reality, the economic problem of the Muslim world is not that there is too much globalization, but that there is too little. Since 1980, as the population of the Muslim Near East (the Arab League plus Iran) has doubled, its share of world investment has fallen by half and its share of world trade by two-thirds. That means a smaller and smaller economic pie is being shared by more and more people.

How has that happened? While in recent decades, the world has torn down old economic barriers, many Muslim countries have fortified them. Most Middle Eastern countries maintain trade practices that are among the most burdensome in the world. Egypt, for example, imposes high tariffs and other barriers on imports of clothing. Syria bans imports of processed foods, puts a 250 percent tariff on cars and requires a license for all imports.

While other parts of the world have adopted mutually beneficial regional trade programs such as NAFTA, Mercosur and the ASEAN Free Trade Area, Middle Eastern nations have increased trade restrictions and sanctions on one another and the rest of the world. Half of the Arab League's 22 members (and Iran as well) remain outside the World Trade Organization (WTO). Thus, Middle Eastern export priorities receive little consideration in global trade negotiations. The net result is growing economic misery for growing numbers of people.

It does not need to be that way. Since 1999, Jordan has sharply cut tariffs and other trade barriers, launched an economic integration project with Israel and completed a full free trade agreement with the United States. The results are impressive. In the past two years alone, Jordan's exports to the United States have risen tenfold, and more than 25,000 jobs have been created in a country with a population of 5.5 million. Moreover, American workers have also benefited from these new economic opportunities.

Other governments in the Muslim world need to follow Jordan's lead. We in the United States can help them do that by inviting them back to the global economic table. We should encourage Muslim nations to embrace more open economies so that they can join the WTO. That would both spur further reform of their trade policies and help them succeed in export industries.

Just as the Clinton Administration helped Jordan, Oman and Bahrain enter the WTO, the Bush Administration should follow through with some of the larger economies in the Muslim world. Saudi Arabia, for example, applied to join the WTO in 1993, and we should actively support that effort in concert with Saudi Arabian economic reforms.

In Congress, we can help by adopting additional trade preference programs, including duty-free treatment and freedom from quotas for certain goods, for countries that prove themselves to be good global citizens. We passed a trade preference law for the countries of Africa in 2000, and it is working to help that part of the developing world control its own economic destiny.

Just as vital to the future as a freer flow of goods and services is a freer flow of information. In the Cold War, we understood that opening markets and opening minds go hand in hand. We have to understand that now as well.

Regrettably, in many Muslim-majority countries, governments allow their citizens minimal access to news and information from outside and filter what news is made available. Official state-controlled media outlets are often brimming with inflammatory anti-American rhetoric, as we have seen in Iran and elsewhere. The result, not surprisingly, is a distorted understanding of the world--especially of the United States--and too many people willing to embrace anti-American conspiracy theories.

The United States must fill this information gap by intensifying its own message and also by cultivating responsible independent media in Muslim countries so that people can have the opportunity to absorb a more balanced view of world events. We must also make clear to our many allies in the Muslim world that we will no longer close our eyes and ears to the anti-American propaganda in state-run media and state-sponsored mosques and madrassas. A new commitment to foster responsible, independent communication is needed.

Yet, since the end of the Cold War, we have sold short many critical tools of public diplomacy. The United States Information Agency was eliminated, and State Department posts around the world have reduced the general public's walk-in access and closed the lending libraries that once stood open to all visitors. The United States Foreign Service, which represents the most significant official American presence overseas, has also been underfunded. We need to think and work long and hard about how to better convey our values not only to opinion leaders and elites, but to the people at large in the public square.

Young people tend to be the first to open their minds to new ideas and perspectives. That is why foreign exchange programs that bring students from the Muslim world to the United States to work, study or live must not become another victim of September 11. Student exchanges are critical in opening the world to American strengths and values, and in opening Americans to the strengths and values of other countries and cultures. We need to strike the proper balance between ensuring U.S. security and keeping the door open for education--for there has been a marked decrease in the number of Arabs and South Asians coming to America for education since the new Immigration and Naturalization Service regulations went into force.

Money is the last part of the equation, and an important one. Helping Afghanistan rebuild itself will require substantial foreign aid and investment. We will have support from our coalition partners throughout Europe, Asia and the rest of the world--in fact, they will contribute more than 75 percent of the reconstruction costs. Ultimately, the future of Afghanistan will be up to the Afghan people themselves, but the United States must play a central role to provide security, leadership and targeted assistance to facilitate the transition process. The United States and our allies must work together to get this right, because the fate of the people of Afghanistan will be the first test of American involvement in the civil war of beliefs and behaviors that is now being waged in the Muslim world.

We already provide hundreds of millions of dollars per year to nations throughout the Muslim world, not to mention having taken on the responsibility of reconstructing post-Saddam Iraq. In each case, we now have to evaluate very carefully whether the people--the intended beneficiaries of our assistance--are benefiting from such aid. Are attitudes toward America improving? It is time to take a hard look at how we spend this money and where we might want to make new strategic investments and cut out old, failing ones. This may mean re-targeting funds away from large-scale, government-run projects toward better public education systems, stronger public health infrastructures, more independent media outlets controlled by citizens and not the state, and reinforcement of the basic civic values of tolerance, equality and opportunity throughout these societies.

THE DUTY to "commend good and reprimand evil" is one of the core obligations of Islam, one that is echoed in the other two monotheistic faiths of Judaism and Christianity. It should also be at the core of our relations with the Islamic world. Since September 11, the United States has been working hard to reprimand evil with a fierce and focused military campaign that seeks to root out terrorist sanctuaries and end the threat posed by rogue regimes seeking weapons of mass destruction.

Over the long term, however, the fight for American security will require a parallel campaign to commend good by supporting freedom, tolerance, democracy and prosperity throughout the Muslim world. That is the best way to prevent a theological iron curtain from descending upon the Islamic world, suffocating the lives of millions of Muslims behind it and providing a base for terrorist attacks against us. The historian Edward Gibbon wrote that, "The greatest success of Mohammed's life was effected by sheer moral force without the stroke of a sword." So too will the greatest success of this long and noble struggle against terrorism by the United States, its partners and our Islamic allies be brought about by moral force--that is, the consistent application of our shared values. Together we will rise to meet that challenge and to seize that opportunity.

The Honorable Joseph Lieberman is a member of the United States Senate from Connecticut and a candidate for the nomination of the Democratic Party for President.

Topics
Society
Tags
CounterterrorismJihadMusliminsurgencyIslamismWar in AfghanistanYugoslaviaIslamSerbs
Issue:
Fall 2003
Regions
LevantPersian GulfMiddle East

          Davos Man Meets Homo Balcanicus        

Sumantra Bose, Bosnia After Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 352 pp., $35.

Roger D. Petersen, Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 312 pp., $25.

And when it is said to them, 'do not make mischief in the land', they say, 'we are but peacemakers.' Nay, of a surety they are the mischief makers, but they do not understand.
--Quran, 2:11-12

TO ANYONE following the Balkan tragedy of the past ten-plus years, the horror stories from Kosovo are well known. Hundreds of thousands of people driven from their homes. Countless murders and kidnappings. Scores of religious sites destroyed. Widespread, systematic ethnic discrimination in educational and judicial institutions. Patients in mental institutions routinely subjected to beatings and sexual assault. Paramilitary and organized crime groups rampaging across the countryside, persecuting ethnic minorities and destabilizing neighboring states....

Unfortunately, this is not the Kosovo of Slobodan Milosevic. It is the Kosovo of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United Nations over the past four years. Moving south to Macedonia, the situation is little better. Relations between Macedonian Slavs and Albanians remain tense since civil war between the two ethnic communities erupted in 2001--a conflict that began in no small part due to NATO's unwillingness to prevent extremists in Kosovo from exporting their violence into Macedonia, and the first time in history that a UN member-state was the victim of aggression launched from a UN protectorate. The ceasefire agreement sponsored by the international community to end the conflict, known as the Ohrid Accords, has since been repudiated by three of the five signatories to the document, and two of them have openly called for a partition of the country.

West of Kosovo, Montenegro remains divided between pro-independence forces and those who prefer to remain a part of the union with Serbia, and the tiny mountain republic itself is on the edge of total economic breakdown. Apart from some tourism on the Adriatic coast, much of the Montenegrin economy relies on organized criminal activity for its few signs of life. Some 40 percent of the vehicles in Montenegro are estimated to have been stolen in Western Europe, and the Montenegrin premier, long a favorite of official Washington, is currently under indictment in Italy for his alleged involvement in smuggling.

North of Montenegro, in Bosnia-Herzegovina, almost eight years into the Dayton peace process, few observers are satisfied with the progress made towards establishing a viable, self-sustaining state. Although the international community has done a laudable job in getting refugees and displaced persons back into their homes, the effort to find enough common ground amongst Bosniacs (Bosnian Muslims), Croats and Serbs to run the country on their own, or to develop a sense of loyalty to their common state, has failed. The city of Mostar, for instance, remains as bitterly divided today as it was almost ten years ago when the conflict between Bosniacs and Croats ended. Classified sections of newspapers throughout Bosnia are full of advertisements by individuals of one ethnic group offering to trade property in areas in which they are in the ethnic minority for property in areas in which they would be in the majority. Much to the chagrin of international officials, nationalist parties again won in Bosnia's 2002 elections at both the statewide and entity levels. Not surprisingly, public opinion surveys show that a majority of the country's young people see no future for themselves at home and would like to emigrate.

Finally, in the heart of the Balkans, the post-Milosevic reform process in Serbia now runs the serious risk of being hijacked by a clique of erstwhile reformers who have joined forces with business tycoons and organized crime figures from the Milosevic era. The current government has refused to recognize decisions handed down by the Serbian constitutional court, has been engaged in significant degrees of intimidation of independent media and is mired in a number of corruption scandals. Hard currency has begun to hemorrhage illegally out of Serbia to offshore bank accounts: $964 million in 2002 and $522 million in just the first five months of 2003. All the while, the holders of power in Belgrade have learned that all they need to be is "a little better than Milosevic": Proclaim the fight platitudes about Euro-Atlantic integration and regional cooperation, turn over a few Hague indictees, and U.S. and European officials will breezily overlook their attacks on democratic principles and procedures.

WHAT HAS gone wrong? Why have those areas in the Balkans that have seen the greatest levels of international involvement, investment and intervention also remained the most unstable? Although one could argue that it was the original instability of these entities that forced the international community to intervene in them in the first place, the fact that so much time elapsed and so much money and energy expended have resulted in so little progress suggests a more serious and complex problem is at work.

Since some pundits and politicians are now hailing the Balkan interventions as successful models of nation- and state-building for Afghanistan, Iraq and beyond, insights into the problems of international engagement in the Balkans have considerable relevance in the Persian Gulf and Central Asia. Fortunately, enough time has elapsed for serious scholars to analyze what has gone wrong (and right) with the international community's Balkan interventions. Examples of these new studies include recent books by Sumantra Bose, a professor at the London School of Economics, on post-Dayton Bosnia-Herzegovina, and a more theoretical study of ethnic conflict in 20th-century Eastern Europe by Professor Roger D. Petersen of MIT. Fortunately, too, there is still time to learn from the mistakes committed in the Balkans.

And mistakes there have been aplenty--both in outsiders' conceptual (mis)understandings of what has been driving disintegration and violence in southeastern Europe over the past decade, and in the tactical policy responses to these problems. Although approaching these issues from different angles, both books shed light on fundamental questions that have bedeviled American and European policy goals in southeastern Europe over the past decade: Can, or should, we impose Western-style institutions (constitutions, elections, judicial systems and models of interethnic societal relations) on other states and peoples? How will these institutions function if the attempt is made? What happens when popularly-elected institutions and politicians do not live up to the expectations of foreign bureaucrats? Can, or should, we impose the leaders we want on distant populations? Do outsiders have the political will and economic resources to see nation- and state-building projects through to successful conclusion?

Perhaps most important is the question of who can best design and carry out needed reforms in the region: the armies of international officials and experts, whom I dub "Davos Men", following Samuel Huntington's description of "Davos Culture", which accurately describes the background of so many of the individuals overseeing Balkan transitions,1 or "Homo Balcanicus", the local politicians, bureaucrats, intellectuals, etc., who may be somewhat more parochial in their outlooks but are nevertheless more in tune with the needs and functioning of their own societies?

The basic outlines of Davos Man's thinking and policies towards the problems of southeastern Europe over the past decade have been relatively clear. First, Davos Man has consistently believed that ethnic nationalism is a manipulative program of evil, corrupt politicians foisted upon masses that suffer from false consciousness and do not understand what are their own best interests. (This, in turn, makes one wonder whether transplanting Jeffersonian-style democracy in the region is even possible.) Richard Holbrooke, for instance, has claimed, "Yugoslavia's tragedy ... was the product of bad, even criminal, political leaders who encouraged ethnic confrontation for personal, political, and financial gain."2

For Homo Balcanicus, on the other hand, nationalism and ethnic conflict are mass-based phenomena. As Petersen notes in his book, for many of the significant violent events in Eastern Europe that he has studied, "leadership is superfluous." However, dealing with such mass-based phenomena is much more complex than issuing a few war crimes indictments or gerry-mandering ad hoc coalitions of parties who curry favor with international officials.

The experience of the former international High Representative to Bosnia-Herzegovina, Wolfgang Petritsch, is instructive in this regard. In one of his farewell interviews, Petritsch claimed that his three-year tenure could be divided into two periods: the first 18 months during which he removed more than seventy popularly elected officials from office, and the second 18 months, in which "new political forces" came to power in Bosnia (with significant help from the international community). Unfortunately for Petritsch, six months after he left office, the "new political forces" he had placed so much faith in lost power to nationalist parties in Bosnia's 2002 elections, leaving open the question of what, if anything, had been achieved in his three years of work.

Nationalism and ethnic conflict in the Balkans have proven to be mass-based phenomena, and Bose points out that democratization and state-building must be seen in the same light. This perception, however, contrasts with Davos Man's repeated propensity to focus on personalities rather than process or principle. In the case of Bosnia, Bose rightly argues,

Bosnia's future as a democratic country depends on institutions and institutionalization, not on particular individuals or political factions.... Individuals and cliques who are given to believe that they are the chosen favorites of powerful Western countries and international agencies tend to rapidly develop a sense of impunity, and degenerate habits of authoritarianism and corruption.

Or worse. In Kosovo, human rights groups now decry a newly developed "culture of impunity" in which violence against ethnic minorities goes virtually unpunished. Such violence has recently ranged from revelations that patients in psychiatric hospitals in Kosovo have been the victims of systematic abuse--including rape and physical beatings, generally on an ethnically-motivated basis--to the August 13, 2003, shooting of a group of Serb children swimming in the Bistrica river near Pec (Peja), in which two were killed and five were wounded. As with hundreds of murders in Kosovo over the past four years, the perpetrators will never be found.

A second characteristic of Davos Man in the Balkans has been the belief that constitutional engineering and democratic elections can rebuild essentially failed states and foster harmonious interethnic relations. But on both counts the evidence from the past decade has been to the contrary. In his second chapter, Bose succinctly points to the failings of both the American-sponsored, stillborn Bosnia-Croat Federation of 1994, and to those of the Dayton Peace Accords themselves. More recent failures-in-the-making include Macedonia's Ohrid Accords of August 2001, mentioned above, and the March 2002 union treaty for Serbia and Montenegro, largely drafted by EU officials--which, according to the former governor of Serbia's National Bank, Mladjan Dinkic, does not solve a single problem in Serbian-Montenegrin relations, but has in fact created new ones.

A corollary to Davos Man's belief in constitutional engineering has been the belief that elections in the ethnically divided Balkan statelets will bring democratic multiculturalists with pro-market orientations to power. The record over the past decade, however, shows that this has rarely happened. Moreover, the conditions under which newly-elected leaders have to operate are far from conducive to achieving these goals quickly. As Roland Paris has argued,

Not only are [war-shattered states] expected to become democracies and market economies in the space of a few years-effectively completing a transformation that took several centuries in the oldest European states--but they must carry out this monumental task in the fragile political circumstances of states that are just in the process of emerging from civil war.3

As with Davos Man's faith in constitutional engineering, the belief that elections will produce leaders supporting ethnic tolerance has repeatedly proven unfounded in the Balkans over the past decade. In fact, in many newly independent and democratizing states around the world, elections have often increased ethnic tensions and the potential for violence.4

Thankfully, this lesson is one Davos Man has recently begun to learn. Paddy Ashdown, the current international High Representative in Bosnia, now argues that the biggest failing of the international community in its post-conflict Balkans strategy has been to promote democratization without first establishing the rule of law. This, of course, has been the position of former Yugoslav President Vojislav Kostunica, who has consistently argued over the past several years that it is impossible to lay the foundations for a stable democratic political system and a market economy without first establishing the rule of law.5

Although there is now increasing agreement on the need to establish the rule of law before democratization takes place, a whole host of dilemmas (currently confronting American efforts in Iraq as well) must still be resolved as Davos Man attempts to administer and occupy far-flung entities around the world: Who should ultimately be responsible for deciding when conditions are right for elections? What authorities and responsibilities should international officials turn over to local politicians? Davos Man and Homo Balcanicus have had considerable disagreements over these issues in recent years, and echoes of these disagreements (Davos Man meets Homo Arabus?) can now be seen in Baghdad as the U.S. civilian administrator for Iraq, L. Paul Bremer III, agonizes over the merits of holding elections and turning over power to emerging Iraqi political forces.

Finally, Davos Man believes money can solve most of these problems--jump-start the economy by rebuilding roads, bridges and factories, pump money into the local economy by organizing a few donor's conferences, and the ensuing economic prosperity will reduce or eliminate ethnic conflicts. While all these efforts are of course important and laudable, this "unwarranted exaggeration of the influence of materialism upon human affairs", as one scholar has noted, has led to "a propensity on the part of American statesman and scholars of the post-World War II era to assume that economic considerations represent the determining force in human affairs."6

Leaving aside the question of whether economic considerations actually do represent the determining force in human affairs, we might rightly ask whether Davos Man has the money it takes to get the job done. In Bosnia, for instance, it has been estimated that the international community had spent anywhere between $50-90 billion between 1992 and 1999 (by one estimate, the largest amount of democratization assistance per capita ever spent in a single country7) in an effort to keep Bosnia-Herzegovina united and turn it into a viable state. Bose and others who have studied the functioning of Bosnia's institutions and interethnic relations in the country know that the job is far from completed. Unfortunately for Bosnia, Kosovo and the rest of the Balkans, international aid and attention is already being diverted to other more pressing crises in other parts of the world.

The conclusion to be drawn is that, being mass-based phenomena and therefore not particularly susceptible to economic solutions, nationalism, ethnic conflict and state-building cannot be manipulated in short order--certainly not in the one to two years of the average international official's secondment to the region, or even the three-to-four years between American presidential election cycles. Simply put, the time-frame with which Homo Balcanicus or Homo Arabus look at their countries and societies is quite different from that of Davos Man. As Anthony D. Smith has argued, nationalism

implies a deeper need transcending individuals, generations, and classes, a need for collective immortality through posterity, that will relativize and diminish the oblivion and futility of death.... For only in the chain of generations of those who share an historic and quasi-familial bond can individuals hope to achieve a sense of immortality in eras of purely terrestrial horizons.8

Compare Smith's views with a recent admission by Paddy Ashdown that "international impatience"--that is, time--is one of his greatest enemies, and one begins to sense the almost metaphysical enormity of the challenges facing Davos Man in his efforts around the globe.

The conclusions Bose and Petersen draw are not encouraging for would-be state-builders who want to complete their jobs quickly and on the cheap. Rather, what emerges from these studies is the utter complexity, expense and length of time that must be expended in the attempt to impose or transplant American or Western European institutions, political cultures and models of social relations onto states and societies far less fortunate in their historical experiences--without any guarantee that the attempt will ultimately be successful. Petersen is fairly pessimistic about the ability of outsiders to deal with ethnic conflict around the world. As he notes, a major implication of his study is that "ethnic violence is very difficult to prevent." Bose is rather more sanguine about the possibilities for state-building, but he warns that "a clearly defined but relatively modest set of goals may in the end leave the least divisive and most usable legacy for Bosnians themselves, in cooperation with other ex-Yugoslavs, to build on in the future" (emphasis added). Altogether, these are not encouraging findings when we contemplate the challenges facing our efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. In a different context some eighty years ago, T.E. Lawrence warned, "Better to let them do it imperfectly than to do it perfectly yourself, for it is their country, their way, and your time is short." Given our recent experiences with imperial overreach, Davos Man may soon begin to feel the same way.

1 Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Touchstone, 1996), pp. 57-8.

2 Holbrooke, To End a War (New York: Random House, 1998), pp. 23-4.

3 Paris, "Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism", International Security (Fall 1997), p. 78.

4 See, for instance, Jack Snyder, From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Ethnic Conflict (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000).

5 See Damjan de Krnjevic-Miskovic, "Serbia's Prudent Revolution", Journal of Democracy (July 2001), pp. 96-110.

6 Walker Connor, Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994), pp. 36-7.

7 See Gerald Knaus & Felix Martin, "Travails of the European Raj", Journal of Democracy (July 2003).

8 Smith, "The Origins of Nations", Ethnic and Racial Studies (July 1989), p. 362.

Gordon N. Bardos is assistant director of the Harriman Institute at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs. 

Gordon N. Bardos
Mini Teaser

Sumantra Bose, Bosnia After Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 352 pp.

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12274
Issue:
Fall 2003
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Book Review

          EuroIslam: The Jihad Within?        
Essay Types
Essay
Olivier Roy

If there were any question as to whether Middle Eastern-born Muslim radicals could wreak massive destruction in Western countries, it was answered on September 11, 2001. An important related question, however, remains on the table. Could future Islamic terror arise from within Western societies, from Muslim radicals born in the West and thoroughly familiar with its ways? What paths might such radicalization take? To answer this question, we must develop and consult a new sociology--that of EuroIslam.

Diasporic and Universalist Islam

Islam in western Europe is in rapid transition from an imported Islam to forms of European or "universal" Islam. The key difference between the two is this: the former is practiced mostly by immigrants who preserve links with their countries of origin, while the latter is adhered to mostly by European-born Muslims who have ceased looking to the "old country" as a reference point and a storehouse of activists and clerics. The extent of the transition from imported to universal Islam varies greatly from one community to another. It is pronounced in recent generations born in Europe, and it applies more to Arabs than to Turks. Once through its transition, Islam in Europe could assume several different forms. One is integration, by which is meant the development of a distinct European, or French or British, "Muslim church." Another is re-communalization along supranational lines, which is defined in essence by European Muslims' identification with a universal umma, or community of the faithful. It is with this latter phenomenon that radicalism and violence become potentially serious issues.

A necessary condition of radicalization is re-Islamization--that is, the socialization of European-born Muslims to Islamic beliefs, or at least beliefs that are presented as Islamic. But this is not a sufficient condition. Clearly, there are modes of conservative and conformist re-Islamization where the primary concerns of individuals are preserving dignity and achieving recognition and respect. This is the case, for example, for many Muslims from the Indian subcontinent living in Great Britain. Re-Islamization can take on a humanist and even a liberal mode, such as that form advocated by the imam of the Ad-Dawa mosque in Paris.

Nevertheless, re-Islamization can also lead to radicalization, and it can do so, theoretically at least, in two ways. There is, first, diasporic radicalization, defined as that linked to and focused on the country of origin, not the European host society. But radical Muslim groups active in Europe that maintain close links with their countries of origin are never primarily Islamist; they are nationalist and often leftist, like the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK). The Algerian Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), although present in Europe, is no longer involved in militant activity among Algerian-born migrants, and the Turkish Milli Görüs--a European offshoot of the since-banned Refah Party--is, as we shall see, increasingly less involved in Turkish domestic politics even as it remains active among the diaspora.

The second type of radicalization is ideological and takes the form of a transnational Islam divorced from its country of origin. Ideological radicalization typically develops as a result of the alienation of the young, which is common to depressed or socially marginal urban areas. Unmoored from traditional Islam, second- and third-generation jobless males provide fertile ground for recruiters to radical Islam.

Islamic radicalization in Europe since the early 1990s has predominantly taken this second path, oriented toward a supranational community, the Muslim umma. As a constructivist community it is partly imaginary, but once imagined it becomes real in effect--a development much advanced by the advent of the Internet and its associated subculture. Oddly enough, this type of radicalization goes hand in hand with Westernization in France and other European countries. Most radicalized Muslim youth in Europe are Western educated, often in technical or scientific fields. Very few come out of a traditional madrassa, and most experience a period of fully Westernized life, complete with alcohol and girlfriends, before becoming "born-again Muslims" in European mosques or jails. Inversely, conservative groups, whose members practice traditional Islam with strong cultural and linguistic affinities with non-European cultures, can nonetheless develop strong loyalty toward the host European country. Radicalization is thus not directly linked to the level of integration.

Diasporic Radicalism

To understand why transnational, "ideological" Islam is liable to be most dangerous to the security and well-being of European states, it helps to look first at the lesser problem--diasporic radicalization.

A diaspora is formed when a community of migrants maintains close links with its country of origin: continuing to speak the mother tongue; keeping in touch with national events through newspapers and other media; supporting extended family relationships through endogamous practices (the marriage partner is selected from the country of origin, sometimes from the same village); maintaining a juridical link (dual nationality or the nationality of the country of birth); and often preserving the myth of a return to the home country--even if this return is constantly being postponed. The term "diaspora" retains no meaning in reference to those who abandon these behaviors, even if some family and emotional ties remain. Before a Muslim in Europe can become a supranationalized radical, he (or, far less often, she) must lose most if not all connection to the diaspora.

The transition away from the diasporic condition can take three forms. The first of these is assimilation: the loss of all identity-related indicators of existing differences, even if memories or, for those born in the diaspora, awareness of one's origins persist (as, for example, with Italian immigrants to France). In this case, an Arab or Turkish immigrant would blend into a European society and lose all traces of his cultural, linguistic and religious origin. The second form of transition is integration, which is characterized by a reconstituted identity that stresses remaining differences. Thus, one can be simultaneously European and "Arab" without reference to the Arabic language or a particular Arab country; or simply "Muslim", understood as a follower of a religion detached from any specific citizenship. The third form is re-communalization, which combines a physical presence in Europe with a supranational Muslim identity that produces a "virtual ghetto."

Sociologically, west European Muslims are distributed all along this identity scale. Most of the approximately 13 million Muslims living in EU countries are not politically radical. But of those who are, the main pattern in recent years evinces a growing separation of the process of radicalization from the country of origin. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Algerian (FIS), Turkish (Refah/Milli Görüs) and Pakistani Islamic militants concentrated their actions on the country of origin, avoiding confrontations with the authorities of the host European country. They used the diaspora for recruitment and financing, but also as political leverage to influence the host country's policy toward the country of origin--on the same model, more or less, as that of the IRA, the Basque ETA and the PKK. They needed to avoid prosecution and hence kept a low political profile in the host country. A dozen years later, it is clear that this strategy failed.

The FIS provides the best example of that failure. During its meteoric rise beginning in 1989 and culminating in its short-lived victory in the 1991 Algerian elections, the FIS garnered much sympathy from Algerian immigrants in Europe. But its strategy was always centered on the home country: its aim was to mobilize Europe's Muslims in support of the struggle in Algeria. Its networks abjured violence in Europe against Europeans, particularly in France, in order to transform Europe into a base of support for militants on the run and a public relations platform.

For these purposes the FIS mobilized immigrants of North African origin through the Algerian Federation of France. Despite its anti-Western rhetoric, the Federation sought compromise with European authorities in order to isolate the Algerian government. For example, under the aegis of an Italian Catholic community, the Federation was involved in the "San Egidio process", whose objective was to reach an "historical compromise" in Algeria. The FIS was thus an Islamo-nationalist organization whose goal was power in Algeria, not international Islamic revolution; it worked entirely within the framework of the Algerian nation, and rejected the exportation of jihad to Europe or anywhere else.

The FIS' European strategy failed for two reasons. First, a more radical group, the GIA (Groupes Islamiques Armés, or Armed Islamic Groups), entered the political arena of global confrontation and terrorism. Second, European governments (and most of the media and public opinion, as well) aligned themselves with the Algerian government's eradicative stand, refusing to recognize the FIS as a bona fide political player. Ill prepared for clandestine action, the FIS quickly lost the battle at home to the Algerian army and the GIA, and it collapsed in Europe for this and additional reasons. Its members in France felt increasingly less in tune with their native country's politics. Second-generation European Muslims, including those of Algerian descent, were more attracted by the GIA's radical discourse on jihad than by the FIS call to form a political coalition in Algeria. That radical discourse helped European-born Muslims blend with other deracinated radicals to form new transnational Islamist networks.

What happened to the FIS exemplifies a general process: the detachment of the new Islamic radical youth of Europe from the Islamic political parties of their countries of origin. A polarization has resulted: radicalized Muslim youth in Europe become less attracted to the purely political and national approach of any Islamic mother-party, and those parties become even more Islamo-nationalist than internationalist as a result. While many Islamist movements are consolidating a stable constituency within their own countries, they are simultaneously losing appeal beyond their borders.

This polarizing tendency has affected groups other than the Algerian FIS. The 2001 split of the Refah-Fazilet party has partly dissociated Milli Görüs from domestic Turkish politics; the movement is now far more "European" than Middle Eastern, often associating with the Europe-based Arab Muslim Brothers. Its internal debates concentrate on what it means to be a Muslim in Europe. It is also dividing within itself in its European context. On one side is a dominant conservative body; on the other is a liberal wing represented by its Dutch section, headed by Haci Karacaer--of whom more below.

Two Examples

The Salman Rushdie affair exemplifies the shift from a diasporic to a universalist Islam. Pakistani immigrants to Great Britain from the Barelwi current were responsible for the public burning of The Satanic Verses in 1989. The Barelwis are considered moderates by Pakistani standards, but their special devotion to the Prophet rendered Rushdie's "insult" particularly grievous in their eyes. The fact that Rushdie is a renegade in their estimation was also very important. What was at stake was the definition of a new Islamic community in a European context that had nothing to do with possessing a particular passport. The Barelwis were trying to define a community that has no territorial, ethno-linguistic or juridical base. They were trying to pre-emptively determine the definition of a "Western" Muslim, which is a huge existential question for observant Muslims in Europe. Rushdie, of Indian Muslim origin, was targeted precisely because he is a British citizen who writes only in English and disclaims being a practicing Muslim. Had a Christian written The Satanic Verses, the Barelwis would have launched no street demonstrations.

At a deeper level, the objective of the anti-Rushdie campaign in England (before the matter was seized by Imam Khomeini in Iran for his own reasons) was to pass a new British law on blasphemy--to date reserved exclusively for the Church of England--for the benefit of Islam. Thus it was the demand for recognition on the part of Pakistani immigrants to Britain that lay behind the anti-Rushdie campaign, though Western public opinion, naturally enough, was oblivious to this angle. It is, however, interesting to note that two non-Muslim groups lent them an attentive ear: the left wing of the Labour Party, probably for electoral reasons but also in the name of multiculturalism; and a conservative group of Anglican and Catholic priests for whom this was a heaven-sent opportunity to forge a sacred alliance against the profanation of religion in the name of art--the controversy over Martin Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ, it should be recalled, was a near-contemporaneous affair.

Finally on this point, it bears noting that the anti-Rushdie campaign flowed more from fear than from aggression. The demand for communal recognition ran parallel to the attempt to define the borders of a community that, as its leaders saw it, was in danger of disintegration through assimilation. The internal vision of a beleaguered Islam in decline is important: many Muslims in the Middle East and outside of it share this vision--a view confirmed, in their eyes, by the Gulf War, the failure of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, the sanctions against Iraq and so on. Such motives contrast sharply with those attributed to Muslims in the Western view of an expanding Islam. In any case, it is clear that the European Muslim reaction to The Satanic Verses had nothing to do with importing Islamic radicalization to Europe; on the contrary, it evidenced a sui generis Muslim-European process of ideological radicalization, with the potential of exporting radicalism to, rather than importing it from, the Middle East.

