'We have no experience in stopping a nuclear war.' - Sidney Drell (no replies)        
'..My greatest concern is the lack of public awareness about this existential threat, the absence of a vigorous public debate about the nuclear-war plans of Russia and the United States, the silent consent to the roughly fifteen thousand nuclear weapons in the world. These machines have been carefully and ingeniously designed to kill us. Complacency increases the odds that, some day, they will. The “Titanic Effect” is a term used by software designers to explain how things can quietly go wrong in a complex technological system: the safer you assume the system to be, the more dangerous it is becoming.'

'The harsh rhetoric on both sides increases the danger of miscalculations and mistakes, as do other factors. Close encounters between the military aircraft of the United States and Russia have become routine, creating the potential for an unintended conflict. Many of the nuclear-weapon systems on both sides are aging and obsolete. The personnel who operate those systems often suffer from poor morale and poor training. None of their senior officers has firsthand experience making decisions during an actual nuclear crisis. And today’s command-and-control systems must contend with threats that barely existed during the Cold War: malware, spyware, worms, bugs, viruses, corrupted firmware, logic bombs, Trojan horses, and all the other modern tools of cyber warfare. The greatest danger is posed not by any technological innovation but by a dilemma that has haunted nuclear strategy since the first detonation of an atomic bomb: How do you prevent a nuclear attack while preserving the ability to launch one?


..the Cuban Missile Crisis, when a series of misperceptions, miscalculations, and command-and-control problems almost started an accidental nuclear war—despite the determination of both John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev to avoid one. In perhaps the most dangerous incident, the captain of a Soviet submarine mistakenly believed that his vessel was under attack by U.S. warships and ordered the firing of a torpedo armed with a nuclear warhead. His order was blocked by a fellow officer. Had the torpedo been fired, the United States would have retaliated with nuclear weapons. At the height of the crisis, while leaving the White House on a beautiful fall evening, McNamara had a strong feeling of dread—and for good reason: “I feared I might never live to see another Saturday night.”


The personnel who command, operate, and maintain the Minuteman III have also become grounds for concern. In 2013, the two-star general in charge of the entire Minuteman force was removed from duty after going on a drunken bender during a visit to Russia, behaving inappropriately with young Russian women, asking repeatedly if he could sing with a Beatles cover band at a Mexican restaurant in Moscow, and insulting his military hosts. The following year, almost a hundred Minuteman launch officers were disciplined for cheating on their proficiency exams. In 2015, three launch officers at Malmstrom Air Force Base, in Montana, were dismissed for using illegal drugs, including ecstasy, cocaine, and amphetamines. That same year, a launch officer at Minot Air Force Base, in North Dakota, was sentenced to twenty-five years in prison for heading a violent street gang, distributing drugs, sexually assaulting a girl under the age of sixteen, and using psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen. As the job title implies, launch officers are entrusted with the keys for launching intercontinental ballistic missiles.


..A recent memoir, “Uncommon Cause,” written by General George Lee Butler, reveals that the Pentagon was not telling the truth. Butler was the head of the U.S. Strategic Command, responsible for all of America’s nuclear weapons, during the Administration of President George H. W. Bush.

According to Butler and Franklin Miller, a former director of strategic-forces policy at the Pentagon, launch-on-warning was an essential part of the Single Integrated Operational Plan (siop), the nation’s nuclear-war plan. Land-based missiles like the Minuteman III were aimed at some of the most important targets in the Soviet Union, including its anti-aircraft sites. If the Minuteman missiles were destroyed before liftoff, the siop would go awry, and American bombers might be shot down before reaching their targets. In order to prevail in a nuclear war, the siop had become dependent on getting Minuteman missiles off the ground immediately. Butler’s immersion in the details of the nuclear command-and-control system left him dismayed. “With the possible exception of the Soviet nuclear war plan, [the siop] was the single most absurd and irresponsible document I had ever reviewed in my life,” Butler concluded. “We escaped the Cold War without a nuclear holocaust by some combination of skill, luck, and divine intervention, and I suspect the latter in greatest proportion.” The siop called for the destruction of twelve thousand targets within the Soviet Union. Moscow would be struck by four hundred nuclear weapons; Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, by about forty.

After the end of the Cold War, a Russian surprise attack became extremely unlikely. Nevertheless, hundreds of Minuteman III missiles remained on alert. The Cold War strategy endured because, in theory, it deterred a Russian attack on the missiles. McNamara called the policy “insane,” arguing that “there’s no military requirement for it.” George W. Bush, while running for President in 2000, criticized launch-on-warning, citing the “unacceptable risks of accidental or unauthorized launch.” Barack Obama, while running for President in 2008, promised to take Minuteman missiles off alert, warning that policies like launch-on-warning “increase the risk of catastrophic accidents or miscalculation.” Twenty scientists who have won the Nobel Prize, as well as the Union of Concerned Scientists, have expressed strong opposition to retaining a launch-on-warning capability. It has also been opposed by former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, former Secretary of State George Shultz, and former Senator Sam Nunn. And yet the Minuteman III missiles still sit in their silos today, armed with warheads, ready to go.

William J. Perry, who served as Secretary of Defense during the Clinton Administration, not only opposes keeping Minuteman III missiles on alert but advocates getting rid of them entirely. “These missiles are some of the most dangerous weapons in the world,” Perry wrote in the Times, this September. For many reasons, he thinks the risk of a nuclear catastrophe is greater today than it was during the Cold War. While serving as an Under-Secretary of Defense in 1980, Perry also received a late-night call about an impending Soviet attack, a false alarm that still haunts him. “A catastrophic nuclear war could have started by accident.”

Bruce Blair, a former Minuteman launch officer, heads the anti-nuclear group Global Zero, teaches at Princeton University, and campaigns against a launch-on-warning policy. Blair has described the stresses that the warning of a Russian attack would put on America’s command-and-control system. American early-warning satellites would detect Russian missiles within three minutes of their launch. Officers at norad would confer for an additional three minutes, checking sensors to decide if an attack was actually occurring. The Integrated Tactical Warning/Attack System collects data from at least two independent information sources, relying on different physical principles, such as ground-based radar and satellite-based infrared sensors. If the norad officials thought that the warning was legitimate, the President of the United States would be contacted. He or she would remove the Black Book from a briefcase carried by a military aide. The Black Book describes nuclear retaliatory options, presented in cartoon-like illustrations that can be quickly understood.


Although the Air Force publicly dismissed the threat of a cyberattack on the nuclear command-and-control system, the incident raised alarm within the Pentagon about the system’s vulnerability. A malfunction that occurred by accident might also be caused deliberately. Those concerns were reinforced by a Defense Science Board report in January, 2013. It found that the Pentagon’s computer networks had been “built on inherently insecure architectures that are composed of, and increasingly using, foreign parts.” Red teams employed by the board were able to disrupt Pentagon systems with “relative ease,” using tools available on the Internet. “The complexity of modern software and hardware makes it difficult, if not impossible, to develop components without flaws or to detect malicious insertions,” the report concluded.

In a recent paper for the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, Andrew Futter, an associate professor at the University of Leicester, suggested that a nuclear command-and-control system might be hacked to gather intelligence about the system, to shut down the system, to spoof it, mislead it, or cause it to take some sort of action—like launching a missile. And, he wrote, there are a variety of ways it might be done.


Strict precautions have been taken to thwart a cyberattack on the U.S. nuclear command-and-control system. Every line of nuclear code has been scrutinized for errors and bugs. The system is “air-gapped,” meaning that its networks are closed: someone can’t just go onto the Internet and tap into a computer at a Minuteman III control center. At least, that’s the theory. Russia, China, and North Korea have sophisticated cyber-warfare programs and techniques. General James Cartwright—the former head of the U.S. Strategic Command who recently pleaded guilty to leaking information about Stuxnet—thinks that it’s reasonable to believe the system has already been penetrated. “You’ve either been hacked, and you’re not admitting it, or you’re being hacked and don’t know it,” Cartwright said last year.

If communications between Minuteman control centers and their missiles are interrupted, the missiles can still be launched by ultra-high-frequency radio signals transmitted by special military aircraft. The ability to launch missiles by radio serves as a backup to the control centers—and also creates an entry point into the network that could be exploited in a cyberattack. The messages sent within the nuclear command-and-control system are highly encrypted. Launch codes are split in two, and no single person is allowed to know both parts. But the complete code is stored in computers—where it could be obtained or corrupted by an insider.

Some of America’s most secret secrets were recently hacked and stolen by a couple of private contractors working inside the N.S.A., Edward Snowden and Harold T. Martin III, both employees of Booz Allen Hamilton. The N.S.A. is responsible for generating and encrypting the nuclear launch codes. And the security of the nuclear command-and-control system is being assured not only by government officials but also by the employees of private firms, including software engineers who work for Boeing, Amazon, and Microsoft.

Lord Des Browne, a former U.K. Minister of Defense, is concerned that even ballistic-missile submarines may be compromised by malware. Browne is now the vice-chairman of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a nonprofit seeking to reduce the danger posed by weapons of mass destruction, where he heads a task force examining the risk of cyberattacks on nuclear command-and-control systems. Browne thinks that the cyber threat is being cavalierly dismissed by many in power. The Royal Navy’s decision to save money by using Windows for Submarines, a version of Windows XP, as the operating system for its ballistic-missile subs seems especially shortsighted. Windows XP was discontinued six years ago, and Microsoft warned that any computer running it after April, 2014, “should not be considered protected as there will be no security updates.” Each of the U.K. subs has eight missiles carrying a total of forty nuclear weapons. “It is shocking to think that my home computer is probably running a newer version of Windows than the U.K.’s military submarines,” Brown said.In 2013, General C. Robert Kehler, the head of the U.S. Strategic Command, testified before the Senate Armed Services Committee about the risk of cyberattacks on the nuclear command-and-control system. He expressed confidence that the U.S. system was secure. When Senator Bill Nelson asked if somebody could hack into the Russian or Chinese systems and launch a ballistic missile carrying a nuclear warhead, Kehler replied, “Senator, I don’t know . . . I do not know.”

After the debacle of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Soviet Union became much more reluctant to provoke a nuclear confrontation with the United States. Its politburo was a committee of conservative old men. Russia’s leadership is quite different today. The current mix of nationalism, xenophobia, and vehement anti-Americanism in Moscow is a far cry from the more staid and secular ideology guiding the Soviet Union in the nineteen-eighties. During the past few years, threats about the use of nuclear weapons have become commonplace in Moscow. Dmitry Kiselyov, a popular newscaster and the Kremlin’s leading propagandist, reminded viewers in 2014 that Russia is “the only country in the world capable of turning the U.S.A. into radioactive dust.” The Kremlin has acknowledged the development of a nuclear torpedo that can travel more than six thousand miles underwater before devastating a coastal city. It has also boasted about a fearsome new missile design. Nicknamed “Satan 2” and deployed with up to sixteen nuclear warheads, the missile will be “capable of wiping out parts of the earth the size of Texas or France,” an official news agency claimed.


Russia’s greatest strategic vulnerability is the lack of a sophisticated and effective early-warning system. The Soviet Union had almost a dozen satellites in orbit that could detect a large-scale American attack. The system began to deteriorate in 1996, when an early-warning satellite had to be retired. Others soon fell out of orbit, and Russia’s last functional early-warning satellite went out of service two years ago. Until a new network of satellites can be placed in orbit, the country must depend on ground-based radar units. Unlike the United States, Russia no longer has two separate means of validating an attack warning. At best, the radar units can spot warheads only minutes before they land. Pavel Podvig, a senior fellow at the U.N. Institute for Disarmament Research, believes that Russia does not have a launch-on-warning policy—because its early-warning system is so limited.

For the past nine years, I’ve been immersed in the minutiae of nuclear command and control, trying to understand the actual level of risk. Of all the people whom I’ve met in the nuclear realm, Sidney Drell was one of the most brilliant and impressive. Drell died this week, at the age of ninety. A theoretical physicist with expertise in quantum field theory and quantum chromodynamics, he was for many years the deputy director of the Stanford Linear Accelerator and received the National Medal of Science from Obama, in 2013. Drell was one of the founding members of jason—a group of civilian scientists that advises the government on important technological matters—and for fifty-six years possessed a Q clearance, granting him access to the highest level of classified information. Drell participated in top-secret discussions about nuclear strategy for decades, headed a panel that investigated nuclear-weapon safety for the U.S. Congress in 1990, and worked on technical issues for jason until the end of his life. A few months ago, when I asked for his opinion about launch-on-warning, Drell said, “It’s insane, the worst thing I can think of. You can’t have a worse idea.”

Drell was an undergraduate at Princeton University when Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed. Given all the close calls and mistakes in the seventy-one years since then, he considered it a miracle that no other cities have been destroyed by a nuclear weapon—“it is so far beyond my normal optimism.” The prospect of a new cold war—and the return of military strategies that advocate using nuclear weapons on the battlefield—deeply unnerved him. Once the first nuclear weapon detonates, nothing might prevent the conflict from spiralling out of control. “We have no experience in stopping a nuclear war,” he said.


Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin confront a stark choice: begin another nuclear-arms race or reduce the threat of nuclear war. Trump now has a unique opportunity to pursue the latter, despite the bluster and posturing on both sides. His admiration for Putin, regardless of its merits, could provide the basis for meaningful discussions about how to minimize nuclear risks. Last year, General James Mattis, the former Marine chosen by Trump to serve as Secretary of Defense, called for a fundamental reappraisal of American nuclear strategy and questioned the need for land-based missiles. During Senate testimony, Mattis suggested that getting rid of such missiles would “reduce the false-alarm danger.” Contrary to expectations, Republican Presidents have proved much more successful than their Democratic counterparts at nuclear disarmament. President George H. W. Bush cut the size of the American arsenal in half, as did his son, President George W. Bush. And President Ronald Reagan came close to negotiating a treaty with the Soviet Union that would have completely abolished nuclear weapons.

Every technology embodies the values of the age in which it was created. When the atomic bomb was being developed in the mid-nineteen-forties, the destruction of cities and the deliberate targeting of civilians was just another military tactic. It was championed as a means to victory. The Geneva Conventions later classified those practices as war crimes—and yet nuclear weapons have no other real use. They threaten and endanger noncombatants for the sake of deterrence. Conventional weapons can now be employed to destroy every kind of military target, and twenty-first-century warfare puts an emphasis on precision strikes, cyberweapons, and minimizing civilian casualties. As a technology, nuclear weapons have become obsolete. What worries me most isn’t the possibility of a cyberattack, a technical glitch, or a misunderstanding starting a nuclear war sometime next week. My greatest concern is the lack of public awareness about this existential threat, the absence of a vigorous public debate about the nuclear-war plans of Russia and the United States, the silent consent to the roughly fifteen thousand nuclear weapons in the world. These machines have been carefully and ingeniously designed to kill us. Complacency increases the odds that, some day, they will. The “Titanic Effect” is a term used by software designers to explain how things can quietly go wrong in a complex technological system: the safer you assume the system to be, the more dangerous it is becoming.'

- Eric Schlosser, World War Three, By Mistake, December 23, 2016


The International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

          New nanostructured device boosts infrared spectroscopy        
Flash: More efficient light trapping means greater molecular sensitivity.
          Possible Evidence for Re-regulation of HPA Axis and Brain Reward Systems Over Time in Treatment in Prescription Opioid-Dependent Patients        
imageObjectives: There is growing evidence for a neuroadaptive model underlying vulnerability to relapse in opioid dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical measures hypothesized to mirror elements of allostatic dysregulation in patients dependent on prescription opioids at 2 time points after withdrawal, compared with healthy control participants. Methods: Recently withdrawn (n = 7) prescription opioid-dependent patients were compared with the patients in supervised residential care for 2 to 3 months (extended care; n = 7) and healthy controls (n = 7) using drug cue reactivity, affect-modulated startle response tasks, salivary cortisol, and 8 days of sleep actigraphy. Prefrontal cortex was monitored with functional near-infrared spectroscopy during the cue reactivity task. Results: Startle response results indicated reduced hedonic response to natural rewards among patients recently withdrawn from opioids relative to extended care patients. The recently withdrawn patients showed increased activation to pill stimuli in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to extended care patients. Cortisol levels were elevated among recently withdrawn patients and intermediate for extended care relative to healthy controls. Actigraphy indicated disturbed sleep between recently withdrawn patients and extended care patients; extended care patients were similar to controls. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation to drug and natural reward cues, startle responses to natural reward cues, day-time cortisol levels, time in bed, and total time spent sleeping were all correlated with the number of days since last drug use (ie, time in supervised residential treatment). Conclusions: These results suggest possible re-regulation of dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain reward systems in prescription opioid-dependent patients over the drug-free period in residential treatment.
          CD-i 180 experimentation        
Early this week, CDinteractive.co.uk forum user Erroneous came by and we spent an interesting evening taking apart our CDI 18x units and figuring out serial ports.

Whereas my set consists of a CDI 180/37 and a CDI 181/37 unit, his set is the full 180/181/182 ensemble with the added bonus of supporting 220V power. I was not previously aware that such units even existed, but it turns out he has a 180/20 + 181/20 + 182/00 combination.

I’ve taken some photographs from his set, both intact and in various dismantled states, and these can be found here on the CD-i Emulator website. Nothing particularly surprising except for the small size ROM in the 182 unit, it’s only a pair of 27C512 chips which hold 32 KB each for a total of only 64 KB!

Erroneous sold me his spare CD-i 180 remote unit and serial port adapter so I now have a mostly functioning CD-i 180 set. Unfortunately, it turns out that my 180 CD drive unit has problems so I cannot play actual discs, but the set works fine using the E1 Emulator.

It turned out that his set, however, has some defect in the 181 MMC unit which prevents it from reading discs, either from the 180 CD drive or from the E1 Emulator. Using my 181 and his 180 and 182 units we managed to get a fully working set, albeit running on mixed 120V / 220V wall power!

Because at first we couldn’t get a working command prompt on the serial port of his 182 unit, he undertook to solder a spare DB9 connector to the 181/182 interconnection bus, based on the pinout of the serial adapter which attaches to that same bus (which matches the pinout I had previously figured out by tracing the circuit board). This gave output but not a working command prompt either.

It finally turned out to be a feature of the OS9 System Disk that we were using; it boots properly when you select “Floppy Application” from the “System” menu, but it’s final step starts a command prompt for the /term device and it turns out there is no such device in the 180 player. It has three (!) serial port devices but they are named /t0, /t01 and /t2 (see below) whereas the 60x players for which this disk was apparently intended do have a /term device. On the 180, avoiding the startup script by choosing “System” / “CD-RTOS” works fine however.

When we figured this out, we could get a command line prompt on either serial port, the ROMs are smart enough to select the device where a terminal is actually connected.

We confirmed that the serial I/O chip in the 182 unit is indeed an 68681 chip as I previously suspected, which supports two serial port devices of which only one has a connector on the outside of the unit. The connected device is supported with the /t0 device name, the unconnected one uses /t01. In addition to the 68070 built-in serial port this means that the 181+182 combination actually has three serial ports, but the usual hardware setup makes only one of them accessible at a time (connecting the units uses up the interconnection bus which means that the serial adapter cannot be connected at the same time).

At this point, it was getting late and Erroneous departed for home, graciously allowing me to temporarily borrow his 18x set for some more experimentation and dumping.

When the serial port allowed me to take look inside the running 180 player, it turned out that the four ROMs that I previously dumped were not in fact co-located in the address space. The “system” ROM pair lives at $180000 as expected but on Maxi-MMC it is only 256 KB; the other 256 KB ROM pair lives at $700000 (I’ve called it the “asset” ROM because it contains only a font and pictures). Leaving out the asset ROM inside CD-i Emulator gives a working player but without any background images or buttons, just the text over a black background. You can still start a CD-i application of play a CD-Audio disc, though...

Another small factoid is that the 182 ROM contains a single picture ps_child.dyuv that at first appears to be a revised version of the identically-named one in the 181 ROM, but both pictures are bitwise identical except for the module edition number and CRC. Weird...

Dumping the ROMs of Erroneous’s 181 set turned up nothing new; they are bitwise identical to the ones from my own unit (not really surprising as both units have big “1.1” stickers on the back which signifies the “final” ROM update that all Philips 18x players received shortly before the market introduction of CD-i).

Having the 182 unit ROMs I have now extended CD-i Emulator to also support the two additional serial ports, even though the second of these is not usable on the actual player! The floppy controller and the parallel and SCSI port remain for the future.

Later this week I also took apart my new CD-i 180 remote unit, which can be used over infrared but also supports a cable connection (I’ll need to make my own cable). Pictures of this are on my site here. I suspected that the interconnection would use the I2C protocol and this indeed turned out to be the case. The unit contains another 84C21 mask-programmable microprocessor labeled “REMOCON Ver. 2.0” and its I2C SDA and SCLK pins are more or less directly connected to the cable connector, which also has RESET, GND and +5V power connections. This should allow me to connect any home-brewn pointing device over I2C.

From a bit of running system and driver inspection I also found out some more details about the bus locations of the floppy and SCSI controller chips in the 182 unit. There are two surprisingly empty ROM sockets on the SCSI extension board that are probably intended for SCSI driver and application software; except for booting support the other ROMs contain none of this.

With the information learned so far I have expanded the cditypes.rul file with CD-i 180 ROM recognition and put it in the CD-i Types section of the site.

Having two working floppy drives also allowed me to review my CD-i floppy collection and most of those appear to be perfectly readable; they may yet turn out to contain something interesting.
          CD-i 180 disc playing        
After a few hours of tweaking I’ve gotten CD-i 180 disc playing working in CD-i Emulator. Most of the time was spent on basic disassembly of the driver, which is very similar to the CD-i 605 version (but missing some features such as multi-session support and seek delay). Not very surprising as both players use the same CDIC chip, although they are supposedly different versions.

The problems were really quite trivial but there are of course complications...

The first problem turned out to be a memory map issue. On all CD-i players that I’ve encountered so far, a memory map chunk size of 128 KB works fine because memory from different devices (whether general purpose RAM or device-specific memory such as NVRAM and CDIC local memory) never lives inside the same 128 KB chunk of address space. On the CD-i 180 this is not true, as can be seen from the following fragment of maximmc.brd:
$00300000   cdic.dev     level=4
$00310000 nvr.dev
My code silently overwrote the CDIC mapping with the NVR mapping which meant that any access to CDIC local memory terminated in a bus error. Needless to say, this was not conducive to disc playback. Simply lowering the memory map chunk size to 64 KB fixed this problem.

Next it turned out that during initialization the cdap18x driver wants to do some kind of data transfer to address $320001, possibly DSP parameters or something, and there was no device there yet. This was easily fixed also.

At this point the disc play got started but the interrupt routine ignored all interrupts. After inspecting the driver it turned out that the CD-i 180 expects an additional status bit to be set in the DBUF register that was never used on other CD-i players with a CDIC. Still easy to fix.

Now the interrupt routine started trying to process the sector but it got bus errors in two places. It attempted to read the FILE selection register, which other CD-i players never did, and it took the buffer index bits (these specify the DMA buffer the hardware used from the sector) from a previously unimplemented register that I’ve dubbed DSEL for now. Easy fixes galore...

After this one sector got properly transferred to memory but an unending stream of interrupts hung up the player. It turns out that the CD-i 180 ROMs don’t read the CDIC XBUF register that CD-i Emulator used to clear the interrupt. Generating and clearing the interrupt from the DBUF register fixed that also, and now the disc actually started playing!

Of course I did some tests next and there are currently three known problems:

- Reads of the disc table-of-contents (TOC) take ages, probably because the ROMs are checking for or waiting on some flag or data byte that CD-i Emulator currently doesn’t provide. This should not be very hard to fix.

- Audio playback from memory doesn’t work, the symptoms are very similar to those of the audio sync issues that occurred during the MESS collaboration in 2009. This may be a hard problem to crack.

- And finally the most hairy issue: the CDIC emulation modifications break other players. The breakage is often subtle but very definitely there so I will have to do some careful juggling to get it working on all players, if necessary by explicit version checking but I hope to avoid that. The hardware should not be that dissimilar, really...

On the serial port and pointing device front, I’ve found someone who has a surplus serial port interface and an infrared remote. He also has a complete CD-i 180 set (including the CDI 182 unit) and I’m looking forward to extracting the ROMs from that one also.

He also took apart his mouse and it seems to be a fairly standard Amiga design which means that it should not be very hard to manufacture a replacement.

I’ve been looking into making a small PIC-based interface for PS2 and/or CD-i peripherals and it may still come to that but it seems to be not as necessary as I thought.
          CD-i 180 internals        
In the previous post I promised some ROM and chip finds. Well, here goes. To understand some of the details, you'll need some microprocessor and/or digital electronics knowledge, but even without that the gist of the text should be understandable.

The CDI 181 MMC unit contains the so-called Maxi-MMC board that is not used in any other CD-i player. Its closest cousin is the Mini-MMC board that is used in the CD-i 605 and CD-i 220 F1 players (a derivative of it is used in the CD-i 350/360 players).

The Mini-MMC board uses two 68HC05 slave processors for CD and pointing device control (they are usually called SERVO and SLAVE). The Maxi-MMC board does not have these chips, but it does have two PCF80C21 slave processors labeled RSX and TRANSDUCER that perform similar functions.

From their locations on the board I surmise that the RSX performs CD control functions; I know for sure that the TRANSDUCER performs only pointing device control. The latter is connected to the main 68070 processor via an I2C bus (I've actually traced the connections); I'm not completely sure yet about the RSX.

In order to emulate the pointing devices in CD-i Emulator, I had to reverse engineer the I2C protocol spoken by the TRANSDUCER chip; this was mostly a question of disassembling the "ceniic" and "periic" drivers in the ROM. The first of these is the low-level driver that serves as the common control point for the I2C bus; the second is the high-level driver that is instantiated separately for each type of pointing device. The ROMs support three such devices: /cdikeys, /ptr and /ptr2, corresponding to the player control keys and first and second pointing devices (the first pointing device is probably shared between the infrared remote sensor and the left pointing device port). Both pointing devices support absolute (e.g. touchpad) as well as relative (e.g. mouse) positioning.

Note that there is no built-in support for a CD-i keyboard or modem (you could use a serial port for this purpose).

However, knowing the I2C protocol does not tell me the exact protocol of the pointing devices, which therefore brings me no closer to constructing a "pointing device" that works with the two front panel MiniDIN-9 connectors. Note that these connectors are physically different from the MiniDIN 8 pointing device connectors used on most other CD-i players. According to the Philips flyers, these connectors have 6 (presumably digital) input signals and a "strobe" (STB) output signal. From the signal names I can make some educated guesses about the probable functions of the signals, but some quick tests with the BTN1 and BTN2 inputs did not pan out and it could be too complicated to figure out without measurement of a connected and working pointing device.

There is, however, also an infrared remote sensor that is supposed to expect the RC5 infrared signal protocol. This protocol supports only 2048 separate functions (32 groups of 64 each) so it should not be impossible to figure out, given a suitably programmable RC5 remote control or in the best case a PC RC5 adapter. I've been thinking about building one of the latter.

There is also a third possibility of getting a working pointing device. Although the case label of the front MiniDIN 8 connecter is "CONTROL", the Philips flyers label it "IIC" which is another way of writing "I2C", although they don't give a pinout of the port. It seems plausible that the connector is connected to the I2C bus of the 68070, although I haven't been able to verify that yet (the multimeter finds no direct connections except GND, so some buffering must be involved). If there is indeed a connection, I would be able to externally connect to that bus and send and receive the I2C bus commands that I've already reverse engineered.

If even this doesn't work, I can always connect directly to the internal I2C bus, but that involves running three wires from inside the player to outside and I'm not very keen on that (yet, anyway).

Now, about the (so far) missing serial port. There is a driver for the 68070 on-chip UART in the ROMs (the u68070 driver which is accessible via the /t2 device), and the boot code actually writes a boot message to it (CD-i Emulator output):
  PHILIPS CD-I 181 - ROM version 23rd January, 1992.
Using CD_RTOS kernel edition $53 revison $00
At first I thought that the UART would be connected to the "CONTROL" port on the front, but that does not appear to be the case. Tonight I verified (by tracing PCB connections with my multimeter) that the 68070 serial pins are connected to the PCB connector on the right side (they go through a pair of SN75188/SN75189 chips and some protection resistors; these chips are well-known RS232 line drivers/receivers). I even know the actual PCB pins, so if I can find a suitable 100-pins 0.01" spaced double edge print connector I can actually wire up the serial port.

Now for the bad news, however: the ROMs do not contain a serial port download routine. They contain a host of other goodies (more below) but not this particular beast. There is also no pointing device support for this port, contrary to all other players, so connecting up the serial port would not immediately gain me anything, I still need a working pointing device to actually start a CD-i disc…

There are no drivers for other serial ports in the ROMs, but the boot code does contain some support for a UART chip at address $340001 (probably a 68681 DUART included in the CDI 182 unit which I don't have). The support, however, is limited to the output of boot messages although the ROMs will actually prefer this port over the 68070 on-chip device if they find it.

As is to be expected from a development and test player, there is an elaborate set of boot options, but they can only be used if the ROMs contain the signature "IMS-TC" at byte offset $400 (the ROMs in my player contains FF bytes at these locations). And even then the options prompt will not appear unless you press the space bar on your serial terminal during player reset.

However, adding a -bootprompt option that handles both the signature and the space bar press to CD-i Emulator was not hard, and if you use that option with the 180 ROMs the following appears when resetting the player:
  PHILIPS CD-I 181 - ROM version 23rd January, 1992.