The rise of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Europe also exemplifies the transition from a diasporic to a universalist mode of Islamic identity. Hizb ut-Tahrir ("Liberation Party") is a fundamentalist party based in London that was originally set up as a Palestinian Islamic movement in 1953. Officially non-violent, its ideas are nevertheless very radical. It advocates the immediate re-establishment of the caliphate and the ultimate conversion of the entire world to Islam. Hizb ut-Tahrir is now a genuinely international movement; indeed, it is difficult to identify and locate precisely its controlling authority. Officially, its leader is Sheikh Abdel Qadir Zalum, a Palestinian from Beirut who succeeded Taqiuddin Nabhani, the movement's founding father, in 1977. But Zalum appears to have lost effective control to a group of militants based in London. And it is a movement that is rapidly growing.

Hizb ut-Tahrir's growth is revealed through an analysis of its relationship with the Muhajirun organization of Sheikh Omar Bhakri, a Syrian residing in London who maintains a high profile in the English-language media. Though Bhakri does not make explicit reference to Hizb ut-Tahrir, their pronouncements and website content are often identical. The Muhajirun movement, therefore, is likely a front for Hizb ut-Tahrir in Europe, which developed in the 1980s and 1990s in Great Britain, Sweden and the Netherlands--and to a lesser extent in the United States. Starting in 1997, Hizb ut-Tahrir established new chapters in Muslim countries including Sudan, Uzbekistan and Pakistan. The Pakistani branch, led by Dr. Abdul Qayyum, is more recent than the Uzbek branch, set up in 1999, and also more visible, with its meetings announced in the press. It seems to have been set up at the instigation of the London leadership. During a trial for sedition in Lahore in the fall of 2002, the defendants were British-born Muslims who spoke exclusively English with a cockney accent. Hizb ut-Tahrir thus represents another example of a re-communalized European radicalism being deliberately and systematically exported to Muslim countries.

The transition from diasporic to universalist Islam is also illustrated by the fact that very few Muslims in Europe mobilize on the basis of Middle Eastern conflicts. Although the Palestinian cause is popular among European Muslims, their support has never gone further than street demonstrations numbering fewer than 5,000 people in Paris, in company with traditional left-wing and anti-imperialist non-Muslim European sympathizers. Support for the Palestinian cause is generally not expressed in religious terms, and neither is opposition to a U.S.-led war against Iraq.

The Radicalization of the Uprooted

What is the essential nature of supranational, ideological Islam in Europe, and what recruitment patterns does it manifest? Only by understanding these matters can we hazard a guess as to how significant a security problem European states--and the United States--may face in the future from such movements.

Identification with a supranational umma in Europe can be experienced as a purely religious identification. This is often the case among Muslim middle-class populations, but, particularly among disenchanted and alienated youth, such identification can lead to a process of political radicalization. This process varies from place to place, and from one immigrant community to another, but the general trend is clear--as is the reason for it.

When Muslim immigrants live in open, cosmopolitan societies, particularly ones offering economic dynamism and social mobility, efforts by diasporic elders to keep them segregated from the mainstream usually fail, albeit in varying degrees and at varying speeds. As the original culture falls away, it is replaced by new cultural norms--either fully, as with assimilation, or partly, as with integration. When these new norms come from the host country, they can sometimes take the form of a subculture--such as the "suburban" youth culture in France, whose combative nature is Western, not Islamic, in origin. But as we have seen, sometimes a process of identity reconstruction ensues that seeks to preserve the essence of difference. Without the actual anchors of a diasporic community to sustain them, however, they require an imagined community. In the case of European Muslims, this constructivist community is usually based on a transnational religious identity. (Interestingly enough, many European Muslims nonetheless require their host society's freedom and openness to advance the cause of a transnational identity that bypasses both Muslim nations and local European patriotisms. This is illustrated by the creation in Antwerp of a controversial organization, the Arab European League, which lobbies for recognition of minority rights for Muslims at an all-European level.)

The rejection of the culture of origin, together with the refusal to assimilate into the surrounding Western culture, finds perfect expression in neo-fundamentalism (or salafism). Fundamentalism--meaning a return to the "true" tenets of religion--is nearly as old as Islam itself. The contemporary trend, justifiably called neo-fundamentalism, combines technical modernism, de-culturation (rejection of both traditional Muslim and modern Western cultures) and globalization (exemplified by websites like umma.net). Neo-fundamentalism is particularly appealing to alienated youth because it turns their cultural alienation into a justification for forging a universal Islam stripped of customs and traditions and thus adaptable to all societies. It envisions the whole world as a great potential umma, and it does not require the thousands of hours of study that traditional Islamic piety requires from would-be leaders and community activists. It discards native religious cultures as UN-Islamic and polluted by superstitions, folklore and accretions from non-Islamic sources. Thus, contrary to what many casual observers seem to think, traditional and national culture, even if they are Muslim, are connoted negatively in the neo-fundamentalist vision.

Neo-fundamentalism in Europe does not target communities with ties to a culture of origin, but individuals in doubt about their faith and identity. It appeals to well-educated, but also uprooted and disgruntled, youth. For such individuals, fundamentalism offers a system for regulating behavior in any situation, from Afghan deserts to American college campuses. But this system is both a product and an agent of de-culturation. Islam, as preached by the Taliban, Saudi Wahhabis and bin Laden's radicals, is hostile even to culture that is Islamic in origin. It expresses the same rejection of all material civilization and gladly destroys it--whether it is Muhammad's tomb, the Bamiyan Buddha statues or the World Trade Center.

Yet these movements are not nihilistic. On the contrary, they are determined to restore what they imagine the purity of early Islam to have been, before it was sullied by human constructs. By championing the transnational umma, they address the universalist yearning of Muslims who cannot identify with any specific place or nation. The constructivist umma therefore must span the globe, where it battles the Western political, economic and cultural uniformity that, ironically, it requires to sustain itself. Thus McDonald's and English-as-a-second-language is fought by neo-fundamentalists wearing white robes and beards who also speak English-as-a-second-language (except in Britain, where it has become the new mother tongue) and go for hallal fast food.

The Security Dimension of EuroIslam

The fact that re-Islamization of young Muslims in Europe represents a radical disconnection between the country of origin and the new generations, constituting rather a factor of de-culturation, helps to explain why the dynamic of re-Islamization favors supranational organizations instead of "national" Islamic movements. But the various recruitment strategies of these organizations--the Muslim Brotherhood, Tablighi Jamaat, Hizb ut-Tahrir and Al-Qaeda--are rather different, and these differences have important implications for the security threats they may pose.

The Muslim Brothers and their sympathizers approach integration on a communal basis: they try to organize Muslims into a visible and active community, with institutions for education and social services. The UOIF (Union of French Islamic Organizations) and Milli Görüs now fit this pattern precisely. They want to be recognized by the authorities and often advocate the "Jewish" model (as they see it) to mobilize the Muslim community. They are legal-minded, stressing the negotiation of their status (whether over the veil, hallal food or consultation on ethical issues). They may evolve into a sort of Muslim church in Europe, which would pose little or no security threat, and would advance a conservative agenda in terms of moral and social values. This would likely put an end to the alliance between the multiculturalist, liberal European Left and the first generation of migrants, itself an interesting and important political development in its own right.

Tablighi Jamaat, a South Asian fundamentalist organization, on the other hand, is opposed to any sort of integration and, along with many salafi or Wahhabi movements, wants to organize the Muslims as separate communities--on a kind of ghetto model--with as little interaction as possible with the non-Muslim European world. Its members look askance at educating females and strongly oppose co-education. They are a font of societal problems, but they are probably not a serious security threat so long as they are allowed to live their segregated communal lives without interference from Western authorities.

This brings us to Al-Qaeda and Hizb ut-Tahrir. If we analyze the violent Islamic militants who have operated in western Europe since the early 1990s, a distinct pattern emerges. These individuals are not linked to or used by any Middle Eastern state, intelligence service or radical movement, as had been the case in the 1980s. With a single, transitional exception, they are part of the de-territorialized, supranational Islamic networks that operate specifically in the West and at the periphery of the Middle East. Their background has nothing to do with Middle Eastern conflicts or traditional religious education (excluding only the Saudis). On the contrary, as noted above, they are Western-educated and often have scientific backgrounds. Their groups are often mixes of educated middle-class leaders and working-class dropouts, a pattern common to most of the West European radicals of the 1970s and 1980s (Germany's Rote Armee Fraktion, Italy's Brigada Rossa, France's Action Directe). Many became "born-again" Muslims or jailhouse converts, sharing a common marginal culture.

The converts from mainstream European societies (whose existence was well known in Europe but only discovered by Americans with the case of John Walker Lindh) fit the same pattern. A few are from the middle class, usually the leaders (like Christophe Caze in France, a medical doctor who was killed "in action" against the police in Roubaix in 1996). Many are working-class dropouts--José Padilla, Richard Reid and the Frenchman Lionel Dumont (who fought in Bosnia)--who joined Islam because "the Muslims are the only ones to fight the system." Twenty years ago such individuals would have joined radical leftist movements, which have now disappeared or become "bourgeois" (like the Revolutionary Communist League in France). Now only two Western movements of radical protest claim to be "internationalist": the anti-globalization movement and the radical Islamists. To convert to Islam today is a way for a European rebel to find a cause; it has little to do with theology. (More than 100,000 converts to Islam live in France, but most converted for practical reasons--to marry a Muslim woman, for example.)

It follows that the second generation of Al-Qaeda militants in Europe (recruited after 1992) is characterized precisely by the breaking of their ties with the "real" Muslim world they claim to represent. All of the September 11 terrorists and their accomplices (except the Saudi "muscle" on the planes) left their country of origin to fight or to study abroad (usually in the West). All broke with their families. They did not belong to a neighborhood or community, not even a religious one in most cases. They were cultural outcasts both in their countries of origin and in their host countries. But they were all Westernized in some way (again, except the Saudis and the Yemenis); none had attended a madrassa, all were trained in technical or scientific fields and spoke a Western language. If we include the logistical networks, some possessed Western citizenship (Zacarias Moussaoui was born in France). All of them (except, once again, the Saudis) became born-again Muslims in Europe after living "normal" lives in their countries of origin. The mosques of Hamburg (Al-Qods), London (Finsbury Park), Marseilles and even Montréal played a far bigger role than any Saudi madrassa in the process of their Islamic radicalization.

Thus, far from representing a traditional religious community or culture, these militants broke with their pasts (and some with traditional Islam altogether). They experienced an individual re-Islamization in a small cell of uprooted fellows, where they forged their own Islam--as illustrated vividly by Mohamed Atta's refusal to be buried according to Egyptian traditions, which he dubbed UN-Islamic. They did not follow any Islamic school or notable cleric, and often lived according to non-Muslim standards. Almost none made an endogamous marriage, but many (Al Mottassadek, Ahmed Ressam, Fateh Kemal, Jemal Beghal, Kamel Daoudi) married "European" wives. They are all far more a product of a Westernized Islam than of traditional Middle Eastern politics. However "old time" their theology may sound to Westerners, and whatever they may think of themselves, radical EuroIslamists are clearly more a post-modern phenomenon than a pre-modern one.

And they are a wholly European phenomenon. Except for a few Pakistanis, no Al-Qaeda member left Europe or the United States to fight for Islam in his country of origin. All the "Algerians" came from Europe (or, like Ressam, became radicalized in Europe), and not one was ever found in the GIA's Algerian strongholds. The foreigners sentenced in Yemen in January 1999 for hostage-taking included six British citizens of Pakistani descent (including the son-in-law of Sheikh Hamza, the Egyptian-born imam of Finsbury Park) and two French Algerians. Sheikh Saïd Omar, convicted in Pakistan for the kidnapping of Daniel Pearl, is a British-born citizen of the United Kingdom. The two young Muslims sentenced in Morocco for firing on tourists in a Marrakesh hotel in 1994 were from French Algerian families.

The peripheral character of Al-Qaeda militants is also reflected in the geography of their chosen battlefields. There is a paradox: most Al-Qaeda fighters are ethnic Arabs, the bulk of them being Saudi, Egyptian and Jordanian-Palestinian. But Al-Qaeda has been conspicuously absent from Arab lands (except, probably, for the Khobar Towers attack, the bombing of the U.S.S. Cole, and perhaps recent small-scale activity in Kuwait). Nor have these militants cared much about Arab conflicts. Bin Laden gave only faint lip service to the Palestinian cause until the end of 2001. Training for the September 11 attacks was initiated before the so-called second intifada; most of the terrorists arrived on U.S. soil in the spring of 2000 and the decision to attack was taken that January. Instead of the Middle East, Al-Qaeda and its likes have been fighting in the West (New York, Paris, London), in Bosnia, Kosovo, Somalia, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Pakistan, Kashmir, the Philippines, Indonesia and East Africa--but not in Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria or Algeria.

This is not just because Arab states take their own internal security seriously. Rather, the re-communalized Muslims of Europe, logically enough, are fighting at the frontiers of their imaginary umma, and they are doing so because what most agitates them are side effects from their own Westernization. All the literature and websites linked to Al-Qaeda stress the "peripheral" jihad from Bosnia to the Philippines, and that focus has been noticed and criticized by Arab militants like the Saudi Sheikh Abu Ayman al-Hilali. Most of the jihadi websites are based in the West or in Malaysia. This is not only because of censorship; it is because the people behind them live in the West. While Al-Qaeda's campaign against U.S. interests has constantly increased and hundreds of Islamic militants have been arrested or tracked down in Europe, Islamist violence in the Middle East has steadily decreased since the Luxor killings of 1997. Hence the obvious question: Could EU member states be viewed as legitimate battlefields, and be attacked as a result? The answer is "yes, most definitely."

Islam in Europe's Future

Radicalization is a peripheral result of the Westernization of Muslims born and living in Europe. It is linked with a generation gap and a depressed social status, and it perpetuates a pre-existent tradition of leftist, anti-imperialist protest in those communities. Notwithstanding such circumstances, most European Muslims have found a way to conciliate faith and a non-Muslim environment in a practical, if sometimes makeshift, manner. The problem is that what amounts to their de facto liberalism is not expressed in theological terms, and it is not bound into a socialization mechanism that can be transmitted easily to subsequent generations. This suggests that there will be ample raw human material for radicals to proselytize in the future.

This is not to say that Islam in the West is not producing a school of modern Islamic theology; it is, like that of Mohamed Arkoun at Paris University, Khaled Abou al-Fadl at UCLA and others. But this school has too few students. This is not only because of the conservative nature of Muslims. It also has to do with the lower social and educational level of first-generation immigrants, and, more importantly, with the fact that all contemporary forms of vibrant religiosity are usually based on charismatic, pietist and anti-intellectual approaches.

This is not a "Muslim" issue alone, then, but a modern one: modern theologians are not very popular in either the charismatic Christian movements or the Curia in the Vatican. Innovative theologians everywhere are waging uphill battles, whether under the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith or in the domain of the American-style televangelists. Indeed, contemporary forms of religiosity among second-generation Muslims outside the Middle East are closer to those of their 19th- and 20th-century American Christian counterparts than to medieval Islam: in short, they are examples of revivalism. Religious revivalism, after all, is centered not in family and communal tradition, but on individuals who experience a crisis of identity amid the discontinuity of familial and communal ties. It accords with individualism, the reconstruction of an imagined community (the evangelical church or the umma), a crisis of authority, defiance toward theological formality and religious authorities (bishops as well as ulama). It privileges self-instruction and an insistence on emotional faith rather than theology and traditional rituals.

In our time, religious revivalism is almost always socially conservative, from the American Bible Belt to the Lubavitch movement to John Paul II's defense against liberation theology. Conservative religious leaders rail against corruption and lost values, and in this sense transnational European Islam is becoming a part of the European debate on values. Many imams preach about "regaining happiness", "recovering from destitution", affirming a categorical difference between right and wrong, making a good life and so on-no different, in essence, from what conservative Christian and Jewish clergy say to their congregations.

Preaching such a message is a challenge for all conservative clergy, given the conditions they face in Europe. But it is only one of many challenges for Muslim clergy, for they are confronted head-on with the issue of tolerance. A complex dialectic has been set in motion: many Muslims in Europe define the bounds of their own toleration in relation to how they themselves are tolerated by non-Muslim Europeans--and here a world of mutual misperception spreads before us. Pim Fortuyn's decision to enter Dutch politics was triggered, he said, by the speech of a Moroccan-born imam who called homosexuals "sick people." This was, for the imam, a way to excuse homosexuals and thus to avoid the harsh treatment set down for them in the sharia, but Fortuyn could not have been expected to appreciate this. As some Europeans react against "alien" Muslim elements among them, it makes some Muslims more defensive and intolerant.

But not all Europeans do so, and not all Muslims are turning inward. Thus, Haci Karacaer, the aforementioned head of the Dutch Milli Görüs, has engaged in a dialogue with the Gay and Lesbian Associations, something inconceivable in the Middle East (where, on the contrary, there is a growing hostility toward homosexuality, as illustrated by the Cairo trials of 2002). In other words, matters are in flux, and how they are managed by both sides will go far to determine how much tinder for anger and violence may lie ahead.

In this sense, it is not theological debate but concrete interactions between European Muslims and non-Muslim society that is driving the evolution of EuroIslam. Clearly, the fundamentalist organizations of the different salafi schools try to prevent such an interaction by advocating the maintenance of a "closed" community for devout Muslims. Modernism is spread mainly by community leaders and local preachers who, when confronted by their salafi colleagues, dare to part company with them. September 11 has magnified the "obligation to speak" among moderate mainstream Muslims who are caught between a desire to express solidarity with more conservative fellow-believers and the pressure of European public opinion to denounce the veil and sharia.

Moderate Islam must be elaborated by Muslims themselves over the course of time, and not under political pressure or in a forced theological debate. Such a debate among Muslims in Europe will certainly come to pass, and it may even have an impact in traditional Middle Eastern societies--so much, anyway, we may hope, for reform is not yet making much headway in the authoritarian political cultures of the Muslim Middle East. But whatever the different trends at work--radicalism, liberalism, humanism--it is clear that they are the product of the endogenous evolution of EuroIslam. From a national security perspective, a great deal is riding on the outcome.

Olivier Roy is senior researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research and author of L'Islam Mondialise' (Le Seuil, 2002), to be published in English in 2003.

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Terrorism
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AcademiaAssimilationBaltic SeaJihadMuslimIslamismYugoslaviaIslamSerbs
Issue:
Spring 2003
Regions
Northern EuropeLevantNorthern AfricaWestern EuropeCentral EuropePersian GulfEastern EuropeSouthern EuropeBalkan PeninsulaEuropeMiddle East

          Imperialism: the Highest Stage of American Capitalism?        

When the dust from the Soviet Union's collapse was still settling, the future of the international system seemed up for grabs. Now that bipolarity has given way to unipolarity, parsing the behavior of the hegemon is clearly the order of the day--and this is the task Andrew Bacevich sets for himself in American Empire. His study is really two books in one. The first, a description of post-Cold War American foreign policy that stresses continuity over change, is impressive and persuasive. The second, an attempt to explain this record with reference to an expansionary logic supposedly inherent in America's domestic political economy, is not.

Bacevich begins by noting how conventional wisdom views the end of the Cold War as a dramatic turning point in the history of American foreign policy. It rendered the country's old grand strategy of containment obsolete, this story runs, forcing policymakers to come up with a replacement appropriate to a new and turbulent era--something they failed to do during the 1990s. Hogwash, he says; in recent years "the United States has in fact adhered to a well-defined grand strategy", which is "to preserve and . . . expand an American imperium." Far from being an improvisation, moreover, this strategy "derives directly from U.S. principles and practices elaborated and implemented during and even before the Cold War."

Bacevich is not the first to make this case, but he does it at length and convincingly. Partisan posturing leads political players on all sides to exaggerate the differences between one administration and the next, he argues, and journalists and historians tend to follow suit, treating each presidency as a distinct and separate phenomenon. But this obscures the broad similarities in approach that lie beneath the surface. Bush, Clinton and Bush fils have all drawn on a common playbook, one that stresses globalization and interdependence as the key features of the contemporary world, free trade and open markets as the chief goals of U.S. policy, and American military hegemony as the guarantor of international stability. The "Big Idea" tying all of this together is

"openness: the removal of barriers to the movement of goods, capital, people, and ideas, thereby fostering an integrated international order conducive to American interests, governed by American norms, [and] regulated by American power."

In support of this thesis Bacevich pulls together a broad range of public statements by officials in all three administrations, showing that there is indeed a consistent rhetorical and ideological core to U.S. foreign policy thinking. And he links this to a basic set of policies, demonstrating that what unites Executive Branch decision-makers from both parties is more significant than what divides them. Only people who do not know the game, therefore, are surprised when their favorite presidential candidate sheds his inflammatory campaign rhetoric about China or Russia or nation-building or whatever and embraces the previous guy's positions once ensconced in office.

Befitting his status as a retired U.S. Army colonel, Bacevich is particularly insightful on military issues, and is an excellent guide to the difficulties the defense establishment has had in coming to terms with the new international environment. Trained and equipped to fight large conventional wars, the American armed forces have instead found themselves pressed into service in a variety of "imperial policing" missions around the globe. As the services fight off attempts at radical military transformation and grumble openly about civilian interference, Washington relies increasingly on modern versions of the "gunboats and Gurkhas" used by imperial powers a century ago. And at the cutting edge of this new/old system are the regional commanders-in-chief, operating as "proconsuls" responsible for the routine management of the Pax Americana.

For help in explaining all of this--most of which he finds distasteful--Bacevich turns to two dissenting historians from decades past, Charles A. Beard and William Appleman Williams. Both have been deservedly pilloried over the years, he says, for botching the great foreign policy issues of their own times, the fights against Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, respectively. But they are still worth reading, for while they may have been wrong about our enemies, they were right about us. They understood that the true and permanent source of American foreign policy lies within, and cautioned against its all-consuming lust. Looking over their shoulders, Bacevich claims, we can see three great truths about recent events:

"First, that U.S. foreign policy remained above all an expression of domestically generated imperatives; second, that economic expansionism abroad, best achieved by opening the world to trade and foreign investment, was a precondition of America's own well-being and therefore the centerpiece of U.S. strategy; and third, that [officials believed] the cause of peace was best served by the United States' occupying a position of unquestioned global preeminence."

The strategy of "openness" that the United States has recently pursued, therefore, is neither new nor surprising; it merely "adapt[s] the logic of empire to suit the needs of democratic capitalism."

Since contemporary American primacy does indeed raise certain echoes of empires past, a sophisticated theoretical treatment that compared the two would be welcome. Unfortunately, this book is not it. Ignoring the vast literatures on these topics in both diplomatic history and international relations, Bacevich simply replaces one set of naive shibboleths (that American foreign policy is an innocent reaction to outside threats) with another (that it emerges from the machinations of desperate capitalists). In academic terms, he has moved from traditionalism to revisionism without continuing on to the post-revisionist syntheses taught at the end of the semester.

His retrograde theory has two fatal flaws: it explains too little and too much. Bacevich fails to establish clear and convincing links between cause and effect, spending almost no time, for example, tracing the actual process by which domestic economic interests supposedly guide American foreign policy decision-making to outcomes consistent with their preferences. This is odd, since many of the policies he tries to explain--such as the costly interventions in the dirt-poor backwaters of Bosnia, Somalia, Haiti, Kosovo and Afghanistan--have produced no apparent economic benefits.

He also fails to consider why other rich countries today do not display the same neo-imperial drive. Germany and Japan are far more dependent on exports than the United States, so if there were indeed any connection inherent in "democratic capitalism" between internal growth, external markets and expansive foreign policies, the crews on many of the gunboats should be speaking rather different tongues.

That such a simplistic theory turns out to be problematic should come as no surprise, since these and other difficulties have bedeviled similar economic accounts of empire for a century. It is thus no accident, one might say, that the authors whose works Beard and Williams drew on--Hobson, Lenin, Hilferding and the rest, unmentioned in these pages--have long been relegated to the remainder bins. As the German historian Wolfgang Mommsen noted a quarter of a century ago,

"there is no foundation in the old thesis, originally accepted by bourgeois as well as Marxist writers, that expansionist opportunities are necessary to the preservation of capitalism. Indeed the difficulties of the modern world are partly due to the fact that this is not so. The reluctance of private capital to invest in third-world countries is no less notorious than the disinclination of industrialists to consider the economic advantages of the periphery when choosing a site for an industrial plant."

A more satisfying theoretical treatment of America's post-Cold War activities would therefore start by distinguishing among three distinct aspects of the policies in question--their ends, means and scale. Bacevich is right to look inside the country to understand the first--even if his particular economic explanation is wrong. But such solipsistic navel-gazing cannot account for the second and third aspects, which emerge from the interaction between the country and the international system at large.

What Bacevich and many others have a hard time grasping is that America's active role in world affairs has not been a quest for power but a reflection of it. The strong do what they can, Thucydides noted, and the relative strength of the United States has been growing steadily for more than two centuries. Today it is very strong indeed, and in such circumstances the surprise would be not something resembling an American empire, but the modesty and humble isolation that critics so often recommend instead.

Born free, from colonial times onward Americans have rarely doubted that their liberal institutions offered a generalizable template for human happiness and prosperity. Debate has centered primarily on whether to let others discover this on their own or push them to see the light. When the nation was young and relatively weak, it favored a modest view of its mission, protecting and advancing its material interests as necessary, but going not abroad in search of monsters to destroy. As its power grew, however, so did its ambitions, and it began to wonder whether its destiny might involve more than serving as a liberal role model and cheerleader.

By the end of the First World War the United States was the system's strongest player, allowing Woodrow Wilson to use the nation's decisive intervention in the war as a springboard for an attempt to create a global liberal order. His failed efforts left the country chastened, but developments over the next two decades set the stage for a second try. Chief among these developments were the emergence of aggressive tyrannies from the turmoil of the Great Depression, which left American officials further convinced that liberal politics and economics were connected both at home and abroad; and the continued rise in relative U.S. power, which left them better able to translate such thoughts into action.

When the country found itself dragged into war once again, therefore, it embarked on two battles simultaneously. The first was a struggle against the Axis, designed to destroy the regimes that posed an immediate threat. The second was a struggle for a liberal international order, designed to provide the United States and the world with lasting peace and security. Planning for the postwar era was based on the conviction that making the world over in America's image--liberal, democratic, capitalist--would serve everyone. What American policymakers did not foresee was how the Soviet Union would refuse to cooperate, and how a weak and devastated Europe could not be left to fend for itself. If the negative struggle ended in 1945, therefore, America's second, positive struggle continued long after, as it gradually accepted the need to engage the world in order to save it.

The officials who devised the Bretton Woods institutions, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, NATO and the remainder of the postwar international architecture never planned to embark on a course of permanent, massive intervention abroad. They wanted and expected their new order to emerge without much effort. In the event, however, the combination of America's burgeoning domestic strength and other nations' weakness inexorably pulled America's interests and commitments outward, and the rest was history.

The record of American foreign policy in recent years has followed precisely the same pattern. Containment proved to be a slow-motion reprise of the negative struggle against the Axis, a battle to rid America and the world of yet another aggressive despotism. And it was complemented during its lifespan by a positive struggle to sustain and expand the ever-more integrated liberal order. The demise of the Soviet Union ended the first struggle, but barely affected the second.

In the 1990s, American policymakers thus found themselves once again adrift in an unexpected and unfamiliar setting. Standing alone at the top of the international system, with no significant challengers to American primacy remaining, their reflexive instinct was to follow the universal logic of the postwar settlement to its natural conclusion, extending the attitudes and institutions of liberal order to the remainder of the globe. Yet no one really knew how long the "unipolar moment" would last, and there seemed little interest at home in spending large amounts of blood and treasure on foreign adventures. The result was the muddling through recounted in Bacevich's pages, as the country's foreign policy establishment tried to keep history rolling forward in its grooves--but without causing anybody, least of all ourselves, too much trouble.

And then came September 11, which changed everything--or did it? In many ways the debate over the "war on terrorism" is déjà vu all over again. Reprising the traditionalist interpretation of the origins of the Cold War, many observers now see the Bush Administration's moves in Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere as a simple reaction to a new set of pressing external threats. Others reprise the revisionist stance, arguing that the administration has seized on the attacks as a pretext for doing what it wanted to do anyway, which was to expand its global writ at others' expense. The outcome will be perpetual war for perpetual peace, say these critics, as the new imperialism generates ever-greater resistance from a world unwilling to submit to American domination.

As was true in the earlier debate, each of these perspectives glimpses part of the picture, but neither does justice to what is actually going on. That is because neither adequately addresses the interaction between America's relative power, its ideals and its behavior. Both omit the crucial fact that in the years between the collapse of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Twin Towers the United States pulled even further ahead of the rest of the pack, becoming in both economic and military terms not just the strongest power in the system but the strongest state in the modern history of international politics. This massive power potential was bound to express itself eventually in a comparably ambitious world role, although just when and how remained to be seen.

In retrospect, therefore, 9/11 may well take its place in the history books alongside the 1950 communist invasion of South Korea, as a catalyst that intensified and militarized a new phase of international politics--this one characterized by American unipolarity. Just as the outbreak of the Korean War gave life and money to a script for postwar order that had been largely written but not yet produced, so the attacks on New York and Washington have galvanized the nation into accepting the lead role in the post-Cold War world that it had previously eschewed. The Bush Administration's much-discussed National Security Strategy, from this perspective, is notable less for its intellectual innovations than for its open (and tactless) proclamation of this new state of affairs. It reflects the new ideological superstructure that follows naturally from the new material base.

So where does this leave us? Neo-traditionalists have trouble accepting that America is indeed now a colossus. Neo-revisionists have trouble accepting that the country's strength can be, and in the past generally has been, a force for good. The truth is that today's officials, like their predecessors half a century ago, are neither innocent heroes nor scheming villains. They are ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances, struggling under enormous pressure to expand the frontiers of a global political and economic order that has, over several decades, helped more people taste freedom and prosperity than in all previous history. Whether they can approach this challenge with appropriate prudence and wisdom, using the immense power at their disposal responsibly so as to replicate their forebears' large successes while avoiding their occasional mistakes, remains to be seen.

Gideon Rose
Mini Teaser

Andrew Bacevich's American Empire is really two books in one: one quite good, the other quite inexplicable.

Original Content ID
10424
Issue:
Spring 2003
Regions
Americas
Tags
American EmpireBosnian WarBusinessCold WarEmpirefree tradeSuperpowerYugoslaviaSerbs
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Book Review

          Les Emirats d'Arabes Unis = E.A.U.        

Les Émirats Arabes Unis, abrégés en E.A.U., en forme longue l'État des Émirats Arabes Unis, en arabe al-ʾImārāt al-ʿarabiyyat al-muttaḥida, الإمارات العربية المتحدة, et Dawlat al-ʾImārāt al-ʿarabiyyat al-muttaḥida, دولة الإمارات العربيّة المتّحدة, sont un État fédéral.

Créé en 1971, il regroupe sept émirats :

Abou Dabi,

Ajman,

Charjah ou Sharjah,

Dubaï,

Fujaïrah,

Ras el Khaïmah

Oumm al Qaïwaïn[].

Ils sont situés au Moyen-Orient, entre le golfe Persique et le golfe d'Oman.

La ville d'Abou Dabi est la capitale fédérale du pays.

Les Émirats sont l'un des plus importants producteurs et exportateurs de pétrole.
Les principales réserves gazières et pétrolières sont dans l'émirat d'Abou Dabi, qui fut déjà membre de l'Organisation des pays exportateurs de pétrole avant la création de la fédération.
L'émirat de Dubaï s'est lui tourné depuis quelques années vers de nouvelles ressources telles que les ports francs, les nouvelles technologies mais surtout le tourisme de luxe. La ville de Dubaï est d'ailleurs devenue la capitale économique de la fédération.

Préhistoire

De récentes découvertes faites dans les Monts Hajar permettent de retracer l'histoire des Émirats arabes unis à l'apparition des premiers hommes dans la région, il y a plus de 7500 ans. Ces peuples entretenaient déjà des relations avec les civilisations du Nord, qui sont peu à peu devenues des partenaires commerciaux importants.

Conquête islamique

Devenu une véritable plaque tournante pour le commerce, le port d'Omana (à présent Umm al-Qaiwain), est utilisé par les marchands pour transporter leur marchandise de la Syrie et du sud de l'Irak jusqu'en Inde. Le commerce de perles commence à se développer et à s'imposer comme un commerce important dans la région.

En 630 après J.-C., les émissaires de Mahomet arrivent dans la région, et convertissent la population à l'islam. Les armées islamiques se servent de Julfar (à présent Ras el Khaïmah) comme avant-poste pour conquérir l'Iran. Au fil du temps, Julfar devient un centre perlier et un port important pour le commerce dans l'océan Indien.

Conquêtes européennes

Au XVIe siècle, alors que les grandes puissances européennes se disputent le contrôle de l'océan Indien, les Portugais luttent contre les populations arabes de Julfar et d'autres ports dans le Golfe. À l'intérieur des terres, de grandes familles commencent à prendre le contrôle de différents émirats. À cause de sa puissance, la famille des Qawasim attire notamment l'attention des Britanniques, voulant s'assurer le contrôle des routes de commerce.

Les Bani Yas règnent sur l'oasis de Liwa, centre des activités économiques de la région, depuis le début du XVIe siècle. Au début des années 1790, une branche des Bani Yas, les Al Bu Falah, s'installe à Abou Dabi sous le pouvoir d'un cheikh de la famille Al Nahyan. Peu après, en 1833, une autre branche de la tribu des Bani Yas, les Al Bu Falasah, s'établit sur Khor Dubaï (« rivière de Dubaï »), instaurant ainsi la domination des Al Maktoum dans cet endroit.

 

Les États de la Trêve

Après la défaite des Qawasim, en 1820, les Britanniques signent une série d'accords et de traités avec les cheikhs de chaque émirat de la côte du Golfe, celui de 1853 garantissant l'arrêt de la piraterie contre les navires britanniques, d'où le nom des États de la Trêve (en anglais : Trucial States) donné aux actuels Émirats et 4 autres (Dibba, Hamriyah, Kalba et Hira). Les Britanniques prennent soin de renforcer les liens qui les lient aux États de la Trêve, afin de freiner les convoitises d’autres grandes puissances européennes..

En 1892, un nouveau traité érige les États de la Trêve en protectorat et les fait entrer dans l'empire colonial britannique. Il les engage à ne pas entretenir de relations diplomatiques avec des pays autres que le Royaume-Uni sans le consentement de ce dernier. En retour, le Royaume-Uni garantit la protection des États de la Trêve contre toute attaque maritime ou terrestre.

Cette période de calme permet à l’industrie perlière de prospérer à la fin du XIXe siècle et au début du XXe siècle. Cependant, les deux guerres mondiales ont un effet très néfaste sur cette industrie, qui finit par s’éteindre juste après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, lorsque le gouvernement indien se met à imposer des taxes sur les perles importées du Golfe.

Au début des années 1960, un premier gisement de pétrole est découvert à Abou Dabi, ce qui permet le développement rapide de l’émirat, sous la conduite du cheikh Zayed ben Sultan Al Nahyane, qui fait construire des écoles, des hôpitaux, des logements et des routes. Dubaï est également gagné par cet élan de développement économique, aidé par les recettes des exportations pétrolières. Les différents émirats commencent à se rapprocher et à reprendre le contrôle des mains des Anglais, notamment en formant un conseil qui leur permet de décider eux-mêmes des enjeux politiques les concernant. À la tête de ce conseil se trouve Adi Bitar, le conseiller du cheikh Rashid ben Saeed Al Maktoum. Enfin, en 1968, les Britanniques se retirent de la région et mettent fin aux États de la Trêve, composés également des États du Bahrein et du Qatar.

Les 9 États tentent de former une union, mais ne parvenant pas à se mettre d’accord, Bahreïn et Qatar déclarent leur indépendance respectivement en août et en septembre 1971.

Le 2 décembre 1971, six des sept émirats restant accèdent à l'indépendance en formant aussitôt une fédération qui prend le nom d'« Émirats arabes unis ». Ils seront rejoints en 1972 par le septième émirat celui de Ras el Khaïmah. Le pays connaît alors une importante période de développement économique et démographique.

 

La construction d'une nation

La prospérité et le développement moderne que connaissent aujourd'hui les Émirats arabes unis sont en grande partie le fruit des efforts de Zayid, premier président des E.A.U. Le nouvel État nait dans une période d'instabilité politique dans la région. Deux jours avant sa création, l'Iran reprend le contrôle des îles de la Petite et Grande Tunb, qui font partie de l'émirat de Ras el Khaïmah. Des troupes iraniennes débarquent également à Abu Moussa, un territoire de l'émirat de Charjah.

Zayid est élu premier président des EAU en 1971, puis réélu tous les cinq ans jusqu’à sa mort en 2004. Il jouit d’un grand prestige sur la scène internationale, grâce à son plus grand respect des lois humanitaires international et à ses efforts pour maintenir la paix dans la région. Sous sa présidence, les EAU envoient des troupes afin de combattre pour la libération du Koweït en 1990-1991, et contribuent au mouvement pour le maintien de la paix au Kosovo.

Sous son influence, les EAU connaissent un essor économique leur permettant de se développer rapidement, et de devenir une force importante dans la région. Estimant que tous les citoyens ont leur rôle à jouer dans la construction du pays, Zayid prend des mesures pour améliorer le statut des femmes dans la société, en facilitant leur accès à l'éducation, et en leur donnant une place plus importante dans la vie politique du pays.

À sa mort, son fils aîné, le cheikh Khalifa ben Zayed Al Nahyane, lui succède en qualité de président des EAU et de souverain d'Abou Dabi.

En 2011, le pays n’est pas touché par la vague de protestations et révolutions dans le monde arabe en 2010-2011, mais le gouvernement prend une série de mesures d’achat de la paix sociales et de mesures répressives en prévention.

États et territoires

Les Émirats arabes unis sont subdivisés en sept émirats, eux-mêmes formés de plusieurs enclaves dont les frontières ont été abolies mais dont la souveraineté est parfois floue.

Abou Dabi est l’émirat le plus grand, occupe 87 % de la superficie totale du pays (67 340 km2), sa capitale Abou Dabi est également le siège du gouvernement fédéral des sept émirats.

L’émirat de Dubaï, qui s’étend le long du golfe Persique sur 72 km et occupe 5 % de la superficie totale du pays, soit environ 3 885 km2.

L’émirat de Charjah s’étend sur 16 km sur la côte et sur 80 km à l’intérieur des terres.

Les émirats du nord Ajman (le plus petit d'entre eux avec seulement 259 km2), Fujaïrah, Ras el Khaïmah et Oumm al Qaïwaïn ont une superficie totale de 3,881 km² et occupent 5 % de la superficie totale du pays.

Démographie

D'après l'institut officiel de statistique, les Émirats arabes unis comptaient 8 264 070 habitants en 2010 dont 7 316 073 étrangers, soit 88,5 % de la population.

La moitié de la population des émirats est originaire du sous-continent indien (Inde, Pakistan, Maldives, etc), le reste provenant des autres pays arabes, d'Iran et d'Asie du Sud-Est (Malaisie, Indonésie, etc.).

Les Émirats arabes unis possèdent l'un des taux d'immigration les plus élevés au monde[]. Leur population a ainsi doublé entre 2005 et 2010[].

En 2007, on recense près de 700 000 travailleurs immigrés à Dubaï.

Les plus grandes agglomérations émiraties sont en 2010 celles de :

  • Dubaï avec 2 322 121 habitants (dont les villes de Dubaï avec 1 616 430 habitants et de Charjah dont 852 244 habitants)
  • Abou Dabi avec 599 773 habitants.
  • Al Ain avec 470 328 habitants.

Stupéfiants

L’importation, la consommation, la production ou la détention de stupéfiants (résine de cannabis, haschich, marijuana, héroïne, cocaïne) ou de substances considérées comme stupéfiants (un précédent avec un médicament contenant de la codéine), même en quantité infinitésimale (de l’ordre du milligramme) sont totalement interdites et sévèrement punies.

Alcool

Les résidents non musulmans peuvent acheter de l’alcool dans les magasins habilités s’ils possèdent une licence d’alcool (obtenue sous certaines conditions). Bien que la consommation de boissons alcoolisées soit autorisée dans les hôtels et les restaurants pour les non musulmans (dans tous les Émirats sauf celui de Charjah), la présence d’alcool dans le sang d’un conducteur est un délit.

La consommation d’alcool est, par ailleurs, interdite dans tous les Émirats pendant les fêtes religieuses et il est interdit d’offrir des boissons alcoolisées à un musulman.

La consommation d'alcool est strictement interdite aux personnes de moins de 21 ans.

 

Internet

Les EAU bloquent l'accès à l'intégralité des sites israéliens. Ils tentent de faire de même pour les sites homosexuels, de rencontres en anglais (mais pas en arabe), et quelques-uns au contenu politique. À Dubaï, les emails et les conversations téléphoniques sont sous surveillance ; aucune loi n'existe concernant la protection de la vie privée.

Les E.A.U. possèdent la plus grande compagnie aérienne au Moyen-Orient: Emirates Airline. Son hub est l’aéroport international de Dubaï et elle dessert plus de 100 destinations et 6 continents. Emirates est la compagnie aérienne qui a transporté le plus de passagers internationaux dans le monde

Etihad Airways, la compagnie aérienne d’Abou Dabi, est également en plein essor avec plus de 200 avions en cours d’acquisition.

 


          Crackhouse (2014)        

A man brings a cat home one day. It turns out he has a special plan for his new pet. However, he doesn't seem to know that cats have nine lives. Inspired by a controversial Dutch art project from 2012, animated horror comedy „Crackhouse“ depicts psychedelic suburb flooded by stern dubstep sounds.

FESTIVAL SCREENINGS
14th Tabor Film Festival (Croatia) 2016
Ciné Pop Up (France) 2016
Open World Animation Festival (United States) 2016
"The shortest day" Contemporary Culture Centre of Barcelona (Spain) 2015
London International Animation Festival (UK) 2015
The International Festival of Animated Arts "Multivision" (Russia) 2015
ReAnimania IAFFY (Armenia) 2015
Interfilm 31st International Short Film Festival (Germany) 2015
Klooster Kino (the Netherlands) 2015
14th Flensburg Shortfilmfestival (Germany) 2015
13th Anilogue International Animation Festival (Hungary) 2015
Bestival music festival (UK) 2015
Anim'est (Romania) 2015
AnimaSyros 8.0 International Animation Film Festival (Greece) 2015
Curtocircuito (Spain) 2015
Animacursed Festival (Brazil) 2015
Anibar Animation Festival (Kosovo) 2015
Thessaloniki Animation Festival (Greece) 2015
Standon Calling Music Festival (United Kingdom) 2015
Insomniafest (Russia) 2015
Odense International Film Festival (Denmark) 2015
Land of Kings Festival (United Kingdom) 2015
Short Shorts Film Festival & Asia (Japan) 2015
The Haapsalu Horror & Fantasy Film Festival (Estonia) 2015
Australian International Animation Festival (Australia) 2015
Athens Animfest (Greece) 2015
Pictoplasma Berlin (Germany) 2015
22nd Stuttgart Festival of Animated Film (Germany) 2015
Melbourne International Animation Festival (Australia) 2015
London Electronic Arts Festival (United Kingdom) 2015
45th Tampere Short Film Festival (Finland) 2015
34th Brussel Animation Film Festival (Belgium) 2015
12th London Short Film Festival (United Kingdom) 2015
2Annas Short Film Festival (Latvia) 2014
Animateka, (Slovenia) 2014
Animated Dreams (Estonia) 2014

Music: Superskankers soundcloud.com/sprsknkrs
Idea and execution: Martinus Klemet
Additional modelling: Mattias Mälk

Thank you!
Julia Malasok
Mikk Mägi

© 2014

Cast: Martinus Klemet


          Message to Jerusalem, Rome and Andalusia - from the sickest.        
Message to Jerusalem, Rome and Andalusia - from the sickest. Special Guest: Passport of Kosovo
          Detained Russians, Serbs Leave Kosovo After Paying Fine        
Six Russians and five Serbs have left Kosovo after being detained by police for illegally crossing the border from Serbia.
          Kosovar Police Detain Six Russians, Five Serbs Near Border        
Police in Kosovo say they have detained six Russian citizens and five Serbian citizens they say crossed the border with Serbia illegally.
          Séries Mania presents two from Flanders        

Team Chocolate and 13 Commandments, two new fiction series from Flanders, have been invited to the International Panorama at Séries Mania, the annual television festival in Paris (13-23 April). Also selected is drama series High Tides, a co-production with Flanders which Hans Herbots directed.

Team ChocolateTeam Chocolate is the story of Jasper Vloemans, a mentally challenged boy who works at a chocolate manufacturing company. When Tina, the colleague he’s in love with, is suddenly deported back to Kosovo, Jasper and his friends embark on a road trip to find her. The International Pan aroma also includes 13 Commandments, a TV series about a murderous modern-day Moses. Inspired by the 10 Commandments, he commits a series of gruesome crimes in order to jolt society’s conscience and restore its moral values.

Séries Mania presents two from Flanders written by Saidja Callewaert in Default.


          Gianfranco Paglia: Lo sport unisce i popoli        
Roma, 10 Ago 2017 – (Pubblichiamo un estratto del seguente articolo da leggere nella sua completezza collegandosi al link indicato a fine paragrafo) – di Gian Luca Pasini – Il tennistavolo è stato protagonista nella base militare di “Villaggio Italia” a Pec/Peja, in Kosovo. Infatti, dal 7 al 10 agosto, nell’ambito della visita del Sottosegretario [...]
          Paralimpici, la missione di Paglia in Kosovo “Abbattere le barriere fra i popoli”        
Roma, 05 Ago 2017 – (Pubblichiamo un estratto del seguente articolo da leggere nella sua completezza collegandosi al link indicato a fine paragrafo) – di Roberto Parretta – Il tenente colonnello, consigliere Fitet e atleta Invictus, raggiungerà i militari in missione e organizzerà un torneo con la federazione locale: “Iniziativa senza precedenti, puntiamo a ripeterla [...]
          FR: Deux individus interpellés suite à une tentative de vol à Bulle        
Lundi 30 décembre 2013 vers 22 h 15, un cambriolage en cours dans un commerce était signalé à la rue de Gruyères à Bulle. Rapidement sur place, les agents ont mis en place un bouclage extérieur. Ils ont alors constaté qu’une vitre avait été brisée. Lors de la fouille du magasin, deux ressortissants du Kosovo […]
          GE: CONTRÔLÉ À PROXIMITÉ D’UNE TENTATIVE DE CAMBRIOLAGE        
Un homme né en 1976, originaire du Kosovo, domicilié au Kosovo a été appréhendé pour infractions à la Loi sur les étrangers. Dimanche 29 décembre 2013 vers 23h30, une patrouille est intervenue au chemin Moise-Duboule pour trois cambrioleurs mis en fuite. Alors qu’ils se trouvaient à proximité du lieu de la tentative de cambriolage, les […]
          Burguesía y autodeterminación        
                                                                              C. Reigosa


 Con los nacionalistas radicales de Galiza, Catalunya y Euskal Herria compartimos un objetivo democrático irrenunciable: el derecho a la autodeterminación  y a la independencia de las nacionalidades oprimidas por el Estado español. Y otros como la Amnistía para los presos políticos, la lucha contra la represión, etc. Teniendo en cuenta esta coincidencia de objetivos, desde siempre el Partido ha procurado la unidad con ellos para luchar contra el Estado monopolista y fascista. Ahora bien, lo que nunca vamos a hacer en aras de la unidad es confundir nuestros posibles aliados y, desde luego, nunca vamos a considerar como tales a la burguesía de las nacionalidades, agrupadas hoy en torno al PNV, CiU o BNG, y eso por más demagogia"independentista" que puedan hacer en algún momento de sus peleas por el botín con la oligarquía de Madrid.

 Las burguesías nacionales, en cuanto que minorías oligárquicas -menores, pero minorías oligárquicas al fin-, tienen esencialmente los mismos intereses de explotación y dominación que la burguesía imperialista, tanto respecto a su propio pueblo como a otros pueblos. De modo que utilizan la baza del nacionalismo, es decir, instrumentalizan el legítimo sentir nacional de sus pueblos, a fin de obtener ventajas económicas y políticas frente a otras burguesías que compiten con ellas y, sobre todo, frente a la burguesía centralista; pero al mismo tiempo forman bloque como clase con el resto de las burguesías estatales en las cuestiones fundamentales, su posición está en todo momento del lado de la explotación, de la defensa de sus privilegios clasistas frente a la amenaza de la revolución, del lado del imperialismo, apoyando sus tropelías, agresiones, guerras... Y, claro, entienden el derecho a la autodeterminación y a la independencia como el derecho a poder elegir el apadrinamiento de la potencia imperialista que más les convenga.

 Sólo si en un momento dado esa burguesía encuentra que una o varias potencias imperialistas muestran interés en sus territorios nacionales y que supeditarse a ellas puede reportarle mayores cuotas de ganancia (o, también, ante una profunda crisis política y económica del Estado o para frenar el avance imparable de la revolución), se puede tornar independentista (como sucede en Catalunya últimamente (a 2015), cuando vieron que los trabajadores comezaron a desvincularse de "sus" proyectos nacionales pasaron de un NO a la independencia a un rotundo SI después de la histórica diada del año 2012, ejemplo de que la lucha por la liberación nacional tiene que estar dirigida por el proletariado a día de hoy). Y en ese caso, sus representantes políticos, que ahora con tanto empeño condenan y declaran ilegítimos los métodos de lucha violentos para conseguir fines políticos, no dudarán en arrastrar a sus respectivos pueblos a una carnicería apelando al "patriotismo" y la "defensa de la nación". Esto es lo que hizo la burguesía albano-kosovar, y antes que ella la croata, la eslovena, la bosnio-musulmana, etc., con el respaldo económico, político y militar de Alemania y, posteriormente, de la OTAN. Y ahora Croacia, Eslovenia, Bosnia, Kosovo, etc., son bien provincias de hecho de Alemania, bien protectorados de la OTAN. Con su apoyo a la agresión imperialista contra Yugoslavia, los partidos de la gran burguesía vasca y catalana, además de apuntarse a las migajas del expolio, lo que han hecho ha sido subrayar la "legitimidad" del derecho de la burguesía albano-kosovar a buscar cobijo bajo el paraguas del padrino más fuerte y, por tanto, su propia"legitimidad" para hacer lo propio si llegara el caso.

Nunca debemos perder de vista los intereses del proletariadoPara el proletariado vasco, catalán, gallego, el derecho a la autodeterminación y a la independencia es otra cosa. Poco importa cuál sea la burguesía que les explote y oprima; su problema es la explotación y opresión que sólo puede venir de la burguesía y, por tanto, sus objetivos nacionales no pueden ir sino íntima e inseparablemente ligados, e incluso podríamos decir que supeditados, a sus objetivos de clase.

Para la clase obrera de las nacionalidades oprimidas del Estado español no se trata de conquistar unos legítimos derechos como pueblos para terminar cambiando de amos, sino para no tener ninguno. La burguesía ya tiene su derecho de explotación más o menos "nacionalizado"; los que no tenemos ningún derecho somos los trabajadores. Los trabajadores de las nacionalidades oprimidas necesitamos acabar con el Estado terrorista y fascista burgués y que se reconozca y respete nuestra identidad nacional en pie de absoluta igualdad con otros pueblos para ser realmente libres, no padecer ni explotación ni opresión ni discriminación o desigualdad alguna ni como pueblo ni como clase.

Mientras sea la burguesía la que detente las riendas del Estado -sea éste el español, o uno vasco, gallego o catalán-, nosotros seguiremos tan oprimidos y explotados como siempre. Sin embargo, hay algunos "estrategas del nacionalismo radical" que siguen sosteniendo que primero hay que unirse con la burguesía nacional contra el Estado español, conseguir la independencia y, luego, ya en la nueva patria liberada, entonces sí, entonces retomar la lucha contra la burguesía y "liberarnos socialmente". O sea, que primero debemos poner los torturados, encarcelados y asesinados por el Estado fascista español para que las burguesías nacionales puedan explotarnos en exclusiva, es decir, para mayor gloria de sus capitales, y luego, una vez que éstas consigan sus metas, volver otra vez a poner los torturados, encarcelados y asesinados -ahora ya por nuestra patriótica burguesía que, por lo demás, en cuanto se sienta amenazada volverá a ponerse bajo el amparo de los imperialistas españoles o de otros- para, así, "liberarnos socialmente". No, gracias, es un mal negocio: tantos esfuerzos y sacrificios merecen conseguir de golpe todo el lote: liberación nacional, sí, pero sobre todo liberarnos para siempre del yugo explotador de la burguesía.


          Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Mission in Kosovo        
Publisher: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) - Document type: Mission Reports
          The Poliblogs 19 February 2008        

Darling surely has to go

It was always said during the Blair years that the worst job in politics would be Chancellor under Gordon Brown. After ten years in total control of the Treasury, there would be no way that Brown would tolerate a mighty Chancellor - let alone one of near equal status. Darling, when he began, was touted as being essentially a safe, dull pair of hands. Having risen without a trace through cabinet, Darling would be unexciting but competent. His talent for keeping his departments out of the news was just what Brown wanted.

Conservative Party Reptile


Getting there slowly

The government has finally done what it should have done months ago with Northern Rock; but many questions remain

Vince Cable


Hague set to replace Osborne

He may be a smug git but give Vince Cable his due, not only has he demolished the Tories almost amateurish proposals for Northern Rock, he's almost certainly ended George Osborne's tenure as Shadow Chancellor. Osborne has never before looked so out of his depth as he did today. Cable's comment that the Shadow Chancellor was in danger of castrating himself as he straddled both sides of the fence summed up the incoherent strategy adopted by the Shadow Treasury team ever since the Northern Rock crisis began.

The Daily Pundit


The Government is right on Northern Rock

And tremendously courageous, in my view. In this day and age, even much of the left, including myself, is decidedly dodgy about nationalisation. My brand of social ownership and democratic control is a decentralist one; though if government didn't have a role this would be little more than foolish economism. I still think however that the role of the state is not to own resources, but to secure ownership and distribution of those resources across society.

New Direction


Northern Rock and the case for extending social ownership

£25bn here and £25bn there, and pretty soon you’re talking real money. It has been absolutely apparent for at least five months that nationalisation represents the only realistic means of safeguarding the astonishing sums of taxpayer cash shovelled into Northern Rock to rescue the bank from the consequences of managerial incompetence. Finally Alistair Darling has gotten the message. The erstwhile bearded Trot himself has brought the UK’s number five mortgage lender within the ambit of proletarian property relations. Only another 199 of the top 200 monopolies to go and Britain becomes a workers’ state, comrade.

Dave’s Part


In defence of Darling

Remember, the Northern Rock crisis was not caused by the government. In light of that, the chancellor has done a pretty good job

Martin Kettle


Has anybody thought about Scotland?

One can only revel in the disarray experienced by the "colleagues" as they struggle to come to terms with the self-proclaimed independence of Kosovo. Continually vaunting its unity, whenever a crisis emerges, the EU somehow always fails to step up to the plate, each nation state adopting its own position until a formula is found to paper over the cracks and give some uneasy semblance of common purpose.

EU Referendum


Why the Archbishop got it wrong

Whether Rowan Williams is a good man or a bad man; an intellectual or an academic; a highly sensitive soul or a machinating demagogue or whether or not he deserved the tabloid-led backlash is irrelevent to the position that he took when he delivered his speech, Civil and Religious Law in England: a Religious Perspective.

Pickled Politics


What are Cameron's Conservatives for?

Gordon Brown stood for the leadership of the Labour party on a platform that argued that the renewal that was undertaken in order to gain power needed to be repeated if Labour was to keep power. The fact is that by successfully occupying the centre ground, by modernising and reaching out beyond its own activists Labour ended up turning the Tories into a replica of what it used to be itself – a party with a narrow base, a party obsessed about the wrong things and a party seen as old fashioned and out of touch.

Labour Home


What are TfL hiding?

Last week Mike Smithson broke the story of a BPC investigation into an Ipsos MORI poll carried out for Ken Livingstone. In the Evening Standard today Andrew Gilligan picks up Mike’s story and has got some comment from John Curtice and Ben Page of MORI. The story begins back in December with this press release from the Mayor’s office, claiming to show that a poll for Transport for London showed two thirds of respondents were in favour of the new emmissions based congestion charge.

Polling Report


          The Poliblogs 18 February 2008        
Return to the 'N' word

Imagine, just for a second if you had suggested to Gordon Brown, before he became prime minister, that he would nationalise a bank in his first year in No 10. He would have laughed, then snorted but, if you'd persisted, you might have seen the colour drain from his face. The N word - nationalisation - is so toxic to Brown's generation that they never wanted it to be heard in the same sentence as the Labour Party again. That is, no doubt, one reason he has delayed so long before taking this decision.

Nick Robinson

Crock- Three Questions From Taxpayers

Now that our dithering "government" has finally pulled the trigger on nationalising Northern Rock, taxpayers are formally and irrevocably on the hook for up to £110bn (we don't know how much because we haven't seen any proper accounts for months). For taxpayers, there are three key questions.

Burning Our Money

Where are we with Northern Rock?

It seems to me that the fundamentals of this problem have left policy makers with few sensible choices. The Government was right to step in last autumn to save Northern Rock - protecting depositors and stopping its problems spreading to other parts of the banking system. Alastair Darling was right to properly test all options for the future of the bank. The Treasury had two detailed proposals on the table and they are now taking a hard-headed choice in the best interests of the tax payer. The Chancellor has clearly decided that under current market conditions the private equity options failed to deliver sufficient value for money for the tax-payer. So bringing forward legislation to take Northern Rock into a period of temporary public ownership is the right decision.

Tom Watson

Darling and Brown go mad; Northern Rock Nationalised

Well it is all over the news and I am quite shocked that it has come to this. Sadly, I have to eat my hat (hat-tip istockphoto) as I was sure that Virgin would win the bid. Instead, the Government has decided it knows how to run a bank better than private sector bankers. The decision really beggars belief and although I will post on this later this week, but here are 5 key points to remember:

Capitalists@Work

Sifting through the Northern Wreckage

Perhaps, the greatest political danger for the government from yesterday’s nationalisation of Northern Rock is that it fits so neatly into the narrative of a government that is incapable of making a decision. On The Today Programme this morning, Alistair Darling was repeatedly pressed on the question of why this step was not taken earlier and had no adequate answer.

Coffee House

Vince Cable was right - Lib Dems show better understanding of Northern Rock issue than the government

Vince Cable was right after all. Despite government dithering and trying to avoid the inevitable, it has been announced that the Northern Rock will be nationalised after all. Despite Tory claims that this shows a catastrophic failure on the government's part, at least the government have finally made a decision on this. Remember, the Tories have absolutely no stated policy in this topic and whilst opposing nationalisation have produced no alternative policy with which to lead on.

Norfolk Blogger

Northern Rock nationalised

Cranmer is not going to bore his readers and communicants with allusions to the wise man who built his bank on a rock and the unwise man who built his bank on sand, but the decision to nationalise Northern Rock does demand a little analysis beyond that presently being served up by the mainstream media. This is, after all, the first nationalisation of an industry since the 1970s, since those heady days when the likes of British Leyland, British Aerospace, or Rolls Royce were in public ownership so that profits may be shared ‘for the benefit of all’.

Cranmer

How Mr Darling lost the government’s economic reputation

The Northern Rock crisis has undermined this government’s economic reputation, and deservedly so. They have made mistake after mistake in responding the Credit Crunch and the run on the bank. I have put the main blog entries on Northern Rock from this site together so people can remind themselves of the way the crisis unfolded from last summer. The main errors (highlighted at the time on this site) were:

John Redwood

Punters unmoved by the Northern Rock announcement

Is nationalisation really going to have no electoral impact? Even though some are calling it “Labour’s Black Wednesday” there has been very little movement in the general election most seats betting following yesterday’s announcement by Alistair Darling that Northern Rock. The chart showing betting prices as implied probabilities has hardly changed on the past week. It’s the same with the spread betting markets where punters buy and sell the number of seats the parties will get at the election as though they were stocks and shares. There was a minuscule move to the Tories yesterday but that was prompted more by the latest YouGov poll showing Labour 9% behind rather than Northern Rock.

Political Betting

Are the Tories doing well enough?

Even David Cameron’s most enthusiastic backers in the 2005 leadership contest might have thought it unrealistic to imagine that after a little over two years in the job he would have opened up a nine point lead over Labour. But despite having done this, Cameron is still plagued by the question of whether the Tories should be further ahead.

Coffee House

Lib Dem nasties challenge Clegg

"It's delicious to watch another party suffering European difficulties," writes ConservativeHome's Tim Montgomerie. He's referring of course to David Heath's threat to defy the Lib Dem Whip over the revised EU constitution - a "u-turn on policy that has never been debated at conference," according to Linda Jack.

The Daily Pundit

Children with fathers do better

On 21 January Peers voted in favour of a change in the law which undermines the importance of the father to a child born after in-vitro fertilisation. The law currently refers explicitly to a child's 'need for a father', which doctors must consider before providing fertility treatment. But the Government proposes to replace this with a reference to 'the need for supportive parenting' in order to give lesbians and single women easier access to IVF.

Cranmer

The latest moral corruption of society is mineral water?

Jesus wept. That is all you can say when you hear that the Environment Minister, Phil Woolas, has said that the amount of money that people spend on bottled water "borders on being morally unacceptable". What a complete idiot. All those people that go a long journey and find themselves thirsty are now it seems morally reprehensible. Why.. doesn't anyone know they should be drinking coca cola? Diet of course so that we can stave off the obesity epidemic, and caffeine free too so that you don't have a heart attack and cost the state lots of money as well.

Dizzy Thinks

How Goes The War On Ken? (Part 2)

Friday’s decision by Ken Livingstone to suspend his equalities adviser Lee Jasper and invite the police to investigate the many claims made against him by the Evening Standard was a calculated gamble at the end of another awkward week for the London mayor. His and Jasper’s wish must be that the move will persuade the capital’s voters that there is nothing to hide and result in Jasper’s exoneration. Livingstone will also be hoping that some of the heat will now go out of the story and that the media will talk instead about the issues he would prefer to debate.

Liberal Conspiracy

In defence of supermarkets

Jay Rayner argues in The Observer that supermarkets have made our lives better. It is a odd thing to say, but I think he has a point. Politaholic is no spring chicken. I can remember a time when most shopping was done, certainly in the working-class area in the city where I grew up, in corner shops. This was before the rise of the super and mega markets. In those days if you asked the corner shopkeeper for parmeson cheese he would have looked at you as if you were mad. An avocado? I didn't know what one looked like until I was in my 20's. Wine was for posh people; and was expensive (now one can buy a reasonably quaffable bottle for around a fiver).

Politaholic

Kosovo's giant mosh pit

Mother Teresa Street in central Pristina has turned into a giant mosh pit. The crowd surges one way and then twists back the other and, for a while, you have to give up all hope of independent movement. From time to time people will clear a small circular space for a spot of traditional dancing to the sinuous local pop music, as the crowd flows either side of them.