A-Z = change option : <BSP> = clear options : <RETURN> = Boot Now

Boot options:- BQRS
As specified, you can change the options by typing letters and pressing Enter will start the boot process with the specified options.

From disassembling the boot code of the ROMs I've so far found the following options:

D = Download/Debug
F = Boot from Floppy
L = Apply options and present another options prompt (Loop)
M = Set NTSC Monitor mode
P = Set PAL mode
S = Set NTSC/PAL mode from switch
T = Set NTSC mode
W = Boot from SCSI disk (Winchester)

It could be that there's also a C option, and I've as yet not found any implementations of the Q and R options that the ROMs include in the default, but they could be hidden in OS-9 drivers instead of the boot code.

Once set, the options are saved in NVRAM at address $313FE0 as default for prompts during subsequent reboots, they are not used for reboots where the option prompt is not invoked.

Options D, F and W look interesting, but further investigation leads to the conclusion that they are mostly useless without additional hardware.

Pressing lower-case D followed by Enter / Enter results in the following:
Boot options:- BQRSd
Boot options:- BDQRS
Enter size of download area in hex - just RETURN for none
called debugger

Rel: 00000000
Dn: 00000000 0000E430 0007000A 00000000 00000000 00000001 FFFFE000 00000000
An: 00180B84 00180570 00313FE0 00410000 00002500 00000500 00001500 000014B0
SR: 2704 (--S--7-----Z--) SSP: 000014B0 USP: 00000000
PC: 00180D2E - 08020016 btst #$0016,d2
One might think that entering a download size would perform some kind of download (hopefully via the serial port) but that is not the case. The "download" code just looks at location $2500 in RAM that's apparently supposed to be already filled (presumably via an In-Circuit Emulator or something like it).

However, invoking the debugger is interesting in itself. It looks like the Microware low-level RomBug debugger that is described in the Microware documentation, although I haven't found it in any other CD-i players. One could "download" data with the change command:
debug: c0
00000000 00 : 1
00000001 00 : 2
00000002 15 : 3
00000003 00 :
Not very userfriendly but it could be done. The immediate catch is that it doesn't work with unmodified ROMs because of the "IMS-TC" signature check!

Trying the F option results in the following:
Boot options:- BQRSf
Boot options:- BFQRS
Booting from Floppy (WD 179x controller) - Please wait
This, however, needs the hardware in the CDI 182 set (it lives at $330001). I could emulate that in CD-i Emulator of course, but there's no real point at this time. It is interesting to note that the floppy controller in the CD-i 605 (which I haven't emulated either at this point) is a DP8473 which is register compatible with the uPD765A used in the original IBM PC but requires a totally different driver (it also lives at a different memory address, namely $282001).

Finally, trying the W options gives this:
Boot options:- BQRSw
Boot options:- BQRSW
Booting from RODIME RO 650 disk drive (NCR 5380 SCSI) - Please wait
Exception Error, vector offset $0008 addr $00181908
Fatal System Error; rebooting system
The hardware is apparently supposed to live at $410000 and presumably emulatable; it's identical or at least similar to the DP5380 chip that is found on the CD-i 605 extension board where it lives at $AA0000).

Some other things that I've found out:

The CDI 181 unit has 8 KB of NVRAM but it does not use the M48T08 chip that's in all other Philips players, it's just a piece of RAM that lives at $310000 (even addresses only) and is supported by the "nvdrv" driver via the /nvr device.

In the CD-i 180 player the timekeeping functions are instead performed by a RICOH RP5C15 chip, the driver is appropriately called "rp5c15".

And there is a separate changeable battery inside the case; no "dead NVRAM" problems with this player! I don't know when the battery in my player was last changed but at the moment it's still functioning and had not lost the date/time when I first powered it on just over a week ago.

The IC CARD slot at the front of the player is handled like just another piece of NVRAM; it uses the same "nvdrv" driver but a different device: /icard. According to the device descriptor it can hold 32 KB of data, I would love to have one of those!
          CD-i 180 adventures        
Over the last week I have been playing with the CD-i 180 player set. There’s lots to tell about, so this will be a series of blog posts, this being the first installment.

The CD-i 180 is the original CD-i player, manufactured jointly by Philips and Sony/Matsushita, and for a score of years it was the development and “reference” player. The newer CD-i 605 player provided a more modern development option but it did not become the “reference” player for quite some years after its introduction.

The CD-i 180 set is quite bulky, as could be expected for first-generation hardware. I have added a picture of my set to the Hardware section of the CD-i Emulator website; more fotos can be found here on the DutchAudioClassics.nl website (it’s the same player, as evidenced by the serial numbers).

The full set consists of the CDI 180 CD-i Player module, the CDI 181 Multimedia Controller or MMC module and the CDI 182 Expansion module. The modules are normally stacked on top of each other and have mechanical interlocks so they can be moved as a unit. Unfortunately, I do not have the CDI 182 Expansion module nor any user manuals; Philips brochures for the set can be found here on the ICDIA website.

Why am I interested in this dinosaur? It’s the first mass-produced CD-i player (granted, for relatively small masses), although there were presumably some earlier prototype players. As such, it contains the “original” hardware of the CD-i platform, which is interesting from both a historical and an emulation point of view.

For emulation purposes I have been trying to get hold of CD-i 180 ROMs for some years, there are several people that still have fully operational sets, but it hasn’t panned out yet. So when I saw a basic set for sale on the CD-Interactive forum I couldn’t resist the temptation. After some discussion and a little bartering with the seller I finally ordered the set about 10 days ago. Unfortunately, this set does not include a CDI 182 module or pointing device.

I had some reservations about this being a fully working set, but I figured that at least the ROM chips would probably be okay, if nothing else that would allow me to add support for this player type to CD-i Emulator.

In old hardware the mechanical parts are usually the first to fail, this being the CDI 180 CD-i Player module (which is really just a CD drive with a 44.1 kHz digital output “DO” signal). A workaround for this would be using an E1 or E2 Emulator unit; these are basically CD drive simulators that on one side read a CD-i disc image from a connected SCSI hard disk and on the other side output the 44.1 kHz digital output “DO” signal. Both the CDI 180 and E1/E2 units are controlled via a 1200 baud RS232 serial input “RS” signal.

From my CD-i developer days I have two sets of both Emulator types so I started taking these out of storage. For practical reasons I decided to use an E1 unit because it has an internal SCSI hard disk and I did not have a spare one lying around. I also dug out an old Windows 98 PC, required because the Philips/OptImage emulation software doesn’t work under Windows XP and newer, and one of my 605 players (I also have two of those). Connecting everything took me a while but I had carefully stored all the required cables as well and after installing the software I had a working configuration after an hour or so. The entire configuration made quite a bit of mechanical and fan noise; I had forgotten this about older hardware!

I had selected the 605 unit with the Gate Array AH02 board because I was having emulation problems with that board, and I proceeded to do some MPEG tests on it. It turns out the hardware allows for some things that my emulator currently does not, which means that I need to do some rethinking. Anyway, on with the 180 story.

In preparation for the arrival of the 180 set I next prepared an disc image of the “OS-9 Disc” that I created in November 1993 while working as a CD-i developer. This disc contains all the OS-9 command-line programs from Professional OS-9, some OS-9 and CD-i utilities supplied by Philips and Microware and some homegrown ones as well. With this disc you can get a fully functional command-line prompt on any CD-i player with a serial port, which is very useful while researching a CD-i player’s internals.

The Philips/Optimage emulation software requires the disc image files to include the 2-second gap before logical block zero of the CD-i track, which is not usually included in the .bin or .iso files produced by CD image tools. So I modified the CD-i File program to convert my existing os9disc.bin file by prepending the 2-second gap, in the process also adding support for scrambling and unscrambling the sector data.

Scrambling is the process of XORing all data bytes in a CD-ROM or CD-i sector with a “scramble pattern” that is designed to avoid many contiguous identical data bytes which can supposedly confuse the tracking mechanism of CD drives (or so I’ve heard). It turned out that scrambling of the image data was not required but it did allow me to verify that the CD-I File converted image of a test disc is in fact identical to the one that the Philips/Optimage mastering tools produce, except for the ECC/EDC bytes of the gap sectors which CD-I File doesn’t know how to generate (yet). Fortunately this turned out not to be a problem, I could emulate the converted image just fine.

Last Thursday the 180 set arrived and in the evening I eagerly unpacked it. Everything appeared to be in tip-top shape, although the set had evidently seen use.

First disappointment: there is no serial port on the right side of 181 module. I remembered that this was actually an option on the module and I had not even bothered to ask the seller about it! This would make ROM extraction harder, but I was not completely without hope: the front has a Mini-DIN 8 connector marked “CONTROL” and I fully expected this to be a “standard” CD-i serial port because I seemed to remember that you could connect standard CD-i pointing devices to this port, especially a mouse. The built-in UART functions of the 68070 processor chip would have to be connected up somewhere, after all.

Second disappointment: the modules require 120V power, not the 220V we have here in Holland. I did not have a voltage converter handy so after some phone discussion with a hardware-knowledgeable friend we determined that powering up was not yet a safe option. He gave me some possible options depending on the internal configuration so I proceeded to open up the CDI 181 module, of course also motivated by curiosity.

The first thing I noticed was that there were some screws missing; obviously the module had been opened before and the person doing it had been somewhat careless. The internals also seemed somewhat familiar, especially the looks of the stickers on the ROM chips and the placement of some small yellow stickers on various other chips.

Proceeding to the primary reason for opening up the module, I next checked the power supply configuration. Alas, nothing reconfigurable for 220V, it is a fully discrete unit with the transformer actually soldered to circuit board on both input and output side. There are also surprisingly many connections to the actual MMC processor board and on close inspection weird voltages like –9V and +9V are printed near the power supply outputs, apart from the expected +5V and +/–12V, so connecting a different power supply would be a major undertaking also.

After some pondering of the internals I closed up the module again and proceeded to closely inspect the back side for serial numbers, notices, etc. They seemed somewhat familiar but that isn’t weird as numbers often do. Out of pure curiosity I surfed to the DutchAudioClassics.nl website to compare serial numbers, wanting to know the place of my set in the production runs.

Surprise: the serial numbers are identical! It appears that this exact set was previously owned by the owner of that website or perhaps he got the photographs from someone else. This also explained why the internals had seemed familiar: I had actually seen them before!

I verified with the seller of the set that he doesn’t know anything about the photographs; apparently my set has had at least four owners, assuming that the website owner wasn’t the original one.

On Friday I obtained a 120V converter (they were unexpectedly cheap) and that evening I proceeded to power up the 180 set. I got a nice main menu picture immediately so I proceeded to attempt to start a CD-i disc. It did not start automatically when I inserted it, which on second thought makes perfect sense because the 181 MMC module has no way to know that you’ve just inserted a disc: this information is not communicated over 180/181 interconnections. So I would need to click on the “CD-I” button to start a disc.

To click on a screen button you need a supported pointing device, so I proceeded to connect the trusty white professional CD-i mouse that belongs with my 605 players. It doesn’t work!

There are some mechanical issues which make it doubtful that the MiniDIN connector plugs connect properly, so I tried an expansion cable that fit better. Still no dice.

The next step was trying some other CD-i pointing devices, but none of them worked. No pointing devices came with the set, and the seller had advised me thus (they were presumable lost or sold separately by some previous owner). The only remaining option seemed to be the wireless remote control sensor which supposedly uses RC5.

I tried every remote in my home, including the CD-i ones, but none of them give any reaction. After some research into the RC5 protocol this is not surprising, the 180 set probably has a distinct system address code. Not having a programmable remote handy nor a PC capable of generating infrared signals (none of my PCs have IrDA) I am again stuck!

I spent some time surfing the Internet looking for RC5 remotes and PC interfaces that can generate RC5 signals. Programmable remotes requiring a learning stage are obviously not an option so it will have to be a fully PC-programmable remote which are somewhat expensive and I’m not convinced they would work. The PC interface seems the best option for now; I found some do-it-yourself circuits and kits but it is all quite involved. I’ve also given some thought to PIC kits which could in principle also support a standard CD-i or PC mouse or even a joystick, but I haven’t pursued these options much further yet.

Next I went looking for ways to at least get the contents of the ROM chips as I had determined that these were socketed inside the MMC module and could easily be removed. There are four 27C100 chips inside the module, each of which contains 128Kb of data for a total of 512Kb which is the same as for the CD-i 605 player (ignoring expansion and full-motion video ROMs). The regular way to do this involves using a ROM reading device, but I haven’t gotten one handy that supports this chip type and neither does the hardware friend I mentioned earlier.

I do have access to an old 8 bit Z80 hobbyist-built system capable of reading and writing up to 27512 chips which are 64Kb, it is possible to extend this to at least read the 27C100 chip type. This would require adapting the socket (the 27512 is 28 pins whereas the 27C100 has 32 pins) and adding one extra address bit, if nothing else with just a spare wire. But the Z80 system is not at my house and some hardware modifications to it would be required, for which I would have to inspect the system first and dig up the circuit diagrams; all quite disappointing.

While researching the chip pinouts I suddenly had an idea: what if I used the CD-i 605 Expansion board which also has ROM sockets? This seemed an option but with two kids running around I did not want to open up the set. That evening however I took the board out of the 605 (this is easily done as both player and board were designed for it) and found that this Expansion board contains two 27C020 chips, each containing 256Kb of data. These are also 32 pins but the pinouts are a little different, so a socket adapter would also be needed. I checked the 605 technical manual and it did not mention anything about configurable ROM chip types (it did mention configurable RAM chip types, though) so an adapter seemed the way to go. I collected some spare 40 pin sockets from storage (boy have I got much of that) and proceeded to open up the 180 set and take out the ROM chips.

When determining the mechanical fit of the two sockets for the adapter I noticed three jumpers adjacent to the ROM sockets of the expansion board and I wondered… Tracing of the board connections indicated that these jumpers were indeed connected to exactly the ROM socket pins differing between 27C100 and 27C020, and other connections indicated it at least plausible for these jumpers to be exactly made for the purpose.

So I changed the jumpers and inserted one 180 ROM. This would avoid OS-9 inadvertently using data from the ROM because only half of each 16-bit word would be present, thus ensuring that no module headers would be detected, and in the event of disaster I would lose only a single ROM chip (not that I expected that to be very likely, but you never know).

Powering up the player worked exactly as expected, no suspicious smoke or heat generation, so the next step was software. It turns out that CD-i Link already supports downloading of ROM data from specific memory addresses and I had already determined those addresses from the 605 technical manual. So I connected the CD-i 605 null-modem cable with my USB-to-Serial adapter between CD-i player and my laptop and fired off the command line:

cdilink –p 3 –a 50000 –s 256K –u u21.rom

(U21 being the socket number of the specific ROM I chose first).

After a minute I aborted the upload and checked the result, and lo and behold the u21.rom file looked like an even-byte-only ROM dump:
00000000  4a00 000b 0000 0000 0004 8000 0000 0000 J...............
00000010 0000 0000 0000 003a 0000 705f 6d6c 2e6f .......:..p_ml.o
00000020 7406 0c20 0000 0000 0101 0101 0101 0101 t.. ............
This was hopeful, so I restarted the upload again and waited some six minutes for it to complete. Just for sure I redid the upload from address 58000 and got an identical file, thus ruling out any flakey bits or timing problems (I had already checked that the access times on the 27C100 and 27C020 chips were identical, to say 150ns).

In an attempt to speed up the procedure, I next attempted to try two ROMs at once, using ones that I thought not to be a matched even/odd set. The 605 would not boot! It later turned out that the socket numbering did not correspond to the even/odd pairing as I expected so this was probably caused by the two ROMs being exactly a matched set and OS-9 getting confused as the result. But using a single ROM it worked fine.

I proceeded to repeat the following procedure for the next three ROMs: turn off the 605, remove the expansion board, unsocket the previous ROM chip, socket the next ROM chip, reinsert the expansion board, turn on the 605 and run CD-i Link twice. It took a while, all in all just under an hour.

While these uploads were running I wrote two small programs rsplit and rjoin to manipulate the ROM files into a correct 512Kb 180 ROM image. Around 00:30 I had a final cdi180b.rom file that looked good and I ran it through cditype –mod to verify that it indeed looked like a CD-I player ROM:
  Addr     Size      Owner    Perm Type Revs  Ed #  Crc   Module name
-------- -------- ----------- ---- ---- ---- ----- ------ ------------
0000509a 192 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 fba055 copyright
0000515a 26650 0.0 0555 Sys a000 83 090798 kernel
0000b974 344 0.0 0555 Sys 8002 22 b20da9 init
0000bacc 2848 0.0 0555 Fman a00b 35 28611f ucm
0000c5ec 5592 0.0 0555 Fman a000 17 63023d nrf
0000dbc4 2270 0.0 0555 Fman a000 35 d6a976 pipeman
0000e4a2 774 0.0 0555 Driv a001 6 81a3e9 nvdrv
0000e7a8 356 0.0 0555 Sys a01e 15 e69105 rp5c15
0000e90c 136 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 f25f23 tim070
0000e994 420 0.0 0555 Driv a00c 6 7b3913 tim070driv
0000eb38 172 0.0 0555 Driv a000 1 407f81 null
0000ebe4 102 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 cf450e pipe
0000ec4a 94 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 f54010 nvr
0000eca8 96 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 17ec68 icard
0000ed08 1934 0.0 0555 Fman a000 31 b41f17 scf
0000f496 120 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 61 dd8776 t2
0000f50e 1578 0.0 0555 Driv a020 16 d0a854 u68070
0000fb38 176 0.1 0777 5 8001 1 a519f6 csd_mmc
0000fbe8 5026 0.0 0555 Sys a000 292 e33cc5 csdinit
00010f8a 136 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 6 041e2b iic
00011012 152 0.0 0555 Driv a02c 22 e29688 ceniic
000110aa 166 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 c5b823 ptr
00011150 196 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 a0e276 cdikeys
00011214 168 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 439a33 ptr2
000112bc 3134 0.0 0555 Driv a016 11 faf88d periic
00011efa 4510 0.0 0555 Fman a003 96 a4d145 cdfm
00013098 15222 0.0 0555 Driv a038 28 122c79 cdap18x
00016c0e 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 35f12f cd
00016c94 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 d2ce2f ap
00016d1a 130 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 1586c2 vid
00016d9c 18082 10.48 0555 Trap c00a 6 5f673d cio
0001b43e 7798 1.0 0555 Trap c001 13 46c5dc math
0001d2b4 2992 0.0 0555 Data 8020 1 191a59 FONT8X8
0001de64 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 c5ed0e dd
0001deea 66564 0.0 0555 Driv a012 48 660a91 video
0002e2ee 62622 0.1 0555 Prog 8008 20 ec5459 ps
0003d78c 4272 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 9f3982 ps_medium.font
0003e83c 800 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 c1ac25 ps_icons.clut
00040000 2976 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 0a3b97 ps_small.font
00040ba0 7456 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 764338 ps_icons.clu8
000428c0 107600 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 7b9b4e ps_panel.dyuv
0005cd10 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 2a8fcd ps_girl.dyuv
00065730 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 e1bb6a ps_mesa.dyuv
0006e150 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 8e394b ps_map.dyuv
00076b70 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 c60e5e ps_kids.dyuv

File Size Type Description
------------ ------ ------------ ------------
cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.rom Unknown CD-i system ROM
cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.mdl Unknown CD-i player
cdi180b.rom 512K unknown.brd Unknown board
Of course cditype didn’t correctly detect the ROM, player and board type, but the list of modules looks exactly like a CD-i player system ROM. It is in fact very similar to the CD-i 605 system ROM, the major differences are the presence of the icard and *iic drivers, the absence of a slave module and the different player shell (ps module with separate ps_* data modules instead of a single play module).

It being quite late already, I resocketed all the ROMs in the proper places and closed up both players, after testing that they were both fully functional (insofar as I could test the 180 set), fully intending to clean up and go to bed. As an afterthought, I took a picture of the running 180 set and posted it on the CD-Interactive forums as the definitive answer to the 50/60 Hz power question I’d asked there earlier.

The CD-i Emulator urge started itching however, so I decided to give emulation of my new ROM file a quick go, fully intending to stop at any major problems. I didn’t encounter any of those, however, until I had a running CD-i 180 player three hours later. I reported the fact on the CDinteractive forum, noting that there was no pointing device or disc access yet, and went to a well-deserved sleep. Both of these issues are major ones and those I postponed for the next day.

To get the new player type up and running inside CD-i Emulater, I started by using the CD-i 605 F1 system specification files cdi605a.mdl and minimmc.brd as templates to create the new CD-i 180 F2 system files cdi180b.mdl and maximmc.brd. Next I fired up the emulator and was rewarded with bus errors. Not unexpected and a good indicator of where the problems are. Using the debugger and disassembler I quickly determined that the problems were, as expected, the presence of the VSR instead of VSD and the replacement of the SLAVE by something else. Straightening these out took a bit of time but it was not hard work and very similar to work I had done before on other player types.

This time at least the processor and most of the hardware was known and already emulated; for the Portable CD-i board (used by the CD-i 370, DVE200 and GDI700 players) both of these were not the case as they use the 68341 so-called integrated CD-i engine which in my opinion is sorely misnamed as there is nothing CD-i about the chip, it is just the Motorola version of an 68K processor with many on-chip peripherals in remarkably similar to the Philips 68070 in basic functionality.

Saturday was spent doing household chores with ROM research in between, looking for the way to get the pointing device working. It turned out to be quite involved but at the end of the day I had it sort of flakily working in a kludgy way; I’ll report the details in a next blog post.

Sunday I spent some time fixing the flakiness and thinking a lot about fixing the kludginess; this remains to be done. I also spent time making screenshots and writing this blog post.

So to finish up, there is now a series of 180 screenshots here on the CD-i Emulator website as reported in the What's New section. A very nice player shell, actually, especially for a first generation machine.

I will report some ROM and chip finds including new hopes for replacing the missing pointing device in a next blog post.
          (IRP8IEZS) Pet Immune Motion Sensor (PIR Sensor)        
(IRP8IEZS) Pet Immune Motion Sensor (PIR Sensor)

(IRP8IEZS) Pet Immune Motion Sensor (PIR Sensor)

Honeywell evohome security wireless pet-immune motion sensor (IRPI8EZS) Designed to dramatically reduce false alarm from pets, the sensor uses a high quality lens to detect intruders, together with heat detection and passive infrared. It can identify (and ignore) animals weighing up to 36Kg- simply set the senstivity when you configure the system.   0 X 12m Range Pet immune, up to 36Kg One battery (CR123A in box) 112 x 60 x 40mm

          Termografía para la detección de Cáncer de Seno.        

Termografía para la detección de Cáncer de Seno.

Esta también llamada ‘termografía de pecho', ó termomastografía tiene la habilidad de descubrir las primeras señales que indiquen que un cáncer puede estarse formando, incluso 10 años antes de que cualquier otro procedimiento pueda detectarlo.

Desde 2006 el Centro de Estudios y Prevención del Cáncer A.C. (CEPREC), está evaluando esta novedosa e innovadora prueba. Este hecho, lo convierte en el único centro con ésta tecnología en el país: una cámara de rayos infrarrojos que al captar el calor de la mama permite detectar alteraciones tempranas.

Su ventaja es que no produce radiaciones, no es dolorosa y su sensibilidad para detectar el cáncer de mama es hasta el 94%.

"Este estudio, en combinación con la mastografía convencional de rayos X y la mastografía digital nos ayudará a diagnosticar el cáncer de mama en etapas más tempranas, aumentar la supervivencia y reducir la mortalidad por este tumor", aseguró a rotativo de Querétaro el Dr. Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado, director del CEPREC en Juchitán, Oaxaca.

El Dr. José G. Vázquez Luna, profesor investigador de la BUAP empleó la tecnología militar e hizo transferencia a la medicina, diseñando un sistema capaz de registrar ondas que registran calor.

El antecedente de ésta tecnología está en la investigación militar, durante la vigilancia nocturna de tropas. El calor de los cuerpos de los soldados enemigos, delata su posición a kilómetros de distancia. Con éste sistema se detecta, registra y produce imágenes de la superficie de la piel de los senos y es posible correlacionar los puntos de calor detectados con el tamaño del tumor. "El cáncer exige al cuerpo que lo alimente, existe un proceso de angiogénesis cuando se inicia el cáncer, es decir, se crean nuevos vasos sanguíneos que llevan alimento al tumor.

Este fenómeno de formación de nuevos vasos sanguíneos resulta revelador porque incrementa localmente la temperatura. Con la termografía se pueden detectar estos pequeños incrementos locales de temperatura.

La imagen térmica se convierte en un inmejorable coadyuvante, que el médico con otro grupo de pruebas determinará si es o no cáncer". "Es una prueba fisiológica que puede detectar cambios mínimos de temperatura, la termografía puede usarse como pesquisa o prueba discriminatoria, es decir, si una mujer pasa primero por esta prueba y no se localiza ningún riesgo no tendría caso exponerla a la masto grafía, y si se encuentra alguna anormalidad entonces con apoyo de la masto grafía y/o ultrasonido se lograra un certero diagnóstico" reveló el doctor en física.

El Investigador de la Escuela Físico Matemáticas de la BUAP, expuso que el principio físico es sencillo: La energía térmica ó infrarroja, por su longitud de onda, no es visible por el ojo humano, pero la termografía, por medio de una cámara, "ve" y "mide" la energía infrarroja que está siendo emitida por un objeto.

La capacidad de emisión de la piel humana es muy alta, por lo tanto, la radiación infrarroja emitida puede ser convertida a valores de temperatura. José G. Vázquez Luna, en entrevista para este medio, también explicó que existen más de 1200 estudios, incluidos en el Index Medicus que han evaluado su rol en la detección temprana del cáncer de mama. "En 1982, la FDA aprobó la termografía de pecho como un procedimiento válido para la detección de cáncer de mama, sin embargo, la termografía de pecho ha sido profusamente investigada desde 1950.

En más de 30 años de investigación se han reunido mas de 800 estudios en el área y se encuentran en la literatura médica. En esta base de datos, más de 300,000 mujeres se han incluido como participantes del estudio, algunos estudios han seguido a los pacientes a lo largo más de 12 años y se sabe que se han establecido estrictos protocolos de interpretación estandarizados durante mas de 15 años.

La termografía de pecho tiene una media sensibilidad y especificidad de 90%" argumenta Vázquez Luna. La literatura médica reporta que un termograma anormal es 10 veces más significativo, como un indicador de riesgo futuro de cáncer de mama, que un antecedente familiar de primer orden.

Un termograma anormal persistente incrementa 22 veces el riesgo de desarrollar en el futuro un cáncer de mama. Una imagen infrarroja anormal es por sí sola, el marcador mas importante de riesgo de desarrollar cáncer del pecho.

Cáncer de mama, un asunto nuestro: físico y oncólogo

El físico José G. Vázquez Luna y el oncólogo Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado comparten la certeza: Diariamente se diagnostican 26 casos nuevos de cáncer de mama. Y es que el cáncer de mama ocupa el segundo lugar como causa de muerte por tumores en el sexo femenino.

Esta situación es agravada por el insuficiente personal de salud entrenado para educar a la población femenina y el escaso equipo radiológico especializado (mastógrafos), el cual se concentra solamente en las grandes ciudades del país, el resultado es que 8 de 10 mujeres con cáncer de mama se diagnostican en etapa avanzada, prácticamente cuando cualquier tipo de tratamiento es ineficaz y 11 mujeres mueren diariamente por esta enfermedad.

"Evaluamos el rol de la termomastografía de nueva generación en la detección temprana del cáncer de mama en población abierta del Istmo de Tehuantepec. Este estudio tiene una sensibilidad y especificidad alta para el diagnóstico de patología de la mama (85%) aseguró su director, el Dr. Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado, especialista Oncología y Doctor en Ciencias Médicas.

"Cuando se utiliza con otros métodos Autoexploración, Ultrasonido y mastografía, se puede detectar hasta el 95% del cáncer.

Diversas investigaciones ha mostrado que la termografía de pecho aumenta significativamente la tasa de supervivencia de las mujeres hasta en un 61%".

Explicó también que las ventajas del termógrafo, es su elevada productividad ya que se pueden realizar mas de 10 termomastografías por hora con cada termógrafo, y como es un equipo ligero, puede ser desplazado a comunidades alejadas y municipios de todo el país, donde los servicios médicos no existen o son precarios.

El Dr. Gutiérrez Delgado es Fellow del American Collage of Physicians (FACP), miembro de la American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), y American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) y sostiene que el objetivo del Centro, es educar a la población mexicana en una nueva cultura que incrementa el interés por la salud y que prioriza la prevención sobre la curación.

Fuente: http://rotativo.com.mx/?module=displaystory&story_id=6666&format=print

Is Breast Thermography Safe?

Breast thermography is very safe. There is no exposure to radiation or any compression of the breast tissue.

Es la Termografía segura?

La termografía de seno es muy segura. No hay exposición a radiaciones ó ningún tipo de compresión del tejido mamario.

How is Breast Thermography different from a Mammogram?

Both tests are looking for completely different signs of breast cancer. Thermography looks for changes that occur as a growing cancer alters the blood supply of the breast and changes the physiology and chemical environment of the tissue of the breast. Mammograms look for changes to the density of the breast that indicates the presence of a tumor. Mammography identifies the physical. The medical literature views both procedures as complimentary to each other.


Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:3312-4.

González FJ.Infrared imager requirements for breast cancer detection.

PMID: 18002704

Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006;52(1):35-9; discussion 39-40.