Mark Mardell

YouGov reports nine point Tory lead

A new YouGov Poll for the Sunday Times tomorrow, according to the Press Association has some good news for the Tories. “…Questioned on their voting intentions, some 41% of those taking part said they would back the Tories (down two points on a similar poll last month), 32% Labour (down one) and 16% the Liberal Democrats (up two). The overall Conservative lead was down marginally from 10 points to nine compared to the last comparable poll.”

Political Betting

Parties steady in latest YouGov poll

After almost a fortnight without any voting intention polls there is a new poll from YouGov in the Sunday Times. The topline voting intention figures, with changes from YouGov’s last poll back in January, are CON 41%(nc), LAB 32%(-1), LDEM 16%(nc). The poll was conducted between the 14th and 15th of February and clearly shows no significant change in party support over the past two weeks.

Polling Report


          Winter Break Abroad        
This winter break,  students involved with the Institute for Global Leadership (IGL) traveled across the globe to conduct research. IGL at Tufts focuses on teaching students to be  effective and ethical leaders, “ready to act as global citizens in addressing international and national issues across cultures.” Students traveled to Cambodia, Colombia, India, Kosovo, New Orleans, Nepal, […]
          African Union-International Criminal Court-Stand-Off: Justice and Peace Paradigms        
A Speech by Dr Gorden Moyo made at the Bulawayo Agenda Dialogue Series-23 June 2015

The current stand-off between the African Union (AU) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) requires us to reflect on a number of epistemic questions from the side of subalterns and victims of impunity in Africa whose voices have been silenced and invisibilized by their own leaders in the name of juridical sovereignty, jaundiced nationalism, and African solidarity. Over the last few years, AU has been accusing the ICC for bias, skewed, and selective prosecution of African leaders. Thus, the crucial question before us today is whether or not the ICC is indeed a neocolonial court or the accusation is a guise deployed by some African leaders to evade the wrath of the law? Or it’s the Imperial East versus Imperial West but both abusing the AU and ICC? These questions are screaming for answers. To be sure, this presentation seeks to expose the hypocrisies and posturings of some disfiguring African leaders who are responsible for genocide and mass atrocities against their own people and yet cry foul against the ICC.

Dr. Gorden Moyo revealed what might read as 'the real reason'
 behind  agitation for AU pull out of ICC.
To begin with, both AU and ICC were political products of the post cold war politics of the 1990s. Of course, each had its own complex gestation period. For instance, the ICC’s biography is traceable to the Nuremberg trials of the end of World War II in 1945 while the AU’s zygote is connected to the end of Apartheidism in South Africa in 1994 though its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was conceived in 1963.

In many ways the 1990s was a lost decade in Africa. Its ugliest historical markers include among others; the internecine conflicts in Sudan, Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, DRC, Rwanda and Uganda which collectively claimed millions of innocent lives, civilians, women and children. Most of these conflicts are still lingering on to this day. Clearly, the OAU was at the time inadequate to protect the victims of violence, arson and murder perpetrated by both state actors and non-state actors. No wonder why the signing of the AU Constitutive Act in Lome (2000) which transformed the OAU to AU was greeted with celebrations across Africa. The transformation was celebrated because it promised the end of an era of impunity in Africa. The provisions on promotion and protection of human and peoples’ rights, and the right of AU to intervene in member states in respect of grave circumstances of gross violation of human rights gave hope to the long suffering victims of impunity.

Like the OAU, the United Nations Security Council failed , at critical times in history, to act decisively to protect the vulnerable against human rights and violent abuses not just in Africa but also in countries across the globe such as East Timor, Chechnya, Yugoslavia, Poland, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo, Lebanon, Bosnia and Israel/Palestine. It was within this backdrop that the ICC was established at the tail end of the 1990s to address the issues of impunity at international level. Thus, the ICC came into force in July 2002 four years after the signing of the Rome Statute in 1998. Currently 123 countries are State Parties to the Rome Statute. Out of them 34 are African States, 19 are Asia-Pacific States, 18 are from Eastern Europe, 27 are from Latin American and Caribbean States, and 25 are from Western European and other States. These figures demonstrate the popularity of the ICC in African, Latin American and Caribbean States a region which constitutes the bulk of the Global South.

 The key objective of the ICC is very specific. It is to prosecute executive leadership comprising of presidents, prime ministers, senior military officials, senior government officials and other top ranking officials charged for gross violation of human rights. Specifically, in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 5, ICC has jurisdiction over crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide and aggression. The Rome statute article 26 reserves no immunity even for the seating Heads of States and Governments. Prior to ICC, these serious crimes were prosecuted through ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). ICC was not therefore meant to substitute the then existing international criminal justice system but to compliment it. To date, ICC has managed to prosecute, try and sentence two former heads of states that is, Liberia’s Charles Taylor and the late Serbia’s Slobodan Milosevic.

Currently, there are 32 cases before the ICC, all from eight African countries that is, DRC, Uganda, Cote d’voire, Sudan, Kenya, Libya, Central Africa Republic and Mali. This scenario has given reason to some members of the AU to claim that ICC is a neocolonial court or an ‘imperial master exercising imperial power over African subjects’. Subsequently, AU has passed a raft of resolutions from March 2009 to date which call upon all member states not to cooperate with the ICC regarding the arrest of the President of Sudan, Omar al Bashir who is accused of genocide and mass atrocities against his own people in the Darfur region.

 Furthermore, AU has in the past also called for the suspension of the ICC proceedings against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta and his Deputy William Ruto who, along with five others were charged for crimes against humanity including murder, forceful removal of populations, mass rape and other sexual crimes in the aftermath of the 2007 general elections in Kenya. Besides calling for non-cooperation with ICC, AU has stopped the setting up of the ICC Liaison Office in Addis Ababa. Moreover, some leaders like the current chairman of the AU Mugabe and the African National Congress (ANC) leadership are now calling for the complete pull-out of all African States Parties (ASP) from Rome Statute. It should be noted that along with countries such as Sudan and Libya, Zimbabwe is not a State Part of the ICC.

There is no doubt that the ICC should concern itself with the gross violation of human rights in countries such as Israel/Palestine, Syria, Ukraine, and Iraq and others where there are gross violations of human rights. We argue that it is crucially important that all cases of impunity are stopped, be it in Africa, Asia or Europe. In that context, ICC should always remind itself that it was founded with the conviction that there should be no impunity for anybody anywhere in the world. We also believe that the fight against impunity and concern for well-being of the most vulnerable are values central to humanity irrespective of geography, history, race and position in global hierarchies of power. The failure to deal with cases outside Africa has given the blood thirsty African despots scapegoat to rationalise and justify their vampirical desires and negative escapades against their own people.

It cannot be doubted that ICC has many shortcomings but its characterisation as unfairly targeting Africans is not backed by facts. For instance, of the eight cases before ICC four were referred by Africa itself i.e. DRC, Uganda, Central Africa Republic and Mali. On the other hand, Sudan and Libya were referred by the United Nations Security Council in terms of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VII read together with Rome Statute, Article 16, while Kenya and Cote d’voire were referred in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 15 which stipulate that the prosecutor may initiate investigations proprio motu on the basis of information on crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC.
Discussant, Irene Petras of Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human
Rights raised the need for Civil Society to push for people
centred regional bodies
Not surprisingly, only those governments which stood to benefit from referring their cases to ICC did so. In fact  they referred their political opponents for prosecution by ICC. On the other hand, where the seating government was the perpetrator no cases have been referred to ICC to date. It would be unrealistic to expect the perpetrating government to refer cases of impunity to ICC. In this regard, if the ICC was to rely on government referrals, then the ICC would degenerate into the justice of the powerful, hence the justification of referrals by the Security Council and the chief prosecutor’s own initiative.  For the record, the current ICC chief prosecutor is a Gambian woman Fatou Bensouda who took over from Luis Moreno Ocampo from Agentina -both from the Global South and not from the imperial West.

While the ICC has not prosecuted cases in the Global North, it is clear that those that have been charged in Africa have a case to answer. Therefore the accusation that ICC is a selective, skewed, biased and even condescending court does not pass the evidence test. The truth of the matter is that some African presidents who are in the forefront of vilifying the ICC are themselves guilty of impunity, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide and they are looking for political and ideological sanctuaries to hide, prevent and escape justice. Oddly enough, in all the resolutions and decisions of the AU Assembly on ICC since the al Bashir indictment in 2009 there has not been a single mention of the rights of victims of impunity.

 Instead, all the decisions of the AU Assembly are couched around the issue of immunity of the seating Heads of States and Governments. In fact, the AU decisions are inscripted in what Enrique Dussell terms the ‘nationality of power’ wedded with ‘coloniality of power’ a situation where the ordinary masses are subalternised and peripherised into zones of non-being.  In the eyes of some leaders such as Sudan’s al Bashir, Gambia’s Yaya Jameh, Eritrea’s Afwerki and Zimbabwe’s Mugabe, killability and dispensability of human life are part of pan-Africanism. This abysmal thinking suggests that the rights of the victims of impunity must be silenced and disciplined in the name of faked stability and negative peace. Hence the people who complain about bias of the ICC are African dictators-the perpetrators and not the victims, who are relieved that at least ‘somebody in the ICC is paying attention to their plight’.

Evidently, the AU pull-out campaign headed by Mugabe seeks to disable the ICC from indicting more fraudsters running the African states. It is also meant to completely relegate the epistemic and ontological wounds inflicted on African people by their leaders to archival dustbins. More cynically, the perpetrators expect to be deified and iconised as heroes and victors against neocolonialism and neoimperialism. Mugabe is actually experienced in this art of political deception. After presiding over the Gukurahundi mass killings of approximately 20 000 innocent civilians of Ndebele ethnic group in Matabeleland and Midlands Provinces in the 1980s, Mugabe preached unity and peace as substitutes for justice and thought he had got away with it.

However, three decades after the scourge of Gukurahundi together with Murambatsvina crimes against humanity, the stubborn facts about Mugabe’s impunity continue to haunt him and his lieutenants up to this day. No wonder why Mugabe gets livid about the idea of arresting seating presidents by the ICC. Chinua Achebe was right when he remarked that ‘an old woman is always uneasy when dry bones are mentioned in a proverb’. To avoid the possibilities if not reality of his own indictment, Mugabe has had to specifically assign one of his deputies Mr Report Phelekezela Mphoko to traverse the breadth and width of the country denying the truth of Gukurahundi. Sadly, Report Mphoko is not doing a very good job for Mugabe. Instead, he has angered the victims, survivors and the communities where mass atrocities actually took place. He has actually rekindled the memories of the torture survivors who are now exploring various ways of redress. Report Mphoko is better advised to read the recently declassified South African Foreign Affairs documents which reveal how some ‘high ranking’ ZANU PF officials negotiated with Apartheid South African Defence Forces in 1983 to cooperate in their efforts to keep ZAPU from supporting the African National Congress (ANC) operatives in Zimbabwe. Never mind Mugabe’s pretentions of pan-Africanism, he was an Apartheidist in nationalist aprons.

While the AU’s idea that cases of gross violation of human rights in Africa should be prosecuted, tried and sentenced in Africa by either national criminal justice system or by the African Court of Justice (ACJ) in conjunction with the African Human and Peoples’ Rights Court (AHPRC) may sound plausible, logical and pan-African, as mentioned earlier, it should never escape our minds that the perpetrators of these crimes are  almost invariably the seating Heads of States and Governments who enjoy immunity in their countries and have a tendency of long distance rulership. For this reason, it is near impossible that the victims will ever see justice if all serious cases were to be referred to internal or regional justice systems.

 Moreover, issues of solidarity between and among African governments also impede on justice. The case of the former president of Chad, Hissene Habre who is accused of the killings and torture of approximately 40 000 innocent citizens of that country is a classical one. To be sure, the victims of Habre’s brutal killings have been fighting for more than two decades to bring him to justice but the Senegalese government which gave Habre asylum in 1990 protected him from internal criminal justice and from extradition. Until the new president of Senegal, Macky Sall elected in 2012 arrested Habre, the man was living a largely untroubled life in Dakar until then.

 Similarly, the former president of Ethiopia, Mengistu Haile Marrime who is in asylum in Zimbabwe for over two decades now is accused of Operation ‘Red Terror’ which left thousands of people dead in his country. His victims are unlikely to find justice as the perpetrator is well protected by his comrade in blood. We should therefore excuse those who view the AU as a ‘Dictators Club’ that is interested in protecting its own interests as opposed to protecting the interests of the vulnerable, the victims and the subalterns.

While the imperial claims by AU may invoke pan-African spirit and liberation struggle memories in Africa, it should be noted that the Security Council which referred both Libya and Sudan to the ICC consists of five permanent members that is, UK, France (signatories of the Rome Statute), Russia, China and USA (are not). Each of these countries has veto powers on all issues brought to the attention of the Security Council. In the African liberation lexicon and paradigm both China and Russia are not imperialists since they supported the liberation movements to decolonise Africa from the Western imperialists. Assuming China and Russia are anti-imperialists as Mugabe and company suggest, then this claim begs the question why either of the two countries did not veto the Security Council Resolution 1593 which compelled Sudan to cooperate with the ICC?

We submit here that both Russia and China are new economic imperialists. For instance, China like all imperialist powers imports cheap raw materials from Africa; exports finished products to Africa; exploits its own and other countries cheap labour; it invests and seeks to control infrastructure in Africa such as highways, airports, ports, and telecommunications; it is a creditor; and it uses its political clout to bribe political leaders to protect its economic interests. Just like the Western imperialists which pampered the Mobutus, Idi Aminis and Bokassas of this world, China has a weird reputation of protecting despots and perpetrators of gross violation of human rights. In Zimbabwe they have constructed a personal residence for Mugabe, a military defence college and a conference centre for the ruining party ZANU PF. Moreover, the Chinese have also invested heavily in the First Family businesses such as the Gushungo Dairy Estate and the Mazowe Business Hub but nothing for the ordinary citizens except the looting of their natural resources, destruction of the their textile and clothing industry leaving them unemployed and impoverished.

While the Chinese did not oppose the Security Council resolution, they have been working behind the scenes with some African leaders to undermine and defy the resolution to arrest al Bashir. For record, at the time of al Bashir’s formal indictment by ICC in March 2009, Sudan was the third largest recipient of Chinese investment behind Angola and South Africa. China’s business interests in Sudan include among others: dam construction (Merowe Dam where China’s Exim- Bank is providing USD$530 million); power generation (El Galil Power Station); Railways (Railway connecting Port Sudan to Khartoum); and petroleum industry. Moreover, Sudan was one of the few countries to be visited by the then Chinese President Hu Jintau in February 2007. All this indicates the strategic value that Sudan is to China. While there is nothing inherently wrong with the above investments, it is worth noting that they are the very reasons why China is protecting al Bashir from ICC.  A good number of African Heads of States and Governments have been bribed to support the Sudanese president. In this context, the lives of the Darfurans do not matter as long as al Bashir continues to be the conveyor belt of African resources to feed the over a billion Chinese.

To this extent, the Mugabe-led faction of the AU should be thoroughly analysed and its pretentions and guises exposed. It is this component of the AU which is screaming about the neocolonial exigencies of the West while shielding the new imperialists from the East with impunity. The new economic imperialists of the East dine and wine with dictators to protect their excesses, and as a quid pro quo the imperialists loot African resources with impunity. They are no less worse than their Western counterparts.

In this regard, the 25thAU Summit in South Africa in June 2015 will be remembered in the annals of history as full of contradictions, ambiguities, dichotomies, and frictions. South Africa which for years was on the frontline fighting Apartheidism will have to extricate itself before the bar of history, the bar of public opinion and the bar of its own conscience how it found itself in defence of despotism and impunity if it hopes to regain its confidence from the victims of impunity; regain its former venerated place on matters of moral leadership; and African conscience inaugurated by its founding icon the late Mandela. That evil triumphed in the AU when a South African national was the chairperson of the AU Commission in a Summit hosted by South Africa flies on the face of South Africa’s proud history against impunity. It should be known that the only benefactors of South Africa’s inaction regarding the arrest of al Bashir when he was present on its territory is al Bashir himself along with all other African despots who have albatrosses of crimes hanging on their necks. Sadly, justice once again lost on the altar of impunity masquerading as peace project.

In concluding, we would like to call upon all peoples of conscience in Zimbabwe, Africa and Diaspora to denounce the Mugabe-led pull out campaign.  We also call upon all progressive African leaders to distance themselves from Mugabe-AU’s paradigms of violence; neo-populism guised as pan-Africanism; and despotism disguised as Afro-radicalism. There is no need for countries and leaders without skeletons in their cupboards to be banded together with dictatorships by default. It is in this context, that we applaud Malawi, Botswana and others for resisting the posturings of dictatorships who ganged up against the victims of impunity by embracing the non-cooperation axiom of the Mugabe faction of the AU. Africa and the World should listen to the clarion call of the victims of gross violation of human rights who want both peace and justice in equal measures.

I thank you


          Ð“рупацијата на Бизнис Жени – Размена на искуства со косовските компании од секторот на дизајн        

30 Mарт 2017 – Како дел од активностите за промовирање на претприемништвото, Стопанската комора на Северо-Западна Македонија, во соработка со Empower Kosovo и Kosovo Apparel  Marketing Association – KAMA  денеска одржa Б2Б средби со компаниите од секторот на дизајн во Центарот за Развој на Бизнисот при Универзитетот на ЈИЕ  во Тетово. Состанокот започна со поздравен говор од ...
          Travel to Sofia, Bulgaria – Episode 570        

Hear about travel to Sofia, Bulgaria as the Amateur Traveler talks to Stephanie Craig from historyfangirl.com about her time in that country. Stephanie says, “I feel like Sofia is magical. The first […]

The post Travel to Sofia, Bulgaria – Episode 570 appeared first on Amateur Traveler Travel Podcast.


          Klimatjippot i Köpenhamn        
192 länder är medlemmar i FN. Enligt FN-stadgan är FN öppet för alla stater som vill arbeta för fred. De måste åta sig de skyldigheter som stadgan ålägger medlemmarna och vara villiga och kapabla att uppfylla skyldigheterna. Stater antas som medlemmar i Förenta Nationerna genom beslut i generalförsamlingen på rekommendation av säkerhetsrådet.

FN:s medlemsländer markerade i blått

Vatikanstaten är inte medlem i FN eftersom den deklarerat att den vill vara neutral i vissa politiska sammanhang. Vatikanstaten har dock permanent observatörsstatus i FN.

Ytterligare stater som inte är medlemmar är Cooköarna och Niue, som endast har begränsad självständighet.

Palestina, Taiwan, Västsahara och Kosovo är ännu inte internationellt erkända som självständiga stater och kan därför ej heller bli medlemmar i FN. Palestina har dock permanent observatörsstatus i FN

Från sign. ”Utlandssvensk” har följande inlägg kommit.

Re: FN:s medlemsländer

Klimatjippots syften? Det har samma syften för de lokala politikerna som exercis har för värnpliktiga. Ni som gjort lumpen, tänk tillbaks på alla rop om "vänster om", "höger om", "givvkt", "manöver", "framåt - - marsch", "avdelning -- halt" som ni har lystrat till och ögonblickligen hörsammat. Ni fattade redan då att excercis inte har med strid att göra. Det handlar om att vänja hjärnan vid att omedelbart, utan reflektion eller ifrågasättande lyda den här rösten. Och syftet är förstås att man utan att tänka skall lyda den ropande rösten även i en annan situation, i ett läge där det inte finns tid för eftertanke eller diskussion och då rösten ryter att man skall göra någonting livsfarligt.

1. Första syftet är alltså att vänja världens politiker och väljare vid det normala i politiska åtgärder som initierats utifrån. Den nya typen av internationella åtgärder består av att politiker träffas på överstatlig nivå och återvänder till sina folk och genomför åtgärderna utan att rådfråga folket. Man skriver under några avtal och sedan "måste" det hela genomföras. Tågordningen är ny - hittills har makten utgått från respektive folk/nation. När skäl har funnits har nationerna sänt sina politiker utomlands med fullmakt att avhandla saker och ting med representanter för andra nationer. Så har exempelvis kol- och stålunionen, NATO och FN uppstått.

I fortsättningen blir det annorlunda. Internationella spelare tar initiativet, samlar ihop provinsiella politiker från klotets alla avkrokar i en stor sal och får dem att skriva under saker som de inte begriper. Sedan åker alla hem igen och genomför det som "vi" har åtagit oss. Initiativet kommer numera uppifrån. Makten utgår från det internationella kapitalets internationella politiker. Detta är effektivare och billigare än att muta politiker på lokalnivån - det blir helt enkelt färre att muta. De lokala småpolitikerna, som imponeras av den internaionella glansen och enigheten begriper vad som ligger i deras personliga intresse - att säga ja. Den som säger nej utesluter sig själv från karriärmöjligheter i den nya överstatliga politikernomenklaturan. Bäst att säga ja och sköta sin uppgift som distributör av order. Även om varje tillfälle till nya skatter och förbud alltid är bra för den klass som vill demonstrera sin makt är själva klimatet inte väsentligt.

Det är om framtidens frågor som de stora slagen kommer att stå. Om mångkultur och globalisering, om etnisk utträngning av vita, om överstatlighet och internationell överhöghet, om internationell rätt ovanpå nationell. Motståndet mot dessa trender skall kväsas och det är inför dessa slag som den politiska excercisen behövs.

2. Andra syftet är att blåsa upp en konflikt mellan de mellanstora fårskocksstaterna och Kina. Kina är det enda snabbväxande industriland som det internationella kapitalet inte har någon form av kontroll över. Men luftföroreningar och t.o.m. kärnkraftsolyckor drabbar ju väsentligen bara det egna landet. Därför kan och skall normalt internationellt miljöarbete bara ta formen av rekommendationer. Men nu, när man nu hittat på att varenda liten bil som en kines kör omkring i skulle bidra till att polerna smälter och Europas hamnstäder sätts under vatten, har man hittat stoffet till konflikt. Något krig är inte målet men klimatpaniken skall sprida antipati mot Kina, en antipati kommer att behövas i framtida politiska och militära utmaningar mot Kinas självständighet.

3. Det tredje syftet känner vi igen från de traditionella miljöpolitiska övertonerna. Det handlar om existentiellt skuldbeläggande av den samvetsömme europén som skall göra honom mindre benägen att kräva rättvisa och respekt för sina egna intressen. En europé som har uppfattningen att han själv och hans barn mest är en belastning för världsalltet har goda förutsättningar att bli en underdånig och självspäkande skatteslav som lämnar politiken åt de självutnämnda politiska "eliterna".

Men finns det inte någon kärna av idealism i dessa ansträngningar? Nej. Anledningen till att vi kan utesluta legitima bevekelsegrunder bakom klimatkampanjen är att det faktiskt finns verkliga internationella miljöhot som de internationella politikerna lätt kunde göra någonting åt, men där ingenting görs. Jag tänker på dels på rovfisket, där en viss sorts tonfisk är under utrotning mitt framför ögonen på "det internationella samfundet". (Med exemplet Japan och tonfiskarna skulle hotet om bara en lindrig internationell bojkott mot Japan direkt leda till att det aktuella ofoget reglerades. Men ingenting görs). Jag tänker på regnskogsskövlingen i Latinamerika. Eftersom regnskogen har en väsentlig betydelse för nybildningen av syre som hela jordens befolkning behöver vore det förmodligen tillåtligt enligt befintlig internationell rätt att sätta in attackflyg mot de skogsavverkningar som de lokala regeringarna borde ha förbjudit. Detta kunde ha gjorts för 20 år sedan och sedan hade problemet varit ur världen. Ingen finansierar en gambasodling(jätteräkor) eller ett sågverksprojekt i regnskogen om detta när som helst kan komma att raseras av ett enda attackflygplan. Den internationella politikerklubben vill inte lösa problem. Den vill skapa problem och dra nytta av dem.

I en artikel från 2008 kan man bl.a. läsa om FN och den omfattande korruptionen. Det är svenska Inga-Britt Ahlenius, chef för FN:s interna revisionsbyrå, som skriver att svindleriet inom FN är överraskande omfattande.
          Sejarah Islam Mulai Dari Zaman Nabi Muhammad Sampai Dengan Masa Ke-Emasan Islam        
          
sejarah islam
Sejarah Islam Mulai Dari Zaman Nabi Muhammad Sampai Dengan Masa Ke-Emasan Islam
Sejarah Islam dari zaman nabi Muhammad hingga masa turki usmani – Perkembangan islam sudah berlangsung ribuan tahun dan mungkin saja sobat harian islam ada yang belum paham sejarah perkembangan islam itu sendiri. Menurut sumber wikipedia yang saya kutip yaitu;
Sejarah Islam adalah sejarah agama Islam mulai turunnya wahyu pertama pada tahun 622 yang diturunkan kepada rasul allah yang terakhir yaitu Muhammad bin Abdullah di Gua Hira, Arab Saudi sampai dengan sekarang.
Rasullulah menjadi nabi akhir zaman, nah perkembangan islam selanjutnya setelah era rosul Muhamad dilanjutkan dengan era-era dibawah ini:
>> Nenek Moyang Nabi SAW

 Sejarah Islam masa Khulafaur Rasyidin

632 M – Wafatnya Nabi Muhammad dan Abu Bakar diangkat menjadi khalifah. Usamah bin Zaid memimpin ekspedisi ke Syria. Perang terhadap orang yang murtad yaitu Bani Tamim dan Musailamah al-Kadzab.
633 M – Pengumpulan Al Quran dimulai.
634 M – Wafatnya Abu Bakar. Umar bin Khatab diangkat menjadi khalifah. Penaklukan Damaskus.
636 M – Peperangan di Ajnadin atas tentara Romawi sehingga Syria, Mesopotamia, dan Palestina dapat ditaklukkan. Peperangan dan penaklukan Kadisia atas tentara Persia.
638 M – Penaklukan Baitulmuqaddis oleh tentara Islam. Peperangan dan penkalukan Jalula atas Persia.
639 M – Penaklukan Madain, kerajaan Persia.
640 M – Kerajaan Islam Madinah mulai membuat mata uang Islam. Tentara Islam megepung kota Alfarma, Mesir dan menaklukkannya.
641 M – Penaklukan Mesir
642 M – Penaklukan Nahawand, kerajaan Persia dan Penaklukan Persia secara keseluruhan.
644 M – Umar bin Khatab mati syahid akibat dibunuh. Utsman bin Affan menjadi khalifah.
645 M – Cyprus ditaklukkan.
646 M – Penyerangan Byzantium di kota Iskandariyah Mesir.
647 M – Angkatan Tentara Laut Islam didirikan & diketuai oleh Muawiyah Abu Sufyan. Perang di laut melawan angkatan laut Byzantium.
648 M – Pemberontakan menentang pemerintahan Utsman bin Affan.
656 M – Utsman mati akibat dibunuh. Ali bin Abi Talib dilantik menjadi khalifah. Terjadinya Perang Jamal.
657 M – Ali bin Abi Thalib memindahkan pusat pemerintahan dari Madinah ke Kufah. Perang Siffin meletus.
659 M – Ali bin Abi Thalib menyerang kembali Hijaz dan Yaman dari Muawiyah. Muawiyah menyatakan dirinya sebagai khalifah Damaskus.
661 M – Ali bin Abi Thalib mati dibunuh. Pemerintahan Khulafaur Rasyidin berakhir. Hasan (Cucu Nabi Muhammad) kemudian diangkat sebagai Khalifah ke-5 Umat Islam menggantikan Ali bin Abi Thalib.
661 M – Setelah sekitar 6 bulan Khalifah Hasan memerintah, 2 kelompok besar pasukan Islam yaitu Pasukan Khalifah Hasan di Kufah dan pasukan Muawiyah di Damsyik telah siap untuk memulai suatu pertempuran besar. Ketika pertempuran akan pecah, Muawiyah kemudian menawarkan rancangan perdamaian kepada Khalifah Hasan yang kemudian dengan pertimbangan persatuan Umat Islam, rancangan perdamaian Muawiyah ini diterima secara bersyarat oleh Khalifah Hasan dan kekhalifahan diserahkan oleh Khalifah Hasan kepada Muawiyah. Tahun itu kemudian dikenal dengan nama Tahun Perdamaian/Persatuan Umat (Aam Jamaah) dalam sejarah Umat Islam. Sejak saat itu Muawiyah menjadi Khalifah Umat Islam yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan sistem Kerajaan Islam yang pertama yaitu pergantian pemimpin (Raja Islam) yang dilakukan secara turun temurun (Daulah Umayyah) dari Daulah Umayyah ini kemudian berlanjut kepada Kerajaan-Kerajaan Islam selanjutnya seperti Daulah Abbasiyah, Fatimiyyah, Usmaniyah dan lain-lain.
 >> Kelahiran dan Masa Kecil Muhammad

 Sejarah Islam Masa Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah

661 M – Muawiyah menjadi khalifah dan mndirikan Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah.
669 M – Persiapan perang melawan Konstantinopel
670 M – Penaklukan Kabul.
677 M – Penyerangan Konstantinopel yang pertama namun gagal.
679 M – Penyerangan Konstantinopel yang kedua namun gagal karena Muawiyah meninggal di tahun 680.
680 M – Kematian Muawiyah. Yazid I menaiki tahta. Peristiwa pembunuhan Saidina Hussein.
685 M – Khalifah Abdul Malik menjadikan Bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa resmi kerajaan.
700 M – Tentara Islam melawan kaum Barbar di Afrika Utara.
711 M – Penaklukan Sepanyol, Sind, dan Transoxiana.
712 M – Tentara Bani Ummayyah ke Spanyol, Sind, dan Transoxiana.
713 M – Penaklukan Multan.
716 M – Serangan kepada Konstantinopel.
717 M – Umar bin Abdul Aziz menjadi khalifah. Pembaharuan yang hebat dijalankan.
725 M – Tentara Islam melawan Nimes di Perancis.
749 M – Kekalahan tentera Ummayyah di Kufah, Iraq ditangan tentara Abbasiyyah.
750 M – Damaskus ditaklukkan oleh tentera Abbasiyyah. Runtuhnya Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah.
 >> Sejarah Pernikahan Rasulullah S.A.W. dengan Siti Khadijah

Sejarah Islam Masa Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah

752 M – Berdirinya Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah.
755 M – Pemberontakan Abdullah bin Ali. Pembunuhan Abu Muslim.
756 M – Abd ar-Rahman I mendirikan Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah di Spanyol.
763 M – Pendirian kota Baghdad. Kekalahan tentara Abbasiyyah di Spanyol.
786 M – Harun al-Rasyid menjadi Khalifah.
792 M – Penyerangan selatan Perancis.
800 M – Aljabar diciptakan oleh Al-Khawarizmi.
805 M – Perlawanan atas Byzantium. Penyerangan Pulau Rhodes dan Cyprus.
809 M – Kematian Harun al-Rasyid. Al-Amin diangkat menjadi khalifah.
814 M – Perang saudara antara Al-Amin dan Al-Ma’mun. Al-Amin terbunuh dan Al-Ma’mun menjadi khalifah.
1000 M – Masjid Besar Cordoba siap dibangun.
1005 M – Multan dan Ghur ditaklukkan.
1055 M – Baghdad diserang oleh tentara Turki Seljuk. Pemerintahan Abbasiyyah-Seljuk dimulai, yang berdiri sampai tahun 1258 ketika tentara Mongol memusnahkan Baghdad.
1085 M – Tentara Kristen menyerang Toledo (di Spanyol).
1091 M – Bangsa Norman menyerang Sicilia, pemerintahan Islam di sana berakhir.
1095 M – Perang Salib pertama dimulai.
1099 M – Tentara Salib menaklukkan Baitul Maqdis. Mereka membunuh semua penduduknya.
1144 M – Nuruddin Zengi menaklukkan Edessa dari tentera Kristian. Perang Salib kedua berlaku.
1187 M – Salahuddin Al-Ayubbi menaklukkan Baitulmuqaddis dari tentera Salib. Perang Salib ketiga berlaku.
1194 M – Tentera Muslim menaklukkan Delhi, India.
1236 M – Tentera Kristen menaklukkan Cordoba (di Spanyol).
1258 M – Tentera Mongol menyerang dan memusnahkan Baghdad. Ribuan penduduk terbunuh. Runtuhnya Baghdad. Tamatnya pemerintahan Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah-Seljuk.
1260 M – Kebangkitan Islam. Kerajaan Bani Mamluk di Mesir (merupakan pertahanan Islam yang ketiga terakhir setelah Makkah & Madinah) pimpinan Sultan Saifuddin Muzaffar Al-Qutuz menewaskan tentera Mongol di dalam pertempuran di Ain Jalut.
 >> Awal Masa Kenabian Nabi Muhammad SAW
>> Wafatnya Nabi Muhammad.