Mikulska D.Contemporary applications of infrared imaging in medical diagnostics

PMID 17131845

Surg Technol Int. 2005;14:51-6.Agnese DM.Advances in breast imaging.

PMID: 16525954

          InfraRed massager review: InfraLove        
InfraRed massager This toy is great for doing what it is meant to do. If you can get past the noise level, it would make a great addition. I mainly bought this for my sore muscles and migraines, though it does work just as well ... read review
Category: Massagers

          How Touch Screen Monitors Work        

Brief History

In 1972, a scientist at CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research - proposed the idea for the world’s first capacitive touch screen. A touch screen display would solve the complex interface required to operate CERN’s particle accelerator.

The proposed touch screen had a fixed number of programmable buttons on the display. Four years later in 1976, CERN produced its first capacitive touch screen terminal.

The early version of the capacitive touch screen featured fixed buttons on a display. This gave the flexibility to
re-map the buttons on screen as required.

Key technologies

Modern touch screen technology evolved from the capacitive touch screen. To understand how current generation touch screen technology works, we must understand how the most basic touch screen monitor - the capacitive touch screen - and its functions.

There are several core touch screen technologies:
  • Surface Capacitance
  • Projected Capacitance
    • Mutual Capacitance
    • Self Capacitance
  • Resistive
  • Infrared
  • Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)
  • Optical Touch Screens

Capacitive Touch Screens

Capacitive touch screens rely on conductors that are imbedded onto a sheet of glass. When the display turns on, the conductors create a electrostatic field. Since the human body naturally holds an electrical charge, touching the display distorts the electrostatic field. From the distortion of the electrostatic field, the image processor, much like a CPU, calculates where the touch occurred.
Derivations of capacitive touch screens include:
  • Surface Capacitance
  • Projected Capacitance
  • Mutual Capacitance
  • Self Capacitance

Surface Capacitance
  • One side of the insulator coating has a
    conductive layer. The conductive layer creates an electrostatic field on the glass
  • The electrostatic field changes when a human finger touches the surface
  • A sensor detects the change in the electro static field, and calculates the location of the touch
  • Common in Kiosks/Point of Sale (POS) systems
  • Prone to false signals
Projected Capacitance
  • Two types of Projected Capacitance: Mutual Capacitance and Self Capacitance
  • Used in iPhone
  • More accurate than surface capacitance
  • Relies on an X-Y axis grid, etched onto the electrodes on the conductive material behind the glass
  • Operates under screen protectors / vandal-proof glass
  • Common in POS systems that require signatures (i.e self-checkout counters that require a digital signature)
  • Sweaty finger tips (i.e from humid environments) decreases the touch screen accuracy
Mutual Capacitance (Derivative of Projected Capacitance)
  • Used in multi-touch applications (i.e iPhone)
  • Requires two distinct layers of material to operate
  • Capacitor on every row and column, creating a grid pattern across the screen (i.e. a screen with a 10-by-10 layout will have a total of 100 independent capacitors.
  • The capacitors operate in unison, with the ability to register multi-touch
  • Each capacitor can register its own touch points
Self Capacitance (Derivative of Projected Capacitance)
  • Similar to Mutual capacitance, but does not register multiple touch points
  • Each column and row on the screen operates independently

Resistive Touch Screens

  • Made with two flexible sheets, separated by a tiny air gap
  • When contact is made on the screens, the two sheets touch, and registers the location of the finger
  • Allows a stylus to be used
  • Can be made to support multi-touch
  • A stylus must be used to perform motor-intensive tasks (i.e. manipulating a small portion on the screen, writing on the screen)
  • Usually made of glass or acrylic
  • Acrylic-based screens prone to scratches
  • Limited clarity

Infrared Touch Screens

  • Uses infrared LEDs that are arranged around the perimeter of the screen to detect changes in the infrared beam
  • Good for outdoor use. Common in POS (point-of-sale) systems
  • Does not rely on a bare finger to activate the touch screen
  • Can detect touch from a stylus, or a gloved hand

Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)

  • Uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the screen. When a finger touches the screen, part of
    the wave is absorbed. The change in the waves determines where the touch occurred
  • Good for large surfaces
  • Can recognize "touch" gestures with a finger, stylus, or gloved hand

Optical Touch Screens

  • Rely on imaging sensors positioned on the corners of the screen
  • Infrared backlight captures actions on the screen
  • A touch registers as a shadow, and uses the imaging sensors to triangulate the position of contact
  • Gaining popularity due to lower cost and scalability
  • Suitable for large screens
  • Lorex uses optical touch screens with touch-enabled DVR systems

Single Touch vs Multi Touch Gestures

Lorex optical touch screens recognize single and multi touch gestures. Touch gestures are available on touch-enabled DVRs.

Single touch gestures require one finger (i.e. panning, dragging, flicks). Multi touch gestures require two fingers (i.e. Zoom, rotate, two finger tap).

Popular Touch Screen Technologies

The iPhone uses both Mutual Capacitance and Self Capacitance technology to achieve multi touch gestures.
Mutual Capacitance requires two layers of material: one layer for the Driving Lines, one layer for the Sensing Lines.

Driving Lines provide current for the touch screen. Sensing Lines detect the current for the electric node layer. When the finger touches the screen, the Sensing Lines determine the location of where the touch occurred.

Every point on the grid generates its own signal. From the grid, touch information is relayed back into the iPhone’s processor. The iPhone’s processor is integral in how the system interprets a touch on the screen. The Sensing Lines and Driving Lines creates a coordinate grid for the iPhone CPU. This allows the phone to locate the specific area where the touch occurred.
Because iPhone relies on a capacitive touch screen, the screen operates only when a bare finger touches the screen. A gloved hand, or stylus will not activate a capacitive touch screen.
The combination of Mutual and Self Capacitance technology allows the iPhone processor to register multi-touch functions.
  Mutual Capacitance screens rely on a grid system to determine where the touch occurs. Note that the diagram is not to scale.
Image courtesy of HowStuffWorks, 2007

Self Capacitance screens use a transparent electrode layer to register
screen contact. Note that the diagram is not to scale.
Image courtesy of HowStuffWorks, 2007

How the iPhone interprets touch signals

After collecting touch signal data from the screen, the iPhone processor must interpret the raw touch data into a gesture. This instantaneous process is broken into several steps:
  1. The screen interprets a touch on the screen as electrical signals. These electrical signals are sent to the iPhone processor.
  2. The iPhone processor software analyzes the size, shape and location of the touch. If you swipe your finger along the screen, the software determines the start and end points of the touch.
  3. The processor uses ‘‘gesture-interpretation‘‘ software to determine the type of touch on the screen (i.e. swipe, scroll, flick etc.)
  4. The processor relays the data to the program that you are using.

The simplified explanation above explains the key concepts of a multi-touch platform like the iPhone. Touch screens may interpret touch data in a different way.
Images courtesy of HowStuffWorks, 2007


CERN Courier (2010), "The first capacitive touch screens at CERN". Retrieved online from:

Colegrove, Jennifer (2010), "The State of the Touch-Screen Market 2010" Retrieved online from:

Wikipedia (2010), "Touchscreen". Retrieved online from:

Wilson, Tracy V, (2010), "How the iPhone Works". Retrieved online from:

Image Sources
Electrotest (2010). "Capacitive Touchscreen". Retrieved from:

Next Window (2003). "An Overview of NextWindow Optical Imaging Touch Technology". Retrieved online from:

Quataris Technologies (2010) "Restrictive Touchscreens". Retrieved online from:
          Market Insight: Optoelectronics Market Globally Grow at a CAGR of 16.84% by Revenue During the Forecast Period 2017-2021        

Global Internet of Things (IoT) Market in Healthcare Sector 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- Optoelectronics Market research report provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Optoelectronics Market report 2017-2021 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. The Optoelectronics Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of Optoelectronics Warming Devices Industry.

Optoelectronics is the study of combined technology of electronic device and light. It is a sub-field of photonics. The study includes visible light as well as X-rays, gamma rays, ultra-violet (UV) rays, and infrared (IR) rays. Optoelectronic devices act as optical-to-electrical or electrical-to-optical transducers. LED, image sensors, optical switches, laser diodes, and optical isolators are some of the optoelectronics. Analysts forecast the global Optoelectronics Warming Devices market to grow at a CAGR of 16.84% during the period 2017-2021.

Browse more detail information about Optoelectronics Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-optoelectronics-market-2017-2021-10533722

The research report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global Optoelectronics industry for 2017-2021.

Key Vendors of Optoelectronics Market:

- Cree
- GE Lighting
- LG Innotek
- Lumileds Lighting
- Samsung
- Seoul Semiconductor
- Sony
- Samsung Semiconductor
- OmniVision
- Canon
- ON Semiconductor

Other prominent vendors

Get a PDF Sample of Optoelectronics Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10533722

The Optoelectronics Market report also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendors operating in the market. Optoelectronics Market report analyses the market potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, and market demand and supply scenarios.

Optoelectronics Market Driver:

- Growing adoption of LED for lighting due to government subsidies and projects undertaken
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Optoelectronics Market Challenge:

- Challenges associated with deployment of fiber optics
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Optoelectronics Market Trend:

- Upcoming technological trends in LED
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Purchase report @ http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10533722   

Geographical Segmentation Of Optoelectronics Market:

- Optoelectronics Market in Americas
- Optoelectronics Market in APAC
- Optoelectronics Market in EMEA

The report provides a basic overview of the Optoelectronics industry including definitions, segmentation, applications, key vendors, market drivers and market challenges. The Optoelectronics Market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status

Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global Optoelectronics Market including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.

Have any query? ask our expert @ http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10533722

Key questions answered in Optoelectronics Market report:

- What will the market size be in 2021 and what will the growth rate be?
- What are the key market trends?
- What is driving this market?
- What are the challenges to market growth?
- Who are the key vendors in this market space?
- What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors?

Get Discount on Optoelectronics Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10533722

List of Exhibits in Optoelectronics Market report:

- Exhibit 01: Product offerings
- Exhibit 02: Impact of drivers
- Exhibit 03: Impact of drivers and challenges
- Exhibit 04: Key countries in each region
- Exhibit 05: Global Optoelectronics Market shares by geographies 2017
- Exhibit 06: Global Optoelectronics Market shares by geographies 2021
- Exhibit 07: Geographical segmentation by revenue 2017

About Absolute Report
Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/market-insight-optoelectronics-market-globally-grow-at-a-cagr-of-1684-by-revenue-during-the-forecast-period-2017-2021-769491.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ameya Pingaley
Absolute Reports
Telephone: 408-520-9750
Email: Click to Email Ameya Pingaley
Web: https://www.absolutereports.com/global-internet-of-things-market-in-the-healthcare-sector-2016-2020-10338864

          Sophia Lunt        
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Ph.D., Chemistry, Princeton University, 2010
B.S., Chemistry, Lebanon Valley College, 2005
2016 AACR-Incyte NextGen Grant for Transformative Cancer Research
2015 DoD CDMRP Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) Breakthrough Award
2015 Mayo Clinic Metabolomics Research Core Pilot and Feasibility Award
2014 Best Oral Presentation Award, Michigan Physiological Society
2012 DoD CDMRP PRCRP Visionary Postdoctoral Fellowship Award
González-Reymúndez A, de los Campos G, Gutiérrez L, Lunt SY, Vazquez AI. Prediction of Years of Life after Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using Omics and Omic-by-Treatment Interactions. European Journal of Human Genetics; 25 (5): 538–544; 2017.
Nault R, Fader KA, Ammendolia DA, Dornbos P, Potter D, Sharratt B, Kumagai K, Harkema JR, Lunt SY, Matthews J, Zacharewski T. Dose-dependent metabolic reprogramming and differential gene expression in TCDD-elicited hepatic fibrosis. Toxicological Sciences; 2016.
Young M, Suddard-Bangsund JD, Patrick TJ, Pajares N, Lunt SY, Lunt RR: Organic Heptamethine Salts for Photovoltaics and Detectors with Near-Infrared Photoresponse up to 1600 nm. Advanced Optical Materials; 4 (7):1028-1033; 2016.
Nault R, Fader KA, Kirby MP, Ahmed S, Matthews J, Jones AD, Lunt SY, Zacharewski TR: Pyruvate kinase isoform switching and hepatic metabolic reprogramming by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Toxicological Sciences; 149 (2): 358-371; 2016.
Degree Programs: 
Chemical Engineering
Materials Science and Engineering

          Amazing New Sunscreen Shields Infrared Rays        

LatisseMD has added SkinMedica's New Total Defense + Repair rejuvenating superscreen and it is on sale now at ShopLatisseMD.com

(PRWeb August 06, 2015)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/08/prweb12889913.htm

          Let There Be Light! Lasers May Make Your Flu Vaccine More Effective        
Researchers from Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center in the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Division of Infectious Diseases report that pre-treating the site of a flu vaccine jab with an infrared laser may boost the body’s immune response against influenza. The study involved mice, but the results hold promise for people, say the scientific team, who have also tested the idea in a small number of people. In their study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, the researchers treated mice with a one-minute dose of near-infrared laser light before inoculating them with the H1N1 flu vaccine and found that the animals showed stronger immune system activity and survived longer after being infected with potentially lethal doses of flu than the animals who didn’t receive the light treatment. The lasers boosted the vaccine’s effectiveness by up to 100-fold by activating dendritic cells, which are responsible for recognizing pathogens like viruses and alerting the immune system to defend against them. (MORE: How To Find The Right Flu Vaccine) Many vaccines against different infectious diseases currently use chemicals or biological agents to get the same immune-boosting effect — it’s a way to prime the immune system to respond to the incoming influenza antigens and generate antibodies against them. However, some people develop  reactions such as soreness or inflammation to these additives, so many flu shots don’t contain them, which lowers their effectiveness. It’s possible, say the study authors, that laser light could work as a replacement to such adjuvants — without the side effects. “We discovered that low-power near-infrared laser light effectively and reproducibly increases vaccine efficacy as well as currently approved adjuvants and is effective for influenza vaccination,” said senior author Dr. Mark Poznansky, the director of the MGH Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center in a statement. So far the researchers have only looked at the effect of lasers in tandem with the flu vaccine, but they believe the approach could also be used to enhance the effectiveness of other vaccines such as those against malaria and polio.
          Alert Notice 398: Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae        
July 10, 2009

The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers.  Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month.

Epsilon Aurigae is a bright (V ~ 3.0 out of eclipse), northern eclipsing variable with a known period of 27.12 years.  Eclipses have a duration of several hundred days.  It is not currently clear what the eclipsing object is, although the leading theory is that it is a massive, opaque dust disk surrounding either a single massive secondary star, or a pair of stars in a tight orbit.  Observations obtained during this eclipse will help us to refine the properties of this enigmatic system.

Visual observers are particularly encouraged to observe epsilon Aurigae. For experienced observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website.  For novice observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing.  The 10-star tutorial is available at the following website:


Instrumental observers of all kinds are also requested to take part. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the Blue&Gold section of the AAVSO website. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs, and we note that Dr. Robert Stencel (Denver U.) and Jeff Hopkins (HP Observatory) are co-leading the precision photometry efforts in collaboration with Citizen Sky.

Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate. Epsilon Aurigae is a bright object, and care must be taken not to saturate the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D < 2 degrees), we recommend taking a large number (10-100) of very short exposures and then stack the resulting images. This will allow you to observe the variable without saturating, but also to detect and photometer the fainter comparison stars (V < 9) in the near field. For those with wide-field systems or DSLR cameras, we recommend using lambda Aurigae for the comparison star, and eta Aurigae as the check star.

More information about epsilon Aurigae photometric techniques is available here:


Please post questions to the Citizen Sky Forums:


Dr. Arne Henden will be on hand to take your questions about this project via a live web chat on the AAVSO/Citizen Sky web sites July 10 at 1pm EST (-4UT). A transcript will be posted after the chat is concluded.

The following observations of epsilon Aurigae were submitted to the AAVSO during the past seven days:

JD 2455015.5785 (2009 July 3.0785), m(vis)=2.9 (S. Baroni, Italy);
JD 2455016.42361 (July 3.9236), m(vis)=2.9 (V. Makela, Finland);
JD 2455018.42014 (July 5.9201), m(vis)=3.0 (Makela);
JD 2455019.8757 (July 7.3757), m(vis)=3.0 (M. Bradbury, United States);
JD 2455021.5653 (July 9.0653), m(vis)=3.0 (Baroni);
JD 2455022.54167 (July 10.0417), m(vis)=3.05 (S. Swierczynski, Poland).

The J2000 equatorial coordinates of epsilon, lambda, and eta Aurigae are as follows:

        epsilon -- RA: 05:01:58.13 , Dec: +43:49:23.9
                V = 2.98 , (B-V) = +0.54 , (U-B) = +0.32

        lambda  -- RA: 05:19:08.48 , Dec: +40:05:56.6
                V = 4.71 , (B-V) = +0.62 , (U-B) = +0.12

        eta     -- RA: 05:06:30.89 , Dec: +41:14:04.1
                V = 3.17 , (B-V) = -0.18 , (U-B) = -0.67 

Charts for epsilon Aurigae may be obtained from the following links:

Advanced visual observers: Please use VSP as your source for charts --


Beginning and naked-eye observers: Please download and print the following chart from Citizen Sky:

[broken link]


Instrumental observers: A chart that includes both epsilon Aurigae and its closest comparison star is available at this link:

[broken link]


This AAVSO Alert Notice was prepared by M. Templeton on behalf of A. Price, R. Stencel, and J. Hopkins of Citizen Sky.



Information on submitting observations to the AAVSO may be found at‭:‬


An Alert Notice archive is available at the following URL‭:‬

Subscribing and Unsubscribing may be done at the following URL‭:‬

Please support the AAVSO and its mission -- join or donate today:

          Succulent 0248 | Flower / Botanical Prints & Stock Photos by ©2012 Jonathan Nourok        
An infrared close-up of a Joshua Tree at Joshua Tree National Park in California. (©2012 Jonathan Nourok)
An infrared close-up of a Joshua Tree at Joshua Tree National Park in California. (©2012 Jonathan Nourok)
Copyright: 2012 Jonathan Nourok
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-01-2015 with Gavin Dahl        

Tour De Force- The Traveler StepArt Remix - Battle Cry Remixed
Rebirth Brass Band- On My Way - Move Your Body
The Budos Band- Shattered Winds - Burnt Offering
The Budos Band- Magus Mountain - Burnt Offering
Dengue Fever- No Sudden Moves - The Deepest Lake
Courtney Barnett- Elevator Operator - Sometimes I Sit And Think And Sometimes I Just Sit
Bob Darin- Me And Mr Hohner - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Townes Van Zandt- Hunger Child Blues - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Shakey Graves- Call It Heaven feat Esm Patterson - And The War Came
Scott H Biram- Nam Weed - Nothin But Blood
Hanni El Khatib- Chasin - Moonlight
Yogi Bear- The Missing Elephant - Huckleberry Hound The Great Kelloggs TV Show
Elephant Revival- Drop - Break In The Clouds
Euforquestra- Instant Coffee feat Kyle Hollingsworth - Fire
Ty Segall- Stick Around - Manipulator
The Very Best- Hear Me - Makes A King
Xperience- Evolve Away - All Your Friends Friends
AKA- Where The Free People Go - All Your Friends Friends
Tour De Force- Old Time Love - Battle CryBattle Cry Remixed
Lapalux- We Lost - Lustmore
Prefuse 73- Infrared feat Sam Dew - Rivington No Rio
THEESatisfaction- Planet For Sale - EarthEE
Iame Gold Miz- We Never Look Up - All Your Friends Friends
Ali Shaheed Muhammad Souls Of Mishchief- There Is Only Now feat Snoop Dogg - There Is Only Now Remix feat Snoop Dogg William Hart
Ali Shaheed Muhammad Souls Of Mischief- All You Got Is Your Word Instrumental - There Is Only Now Remix feat Snoop Dogg William Hart
Odesza- Sun Models feat Madelyn Grant - In Return
Odesza- White Lies feat Jenni Potts - In Return
Hard To Find- Robert Koch - Antennae Presents Acid Crunk Vol 2
Slow Magic- Waited 4 U Odesza Remix - Single
Bjrk- Mouth Mantra - Vulnicura
Caribou- Cant Do Without You - Our Love
Doldrums- We Awake - The Air Conditioned Nightmare
Bonobo- Return To Air - Flashlight Single
La Santa Cecilia- Tainted Love - El Valor EP
Antibalas- Dirty Money - Dirty Money Single
Eno Hyde- Dbf - High Life
Bob Marley The Wailers- And I Love Her - Greatest Hits At Studio One
Jim Ford- Rising Sign - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Courtney Barnett- Kims Caravan - Sometimes I Sit And Think And Sometimes I Just Sit
PJ The Galaxies- One Mint Julep - Rare Surf Vol 1
Compilation- Leap Frog - Verve Jazz Masters 10 Dizzy Gillespie
Cannonball Adderley- Ill Remember April - Cannonball Enroute
Paul Oscher- Cannonball Rock - The Best Of Paul Oscher Vol 1

playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2015-06-01
          How to Use Spy Hidden Button Camera in Sting Operations        
In a developing country like India, the media industry has to stand up for the society because like every developing nation it also has some national threats like poverty, illiteracy and corruption. India’s population is increasing at a rapid rate and a large amount of it is still illiterate so, in order to make these people aware of their rights and fight for them, the media has a massive role to play. Politicians are taking advantage of their illiteracy and are making black money by using the power of their position. But it is not so easy to unmask them because they are very powerful people and the only way to bring them under the scanner is to revolt against them or to do secret sting operations on them.

So, the media industry has to work for the people and work on such operations in order to save the country from going into the wrong hands and though they are dangerous but with the help of the ever developing science and technology, there are inventions of various spy cameras and gadgets which makes the jobs of the journalists and reporters much easier. The recently launched Spy Wireless Button Camera in India has made it very popular among the media persons because through it they can work on many secret missions with ease without letting anyone know about their covert device which records everything in detail and that too in HD quality.

The benefit of this camera is that it has infrared function which enables to get better pictures no matter it is day or night and its auto focus option will give you clearer images. Its wireless feature enables it to transmit the videos and images to the computer without any hassles and if you have placed it anywhere on any different person than you can login from the internet and view the recordings and images captured by it.
The Spy Wireless Button Camera in Delhi is also made available because it is the hub of the media in this country and the various influential politicians, high ranked government officials and other VIPs are present here and so the reporters can work and reach to them with ease. Apart from the media people, this device can also be used by the common people to keep an eye on someone or at their homes and offices to know their situations and activities that prevail in their absence and can its user friendly functions makes it easy to use for everyone that it can be used by a child too.

So, these is a breakthrough in the field of covert devices and one can easily use it for surveillance  and security by the common people and the media persons will be able to work on sting operations and save this country while winning accolades and awards of bravery for themselves.

          pathetic whimpering        
i did something pretty stupid today. i couldn't sleep last night, even with all this in my veins, and i just kept thinking of Muad-Dib. so at about 0400 i wrote a letter to him. the handwriting was so shitty he probably won't even recognise it, on account of my hands shake at the best of times and it gets worse when i'm stressed. i'm not even sure what i said.

i guess the heart of it is that i still love him. i cannot forget that. his loss poisons me every day that i am still without him, like something inside my chest is rotting away. i find myself thinking that if i can't be by his side again, it would have been far better if i had never met him at all. i had never loved anyone before him - i told a few boys and a few girls that i did, but it was always the kind of situation where you're forced to say it back because they just did and you don't want to upset them, then you sort of come to believe that liking them is the same thing... then i ran into Muad-Dib and everything was different. i'd do anything to be back with him. it's fucked up but if he asked me to stab my dog in the heart, and then i could come back to him, i'd seriously consider it. my loyal, faithful Staffie dog, the best dog in the world, that tries to comfort me when i wake up yelling at night and licks my face if i cry, that i could take for a walk on the main roads without a lead if i wanted to because she sits down at every curb and waits for me to tell her it's okay to cross, that never disobeys a command, the best friend i have in meatspace - and i would probably murder that poor dog if it would bring back the man i loved. i'd give up decades of my lifespan. i'd let myself get sent to an asylum. anything. even after all the shit.

i don't have a clue if he would forgive me for depending on him for so long. he probably remembers months and months of him working, me doing nothing, him bailing me out each time i bought too much food and pushed my bank account into the infrared again. i was a massive drain on his finances. and because of my depression, i was close to catatonic for a lot of the time, which must have looked a hell of a lot like pure brazen laziness. like just basking in the free time, not having to work, getting while the getting was good. i will always regret that.

of course because i had been writing and thinking of him, the dreams were even worse last night. every so often i have this cruel dream that i'm with him; usually there's some surreal conflict going on, like this time he was choosing a woman to marry from a list. i screamed and begged and pleaded with him, as i've never done in waking life. "Just marry me!" i shouted. and he agreed. i was so fucking happy. just like the other times, he came back to me and took me in his arms, and i actually felt him hugging me and his hands in my hair, and everything was gonna be okay again, and then i fucking woke up and it wasn't true and once again there i was sobbing at six in the morning like a fucking fool. i still sent the letter.

all i can do now is try not to wait for any reply. i can't get my hopes up, because if i do and nothing happens, or worse, he replies and tells me he's found a real woman who's beautiful and sexy and has a nice clear sunshiny fucking mind, it will be like hearing him leave me all over again.

this has come about as a result of all the promotion of Valentine's Day, of course. i suppose all the bitterness sank into my brain until it vomited. i doubt it was a good idea to send anything - tomorrow he will in all likelihood either get drunk with his mates, all of whom i also miss, and go to a club and pull some pretty girl, or if he has already replaced me, he will be writing her a poem and giving her roses. i will be alone in the house (my parents will be having a nice dinner somewhere) with the dog. i will probably raid my dad's stash of cider, get wasted, feed cake to my favourite hen Steve McQueen (she may as well have a nice dinner too), and hopefully fall asleep without any fucking dreams.

fuck. what a pathetic screed. believe me, i would love to be able to "get over it" as common sense suggests. other forms of repair are progressing: i have been assessed by a psychiatric nurse and referred to a consultant psychiatrist who is coming to my house in a few days to see how fucked up i am; i have a stable if expensive source of medication from a prescriber who does not believe i am a lying crackhead; i have seen an orthopaedic specialist who has decided that my spine, while it is too curved, is not bad enough to qualify as "deformed" and therefore does not require surgery. i also need to thank everyone who has sent anything, be it money or food or anything else - it really, really does help, so thank you. on Valentine's Day, all of you who are happily ensconced in loving couples, maybe think about not snogging and giggling in front of your fucked up single acquaintances. throw us a fucking bone here.

          BattleBots Rivals Double Pack of Robots        
BattleBots Rivals Double Pack of Robots

BattleBots Rivals Double Pack of Robots

2 BattleBots Witch Doctor & Tombstone Easily rebuild the robots through its magnetic pieces for another battle Robots are controlled via infrared remote controller Batteries are included Age 8+

          426: APS-C or APS See Ya?        
Is Sony sounding the death knell for its APS-C line? Canon introduces the ME20F-SH, a full-frame, 35mm camera that can see in the dark. And Fuji goes infrared. Join Frederick Van Johnson and his guests Sean Bagshaw and Joseph Linaschke.
          Interview of Martin A. Pomerantz by Brian Shoemaker        
Interview of Martin A. Pomerantz by Brian Shoemaker Pomerantz, Martin A., 1916- Dr. Martin Pomerantz, a physicist who specialized in cosmic ray research, had a long and distinguished career in polar studies. As a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania he took a challenging course in 1938 at the Bartol Research Foundation of the Franklin Institute, a course called Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Physics. At the time researchers were using balloons and ships to determine how the intensity of cosmic rays, which came into the Earth’s outer atmosphere from space, varied according to geomagnetic latitude and the location of the Earth. There were only two locations on Earth –the geomagnetic pole in Antarctica, and a second one in northern Canada – where cosmic rays were not impeded by the earth’s magnetic field. Pomerantz found the graduate course at Bartol fascinating, decided to pursue a Ph.D. in physics, and started a long career that took him both to Antarctica and the Arctic region. It was the International Geophysical Year (IGY), from July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958, that inspired Pomerantz to concentrate on the polar regions. He and a Canadian colleague built a neutron monitor (something like a nuclear reactor in reverse) to detect sensitive cosmic rays. The Pomerantz monitor was placed on a Swedish ship that went from Gottinberg to Cape Town and back. The experiment was very successful, lasted for some years, and got definitive results on the question of the location of the geomagnetic equator, the point on Earth where cosmic ray intensity would be lowest. Conversely, the geomagnetic pole is the place where the geomagnetic intensity is highest. With a growing reputation, Pomerantz was invited by the Navy Hydrographic Office to put equipment in Project Magnet, an aircraft which produced definitive geomagnetic measurements in fairly close-spaced grids all over the Earth. These advances opened the door for him to participate in the IGY to undertake further cosmic ray research. Concurrently, Pomerantz also loaded an experiment in 1958 aboard Explorer VII, the first satellite to be launched under IGY auspices. James Van Allen, the noted physicist, also loaded some different experiments of his own on Explorer VII, which employed, in part, a Geiger counter. In 1959, encouraged by the progress made on various scientific fronts under the IGY, which ended December 31, 1958, the National Science Foundation established the Office of Polar Programs. In the spring of 1959, Pomerantz received a grant from the National Science Foundation to put a cosmic ray detector in the Antarctic. This was the beginning of his long association with Antarctica. Pomerantz started immediately on his new assignment. A Terry building, a modular unit built with copper shielding inside the whole building, was constructed at the Coast Guard Station at Baltimore, Maryland. Hugo Newberg, a friend from Bartol, joined the project, left immediately in mid-1959 for Antarctica, and oversaw installation of the building at McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. Data was transmitted by teletype using punched paper tape. Pomerantz did not join Newberg in Antarctica until November, 1960. As he arrived at McMurdo, a major solar flare was underway, and, for the first time, data on a solar cosmic ray event was observed at both ends of the earth. McMurdo was considered a 100% Navy base. Pomerantz and the other civilians were considered “visitors,” and stayed at a separate Jamesway hut. In addition to the two centers at Thule and McMurdo, two others were added later, at Swarthmore and the South Pole for a total in time of four neutron detector stations. Once this worldwide network was functioning exciting new discoveries were made. Studies were done on the way the solar wind interacted with cosmic rays, and how it changed with time. Eventually data was collected on three solar cycles. After two very successful years at McMurdo, the Navy decided to build a nuclear reactor there, and within 100 yards of the Cosmic Ray Station. Since such a plant would cause massive interference with the neutron detector, the Cosmic Ray Station was relocated to a completely new, larger, building three miles from the main base. The old building was moved to the South Pole in 1964, and so there were then two Cosmic Ray Detector Stations in Antarctica. That year – 1964 – was designated as the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY). Pomerantz was the US Chairman of that event. This was envisioned as a successor to the IGY of 1957-58, but it had better funding and a much greater participation. Over 50 nations took part. The South Pole was seen as the best location worldwide for cosmic ray research, and Pomerantz relocated to the South Pole to set up the new station. Over time, Pomerantz spent 26 different summers in Antarctica. Pomerantz and others saw an opportunity to do significant astronomical research at the South Pole. Arnie Wyler, a solar astronomer from Sweden, and Brad Wood, an astronomer from the University of Pennsylvania, joined Pomerantz. The location was ideal for astronomy since there is a constant background – nothing but snow – and any object in the sky is always at the same altitude, and is always there, day after day. Because of the extremely dry atmosphere it seemed particularly well suited to do infrared astronomy. Unfortunately their seven or eight proposals were all turned down. Finally, in 1978, using some surplus equipment from a Swedish observatory, Pomerantz and friends built a solar telescope that was specifically designed for use at the South Pole. Officially it was presented as a part of the cosmic ray program. For the first time anywhere a continuous solar flare patrol was achieved. New pictures were taken every ten minutes for over a week. There was no other place on Earth where this could be done. The results were so impressive that Eric Fossat, a French astronomer, an expert on helio-seismology, secured additional funding so that the new field of solar seismology could also be studied at the Pole. The National Science Foundation (NSF) approved a proposal and this resulted, among other findings, in the best observations ever made of solar oscillations of the sun’s vibrations. It’s the only technique that exists for studying the sun’s interior. One of the telescope pictures appeared on the cover of Nature in January, 1979. That same year a new building was constructed for this project. The outstanding results led to additional funding and support from the National Solar Observatory. Studies of solar oscillations and helio-seismology continued at the South Pole until 1974. In that year the program was shut down since everything had been accomplished that could be done at the time with available technology. In 1975 a new base, “New Pole,” was constructed, and the first one, “Old Pole,” was shut down. Initially no provision was made for cosmic ray facilities at “New Pole, but eventually Pomerantz also secured space there. So there continued to be two cosmic ray stations in Antarctica, one at McMurdo and one at New Pole. This second base at the South Pole became known as Skylab. Through the years equipment was expanded and modernized at both stations. Research on astronomy at the South Pole turned out to be “a spectacular success.” The program was expanded to include infrared or millimeter or sub-millimeter astronomy. In 1984 there was a joint research program with a French team, but the difficulty of getting adequate supplies of liquid helium (needed to cool the detectors) limited its success. Even so enough was accomplished to prove that Skylab was an excellent place to do microwave astronomy. By the time of Pomerantz’s last visit to the South Pole, 38 astronomers were working there, of which 4 or 5 would overwinter. It was decided to build a new observatory. The new AMANDA observatory built at the Pole was named the Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory. Leading Themes Distinguished career of Pomerantz for many years at South Pole & elsewhere Director of Bartol at the Franklin Institute Major innovations in the field of cosmic ray research Emergence of the South Pole as a major center for astronomy Founding of the Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory Research at the South Pole in helio-seismology International Geophysical Year Baird, George, physicist, pp. 42, 45 Bentley, Charlie, geophysicist, pp. 70-71 Fossat, Eric, French astronomer, pp. 51-52 Friedman, Herbert, nuclear physicist, p. 14 Holsrichter, Harry, Navy physician, p. 37 Jackson, Bernie, astronomer, p. 52 Jezek, Ken, Director of the Byrd Polar Institute, pp. 69-70 Jones, Tom, Haverford College, first Director, Office of Polar Programs, p. 21 Merrifield, Bill, theorist in helio-seismology, pp. 70-71 Newberg, Hugo, cosmic ray physicist, p. 24 Ramsey, Norman, nuclear physicist at Harvard, pp. 11-12 Simpson, John, nuclear physicist, University of Chicago, pp. 8, 14, 18 Stark, Tony, astronomer, p. 62 Van Allen, James, nuclear physicist, pp. 9, 13-14, 18 Wilson, Bob, Noble Prize astronomer (microwave background radiation), pp. 61-2 Wood, Brad, astronomer, p. 46 Wyller, Arnie, Swedish astronomer, p. 46
          wifi based home automation system over cloud using Arduino        

Wifi based Home Automation using ESP8266: Few weeks ago I posted Home Automations projects using various techniques such as Serial communication with PC home automation , Bluetooth based home automation, Infrared communication based home automation, Voice controlled home devices control system and  home automation from web page using Ethernet. Now I am using ESP8266 wifi module to control the devices using S Remote  Android Application. S remote application is free to download from Google Play store. In this wifi based home automation project over cloud using esp8266 wifi module, I will using wifi as wireless communication to control home devices.  In

The post wifi based home automation system over cloud using Arduino appeared first on Microcontrollers Lab.

          Project Engineer        
OH-MASON, The Superior Group is hiring Project Engineers for our client in Mason, OH. The experienced Project Engineer will have a broad range of experience and be joining the Test Engineering team. As a member of this team, you will manage and direct design engineers, test engineers, and technicians to develop test sets for Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, and Infrared Imaging products. This will entail managin
          New Product: Thermablaster Infrared Cabinet Heater        
Thermablaster RC9200IT 32,000 BTU Infrared Cabinet Heater
- Minimum BTU: 16000
- Maximum BTU: 32000
- Locking casters can keep heater securely in place or allow for easy movement
- Oxygen depletion safety pilot shuts down heater if used indoors in enclosed space
- Uses 20lb. propane tank (not included)
- Comes with regulator hose
- Heats up to 20 sq. ft.
- Dimensions: 16” (diameter) x 30” (height)
- Weight: 14lb.
- For outdoor use
- Price subject to change
$199.99 + FREE SHIPPING!!!

          NEET Environmental Issues MCQs May ’17        
1. Select the correct statements) regarding green house effect. (a) Much of the long wavelength infrared radiations re-radiated by the earth’s surface are absorbed by the atmospheric green house gases. (b) C02, CH4, CFCs and N20 are the gases which are responsible for green house effect. (c) The atmosphere is transparent to the incoming short- […]
          New Beginnings, Same Life Long Proccess        
I am BACK dear friends!

WARNING: You may want to get a juice, go the bathroom, or get a snack-- this is a weeks worth of insights and reflections!

So sorry for the disappearance act kids, but sometimes one has to take time to just be with oneself in order to sort out all that has been stirred up, shuffled around, reawakened and discovered, rejected and then lovingly embraced.

Since eating solid foods again, I feel like I have gone to the moon and back in terms of the emotional and physical ups and downs I have endured.

Essentially, I unfairly have put juice on a throne and convinced myself that by doing a long term feast it would magically "solve all my problems" and I would be trouble free at the "end" of this long hard journey. Well, folks, as much good as it did do, it certainly did not solve all of my problems and all last week I was first very angry at myself and could not stop blaming myself for not "sticking" the landing during my transition, which then spun into complete confusion with what to eat, how to eat and when to eat.

I felt like I was in the middle of a giant million piece puzzle completely overwhelmed with what goes where and what fits with what. Very overwhelming and troubling.

So I had this melt down, which clearly need to happen so that I could get back up and ask for help to gain some perspective.

I am so grateful to my fellow feasters and friends/family for giving me great advise and telling me your human and it is OK not to be perfect! It is ok to enjoy life and enjoy food and enjoy being who you are. Seems easy enough but this is so hard for me...especially in the nutrition realm.

The biggest shift happened just yesterday, when everything that I have been noticing about myself was affirmed by my friend and the very person who inspired me to do this in the first place: Carrie! For those who have not check out her blog yet, GO NOW it is amazing!!

So Carrie is an amazing Acupuncturist (among other things), so I decided it was time for me to try some of her magic out (which I highly recommend you do too!). Shockingly, I have never had acupuncture before and wasn't entirely sure specifically what I was going for, but the more I thought about it and talked to Carrie it became very clear. But first, let me go back a bit.

So many of you have commented on how much my body changed over the course of the feast and the most shocking difference to me was my face. I have always had puffy, water retention and what only can be described as stuck/stagnant energy from my throat up. JFing cleared all that retention out of my face and I could feel energy flowing freely threw that area. But now that I am eating again, it is slowly coming back and I am feeling that foggy, puffy, stuck feeling again.

Carrie explained to me that everything I was describing was linked to my spleen. (She also did a number of other things to determine this including check my pulses and tongue). My spleen I thought? Who would have guessed that this little, very underrated and talked about organ located smack in the middle of some better known power houses like the liver, pancreas and kidneys would be feeling neglected and in need of some serious TLC?

According to Chinese medicine the spleen is considered the "transformer" organ -- one that takes everything including thoughts, food, air, impressions, etc., that comes into our bodies and turns it into something we can actually use ( wisdom, energy).

See I always thought that I had an absorption problem, because it often feels like no matter how "good" or "healthy" I am, my body does not always feel like it is getting the nutrients it needs. But really that is just a symptom of a deeper issue -- transformation. If the spleen is weak and can't transform something into something my body can use, then of course I am not absorbing properly. So it's all connected, of course.

Speaking of which -- bare with me(!)-- the other interesting tidbit about a weak spleen is that it cannot tolerate much sweet in any form. This is another thing I have known about myself but kind of chosen to ignore, especially since being raw because I LOVE fruit, dates, figs, raisins, cookies, cakes, you name it. The spleen does need, however, a very tiny amount of sweet, but in the form of carrots, yams, sweet potatoes, squashes, parsnips, brown rice, quinoa and other whole grains, not concentrated sugars (dried fruit), fruit sugars or sweeteners.

Of course on the juice feast I so very much looked forward to my fruit juices and probably drank: 3 grapefruit, 4 oranges, 6 to 12 apples (depending), a whole small watermelon or pineapple, 4 pears, and 3 kiwis a day!! That is a lot of fruit! Oh, and what about all my coconut water??

Before the feast I would chow down on bags of figs, dates and raisins, which is a ton of concentrated sugars; would not hesitate to indulge in raw treats with tons of agave or raw honey in them and what about the 70 percent or higher chocolate, ahem?? POOR SPLEEN!

Also a weak spleen needs warm, cooked foods and does not like anything too cold or raw. YIKES! So interesting because I actually don't like cold things at all, and have had a hard time with the raw diet this way, because in order for things to warm up to room temp it can take about an hour and often I don't have the foresight or patience to wait that long. This has also lead to cooked food cravings.

Apparently all the yellow vegetables are great for the spleen including cooked root veggies that have some sweetness in them but less than fruit, such as carrots (in moderation), yams, sweet potatoes, squashes as well as whole grains, which I have to say I love and truly miss especially during the winter months.

The spleen also relates to "mother" and relationships to the mother, which is interesting because I definitely have some unresolved issues with my mom that need to be addressed (ughh). The spleen also likes touch, stretching and light exercise. I think that means MORE massages (are you reading this Michael? ;), but to pipe down a bit with the amount of exercise and yoga I do on a daily basis (too much of a good thing).

Carrie lovingly tapped several tiny tiny needles into the meridian points that corresponded to the spleen, kidneys (dark circles under my eyes), and Qi/Yin energy. She also did some points that stopped any bleeding ( we discovered together that the Cats Claw tincture I was putting in my juice was literally clawing my colon and causing some internal bleeding which I was seeing in my colonics and stools at home.), and draw energy up into my head and face. She also put an infrared heating lamp over my middle section which was so soothing and healing.

I felt completely amazing after the session. My bloated face and stomach had subsided substantially and I felt clear and energized yet grounded and at peace with myself and the world.

And this is why I have the courage and enthusiasm to write this post today! Before my treatment I just wanted to hide because I was so ashamed at myself for still feeling confused, making bad food choices and not knowing which puzzle piece fit where in the bigger picture of things. Now I have a focus and a mission: heal my spleen by drinking more spleen friendly juices, really be devoted to following the food combining principals, be very moderate with sugars of all sorts and even cut out fruit entirely for a couple of days and start incorporating small amount of cooked root veggies and grains into my diet at night. I think this is going to help me be a little less ridged, more grounded and be sweeter to myself with out having to actually eat sweets! The sweet qualities come in so many forms and the forms I have been choosing in the past have been holding me back from my true transforming super powers.

Today I had:


32 oz: water, probiotic, lemon, cayenne pepper, zeolite
2 oz: Aloe vera juice mixed with 8 oz water ( to sooth the belly)
4 Internal movement formula capsules

24 oz carrot, daikon radish, celery, summer squash
24oz cucumber, parsley, celery
32 oz Italian Stallion
24oz Green Lemonade with just one tiny apple (just ONE!)


Cucumber, tomato, smoked apple dulse, avocado salad with Nama Shoyu (raw soy-sauce), and raw apple cider vinegar over Mache greens, yum!


Steamed root vegetable platter over 1/4 cup quinoa with miso/tamari/hempseed oil dressing --deeply satisfying!


32 oz: water, probiotic, lemon, cayenne pepper, zeolite
12 oz: Slippery Elm tea (good for soothing a clawed tummy)

NO SWEETS! Wow, this may be a first, EVER!

Other life practices I did today included:

Body/tongue brushing and scraping
Contrast Shower
Rebounding, 30 mins
Light yoga stretches at home
Light Walking, 1 hr
Shoulder and neck massage from Michael (now we're talking!;)

So they moral of the story (or epic) is ask for what you need, listen to your intuition and don't place all your eggs in one basket and give it too much power. All the power you need you already have and it is within oneself.

Be flexible and open to change as it occurs because it will and look at your mistakes as blessings and opportunities for growth.

And most importantly try to see and feel the joy in this often fractured life. Within the uniqueness of each of us lies our true beauty. If we were all the same, how boring this world would be. Diversity is a wonderful thing!

Be well and more transformational stories soon.

          Pure Energy: Michigan Energy Club Co-founder Ashwin Salvi settles in at ARPA-E        
UMEI Category: 

Ashwin Salvi, a University of Michigan Mechanical Engineering Ph.D graduate and Michigan Energy Club co-founder is applying the interdisciplinary energy experience he gained at U-M as a Fellow at the Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E) focusing on combustion systems and engines. Based in Washington, D.C., ARPA-E Fellows assist the agency in identifying possible breakthrough energy technologies through technical and economic analyses. During their two-year tenure, ARPA-E Fellows undergo a full-immersion experience in energy technology development, engaging with world-class researchers in academia and industry, entrepreneurs, and government officials.

Salvi’s extensive background in energy and research has played a big part in being selected for the competitive position. Salvi received his Master’s and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Michigan under the supervision of Dennis Assanis and John Hoard. His Master’s thesis investigated the impacts of alternative fuels (bio-diesel, jet fuel, synthetic jet fuel) on diesel combustion, emissions, and engine performance during steady state and transient engine operation. For his Ph.D. thesis, Salvi developed and applied a novel methodology to experimentally determine the in-situ thermo-physical properties of nano-particulate deposit layers in a specially constructed heat exchanger using infrared thermography.

When he was not studying, Salvi also found time to serve as the co-founder and Vice President of the Michigan Energy Club. It’s a student-run group composed of students and non-students, across academic disciplines, who share an interest in energy topics. Salvi believes the Energy Club’s broad mission, and his exposure to new ideas focused on energy spurred him to come to Washington D.C. and work at the epicenter of innovation, ARPA-E. “The idea behind the energy club was to make a group that didn’t have a bias toward a certain energy source,” Salvi explained. “We wanted to educate people who were interested in learning about all forms of energy and determine the things we need to learn about for years to come.”

Salvi hopes to use the fellowship to not only utilize his experience in combustion, but also to explore alternative fuel sources for engines (such as biomass), and how to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce pollution of engines, while exploring some of the opportunities surrounding distributed generation systems. By working with ARPA-E Program Directors, Fellows are encouraged to investigate new program areas of interest and to undertake independent exploration of promising future research areas for the Agency. They also have the opportunity to host workshops to learn more about the state of the art in certain technical fields, establish potential program metrics, evaluate proposed project concept papers and full applications, and perform project site visits to evaluate progress.

Of the two-year fellowship, Salvi says, “I’m hoping the experience itself will change what I want to do. ARPA-E is focused on the development and deployment of disruptive energy technologies, a task that is neither straightforward nor singular. For the future, I think it would be interesting to be on the interface of science and policy. I think I can make an impact with policy and help advocate for energy technology to get to the next level.”


To learn more about ARPA-E, click here.

To learn more about the Michigan Energy Club, click here.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014

          Mathematics for Chemistry        
Mathematics for ChemistryThis interactive electronic textbook in the form of Maple worksheets comprises two parts.

Part I, mathematics for chemistry, is supposed to cover all mathematics that an instructor of chemistry might hope and expect that his students would learn, understand and be able to apply as a result of sufficient courses typically, but not exclusively, presented in departments of mathematics. Its nine chapters include (0) a summary and illustration of useful Maple commands, (1) arithmetic, algebra and elementary functions, (2) plotting, descriptive geometry, trigonometry, series, complex functions, (3) differential calculus of one variable, (4) integral calculus of one variable, (5) multivariate calculus, (6) linear algebra including matrix, vector, eigenvector, vector calculus, tensor, spreadsheet, (7) differential and integral equations, and (8) probability, distribution, treatment of laboratory data, linear and non-linear regression and optimization.

Part II presents mathematical topics typically taught within chemistry courses, including (9) chemical equilibrium, (10) group theory, (11) graph theory, (12a) introduction to quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, (14) applications of Fourier transforms in chemistry including electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, microwave spectra, infrared and Raman spectra and nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectra, and (18) dielectric and magnetic properties of chemical matter.

Other chapters are in preparation and will be released in due course.
          (OS2108) Vacancy & Occupancy Wall Sensor        
(OS2108) Vacancy & Occupancy Wall Sensor

Product Description

• Passive Infrared (PIR) Technology
• Replaces a standard light or fan single-pole switch

Price: $16.50

           Paramagnetic, near-infrared fluorescent Mn-doped PbS colloidal nanocrystals         
Turyanska, Lyudmila and Moro, Fabrizio and Knott, Andrew N. and Fay, Micahel W. and Bradshaw, Tracey D. and Patane, Amalia (2013) Paramagnetic, near-infrared fluorescent Mn-doped PbS colloidal nanocrystals. Particle and Particle Systems Characterization, 30 (11). pp. 945-949. ISSN 0934-0866
سیاهچاله های فضایی، نابود کننده ستارگان
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• ۵۰ سال است که محققان بویژه نوع حریصی از سیاه چاله ها را مشاهده می کنند. از آن جا که سیاهچاله ها نوری منتشر نمی کنند، معمولا نامرئی اند. زمانی که ماده می بلعند در معرض توجه قرار می گیرند؛ این واقعه به صورت غیره منتظره ای به ندرت اتفاق می افتد. گاز، گرد و غبار و ستارگان در مدار ثابتی به دور ان چرخیده، اما به درون آن جذب نمی شوند. تنها زمانی که مقدار بزرگی ماده به درون آن بیافتد، گرسنگی سیری ناپذیر آن از دور قابل رویت است ...

 Ø³. بردلی سِنکو (سمت چپ) بمثابه فیزیکدان نجومی برای ماموریت-سویفت در مرکز پرواز گودارد ناسا تحقیق میکند. نایل گرلز مدیر لابراتور فیزیک ذرات فضایی این مرکز، تا زمان فوت اش در فوریه 2017 بوده است. او محقق
ارشد ماموریت سویفت و تلسکوپ های Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope و   Space Telescope Fermi Gamma-ray بوده است.

تقریبا هر کهکشان بزرگ، از جمله کهکشان راه شیری، در مرکز خود یک راز کیهانی پنهان دارد: یک سیاه چاله کلان جرم. این جسم عجیب آسمانی دارای جرمی برابر با میلیون ها تا میلیاردها بار جرم خورشید در فضایی به مساحتی کوچکتر از منظومه شمسی بوده و متناسبن نیروی گرانشی فوق العاده ای به محیط پیرامون خود وارد میکند. اختر شناسان خواهان تحقیقِ رفتار و رشد این اجسام بوده تا از این طریق شکل گیری و توسعه کهکشآنهایی که آنها را احاطه کرده اند ،بهتر بشناسند.

از آن جا که سیاهچاله ها نوری منتشر نمی کنند، معمولا نامرئی اند. زمانی که ماده می بلعند در معرض توجه قرار می گیرند؛ این واقعه به صورت غیره منتظره ای به ندرت اتفاق می افتد. گاز، گرد و غبار و ستارگان در مدار ثابتی به دور ان چرخیده، اما به درون آن جذب نمی شوند. تنها زمانی که مقدار بزرگی ماده به درون آن بیافتد، گرسنگی سیری ناپذیر آن از دور قابل رویت است.

50 سال است که محققان بویژه نوع حریصی از سیاه چاله ها را مشاهده میکنند: در سال 1963 ستاره شناس مارتن اشمیت کوازارها (اختروش ها) را کشف کرد. این پدیده اسمانی، که واقعا جنجالی ترینِ این پدیده هاست، هسته فعال یک کهکشان بوده که درخشان تر از میلیاردها ستاره میدرخشد. احتمالا این فقط به آن خاطر ممکن است که ابرهایی از گرد و غبار و گاز ،صدها و یا هزارن میلیون سال ،مارپیچ گونه به درون این سیاه چاله کلان جرم کشیده شده و در این میان به نحو شدیدی فشرده و داغ میشوند که برای مدت زمان طولانی شدیدتر ازهر جسم دیگری در جهان درخشان تر میدرخشند.

متاسفانه اختروش ها نسبتا نادر بوده و همچنین از ما بسیار دور هستند. از آن جا که آنها فقط به اندازه کسری از طول عمرِ سیاهچاله پنهان شده در مرکزشان میدرخشند، اطلاعات زیادی درباره کل روند فرگشت سیاه چاله ها به دست نمیدهند. اگر چه از طریق اندازه گیری سرعت ستارگانی که بدور سیاه چاله در یک مدار بسیار نزدیک میچرخند میتوان جرم آن سیاه چاله را محاسبه کرد، اما این ستارگان باید به اندازه کافی نزدیک باشند-در درون کهکشان راه شیری یا در کهکشان همسایه- تا ما بتوانیم بوسیله تلسکوپ هایمان تک تک ستارگان را از یک دیگر تفکیک و جدا کنیم.

در سال 1988 ستاره شناس بریتانیایی مارتین رییس متد بررسی دیگری را پیشنهاد کرد، که تازه زمان کوتاهی است که شروع به نتیجه دادن کرده . به جای آن که تشعشعات اختروش ها و یا سرعت ستارگان در مدارهای بسیار نزدیک به سیاهچاله ها را مشاهده کرد، میتوان صاعقه های نورانیِ کوتاه و روشن در نزدیکی مراکز کهکشان ها را جستجو کرد. آنها هنگامی اتفاق می افتند که یک سیاه چاله کلان جرم، ستاره ای را ببلعد. این عمل ( (TDEs یعنی حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد نام نهاده شد. از آن جا که نابودی ستاره نه چند هزار سال بلکه چند ماه بطول می انجامد، می توان این روند را از شروع تا پایان دنبال کرد. آنها بسیار درخشان و حتی در کهکشان های دور دست هم بخوبی مشاهده می شوند.
چطور نیروهای جاذبه عظیم یک ستاره را تکه پاره می کنند

حوادث تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد در واقع به همان علت واقع می شوند که جرز و مد. در جزر و مد زمینی اکثرا ماه مسئول است. کشش گرانش ماه بر روی سمت نزدیک تر کره زمین به خود، بیشتر از سمت دورتر آن بوده و این نابرابری باعث نیروی جزر و مد می شود. این نیرو بر روی دو سمت کره زمین باعث بالا آمدن موضعی سطح دریا شده که بمثابه مَد قابل رویت است. به این ترتیب اگر یک ستاره در چنگال سیاه چاله ای کلان جرم گرفتار آید، تفاوت های فوق العاده تکه پاره اش می کنند. جزئیات ،به اندازه هر دو جرم آسمانی بستگی دارند. یک جسم کوچک متراکم، مانند کوتوله های سفید, بهتر از یک ستاره عادی از جنس خورشید خودمان در مقابل چنین نیروهایی مقاومت می کند. یک توپ بولینگ هم در مقابل یک پشمک به مراتب سخت تر تکه تکه خواهد شد. بزرگترین سیاهچاله ها که جرمشان چند میلیارد برابر جرم خورشید است حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد ایجاد نمی کنند: آنها ستاره را قبل از اینکه نیروی جزر و مد به اندازه کافی بزرگ شود،می بلعند. برخلاف آن نیروهای ساطع شده از یک سیاه چاله با جرمی میلیون ها برابر جرم خورشید، هر ستاره ای را که به فاصله ای کمتر از 50 میلیون کیلومتری آنها (یعنی تقریبا فاصله بین خورشید و عطارد) برسد، تکه تکه می کنند.
فروپاشی ستاره آغاز یک آتش بازی تماشایی است. قطعات ستاره، به تدریج مدارِ توسطِ ستاره مشخص شده را ترک می کنند. تقریبا نصف این مواد رشته های طولانی ای تشکیل داده و از سیاه چاله دور می شود، در حالی که نصف دیگر این مواد به صورت قرص برافزایشی (ساختار دیسک مانند از ماده)(1) شروع به چرخش کرده، شکل مارپیچ مانندی ایجاد شده که محتوی آن آهسته جذب سیاه چاله می شود. این مواد تقریبا سرعت نور را حاصل می کنند و تحت نیروهای گرانش و اصطکاک فشرده شده و دمای آنها تا 250000 درجه سانتی گراد بالا می رود و شروع به تابش می کنند. برای چندین هفته یا ماه سیاه چاله ای که قبلا نامرئی بود، با چنان شدتی می تابد که تمامی ستارگان کهکشان خود را تحت شعاع قرار میدهد.

سیاهچاله ها را رصد تابش یا پرتویی بدست میدهد که در جریان نابودی سریع ستارگان عظیم توسط نیروهای جزر و مد آزاد میشود.

به ندرت و به سختی قابل اثبات

اگر چه نظریه پردازان این پدیده را ده ها سالِ پیش ، پیش بینی کرده بودند، تخریب این چنینی ستارگان که بسیار نادرند به تازگی در سال 2000 کشف شد. تخمین زده می¬شود که چنین پدیده هایی در یک کهکشان به بزرگی کهکشان راه شیری هر 100000 سال یک بار اتفاق می افتند. علاوه بر این تنها با دشواری مشاهده می شوند. بر طبق مدل های نظری ساده ،قرص برافزایشی (ساختار دیسک مانند از ماده) (1) در طیف اشعه X ملایم تا امواج ماورا بنفش تابش می کنند؛ این طول موج ها به دشواری برای تلسکوپ های ما قابل دسترسی هستند، چون گرد و غبار بین ستاره ای و جو زمین در دسترسی به آنها اختلال ایجاد می کنند.

بر پایه همین مدل ها ، ستاره شناسان می توانند از یک حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد ،با دقت زیادی جرم سیاه چاله ای را تخمین بزنند که باعث این نمایش شده. در این رابطه، زمانی اندازه¬گیری می¬شود که نشانگر طول مدتی است

که حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد حداکثر روشنایی خود را بدست می آورد. این به نوبه خود نشان میدهد که با چه سرعتی قرص برافزایشی (ساختار دیسک مانند از ماده) تشکیل شده و ماده به سیاهچاله وارد می کند. حوادث تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد بخاطر روشنایی فوق العاده شان، خبر از جرم های مختلف سیاهچاله های کلان جرم دارند. پدیده دیگری این توانایی را ندارد.

اولین نامزدهای حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد در اطلاعات ماهواره اشعه X روسات ROSAT و تلسکوپ ماورای بنفش کیهانی، کاوشگر تکامل کهکشان ردیابی شدند. آنها بمثابه فوران پرتو هایی بودندکه هفته ها و ماهها طول کشیده، و در مرکز کهکشانهایی که قبل از آن غیر محسوس بودند اتفاق افتاده و به بدین خاطر توجه را به خود جلب کردند. این کشف ها قلمروی جدیدی برای تحقیقات پایه گذاشتند. با این حال ستاره شناسان به اطلاعات قدیمی وابستگی داشتند و نمی توانستند این پدیده را در زمان وقوع و بر روی طول موج های زیادی بررسی کنند. محققان باید یا بسیار خوش شانس می بودند که حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد را هنگام وقوع به دام انداخته و یا مجبور بودند که بخش های بسیار بزرگی از آسمان را دائما زیر نظر می داشتند.