Sejarah Islam Masa Kerajaan Turki Utsmani

1243 M – Bangsa Turki yang hidup secara nomad menetap secara tetap di Asia Kecil.
1299 M – Sebuah wilayah pemerintahan kecil Turki di bawah Turki Seljuk didirikan di barat Anatolia.
1301 M – Osman I menyatakan dirinya sebagai sultan. Berdirinya Kerajaan Turki Usmani.
1345 M – Turki Seljuk menyeberangi Selat Bosporus.
1389 M – Tentara Utsmani menewaskan tentara Serb di Kosovo.
1402 M – Timurlane, Raja Tartar (Mongol) menumpaskan tentera Uthmaniyyah di Ankara.
1451 M – Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih menjadi pemerintah.
1453 M – Constantinople ditaklukkan oleh tentara Islam pimpinan Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih. Berakhirnya Kerajaan Byzantium.
1520 M – Sultan Sulaiman al-Qanuni dilantik menjadi sultan.
1526 M – Perang Mohacs
1529 M – Serangan dan kepungan ke atas Vienna.
1571 M – Perang Lepanto terjadi.
1641 M – Pemerintahan Sultan Muhammad IV
1683 M – Serangan dan kepungan ke atas Vienna untuk yang kedua kalinya.
1687 M – Sultan Muhammad IV meninggal dunia.
1703 M – Pembaharuan kebudayaan di bawah Sultan Ahmed III.
1774 M – Perjanjian Kucuk Kaynarca.
1792 M – Perjanjian Jassy.
1793 M – Sultan Selim III mengumumkan “Pentadbiran Baru”.
1798 M – Napoleon mencoba untuk menaklukkan Mesir.
1804 M – Pemberontakan dan kebangkitan bangsa Serbia pertama.
1815 M – Pemberontakan dan kebangkitan bangsa Serbia kedua.
1822 M – Bermulanya perang kemerdekaan Greece.
1826 M – Pembunuhan massal tentara elit Janissari. Kekalahan tentera laut Uthmaniyyah di Navarino.
1829 M – Perjanjian Adrianople.
1830 M – Berakhirnya perang kemerdekaan Greece.
1841 M – Konvensyen Selat.
1853 M – Dimulainya Perang Crimea.
1856 M – Berakhirnya Perang Crimea.
1878 M – Kongres Berlin. Serbia dan Montenegro diberi kemerdekaan. Bulgaria diberi kuasa autonomi.
1912 M – Perang Balkan pertama.
1913 M – Perang Balkan kedua.
1914 M – Kerajaan Turki Utsmani memasuki Perang Dunia I sebagai sekutu kuasa tengah.
1919 M – Mustafa Kemal Atatürk mendarat di Samsun.
1923 M – Sistem kesultanan dihapuskan. Turki menyatakan sebagai sebuah Republik.
1924 M – Khalifah dihapus. Berakhirnya pemerintahan Kerajaan Turki Utsmani. 

          Loncatan Ekonomi Dongkrak Komunitas Islam Austria        
 
Islam Agamaku - Republik Austria ialah negeri yang terkurung daratan di bagian Eropa Tengah. Dia berbatasan bersama Jerman, Ceko, Slovakia, Hungaria, Slovenis, Italia, & Swiss.

Laporan dari Kampus Wina tahun 2014 menyatakan, jumlah Muslim di Austria meningkat lebih dari 550 ribu atau tujuh prosen tahun 2012. Mayoritas Muslim Austria berasal dari Turki & Bosnia, ditambah etnis Chechnya & Iran.

Jumlah Muslim Austria pertama meningkat karena hasil dari loncatan ekonomi. Tahun 1960 sampai 1970-an, puluhan ribu pekerja migran berdatangan dari Balkan & Turki. Jumlah pelajar dari negara-negara Muslim pula meningkat di universitas-universitas Austria. Pengungsi dari Bosnia & Kosovo menyusul terhadap 1990-an.

Baru-baru ini, Austria pun menampung ribuan pencari suaka dari Suriah, Afghanistan, & Irak. Ada lagi, tambahan komune dari kelahiran imigran generasi ke-2 & ke-3 tahun 2000-an. Saat 2009, lebih kurang setengah dari Muslim di negeri itu berkewarganegaraan ori Austria. Angka konversi penduduk ori Austria pula disebut-sebut mengalami kenaikan.

Saat negara-negara lain di Eropa menghadapi derasnya gelombang migran Timur Tengah, Austria serta sama. Negera ini jadi trayek transit migran Timur Tengah yg mau menuju Jerman. Sejak Desember 2015 dulu, Austria bahkan mesti menanggung pengembalian migran tanpa izin dari Jerman.

Jalinan Muslim dgn Pemerintah Austria relatif landai. Negeri ini sudah memberikan pernyatan Islam yang merupakan salah satu agama resmi & menjamin kebebasan beragama. Ada beberapa ratus ruang ibadah & tempat ibadah di Austria. Permakaman Islam seluas 34 ribu kilo meter persegi dibangun kepada 2008.

Muslim di Austria diwakili oleh Islamic Faith Community of Austria (Islamische Glaubensgemeinschaft/IGGIÖ) yang didirikan sejak 1912. Organisasi ini menjalin jalinan pada pemerintahan.

          Studio Session        
Hello Every1

I'm writing this post right from my studio, because I wanna share some information about my brand new song called "My Papi"...(i know it sounds weird name, but i think it's funny)
I've planed this song with one of the best rappers in Kosovo & Albania.Soon we will shoot the video and I will share with you guys everything, because everything in this video will be different: The look, the music, the video..
Coming out soon "My papi". Stay tuned...
 Kiss y'all





          Read this book: Edith & I by Elizabeth Gowing        
Edith & I is a travelogue which spans time as well as distance. In 1900, an English anthropologist named Edith Durham traversed the Accursed Mountains into Kosovo, shaded from the Balkan sun by her tam o’shanter. She was honoured for … Continue reading
          The Right Time And The Right Country: Jason Tashea On Fulbright Kosovo        
Jason Tashea does not miss any opportunity to go abroad. During and after studying law at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Jason won three fellowships that allowed him to work abroad in places like Armenia and Austria on rule of law development. These fellowships include the Nick Begich Scholarship for Alaskans, the Savage Endowment for … Continue reading "The Right Time And The Right Country: Jason Tashea On Fulbright Kosovo"
          Serbian and Czech football fans shouting ''Kosovo is Serbia'' at each other        

          EU encourages Balkans unity at Trieste summit        
Leaders from six western Balkan countries have agreed to form a common regional economic area at a summit in Trieste. It's been proposed by the European Union as an extension of the already existing Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), which is stepping stone towards full membership for the six countries of the region who are not yet members of the bloc. EU Foreign Policy Chief Federica Mogherini: "All the six partners of the western Balkans clearly want to be more integrated in the European Union. The population in the region is clearly supporting the European Union perspective of their countries, and on the European Union side we are determined to keep the door open and guarantee that there is a future in our union for each of them. Once the right reforms are passed, we will be consistent on our side." The countries at varying points along the path towards full EU membership are Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. "For Serbia the enlargement stays our strategic priority. It is one of our key focuses and for us within..., for our European accession regional stability is obviously a key part of it. So we are very happy to be part of the Berlin Process," stressed Serbian PM Ana Brnabic. The Berlin process began with a summit in 2014 and is linked to the future enlargement of the block. It's sentiment still strong despite the advent of Brexit. But once again latest gathering in Trieste brought promises of accession but no firm timetable.
          Bulan Oktober        
1 Oktober
Republik Rakyat Cina Berdiri

Tanggal 1 Oktober tahun 1949, Republik Rakyat Cina secara resmi memproklamasikan diri dengan Mao Zedong sebagai presiden. Negara yang memiliki kekayaan peradaban kuno itu, pada akhir abad ke-16 berada di bawah kekuasaan sejumlah negara Eropa. Pada tahun 1912 dimulailah sebuah revolusi besar di bawah pimpinan Sun Yat Sen dengan tujuan untuk meruntuhkan Dinasti Militer Manchu. Revolusi itu berhasil menumbangkan pemerintahan Manchu dan mendudukkan Sun Yat Sen sebagai presiden.
Pada tahun 1931, pasukan Jepang melakukan agresi ke Cina. Pada saat itu, di dalam negeri Cina sendiri tengah terjadi perebutan kekuasaan antara Mao Zedong yang beraliran komunis melawan Chiang Kai Sek yang berhaluan nasionalis. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1945, saat Jepang menyerah kepada pasukan Sekutu yang menandai berakhirnya Perang Dunia Kedua, perang antara Cina dan Jepang juga berakhir. Berakhirnya perang antara kedua negara itu membuat perang saudara antara para pendukung Mao Zedong dan Chiang Kai-shek kembali berlanjut. Perang ini dimenangkan oleh Mao Zedong. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1949, Mao Zedong memproklamasikan berdirinya Republik Rakyat Cina yang berhaluan komunis. Chiang Kai-shek sendiri bersama pendukungnya kemudian melarikan diri ke Pulau Taiwan dan mendirikan pemerintahan baru di sana.
Cina adalah negara dengan penduduk paling banyak di planet bumi ini. Negara ini memiliki luas 9.560.779 kilometer persegi. Cina berbatasan dengan negara-negara Rusia, Mongolia, Korea Utara, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Butan, Birma, Laos, dan Vietnam.

Nigeria Merdeka
Tanggal 1 Oktober 1960, negara Nigeria meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris.Tanggal 1 Oktober kemudian dijadikan sebagai hari nasional negara itu. Awalnya, Nigeria dijajah Portugis pada abad 15. Satu abad kemudian, kawasan ini dijajah Inggris. Setelah jatuh di bawah kolonialisme Inggris, Nigeria menjadi pusat perdagangan perbudakan dunia.
Tahun 1914, Inggris menyatakan bahwa dua kawasan Nigeria Utara dan Nigeria Selatan digabungkan ke dalam koloni Britania. Empat puluh tahun berikutnya, negara ini menyatakan diri sebagai wilayah otonom dan menjadi anggota negara-negara persemakmuran. Pada tahun 1960, lewat sebuah referendum, rakyat Nigeria menghendaki sebuah pemerintahan independen dan melepaskan diri secara penuh dari kekuasaan Inggris.
Nigeria memiliki luas wilayah 923.768 kilometer persegi dan terletak di bagian barat benua Afrika. Negara ini berbatasan dengan Kamerun, Chad, Niger, dan Benin.

Markas PLO di Tunisia Dibom Israel

Tanggal 1 Oktober 1985, pesawat perang rezim Zionis menggempur markas Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina, PLO di Tunisia. Dalam serangan ini, sekitar 70 orang tewas dan sejumlah orang lainnya luka-luka. PLO telah memindahkan markasnya dari Libanon ke Tunisia karena menyusul serangan Zionis terhadap markas tersebut pada tahun 1982. Serangan Rezim Zionis ini menimbulkan kemarahan dunia internasional, namun karena perlindungan Amerika, Dewan Keamanan PBB tidak bisa mengambil tindakan serius apapun.

2 Oktober
Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi Merebut Baitul Maqdis

Tanggal 2 Oktober tahun 1187, Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi, komandan pasukan Islam dalam Perang Salib berhasil membebaskan Baitul Maqdis. Tahap pertama Perang Salib dimulai sejak tahun 1095 dan empat tahun kemudian perang tersebut berakhir dengan serangan tentara Salib ke Baitul Maqdis dan pendudukan kota itu oleh Pasukan Salib. Pada tahap kedua, Shalahudin Al-Ayyubi setelah menduduki Suriah, Libanon, dan Mesir, mengepung Baitul Maqdis dan memaksa Tentara Salib yang bercokol di sana untuk menyerah. Setelah kekalahan ini, pasukan Salib kembali mengirimkan balatentara dalam jumlah besar ke Baitul Maqdis. Namun, Pasukan Salib tidak berhasil menduduki kota ini dan Baitul Maqdis tetap berada di tangan kaum muslimin. Perang Salib terus berlangsung, khususnya untuk menguasai Mesir, pusat kekuasaan kaum muslimin pada zaman itu. Akhirnya pada tahun 1270, perang berakhir dengan kekalahan di pihak Pasukan Salib.

Graham Green Lahir
Tanggal 2 Oktober 1904, Graham Green, seorang penulis terkenal Inggris, terlahir ke dunia. Dalam karya-karyanya, Green selalu menggambarkan pertentangan antara kebaikan dan kejahatan. Green dalam buku terkenalnya yang berjudul "The Power and The Glory" menunjukkan bahwa kesabaran dan menjalani kesulitan adalah sebuah kebaikan. Di antara karya-karya Green yang lain adalah novel berjudul "The Third Man", "The Ministry of Fear", dan "This Gun For Hire". Graham Green meninggal dunia pada tahun 1991.

Kolonel Taqikhan Pesyan Dibunuh
Tanggal 2 Oktober 1921, Kolonel Muhammad Taqi Khan Pesyan, komandan militer provinsi Khurasan, Iran, dibunuh oleh para pendukung pemerintah Iran waktu itu. Karena memiliki pemikiran kebebasan, Kolonel Khan Pesyan memperoleh pengaruh di tengah masyarakat. Setelah terjadinya kudeta terhadap Reza Khan pada tahun 1920, Kolonel Khan Pesyan meraih kekuasaan di provinsi Khurasan. Dia kemudian berjuang melawan pemerintahan pusat karena melihat bahwa pengaruh asing, terutama Inggris di Iran telah menimbulkan kesengsaraan rakyat. Perjuangan yang dipimpin oleh Kolonel Khan Pesyan ini disebut sebagai kebangkitan para perwira militer Khurasan. Dalam sebuah perang melawan tentara yang berpihak kepada pemerintah pusat, Kolonel Khan Pesyan terbunuh dan kebangkitan para perwira militer Khurasan pun ditaklukkan oleh pemerintah pusat.

Hitler Mengistruksikan Penyerangan Kedua ke Soviet
Tanggal 2 Oktober 1941, Adolf Hitler mengeluarkan perintah kepada pasukan Nazi Jerman untuk melakukan serangan kedua terhadap Uni Soviet. Dalam serangan Jerman yang pertama, yang dimulai tanggal 22 Juni 1941, Jerman berhasil menduduki sebagian wilayah Soviet. Tujuan serangan kedua ini adalah untuk menguasai wilayah lainnya, terutama kota Moskow, ibu kota Soviet. Namun, perlawanan kuat dari tentara Merah Soviet, ditambah karena suplai senjata dari sekutunya serta datangnya musim dingin yang sangat dahsyat, membuat tentara Jerman kewalahan. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1944, tentara Jerman terpaksa mundur dari wilayah Uni Soviet.

Ghana Merdeka

Tanggal 2 Oktober 1958, negara Ghana berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional Ghana. Pada akhir abad ke-19, Portugis menduduki Ghana. Sejak abad ke-19, pengaruh Perancis di Ghana semakin meningkat sampai akhirnya pada tahun 1849, Ghana resmi menjadi negara jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1946, Ghana memperoleh status sebagai daerah otonomi. Akhirnya, setelah melalui referendum, negara ini menuntut pemisahan diri dari Perancis dan memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Ahmad Sekouture terpilih menjadi presiden Ghana yang pertama.
Ghana terletak di bagian barat benua Afrika dan berbatasan dengan Senegal, Mali, Pantai Gading, Liberia, dan Guinea Bissau, dan Siera Leone.

3 Oktober
Perjanjian Wina Ditandatangani

Tanggal 3 Oktober tahun 1866, Perjanjian Wina ditandatangani oleh Italia dan Austria. Atas dasar perjanjian ini, negara bagian Venesia diserahkan oleh Austria kepada Italia. Selain itu, kekaisaran Austria tidak boleh lagi mencampuri urusan dalam negeri Italia. Perjanjian ini membuka jalan bagi terwujudnya persatuan Italia pada tahun 1870.

Irak Merdeka
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1932, Irak memproklamasikan kemerdekaannnya dari Inggris. Irak memiliki peradaban kuno, yaitu Assyria dan Akkad. Mulai tahun 539 sebelum Masehi, Irak menjadi bagian dari imperium Iran sampai kedatangan pasukan muslimin ke wilayah Irak pada tahun 642. Irak kemudian berada di bawah pemerintahan Dinasti Bani Umayah dan ketika Dinasti Abasiah berkuasa, kota Baghdad dijadikan ibu kota kekhalifahan Islam. Sejak pertengahan abad ke-10, Irak berada di bawah kekuasaan Iran hingga direbut oleh pemerintah Utsmani.
Menyusul kekalahan Utsmani pada Perang Dunia Pertama, Irak diserahkan kepada Inggris. Rakyat Irak dengan dipimpin para ruhaniwan melakukan perlawanan keras terhadap Ingris, sampai akhirnya Inggris terpaksa mengakui kemerdekaan Irak pada tahun 1932.

Uji Coba Bom Atom Pertama Inggris
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1952, Inggris berhasil menguji coba bom atom pertamanya. Selama Perang Dunia Kedua, 50 ilmuwan Inggris bekerja pada program bom atom AS di Los Alamos New Mexico. Setelah perang usai, para ilmuwan tersebut direkrut untuk melakukan program rahasia pembuatan bom atom di Inggris. Proyek pembuatan bom yang disebut sebagai "A-bomb" ini secara resmi dimulai tahun 1947 di bawah pimpinan William Penney. Pada bulan Februari 1952, Perdana Menteri Inggris saat itu, Winston Churchill mengumumkan rencana uji coba senjata nuklir Inggris. Pada tanggal 3 Oktorber 1952, sebanyak 25 kiloton bom atom yang setara dengan berat bom yang dijatuhkan AS di Nagasaki, diledakkan di pulau Monte Bello, di lepas pantai timur laut Australia. Dengan demikian, Inggris menjadi negara ketiga pemilik senjata nuklir, setelah Amerika dan Uni Soviet.

Imam Khomeini Pergi ke Kuwait
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1978, Imam Khomeini meninggalkan Irak untuk menuju Kuwait. Imam Khomeini diasingkan ke Irak oleh rezim Pahlevi karena aktivitas politik beliau yang mengancam kedudukan Shah Pahlevi. Kemudian, pemerintah Irak yang bekerja sama dengan Rezim Shah menyuruh agar Imam Khomeini meninggalkan negeri itu. Namun, Kuwait juga tidak mau menerima kehadiran Imam Khomeini. Oleh karena itu, beberapa hari kemudian Imam Khomeini hijrah ke Perancis dan di sana beliau menggerakkan rakyat Iran untuk meneruskan revolusi mereka untuk menumbangkan Rezim Shah yang despotik.

Jerman Barat dan Timur Kembali Bersatu
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1990, Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur kembali bersatu secara resmi setelah terpisah selama 45 tahun. Setelah kekalahan Jerman dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, Jerman Timur dikuasai oleh Soviet dan Jerman Barat dikuasai oleh negara-negara Barat. Pada tahun 1949, Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur masing-masing mendirikan sebuah negara tersendiri dengan bentuk pemerintahan dan sistem ekonomi yang berbeda. Pada tahun 1961, Soviet mendirikan Tembok Berlin dengan tujuan mencegah rakyat Jerman Timur melarikan diri ke Jerman Barat. Perubahan politik dunia pada akhir dekade 1980-an, membuka kesempatan bagi bersatunya Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur.

4 Oktober
Belgia Merdeka

Tanggal 4 Oktober 1830, Belgia memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Negara ini sejak awal abad ke-18 berada di bawah kekuasaan Austria dan pada akhir abad itu pula, Belgia dikuasai oleh Perancis. Namun, setelah kekalahan Napoleon dari negara-negara Eropa, pada tahun 1815, Belgia dan Belanda membentuk negara persatuan. Namun, persatuan ini tidak berlangsung lama karena terjadi peperangan antara rakyat Katolik Belgia dan rakyat Protestan Belanda. Kedua bangsa itu kemudian mendirikan dua negara terpisah. Serangan Belanda ke Belgia berakhir dengan kekalahan karena campur tangan Inggris dan Perancis. Raja Belgia yang pertama adalah Raja Leopold dan sistem pemerintahan negara ini berbentuk monarkhi konstitusional.
Belgia memiliki luas wilayah 30 ribu km persegi dan berbatasan dengan Perancis, Jerman, dan Luxemburg.

Satelit Pertama Diluncurkan Rusia
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1957, satelit pertama yang menyerupai bulan untuk pertama kali diluncurkan oleh Rusia. Peluncuran bulan artifisial ini menandai dimulainya era antariksa. Bulan buatan yang diberi nama Sputnik I ini selama 92 hari mengelilingi bumi sebanyak 1400 kali dan untuk pertama kalinya mengirimkan pesan radio dari ruang angkasa ke bumi. Sputnik I memiliki berat 83 kilogram dan diameter 85 sentimeter, serta dilengkapi dengan dua pesawat pengirim pesan radio.

Angin Topan Menghancurkan Pelabuhan Karibia
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1963, angin topan dahsyat yang dinamakan "Topan Hitam Karibia" mulai bertiup dan menghancurkan semua bangunan di pelabuhan-pelabuhan dan pulau-pulau di lautan Karibia. Kecepatan topan dahsyat ini adalah 150 kilometer perjam. Jumlah korban tewas sekitar 6000 orang, yang sebagian besarnya warga Kuba dan Haiti.

Lesotho Merdeka
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1966, Lesotho berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional Lesotho. Sebelum merdeka, negara ini bernama Basotuland dan dijajah oleh Inggris sejak tahun 1883. Penjajahan Inggris terhadap negara ini berlangsung hingga tahun 1966. Lesotho memiliki luas wilayah 30355 kilometer persegi dan terletak di selatan benua Afrika.

Gedung Parlemen Rusia Diduduki Pemberontak
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1993, para pemberontak Rusia yang menduduki gedung parlemen Rusia atau "Gedung Putih", menyerah setelah sepuluh jam dikepung oleh pasukan tank baja. Para pemberontak itu dipimpin oleh Wapres Aleksander Rutskoi dan Pemimpin Parlemen Ruslan Khasbulatov. Presiden Rusia saat itu, Boris Yeltsin, sebelumnya baru lolos dari impeachment dari parlemen Rusia (Duma).
Ia kemudian membubarkan parlemen pada tanggal 21 September dan menyatakan akan mengadakan pemilu. Rutskoi, Khasbulatov, dan anggota parlemen garis keras lainnya menanggapi pembubaran ini dengan menduduki gedung parlemen dan memilih Rutskoi sebagai Presiden Rusia yang baru. Yeltsin kemudian mengirimkan pasukan yang mengepung gedung parlemen itu yang berakhir dengan serangan tank. Para pemberontak akhirnya menyerah dan ditahan.
Pada Desember 1993, diadakan pemilihan umum untuk memilih anggota parlemen. Dalam sebuah referendum, disahkan pula undang-undang Rusia yang baru, yang memberikan kekuasaan eksekutif yang lebih luas kepada Yeltsin dan mengurangi otoritas Duma. Setelah memimpin selama satu dekade secara kontroversial, akhirnya pada tahun 1999, Yeltsin mengundurkan diri dan digantikan oleh Vladimir Putin.

Dr. Muhamad Asady Meninggal

Tanggal 4 Oktober 1996, Doktor Murtadha Asady, seorang ilmuwan terkemuka Iran meninggal dunia. Dia banyak mengabdikan dirinya dalam bidang penerjemahan teks sastra dan Islam. Penguasaannya terhadap bahasa Arab dan Inggris membuatnya sangat produktif dalam penerjemahan buku-buku asing ke dalam bahasa Persia. Selain menerjemahkan, dia juga menulis buku-buku. Di antara karya-karya Doktor Murtadha Asady adalah buku berjudul "Peperangan Salib dan Dimulainya Penelaahan Islam di Barat" dan "Dunia Islam". Karya-karya terjemahannya antara lain adalah "Pemuda Muslim dan Dunia Baru", "Filsafat Politik", dan "Baitul Muqaddas".

5 Oktober
August Burger Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 5 Oktober 1794, Gottfried August Burger, seorang penyair dan penulis Jerman meninggal dunia. Penyair Jerman ini lahir pada tahun 1747. Dia menuangkan kegagalan yang dialaminya dalam hidupnya ke dalam syair-syair yang hingga kini tetap hidup dalam kesusasteraan Jerman. Karya terpenting Burger adalah "Pemburu Kejam dan Lelaki Pemberani" yang dianggap sebagai karya abadi dalam sastra Jerman.

Denis Didero Lahir
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1713, Denis Didero, seorang filsuf dan penulis Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Karya terpenting Didero adalah ensiklopedia besar yang memakan waktu penyusunan selama 21 tahun. Didero berperan sebagai supervisor tim penulis ensiklopedia tersebut. Selain itu, Didero juga menulis naskah drama dan roman, yang di antaranya berjudul "Bapak Keluarga", dan "Jacques Sam." Denis Didero meninggal dunia pada tahun 1783.

Louis Lumierre Lahir
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1864, Louis Lumierre, seorang ahli kimia dan inventor Perancis, terlahir ke dunia di kota Besancon. Bersama saudaranya, Auguste, Louis Lumierre bekerja di perusahaan fotografi. Louis berperan sebagai fisikawan dan saudaranya, Auguste menjadi manajer. Setelah ayah mereka pensiun, kedua bersaudara ini membuat gambar bergerak. Mereka juga memproduksi alat yang bisa jadi kamera dan proyektor sekaligus yang diberi nama "cinematographer". Eksibisi pertama alat ini dilakukan pada tanggal 28 Desember 1895 di Paris.

Pelabuhan Solonik Direbut Sekutu
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1915, pelabuhan Solonik yang merupakan pelabuhan strategis di timur laut Yunani, direbut oleh Pasukan Sekutu. Kejadian ini terjadi dalam sebuah operasi militer terpenting pada Perang Dunia Pertama. Negara-negara seperti Inggris, Perancis, dan Rusia, telah berusaha keras untuk mempertahankan pelabuhan ini. Namun, karena setengah pasukan mereka telah tewas, mereka mengalami kekalahan dan pelabuhan Solonik pun direbut oleh Sekutu.

Imam Khomeini Hijrah ke Perancis
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1978, Imam Khomeini hijrah dari Irak ke Paris, Perancis. Sebelumnya, selama bertahun-tahun Imam Khomeini berada di Irak untuk menjalani masa pengasingannya yang diberlakukan oleh Rezim Shah Pahlevi. Rezim Ba'ats Irak menghalang-halangi aktivitas politik Imam Khomeini di negara ini. Imam dalam jawabannya kepada para pejabat politik Irak, berkata, "Ini adalah kewajiban syar'iy saya dan saya akan tetap menulis pernyataan, berbicara di mimbar, dan merekam suara saya, serta mengirimkannya ke Iran. Ini adalah kewajiban syar'iy saya dan silakan kalian melaksanakan apapun kewajiban yang kalian miliki."Akhirnya, dengan semakin kerasnya tekanan dari rezim Saddam, Imam berniat hijrah ke Kuwait, namun pemerintah Kuwait menolak kehadiran beliau. Akhirnya, Imam berangkat ke Paris dan dari sanalah beliau meneruskan perjuangannya.

Slobodon Milosevic Dipecat
Tanggal 5 Oktober 2000, Slobodan Milosevic, diktator Yugoslavia, pelaku utama perang berdarah di Balkan, dipecat dari kekuasaannya. Sebelumnya, selama berbulan-bulan, Milosevic mendapatkan protes dan penentangan dari dalam negeri dan dunia internasional. Pada masa Perang Bosnia, Milosevic melindungi orang-orang Serbia di negara ini dan berperan utama dalam pembasmian etsnis muslim Bosnia.
Setelah Perang Kosovo, Milosevic dengan menggunakan berbagai cara, berusaha menggagalkan usaha-usaha untuk menumbangkan rezimnya. Usaha terakhirnya adalah mengubah undang-undang dasar negara dan mengadakan pemilihan presiden. Namun, dalam pemilu itu, Milosevic gagal terpilih kembali dan rakyat Serbia yang mendapat dukungan dari luar negeri, bangkit menentang Milosevic dan memaksanya untuk turun dari kursi kepresidenan. Pengganti Milosevic kemudian menyerahkannya ke pengadilan penjahat perang internasional di Belanda.

6 Oktober
Rusia Mobilisasi Pasukannya ke Polandia

Tanggal 6 Oktober tahun 1768, dalam kelanjutan aksi ekspansi yang dilakukan Kaisar Rusia The Great Cathrine, dikirimlah sebuah pasukan pasukan besar ke kawasan Polandia. Akibatnya, Kesultanan Turki Utsmani mengumumkan perang kepada Rusia. Sepanjang abad 18, sebanarnya telah terjadi berkali-kali pertempuran antara dua kekuatan besar pada saat itu. Akan tetapi, perang yang disebabkan oleh masalah Polandia itu bisa disebut sebagai peperangan terbesar di antara keduanya sepanjang sejarah
Akhirnya, pada tahun 1774, pasukan Turki Utsmani mengalami berbagai kekalahan di berbagai medan pertempuran. Setelah itu, kedua pihak menandatangani perdamaian. Sebagai pihak yang kalah, Turki Utsmani harus melepaskan kawasan Karimah di utara Laut Hitam. Polandia sendiri kemudian dibagi-bagi menjadi tiga bagian dan masing-masing dikuasai oleh Austria, Prusia, dam Rusia.

Perang Keempat Arab-Israel Pecah
Tanggal 6 Oktober 1973, perang keempat antara negara-negara Arab melawan Israel meletus. Dalam peristiwa itu, tentara Mesir melakukan penyerbuan melalui terusan Suez saat tentara penjajah Quds sedang lengah. Setelah mematahkan pertahanan tentara Zionis, pasukan Mesir berhasil memasuki Gurun Sinai. Berikutnya, tentara Mesir beserta Suriah meraih berbagai kemenangan gemilang di medan-medan pertempuran. Mereka bahkan mampu menembak jatuh sejumlah pesawat tempur Isarel.
Akan tetapi, AS kemudian datang memberikan bantuan peralatan militer yang lebih canggih, hingga tentara Israel mampu menduduki kembali sejumlah kawasan yang sempat direbut pasukan Arab. Akhirnya, dengan intervensi AS dan Uni Soviet, diberlakukan gencatan senjata, dan penyelesaian atas masalah sengketa itu kemudian diserahkan kepada PBB. Salah satu pelajaran penting yang bisa diambil dari peristiwa itu adalah runtuhnya mitos bahwa tentara Israel tidak mungkin terkalahkan.


Presiden Mesir Anwar Sadat Tewas

Tanggal 6 Oktober tahun 1981, Presiden Mesir Anwar Sadat tewas di tangan sejumlah perwira militer yang tergabung ke dalam Kelompok Islam Al-Jihad. Sadat menjadi korban pembunuhan karena ia dituduh sebagai pengkhianat Islam dan dunia Arab setelah menandatangani perjanjian memalukan Camp David. Akibat perjanjian perdamaian dengan rezim perampok Israel itu, negara Mesir diasingkan dari lingkungan negara-negara Arab.
Pelaku pembunuhan Sadat sendiri adalah Khalid Islambuli, seorang perwira militer yang melakukan penembakan terhadap Sadat saat ia melakukan parade militer. Akan tetapi, selepas itu, lebih dari 3.000 orang ditangkap karena dianggap terlibat dalam peristiwa itu. Adapun Islambuli sendiri berikut sejumlah perwira lainnya dijatuhi hukuman mati oleh pengadilan Mesir.