خوش بختانه در سال های اخیر از طریق پیشرفت در پردازش اطلاعات و سنسوریک (Sensorik) ، الگو برداری از آسمان در سطح بسیار گسترده امکان پذیر شده است. امروزه یک دوربین پرقدرت، توانایی آن را دارد که بیش از یک درجه مربع از زاویه، از بخشی از آسمان را در یک عکس جا دهد. از طریق الگوبردای تکراری از بخش های بزرگی از آسمان و مقایسه دیجیتالی نتایج، می توان حتی پدیده های ضعیف و موقتی را تشخیص داد.

در ابتدا قرار بود که آنها ابر نواخترها و سیارک ها را شناساسی کنند، اما آنها توانایی بسیار بیشتر از این دارند. از آن جا که آنها شب به شب نور میلیون ها کهکشان را دریافت می کنند، تخریب های نادر ستارگان را هم حس و ردیابی می کنند.

جزئیات شگفت انگیز تخریب یک ستاره

زمان کوتاهی پس از شروع کار Pan-STARRS ، تیم اختر شناسی بنام سووی گیزری در سال 2011 جزئیات غافلگیر کننده نابودی یک ستاره را کشف کرد. آنها حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد بنام PS1-10jh یک سیاه چاله راکشف کردند که جرمش 2 میلیون برابر جرم خورشید بوده و در یک کهکشان که 2.7 میلیارد سال نوری از ما فاصله داشته، اتفاق افتاده است. از آن جا که این حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد زمان کوتاهی بعد از جمع آوری اطلاعات جلب نظر کرد، این تیم برای اولین بار توانست فرگشت حادثه تخریب کننده ناشی از جزر و مد را در طیف امواج قابل روÛ
          air jordan 6 infrared release date 2012 より この記事で作ったサンプルはここからダウンロード出来ます。 へのコメント        
Noun 1. state of California. Centered on the cities of Los Angeles and San Diego, Southern California is home to nearly 24 million people and is the nation's second most populated region, at the site.
          Indoor Infrared Lantern Heater        
Indoor Infrared Lantern Heater
Unlike the traditional utilitarian space heaters, this one can be proudly put on display to add warmth and flickering candlelight to any room.

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          The best 'budget' barbecue grill I've found: Char-Broil Performance TRU Infrared 480        

[caption id="attachment_413075" align="alignright" width="277"]A lovely flame on my Char-Broil.
A lovely flame on my Char-Broil.[/caption]

Until I tried shopping for a barbecue grill, I had no idea how hard it would be.

 Choosing a good one for my home on my  budget range, around $200 to $300, turned out to be pretty complex. But I found one I love, and have used it regularly for a month now: the Char-Broil Performance TRU Infrared 480.

There are so many factors that go into filtering through barbecue models. What kind of fuel: coal, rocks, gas, or—this surprised me—electric? What shape, what size? If gas, do I need a propane tank or can I hook it up to my home's natural gas line? How "portable" is a portable grill? What exactly is a hibachi, really? And what is it made of: stainless steel, aluminum, porcelain?

[caption id="attachment_413895" align="alignnone" width="1045"]It all tasted as good as it looks. First grilling on my new Char-Broil.
It all tasted as good as it looks. First grilling on my new Char-Broil.[/caption]

I knew what I wanted: a standalone barbecue I could quickly fire up, use, and clean without a lot of hassle. I wanted portable to mean I could roll it around the backyard, and store it easily. It had to be durable and sturdy enough to last me more than a year of steady use.

However, I am a price realist. I don't expect a $200-300 grill to last a lifetime. I just ask that it grill meats and veggies evenly with good temperature control for strategic grill locations (RIP Mitch Hedberg).


High-end grills start at around $1,000 and easily surpass $10,000. I was looking more at modest grills. I needed a good size cooking area to handle parties for 10 to 20 people.

On the lower end of the price spectrum you find charcoal hibachis. They have their place in my BBQ world. Some of the electric and portable hibachis make great camping tools. But I was looking to host get-togethers in my backyard. I wanted a gas grill because it's not messy like charcoal. I wanted the fuel to be propane gas. Hooking up to the natural gas line (like my stove does) wasn't an option in my apartment complex.

ezgif-936700265I came across the Char-Broil on Amazon, and I liked what I saw.

Char-Broil has a number of product lines for standalone grills priced along features and build quality. The Commercial Series looked great, but I thought that Performance Series gave the perfect balance of build, size and power within my price range. It had Char-Broil's recently upgraded TRU-Infrared™ grill technology, which is their patented radiant heat cooking design.

[caption id="attachment_412958" align="alignnone" width="1258"]A blurb from the company's website.
A blurb from the manufacturer website.[/caption]


          Harga Smartfren Andromax C3 2015 dan Spesifikasi Lengkap        

Harga Smartfren Andromax C3 2015 dan Spesifikasi Lengkap - Smartfren baru-baru ini telah meluncurkan smartphone terbaru penerus Andromax C2 yakni Andromax C3. Menariknya harga Smartfren Andromax C3 tersebut malah dibanderol lebih terjangkau dari Andromax C2. Memang dari segi kemampuan keduanya bisa disetarakan, mengingat keduanya pun mengusung spesifikasi yang sama persis mulai dari ukuran layar, kamera, processor dan internal memori. Hanya saja dari segi desain, masih terlihat lebih elegan Smartfren Andromax C2.

Selain itu juga Smartfren Andromax C3 dibekali fitur audio Snapdragon Audio+, berbeda dengan Andromax C2 yang dibekali fitur audio Dolby. Untuk layar, Smartfren Andromax C3 juga berukuran 4.0 inci dengan resolusi WVGA 800x480 piksel kerapatan 233 ppi dan menggunakan jenis TFT. Di sektor hardware sama saja yakni mengandalkan processor Qualcomm Snapdragon 200 Quad-Core 1.2 Ghz Cortex-A7 dibarengi GPU Adreno 302 dan RAM sebesar 512 MB. Kamera pun tetap sama sebesar 3 megapiksel tanpa autofokus, LED Flash dan kamera depan.

Berikut spesifikasi Smartfren Andromax C3

Dimensions / Weight
123 x 63,8 x 10,7mm/
TFT Touchscreen

4 inci, WVGA (480x800 piksel)
Alert types
Vibrate, ringtone MP3

Yes, jack audio 3,5mm


Slot microSD up to 32GB



CDMA 2000 EVDO 1x Rev A (3,5G)

Yes, WiFi, WiFi Hotspot

Yes, 4.0 support A2DP


3 MP


Video Record
Android 4.4 KitKat

Chipset Qualcomm Snapdragon Dual-core 1,2GHz Cortex-A7, GPU Adreno 302


SMS, MMS, email, IM, push mail, RSS

Harga Nokia Lumia 530 2015 dan Spesifikasi Lengkap - Setelah Nokia Lumia 630, kini giliran Nokia Lumia 530 yang menyambangi pasar Indonesia. Bahkan kemampuannya cukup bersaing dengan Nokia Lumia 630 dan hampir setara. Menariknya lagi Nokia Lumia 530 dibanderol dengan harga yang jauh lebih terjangkau dari Lumia 630 dan bahkan Nokia X2. Kekurangannya terdapat pada besaran RAM yang sekedar 512 MB saja, namun jangan khawatir Microsoft menjanjikan performa tinggi lewat Windows Phone 8.1 tersebut.

Layarnya tidak jauh berbeda dengan Nokia Lumia 520 yakni sebesar 4.0 inci dengan resolusi FWVGA 854x480 piksel kerapatan 245 ppi dan menggunakan jenis TFT. Di sektor hardware mengandalkan processor Qualcomm Snapdragon 200 Quad-Core 1.2 Ghz dibarengi GPU Adreno 302 dan RAM sebesar 512 MB. Processor tersebut digunakan juga oleh Smartfren Andromax i3s dan terbukti berhasil setara dengan Snapdragon 400. Kamera juga tetap sama dengan Nokia Lumia 520 yakni sebesar 5 megapiksel tanpa fitur autofokus, LED Flash hingga kamera depan seklipun.

Berikut spesifikasi Nokia Lumia 530

GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 - SIM 1 & SIM 2

HSDPA 900 / 2100
Dimensions / Weight
119.7 x 62.3 x 11.7 mm/129 gram
TFT capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors, multitouch

480 x 854 pixels, 4.0 inches (~245 ppi pixel density)
Alert types

MP3, WAV ringtones

Yes, jack audio 3.5mm


microSD, up to 128 GB

4 GB, 512 MB RAM


HSDPA, 21 Mbps; HSUPA, 5.76 Mbps

Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n, Wi-Fi hotspot

v4.0, A2DP


microUSB v2.0
5 MP, 2592 x 1936 pixels, 1/4" sensor size


Video Record
Microsoft Windows Phone 8.1

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United States v. Williams, et al., No. 15-15460 (August 1, 2017) (Jill Pryor, Jordan, Proctor), the Court affirmed the defendants' MDLEA drug convictions and one defendant's failure to heave to conviction, but found insufficient evidence to support the remaining defendants' convictions for aiding and abetting the failure to heave to.

The Court rejected the defendants' three evidentiary arguments.  First, it rejected the argument that the district court improperly admitted expert testimony regarding IoScan results reflecting traces of cocaine on the vessel.  The Court rejected the argument that, although the witness was an expert in operating IoScan machines, he was not an expert in interpreting its results; and it rejected the argument that the expert's testimony should have been excluded under Daubert or Rule 403 because it could not definitively answer every question about the presence of cocaine on the vessel.

Second, the Court rejected the argument that the district court improperly allowed Coast Guard officers to provide lay opinion testimony that objects jettisoned from the vessel resembled cocaine bales found in prior drug interdictions.  That observation was properly admitted as lay, rather than expert, testimony because it was based on the objects' appearance and size using an infrared system, and did not require scientific or technical knowledge.  The Court rejected the defendants' argument, based on Jayyousi, that opinions offered by law enforcement officers do not automatically become expert opinions simply because they involve knowledge that pre-existed the instant investigation.

Third, the Court rejected the argument that the district court improperly admitted a "zarpe," a Colombian document including the names of the defendants and their ports of call, as unauthenticated and containing hearsay.  The government introduced evidence that the zarpe was authentic under Rule 901.  And it did not contain hearsay because it was offered to demonstrate that it was a ruse, not accurate.

The Court found sufficient evidence to support the defendants' drug conspiracy convictions, despite the fact that no cocaine was found on the vessel or in the sea.  The Court relied on the following facts: they were traveling at night in rough waters on a known drug trafficking route; the vessel was traveling in the opposite direction of where the captain initially said it was going; there was no fishing equipment on the vessel, which was registered as a fishing vessel; the crew members were observed throwing objects overboard; the officers found gasoline, a known masking agent; and the vessel behaved erratically.  The Court found sufficient evidence that the contraband was in fact cocaine based on officers' testimony about prior cocaine interdictions in that same area, the size/shape of the bales thrown over, and the IoScan results.

The Court affirmed defendant Williams' conviction for failing to heave to, because he was the master of the vessel, which sped up and made erratic movements after hailed by the Coast Guard.  The Court, however, reversed the remaining defendants' convictions for aiding and abetting that violation, because there was no evidence that they intended to aid and abet Williams' failure to heave to; the fact that they jettisoned the packages was insufficient.

          NEW PRODUCT – Adafruit AMG8833 IR Thermal Camera Breakout        
NEW PRODUCT – Adafruit AMG8833 IR Thermal Camera Breakout Add heat-vision to your project and with an Adafruit AMG8833 Grid-EYE Breakout! This sensor from Panasonic is an 8×8 array of IR thermal sensors. When connected to your microcontroller (or raspberry Pi) it will return an array of 64 individual infrared temperature readings over I2C. It’s […]
          NEW TUTORIAL: Create an Infrared Controlled Mouse with Arduino Micro, Leonardo, or Yun        
Introduction In this tutorial we’re going to use the mouse and keyboard emulation abilities of a variety of Arduino devices combined within infrared receiver to make a remote control mouse with some keyboard commands thrown in for good measure. There are a variety of reasons why you might want to create an infrared remote control […]
          Octarine Pi Camera, Raspberry Pi Camera Mod #piday #raspberrypi @Raspberry_Pi        
Peter Le Roux built an infrared Raspberry Pi based camera, which he calls the Octarine Pi Camera. After six months of fiddling, my infrared Raspberry Pi based camera is finished. Apart from a few software tweaks to interface properly with the mode switch, it’s working perfectly, and runs for about three hours on the RS775-7504 […]
          BOE Shield-Bot Navigating with Infrared Headlights        
Hello from Stephanie Lindsay, the lucky editor at Parallax Inc. I’ve just posted Chapter 7 of Robotics with the BOE Shield for Arduino. With IR LED/receiver pairs, the BOE Shield-Bot can detect obstacles and navigate around them. In this video clip the strategy is reversed – avoid open space instead of obstacles – so the […]
          ADDON T8L Wireless Bluetooth 4.0 Stereo Speakers        
ADDON T8L Wireless Bluetooth 4.0 Stereo Speakers

ADDON T8L Wireless Bluetooth 4.0 Stereo Speakers

Modern and stylish, well-built and heavy, Addon T8L takes your music to a whole new level with great fidelity sound and wireless possibilities. It is true hifi sound with a deep bass shrunk down to easily fit in all types of room and places. Play nice Music should be felt, not just heard. Our engineers have optimized the acoustic design to render stunning dynamics, deep bass and acoustic pressure in abundance. Power at the tip of your fingertips, so be nice. True power Our focus since the beginning in 1978 has been better bass from small enclosures. The Addon T8L is no exception. Wireless with Bluetooth 4.0 Addon wireless speakers use the latest Bluetooth ® 4.0 standard for best sound quality and transmission. You can play your music wirelessly from any Bluetooth devices; iOS ®, Android ®, Windows Phone ® and Mac / PC. Connected The Addon T8Ls remote commands can be transferred to your TV's remote. With analog and optical input, you can connect all your audio gear. AMPLIFIERS & DRIVERS Digital Class D amplifier, 2 x 30W ¾” textile dome tweeter 3.5” long throw woofer INPUTS Bluetooth standard V4.0 Aux In 3.5mm stereo TOSLink optical (PCM only) OUTPUTS USB for charging devices (DC OUT/max 5V 1000mA). RCA Sub Output FREQUENCY RANGE 53 – 25.000Hz DIMENSIONS HxWxD: 200 x 115 x 141 mm MORE Remote milled out of single block of aluminum. Transfer remote commands to TV remote (infrared).

          Copper Hanging Halogen Electric Heater        
Copper Hanging Halogen Electric Heater

Copper Hanging Halogen Electric Heater

Efficient, powerful and sleek, this hanging infrared electric heater is perfect for attaching to outdoor pergolas and will keep everyone toasty from above during cooler days or nights. In the latest copper coloured finish, this heater is a fashionable and functional way to heat your guests and keep everyone comfortable when the temperature drops. Eco friendly with no fumes or emissions and providing more than 5000 hours of instant heat, our hanging copper heater will be sure to keep you warm all year round. Key Features Wattage: 1500W No. of heat settings: 1 Dimensions: H31 x D43cm Colour: Copper

          Hanging Halogen Electric Heater        
Hanging Halogen Electric Heater

Hanging Halogen Electric Heater

Efficient, powerful and sleek, this extra large hanging infrared electric heater is perfect for attaching to large outdoor pergolas and will keep everyone toasty from above during cooler days or nights. With a stylish and smart aluminium construction, this heater is a fashionable and functional way to heat your guests and keep everyone comfortable when the temperature drops. Eco friendly with no fumes or emissions and providing more than 5000 hours of heat, this hanging heater will be sure to keep you warm all year round. Key Features Wattage: 2100W No. of heat settings: 3 Dimensions: H35 x D60cm Colour: Silver

          Automatic Passenger Counter User Group Meeting        

Accurately recording ridership data is a necessity for any public transportation system. By keeping an up-to-date and reliable record of ridership data, such as how many riders use a particular route and at what dates and times, systems can better plan route schedules and make the best decisions when developing transit plans for the needs of their communities. Several North Carolina urban systems met with other organizations earlier this year to discuss APCs and how they could benefit their services.

In February, Capital Area Transit in Raleigh hosted their annual meeting for North Carolina’s users of Automatic Passenger Counter technology. APC technology uses infrared beams to record boarding and departures at fixed-route bus stops. 

The meeting included representatives from eleven North Carolina urban fixed-route transit systems, the APC vendor – Urban Transit Associates of Cincinnati, OH, the N.C. State University Institute for Transportation Research and Education, and the N.C. Department of Transportation. During the meeting, the group discussed innovative practices in service planning and reporting using APC data.

The meeting was organized into the following four categories:
1.       Analyzing APC data to provide value to transit users;
2.       Successful methods for maintaining APC technology;
3.       How to use APC data for required annual reporting; and
4.       Best practices in collecting and analyzing APC information.

Each session consisted of up to five presentations, where experts shared their insights among the group. The presentation concluded with questions and discussion. The attendees left the meeting energized and excited to apply their new knowledge to improving transit service in their communities.

In order to get approval for using APCs, transit agencies must notify the Federal Transit Administration of when they plan to start using these systems, develop a plan to maintain the system, conduct approximately six months of testing to compare manual counts with counts from APCs and then finally compile their findings in a report.  

The NCDOT Public Transportation Division awards grant funds to local public transportation systems. These grants enable systems to provide people in all 100 counties access to education, job opportunities and health care.

For more information on grant programs through the Public Transportation Division of NCDOT, as well as transit systems that serve the public throughout the state, visit www.ncdot.gov/nctransit.

          Elegoo UNO Project Upgraded Smart Robot Car Kit V2.0        
Elegoo Smart Robot Car: An educational kit for beginners (kids) to get hands-on experience about Arduino programming, electronics assembling and robotics knowledge. It is an integration solution for robotics learning and made for Arduino education.  Complete Package: Contains 24 kinds of module parts including obstacle avoidance, line tracing module, infrared remote control and Bluetooth 2.0 […]
          Saab receives Self-Protection Systems order for H225M Caracal helicopters        
Defence and security company Saab has received a contract from Airbus Helicopters for the IDAS integrated electronic warfare self-protection systems for H225M Caracal multirole utility helicopters. Saab’s Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS) protects the crew by enhancing platform survivability in sophisticated, diverse and dense threat environments. The system provides timely warning against radar, laser and infrared (IR) guided threats and automatically deploys the appropriate cou...
          Simple Guide to Digital Infrared Thermometer        

The advance digital technology today sprouts forth advanced digital products such as the digital infrared thermometer that is a highly versatile tool for consumers in many sectors. The domestic, commercial and industrial sectors are enjoying the dynamics of the digital IR thermometer replacing the conventional gas and liquid options. History and Overview Conventional gas and […]

The post Simple Guide to Digital Infrared Thermometer appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Infrared Thermometer: Selecting the Best Digital Infrared Thermometer        

Quality infrared thermometers are highly useful to consumers in the domestic and industrial sectors requiring reliable temperature measuring devices. However, the selection process could prove to be a daunting task with the high imitations in the market that deceive unsuspecting consumers. Hence, it is necessary to be well-informed on the best characteristics of the infrared […]

The post Infrared Thermometer: Selecting the Best Digital Infrared Thermometer appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          IR Thermometers in the Competitive Market        

As technology advances, there are more dynamic developments in thermometers where sophisticated features such as infrared are incorporated for a wider range of industrial and commercial applications. Good thermometers are always desired to measure temperatures accurately and an infrared thermometer is ideal to measure the thermal radiation of an object. This is known as blackbody […]

The post IR Thermometers in the Competitive Market appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Infrared Thermometer Cooking Dynamics – Gun And Camera        

All passionate cooks or professional chefs would want every piece of tool that can contribute to sharpen their culinary skills in enhancing the outcome of their passion. It is not surprising then to note the infrared thermometer in the chef’s kitchen as this nifty gadget has become a necessity as part of the toolkit for […]

The post Infrared Thermometer Cooking Dynamics – Gun And Camera appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Discovering the Benefits of a Digital Infrared Thermometer        

The basic function of a infrared thermometer is to measure temperature. The more precise the thermometer is, the more accurate the temperature is measured. This would lead to a better decision on the next step of action required in an application which could save lives. Thermometers are commonly used to check for fever in humans; […]

The post Discovering the Benefits of a Digital Infrared Thermometer appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Benefits of the Infrared Thermometers        

A lot of hype and buzz is in the market on infrared technology and its applications; one of which is the infrared thermometer. There are many functional uses of the infrared thermometer to have it labeled as the best temperature run in the market. Its varied benefits boost its popularity among consumers in all sectors […]

The post Benefits of the Infrared Thermometers appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Benefiting from Infrared Thermometer Reviews        

Reviews are highly coveted by many quarters that require accurate and useful information concerning a product or service. This includes the use of infrared thermometer which are becoming more popular in the marketplace. However, the rapid changes in technologies generate some mistrust and doubt in the market as new technologies are quickly incorporated into such new […]

The post Benefiting from Infrared Thermometer Reviews appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Applications for the Best Thermometer Gun        

More and more consumers are turning to infrared technology where the infrared (IR) thermometer becomes a useful tool in their environment. Accurate temperature measurements are possible with a quick shot at the targeted object using the thermometer gun without contact. Heavy industries requiring accurate temperatures of extreme measurements can depend on the infrared thermometer gun […]

The post Applications for the Best Thermometer Gun appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Laser Technology: Advantages and Disadvantages of Laser Thermometers        

Modern technologies promote the emergence of new inventions that enhance lifestyle and work performance. The new scientific technology era brings on laser technology in the form of Infrared thermometer which is widely used in many scopes of life and industries for an accurate measurement of temperature on any object. A body or environment could be […]

The post Laser Technology: Advantages and Disadvantages of Laser Thermometers appeared first on Gun and Camera.

          Making Senses: How Biohackers Are Using Artificial Perceptions to Enhance Reality        

Most of us are content to use our existing five senses to see, hear, smell, taste, and touch our way through the world. But an increasing number of people called biohackers are not satisfied with watching the everyday brilliance of a sunset or petting a silky kitten. They want infrared vision and electromagnetic fingertips.

“Why wouldn't I want to add one more sense to the ones I already have and enjoy so much? The ability to feel just a little bit more?” Nic Fox asked reporter Catherine Girardeau. Fox has a device embedded in his chest that vibrates when he faces magnetic north.

To understand more about these would-be cyborgs we turned to Kara Platoni, author of We Have the Technology: How Biohackers, Foodies, Physicians and Scientists Are Transforming Human Perception, One Sense at a Time. Platoni is a science reporter and a lecturer at University of California, Berkeley’s Graduate School of Journalism. She describes how many biohackers feel the future hasn’t gotten here fast enough. They’re ready to be cyborgs now.

Show Clock

00:03 Intro
03:10 The North Sense
13:12 Interview with author Kara Platoni


Hosts: Michal Meyer and Bob Kenworthy
Guest: Kara Platoni
Reporter: Catherine Girardeau
Producer:  Mariel Carr
Associate Producer: Rigoberto Hernandez


Music courtesy of the Audio Network.

          Alive and Shine with Aadil and Savitri!: Encore Presentation: Detoxifying Your Body for Health & Energy        
GuestDetoxification is often thought as a one way street - focusing only on cleansing. But there are other ways to detoxify that are gentle to the body and nourishing. Aadil and Savitri will discuss ways to detoxify gently and effectively. Their guest will be Si Barghelame, owner and inventor of the SUNSAUNA, and infrared sauna combined with full spectrum light therapy.
          Alive and Shine with Aadil and Savitri!: Detoxifying Your Body for Health & Energy        
GuestDetoxification is often thought as a one way street - focusing only on cleansing. But there are other ways to detoxify that are gentle to the body and nourishing. Aadil and Savitri will discuss ways to detoxify gently and effectively. Their guest will be Si Barghelame, owner and inventor of the SUNSAUNA, and infrared sauna combined with full spectrum light therapy.
          Alive and Shine with Aadil and Savitri!: Light Therapy with Infrared Heat Saunas        
GuestAadil interviews guest Si Barghelame- Inventor of SunSauna.com Infrared saunas. Si holds a patent on his sauna because he combines the health benefits of full spectrum light therapy and infrared heat. If you suffer from lack of sunshine during the winter months, tune in and find out how to make every day a sunny day
          Blaze 32 4 Rear With Inch Burner Infrared Built In Propane Gas Grill        
Blaze 32 4 Rear With Inch Burner Infrared Built In Propane Gas Grill
          Dancing the Cailleach        

Carrying the Fire, Samhain, Rannoch Moor, 2015 

 Last month on the road to Holt in Norfolk a man came across a deer as he was speeding homeward. It was a fully pregnant doe. The man did an unprecented thing: he slit open the belly of the dead creature and delivered a live fawn.
I am holding a copy of the Eastern Daily Press where the story has just made the front page, in spite of all the terrors and hostilities clamouring for attention. The tiny fawn looks calmly outward, suckling on a bottle of milk, held in the large tattooed hands of the man.

When asked what made him stop that morning he said: 'It is perhaps something you will never come across again in your lifetime and I am just thankful that I knew what to do.'

The instructions were simple. Catch the 16:21 train from Glasgow to Fort William. Get out at Corrour and follow the stag.

Some part of us knows that beneath the noise and strife of the modern world, beyond the headlines, there is a deep place where our presence on the Earth is not for nothing. That when we come across it on an empty road at dawn we will know what to do. For thousands of years our negotiation with life was understood in terms of our relationship with the horned beasts we once lived alongside, and a mythical being, sometimes known as the Mistress of the Deer. In Scotland, and particularly in this part of the Highlands, she is known as the Cailleach (pronounced Call-y-ack). Samhain – All Souls, Day of the Dead and Halloween – is the time when the Cailleach, Queen of Winter, takes over the mantle of Earth from Bridget, the bright one, in a similar way the Oak cedes to the Holly at the summer solstice in England.  

The instructions were simple. 'You’re going to be the Cailleach' said Dougie, 'and dance to a piped lament on the moor.' '
It will be dark then,' I said. 
'Yes,' he said. 'Very dark. And maybe raining'.

So that was it how it was when we set out on a moonless wet night: Jack (the Stag), Wilf (the Wolf), Dougie and I on 30 October to walk the track toward Corrour station. I will bring up the rear, Dougie said. Martha (the Cook) remained at the hostel to hold the hearth. I was left on the hillside with instructions to light the fire (rags soaked in citronella) and start the music (in a box hidden by the rock) and do my thing.

I don’t really know what I am going to do of course. I have a red velvet dress on and a furry cape and a large fashion hat I have wreathed in birch twigs and barn owl's wings. A midge veil is covering my face - not that there are any midges at this time of year, though there are roving and rutting stags. One is out there. We have just seen him. He was massive and did not move away when Jack flashed his torch. I have done some challenging gigs in my time, but this has to be the mother of all of them.

ctf hostel
Carrying the Fire is a series of events created by artist and Dark Mountain curator Dougie Strang. So far there have been three, all set at Wiston Lodge on the Scottish borders. They have been small gatherings, for about 60 people, shaped in a similar way to the Uncivilisation Festivals – workshops, music, performance, discussion and of course a storytelling fire. This year's was a departure. It was for a smaller group (20) built around the festival of Samhain and located deep in the heathery heart of Rannoch Moor. We would be based at a wooden hostel, once the boathouse of the shooting lodge, beside Loch Ossian (Osh-een) at the foot of Beinn a’ Bhric, the Cailleach's mountain. The nearest road is 18 miles away.

The structure for the event was woven around three mythic stories embedded in this territory, which Dougie would tell over the weekend: on arrival beside the crackling stove with mugs of cocoa, by the Samhain fire, and on the platform of the highest station in Britain as we departed. On Saturday we would be taken by Neil Harvey (of Wild Journeys) up the mountain trails to do a 'Whakapapa' - a walking exchange between pairs of people, sharing our lifestories and geographies. On Sunday I would lead a workshop based on the Earth Dialogue and send folk out into the hills on their own. They would come back and relate what they experieced to each other in groups of four and then draw a collective dream map.

Like all Carrying the Fire events the fire would be a focal space where people sing and tell stories and pass round a bottle of malt. This part is mapped out. What we don't know is that Gavin will also pass quartz rocks around, so we can make sparks in the dark; that Ben and Darla and Tamsin will teach us a Georgian song taught to them by Ivan who used a giant staff to protect orphaned children; or that Jonny will read a passage about the last wolf making her trek across the snow fields of the north where the swans sleep. And out of the darkness a skein of whooper swans will fly over the loch, calling.  

The instructions were simple. You go out and stand in the land, you come back and relate what happened. What you say, what you do with what you know, is the thing that the Earth waits for. Your gift. What is that story? You forgot it. Ah. Here is a hint.

Arrive in the dark.
Follow the stag.
Wait for the people to come round the hill.

ctf 5-walking-gavin
When Jack comes round the corner his flambard has gone out. Luckily I can see a tiny infrared beam from his head torch. I leap into action -- light fire, switch on music -- and begin to sway, arms moving about like antlers and birch trees in the wind, boots anchored on the slippery rocky slope. I can't see or hear anything through the veil. I don't know whether anyone is there, or whether they have gone past. I keep dancing until I hear people howling and laughing in the distance. They have discovered Wilf! I gather everything up and go to find him. I feel exultant. '

You looked about ten foot tall!' exclaims everyone, when we walk back in (without costumes). 'And then you would disappear! And reappear. It was scary. It was magical!'
'Is dance your practice?' asks another. 'You were so rooted! '
No.' I laugh, 'but I do love to dance'. (I didn't like to say I couldn't move my feet in their massive boots on that rock in case I fell over).  

DSC_0383Samhain is a door. It is a door to the ancestors, and this is what we are doing up here, connecting with the ancestor that lives in our bones, out in the wild places. The Cailleach is the ancestor creator of these high places. Out of her creel she once tossed big stones that became the peaks that now tower above the golden deer grass and shiny lochans of the valley floor. She brings the cold sharp winds of winter, commands the weather and wildness. Her face is blue and sometimes veiled like the mist. In the spring she washes her plaid in the Corryvreckan whirlpool between Jura and Scarba, and then she turns into a rock.

We walk over this springy rocky rainsoaked moor, sprinkled with the flowers of heather and milkwort like a fading summer dress. I pocket the last of the year's bilberries and bearberries and Martha shows me some fragrant crackly leaves from a plant I haven't seen in years, bog myrtle, also known as sweet gale, and says she will make a tea from them all. A tea that will have the bitter taste of farewell.  

ctf 17-samhain-map-gavinSamhain is a door. Sometimes you need a set and a setting, a space, permission to do things differently: to dig deep, to sit alone, to dance in the night with a veil over your head. You don't know what will happen except something will happen. A small thing that makes sense of everything. That expectancy, that sharpness, that not-knowing is part of its territory.

I could tell you about the people who came, and the laughing around the tables as the feast of venison and pumpkin was served, or the sight of twenty pairs of boots hanging from the rafters, or the drama of crossing the stream, or how my Whakapapa companion, 18 minutes into his 20 minute story, told me that something dark happened on the mountain when his friend slipped and fell to his death. There were always hills and mountains, he said, that came at a pivotal point, that changed the direction of everything. The Dales, Mont Blanc, Glencoe. How that all our lifechanging territories and encounters that we recount on our return make some kind of collective pattern: woods which were torn down for houses, a tsunami in Sri Lanka that nearly drowned a family, a broken road in Iceland that snapped a connection between people, housing estates in Britain where art and writing reforged them.

I could tell you how how I woke to find Venus and a sickle moon in a clear sky and swam into the cold waters of the loch. How I watched the sun creep downwards from the peaks, turning the dun hillsides gold, the mountains like beasts crounching, attentive, so alive I could almost touch them. How the star Sirius rose over the mountain, as it has always risen over the mountain, heralding winter.

ctf deerskin
When Donald of the Brown Eyes hunts his last deer he slits open the belly and finds a ball of wool. It is the beginning of sheep herding in the Highlands and a domesticated relationship with the creatures. In modern Scotland deer are killed on the road, deer are shot by blood-hungry elites and deer (and sheep) chew every last tree standing. When the wolves and the Cailleach roamed on these mountains and the people met around the fire everything was held in balance. Something of that balance, what is sometimes called medicine, is contained in these old stories and in, we are hoping, this event.

Carrying the Fire's name is taken in part from the dystopic novel, The Road, where the father explains to his son that the purpose of being human is 'to carry the fire' and that if that spirit is lost the art of being human is also lost. The Cailleach is not human: she is a mythic being that lives deep in our bones and sinews, the parts of us that resonate with stones and wild weather. She reminds us of human beings' original bargain with Earth. Sometimes we need a reminder that she is still there, so we can carry the fire, come what may. So, in spite of living in a 24/7 world, we can mark time; in spite of living in a world where we are told we do not belong, we can make ourselves at home.

I took eight stones out of the loch and laid them on Jack's deer pelt. Here is a medicine wheel, I said: the blue stones represent the Earth cross and red stones represent the sun cross. The eight work like doors, marking gateways you go through. In the Americas the medicine wheel is about space and the directions that bring different challenges and riches. The north is where the ancestors live.

'The wheel of these British islands however is all about time. The stones mark a clock on which you can measure the time of the year and your own time and the time we are all in now – which is a time of breakdown and decay. What old forms need to go and what ancient roots need to hold fast in this time? What are we all doing here together at this moment with the ancestor mountain behind us and the lake of the bard before us?'

Everyone leaves and goes out on the pathways toward the hillsides. Some crouch down beside the loch or the roots of the birch trees at the back of the hostel. Some walk out of sight. I go out and sit on a rock striped with white quartz, and sing a chant to the mountain: it is a song that comes from the Andes, that comes from the Sierra Madre, that come from a sky island known as the Place of Many Springs. No one taught me that song.

beinn a bhric
Sometimes you contact something from the dark peaty layer, as Dougie calls the Cailleach's territory, that bursts through the dimensions, through time and space. It calls you to attention: the part of you that knows what to do when you find a dead deer on the roadway. You can deliver the fawn, you can do your thing in the dark and the rain. You can remember. Remembering can take you away from the light of the fire and the kitchen, and yet in the dark you feel you belong, you matter, in a way no culture, no family, no work, no political ideology, can ever make you feel. I am not sure I can take you there with words. I can show you the stones. I can dance. Everything else you walk yourself:

'It was not a psychological or therapeutic setting', wrote Caroline Ross, afterwards,
but a deeply connected almost mythic space.  As I have only seen properly described in the words of Riddley Walker, or perhaps the books of Ursula K LeGuin, People are not the only people there. Land, rocks, mountains and lakes, beings and heroes of the past, forces and gods are at the fireside too...
...if you showed me a far-off society where Samhain was celebrated as we did at Carrying the Fire, I would go into exile from this country to live there with those good people and become part of that culture. Ceremony, gathering together and marking the passage of the year and of our lives are so lost in the wider human culture in Britain from which I am mostly alienated, and manage to evade by living moored beside a tiny island in the middle of a river.
My heart was at home over Samhain, and through unparalleled good fortune, I was at home both culturally and geographically. People are made refugees every day and must leave their hearths for uncertain futures. Even within this country, Britons are displaced from the beneficial aspects of their culture and nature, by the market, homelessness, delusion and a thousand other causes.

But the deer are still here, and so are the mountains, and the wind, and there is still enough wood to make a fire. There are people who can still remember the stories that makes sense of everything, and the movements that are the shape of antlers or a tree moving in the wind. And if on a winter's day in the Highlands you hear a raven croak behind you, the Cailleach will still be there to show you her misty face that is sometimes blue.


Way out
Images by Gavin MacGregor, Sarah Thomas, Jonny Harris and Charlotte Du Cann.  

Charlotte Du Cann is an editor/art editor and distributor for Dark Mountain books. This weekend she is taking part in a series of DM workshops and talks, curated by co-founder Dougald Hine in Sweden. This month's will be based on her story about the Underworld The Seven Coats (Issue 6). charlotteducann.blogspot.co.uk. 

Keep an eye out for next year's Carrying the Fire/Dark Mountain gathering. Details to be announced next year.
          Help! My Hair is Ageing Faster than me!        

The hair, just like any other parts of the human body, is susceptible to the natural ageing process. As we become older, our hair experience gradual and significant differences in the colour, texture, thickness, health and manageability. And if you find that your hair is ageing faster than it should, this may have to do with three simple factors: stress, hormones, and diet.

Hair loss and thinning can be triggered by stress, and it causes the hair follicles go into non-growth state, stopping growth for a significant period of time.

Hormones have an effect similar to that of stress on your hair’s health. Fluctuations in hormone levels causes the body to experience stress, forcing hair growth to halt.

Nutritional deficiencies such as high cholesterol and insufficient Vitamin B, iron, protein, or Vitamin C can be one of the causes of ageing hair.

Interestingly, did you know that our hair has an 'age' too? I did not know it before, and only found out after a trip down to TK TrichoKare, the leading trichological centre in Singapore that features customised treatments validated by certified trichologists with products formulated by a professional herbalist.

And after a consultation with my friendly trichologist along with the Advanced Tricho Hair Test, came the BIG REVEAL...

I'm currently 40 years old BUT my hair is 48 years old!

According to my trichologist, ageing hair can be identified by 5 symptoms: thinning hair, grey hair, dryness, brittleness and lacklustre. She shared that as we age, our hair undergoes a severe transformation - the pigment cells gradually decrease which will slow down the production in melanin, resulting in grey hair.

A decrease in the production of collagen and elastin causes out hair to become dry and brittle. The hair follicle shrinks over time, the diameter of each individual hair reduces, resulting in thinning hair.

Which unfortunately, can be seen from an analysis of my scalp.

Healthy hair follicles usually have two or three strands of hair sprouting from them. Mine? As you can see, most of my hair follicles only have one strand... which spells trouble if I leave the problem go unchecked.

Fortunately, help is available at TrichoKare! My trichologist recommended TrichoKare's newest treatment programme, Advanced Age Defying Hair Treatment, an anti-ageing hair treatment that has been specially developed to help both men and women counteract age-related changes in the density and diameter of their hair.

Like all its other treatments, TrichoKare only uses premium European herbal hair remedies in its customised treatments so as to deliver a natural solution for its customers. And the Advanced Age Defying Hair Treatment features the latest innovative Oxyjet technology, which helps to replenish essential nutrients for the scalp and rejuvenate hair roots to restore youthful vitality to one's hair!

Using pulsed oxygen pressure, an infusion of pure oxygen and nutrients are "shot" into the deep layers of the scalp. The active ingredients are able to penetrate deeply into the scalp without needles, which means it is all gentle, effective and safe! This process also helps to increase blood circulation and encourage the production of collagen - resulting in hair growth and preventing hair loss.

And speaking of the active ingredients used in the treatment, emu oil and gingko biloba extract make up the mixture being 'blasted' into my scalp.

Both ingredients are known to be effective in counteracting ageing hair - emu oil is able to reactivate up to 80% dormant hair follicles, accelerate cell regeneration to stimulate hair growth, and boost the diameter and thickness of each hair while gingko biloba extract can boost collagen and melanin production to prevent greying hair, counteract signs of ageing scalp, and reduce hair loss.

Together with a hair tonic rub and Infrared Therapy Light, which served to improve the blood circulation beneath the scalp as well as to ensure that the tonic was further penetrated deep down to my hair roots, my Advanced Age Defying Hair Treatment was complete.

Collectively, the Advanced Age Defying Hair Treatment has 6 great benefits:

1. Detox Scalp

Enriched with a potent blend of botanical extracts, the treatment helps to deeply cleanse the hair roots which regulates excess sebum production, removes all dead skin cells and slows down scalp ageing.

2. Strengthen hair roots

The treatment infuses the hair with proteins to reduce hair breakage and improve hair elasticity. The presence of Capsicum Annuum extract with C-Complex vitamins helps to boost micro-circulation and strengthen the hair follicles.

3. Increase hair density

By strengthening the cohesion of keratin fibres to promote hair density, the treatment invigorates shrunken hair follicles and promotes hair follicle regeneration.

4. Moisture & Soften hair

Active botanical extract such as rosemary provides key nutrients to nourish the fibre and soften the hair from the roots, infusing vital nourishment and deep moisture for silky-soft texture.

5. Restore lustre

The presence of Camellia extract in the treatment enhances the hair's natural, glossy shine, restoring the hair's natural radiance.

6. Reverse grey hair

Possibly the best benefit for me - the treatment supports the production of melanin in the hair shaft which inhibits grey hair.

All well and good - BUT how did my scalp look like after one round of treatment?

Obviously, I was not expecting miracles (like miraculous hair growth!) after just one treatment but as you can see from the Before and After photos above, I have a greasy scalp, so oil was clogging up some follicles (circled in red) which impedes hair growth. Now, my clogged pores and greasy scalp are virtually gone. My hair follicles also looked healthier and less brittle than the initial scan. A clean scalp and hair follicles are important to promote healthy hair growth. My scalp and hair has seen a significant improvement, the results were extremely satisfying!

What I took away most from the session was not my improved scalp condition though. I learnt from my trichologist that what you see on the outside does not exactly translate to perfection on the inside. And if you would like to understand the state (and age) of your hair and scalp, TrichoKare is the professional option - as validated by the numerous awards it has received.

ELLE Beauty Treat List 2017 – Best Treatment For Hair Loss
Her World Spa Awards 2016 – Best Treatment For Damaged Hair
Harper’s BAZAAR Hair Awards 2016 – Best Sebum-Regulating Treatment for Oily Scalp
The Singapore Women’s Weekly Hair Awards 2016 – Best Anti-Ageing Hair Treatment

Oh, and having a trichologist who genuinely cares for the health of your hair and scalp matters too!

Interested to try out the Advanced Age Defying Hair Treatment I underwent? Fantastic news! TrichoKare is currently having a promotion:

Book the Advanced Age Defying Hair Treatment for only S$40 and receive a Hair Care Kit AND HairGRO Serum too! This package is worth S$758.

Book your appointment online HERE.

          "How do we Study the Atmospheres of Planets"-Dr Tilak Hewagama        

There will be a visiting astronomer lecture on the topic of "How do we Study the Atmospheres of Planets" by Dr Tilak Hewagama - NASA/GSFC University of Maryland. The lecture will be delivered tomorrow (Thursday the 03rd November 2011) at 11.00 am University of Moratuwa, and it will be hosted by IEEE Student branch of University of Moratuwa.


 Humans have relied on their keen sense of sight in exploring their environment. The basic properties of light, color and intensity, convey a wealth of information about the source and intervening media, and remains at the core of modern astronomy. We will discuss how visible and infrared radiation, most relevant in the exploration of planets, are used in understanding their diverse atmospheres. Each atmosphere has a plethora of molecules that impart distinct signatures in their glow, and the interpretation of such observations can be complex. Nevertheless, it is an interesting enterprise spanning a range of science disciplines. What processes give rise to these signatures and how are they measured? How is the information disentangled? These questions form an interesting detective story! Recent examples of exciting science results from ground- and spacecraft-based observations of planets will be discussed in this context.

 Further Reading:


 If you're attending please your name and NIC # to chamika @ ieee [dot] org to be included in Visitor list at security gate.

About Lecturer : http://epoxi.umd.edu/1mission/bios/hewagama_t.shtml

          Sonne Far Infrared Sauna - Everyone Needs One        

Sonne Far Infrared Sauna - Everyone Needs One

When one hears of sauna, a certain vision of sweaty men in steam filled, stuffy rooms come to mind. I had the chance to experience the latest Sonne Far Infrared (FIR) Sauna last weekend, for a 30 minute session, and it was unexpected to say the least. Latest tech, sweat without the stickiness, no more overheating, so much more benefits. Oh and the results were great! Want to know more? Read on below then. 

Sonne Far Infrared Sauna - Everyone Needs One
Sonne Far Infrared Sauna - Everyone Needs One

Sonne FIR Sauna? What’s That?

This technology is definitely new to me. In fact, the only saunas I’ve been to are the ones at gyms, but these Sonne FIR Sauna were of a different breed. You can destress, and even detoxify your body using these. Using radiant heat that warms us without warming the air around, we gain health, wellness and everything good. Each of these Sonne Sauna can be built to fix into our office or homes, even clinics and shops. 

Get this for your home or office!
Get this for your home or office!
Using carbon and ceramic panels
Using carbon and ceramic panels

The technology behind Sonne FIR Sauna 

Far infra red power penetrate into our body at a depth of 1.5 inches, duplicating the healthy frequency of our own cells. In fact, Sonne in German stands for our live-giving Sun. Boosting our cell rejuvenation and metabolic rate, where the water in the cells has this “resonant absorption” thing. 

Setting it up for 30 minutes of sweat
Setting it up for 30 minutes of sweat

My 30-minutes experience in a Sonne Far infrared Sauna

Before my session, to ensure some results can be seen after the sauna, my measurements were taken. All details, my BMI, muscle mass, visceral fat rating (which I failed horribly), metabolic age, weight and height were taken down. Why 30-minutes? Well, we were told it’s the perfect time or rather maximum so that we can get maximum results from the session. 

Filling up some forms
Filling up some forms
All details, my BMI, muscle mass, visceral fat rating (which I failed horribly), metabolic age, weight and height were taken down
All details, my BMI, muscle mass, visceral fat rating (which I failed horribly), metabolic age, weight and height were taken down
Janice had her measurements taken too
Janice had her measurements taken too

Setting the temperature according to our tolerance, I had mine set to near max at 57 degrees or so. I wanted to sweat! I needed to see those sweat trickle down  The heat did not come immediately, unlike the usual sauna which heats you from outside. In an FIR sauna like Sonne Sauna, it will permeate our skin and heat us from the inside. 

Soothing audio music inside
Soothing audio music inside 

In fact, we were encouraged to bring a book inside to read while doing our sauna session. How relaxing! Throughout the session, we were also advised to keep hydrated by drinking water. So did I sweat? Oh yes I did! Bucketloads of it! My back, stomach, shoulder, and upper chest were drenched through. 

Sweating it out!
Sweating it out!

Weight Loss? Better, stronger heart? Pain reduction? 

Yes please! With promises of burning up to 600 calories in just one 30 minute session, the Sonne FIR Sauna is an excellent addition to any weight loss program. Imagine sitting there everyday, and you get to burn those calories away! Oh, how I wish I have one of these babies at home now. 

Combining diet, exercise and repeated Sonne sauna therapy, we may have found the best way to prevent lifestyle related diseases. A stronger heart, a stronger you. In fact, after my 30 minutes session, we took another round of measurements and the results were rather positive. Deep detox is the idea, eliminating toxic elements from the body. 

Just look at the beads of sweat, satisfying
Just look at the beads of sweat, satisfying
There’s two types of Sonne Sauna, as shown below, both of high quality using exceptional materials. 

Sonne - Standard Unit (2-seater)
Size: 1200 (D) x 1250 (W) x 1930 (H) mm
Heater: Carbon and Ceramic Panels
Power: 2,080W
Wood: Canadian Red Cedar

Sonne - Corner Unit (2 to 3 seater)
Size: 1650 (W) x 950 x 800 x 1930 (H) mm
Heater: Carbon and Ceramic Panels
Power: 2,520W
Wood: Canadian Red Cedar

With the Mrs, we tried out the Sonne - Corner Unit (2 to 3 seater) together
With the Mrs, we tried out the Sonne - Corner Unit (2 to 3 seater) together

Oh I have a GIVEAWAY too! 
Giveaway 5 x 30 minutes Free SONNE FIR Suana Session For 2 (worth RM180)

Do you want to experience this for yourself? I’m running this giveaway on my Facebook platform. CLICK HERE!

How to win?

2. Like, share the giveaway here, with why you want the vouchers for FREE SONNE FIR Sauna. Tag 1 friend on your Facebook wall and add hashtag #sonnesauna #firsauna #successtherapeutic
Make sure you set your post to public.    

* Giveaway is for fans and followers who resides in Klang Valley only.
* Sonne FIR Sauna is located at Pusat Dagangan Phileo Damansara 1, Petaling Jaya, Selangor.

For more information about Sonne Far Infrared Sauna, do head on over to Success Therapeutic Sdn Bhd’s Website, Facebook, or contact them at 03-7954 0822

          Workshop on Industrial Hydraulics & Pneumatics - Prolific Systems And Technologies Pvt. Ltd. , Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Al Kuwait, Salalah, Manama, Mumbai         
Hydraulic Theory, Maintenance & Trouble-shooting
Module 1
  • Standards for equipment and circuit diagram representation
  • Design and function of hydraulic power supply systems
  • Physical principles
  • Measurement of volumetric flow rate, pressure and temperature as an aid to troubleshooting
  • Hardware technology and characteristic data for valves and actuators
  • Reading and interpreting basic hydraulic circuit diagrams for direction, speed, pressure and position
Module 2
  • Standards and safety regulations
  • Design and function of hydraulic power supply systems
  • Design and function of hydraulic valves for controlling direction, speed, position and force
  • Hydraulic drives for linear and rotary movements
  • Electric signal control for hydraulic power section with switching solenoid and proportional solenoid interfaces
  • Synchronised controls, valve fittings, hydraulic reservoir circuits
  • Introduction to proportional technology using a setpoint-valve card, amplifier card and proportional valve
  • Maintenance, inspection, scheduled and fault-related repairs on hydraulic systems
  • Systematic troubleshooting, damage analysis and weakness elimination
  • Intensive practical training involving design of control systems based on circuit diagrams, commissioning and testing
Module 3
  • Basic principles of proportional hydraulics
  • Design, function and characteristics data for proportional, directional control, pressure and flow control valves
  • Generation of target values (analogue and digital)
  • Adaptation of amplifier electronics to required conditions
  • Development and interpretation of proportional hydraulic circuit diagrams
  • Intensive practical training involving design based on circuit diagram and adjusting parameters for optimum commissioning
  • Instructions for maintenance, troubleshooting and commissioning
  • Introduction to servo valve technology and control
  • Proportional valves in open control loop systems, control valves in closed control loops
  • Current standards and safety regulations for practical operation and exercises
Module 4
  • Hydraulic equipment maintenance - why it’s so important
  • Maintaining fluid cleanliness
  • Maintaining fluid temperature and viscosity within optimum limits
  • Maintaining hydraulic system settings to manufacturers’ specifications
  • Scheduling component change-outs before they fail
  • Following the correct commissioning prodedures
  • Conducting failure analysis
  • The true cost of hydraulic fluid leaks
  • Fluid contamination and dealing with water in hydraulic fluid
  • Troubleshooting basics and how to avoid costly mistakes
  • Symptoms of common hydraulic problems and their causes
  • Locating internal leakage
  • Fundamentals of hydraulic component and cylinder repair
Pneumatics Theory, Maintenance & Trouble-shooting
Module 1
  • Objectives of low cost automation
  • Basic principles of compressed air supply, production, preparation and distribution
  • Power section devices (Linear and rotary actuators)
  • Use of directional control valve, flow control, pressure and time control valves and sensorsStructure and function of pneumatic devices and valves
  • Basic logic functions and their application
  • Symbolic representation of devices and standards (ISO 1219)Systematic design of circuit diagrams
  • Reading pneumatic circuit diagrams
  • Operating modes in pneumatic control systems
  • Safety regulations and valid industrial standards
  • Typical industrial circuits
  • Identifying and eliminating faults
Module 2
  • Pneumatic Symbols and Standards
  • Pneumatic power generation, preparation and distribution
  • Design, function and identification of pneumatic components
  • Reconstruction and reading of pneumatic circuits
  • Reviewing, completing and using machine documentation
  • Developing and applying troubleshooting strategies
  • Optimising systems using fault documentation
  • Learning and applying safety regulations and valid standards
Module 3
  • Basic Principles of compressed air technology, production, preparation and distribution (Review)
  • Power section devices and actuators, (specific application) Bellows, Rodless, rotary & Impact cylinders, Pulse Ejectors, Grippers
  • Valves and basic logic funcions (specific application) Counters, Timers, Two Hand and binary control
  • Positioning, open and closed loop
  • Sequence, and sequence stepper control
  • Vacuum technology
  • Low pressure pneumatics (air sensors and amplifiers)
  • Emergency Controls (soft start)
  • Hydraulic feed units
  • Rotary Index tables, and strip feed units
  • Practical exercise and typical industrial circuits
Module 4
  • Hydraulic equipment maintenance - why it’s so important
  • Maintaining fluid cleanliness
  • Maintaining fluid temperature and viscosity within optimum limits
  • Maintaining hydraulic system settings to manufacturers’ specifications
  • Scheduling component change-outs before they fail
  • Following the correct commissioning prodedures
  • Conducting failure analysis
  • The true cost of hydraulic fluid leaks
  • Fluid contamination and dealing with water in hydraulic fluid
  • Troubleshooting basics and how to avoid costly mistakes
  • Symptoms of common hydraulic problems and their causes
  • Locating internal leakage
  • Fundamentals of hydraulic component and cylinder repair
Module 5
  • Electrical and pneumatic symbols and standards
  • Interaction of control section and pneumatic power section
  • Components of power section control section
  • Electronic sensors (inductive, capacitive and infrared)
  • Systematic production and reading of electrical circuit diagrams
  • Operating modes of electro - pneumatic control systems
  • Coordinated sequence controls
  • Fault finding procedures and systematic troubleshooting
  • Safety regulations and valid standards for pneumatics
  • Practical exercises for all circuits



          Pneumatics & Electro-Pneumatics Maintenance & Trouble-shooting - Prolific Systems And Technologies Pvt. Ltd. , Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Al Kuwait, Salalah, Manama, Mumbai         
Module 1
  • Objectives of low cost automation
  • Basic principles of compressed air supply, production, preparation and distribution
  • Power section devices (Linear and rotary actuators)
  • Use of directional control valve, flow control, pressure and time control valves and sensorsStructure and function of pneumatic devices and valves
  • Basic logic functions and their application
  • Symbolic representation of devices and standards (ISO 1219)Systematic design of circuit diagrams
  • Reading pneumatic circuit diagrams
  • Operating modes in pneumatic control systems
  • Safety regulations and valid industrial standards
  • Typical industrial circuits
  • Identifying and eliminating faults
Module 2
  • Pneumatic Symbols and Standards
  • Pneumatic power generation, preparation and distribution
  • Design, function and identification of pneumatic components
  • Reconstruction and reading of pneumatic circuits
  • Reviewing, completing and using machine documentation
  • Developing and applying troubleshooting strategies
  • Optimising systems using fault documentation
  • Learning and applying safety regulations and valid standards
Module 3
  • Basic Principles of compressed air technology, production, preparation and distribution (Review)
  • Power section devices and actuators, (specific application) Bellows, Rodless, rotary & Impact cylinders, Pulse Ejectors, Grippers
  • Valves and basic logic funcions (specific application) Counters, Timers, Two Hand and binary control
  • Positioning, open and closed loop
  • Sequence, and sequence stepper control
  • Vacuum technology
  • Low pressure pneumatics (air sensors and amplifiers)
  • Emergency Controls (soft start)
  • Hydraulic feed units
  • Rotary Index tables, and strip feed units
  • Practical exercise and typical industrial circuits
Module 4
  • Hydraulic equipment maintenance - why it’s so important
  • Maintaining fluid cleanliness
  • Maintaining fluid temperature and viscosity within optimum limits
  • Maintaining hydraulic system settings to manufacturers’ specifications
  • Scheduling component change-outs before they fail
  • Following the correct commissioning prodedures
  • Conducting failure analysis
  • The true cost of hydraulic fluid leaks
  • Fluid contamination and dealing with water in hydraulic fluid
  • Troubleshooting basics and how to avoid costly mistakes
  • Symptoms of common hydraulic problems and their causes
  • Locating internal leakage
  • Fundamentals of hydraulic component and cylinder repair
Module 5
  • Electrical and pneumatic symbols and standards
  • Interaction of control section and pneumatic power section
  • Components of power section control section
  • Electronic sensors (inductive, capacitive and infrared)
  • Systematic production and reading of electrical circuit diagrams
  • Operating modes of electro - pneumatic control systems
  • Coordinated sequence controls
  • Fault finding procedures and systematic troubleshooting
  • Safety regulations and valid standards for pneumatics
  • Practical exercises for all circuits
  • Typical Industrial circuits



          Workshopn on Switchgears - Prolific Systems And Technologies Pvt. Ltd. , Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Al Kuwait, Salalah, Manama, Mumbai         
Types of protection system in an electrical installation
  • Types of low voltage protection and control equipment
  • Circuit breakers operation and construction
  • Fuses and classifications for protective devices
  • Discrimination and protective devices rating selection
  • Types of current situation and fault clearing process
  • Preference of fuses over circuit breakers
Air, Sulphur HexaFlouride (SF6) and vacuum circuit breakers
  • Types of medium voltage circuit breaker
  • Air circuit breaker construction and operation
  • Sulphur HexaFlouride (SF6) circuit breaker construction and operation
  • Vacuum circuit breaker construction and operation
  • MV circuit breaker solid state tripping systems
  • SF6 hazards and test instruments
HV circuit breakers, current and potential transformers
  • Types of high voltage switchgears
  • Live tank and dead tank circuit breakers
  • Operation and switching mechanisms of HV circuit breakers
  • HV current transformer construction operation and maintenance
  • HV potential transformer features and operations
  • Auto reclosers, load switches, disconnections and sectionalisers
Types of relay for protection and safety
  • Types of protective relays and functions
  • Protection characteristics and applications
  • Switchgear interlocking
  • Solid state protection relays for MV & HV installation
  • Safety in MV and HV substations
  • Types of MV and HV switchboards
Maintenance and testing of switchgears
  • Importance of maintenance and testing
  • Types of maintenance including conditioned base maintenance
  • Installation and commissioning and post commissioning maintenance
  • Documentation requirements
  • Manufacturer testing, factory and site acceptance tests
  • Failure reporting and analysis of partial discharge and infrared tests



          Greenhouse Growing – It’s Kind of a Big Deal!        

Slowly but surely, greenhouses are taking over as the single most popular method for cultivating cannabis at home. Along with protecting plants from potentially damaging environmental conditions, greenhouses provide a controllable warm climate and harness the full power of the sun. One of the best things about growing in a greenhouse is the way in which it allows for cultivation throughout most of the year, while at the same time producing more consistent results and working out much cheaper than growing indoors.


How Do Greenhouses Work?
If you’ve ever wondered how even in cooler conditions a greenhouse stays warm, it all comes down to the ‘greenhouse effect’. You know, that thing that may or may not exist as far as the Earth is concerned…depending on which newspapers you read. In the simplest terms, the sun’s energy enters the greenhouse through its glass or plastic panels, which in turn warms both the plants and the soil. When the plants and soil release this energy in the form of infrared radiation, it is unable to escape back out of the greenhouse. It remains enclosed inside, warming the air and maintaining a warmer temperature than the outdoors.