Sejumlah Perwira Angkatan Udara Republik Islam Iran Gugur
Tanggal 6 Oktober 1981, sejumlah perwira angkatan udara Republik Islam Iran gugur dalam sebuah peristiwa kecelakaan udara. Para perwira itu sebenarnya sedang pulang ke Teheran setelah sukses melakukan operasi pematahan blokade yang dilakukan oleh tentara Irak terhadap kawasan Abadan di barat daya Iran. Mereka yang gugur dalam peristiwa kecelakaan udara itu adalah Rasyid Islam, Fallahi, Fakuri, Namjur, Kolahdouz, dan Jahan Ara.

Charles Richter, Penemu Alat Ukur Kekuatan Gempa, Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 6 Oktober 1985, Charles Richter, ilmuwan penemu alat ukur kekuatan gempa, meninggal dunia di AS dalam usia 75 tahun. Bersama rekan-rekannya sesama ilmuwan, Richter berhasil menemukan alat ukur kekuatan gempa yang didasarkan kepada tingkat energi yang dilepaskan pusat gempa. Richter dan kawan-kawannya membagi tingkat kekuatan gempa itu dari ukuran satu hingga sembilan. Sebelumnya, para ilmuwan mengukur dan membandingkan tingkat-tingkat kekuatran gempa berdasarkan akibat-akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh gempa, yang tentu saja sangat jauh dari ketelitian.

7 Oktober
Suhrab Sepehri Lahir ke Dunia

Tanggal 7 Oktober 1928, Suhrab Sepehri, penyair dan pelukis kontemporer Iran, terlahir ke dunia di kota Kashan, Iran tengah. Sepehri menerbitkan buku kumpulan syairnya yang pertama pada tahun 1951 dengan judul "Kematian Berwarna". Sepehri dikenal sebagai penyair yang menggunakan bahasa-bahasa yang baru, sederhana, dan pendeskripsian yang unik. Suhrab Sepehri meninggal dunia dan dikuburkan di tanah kelahirannya pada tahun 1980. Karya-karya Sepehri yang lain berjudul "Kehidupan Mimpi", "Musafir", dan "Nyanyian Matahari".

Romania Diduduki Pasukan Nazi
Tanggal 7 Oktober 1940, Romania diduduki oleh pasukan Nazi Jerman dalam Perang Dunia Kedua. Dengan kemenangan Jerman ini, jalan bagi Jerman untuk menyerang Soviet telah terbuka. Serangan terhadap Soviet tersebut dilaksanakan pada tanggal 22 Juni 1941. Romania sebelumnya diperintah dengan sebuah sistem kerajaan.

Negara Jerman Timur Didirikan
Tanggal 7 Oktober 1949, negara Jerman Timur didirikan dengan bentuk pemerintahan Republik Demokratik. Dalam bulan-bulan terakhir Perang Dunia Kedua, bagian timur Jerman dikuasai oleh Soviet sedangkan bagian barat Jerman diduduki oleh negara-negara Barat. Pada bulan Mei 1949, kawasan barat Jerman mendirikan Republik Federal. Pada bulan Oktober tahun itu pula, kawasan timur Jerman membentuk pemerintahan yang berhaluan komunis. Akhirnya, 41 tahun kemudian, pada tahun 1990, kedua bagian Jerman bersatu kembali menjadi sebuah negara.

RRC Serang Tibet
Tanggal 7 Oktober 1950, setahun setelah didirikannya pemerintahan komunis di Cina, tentara negara ini menyerang dan menduduki Tibet. Tibet yang terletak di bagian barat Cina ini, hampir di sepanjang sejarah merupakan bagian dari kekuasaan Cina. Namun kemudian, Inggris menguasai Tibet. Ketika Cina kembali menduduki wilayah ini, rakyat Tibet menentangnya dan melakukan pemberontakan pada tahun 1959 dengan dipimpin oleh Dalai Lama. Pemberontakan ini ditumpas oleh tentara Cina dan Dalai Lama diasingkan. Tibet yang dijuluki sebagai "Atap Dunia" karena letaknya yang sangat tinggi ini, memiliki luas wilayah 1 juta 22 ribu kilometer persegi. Saat ini, Tibet merupakan wilayah otonomi di bawah pemerintahan Cina.

Amerika Memulai Invasi Militernya ke Afganistan

Tanggal 7 Oktober 2001, Amerika memulai invasi militernya ke Afganistan. Serangan ini dilakukan dengan alasan untuk menumpas kelompok teroris Al-Qaeda. Washington sebelumnya telah menuduh Al-Qaida berperan dalam peristiwa teror 11 September 2001 di AS. Selama beberapa hari, tentara AS menyerang berbagai wilayah yang dikuasai oleh Al-Qaida, sehingga sangat banyak rakyat sipil yang tewas, terluka, dan menjadi pengungsi. Meskipun pemerintahan Taliban di Afganistan berhasil ditumbangkan, namun AS tetap tidak berhasil menangkap Usamah bin Laden, pemimpin Al-Qaeda.

8 Oktober
Universitas Sorbonne Didirikan

Tanggal 8 Oktober 1256, Universitas Sorbonne didirikan di kota Paris. Secara bertahap, aktivitas universitas ini semakin meluas dan semakin banyak memiliki jurusan keilmuan, sehingga akhirnya menajdi sebuah universitas terkemuka di dunia. Pendiri salah satu universitas tertua di dunia ini adalah Robert Sorbonne.

Hubungan Gereja Inggris Putus dengan Gereja Roma
Tanggal 8 Oktober 1534, parlemen Inggris yang berada di bawah pengaruh Raja Henry Kedelapan, mengesahkan sebuah hukum yang menyebabkan hubungan antara gereja Inggris dan gereja Katolik Roma terputus. Raja Henry Kedelapan pada awalnya memiliki hubungan yang baik dengan Paus Clement Ketujuh. Namun, ketika Paus menolak permintaan Henry Kedelapan untuk menceraikan istrinya, hubungan keduanya memburuk, bahkan Paus menyatakan bahwa Raja Henry telah kafir. Setelah Raja Henry menikah kembali, dia diangkat sebagai pemimpin gereja Inggris. Dengan demikian, sejak saat itu gereja di Inggris berdiri sendiri dan dikenal dengan nama "Canterbury".

Usaha Pertama Untuk Mengetahui Bentuk Planet Bumi

Tanggal 8 Oktober 1735, dimulailah usaha pertama para ilmuawan geografi dan matematika untuk mengetahui bentuk planet bumi yang sesungguhnya. Usaha ini dilakukan oleh para ilmuwan Perancis dan untuk itu, pemerintah negara ini memberikan anggaran dana yang sangat besar kepada Akademi Perancis. Setelah melakukan banyak penelitian, kelompok ilmuwan dari Akademi Perancis ini berhasil menemukan bahwa ada peninggian di daerah khatulistiwa dan penurunan di dua kutub bumi.

Perancis Mengokohkan Kekuasaannya atas Vietnam

Tanggal 8 Oktober 1885, Perancis mengokohkan kekuasaannya atas Vietnam. Sebelum dikuasai oleh Perancis, Vietnam merupakan bagian dari wilayah Cina. Namun, ketika kekuatan Cina semakin melemah akibat perang saudara dan penjajahan bangsa Eropa di negara itu, Perancis menduduki sebagian wilayah Cina. Perancis sejak pertengahan abad ke-19, memulai pendudukannya atas wilayah Vietnam dan pada tanggal 8 Oktober 1885, Vietnam resmi menjadi jajahan Perancis. 70 tahun kemudian, rakyat Vietnam melakukan perlawanan dan terjadi berbagai peperangan. Akhirnya Perancis terpaksa angkat kaki dari negara ini pada tahun 1945.

Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Mudaris
Tanggal 8 Oktober 1928, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Mudaris diserang oleh pasukan Syah Reza Pahlevi. Serangan ini dilakukan karena aktivitas perjuangan Ayatullah Mudaris dalam melawan rezim Syah yang diktator. Pasukan Syah Pahlevi kemudian mendatangi rumah Ayatullah Mudaris dan memukulinya sampai luka-luka, lalu membawanya ke luar kota Teheran. Anggota keluarga dan pendukung Ayatullah Mudaris pun ikut ditangkap. Beberapa lama kemudian, Ayatullah Mudaris diasingkan ke kota Kashmer, di timur Iran. Di kota itu pula, pada tahun 1937, beliau gugur syahid setelah diracuni oleh antek-antek Shah Reza.

Zionis Kembali teror Jemaah Sholat di Masjid Al-Aqsha
Tanggal 8 Oktober 1990, tentara Zionis kembali melakukan teror terhadap para jemaah sholat di Masjid Al-Aqsha. Dalam serangan ini, 20 warga Palestina gugur syahid dan puluhan orang lainnya luka-luka. Masyarakat internasional mengecam aksi teror Rezim Zionis ini, namun karena perlindungan AS, tidak bisa dilakukan tindakan nyata apapun terhadap Tel Aviv.

9 Oktober
De Cervantez Lahir

Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1547, Miguel de Cervantez, seorang penulis kenamaan Spanyol lahir ke dunia. Pada masa mudanya, ia sempat bergabung ke dalam angkatan angkatan laut Spanyol dan dengan itu, ia melakukan banyak pelayaran ke berbagai tempat di dunia. Pada saat itulah ketertarikannya kepada dunia sastra mulai muncul. Ia kemudian mampu menulis sebuah karya sastra legendaris berbahasa Spanyol berjudul "Don Quixote". Cervantez meninggal dunia pada usia 69 tahun.

Swedia Kalah Perang dari Rusia
Tanggal 9 Oktober 1708, Swedia mengalami kekalahan perang dari Rusia. Perang ini sebenarnya diawali pada bulan Januari tahun itu dengan ditandai oleh serangan yang dilakukan Swedia ke Rusia. Dalam perang ini, sekitar setengah dari jumlah tentara Swedia tewas akibat dinginnya udara Rusia serta habisnya bahan makanan. Selepas ini, pada bulan Juli tahun 1709, tentara Swedia kembali mengalami kekalahan telak dari Rusia. Sisa-sisa tentara Swedia kemudian melarikan diri ke kawasan Turki yang dikuasai oleh kekaisaran Utsmani.

Uganda Merdeka
Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1962, Uganda meraih kemerdekaannya dari penjajah Inggris. Sejak tahun 1850, Uganda sudah dikuasai oleh penjajah Inggris. Selama masa penjajahan itu, rakyat Uganda tidak pernah berhenti melakukan perlawanan untuk mengusir tentara Inggris. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1962, pasukan penjajah bisa diusir oleh rakyat setempat. Tiap tahunnya, tanggal 7 Oktober dirayakan oleh rakyat Uganda sebagai hari nasional.
Negara Uganda berbentuk republik. Negara ini terletak di Timur Afrika dan berbatasn dengan Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, dan Republik Demokratik Kongo. Uganda memiliki luas wilayah 235.880 km persegi.

Guevara Dihukum Mati

Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1967, Ernesto Che Guevara, serang revolusioner Amerika Latin, beserta sejumlah kawan-kawan seperjuangannya dihukum mati oleh pemerintah Bolivia. Guevara dilahirkan di Argentina pada tahun 1928. Sikap revolusionernya muncul tatkala menyaksikan kemiskinan dan diskriminasi yang meluas di negaranya. Pada masa mudanya, ia berkenalan dengan Fidel Castro di Meksiko. Mereka berdua kemudian bahu-membahu memimpin revolusi Cuba hingga meraih kemenangan. Setelah itu, Castro menjadi pemimpin di Cuba hingga kini. Sementara itu Guevara pergi ke Bolivia pada tahun 1959. Di sana ia mendirikan organisasi gerilyawan menentang pemerintahan setempat yang dikuasai oleh AS. Akhirnya pada tahun 1967, Guevara ditangkap oleh tentara pemerintah untuk kemudian dihukum mati.

Abu Sharar Dibunuh MOSSAD
Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1981, Majid Abu Sharar, salah seorang tokoh perjuangan Palestina dibunuh oleh intelejen Israel, Mossad, di Italia. Abu Sharar adalah pejabat PLO yang bertanggung jawab mengkampanyekan organisasi ini ke seluruh dunia. Saat berkunjung ke Roma, Sharar kemudian menjadi menjadi korban teror licik Rezim Zionis. Pada masa-masa itu, teror terhadap para tokoh Palestina di dalam maupun di luar negeri adalah 'trend' yang diambil oleh Rezim Zionis dalam rangka menumpas perlawanan Bangsa Palestina.

10 Oktober
Pelukis Rafael Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1520, Rafael, pelukis, pematung, dan arsitek Italia, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1483. Setelah berkenalan dengan pelukis-pelukis terkenal dan belajar dari mereka, Rafael akhirnya menjadi salah seorang pelukis terkenal di Italia dan Eropa. Karya-karya terkenal Rafael, di antaranya berjudul "Keluarga Suci", "Sekolah Athena" dan "Kemenangan Relijius".

Francois Gerardon Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 10 Oktober 1715, Francois Gerardon, seorang pematung Perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1628. Keterkenalan Gerardon telah menarik perhatian Kanselir Perancis saat itu, Cardinal Richelieu, sehingga ia menyuruh Gerardon untuk membuat patung dirinya. Karya-karya Gerardon lainnya adalah "Apollo and The Nymphs" dan "The Rape of Proserpine".

Sidang Pertama Mahkamah Internasional Den Haag

Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1902, diadakan sidang pertama Mahkamah Internasional didirikan di kota Den Haag, Belanda. Mahkamah Internasional didirikan pada tahun 1899 atas proposal Tzar Nikola, kaisar kedua Rusia. Mahkamah ini merupakan salah satu lembaga peradilan internasional tertua dan berada di bawah PBB. Salah satu kewajiban terpenting Mahkamah Internasional Den Haag adalah menyelesaikan perselisihan negara-negara dunia dan mencegah terjadinya perang di antara mereka. Dalam Mahkamah Internasional Den Haag, terdapat 15 hakim yang dipilih oleh Majelis Umum dan Dewan Keamanan PBB tanpa mempertimbangkan kewarganegaraan mereka. Negara-negara dunia dapat menerima keputusan Mahkamah Internasional, secara penuh atau dengan syarat.

Marcel Proust Meninggal
Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1922, Marcel Proust, seorang penulis roman Perancis meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1871 di Paris. Proust menyelesaikan pendidikannya di bidang hukum di Univesitas Sorbonne Perancis. Karya Proust yang paling terkenal adalah "Remembrance of Things Past" yang berisi otobiografinya sendiri. Di dalamnya, Proust menceritakan masa kecilnya, observasinya terhadap gaya hidup kaum aristokrat, dan berbagai pengalaman pribadi lainnya.

Jaroslav Hasek Meninggal

Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1922, Jaroslav Hasek, seorang penulis pejuang kemerdekaan Cheko, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan di kota Praha pada tahun 1889. Pada saat itu, negaranya berada di bawah kekuasaan imperium Austria-Hongaria. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, Hasek memulai aktivitas perjuangan untuk kemerdekaan negerinya dan karena itu, dia berkali-kali dipenjarakan. Setelah Perang Dunia Pertama berakhir dan runtuhnya imperium Austria-Hongaria pada tahun 1918, Cheko dan Slovakia merdeka dan mendirikan negara gabungan, yaitu Chekoslovakia. Sebelum masa Perang Dunia Pertama, Hasek telah menghasilkan karya sekitar 500 cerita pendek humor. Karyanya yang paling terkenal adalah "The Adventures of The Good Soldier Scheweik".

Negara Fiji Merdeka
Tanggal 10 Oktober 1970, negara Fiji meraih kemerdekaannya dari Fiji dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional Fiji. Negara ini mulai dijajah Inggris pada tahun 1873 dan terus berlangsung hingga lebih dari sembilan puluh tahun kemudian. Pada tahun 1965, diberlakukan undang-undang dasar baru di Fiji yang bertujuan untuk mendirikan pemerintahan sendiri. Akhirnya, baru pada tahun 1970, Fiji meraih kemerdekaan penuh.
Fiji adalah sebuah negara yang terdiri dari pulau-pulau dengan luas wilayah 18.274 kilometer persegi dan terletak di barat daya Samudera Pasifik.

11 Oktober
Perang di Antara Kaum Kulit Putih Afrika Selatan

Tanggal 11 Oktober tahun1899, dimulailah perang antara kaum kulit putih Afrika Selatan asal Belanda yang disebut kaum "Boer" dan pasukan Inggris. Orang-orang Belanda datang ke Afsel pada tahun 1652 dan mendirikan koloni di kawasan Tanjung. Pada tahun 1814, pasukan Inggris datang ke Afrika Selatan dan merebut kedudukan penguasa resmi daerah koloni Tanjung. Setelah pertambangan intan dan emas ditemukan, arus imigran dari Eropa, terutama dari Inggris, semakin membanjir ke Afsel. Orang-orang Boer merasa tidak senang sehingga terjadilah pertempuran antara kaum Boer dan imigran Inggris. Perang ini dimenangkan Inggris karena adanya dukungan dari pemerintah Inggris. Sejak saat itu, Afsel menjadi jajahan Inggris dan baru pada tahun 1931 berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.

Penyair Firuzkuhi Wafat
Tanggal 11 Oktober 1984, Abdul Karim Amiri Firuzkuhi, seorang penyair dan peneliti kontemporer Iran, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1909 di sebuah desa di daerah Firuzkuhi, Iran utara. Abdul Karim Amiri Firuzkuhi mulai menciptakan syair pada masa remajanya. Dia banyak menuntut ilmu-ilmu agama, sehingga salah satu keistimewaan syair-syair Firuzkuhi adalah nilai-nilai Islam yang terkandung di dalam karyanya itu. Dia meninggalkan karya syair sebanyak hampir 15 ribu bait yang dicetak dalam dua jilid buku.

KGB Dibubarkan
Tanggal 11 Oktober tahun 1991, aktivitas agen rahasia Soviet atau KGB, dihentikan tak lama sebelum keruntuhan Uni Soviet. KGB didirikan pada tahun 1954 dengan tujuan untuk menghadapi gerakan-gerakan yang ingin menggulingkan pemerintahan komunis di Soviet. KGB juga bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan represi terhadap para penentang Partai Komunis, kegiatan mata-mata, dan anti mata-mata di dalam dan luar Soviet. Secara bertahap, akhirnya KGB menjadi sebuah lembaga yang sangat kuat pengaruhnya dalam pemerintahan Soviet. Setelah dibubarkannya KGB, tugas-tugasnya dilakukan oleh dua lembaga Rusia, yaitu Dinas Informasi Federal dan Dinas Informasi Luar Negeri.

12 Oktober

Penyair Hafizh Lahir

Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1348, Syamsuddin Muhamad Syirazi atau dikenal dengan nama Hafizh, seorang penyair ternama Iran terlahir ke dunia di Kota Syiraz, sebuah kawasan di selatan Iran. Hafizh dikenal menguasai tafsir Al-Quran, filsafat, dan sastra Arab. Karena kemampuannya menghafal Al-Quran dengan berbagai cara bacaannya, ia kemudian dijuluki Hafizh yang artinya penghafal. Hafizh adalah seorang sufi, pemikir, dan sastrawan besar yang meninggalkan berbagai karya sastra legendaris dalam bahasa Persia. Dengan bekal pengetahuannya yang mendalam mengenai Islam dan ilmu Al-Quran, puisi-puisi Hafizh kemudian menjelma menjadi karya sastra Persia yang paling romantis. Karya Hafizh yang paling terkenal adalah sebuah kitab puisi bernama Diwan-e Hafizh.

Serbuan Tentara Spanyol ke Peru
Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1532, tentara penjajah Spanyol di bawah pimpinan Francois Pizzaro melakukan penyerbuan ke sebuah kawasan di Amerika selatan yang kini bernama Peru. Saat itu, kawasan Peru berada di bawah kekuasaan sebuah suku Indian bernama Inka. Akan tetapi, para penguasa suku Inka tidak begitu mempedulikan aksi yang dilakukan tentara Spanyol tersebut. Setelah menguasai Peru, Pizzaro menyampaikan tawaran kepada Suku Inka agar mau berada di bawah kekuasaan Spanol.. Tawaran ini lantas ditolak suku Inka. Akibatnya, Pizzaro mengeluarkan instruksi kepada tentaranya agar melakukan pembunuhan secara massal terhadap seluruh suku Inka. Peristiwa pembunuhan massal ini kemudian dikenal sebagai salah satu tragedi sejarah terpahit karena keganasan tentara Spanyol itu sampai membuat peradaban suku Inka musnah tak berbekas.

George Stevenson Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1848, George Stevenson, seorang ilmuwan Inggris penemu lokomotif, meninggal dunia. Stevenson dilahirkan pada tahun 1781. Sejak kecil, ia sudah memperlihatkan minatnya kepada masalah-masalah ilmu pengetahuan. Ia kemudian banyak menggeluti bidang mekanik dan matematika. Akhirnya, ia mampu menciptakan jenis kendaraan yang termasuk paling aman, yaitu lokomotif. Kendaraan pertama ciptaannya itu mampu melaju dengan kecepatan 20 km per jam dengan kapasitas penumpang maksimal 90 orang.

Guinea Merdeka
Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1968, negara Guinea meraih kemerdekaannya dari Spanyol, dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai hari nasional negara tersebut. Awalnya, pada abad 15, para pelaut Portugal menemukan kawasan Guinea ini. Pada tahun 1778, Portugal menyerahkan kekuasaan atas kawasan ini kepada Spanyol, hingga akhirnya, rakyat di kawasan ini mampu meraih kemerdekaan dari Spanyol.
Guinea terletak di kawasan barat Afrika. Negara ini memiliki luas wilayah 28.051 kilometer persegi, serta berbatasan dengan Gabon dan Kamerun.

Kudeta Militer di Pakistan

Tanggal 12 Oktober 1999, terjadi kudeta tak berdarah di Pakistan untuk menggulingkan pemerintahan yang dipimpin oleh Perdana Menteri Nawaz Sharif. Kudeta itu dilakukan oleh Jenderal Pervez Musharraf. Sehari sebelumnya, Musharraf dipecat oleh Nawaz Sharif dari jabatan militernya.
Musharraf mengatakan bahwa aksi penggulingannya itu dilakukan karena Nawaz Sharif terlibat korupsi, tidak mampu mennciptakan keamanan nasional, dan yang paling berat, Sharif dianggap mendalangi aksi pembajakan pesawat terbang yang ditumpangi Musharraf. Setelah terguling, Sharif dijebloskan ke dalam penjara dengan hukuman seumur hidup. Akan tetap, tidak lama kemudian, Sharif diekstradisi ke Arab Saudi.

13 Oktober
Kota Babel Ditaklukkan Cyrus

Tanggal 13 Oktober tahun 539 sebelum Masehi, kota bersejarah Babel, ditaklukkan oleh Cyrus, seorang penakluk dari Persia. Babilonia memiliki tembok pelindung yang sangat kuat. Oleh karena itu, Cyrus dalam menaklukkan kota ini memerintahkan agar aliran sungai Daljah yang mengalir di dalam kota diubah arahnya. Dengan mengikuti aliran sungai tersebut, para tentara Cyrus berhasil masuk ke dalam kota dan akhirnya menaklukkan Babilonia.

Beograd Dibebaskan Jerman
Tanggal 13 Oktober tahun 1944, dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, kota Beograd berhasil dibebaskan dari pendudukan Jerman oleh tentara Yugoslavia dengan dibantu oleh Tentara Merah Soviet. Pembebasan ibukota Yugoslavia ini dipimpin oleh pemimpin nasionalis negara ini, Joseph Tito. Kota Beograd diduduki Jerman pada tahun 1941.

UU Kapitulasi DisahkanPerlemen Iran

Tanggal 13 Oktober 1954 rancangan undang-undang Kapitulasi disahkan oleh Parlemen Iran yang berada di bawah pengaruh Shah Pahlevi. Undang-undang ini memberikan kekebalan hukum kepada tentara AS di Iran dan bila ada tentara AS yang berbuat kriminal di Iran, dia hanya bisa diadili oleh pengadilan AS. Undang-undang ini jelas menginjak-injak kedaulatan pengadilan Iran dan bangsa Iran secara keseluruhan. Oleh karena itu, beberapa hari kemudian Imam Khomeini membacakan sebuah pidato bersejarah yang isinya menolak undang-undang tersebut serta mengecam keras AS dan Shah Pahlevi. Pidato Imam ini membuat beliau diasingkan ke luar negeri oleh rezim Shah yang despotik, pada tanggal 4 November 1954.

Husein Behzad Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 13 Oktober 1958, Husein Behzad, seorang seniman besar Iran di bidang miniatur, meninggal dunia. Pada masa remajanya, Behzad sudah tertarik pada bidang seni lukis dan secara bertahap, dia melahirkan karya-karya seni bernilai. Akhirnya dia menjadi terkenal dan dianggap sebagai miniaturis terbesar di Iran pada masa itu. Seniman terkemuka Iran ini dikenal menggunakan warna-warna dengan cara yang indah. Melalui warna-warna, dia menyampaikan kesedihan dan kegembiraan kepada para penikmat seni. Di antara karya Husein Behzad yang terkenal berjudul "Shahnameh Firdausi" dan "Penaklukan Babilonia".

14 Oktober
Erwin Rommel Meninggal

Tanggal 14 Oktober 1944, Erwin Rommel, komandan pasukan Nazi Jerman yang terkenal, meninggal dunia akibat bunuh diri atas perintah Hitler. Dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, Rommel adalah komandan tentara Jerman di Afrika utara, dan berhasil memukul mundur tentara Inggris hingga ke utara Mesir. Atas keberhasilannya itu, Rommel diberi gelar Marshall. Namun, kemudian Inggris melakukan serangan balasan. Karena tidak memiliki pasukan dan peralatan yang cukup, Rommel terpaksa mundur dari Afrika utara. Pada tahun 1944, Rommel menjadi komandan pertahanan Jerman di Italia dan Balkan. Kemudian, terjadi pertentangan pendapat antara Rommel dan Hitler. Setelah terjadi percobaan pembunuhan terhadap Hitler, Rommel dicurigai sebagai dalangnya dan Hitler memerintahkannya untuk bunuh diri dengan meminum racun.

Tentara Zionis Melakukan Pembunuhan Massal di Tepi Barat
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1953, kelompok Zionis bersenjata menyerang desa Qibyah di Tepi Barat. Setelah menduduki desa itu, orang-orang Zionis itu selama dua hari melakukan pembunuhan massal terhadap orang-orang Palestina di desa tersebut dan menghancurkan rumah-rumah mereka. Terorisme ini didalagi oleh komandan tentara rezim Zionis saat itu, yaitu Ariel Sharon. Dalam aksi terorisme kejam Zionis ini, 42 laki-laki, perempuan, dan anak-anak Palestina tewas, sejumlah besar warga lainnya luka-luka, puluhan rumah, dan sebuah sekolah dihancurkan dengan bom.

Kruschev Mengundurkan Diri
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1964, Nikita Kruschev, sekjen Partai Komunis Soviet pada waktu itu, mengundurkan diri. Nama Nikita Kruschev menjadi terkenal ke seluruh dunia setelah banyak melakukan perjalanan ke luar negeri. Dia dikenal sebagai pemimpin komunis yang menghapuskan taktik represif Stalin dan memiliki gaya diplomatik yang lancang. Di antara tindakan-tindakan reformasi Kruschev adalah, merehabilitasi ratusan tahanan politik yang dipenjarakan oleh Stalin di Siberia, mengurangi kekuatan polisi rahasia dan mengganti NKVD dengan KGB, serta melarang penyiksaan. Namun, Kruschev juga membubarkan organisasi-organisasi agama dan menghancurkan atau menutup banyak gereja.
Kebijakan yang diambil Kruschev itu mendapatkan banyak penentangan sehingga akhirnya pada tahun 1963, lawan-lawan politiknya memaksanya untuk mengundurkan diri. Nikita Kruschev meninggal dunia karena serangan jantung pada tahun 1971.

Luther King Memperoleh Nobel
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1964, Dr. Martin Luther King, seorang pemimpin gerakan pembelaan hak asasi kaum kulit hitam Amerika, meraih hadiah Nobel atas perjuangannya yang tak kenal lelah dalam menghapuskan rasialisme di AS. Martin Luther King adalah orang termuda yang pernah menerima Nobel, yaitu di usia 35 tahun. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1929 di Atlanta dan memiliki gelar doktor di bidang teologi. Pada tahun 1963, ia memimpin sebuah demonstrasi besar di kota Washington dan di sana ia menyampaikan pidato legendarisnya yang berjudul "I Have A Dream". Di dalam pidato itu, ia menyampaikan harapan dan impiannya, bahwa kelak warga AS, baik kulit hitam maupun putih duduk berdampingan dan tidak ada lagi rasialisme. Pad tahun 1964, gerakan pembelaan hak asasi yang dipimpin King meraih dua keberhasilan. Pertama, diratifikasinya "Amandemen ke-24" yang berisi dihapuskannya pajak untuk mendapatkan hak memilih. Kedua, disahkannya "Akta Hak-Hak Sipil 1964", yang berisi larangan diskriminasi ras dalam pekerjaan dan pendidikan serta larangan pemisahan rasial di fasilitas publik.
Pada tahun itu pula, Martin Luther King meraih hadiah Nobel dan menyumbangkan haidah uang yang diperolehnya, yaitu sebesar 54.600 dolar kepada gerakan pembelaan hak warga sipil.

Presiden Tanzania Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1999, Julius Kambarage Nyerere, presiden pertama Republik Tanzania, meninggal dunia. Nyerere dilahirkan di keluarga bangsawan dan meraih gelar masternya di University of Edinburgh Inggris. Setelah kembali ke tanah airnya, pada tahun 1954, Nyerere masuk ke kancah politik. Pada tahun itu, dia mendirikan partai politik pertama di Tanzania, yaitu The Tanganyika African National Union yang menyatukan berbagai faksi nasionalis dan menjadi partai yang membawa Tanzania kepada kemerdekaannya. Pada tahun 1962, Nyerere terpilih sebagai presiden dan di tahun 1985, ia mengundurkan diri. Nyerere meninggal dunia akibat kanker di London pada tahun 1999.

15 Oktober
Jalaluddin Muhamad Akbar Lahir

Tanggal 15 Oktober tahun 1542, Abul Fatah Jalaludin Muhammad Akbar, raja dari Dinasti Timurian India, terlahir ke dunia. Dia dikenal dengan nama Akbar Syah. Dia naik tahta pada usia 13 tahun setelah kematian ayahnya, Hamayun. Setelah berkuasa, Akbar Syah berusaha memperluas wilayah kerajaan. Dia berhasil menguasai Bangal, Kashmir, Sindh, Punjab, Ahmadnegar, dan Kandahar. Ahmad Syah juga berhasil membebaskan semenanjung Dakan yang dijajah oleh Portugis. Masa pemerintahan Akbar Syah dianggap sebagai masa kegemilangan Dinasti Timurian. Akbar Syah meninggal dunia tahun 1605.

Perang Perancis - Prusia
Tanggal 15 Oktober tahun 1806, dimulailah perang antara Perancis dan Prusia. Sehari sebelumnya, Napoleon dalam perang enam hari yang dinamakan Perang Saxon, berhasil mengalahkan pasukan Prusia. Perang periode kedua antara kedua pasukan itu kembali dimenangkan oleh Napoleon. Pada tanggal 28 Oktober, Napoleon dan pasukannya berhasil memasuki kota Berlin, ibukota Prusia.