If you’ve ever sat in a car on a hot day with the windows closed, you’ll probably have a good idea how it all works.  


Advantages of Growing Greenhouse Cannabis
Greenhouse growing can be beneficial for home cannabis growers in a number of ways, which is precisely why so many are turning to greenhouses as their primary cultivation method of choice. These include:


  • Lighting Control – Adding further lighting to the greenhouse can increase daylight hours as required by the plants, which can be useful during extended periods of bad weather. If looking to hold cannabis plants in a vegetative state for longer, supplemental lighting is ideal.
  • Climate Control – Greenhouses protect from harsh weather conditions and make it relatively easy to control the temperature and general climate in the interior. From fans to heaters to dehumidifiers, there’s a whole world of gadgets available to help create ideal growing conditions.
  • Life Cycle Control – As already touched upon, it’s the way in which you’re better able to take control of a cannabis plant’s life cycle that makes greenhouse growing such a popular choice. Depending on the time of year, what you’re looking to achieve and so on, it’s possible to trick plants into flowering early, keep them in a vegetative state for longer and generally take control of what they do and when they do it.
  • Cost/Energy Reduction – A greenhouse has the potential to be infinitely more efficient than any outdoor or indoor growing environment, making full use of the sun’s readily available and totally free energy. Which in turn means you’ll be using far less energy to give your plants ideal conditions, which translates into significant long-term savings.


And the Downside?
There’s really only one downside that comes with growing cannabis in a greenhouse – security. First of all, the fact that pretty much the entire structure of the greenhouse is made using clear glass or plastic means that it is largely impossible to even remotely hide what it is you are growing inside. Which essentially means that if an undesirable outsider was to lay eyes on your greenhouse, they would instantly know what treasures it was holding.


And of course, there’s also the fact that structures made entirely from glass or plastic are not particularly secure. Which in turn means that if those coming across your crop wish to do away with it, chances are it isn’t going to be particularly difficult for them to do exactly that.


Greenhouse alarms and solid locks can help, but you still need to be extremely careful and keep what you’re doing as quiet as possible.





          DIY Infrared Security Camera        

i guess this is where i tell you that you can make your own IR security camera cheaper then you can buy one, that might be true if you can create your own wireless camera, but not me. but if you do it this way it is a lot more fun and time consuming.

initially i just wanted to take a webcam and make it infrared, but in the process of disassembly i destroyed the lens. in my search for a replacement lens, the idea grew to use a camcorder so that i could use the zoom feature. i played around with the idea and this is what it turned out to be.

as you look over my project, i'm sure you say things like "Why did he do this.." and "He could have done that instead..." or even "What was he thinking??" well, i just used what i had and did it in the time frame set aside for it. i am always open for comments and suggestions. at the end i will list ideas that i would have like to have done or things i would have changed so that you could have the opportunity to make yours better.

the reason i call it a security camera is because it really cant be used for much else.

so here we go

  • webcam
  • camcorder - working or not, you'll just use the lens assembly
  • infrared LEDs, or IR illuminator board kit
  • computer power supply case, or any other type project box
  • power supply, i used a 12v (from printer) and a 6v (from cell phone charger)
  • misc switches
  • wire, solder, rubberband
  • nuts, bolts, scrap metal (for making/mounting brackets)
  • hot glue, blank cds (the clear plastic ones)
  • IR filter- make out of 35mm negatives, find the black part at the beginning of the strip
  • patience

all the pictures can be found here

now we need to disassemble the webcam:

this is fairly straightforward, just find the screws and remove them. remove the lens assembly. (if you want to use just the webcam then you need to disassemble the lens so you can take out the IR filter. sometimes it looks like a tiny red/blue square, but sometimes it is "painted" on the lens, if thats the case just scrape off. )

next you need to take apart the camcorder:

since camcorders vary by model use your own judgment on how to disassemble it. the most basic advice is to take your time. if the camcorder works, i suggest taking a lot of pictures so if in the end you decide to put it back together, it will be much simpler to do. just start removing screws and eventually itll come apart to the point that you need.

remember that all you need out of the camcorder is the lens assembly and the motors. a majority of camcorders have an auto focus feature, and if you are capable, save this feature for your project.

the blue lens is the IR filter that blocks the IR light.

ok, now that the easy part is over you need to figure out how to put the pieces together.


first thing to do is get the webcam connected to the lens assembly. this took a lot of trial/error tests on my part. the good news was the fact that my webcam fit excatly in the lens assembly, just like they were made for each other. you might have to create your own "couplings" to get yours to work. the bad news is that the optical sensor (the thing that catches the light on the webcam) will be a set distance from the lens assembly. since i didnt measure anything i had to adjust it by hand until it focused correctly. that took some time. as you can tell by the pictures, once i had the correct distance i just used a rubberband to mount it to the lens.

the IR filter is placed between the lens assembly and the webcam.

i did not plan where anything went to begin with. i just created as i went. i got a lot of metal filings everywhere as i cut the box, so use caution when cutting.

the first thing i mounted was the lens. i placed it so that the lens would "see" through the opening where the power supply fan went. not perfect, but it was mounted.

next i rigged my power supplies. -you can use whatever power you want- i used a 12volt from a printer to power the IR board, and a 6volt from cell phone charger to power the zoom/focus motors and the shutter.

open up the power supplys. the quickest way i found was to use my dremel and the disk cutting attachment. take care not to cut too deep, you might cut something you dont want to. after i managed to get the boards free from their shells, i wired them together.

i got a plastic cd and cut a square out of it so i could use it for a "insulator" between the two power supplies. after everything was lined up, it all got "glued" together with hot glue (also a good insulator).

next mount the "shell" of the power supply in the box to hold your new combo power in place.

next i build my IR illuminator board. which i bought online: bgmicro.com (LED 1007) it took me about 30 min to finish.

i then created a bracket so i could mount the IR to my case.

i used the camcorder switches and some other of the same type switch from an old programmable coffee maker to control the zoom/focus motors.

i essentially created two 2 pole 2 throw switches. it would have been better just to buy them, but its diy. initially i was going to create my own "breadboard" out of a cd, but then i found a real one to use. as you can see the construction of the switches is pretty simple, after wiring just glob more hot glue on it. (note: there is no short-circuit protection on this circuit, so use caution)

the wires connected to the motors were too small for me to use, so i "fixed" the connector. i pulled some right angle jumper pins off a computer cd player (the master/slave/CS pins) and connected those to the existing connector, then, with the very versatile hot glue, put them together. now i could use the computer type connectors to get them to work, (you know, HDD light/Reset sw/speaker etc...)

mount the switches and power connectors to the box and wire everything up. i put a master power switch, a 12v on/off power switch for IR light, and focus near/far and zoom in/out switches. the shutter opens automatically when the power is on.

if everything went well you will have a nice zoomable IR security camera!!

Now the list of "would-of/should-of/could-of":

  • mount lens for pan/tilt capabilities
  • power supply options: car adaptor, batteries, powered by usb (for portability)
  • everything controlled via usb/software -zoom/pan/tilt/focus/shutter/ir filter, etc
  • make it wireless - covert a router or something to control it over internet
  • make it comparable to the D-LINK 6620G
a lot of possibilities. maybe ive pointed you in the right direction

more pictures are located here

as always, have fun

here are some pictures for your viewing pleasure

note: i already know they are not quality pictures, making comments on the subject would be redundantly redundant :)
--the quality of the picture depends on the quality of the webcam you use.

--first picture is taken using another ir camera (camera lets ALL light in, thats why its in color)

--next, base picture of coffee mug taken with same camera (5ft distance)

--third picture taken with project camera same distance away

--forth picture at max zoom (6x)

--last picture is taken max zoom at 20ft distance

bonus picture:
          Assim se faz consenso científico        
Ferenc Miskolczi é um investigador húngaro na área do clima. No início de 2007 foi publicado um paper da sua autoria na revista do Instituto Meteorológico Húngaro, Idojaras. O paper tem o título
Greenhouse effect in semitransparent planetary atmospheres e defende que o efeito de estufa numa atmosfera como a da Terra tem um limite independentemente da concentração de CO2 (e outros gases de efeito de estufa) que possa exisitir.

As conclusões deste paper anulam a ideia popular, mas nunca demonstrada cientificamente ou medida na natureza, de que o efeito de estufa e consequente aumento de temperatura acompanha a quantidade de gases de efeito de estufa na atmosfera.

A ideia de que o potencial de efeito de estufa na Terra é infinito é uma extrapolação de estudos realizados anteriormente. Em 1922 o astrofísico inglês Arthur Eddington teceu conclusões sobre o efeito de estufa em estrelas como o Sol. Mais recentemente, o astrofísico americano James Hansen, o pai da moderna teoria do aquecimento global, começou a a sua actividade profissional por estudar a atmosfera de Vénus. Naturalmente, as condições no Sol, Vénus e Terra são incomparáveis. Basta pensar que os maiores reguladores de temperatura e CO2 na Terra, os oceanos, estão ausentes nas estrelas ou em Vénus.

O autor esclarece nesta entrevista os resultados a que chegou:
Our atmosphere, with its infinite degree of freedom, is able to maintain its global average infrared absorption at an optimal level. In technical terms, this “greenhouse constant” is the total infrared optical thickness of the atmosphere, and its theoretical value is 1.87. Despite the 30 per cent increase of CO2 in the last 61 years, this value has not changed. The atmosphere is not increasing its absorption power as was predicted by the IPCC.
Os resultados de Miskolczi foram corroborados mais recentemente neste paper de onde tiro as seguintes conclusões:
(...)conceived to explain the enormous “greenhouse effect” in the Sun’s atmosphere, where the inside temperature is a thousand times the surface temperature. The Sun has no surface, and the sun’s atmosphere is a plasma; its optical density is many orders of magnitude higher than that of our atmosphere, therefore an infinite approach does not bring large errors. But on Earth it cannot use infinity(...)
Tão interessante quanto o contributo que o paper de Miskolczi deu para a modelação matemática do clima da Terra é a história atribulada da publicação do documento. Miskolczi sentiu aquilo que quase todos os cientistas sentem quando submetem Ã  aprovação em revistas científicas documentos que contradigam o aquecimento global, uma forte oposição. O paper de Miskolczi foi recusado pelas publicações Applied Optics, Journal of Geophysical Research, Science, Tellus-B e Astrophysical Journal. Não chumbou na revisão científica, simplesmente não foi considerado.

Em 2006, na altura em que o cientista concluiu o estudo ele trabalhava para uma empresa que subcontratada NASA, a mesma NASA do James Hansen e um dos principais redutos de alarmistas do aquecimento global. Internamente Miskolczi foi aconselhado a "esquecer" o estudo e acabou por deixar a empresa em que trabalhava em Outubro desse ano, três meses antes da publicação do paper na revista Idojaras.

E assim, abafando a ciência real, consegue-se o prezado consenso.

          Digital Pyrometry Re-Invented - New 2-Color Sensor Metis Models M311 & M322        

New Jersey based Process Sensors Corporation introduces its innovative 2-Color Sensor Metis Models M311 & M322

Franklin Lakes, NJ -- (SBWIRE) -- 03/10/2015 -- Process Sensors Corporation introduces another new Metis sensor to its' already extensive Metis product line. Known as the Metis M3 series, its' highly unique and advanced design, customization, and adaptability outperforms any conventional pyrometer on the market today.

The Metis M311/ 22 stand-alone series offers wide temperature ranges starting from 300°C and has the ability to be used in ambient temperatures up to 80°C without cooling. The fiber optic cable and lens assembly for use with the M3 Fiber optic versions are ambient rated up to 250°C.

The Metis M3's integrated keypad and 10-digit display enable all pyrometer settings to be easily manipulated by the user.

Superior to analog technology and based on the latest electronic high resolution 16 bit digital signal processing, the M3 provides convenient universal configuring. Equipped with many new features, such as digital inputs and outputs as well as an increased accuracy of 0.25%, the M3 stands up

to the highest industry demands. The sensor's built-in video chip offers the ability to view in real time, a color composite video that can be displayed on a video monitor or using a standard off-the-shelf video to USB frame grabber, displayed on a PC.

About The Metis M311/22
The Metis M311/ 22 series offer manually adjustable focus, fixed focus, or remote motorized focus options. The precise alignment of the target is accomplished by laser, through lens sighting, or real-time color video. The dual wavelength sensor series delivers fast response times of less than 1 ms, adjustable up to 10 seconds and a dirty window alarm. Two analog output signals can be set (0-20mA or 4-20mA) individually, with switchable RS232 or RS485 serial interfaces as standard.

The high-speed serial digital interface and two high-resolution 16-bit analog 0/4-20mA linear outputs, are adjustable and configurable for a precise output of temperature measured values. Optionally, the pyrometer can be equipped with Profinet, Profibus or Ethernet to couple to a master controller.

Process Sensors Corporation offers the widest range of high performance, non-contact infrared temperature sensors, thermal imaging / thermal line scanning systems, and blackbody calibration sources to meet the most demanding on-line industrial process applications as well as sensitive OEM performance requirements.

Detailed specification information can be found at http://www.processsensorsIR.com

For the original version on IndustrialPR visit:

This news release was distributed by IndustrialPR.net

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/release-585546.htm

Media Relations Contact

Scott Nagle
Email: Click to Email Scott Nagle
Web: http://www.processsensors.com

          Inland Mfg. launching T30 Sniper clone at SHOT 2017        

Inland Manufacturing was a division of General Motors that was originally started to produce wood-wrapped steering wheels for various GM vehicles.

When World War 2 started, GM converted the factory at Inland to produce M-1 carbines for the American Military, eventually churning out over two million examples.

After the war, Inland Mfg. returned to producing GM civilian products, but by 1989 had merged with other GM companies and became part of the Delphi Automotive Systems and leaving GM entirely in 1999.

A few years later, a small company in Ohio purchased the name, and started producing World War II-era firearms like the 1911 and the M1 carbine.

The latest product addition to their lineup, is a reproduction of the T-3 carbine, the T-30.

The original T-3 carbines were issued at the end of World War 2, and while some included a scope like the reproduction Hi-Lux included with the new Inland, they’re most well-known for being issued with a massive infrared night scope and equally enormous battery backpack.

According to the press release, the new T-30 was developed in response to buyers wanting an easy way to mount optics on their little Inland carbines – what’s cooler still, is that the new T-30 has a threaded muzzle – perfect for adding a sound suppressor.

This also means tactical shooters can attach a World War 2-style conical flash hider to their modern weapons, very cool. Look for more info on the new carbine next week when Inland Mfg. unveils all the details at SHOT Show 2017.

          Inland Introduces a Re-Imagined T3 Carbine        

Inland Manufacturing announced the company was now offering T30 rifles: reproduction-style carbines based on the T3 from World War II. The new guns will come with a conical flash hider and 2.5x scope.

The original T3 carbines were the first production sniper systems fielded by the US armed forces that used an infrared sighting system. T3 guns were M1 carbines that were made specifically for the infrared system, and original guns were made by both Winchester and Inland. The first T3 guns were fielded during World War II during the Battle of Okinawa.

Compared to modern optics, the infrared system used at that time was very crude, cumbersome and heavy. With the included infrared spotlight, the guns had an effective range of only about 75-100 yards. Eventually, the guns and optics were improved, increasing the effective range.

The new T30 guns are not exact reproductions of the T3, nor do they come equipped with infrared optics. Instead the guns are equipped with a reproduction M82 rifle scope made by Hi-Lux. The scope has a 2.5x magnification and a 7/8” tube. The scope is attached with Redfield style rings.

According to Inland Manufacturing, the original guns shot 3-6 MOA while the new guns are hitting 1-2 MOA. I suppose there is something to be said for modern manufacturing. 

These rifles are chambered for the .30 Carbine cartridge and ship with a single 15-round magazine. Stocks are made of walnut and with the M82 scope, the guns weigh about 6 pounds. With no scope, the rifles weigh about 5.3 pounds each, unloaded.

Inland will sell these guns without the scopes as well. Should you opt for one of these rifles with the intent of adding your own scope, the T30 will take 1” and 30mm Redfield rings.

Inland will sell the scopeless-version of the carbine for $1,279 while the model with the scope will carry a higher price at $1,695.

If you want one of the authentic T3 rifles, they can still be had on the secondary market. After the Korean War, many of the guns were surplused. Later versions of the carbine were called the M3, so be sure to search for that as well.

Cluver, M. E., Jarrett, T. H., Hopkins, A. M., Driver, S. P., Liske, J., Gunawardhana, M. L. P., Taylor, E. N., Robotham, A. S. G., Alpaslan, M. et al (2014) GALAXY AND MASS ASSEMBLY (GAMA): MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FROMWISE. The Astrophysical Journal, 782 (2). p. 90. ISSN 0004-637X
          Adidas F50 X-ite Soccer Ball (Infrared/Bright Blue/White, 5) buy        
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          CCD Views #316        

                             C C D   V I E W S   #316
                                November 6, 2003

 Table of Contents
 1. Introduction
 2. QS Tel Campaign
 3. Standards Observing Project
 4. Future of CCD Technology
 5. CCD Observing of NMO Targets
 6. Blazar Report & New Charts
 7. UV Per Outburst
 8. CCD Points

1. Introduction

  Not much time has passed since CCD Views #315 and we already have
enough material for a new issue. Now is a good time to be a CCD
variable star observer.
  The CCD Committee is beginning a project to observe standard
fields. The goal is this project is to help identify systematic
errors in the observers' systems. Anyone is welcome to participate
in this program. All you need is a desire to learn how to do the
best photometry you can. See section 3 for more information.
  A new discussion group dedicated to the discussion of variable
star CCD and PEP photometry and observing projects has been setup.
To read the archives and/or join visit this URL:


  We encourage the use of this discussion group to discuss topics
mentioned in issues of CCD Views.
  Also, an old friend has returned in CCD Points. :)

 Aaron Price (PAH)
 On behalf of Janet Mattei and Gary Walker, Chairperson of the CCD Committee


  Dr. Christopher Mauche, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,
has requested our assistance in ongoing monitoring, particularly by
CCD observers, of the magnetic cataclysmic variable 1931-46 QS Tel,
continuing until at least the end of 2004. He recently visited
AAVSO HQ and reiterated the need for more data, especially CCD.

  Since the announcement in Alert Notice #302 on September 26 only
two observers have been regularly following QS Tel (Peter Nelson & Berto
Monard - thanks guys!). It is a difficult object for most being both faint
and in the southern hemisphere. However, this is an opportunity to
make the object your own and really contribute data in an area that
it is needed.

  ** If you can get down to -46 degrees and have a CCD, please
add QS Tel to your observing program!! **

  Observe QS Tel in V and R at least one time per night of
observing. Try to make your estimates as accurate as possible. This
will help monitor the basic activity of the star. Then once per
month or so, or if you notice a sudden change of brightness during
your regular observations, spend an evening getting time series data
on QS Tel. This will help monitor its 2 hr 20 min orbital period.

  Dr. Mauche informs us: "Regular observations are required to (1)  
establish the optical behavior of QS Tel, and (2) trigger an approved
target-of-opportunity Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating
observation, which can take place only when the source is in a high
state. The Chandra data will be used to measure the EUV/soft X-ray
spectral energy distribution of the accretion-heated white dwarf
photosphere and refine the parameters of the absorption lines and edges
first detected with the EUVE satellite by Rosen et al. (1996, Monthly
Notices Royal Astronomical Society, 280, 1121).

  QS Tel is a very bright extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray source
likely to be of ongoing interest to researchers, so long-term optical
coverage is very important. In fact it is the 2nd brightest AM Her
star in the sky in extreme x-rays. Because little is known about its
optical behavior, this request for optical monitoring represents an opportunity
for observers to add to the fundamental information on QS Tel.

  More background information on QS Tel and observing charts are
available in Alert Notice #302 and at this URL:
  [link removed - all charts can be plotted at http://www.aavso.org/vsp]

  QS Tel is currently fading. Recent light curve of QS Tel:
  [link removed]

  Recent Observations of QS Tel:
           QS TEL   OCT 16.7050  15.4  MLF   CR    
    QS TEL   OCT 16.7050  15.4  MLF   CR    
    QS TEL   OCT 26.7440  15.8  MLF   CR   
    QS TEL   NOV 04.4372  16.7  NLX   CCDV  SN=10, 500 SEC EXPOSURE Err: 0.1
    QS TEL   NOV 04.4590  17.0  NLX   CCDV  SN=10, 500 SEC EXPOSURE Err: 0.1
    QS TEL   NOV 04.4649  16.7  NLX   CCDV  SN=10, 500 SEC EXPOSURE Err: 0.1
    QS TEL   NOV 04.4708  16.5  NLX   CCDV  SN=10, 500 SEC EXPOSURE Err: 0.1

  Thanks to the following observers for submitting observations of
QS Tel since the publication of Alert Notice #302:

    HBD Bernard Heathcote, Australia
    HDJ David Higgins, Australia
    MLF Berto Monard, South Africa
    NLX Peter Nelson, Australia

  Extra special thanks to Peter and Berto for their continued  monitoring!!

   By Gary Walker (WGR), CCD Committee Chairperson

 What is it?
 We are starting another observing project with this issue of CCD
Views.  This project is intended to encourage observers to check
their accuracy and repeatability of observations, using some
known Landolt Fields, that have been well observed by Arne Henden
(He has actually observed these more than Landolt did).  This
project will allow observers to check methodologies--ie SN,
Flatfielding, Dark Subtraction, Software Reductions, etc.

 Proceedure--ie What do I do?
 What you do is perform a time series (of 15-20 multiple
exposures) of a Standard Field, which is well known.  Thanks to
Bruce Gary and Arne Henden, we have selected 13 of these fields,
which means that one should be up at the meridian nearly every
night.  A table with the names and the magnitudes can be found at
[link removed] .

 Observe a field in V filtered, untransformed.  Reduce each
exposure separately.  Do not average your exposures.  Measure
Star A relative to Star B only. Each exposure should be according
to your normal proceedure - a good rule of thumb is to expose
long enough for the brightest star in the process to register
half of full well. Report your results to HQ using WebObs or your
standard proceedure, that way we can share the light "curves"
with all observers.  Use the star name and letter A (ie SA114A)  
listed in the web page above for your v instrumental magnitudes
(V filtered by untransformed).

 Thats about all there is too it.  A few administrative things.
These observations will count towards your totals.  Please share
your results.  I have already shared some of my results on SA114,
which I used to check out the proceedure before launching the

 When you make a finding or have a question, post it to the new
photometry discussion group (see introduction for subscription
information).  Please share your findings, especially those that
have improved your photometry.

 Advanced Projects-BVRI
 If you customarily do BVRI photometry, and would like to check
your system, you can observe with your BVRI filters and transform
your data.  Again, report it to HQ using Webobs or your favorite
method. Designate the measurement at CCDB, CCDV, CCDR, or CCDI as

 Advanced Project-Fainter magnitudes
 If you would like to test some fainter magnitudes, then try
measuring the fainintest star in the table on the web.  Measure
relative to Star B.  This will give a couple of magnitudes
fainter information and may tax your proceedure. Report this
information as SA114D, or SA114E the same as in the table for
example. These measurements should be instrumental, v filtered,
and not transformed.


  By Arne Henden, U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station.

  CCD detectors are pretty darn near perfect.  They have very high QE
(quantum efficiency, basically how many photons they detect compared to
how many actually fall on the device), low readnoise, wide wavelength
response and low cost for millions of pixels.  So how can they be

  First, the QE has been slowly creaping upward.  The original
frontside illuminated Kodak chips, for example, had to image through
the electronic gate structure.  These gates are made of polysilicon,
reasonably transparent in the red but almost opaque in the blue.  The
net effect was that you only detected perhaps 40percent of the incident
photons.  The recent blue-transparent (TIN) gate material from Kodak
has increased the QE to 80percent or more, almost as good as thinning
the CCD and imaging from the backside, a very expensive technique.  In
addition, using microlenses over each pixel to focus the light on the
most sensitive part of the pixel improves the QE.  Kodak is just about
ready to release CCDs with the TIN gate technology on both of the
gates, so that no microlenses will be necessary. I think QE is rapidly
becoming a non-issue, with a broad peak QE of 80-90percent possible on
frontside illuminated devices.

  Next, the blue response is getting good on most CCDs.  However, the
red response is harder to control.  What happens is that the silicon
itself starts becoming transparent and the mean free path of photons
increases to such a point that most travel through the active region of
the pixel and are not detected.  By 1.1 micron, you have zero QE with
silicon-based CCDs.  Before that point, you can increase the QE by
making the active pixel region thicker, or by doping the silicon so
that the photon pathlength becomes shorter.  Both of these tricks
increase the QE, but usually at the expense of poorer resolution or
higher dark current.  I think you will see CCDs in the near future that
have 30percent QE near the 300nm cutoff of the atmosphere, and
20-30percent QE all the way out to 900nm.  Not perfect, but pretty darn
good.  The way technology has been improving, it might even be possible
to get close to 90percent QE over that entire range.  Remember, though,
that 100percent QE is the absolute limit.  Going from 80percent to
90percent is not a huge gain, so we are rapidly approaching the limit.

  The area where CCDs will get worse is in pixel size.  The larger the
pixel, the larger the full well capacity and the greater the dynamic
range for an image taken with the CCD.  Manufacturers, though, are
going for small pixels since their primary market is consumer cameras
where camera size is important.  They want more pixels, not larger
detector size.

  There are some interesting projects underway.  The Orthogonal
Transfer CCD enables charge to be transferred in all directions. This
might be an interesting technique for fast guiding on-chip. The
electron multiplier CCD uses a string of amplification between the
serial register and the readout node of the CCD, providing noiseless
amplification of the signal.  This means you can get subelectron
readnoise on a CCD, thereby permitting single-photon detection and
removing readnoise entirely for low light level situations (such as

  Other detectors are being developed.  The GaAs technology is used by
the communications industry for fiber networks, and more companies are
developing arrays of GaAs detectors for 2-D detection to improve the
signal/noise on long hauls.  These detectors offer 1-2micron capability
and extend the amateur's usable wavelengths into the near-infrared.  
The CMOS industry continues to improve their detectors, and I expect
megapixel devices with low dark current and low readnoise to be
competitive with CCDs in a few years, possibly at extremely low cost.

  The future looks bright.  Ten years ago, few amateurs were using CCD
cameras and now they are a standard option for most telescope
purchases.  Computers and software are improving dramatically.  I
expect the vast majority of telescope users to have an imaging camera
before long; maybe we can convince a large fraction to start
contributing photometry!

  By Mike Simonsen (SXN)

  In March of 2003 an informal initiative to coordinate efforts of
observers to provide better coverage of stars in need of more
observations (NMOs) was created.

  The main idea was to share the observing between visual and CCD
observers. Visual observers would concentrate on targets brighter than
13.5V and CCD observers would concentrate on obtaining positive
observations fainter than 13.5V.

  In hopes of getting some of you to contribute to this initiative I
have identified some appropriate targets for CCD observers in

Z Ari- (10.2-<15.0) Currently around the threshold of 13.5V and
fading, this one is ready to be handed off to CCD observers.

SV Aql- (10.2-<15.5) Probably on the rise from minimum, but the data
has significant scatter. The sequence probably doesn't help much. This
light curve needs help.

EU Aql- (11.4-15.1) At or near the 13.5 threshold and fading, this
star lies in a particularly busy Milky Way field. Not recommended for
beginners or the faint of heart. There is new photometry for this
field from Arne Henden in V and Ic, and the chart team is working on
new charts, but it will be a while before they are available. You can
get the data from Arne's ftp site.
[link removed]

VY Aur- (10.3-14.7) Fading towards minimum, this one is favorably
placed for months to come.

RX Del- (10.2-<15.5) This one has just reached the mid 13's and is
fading to minimum. The AAVSO charts have a good CCD(V) sequence from
R. Zissell.  Still well placed in the evening.

SU Cnc- (10.5-<15.4) Currently in the 14th mag range, most likely
headed for minimum. You should be able to follow this one for several
months and get observations from minimum to maximum by the time it is
lost to the sun again.

AU Cyg- (8.7-15.5) New charts with a Henden sequence are now available
for this star. Visual observers lost it around mid-October in the 15th
mag range. Faint observations are needed to fill out the bottom of the
curve. The trend in the last four cycles seems to indicate it is
experiencing progressively fainter minima.

SS Del- (11.3-<16.0) This Mira has a relatively short period (194d),
so more frequent observations are appropriate. The sequence and charts
for this star are very good. Currently in the 16th mag range, heading
for minimum.  Go deep!

UZ Gem- (8.8-<15.0) This one is truly in need of more observations.  
There is scant data for it when fainter than 11th magnitude. It is in
the 15th magnitude range now, so probably on the rise, but who knows?
Ugly charts with a totally inadequate sequence do not help the
situation. Be careful in identifying the variable.

SU Lyr- (11.2-<18.0) Few positive visual observations of this faint
LPV exist fainter than 15V. It is reported to be in the 17th magnitude
range currently. This is an obvious CCD target. There are good charts
with a CCD(V) sequence available.

R PsA- (9.2-14.7) Scant observations indicate it is 13+ and fading.  
This is another star that may be exhibiting progressively fainter
minima recently. CCD observations would help define the bottom of this
curve. A poor sequence and declination of -29 degrees contribute to
the scant data. Southern observers are encouraged to help out on this

S Tau- (10.2-15.3) Visual observers lost this one in the low 14's in
October. Positive faint observations are needed around minimum. With a
period just over one year, the maxima keep getting missed while in
conjunction with the sun, so there is not a lot of recent data on this
star. Follow it as long as possible.