Pengadilan atas Drefyus
Tanggal 15 Oktober 1894 dimulailah pengadilan terhadap Alfred Dreyfus, seorang perwira Perancis keturunan Yahudi. Dreyfus diadili karena dituduh mengkhianati negaranya dengan memberikan informasi militer rahasia kepada Jerman. Pengadilan yang kontroversial ini akhirnya menjatuhkan hukuman penjara seumur hidup dan penurunan pangkat kepada Dreyfus. Beberapa tahun kemudian, terbukti bahwa Dreyfus tidak bersalah dan dia dibebaskan dari penjara. Kasus Dreyfus ini dimanfaatkan oleh orang-orang Yahudi dengan melakukan propaganda besar-besaran untuk meningkatkan rasa simpati dunia terhadap bangsa Yahudi.

Ayatullah Isfahani Dibunuh MKO

Tanggal 15 Oktober 1983, Ayatullah Ataullah Asyrafi Isfahani, wakil Imam Khomeini dan Imam Jumat provinsi Kermansyah, gugur syahid akibat teror dari kelompok MKO. Ayatullah Isfahani dalam perjuangan melawan rezim Syah Pahlevi. Aktivitasnya dalam memimpin rakyat Kermansyah membuatnya berkali-kali dipenjara oleh rezim Syah. Setelah kemenangan revolusi Islam, Imam Khomeini menunjuknya sebagai Imam Jumat di Kermansyah. Pada tanggal 15 Oktober 1983, di saat sedang mendirikan shalat Jumat, beliau dibunuh oleh teroris musuh Islam. Mengenai beliau, Imam Khomeini berkata, " Saya mengenal almarhum Syahid Ataullah Asyrafi sebagai orang yang memiliki jiwa bersih dari hawa nafsu serta memiliki ilmu yang bermanfaat dan amal saleh."

16 Oktober
Napoleon Diasingkan

Tanggal 16 Oktober tahun 1815, dimulailah periode kedua pengasingan atas Kaisar Perancis, Napoleon Bonaparte, ke pulau St. Helen. Karena ambisinya untuk menguasai dunia, Napoleon melancarkan berbagai peperangan dan awalnya berhasil menduduki sebagian besar wilayah Eropa. Namun akhirnya dalam Perang Waterloo, Napoleon dikalahkan oleh Inggris di bawah pimpinan Jenderal Wellington. Akibat dari kekalahan itu, Napoleon diasingkan oleh Inggris ke pulau St. Helen dan akhirnya pada tahun 1821 dia meninggal di dalam pengasingan.

Nietzsche Lahir
Tanggal 16 Oktober tahun 1844, Frederic Wilhelm Nietzsche, seorang filsuf terkenal Jerman, terlahir ke dunia. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya di bidang filologi klasik di Universitas Bonn dan Leipzig, Nietzsche mengajar di Universitas Basel. Pada saat itu, Nietzsche baru berusia 24 tahun. Salah satu filosofi Nietzsche yang paling fundamental adalah bawah nilai agama dan moral yang dipresentasikan oleh Kristen, telah kehilangan kekuatan dalam kehidupan manusia. Nietzsche menyimpulkan pandangan ini dalam sebuah kalimatnya yang terkenal, yaitu "Tuhan telah mati." Nietzsche mengklaim bahwa nilai-nilai baru bisa diciptakan untuk menggantikan nilai-nilai tradisional. Diskusi tentang hal ini kemudian melahirkan konsep superman atau manusia adidaya. Menurut Nietzsche, manusia adidaya merupakan hasil dari kekuatan manusia dan lebih unggul dari semua kebaikan dan keburukan. Karya-karya Nietzsche di antaranya berjudul The Birth of Tragedy dan Beyond Good and Evil. Di akhir hayatnya, Nietzsche mengalami gangguan mental dan akhirnya pada tahun 1900, ia meninggal dunia.

Edgar Allan Poe Meninggal
Tanggal 16 Oktober 1849, Edgar Allan Poe, seorang penulis dan penyair AS, meninggal dunia. Poe dilahirkan pada tahun 1809 dan pada usia tiga tahun, ia telah yatim piatu. Edgar Allan Poe menuntut ilmu di Universitas Virginia. Pada tahun 1827, buku kumpulan puisi pertama karya Poe diterbitkan dengan judul Tamerlane and other poems namun tidak meraih sambutan dari para kritikus. Pada tahun 1845, Poe menerbitkan kumpulan puisinya berjudul The Raven and Other Poems yang membuatnya terkenal di seluruh AS dan bahkan di luar negeri. Sejak itu, Poe dinilai sebagai seorang sastrawan yang jenius.

17 Oktober
Polisi Perancis Bunuh 200 Warga AlJazair

Tanggal 17 Oktober 1962, polisi Perancis melakukan pembunuhan massal terhadap lebih dari 200 warga Aljazair. Warga Aljazair tersebut, pada saat itu sedang melakukan demonstrasi di Paris untuk menuntut diadakannya perundingan damai dalam mengakhiri perang kemerdekaan Aljazair dari penjajahan Perancis. Situasi demonstrasi semakin memanas setelah meledaknya sebuah bom yang menewaskan beberapa polisi Paris. Kepala Polisi Paris waktu itu, Maurice Popon memerintahkan pasukannya untuk membunuhi orang-orang Aljazair. Secara resmi, polisi mengumumkan hanya 3 orang yang tewas dan 67 luka-luka. Namun, saksi mata menyatakan bahwa sangat banyak jasad yang mengambang di Sungai Seine pada kejadian itu.
Pada tahun 1998, Maurice Popon diadili atas kasus kerjasamanya dengan NAZI Jerman. Dalam pengadilan itu, kasus pembantaian warga Aljazair juga ikut terangkat dan terungkap bahwa jumlah yang tewas jauh lebih banyak daripada yang diakuinya. Popon dijatuhi hukuman sepuluh tahun penjara atas kejahatan melawan kemanusiaan.


Arab Produsen Minyak Arab Embargo Amerika dan Inggris
Tanggal 17 Oktober tahun 1973, negara-negara Arab produsen minyak memulai embargo minyaknya terhadap Amerika, Inggris, dan negara-negara lain yang menjual minyaknya kepada Israel. Embargo ini dilakukan karena Amerika dan Inggris memberikan bantuan militer secara besar-besaran kepada Zionis dalam perang antara Rezim ini dengan Syria dan Mesir yang dimulai pada tanggal 6 Oktober tahun itu. Sehari setelah pengumuman dinaikkannya harga minyak oleh OPEC, negara-negara Arab mengumumkan embargonya terhadap AS, Inggris, dan Israel. Akibatnya, harga minyak menjadi semakin tinggi. Negara-negara Barat mendapat kesulitan besar akibat embargo ini dan periode ini disebut sebagai "Oil Shock". Pada bulan Maret 1974, embargo ini ditarik kembali setelah Menlu AS, Henry Kissinger berhasil menegoisasi perjanjian gencatan senjata antara Israel dan Syria. Peristiwa ini membuktikan bahwa sesungguhnya negara-negara Timur Tengah memiliki senjata yang kuat untuk menekan AS dan Barat pada umumnya agar tidak terus melindungi rezim Zionis.

Raymond Aron Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 17 Oktober tahun 1983, Raymond Aron, seorang sosiolog terkenal dari Perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1905 dan selama bertahun-tahun mengajar sosiologi di Universitas Sorbonne, Paris. Di antara pendapatnya yang terkenal adalah mengenai tiga hal utama yang menyebabkan manusia terjerumus ke dalam perang, yaitu teknologi, antusiasme yang terorganisasi, dan sekularisme agama. Menurut Aron, teknologi telah membuat manusia menyelesaikan masalah yang seharusnya bisa diupayakan melalui diplomasi, dengan peperangan. Di antara buku-buku karya Aron adalah berjudul "Awal Perang Atom" dan "Tahun-Tahun Akhir Abad Ini".

Husain Khadiv Jam Wafat
Tanggal 17 Oktober 1986, Husain Khadiv Jam, seorang peneliti dan penerjemah kontemporer Iran, meninggal dunia pada usia ke-59 tahun. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan tingginya, Husain Khadiv Jam mengajar bidang sastra di Universitas Masyhad dan kemudian pindah mengajar di Universitas Tehran. Dari peneliti terkemuka Iran ini, lahir lebih dari 30 jilid buku di bidang penelitian, revisi, dan penerjemahan. Di antaranya adalah revisi dan penerjemahan dari buku "Kimia-ye Sa'adat" karya Imam Muhammad Ghazali dan "Haqayiqul Akhbar" karya Nashiri.

Murtadha Hanaeh Wafat

Tanggal 17 Oktober 1989, Murtadha Hanaeh, seorang musisi terkemuka Iran, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1922 dan setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan dasarnya, ia mulai menimba ilmu musik. Hananeh adalah salah satu pendiri Orkestra Symphoni Teheran. Selain itu, dia juga banyak aktif dalam pembuatan musik untuk film. Karya-karya musik Murtadha Hanaeh di antaranya berjudul "Langkah-Langkah yang Hilang" dan "Bagaimana Aku Menciptakan Melodi".

18 Oktober
Philipina Menjadi Bagian Koloni Spanyol

Tanggal 18 Oktober tahun 1565, Philipina secara resmi menjadi bagian dari koloni Spanyol di Asia. Kawasan ini ditemukan pada tahun 1521 oleh Ferdinand Magellan, namun baru empat puluh dua tahun kemudian Philipina resmi dijadikan koloni Spanyol. Spanyol menjajah Philipina selama tiga abad dan merampas sebagian besar hasil alam bangsa ini. Pada tahun 1898, menyusul kekalahan Spanyol dari AS, Philipina diserahkan kepada Amerika. Akhirnya, bangsa Philipina berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1946. Philipina terdiri dari 7000 pulau yang terletak di Asia tenggara dan memiliki luas wilayah tiga ratus ribu kilometer persegi.


Italia dan Kaisar Utsmani Tandatangani Perjanjian Damai

Tanggal 18 Oktober tahun 1912, Italia dan Kaisar Utsmani menandatangani sebuah perjanjian damai. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, Utsmani harus menyerahkan Libya kepada Italia. Setahun sebelumnya, Italia telah mulai menyerang Lybia. Awalnya, pasukan Utsmani yang menduduki Libya berhasil menang, namun akhirnya harus takluk kepada pasukan Italia dan Lybia pun diduduki oleh Italia. Karena semakin meningkatnya gejala akan terjadinya Perang Balkan Pertama melawan Imperium Utsmani, Kaisar Utsmani terpaksa melakukan perjanjian damai dengan Italia tersebut. Bangsa Lybia kemudian selama bertahun-tahun berperang melawan penjajahan Italia. Setelah terjadi perubahan politik pasca Perang Dunia Kedua, Lybia dikuasai oleh Perancis dan Inggris. Akhirnya, baru pada tahun 1951 Lybia berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.

Perang Balkan Pertama Pecah

Tanggal 18 Oktober 1912, Bulgaria, Serbia, Yunani, dan Montenegro, memulai Perang Balkan Pertama dengan menyerang imperium Utsmani. Inggris dan Rusia merupakan penggerak terjadinya perang ini. Mereka berharap, dengan terpecah-pecahnya wilayah kekuasaan Utsmani di Eropa, imperium ini menjadi semakin lemah. Pada Perang Balkan Pertama ini, tentara Utsmani yang baru saja kalah dalam peperangan melawan Italia serta tidak memiliki kekuatan yang memadai, terpaksa bertekuk lutut dan kehilangan sebagian kekuasaannya di Eropa.

Radio BBC Didirikan
Tanggal 18 Oktober 1922, Radio BBC Inggris didirikan. Radio ini awalnya merupakan radio swasta, namun kemudian diambil alih oleh pemerintah Inggris pada tahun 1927. Sejak itu pula, anggaran dana radio BBC yang mengudara dalam berbagai bahasa ini dipenuhi oleh pemerintah Inggris. Meskipun BBC mengklaim kenetralan siarannya, namun pada setengah abad terakhir ini, terbukti bahwa radio BBC telah menjadi alat propaganda Inggris dan memberi jalan bagi pemerintahan London untuk mencampuri urusan dalam negeri negara-negara lain. Selain itu, BBC selalu menyiarkan berita dan laporan yang tendensius yang sejalan dengan politik imperialisme dan avonturis Inggris di negara-negara dunia ketiga.

Thomas Alva Edison Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 18 Oktober 1931, Thomas Alva Edison, penemu listrik, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada bulan Februari tahun 1847 di Amerika Serikat. Edison tidak memiliki gelar pendidikan tinggi, namun dengan melakukan penelitian dan belajar secara otodidak, ia mampu memiliki pengetahuan yang tinggi. Melalui berbagai penelitian yang dilakukannya sejak remaja, Edison berhasil menemukan dan menciptakan banyak hal, yang terpenting di antaranya adalah penemuan listrik, bola lampu, gramafon, dan fonograph.

Syahid Muhammad Rejai Berpidato di depan Majelis Umum PBB
Tanggal 18 Oktober 1980, Syahid Muhammad Rejai, Perdana Menteri Republik Islam Iran saat itu, menyampaikan pidatonya di depan Majelis Umum PBB. Dalam pidatonya itu, Muhammad Rejai menyampaikan kritikannya terhadap perang yang dipaksakan oleh rezim Irak kepada Iran. Selain itu, beliau juga membiacarakan masalah penting dunia lainnya seperti penjajahan Palestina oleh Rezim Zionis, dan politik busuk yang diterapkan negara-negara imperialis di seluruh dunia. Setelah menyampaikan pidato tersebut, wakil-wakil dari AS meminta untuk bertemu dengan Syahid Rejai, namun beliau menolaknya karena politik kriminal AS di seluruh dunia.

19 Oktober
Ottoman Menduduki Kota Sofia

Tanggal 19 Oktober tahun 1386, tentara imperium Ottoman menduduki kota Sofia, Bulgaria. Kemenangan Ottoman ini bersamaan dengan serangan pasukan Timur Gurkani yang terkenal dengan nama Timur Lang ke bagian timur dari wilayah kekuasaan Ottoman. Dengan demikian, imperium Ottoman semakin memperluas wilayahnya di Balkan. Di samping itu, Makedonia dan Serbia pun dikuasai oleh imperium ini. Negara-negara Balkan berada di bawah kekuasaan Ottoman selama lima abad dan baru mencapai kemerdekaannya pada akhir abad ke-19.

Panglima Pasukan Inggris Menyerah Kepada George Washington

Tanggal 19 Oktober tahun 1781, Jenderal Cornwallis, panglima pasukan Inggris, menyerah kalah kepada George Washington, panglima pasukan Amerika. Dengan demikian, Perang Kemerdekaan AS secara resmi berakhir. Perang ini dimulai sejak tahun 1775 antara para imigran Amerika dengan panjajah Inggris. Dua tahun setelah kemenangan para imigran AS tersebut, pada tahun 1783, ditandatangani perjanjian antara kedua pihak yang berisi pengakuan Inggris atas kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat.

Perang Leipzig Berkobar
Tanggal 19 Oktober 1813, berlangsunglah Perang Leipzig atau dikenal pula sebagai Perang Bangsa-Bangsa. Perang ini merupakan perang terbesar dalam era Perang Napoleon dan kekalahan terbesar yang dialaminya. Dalam perang ini, bertarung sekitar 560 ribu pasukan, 300 ribu di antaranya pasukan gabungan beberapa negara, yaitu Swedia, Inggris, Prusia, Rusia, dan Austria. Kekalahan Napoleon di Leipzig ini mengawali kekalahannya dalam perang-perang berikutnya. Pada tahun 1814, Napoleon dibuang ke Pulau St. Elba.
1 Desember
Persatuan Suci Eropa Bubar

Tanggal 1 Desember 1825, persatuan negara-negara Eropa yang dinamakan Persatuan Suci membubarkan diri seiring dengan keluarnya Rusia dari persatuan tersebut. Organisasi ini berdiri pada tahun 1815 menyusul tumbangnya kekaisaran Napoleon serta terbentuknya Kongres Wina. Pada saat itu, ditandatangani sebuah kesepakatan di antara negara-negara Rusia, Austria, dan Kekaisaran Prusia. Ketiga negara itu sepakat untuk melaksanakan ajaran Kristen dalam kehidupan bernegara ataupun dalam hubungan internasional. Tidak lama kemudian, sejumlah negara Eropa lainnya turut menandatangani dan bergabung dengan Persatuan Suci ini. Akan tetapi, hanya berselang sepuluh tahun dari ditandatanganinya kesepakatan itu, persatuan tersebut bubar karena banyak prinsip-prinsip yang tidak terjelaskan dari isi kesepakatan, ditambah lagi dengan bermunculannya revolusi di sejumlah negara yang digerakkan oleh kelompok-kelompok yang menginginkan kebebasan.

Perjanjian Non Agresi antara Italia dan San Marino

Tanggal 1 Desember 1897, Italia dan San Marino menandatangani perjanjian non-agresi. Dalam perjanjian itu disebutkan bahwa San Marino berjanji untuk tidak menyerang Italia. Sebaliknya, selain berjanji untuk tidak menyerang San Marino, Italia juga mengakui kedaulatan negara tetangganya itu. San Marino adalah salah satu negara terkecil sedunia. Negara ini terletak di kawasan selatan selatan Eropa dengan luas wilayah hanya 61 kilometer persegi yang artinya lebih kecil dari Pulau Ternate di Indonesia. Pemerintahan negara ini berbentuk Republik dan penduduknya mayoritas beragama Katolik Roma.

2 Desember
Laos Merdeka

Tanggal 2 Desember 1954, Laos, sebuah negara yang terletak di semenanjung Indocina, meraih kemerdekaannya. Kemerdekaan negara ini disahkan dalam Konferensi Jenewa tahun 1954 yang dihadiri oleh negara-negara kawasan Indocina dan negara-negara adidaya. Laos sejak tahun 1893 resmi dijajah oleh Perancis. Pada tahun 1949, menyusul gerakan kemerdekaan yang bergolak di India dan Cina, Perancis terpaksa memberikan kemerdekaan terbatas kepada Laos. Kemudian, bersamaan dengan perjuangan melawan Perancis di Vietnam, sejak tahun 1950, kelompok sosialis Laos, yaitu "Pathet Lao" dengan dukungan Cina dan Vietnam, juga melancarkan perlawanan terhadap Perancis. Selepas kemerdekaan tahun 1954, perang saudara bergolak di Laos hingga tahun 1975, yaitu ketika kaum komunis berhasil meraih kekuasaan di negara itu.

Revolusi Fidel Castro Dimulai
Tanggal 2 Desember 1956, dimulailah revolusi Kuba yang dipimpin oleh Fidel Castro. Saat itu, Kuba dikuasai oleh rezim Batista yang despotik dan korup. Sebelumnya, pada tahun 1953, Castro juga pernah melakukan perlawanan, namun mengalami kekalahan dan dia dijebloskan ke penjara. Dua tahun kemudian, yaitu tahun 1955, Castro dibebaskan dari penjara dan dibuang ke AS. Pada tanggal 2 Desember 1956, Castro dan 82 pasukannya mendarat di Kuba namun kembali kalah dan mereka melarikan diri ke Sierra Maestra. Pada tahun 1957 , Castro melancarkan kembali serangannya yang berhasil membuat Batista kabur ke luar negeri pada tanggal 1 Januari 1959. Catro kemudian mengambil alih kekuasaan dan aksi poliknya yang pertama adalah menasionalisasi industri-industri Kuba yang sebelumnya dikuasai AS. Perlawanan Castro melawan AS inilah yang menyebabkan Kuba dijatuhi embargo dan blokade ekonomi oleh AS. Pada tahun 1976, Castro diangkat sebagai presiden dan kemudian ia mengangkat diri sebagai presiden seumur hidup. Ia menjalankan pemerintahan negaranya dengan system komunis.

Mirza Kuchak Khan Janggali Gugur Syahid

Tanggal 2 Desember 1921, Mirza Kuchak Khan Janggali, seorang ruhaniwan pejuang Iran, gugur syahid dalam perjuangan melawan rezim Reza Khan yang despotik. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan agamanya, Kuchak Khan bergabung ke dalam barisan pejuang kebebasan Iran yang saat itu berada dalam cengkeraman rezim despotik dan kekuasaan imperialis asing. Pada tahun 1919, Iran dan Inggris menandatangani perjanjian yang memberi peluang lebih besar kepada Inggris untuk mengontrol Iran. Kuchak Khan kemudian menggalang perjuangan untuk menentang perjanjian ini yang disebut sebagai "Kebangkitan Hutan". Pada awalnya, pasukan Kuchak Khan meraih kemenangan, namun atas kerjasama pasukan pemerintah dengan Soviet dan Inggris, sebagian anggota gerakan "Kebangkitan Hutan" terbunuh dan sebagian lainnya ditawan. Akhirnya. Kuchak Khan juga terbunuh dan dengan demikian berakhirlah gerakan "Kebangkitan Hutan".

Uni Emirat Arab Merdeka
Tanggal 2 Desember 1971, Uni Emirat Arab meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai hari nasional negara tersebut. Uni Emirat Arab adalah sebuah negara yang berbentuk federasi yang dipimpin oleh tujuh orang Syeikh. Para Syeikh itu tetap berkuasa ketika bangsa Eropa datang ke wilayah itu pada abad ke-17 hingga abad ke-19. Sejak tahun 1920, Inggris menjalin kerjasama dengan para Syekh dan mengesksploitasi tambang minyak yang sangat kaya di kawasan itu. Pasca Perang Dunia Kedua, Inggris terpaksa keluar dari kawasan itu dan Teluk Persia pada umumnya. Menjelang keluarnya Inggris dari sana, pada tahun 1969, Inggris membentuk "Dewan Tinggi Uni Emirat Arab" yang terdiri dari sembilan wilayah kekuasaan para Syekh. Tak lama kemudian, Syekh Qatar dan Bahrain keluar dari federasi ini, sehingga kini UAE hanya beranggotakan tujuh anggota, di antaranya Abu Dhabi dan Dubai.

3 Desember
Machiavelli Lahir

Tanggal 3 Desember 1469, Nicolo Machiavelli, seorang sejarawan dan politikus Italia, terlahir ke dunia di kota Florence, Italia. Pada masa mudanya, Machiavelli telah menjadi diplomat penting. Namun, ketika terjadi peralihan kekuasaan, dia disingkirkan dari publik dan kemudian berkonsentrasi di bidang penulisan sejarah, filsafat politik, dan drama. Akhirnya, oleh pemerintah yang berkuasa, Machiavelli ditarik kembali untuk aktif dalam pemerintahan. Karya terbesar Machiavelli adalah The Prince yang ditulisnya tahun 1513 dan diterbitkan tahun 1532, lima tahun setelah kematiannya. Dalam buku yang kontroversial ini, Machiavelli berpendapat bahwa para pangeran haruslah meraih kekuasaan absolut atas wilayah kekuasaan mereka dan mereka harus menggunakan berbagai cara untuk itu, termasuk penipuan. Dalam beberapa bagian ia bahkan memuji-muji Caesar Borgia yang tiran dan despotik. Namun, pada tahun 1810, ditemukan surat yang ditulis Machiavelli bahwa dia menulis The Prince dengan tujuan untuk mengambil hati rezim yang berkuasa di Florence saat itu.

Pemberontakan Terhadap Louis Napoleon
Tanggal 3 Desember 1851, dimulailah pemberontakan warga Paris, Perancis dalam melawan rezim diktator Louis Napoleon, kemenakan dari Napoleon Bonaparte. Selama masa pemerintahannya, Louis Napoleon bertindak represif terhadap para penentangnya. Banyak di antara tokoh-tokoh terkemuka Perancis yang dipenjarakan dalam waktu lama oleh Louis Napoleon. Hal ini menimbulkan kemarahan warga Paris dan melakukan pemberontakan. Namun, Louis Napoleon membungkam pemerontakan warganya itu dengan pembunuhan, pemenjaraan, dan pembuangan. Victor Hugo, seorang penulis terkemuka Perancis adalah salah satu korban yang dibuang oleh Louis Napoleon.

Rajendra Prasad Lahir
Tanggal 3 Desember 1884, Doktor Rajendra Prasad, seorang politikus dan filsuf India, terlahir ke dunia di kota Bihar, India. Dia adalah seorang ilmuwan yang amat gigih dalam memperjuangkan kemerdekaan bangsanya dari penjajahan Inggris. Rajendra Prasad berjuang bersama-sama Mahatma Gandhi dan beberapa kali terpilih sebagai pemimpin Kongres Nasional India. Pada tahun 1950, setelah kemerdekaan India dan dibentuknya pemerintahan republik di negara itu, Rajendra Prasad terpilih sebagai Presiden India yang pertama.

Pierre-August Renoir Meninggal
Tanggal 3 Desember 1919 Pierre-August Renoir, seorang pelukis besar Perancis meninggal dunia pada usia 78 tahun. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1841 dan sejak usia 13 tahun, dia telah bekerja magang sebagai pelukis bunga-bunga di piring porselen. Setelah memiliki uang tabungan, pada tahun 1862, dia masuk ke Atelier Gallery dan bergabung dengan pelukis-pelukis besar seperti Monet dan Bazille. Renoir adalah seorang pelopor aliran impresionis. Karya-karyanya banyak menggambarkan kehidupan asli serta penuh warna dan cahaya yang cerah. Karya-karya Renoir di antaranya berjudul, Potraits dan In The Meadow. Pada tahun 1898, tangannya lumpuh, namun dia tetap melukis sambil menahan sakit. Pada tahun 1919, tak lama sebelum kematiannya, dia berhasil menyelesaikan lukisan terakhirnya "The Nhymps".

Tragedi Bhopal India
Tanggal 3 Desember 1984, terjadi ledakan besar di pabrik Union Carbide milik AS. Ledakan akibat kebocoran gas methyl isocyanate dan gas-gas kimia lainnya itu telah membunuh 4,000 people hanya dalam beberapa jam. Hingga kini, angka korban yang tewas telah meningkat sampai 20.000 orang. Ratusan ribu lainnya yang masih hidup dengan menderita dampak gas berbahaya itu. Para korban tregedi Bhopal ini masih mendapat kesulitan dalam mengklaim ganti rugi dari perusahaan AS itu. Hingga kini, pabrik Union Carbide terus berdiri meskipun kepemilikannya sudah beralih tangan. Pemilik baru dari perusahaan itu menolak bertanggung jawab atas kehidupan para korban tragedy Bhopal.

4 Desember
Claude Berthollet Lahir

Tanggal 4 Desember 1748, Claude Berthollet, seorang kimiawan Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, dia banyak melakukan eksperimen eksperimen kimiawi. Berthollet meyakini bahwa hasil dari sebuah reaksi tergantung kepada perbandingan reaktan. Teori ini kemudian dibuktikan salah oleh ahli kimia lainnya, yaitu Proust. Namun, proposisi Berthollet bahwa tingkat reaksi kimia tergantung pada konsentrasi reaktan adalah benar. Fakta ini kemudian disebut sebagai Hukum Aksi Massa. Berthollet meninggal dunia pada tahun1822.

Mirza Abdul Qasim Farahani Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 4 Desember 1835, Mirza Abdul Qasim Qaim-e Maqam Farahani, seorang penulis dan politikus Iran periode Qajar, meninggal dunia akibat dibunuh. Dia merupakan putra mahkota Dinasti Qajar dan kemudian diangkat menjadi penasehat Shah Muhammad. Dia banyak melakukan reformasi dalam berbagai bidang di Iran. Namun, para lawan politiknya dan imperialis asing melihat bahwa kebijakan yang diambil Farahani membahayakan kepentingan ilegal mereka, sehingga mereka merencanakan pembunuhan atas Farahani.
Farahani banyak meninggalkan karya penulisan, di antaranya berjudul "Mansha`at", "Jalayer Nameh" dan "Kumpulan Syair".

Vaksin Tipus Diaplikasikan

Tanggal 4 Desember 1899, untuk pertama kalinya, vaksin tipus diaplikasikan kepada masyarakat. Penyakit ini menyebar sejak abad ke-17 di Eropa dan memuncak pada era Perang Napoleon. Kemajuan signifikan dalam melawan penyakit ini dimulai setelah tahun 1909 ketika seorang dokter perancis, Charles Nicolle menemukan bahwa tipus berpindah dari orang ke orang melalui bakteri yang ada di tubuh. Virus dan bakteri penyebab tipus tersebar melalui air yang tercemar dan sanitasi yang yang buruk. Biasanya penyakit ini dimulai dengan demam lebih dari satu minggu yang muncul pada sore dan malam hari dan tidak juga turun meski kita sudah mengonsumsi obat penurun panas. Gejala lainnya adalah sakit kepala dan rasa tidak enak pada perut yang menyebabkan diare, perut kembung dan muntah-muntah. Lidah yang terlihat berselaput putih susu pada bagian tengah juga merupakan salah satu gejalanya. Bila semakin parah, hati dan limpa bisa membengkak. Penyakit tipus juga bisa berkomplikasi atau membuat luka pada bagian usus. Penyakit ini bisa disembuhkan dengan meminum antibiotika.

Konferensi Bermuda Dimulai
Tanggal 4 Desember 1952, konferensi segi tiga yang diikuti AS, Inggris, dan Perancis, berlangsung di kepulauan Bermuda yang terletak di Samudera Atlantik Amerika Selatan, . Ketiga negara peserta konferensi itu, selain membicarakan kerjasama di antara mereka, juga mengambil keputusan penting dalam kerjasama menghadapi Uni Soviet. Pada saat itu, bagian barat Berlin berada dalam kekuasaan ketiga negara tersebut, sedangkan bagian timur Berlin dikuasai Uni Soviet. Pergolakan di antara kedua pihak itu memuncak dengan didirikannya Tembok Berlin pada tahun 1961 oleh Jerman Timur dan Soviet.

Jabar Baghcheban Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 4 Desember 1966, Jabbar Baghcheban, seorang pendidik besar kaum tuna rungu Iran, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan tahun 1882 dan pada tahun 1923, dia mendirikan taman kanak-kanak pertamanya di kota Tabriz. Di taman kanak-kanak inilah Baghcheban mulai mendidik tiga anak tuna rungu agar bisa berkomunikasi. Dia kemudian menciptakan metode baca-tulis khusus bagi anak-anak tuna rungu yang hingga kini diterapkan di Iran. Pada tahun 1934, Baghcheban mendirikan sekolah tuna rungu pertama di Iran.

Doktor Muhammad Fereyduni Meninggal
Tanggal 4 Desember 1990, Doktor Muhammad Husein Masayekh Fereyduni, seorang peneliti dan penulis terkemuka Iran, meninggal dunia pada usia 76 tahun. Dia meraih gelar doktornya di bidang bahasa dan sastra Persia serta banyak melakukan penelitian di bidang islamologi, Iranologi, dan hubungan budaya negara-negara Islam. Doktor Fereyduni juga pernah menjadi anggota komisi penelitian ilmiah internasional di UNESCO mengenai jalur sutra. Semua hasil penelitiannya ditulis dalam berbagai buku yang bernilai. Doktor Fereyduni juga sangat menyukai karya-karya Iqbal, sehingga banyak menerjemahkannya syair-syair Iqbal ke dalam bahasa Persia. Karya-karya Dr. Fereyduni di antaranya berjudul "Suara Penyair Masa Depan" dan "Riwayat Baru Tentang Rahasia Diri Iqbal"

Konferensi Palestina Pertama di Teheran

Tanggal 4 Desember 1990, konferensi pertama tentang Palestina digelar di kota Teheran, Iran. Konferensi ini adalah untuk menggalang kerjasama dunia untuk mendukung gerakan Intifadhah dan penentangan terhadap berlanjutnya imigrasi kaum Yahudi ke Palestina. Orang-orang yang hadir dalam konferensi ini, di antaranya adalah para pejuang dan pemikir muslim dari Palestina, Iran, dan negara-negara lainnya. Masalah utama yang dibahas dalam konferensi ini adalah dimensi dan penyebab gerakan Intifadhah, revolusi Islam Palestina, dan pengaruh perubahan regional terhadap Palestina.

5 Desember
Albert The Great Meninggal

Tanggal 5 Desember 1230, Albert Magnus yang dikenal dengan nama Albert The Great, seorang pendeta yang dianggap sebagai intelektual Gereja, meninggal dunia. Albert Magnus belajar di Universitas Padua dan kemudian meraih doktor di Universitas Paris. Selain berprofesi sebagai pendeta, Albert Magnus juga menekuni berbagai bidang ilmu seperti biology, kimia, astronomi, geografi, metafisika, dan matematika. Salah satu karya Albert Magnus adalah "Manusia dan Binatang, Studi Atas Teks-Teks Renaissance dan Abad Pertengahan." Dia juga berhasil memutihkan tembaga dengan menggunakan arsenik.

Ben Johnson Lahir

Tanggal 5 Desember 1573, Ben Johnson, seorang seorang penyair dan penulis drama Inggris, terlahir ke dunia. Ketika Johnson masih kecil, ayahnya meninggal dunia dan ia dibesarkan oleh ayah tirinya yang berprofesi sebagai tukang batu. Johnson pun pada awalnya menekuni profesi sebagai tukang batu, kemudian bergabung ke dalam kelompok teater. Ketekunannya dalam membaca membuat pengetahuannya menjadi amat luas, meskipun ia tidak memiliki pendidikan formal yang tinggi. Pada tahun 1598, Ben Johnson membuat naskah drama pertamanya berjudul "Every Man in His Humour", yang berupa komedi dalam gaya klasik. Karya pertamanya ini membuatnya sangat dikagumi publik dan menjadikannya seorang selebritis.

Napoleon Kembali Ke Perancis
Tanggal 5 Desember 1812, setelah mengalami kekalahan besar di Rusia, Napoleon Bonaparte dan pasukannya kembali ke Perancis. Serangannya ke Rusia dimulai pada tahun 1812 dan dilakukan setelah meraih berbagai kemenangan di Eropa. Setelah enam bulan berperang, Moskow berhasil dikuasai oleh Napoleon dan pasukannya. Namun, suhu yang sangat dingin dan serangan balik dari tentara Rusia, membuat Napoleon kalah dan kehilangan 320 ribu pasukannya.

Manuchehr Jahan Beglu Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 5 Desember 1990, Manuchehr Jahan Beglu, seorang pemusik tradisional Iran terkemuka, meninggal dunia pada usia 62 tahun. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1928 dan kemudian menuntut ilmu musik di bidang musik dari pemusik-pemusik terkemuka Iran saat itu. Kemudian, ia melanjutkan pendidikannya di Austria hingga berhasil meraih gelar doktor. Sekembalinya ke Iran, di samping mengajar musik, Manuchehr Jahan Beglu melakukan penelitian di bidang musik. Karya yang ditinggalkannya antara lain buku berjudul "Pelajaran Sintur".

6 Desember
Amandemen Ke-13 Diratifikasi

Tanggal 6 Desember 1865, Amandemen ke-13 dalam konstitusi Amerika Serakat diratifikasi. Amandeman yang berisi penghapusan perbudakan ini dipelopori oleh presiden AS waktu itu, yang merupakan seorang pejuang anti-perbudakan, yaitu Abraham Lyncoln. Isi amandemen ini adalah "Tidak ada perbudakan atau kerja paksa yang boleh diberlakukan di Amerika Serikat atau di tempat manapun yang berada dalam naungan hukum Amerika Serikat, kecuali jika hal itu berkaitan dengan hukuman terhadap kejahatan yang telah terbukti,"Amandemen ke-13 ini kemudian diinterpretasi oleh Mahkamah Agung AS sebagai pelarangan diskriminasi dalam bidang publik atau privat serta dalam bidang tenaga kerja.

Finlandia Merdeka
Tanggal 6 Desember 1917, Finlandia meraih kemerdekaannya dari Rusia. Pada abad ke-12, Finlandia pernah meminta Swedia agar melindungi Finlandia dari ekspansi Rusia. Namun, Swedia kemudian malah menjajah Finlandia. Pada tahun 1721, Rusia menduduki Finlandia. Akibat perlawanan keras dari rakyat Finlandia, pada tahun 1901, Rusia memberikan hak untuk memilih dan memiliki dewan legislatif. Akhirnya menyusul revolusi Bolshevik di Rusia pada tahun 1917 dan keluarnya tentara Rusia dari wilayah Finlandia, negara ini pun memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Finlandia berbatasan dengan Rusia, Swedia, dan Norwegia dan pemerintahannya berbentuk republik.

Terowongan Italia-Perancis Mulai Dibangun

Tanggal 6 Desember 1958, dimulailah pembangunan salah satu terowongan terpanjang di dunia, yang menghubungkan Italia dan Perancis. Terowongan ini dibangun di bawah gunung Mont Blanc yang merupakan salah satu gunung tertinggi di Perancis. Terowongan ini panjangnya 12.233 kilometer dan dinamai Terowongan Gunung Cenis. Pembangunan terowongan ini memakan waktu enam tahun dan selesai pada tanggal 14 Agustus 1963. Terowongan ini menjadi salah satu objek pariwisata di Perancis dan Italia.

Masjid Babri Dihancurkan Oleh Hindu Ekstrim

Tanggal 6 Desember 1992, masjid Babri yang terletak di kota Faizabad, provinsi Uttar Pradesh, India, dihancurkan oleh kelompok Hindu ekstrim. Masjid ini dibangun pada tahun 1528 oleh Raja Zahiruddin Muhammad Babri dari Dinasti Timur India, di atas sebuah bukit. Pada tahun 1855, seorang berdarah Inggris bernama HW Nobel secara sengaja melakukan kesalahan dalam mencatat dokumentasi kawasan mesjid tersebut. Ia mencatat bahwa mesjid tersebut dibangun di atas reruntuhan candi tempat kelahiran Rama, salah satu dewa Hindu. Kaum Hindu kemudian berniat mendirikan candi di sana sehingga pada tahun 1922 mereka menyerang dan menghancurkan Masjid Babri. Aksi kaum Hindu ini menimbulkan kerusuhan besar dan mengakibatkan 3.000 kaum muslimin tewas.

7 Desember
Kunjungan Nixon ke Tehran Didemonstrasi

Tanggal 7 Desember 1953, tiga mahasiswa Universitas Teheran gugur syahid karena dibunuh oleh tentara Rezim Shah di Iran. Para mahasiswa itu terbunuh dalam demonstrasi terhadap kunjungan Presiden AS, Richard Nixon, ke Teheran, Iran. Kunjungan Nixon ini dilakukan tiga setengah bulan setelah Pemerintahan Mushadeq yang mendapatkan dukungan rakyat Iran, digulingkan dalam sebuah kudeta yang didalangi oleh CIA. Pada tanggal 7 Desember, tentara Rezim Shah mendatangi Universitas Teheran dan menyerang para mahasiswa yang tengah berdemonstrasi sehingga tiga orang di antara mereka tewas. Sehari kemudian, Nixon juga datang ke Universitas Teheran untuk dianugerahi gelar doktor kehormatan di bidang hukum. Kini, tanggal 6 Desember diperingati di Iran sebagai Hari Mahasiswa.

Pascal Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 7 Desember 1662, Blaise Pascal, seorang matematikawan Perancis daan penemu mesin hitung, meninggal dunia. Ibu Blaise meninggal dunia ketika dia masih kecil, dan kemudian, Blaise dididik sendiri oleh ayahnya, Etienne Pascal. Pada usia 12 tahun, setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan bahasa Latin dan Yunaninya, Blaise mulai belajar geometri sendiri dan pada usia 16 tahun, dia sudah menerbitkan karya geometri pertamanya di bidang kerucut.
Pascal memiliki kesehatan yang sangat lemah, namun dia tetap bekerja konsisten di bidang ilmu. Pada usianya ke-18, dia berhasil menciptakan mesin hitung pertama di dunia. Ketika Blaise berusia 23 tahun, ia mulai tertarik menekuni agama dan menulis beberapa buku filsafat. Di akhir usianya, Pascal memberikan harta kekayaannya kepada kaum fakir miskin dan memberi perlindungan kepada penderita penyakit cacar. Dia meninggal pada usia 39 tahun dan kata-kata terakhirnya berbunyi, "Semoga Tuhan tidak mengabaikanku."

Pearl Harbour Diserang
Tanggal 7 Desember 1941, di saat ketika Perang Dunia Kedua berlangsung sengit, dua ratus pesawat tempur Jepang menyerang pangkalan militer AS, Pearl Harbour, yang terletak di Lautan Teduh. Operasi militer ini terjadi ketika Jepang dan AS tengah melakukan berunding mengenai masalah Asia Tenggara. Seiring dengan serangan yang menghancurkan 19 kapal perang AS ini, Jepang juga menyerang dan menduduki negara-negara di Asia Tenggara, di antaranya Indonesia. Menyusul serangan ke Pearl Harbour ini, AS mengumumkan perang dengan Jepang dan Perang Dunia Kedua meluas hingga ke Asia Timur.

Abdul Wahab Kiyali Syahid
Tanggal 7 Desember 1981, Abdul Wahab Kiyali, salah seorang tokoh pejuang kemerdekaan Palestina, gugur syahid dalam peristiwa teror yang didalangi oleh agen Zionis di kota Beirut. Sejak masa sekolah, Kiyali telah mulai berkecimpung di dunia politik untuk membebaskan Palestina. Dia menulis tesis doktornya di Universitas London dengan pembahasan mengenai masalah Palestina dan perjuangan bangsa Arab melawan penjajahan dan Zionisme. Di antara perjuangan yang dilakukan Kiyali adalah menerbitkan majalah Palestina pertama bernama Palestina Bebas dan mendirikan yayasan penerbitan yang menyuarakan kebebasan rakyat Palestina. Di antara karya yang ditinggalkan pejuang intelektual ini berjudul "Sejarah Baru Palestina", "Gerakan Perlawanan Palestina" dan "Penelitian Mengenai Palestina."

8 Desember
Kekuasaan Shogun Tumbang

Tanggal 8 Desember 1868, kekuasaan militer Shogun di Jepang tumbang dan ‎dimulailah reformasi di bidang sosial, politik, dan budaya di negara ini. Shogun ‎mulai menjalankan kekuasaan militernya sejak abad ke-12. Pada saat itu, ‎meskipun pemerintahan resmi berada di tangan para kaisar di Kyoto, namun ‎sesungguhnya kekuasaan berada di tangan para Shogun. Kekuasaan para Shogun ‎semakin lama semakin meluas di Jepang dan mereka melakukan pelarangan ‎hubungan antara Jepang dengan negara-negara lain. ‎
Pada tahun 1868, Pangeran Mutsuhito diangkat menjadi kaisar dan memilih nama ‎Meiji yang artinya "pemerintahan yang tercerahkan". Kaisar Meiji kemudian ‎menumbangkan kekuasaan Shogun dan menggantikannya dengan administrasi ‎kerajaan. Dia juga pindah dari Kyoto ke Tokyo dan melakukan berbagai reformasi. ‎Di masa kekaisaran Meiji, Jepang berhasil menjadi negara industri yang mampu ‎bersaing dengan negara-negara Barat.‎

Perang Falkland Meletus
Tanggal 8 Desember 1914, meletuslah Perang Falkland di Samudera Atlantik. ‎Perang ini terjadi antara angkatan laut Jerman dan Inggris. Dalam perang ini, ‎angkatan laut Jerman mengalami kekalahan besar dan pulau Falkland tetap ‎dikuasai oleh Inggris. Kepulauan Falkland terletak di Laut Atlantik Selatan, sekitar ‎‎480 kilometer dari pantai Argentina. Inggris telah menduduki kepulauan yang kaya ‎minyak itu sejak tahun 1833. Argentina sejak tahun 1820 telah mengklaim ‎kepemilikan atas kepulauan tersebut namun klaim ini ditolak Inggris. Pada tahun ‎‎1982, Argentina menginvasi kepulauan ini dan pecahlah perang antara Argentina ‎dan Inggris. Perang ini diakhiri dengan kekalahan Argentina.‎

Kudeta di Brunei Gagal
Tanggal 8 Desember 1962, kudeta di Brunei berhasil digagalkan. Kudeta yang ‎dilakukan oleh tentara Gurkha ini dipimpin oleh Sheikh Azahari yang pro-partai ‎demokratis di Brunei, yaitu Brunei People's Party (PRB). Kudeta ini dilakukan ‎sebagai reaksi atas penolakan Sultan Brunei untuk menyelenggarakan sidang ‎dewan legislatif. Sejak itu, Brunei diperintah dengan sistem absolut oleh Sultan, ‎yang memegang posisi sebagai perdana menteri, menteri keuangan dan menteri ‎pertahanan sekaligus. Pada tahun 1980-an berdirilah partai politik di Brunei, namun ‎dibubarkan pada tahun 1988. Pemerintah juga memiliki kekuasaan darurat, yang ‎termasuk di dalamnya hak untuk menahan warga negara tanpa melalui pengadilan. ‎Awalnya, Brunei berstatus protektorat Inggris, dan baru pada tanggal 1 Januari ‎‎1984, meraih kemerdekaan penuh.‎

Golda Meir Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 8 Desember 1978, Golda Meir seorang tokoh rezim Zionis, meninggal ‎dunia. Dia dilahirkan di Kiev Rusia tahun 1898 dan pindah ke Wisconsin Amerika ‎tahun 1906. Pada tahun 1915, Golda Meir bergabung dengan Partai Buruh Zionis ‎dan pada tahun 1921, dia dan suaminya pindah ke Palestina. Pada tahun 1969, ‎Golda Meir terpilih sebagai Perdana Menteri Israel, hingga tahun 1974. ‎Sebelumnya, ia menjabat sebagai Menteri Luar Negeri Israel.‎
Golda Meir adalah salah satu anggota Dewan Rakyat yang menandatangani ‎proklamasi pendirian Negara Israel tahun 1948. Secara signifikan, Deklarasi ‎Kemerdekaan Israel itu tidak menyebutkan adanya perbatasan, dan negara Yahudi ‎tidak pernah secara terbuka menyatakan batas-batasnya. Pada awal pendiriannya, ‎orang-orang Israel telah menyita 158.332 unit dari keseluruhan 179.316 unit ‎perumahan, termasuk rumah-rumah dan apartemen-apartemen milik bangsa Arab ‎Palestina. Orang-orang Yahudi sedikitnya telah mengambil alih 10.000 toko dan ‎‎1.000 gudang. Selain itu, kira-kira 90 persen kebun zaitun dan 50 persen kebun ‎jeruk Israel juga berasal dari rampasan. Perampasan kebun-kebun ini nilainya ‎sangat besar sehingga sangat menolong Israel dalam meringankan masalah serius ‎dalam keseimbangan neraca pembayaran Israel dari 1948 hingga 1953.‎

9 Desember
Palestina Diduduki Inggris

Tanggal 9 Desember 1917, dalam periode Perang Dunia Pertama, pasukan Inggris ‎berhasil mengalahkan tentara Ottoman di Palestina dan wilayah ini pun diduduki ‎oleh Inggris. Pada bulan Oktober tahun berikutnya, Inggris mengadakan perjanjian ‎penghentian perang dengan Ottoman dan sebagian besar kawasan Timur Tengah ‎diduduki oleh Inggris. Pendudukan Palestina oleh Inggris merupakan langkah ‎penting dalam realisasi Deklarasi Balfour yang berisi rencana pendirian negara ‎Yahudi di tanah milik bangsa Palestina. ‎

Gerakan Intifadhah Pertama Dimulai

Tanggal 9 Desember 1987, dimulailah gerakan kebangkitan rakyat Palestina untuk ‎melawan rezim Zionis yang telah menjajah tanah air mereka. Kebangkitan rakyat ‎Palestina yang dinamakan Intifadhah ini terjadi menyusul semakin kerasnya aksi ‎teror dan represi dari kaum Zionis terhadap bangsa Palestina dan berlanjutnya ‎pendudukan rezim tersebut atas tanah milik mereka. Di samping itu, bangsa ‎Palestina juga telah putus harapan atas bantuan dari pemerintahan Barat dan ‎organisasi-organisasi Plaestina yang ada. Gerakan Intifadhah pertama setelah ‎beberapa tahun terhenti, kembali dilanjutkan pada bulan September tahun 2000, ‎yang diberi nama "Intifadhah Masjid Al-Aqsha". Di antara keistimewaan gerakan ini ‎adalah adanya dukungan luas dari rakyat, kepercayaan bahwa Islam satu-satunya ‎jalan keselamatan, dan ketiadaan ketergantungan pada negara-negara lain. Oleh ‎karena keistimewaan inilah, meskipun tidak berbekal senjata, namun gerakan ini ‎tidak bisa dikalahkan oleh rezim penjajah Zionis. ‎

Irak Diumumkan Sebagai Agresor dalam Perang Irak-Iran
Tanggal 9 Desember 1991, Javier Peres De Cuellar, sekjen PBB waktu itu, secara ‎jelas dalam laporannya, mengumumkan bahwa Irak pada tanggal 22 Septrember ‎‎1980, melakukan agresi ke wilayah Iran. Menurut Sekjen PBB tersebut, ‎berdasarkan Piagam PBB, agresi Irak tersebut tidak bisa diterima oleh prinsip dan ‎hukum internasional serta etika internasional. ‎
Pada tanggal 22 September 1980, tentara Irak secara resmi memulai perang ‎dengan Iran dengan menyerang lewat udara dan darat. Kota-kota dan desa-desa ‎Iran dihancurkan serta jutaan anak-anak, pria, dan wanita menjadi korban. Irak ‎bahkan juga menggunakan senjata pembunuh massal yang korbannya hingga kini ‎masih hidup dengan menanggung penyakit akibat senjata kimia tersebut. Namun, ‎setelah delapan tahun berlalu, Irak tetap tidak mampu menaklukkan Iran dan ‎mereka mundur ke belakang garis perbatasan internasional. ‎

Ayatullah Gulpaygani Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 9 Desember 1993, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Ridha Gulpaygani, ‎seorang ulama dan marji besar dunia muslim, meninggal dunia. Beliau dilahirkan di ‎kota Gulpaygan Iran tengah dan memulai pendidikan agamanya dengan ‎mempelajari Al-Quran. Beliau kemudian menuntut ilmu dari ulama-ulama besar ‎pada zaman itu, di antaranya Ayatullah Hairi. Kemudian, beliau mengajar di hauzah ‎ilmiah Qum. Setelah meninggalnya Ayatullah Burujerdi yang merupakan ulama ‎paling penting saat itu, Ayatullah Gulpaygani pun menggantikan posisi beliau ‎sebagai marji taklid dan ulama terkemuka di Qum. Setelah kemanangan revolusi ‎Islam Iran yang digerakkan oleh para ulama, Ayatullah Gulpaygani memberikan ‎dukungan penuh beliau kepada Imam Khomeini. Di samping meninggalkan karya ‎penulisan di berbagai bidang ilmu, beliau juga meninggalkan sebuah rumah sakit ‎di Qum, yaitu Rumah Sakit Gulpaygani yang dikhususkan bagi para pelajar agama ‎dan kaum fakir miskin.‎

10 Desember
Belanda Kembali Meraih Kekuasaan di Sumatera

Tanggal 10 Desember 1816, Belanda kembali meraih kekuasaannya atas ‎Sumatera, dan Indonesia pada umumnya. Belanda menginjakkan kaki di wilayah ‎Indonesia pada tahun 1651 dengan menginvasi Kupang di Timur Barat. Sebelum ‎kedatangan Belanda, beberapa wilayah Indonesia timur telah dikuasai oleh ‎Portugis. Namun, hingga 200 tahun kemudian, batas jajahan antara dua kekuasaan ‎imperialis itu masih belum jelas. Pada tahun tanggal 20 April 1859, Belanda dan ‎Portugis menjalin perjanjian bahwa Belanda menguasai bagian barat pulau Timor ‎dan Portugis menguasai bagian timurnya. ‎
Selama era Perang Napoleon, Belanda jatuh ke tangan Perancis dan akibatnya, ‎wilayah jajahan Belanda di Indonesia diambil oleh Inggris. Gubernur Jenderal ‎Inggris di Indonesia dipegang oleh Sir Thomas Raffles. Setelah jatuhnya Napoleon ‎dan berakhirnya pendudukan Belanda oleh Perancis, Belanda dan Inggris ‎menandatangani sebuah konvesi di London pada tahun 1814, yang berisi ‎pengembalian wilayah kolonial Belanda yang didapatnya sejak tahun 1803. Dua ‎tahun kemudian, Sumatera pun kembali jatuh ke tangan Belanda. Selama waktu ‎itu, rakyat Indonesia dengan gigih berjuang melawan penjajahan Belanda, namun ‎selalu mengalami kegagalan, sampai akhirnya berhasil merdeka pada tahun 1945.‎

Pencetus Hadiah Nobel Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 10 Desember 1896, Alferd Bernhard Nobel, ahli kimia dari Swedia ‎meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan tahun 1833 dan pada usia remaja ia berhijrah ke ‎Rusia. Setelah bertahun-tahun melakukan riset dibidang kimia, akhirnya Nobel ‎pada tahun 1867 berhasil menemukan dinamit. Bahan ini tidak digunakan untuk ‎perdamaian, tapi digunakan sebagai peralatan militer untuk berperang. Oleh ‎karena itu Nobel mengusulkan untuk memberikan penghargaan kepada mereka ‎yang berusaha menciptakan perdamaian. Penghargaan ini diberikan setiap tahun ‎di bidang, Kimia, Fisika, Kedokteran, Sastra dan Perdamaian dunia kepada ilmuan ‎yang berusaha menciptakan perdamaian dan kemajuan sains. Penghargaan ini ‎diberi nama sesuai penggagas pertamanya yaitu Nobel. Maka terkenallah ‎penghargaan tersebut dengan nama Hadiah Nobel. Akibat tekanan sejumlah ‎kekuatan besar dunia, kini mekanisme penentuan pemenang hadiah nobel ‎ditentukan oleh mereka. Malah di sebagian kesempatan hadiah nobel telah jauh ‎dari tujuan utamanya.‎

Deklarasi HAM Disahkan PBB
Tanggal 10 Desember 1948, Deklarasi Hak Asasi Manusia disahkan oleh Majelis ‎Umum PBB. Ide tentang hak asasi manusia yang berlaku saat ini berakar sejak era ‎Perang Dunia II. Pembunuhan dan kerusakan dahsyat yang ditimbulkan Perang ‎Dunia II menggugah suatu kebulatan tekad untuk membangun sebuah organisasi ‎internasional yang sanggup meredakan krisis internasional serta menyediakan ‎suatu forum untuk diskusi dan mediasi. Organisasi ini adalah Perserikatan Bangsa-‎Bangsa (PBB), yang telah memainkan peran utama dalam pengembangan ‎pandangan kontemporer tentang hak asasi manusia.‎
Para pendiri PBB yakin bahwa pengurangan kemungkinan perang mensyaratkan ‎adanya pencegahan atas pelanggaran besar-besaran terhadap hak-hak manusia. ‎PBB kemudian menugaskan Komisi Hak Asasi Manusia untuk menulis sebuah ‎pernyataan internasional tentang hak asasi manusia. Deklarasi Universal Hak ‎Asasi Manusia ini diumumkan sebagai "suatu standar pencapaian yang berlaku ‎umum untuk semua rakyat dan semua negara" . Namun, dalam pelaksanaannya, ‎HAM malah dijadikan alat bagi negara-negara Barat untuk menekan negara-negara ‎independen dunia di bidang politik dan ekonomi dalam rangka memperluas ‎pengaruh imperialisme mereka. Kini banyak negara-negara yang menyuarakan ‎agar diadakan perubahan isi Deklarasi HAM yang tidak sesuai dengan keyakinan, ‎kebudayaan, dan adat istiadat mereka, demi mencegah penggunaan HAM untuk ‎menekan mereka.‎

11 Desember
Alfred De Musset Lahir

Tanggal 11 Desember 1810, Alfred De Musset, seorang penyair dan penulis ‎naskah drama terkenal Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. De Musset adalah penulis ‎drama modern pertama dalam bahasa Perancis. Alfred de Musset memulai ‎karirnya di bidang syair dan drama sejak tahun 1828 dan pada tahun 1829, ‎terbitlah kumpulan puisi pertamanya. Pada tahun berikutnya, ia menulis La Nuit ‎Venetienne, karya drama pertamanya namun karyanya ini mendapat penghinaan ‎ketika dipentaskan. Sejak tahun 1840-an, karya-karya dramanya meraih ‎kesuksesan di pentas-pentas drama Perancis. Atas karya-karyanya yang dianggap ‎bernilai tinggi, akhirnya pada tahun 1852, De Musset diangkat sebagai anggota ‎Akademi Perancis. De Musset meninggal dunia tahun 1857.‎

UNICEF Didirikan
Tanggal 11 Desember 1946, berdirilah United Nations Children's Fund atau ‎UNICEF. Pendirian Organisasi Dana Anak-Anak PBB ini awalnya bertujuan untuk ‎menggalang dana bagi menolong anak-anak Eropa yang kelaparan dan terkena ‎penyakit setelah Perang Dunia II, serta menyediakan makanan, pakaian, dan obat-‎obatan bagi mereka. Kini, UNICEF memperluas kegiatannya untuk memberantas ‎kemiskinan, kekerasan, penyakit, dan diskriminasi terhadap anak-anak sedunia. ‎UNICEF melakukan aktivitasnya di lebih 150 negara dunia dan berpusat di New ‎York.‎

Rusia Mulai Menyerang Chechen

Tanggal 11 Desember 1994, Rusia memulai serangannya terhadap Republik ‎Chechnya. Serangan ini dilancarkan Rusia karena proklamasi kemerdekaan yang ‎dilakukan oleh bangsa Chechnya atau Chechen ini. Etnis Chechnya adalah salah ‎satu di antara sekian banyak etnis di kawasan Kaukasus yang kemudian dikuasai ‎oleh Uni Soviet. Namun, setelah bubarnya Uni Soviet, Rusia berniat menguasai ‎daerah Chechnya yang kaya minyak itu dan menolak proklamasi kemerdekaan ‎bangsa itu. ‎
Bangsa Chechnya telah tertindas sejak lama. Pada era Perang Dunia II, bangsa ‎Chechnya dituduh oleh Stalin telah bekerja sama dengan Jerman. Pada 23 ‎Februari 1944, Tentara Merah masuk ke Chechnya dan memulai pembersihan ‎etnis. Negeri itu dikosongkan dan penduduknya dipindahkan ke berbagai penjuru ‎Asia Tengah. Di daerah-daerah permukiman baru yang suhunya bisa mencapai -‎‎400C, para pengungsi itu dibiarkan hidup papa. Mereka juga dituduh "menyebarkan ‎kegiatan Islam", "mendirikan masjid-masjid baru", dan "memelihara tradisi ‎reaksioner". Paling tidak 425.000 orang dipindahkan dan setiap anggota keluarga ‎hanya diizinkan membawa barang 20 kilogram, sisanya ditinggalkan begitu saja. ‎Sekitar separuh dari jumlah itu tewas di pengungsian. Tapi, ada juga yang lahir, ‎atau besar, di perantauan yang penuh azab itu. Di antaranya terdapat Ruslan ‎Khasbulatov, yang kelak menjadi ketua parlemen Chechnya. Satunya lagi adalah ‎Dzhokar Dudayev, yang sempat mencapai pangkat jenderal dalam Angkatan Udara ‎Soviet. Dudayev menjadi presiden Chechnya hingga November 1994. Ia terluka, ‎kemudian tewas, oleh roket Rusia. Setelah Dudayev tewas, perjuangan diteruskan ‎oleh Aslan Maskhadov, Ruslan Gelayev, Abu Movsayev, dan kini, oleh Shamil ‎Basayev.‎
Perang Chechnya pertama berlangsung sejak tahun 1994 hingga 1996. Rusia ‎kalah telak dalam perang ini dan secara memalukan keluar dari wilayah Chechnya. ‎Rusia pun sepakat memberikan status otonomi kepada Chechnya. Namun, pada ‎tahun 1999, Rusia kembali menyerang Chechnya dan hingga kini perang terus ‎berlangsung. Alexander Solzhenitsyin, seorang pengarang pembangkang Rusia ‎dan penerima anugerah Nobel, pernah berkata, "Hanya satu bangsa yang secara ‎utuh berhasil menolak psikologi ketaklukan dan itulah bangsa Chechen."‎

12 Desember
Marco Polo Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 12 Desember tahun 1323, Marco Polo, seorang petualang dan penulis ‎Italia, meninggal dunia. Ayahnya adalah seorang pedagang dan pada usianya ke-‎‎17, Marco Polo telah mengikuti ayahnya melakukan perjalanan bisnis ke berbagai ‎kawasan, di antaranya ke Cina. Marco Polo dan ayahnya tiba di Cina pada tahun ‎‎1275, dan mereka menjadi orang Eropa pertama yang datang ke wilayah itu. Marco ‎Polo tinggal di Cina hingga tahun 1292 dan bahkan diangkat sebagai gubernur ‎Yangchow selama tiga tahun. ‎
Karya tulis Marco Polo, yaitu "The Travels of Marco Polo" yang pertama kali ‎diterbitkan di Perancis, adalah buku catatan perjalanan yang paling terkenal dan ‎paling berpengaruh dalam sejarah. Buku ini secara amat detail memberikan ‎informasi pertama kepada bangsa Eropa abad pertengahan mengenai Cina, Siam, ‎Jepang, Jawa, Srilanka, Tibet, India, dan Burma. Selama kurun waktu yang cukup ‎lama, buku karya Marco Polo ini menjadi satu-satunya sumber rujukan bangsa ‎Eropa mengenai geografi dan kehidupan di Timur Jauh. Buku ini juga menjadi ‎basis dari penyusunan peta Asia akurat pertama yang dibuat di Eropa. Lebih jauh ‎lagi, buku ini memberi inspirasi kepada Columbus untuk bertualang ke timur ‎sampai akhirnya menemukan Amerika pada tahun 1442.‎

Pengiriman Pesan dengan Gelombang Radio Pertama
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Tanggal 12 Desember tahun 1901, untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah ‎komunikasi, berhasil dilakukan pengiriman pesan lewat gelombang radio dari dua ‎tempat berjarak 2000 kilometer. Keberhasilan ini terjadi berkat usaha seorang ‎pemuda Italia bernama Guglielmo Marconi, yang menciptakan sebuah alat ‎penerima dan pengirim pesan melalui gelombang radio. Marconi dilahirkan di Italia ‎dan di sana ia memulai eksperimennya. Dia berhasil memindahkan sinyal radio dari ‎rumah ke rumah. Kemudian ia pindah ke London dan meneruskan eksperimennya ‎itu. Penemuannya itu kemudian dipatenkan dan ia mendirikan perusahaan di ‎bidang komunikasi yang hingga kini terus berdiri. Marconi menerima hadiah Nobel ‎tahun 1909.‎

Kenya Merdeka

Tanggal 12 Desember 1963, Kenya meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris dan hari ‎ini dijadikan Hari Nasional Kenya. Sejak abad ke-8, Kenya sudah menjadi koloni ‎bangsa Arab. Portugis datang ke Kenya pada abad ke-15 dan kemudian sejak ‎tahun 1895, Inggris menjajah wilayah itu. Sejak tahun 1950-an, rakyat Kenya mulai ‎bangkit melawan penjajahan Inggris dengan dipimpin oleh Jomo Kenyatta. Setelah ‎Kenya berhasil merebut kemerdekaannya, Jomo Kenyatta terpilih sebagai perdana ‎menteri dan setahun kemudian dia diangkat sebagai presiden. Dalam ‎perkembangan selanjutnya, Kenya selalu didera perang dengan negara tetangga, ‎konflik internal, dan bencana alam. Negara ini memiliki hasil bumi yang kaya, di ‎antaranya minyak, emas, batu akik, dan safir.‎