Z Tau- (9.8-13.9::)  Z Tau has a close 14th mag companion that
probably has disguised the actual minima of this star for ages. It is
in a good field with lots of comparisons, and RU Tau is close by; a
two for one bargain! New charts and sequences for both of these will
be released in the coming month. Henden photometry is available on his
ftp site: [link removed]

If you are looking for other challenging faint targets you can
download the NMO Planning Tool from the website.


Stars are sorted by their current status, so you can skim the list for stars fainter than 13.5v
relatively easily.

Good luck and clear skies.


  In the last issue we called for observations of 9 blazars. We
received 203 total observations. Out of those, 55 were CCD. All of
the CCD observations were done with a filter. Way to go! Below is a
list of CCD observers ranked by how many observations they made of
the GTN blazars:

 Obs Rank   Who      What
     1      RSE     BL Lac, 3C 66A, Mark 41, Mark 501 & 2344+514
     2      MDA     BL Lac
     3      JM         3C 66A, Mark 501
     3      WDZ     BL Lac and 3C 66A
     5      OAR     3C 66A, Mark 501
     5      DIL     3C 66A
     5      SDY     BL Lac
     8      GBL     Mark 501, OI+158, 2344+514
     8      GMZ     BL Lac
    10      HDU        BL Lac
    10      RR         BL Lac
    10      MDW     BL Lac
    10      MMG     3C 66A

  This is a CCD publication, but visual monitoring is needed as
well. Thanks to visual observers MUY, KRB, PUJ, OJR, VJA, HUZ, GMZ,
SXN, STR, MGH, PYG, TDB, & SUI for their data.

  It's a good start but we need more so we can set an accurate
baseline for these stars (except BL Lac which seems to be well
covered for now). Please add these blazars to your program and
observe them once per week in CCDV and in R, Ic if you have the
appropriate filters.

  Also, CCD charts for 5 new blazars have been published. Please
observe these as well. Most of these are not well observed at all so
any new data will add to our knowledge of these objects' behavior!

    0106+22  S2 0109+22
    1746+09  OT 081
    1749+70  S4 1749+70
    1806+78  S5 1803+78
    2002-49  PKS2005-48

  We have *no* recent observations of those objects in our database.
This is a great opportunity to get in early!
  Nice & new charts for all these objects are available at:

  UV Per (UGSU) appears to be in outburst for the first time
since late December of 2000. So far there are no reports of this
being a superoutburst. However, in 1989 and 1996 UV Per
experienced an outburst followed by a superoutburst and then a
post superoutburst brightening resulting in 3 different light
curve peaks. So careful monitoring over the next 10 days is

 Please observe UV Per closely and report your observations to
the AAVSO as soon as possible. Get high quality and high resolution
data to look for superhumps that may signify a superoutburst.

 Charts of UV Per, revised in November of 2002 are available here:

 The f-chart has CCDV photometry from Arne Henden good for visual
and .1 mag CCDV use. For more accurate V & B photometry consult
Arne's DAT file:
  [link removed]

Light curves:

 Recent light curve:

 All 34,000+ observations (except fainter thans) dating back to 1933:

 Close up of light curve of last outburst:

Last CCD observation:
        UV PER     OCT 08.1243 <17.2   GKA   CCDV
Latest UV Per visual observations:
            UV PER       NOV 05.7361  11.7   MUY
        UV PER     NOV 05.8201  11.8   NDQ   
        UV PER     NOV 05.8632  11.6   GGU


  The last few CCD Views felt empty to me. While full of good and
useful information there was a hole in there. I think it was the lack
of CCD Points. So they're back, this time for good. I'll also give
you some insight into the super-secret-mega-formula that goes into
computing them.  Each observation is worth one point. But it can gain
points and fraction of points for a variety of things.

  + Observing stars mentioned in previous CCD Views, Special
    News Flashes or Alert Notices
  + Observing bulletin stars in need of more observing
    (points vary based on the need of data)
  + Observations reported with uncertainty ("Err:" field)
  + Transformed observations ("Transformed:" field)
  + Faint observations (points dependant on magnitude)
  + Observations done with a BVRcIc filter
  + Observations done within a few days of the full moon
  + Total number of objects observed
  + If your observer code is PAH you get a bonus of 10,000 points

  Eventually I'll start a column for running FY total and ranking.
Send any recommendations for point modification to aavso@aavso.org.

  REMINDER: CCD Points are *not* an official AAVSO report and carry
no weight at HQ. They are provided purely for fun and to start
barroom brawls at AAVSO meetings.

  Now without further adieu...

 Pts    Obs    Observer
 1042   1098   COO COOK, LEWIS M. (CONCORD,CA,USA)
 85    <10     GRL GRANSLO, BJORN H. (,NORWAY)

 These points reflect observations from October 1, 2003 (beginning
of the AAVSO fiscal year) until November 6, 2003. As before, we don't
include the observation totals of those with less then 10 observations
so as to avoid betraying the CCD Points formula!

     An archive of "CCD Views" is available at http://www.aavso.org/ccd-views.

     An archive of "Eyepiece Views," a similar newsletter intended for visual observers, is available at http://www.aavso.org/eyepiece-views.

 Good observing!

 Aaron Price, AAVSO Technical Assistant (PAH)
 Gary Walker, Chairman of the AAVSO CCD Committee (WGR)

Copyright 2003, American Association of Variable Star Observers


          CCD Views #330        

C C D V I E W S #330
February 7, 2005

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Address from the New AAVSO Director, Arne Henden
3. VV Pup Mini Campaign In Support for Keck Observations
4. CCD Timing Recommendations and Pitfalls
5. The Recent BZ UMa Outburst Campaign
6. High Precision Photometry Workshop at AAVSO Spring Meeting
7. Infrared Filter Grants Available
8. New Scintillation and Airmass Calculators on AAVSO Web Site

In the last few months our CCD program has been very active. Campaigns have been run on CVs, blazars and exoplanet transit objects. In fact, we've had so many campaigns that we created a web page to keep track of it all: http://www.aavso.org/observing-campaigns . The page includes a timeline of all our active campaigns along with those in the recent past and upcoming campaigns. When planning the next few days of observation we recommend stopping by that page for new projects.

We opened the AAVSO Chat Room during the BZ UMa campaign to test its usefulness as a coordination mechanism. It seemed to be very popular with people logged in almost all the time during the entire week of the outburst. While the chat room is open to the public every Thursday, we plan to open it for longer periods during future campaigns.

The AAVSO Photometry Discussion Group has also been active with discussion about other types of campaigns and how often we should run them. The response I gathered from the discussion was: Bring it on! It seemed that the only limiting factor in observing activity is weather. So be careful what you ask for, you just may get it. :) Stay tuned for a very exciting and eventful 2005! And it doesn't hurt that we now have one of the world's best photometrists ON STAFF! (see below)
Clear skies,


Obviously, I come from a technical background and welcome the rapid increase in quality of both telescopes and CCD cameras in the commercial world. The US$1000 barrier for CCD cameras has been broken by several vendors, CMOS cameras are just around the bend, and I forsee the day when cameras are given away like eyepieces with every telescope purchase. We see amateurs obtaining millimag precision; others imaging GRB afterglows at 21st magnitude. I think one of the roles of the AAVSO will be to provide instruction, through tutorials and workshops, so that amateurs and professionals alike can learn how to obtain scientifically usable data.

We will always have visual observers in the AAVSO - they are the life and blood of the organization. The century-long timeseries on Miras and other variables, the dense coverage on CV outbursts, are all suited to visual studies. CCD observers expand on this base and attack other problems - very low amplitude variables, targets where color information is important, high time resolution, etc. Our goal in the AAVSO should be to support all observers, no matter what technique they use to obtain their data, in such a way as to get the highest possible precision and maximal scientific content.

CCD observing is still in its amateur infancy. We will be running more pro-am campaigns to show both professionals and amateurs what can be done with this photometric technique, and will pursue new directions such as whole-earth 24-hour campaigns, exoplanet transits, quiescent studies of cataclysmic variables and ground-based support for high-energy space missions. It is going to be a fun future!

- Dr. Arne Henden

Dr. Steve Howell, WIYN Observatory & NOAO, has requested observations of the polar VV Pup to coincide with observations being done at the Keck Observatory on February 16, 2005 (UT). Time series observations for as long as possible in BVRI are requested from 00:00 UT February 15 - 23:00 UT February 17, 2005. VV Pup is quite faint and also near the quarter Moon during the observing window. So we recommend the following observing plan:

1) Observe it in one filter instead of alternating between filters. Set your exposure time to get an SNR > 20. You may need to stack images to reach this SNR.

2) Small and moderately sized telescopes should observe in Ic first and in Rc if you don't have an Ic filter or someone else is currently observing in Ic. This will lessen some of the effects of the Moon and also lower exposure time (this is a field with heavy extinction). Those with larger apertures should go for V and B photometry.

3) Post to the aavso-photometry discussion group and tell us what filter you are using and the expected start and end time of your observation run. This way someone else can use a different filter if they are observing at the same time.

We currently have very few observations of VV Pup. So baseline observations prior to and immediately after the observing campaign would be very useful.

The AAVSO Chat Room will be open for this event! Join us during the campaign at http://www.aavso.org/chat .

The VV Pup chart is here: [link removed - please use our Variable Star Plotter to create an updated chart]

Our observations of VV Pup are minuscule!! We desperately need some photometry. Our latest observations of VV Pup:
VV PUP JAN 01.4960 <15.3 SRX Visual
VV PUP DEC 31.8280 17.2 CCD MLF Unfiltered
VV PUP DEC 28.4424 16.305 CCDI CTX ERR: .03
VV PUP DEC 23.4785 18.38 CCDV CTX ERR: .027
SRX - Rod Stubbing, Australia
CTX - Tim Crawford, Oregon, USA
MLF - Berto Monard, South Africa

There are two main sources of error when it comes to CCD image timing. The first source is the accuracy of your computer clock. We recommend that you sync your clock with either WWV via a short wave radio or use one of the US Naval Observatory's NTP Internet servers:
Many deluxe GPS systems can now be purchased with an interface to your computer which will update your system clock with the GPS signal.

Regardless of the system you use, please update your clock before *each* observing run.

Another source of error is in unknown recording of the time into the FITS header by your camera control software, especially when stacking images. It has been reported that some software records the time of the first image, the last image, an average of the images, etc. What should be reported to the AAVSO is the midpoint of the observation.

At the URL below I have put online 4 FITS images. [Link removed] Please download the four images and stack them in your software. Post to the AAVSO Photometry Discussion Group (or e-mail me if not subscribed) the time that your software recorded in the final image.
Send us:
1. Software Name
2. Software Version (usually found in the "About" menu)
3. Time listed in the FITS header of the stacked image.

In the next issue of CCD Views I'll post a list of the various software packages and how they handle the timing of stacked images. We will use that to recommend ways to compensate for the peculiarities of various photometry packages.

BZ UMa went into outburst again on January 16, 2005. The AAVSO commenced a high intensity observing campaign for the duration of this short outburst (~5 days). AAVSO observers did a fantastic job building a solid light curve with complete coverage for almost 24 hours when the outburst peaked. The light curve, data and notes on the outburst can be found here: [link removed]

This outburst follows on a campaign the AAVSO conducted on a BZ UMa outburst in February, 2004 which resulted in an IBVS publication. A subsequent quiescence campaign was conducted in April with inconclusive results. We hope the addition of this new, large and high quality data set will help shed light on this enigmatic system, which is yet to be classified. We will be working with the data in the coming weeks and will post updates to the aavso-photometry discussion group. So far superhumps are still missing but some interesting features in the decline may give us a few clues.

Arne will be holding a high precision photometry workshop at the upcoming 3rd High Energy Astrophysics Workshop for Amateur Astronomers being held alongside the AAVSO 94th Spring Meeting. The goal of this workshop is to follow up on previous workshops at AAVSO meetings with a more advanced program focusing on high precision photometry of faint objects. The additional training is important as we expand into fainter categories of stars (blazars, quiescent CV photometry) and stars that need ultra high precision photometry (exoplanet transits).

Also, during the AAVSO paper session an introduction to IRAF will be presented which we hope will lay the groundwork for an IRAF workshop at the AAVSO Annual Meeting in October. A limited number of travel grants are available for meeting attendees. Visit the following URL to apply: [link removed]

P/S: Arne and Brian Warner will be giving a workshop about using Canopus software for photometry on May 24, 2005 in Big Bear, CA. This workshop is not affiliated at all with the AAVSO but many AAVSO observers do use Canopus. For more info visit: [link removed]

The AAVSO has received a generous grant from the Curry Foundation to purchase CCD filters for use by members of the AAVSO International High Energy Network. We have 15 Iz (SDSS z') and 10 Ic filters available for semi-permanent loan.

The Iz filters are intended for use in GRB afterglow hunting. The Ic filters are intended for use in monitoring blazars for the High Energy Network but can also be used for other variable star projects. If you would like to receive one of these filters please fill out the application at the URL below. [link removed]

We have put online a tool to automatically do airmass and scintillation calculations for you. It can be accessed at this URL: [link removed]
The results page will give you the airmass of an object and (optionally) the scintillation. The computation is a rough approximation but should be good enough for most photometry calculations. A table of projected airmass and scintillation for the next ten hours is also displayed. The algorithms used for both approximations are referenced at the bottom of the results page.


An archive of "CCD Views" is available at http://www.aavso.org/ccd-views.

An archive of "Eyepiece Views", a similar newsletter intended for visual observers, is available at http://www.aavso.org/eyepiece-views.

The AAVSO has many free online publications. To learn more and subscribe visit: http://www.aavso.org/publications-web

Good observing!
Aaron Price, AAVSO Technical Assistant (PAH)
Gary Walker, Chairman of the AAVSO CCD Committee (WGR)
Copyright 2005, American Association of Variable Star Observers


          CCD Views #334        

C C D V I E W S #334
April 14, 2005

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Var Her 04 Quiescent Photometry Campaign
3. Infrared CCD Filter Grants - Last Call for Applications
4. GRB Observations (And April Fools Day Allegory)
5. AAVSO/GTN Blazar and Polar List and Observing Strategy


The 3rd High Energy Astrophysics Workshop for Amateur Astronomers was a great success. Word on the grapevine is that this was one of the best AAVSO meetings in recent memory. We at HQ were particularly glad to be able to meet many new AAVSO observers and put faces to the observer codes. That is always my favorite part of the meeting. Well, that and the fact that new observers often say to me "You look much younger than I envisioned!" A little flattery will get you everywhere.

The PowerPoint presentations from the workshop will be available on our web site within a week or so. In addition, full video in glorious Quick Time .AVI format will be online in 1-2 months. There were many great talks about High Energy Network objects such as GRBs, blazars and polars. Also, Arne's Advanced CCD Photometry Workshop will be available in video. While they all will be available online, attendees will also receive DVDs of the talks and workshops.

Why is this worthy enough to take up the valuable real estate of the CCD Views "Introduction"? Because it means more work for you! The meeting was such a success that we are getting lots of questions about how to start observing all of these objects. In this issue of CCD Views we give some starting points on observing blazars and polars along with a recent history of GRB afterglow reports from network members. We also have campaigns lined up for miras, eclipsing binaries and more exoplanet work.

So lots to do in the coming months, get ready!

Aaron Price
on behalf of Gary Walker, CCD Committee Chairperson


The seasons have changed and now Hercules is among us again. This means it is time to revisit our old friend Var Her 04. Dr. Jana Pittichova is helping us observe Var Her 04 with the University of Hawaii 2.2m on Mauna Kea this Sunday, April 17. She will observe in B to filter out light from the faint red companion 1 arc second way.

From you we need time series observations of Var Her 04 mainly in V throughout the entire day of April 17. We also need baseline observations of Var Her 04 in V beginning now and lasting until May 1.

We also need one or two observers to observe in Ic on April 17th. If anyone has an Ic filter and can observe please e-mail aaronp@aavso.org and/or post to the AAVSO Photometry Discussion Group.

Precision is very important for this faint system. Set your exposures for an SNR of 100.

As always, we will coordinate this campaign and post updates through the AAVSO Photometry Discussion Group.

Latest Var Her 04 observations:

  APR 13.3521 <15.0    SXN  Visual        Mike Simonsen Imlay City, MI
  MAR 04.4811  16.38   JM   CCDV          Robert James  Las Cruces, NM


We still have a few 1.25" Ic and Iz CCD filters available from the grant program announced in CCD Views #330.

The Iz filters are intended for use in GRB afterglow hunting. The Ic filters are intended for use in monitoring blazars for the High Energy Network but can also be used for other variable star projects. If you would like to receive one of these filters please fill out the application at the URL below. Priority will go to those who attended Arne's CCD Photometry Workshop at the HEA3 meeting. [Link Removed] These filters were funded by a grant from the Curry Foundation.


>> Positive GRB Afterglow Observation(s):

* Congrats to Stefano Sposetti of Switzerland who successfully imaged the afterglow to GRB050319. He took 83 60-second frames to get down to a LM of 21.5 unfiltered! That is no typo, folks. 83! The afterglow magnitude was 20.5 +/-0.5 mag unfiltered. WAY TO GO, STEFANO! But remember, next time we need filtered photometry. :)

>> Fainter Than/Negative Observation(s):

* GRB050412: Peter Nelson observed the region and did not find an afterglow. Two professional observatories reported possible faint (V>21) afterglows.

* GRB050410: Arto Oksanen observed the region and did not find an afterglow. SWIFT detected an X-ray counterpart but no optical afterglows were detected by anyone.

* GRB050408: Andrea Tasselli, Dr. D. T. Durig (Cordell-Lorenz Observatory) and Bill Dillon observed the region and did not find an afterglow. Professional observatories did discover an afterglow and even got a red shift of z=1.236 for it (8.6 billion light years away).

* GRB050331 (April Fools GRB): This was announced by SWIFT on March 31. Shortly after the announcement SWIFT also reported a bright (V>13!) afterglow that saturated the UVOT. Berto Monard was on the GRB and imaged the field and reported *no* afterglow. We were nervous contradicting the SWIFT UVOT but issued a GCN anyway. A few minutes later SWIFT retracted the GRB detection and Berto's negative observation was confirmed. This was a nice example of everyone working together and why sometimes a human at the telescope is still more valuable than an automated system!

* GRB050326: Berto Monard observed the field under poor observing conditions (wind and lunar interference). An afterglow was not detected down to 18.0 unfiltered magnitude 16.5 magnitude. However, a new source of some type (new variable star?) may have been discovered in the field. XMM Newton discovered an X-Ray afterglow.

* GRB050313: Durig and Kereszty Zsolt both imaged the field. Neither detected an afterglow and neither did any other professional observatory. In hindsight this may not have been a real GRB detection.

Nice job getting on the fields and submitting your reports!


Dr. Gordon Spear (Sonoma State University) and Dr. Steve Howell (NOAO) gave exciting talks on observing blazars and polars, respectively. The AAVSO has good charts for many of these objects. Below is a list:

Blazars w/AAVSO Charts:

  3C 66A                OI 158
  OJ 287                MARK 421
  4C 29.45 (old chart)  BL LAC
  MARK 501              PKS2155-30
  W COM                 3C 279 
  S5 1803+78            S5 2007+77
  S2 2356               PKS2005-48
  3C 232                3C 371  (old chart)
  AP LIB                S2 0109+22
Polars w/AAVSO Charts:
  AN UMA                 AR UMA
  AM HER                MR SER
  QQ VUL                BL HYI
  EF ERI                VV PUP
  GQ MUS                V2214 OPH
  V347 PAV              V834 CEN
  QS Tel

Observing strategy:
- One full evening set of time series observations in V and/or Ic of a GTN object per month.
- One or two hours of time series observations in V and/or Ic of a GTN object per week.
- Snapshot observations of the other GTN objects in V and/or Ic. One observation is requested per month per object.

Also don't forget that a GTN MyNewsFlash list is setup to monitor these objects. If you want to receive data on them in a MyNewsFlash format just go here to sign up:


All charts are available at:


More info on the GTN objects can be found at:



Dr. Steve Howell has also provided us with a couple papers he co-authored about differential and ensemble photometry. Material from them will also be included in a 2nd edition of his book "Handbook of CCD Astronomy" due out this summer.

Statistical error analysis in CCD time-resolved photometry with applications to variable stars and quasars Howell, Steve B.; Warnock, Archibald, III; Mitchell, Kenneth J. Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 95, Jan. 1988, p. 247-256. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1988AJ.....

A Technique for Ultrahigh-Precision CCD Photometry Everett, Mark E.; Howell, Steve B. The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Volume 113, Issue 789, pp. 1428-1435. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/PASP/journal/issues/v113n789/201154/201154.html


An archive of "CCD Views" is available at http://www.aavso.org/ccd-views.

An archive of "Eyepiece Views", a similar newsletter intended for visual observers, is available at http://www.aavso.org/eyepiece-views.

Good observing!

Aaron Price, AAVSO Technical Assistant (PAH)
Gary Walker, Chairman of the AAVSO CCD Committee (WGR)

Copyright 2005, American Association of Variable Star Observers


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          Tech News Today 1821: Ads in a Giphy        

Tech News Today (MP3)

Back in March, the US Senate voted to overturn Broadband Privacy Rules that had prevented ISPs from selling our browsing information. A group at DefCon last week presented evidence of just how easy it is for someone to deanonymize that browsing data.

Apple released early firmware for Apple's Homepod speaker and an iOS developer analyzed the code to reveal that not only is the Homepod running a full iOS stack, but the firmware detailed a number of references to infrared FaceDetection. That gives further credence to rumors pointing to a replacement of Touch ID with face detection in the new iPhone

Get ready for ads in your GIFs. TechCrunch reports that Giphy will soon test sponsored gifs. Giphy has over 200 million daily active users across all platforms, so advertisers are understandably eager to scoop up this real estate.

Linden Labs is evolving from Second Life to Sansar, Niantic is canceling Pokemon Go Fests after its Fest fails a few weeks ago, and YouTuber Marques Brownlee was at Tesla's Model 3 event and he shares his thoughts on what its like in the driver's seat.

Hosts: Megan Morrone and Jason Howell

Guest: Marques Brownlee

Download or subscribe to this show at https://twit.tv/shows/tech-news-today.

Thanks to CacheFly for the bandwidth for this show.

          ThermoWorks Annual Infrared Thermometer Sale + Cyber Monday + Mix & Match        

ThermoWorks has launched their once a year Infrared Thermometer Sale.  That saves you 30% to 50%.  Check out - Here
ThermoWorks Cyber Monday and Mix and Match Sales are still going as well.
The Mix and Match sale allows you to get the volume discount (usually need to purchase 5 of the same item) by purchasing just two items.  It's worth noting that you can pick two different items to get the  discount.
Note that both sales use ThermoWorks Holiday Gift Guide as their landing page.  Sale Items and Mix and Match Items are clearly marked.

          The Potential of Smartphones        
So often in the mobile phone business, people have approached these devices as merely mobile versions of immobile technology. Thus the "mobile web", "mobile mail", "mobile phone", and so on. But what if we approached smartphones from the perspective of what they are, what they can do, and what we could do with that?

An example of a technology that is completely "home grown" to the mobile community is SMS. This was not a planned service in the same way as MMS or WAP -- the operators and handset manufacturers did not carefully design and market SMS. It was simply a capability available on the phones and network that suited people's needs, and so it took off. (Note that SMS was not "mobile instant messaging", it was simply a messaging facility for operator use which turned out to work wonderfully peer-to-peer. It's mode of operation is, in fact, quite different from IM, and it is only recently that efforts have been made to fit it into an IM type of UI, such as on the iPhone.)

So what could we come up with in the future, and how do we go about it? Or do we have to rely on accidents?

I think the first thing we need to understand with this approach is exactly what a phone is, and how it fits into people's lives. So let's tackle that one first.

What is a smartphone?
If you are intimately familiar with smartphones, you can skip this section. Still, it's fascinating to take stock of just how much functionality modern smartphones pack into them, and to think about the uses of that technology independent of the actual features.

A smartphone:
  • Is a small computer with substantial CPU and memory resources
  • Carried almost everywhere
Smartphones have:
  • Relatively small screen (sometimes touch sensitive)
  • Small keypad or keyboard
  • Built-in phone, for telecommunications with other people
  • Microphone and the ability to record from it
  • Speaker and the ability to play music and sounds
  • Usually a camera (or two) with the ability to capture stills and video
  • Internet connection which is usually, but not always, available
  • Bluetooth connection which can detect and communicate with neighbouring devices
  • Infrared connection which can communicate with neighbouring devices
  • Positioning information, available via cell ID or built-in GPS
  • Databases for contacts and calendar information

Some smartphones have:

  • Light sensor
  • Motion detectors (eg. iPhone, Nokia 5500)
  • Near field RFID units (eg. mobile Suica)

What can we do with this?

So, the question is then, what can we do with the (fairly impressive) bundle of functionality that millions of users carry around with them every day?

Well, some ideas are pretty straight-forward:

  • Use it as a PDA (to keep contacts, calendar, and notes)
  • Use it as a mobile web browser (slowly starting to become viable as screens get bigger and, more importantly, CPUs get fast enough to present the web in readable ways on a small screen)
  • Use it as a mobile email terminal (RIM has been particularly successful in this area, although something like an E61 or P990i/M600i on an operator-provided IMAP push service is just as good, and much cheaper)
  • Use it as a constantly-updated weather chart
  • Use it as a navigation unit, with maps, current location (via GPS), dynamic routing, and even dynamically updated traffic status
  • Use it as an e-book reader

What's obvious about these ideas are that they have all been transferred from devices that already exist. PDAs, web browsers (on desktops and laptops), email, online weather, GPS navigation, and e-book readers are all technologies that have been around for quite some time. Putting them on a smartphone certainly makes them more accessible, and thus more useful, but doesn't really transform the way they integrate with people's lives.

Are there other ideas that can be built from the smartphone's capabilities itself? Yes, of course there are, and here are some we've seen:
  • Lifeblog: using the camera, location and time information, and recording snippets of your life along with some comments on it, creating a multimedia "life blog". http://www.nokia.com/lifeblog
  • Sensor: using bluetooth and a personalised profile to discover and meet people in your
    immediate vicinity with matching interests. http://www.nokia.com/sensor

The problem with these ideas, and why they haven't taken the market by storm, is that there really just curiosities. They don't meet a real need. How many people complain that they don't have a sufficiently rich record of their lives? Not many.

New ideas

Are there other ideas that take advantage of the capabilities of a smart phone and meet a real need? I think there are many, and I'll talk here about one, which I would love to see implemented.

Imagine a service on your smartphone which took advantage of its computing ability, its knowledge of your location, and its connection to the internet. Imagine that you could specify a destination and a desired arrival time, and this service could go off and discover all the ways you could get to that destination at that time, then present you with the options, and then book your chosen options, and finally remind you about when you needed to get moving to get there, and guide you through the process.

For example, I might want to fly from my home on the Gold Coast, Australia, to a hotel in Hong Kong. The software would start by attempting to find a route from start to end. Once it knew this, it would attempt to find services on this route, starting with the most irregular and expensive (ie. the flight from Australia to Hong Kong), and then work down to the simplest (eg. getting to and from the airports). Then it would present me with a range of "best-case" options (no point confusing me with lots of almost-identical options), and I would choose what I wanted for the various legs. Remembered preferences (for example, I prefer the train over driving) would make the choices easier by prioritising them so my most likely choices are the first ones I see. Finally, it would take my choices, book them for me, and keep the e-ticketing information.

Then, when the time came to make the trip, the software would remind me when to start (maybe by putting appointments in my calendar), would present the e-ticket information when I needed it, and would guide me through the confusion of interchanges, and so on.

All of this information is available on-line today. All of the technology required to do this is available. Much of the infrastructure, such as mapping and routing technology is freely available for this type of "mash-up".

What's missing is a good UI running on the phone, which integrates well with the phone's capabilities (its small keyboard and screen, its calendar database and positioning technology), and provides fluid, friendly interaction.

There are obvious add-ons to this service, such as the ability to find and book accommodation given your parameters and choices. An even more powerful addition would be the ability to carpool with others who are heading in the same direction. Sharing aggregate data with transport providers could even allow them to improve the quality and efficiency of their services.

Mass market?

The question is, are these types of services useful for many people? Do they have mass market appeal?

If the purpose is to plan large-scale trips like Austalia to Hong Kong (or even interstate within large countries), the answer would have to be no. However, if the technology can handle small-scale trips like meeting someone in an unknown pub at a certain time, then this is far more useful to the general user.

The tipping point is based on usability and price. It has to be easier to use the phone to discover, book, and schedule your trip than it is to do it yourself. If you are looking at a regular trip (such as a commute), it's unlikely that you'd use such technology, unless it gave you benefits such as carpooling or a discount ticket (from the transport provider to encourage use of such services so that they could better implement their services). But an irregular, but still planned trip using public transport -- such as a weekend outing, or a meeting with the mates or for work -- presents planning and information gathering demands that a smartphone could easily perform.

Personally, the idea of being able to quickly and easily find my way to a meeting, without wasting time at connections or stressing about figuring out the best way there, sounds like a dream come true.

The key to these ideas

Perhaps the key to this approach is to understand the smartphone as an "invisible" tool. A tool that is simply the conduit for desires and information. The idea I've mapped out can include peer-to-peer functionality (with carpooling), which many believe to be a key to success, as well as information and service delivery.

This is the beauty of smartphones: they can span so many "worlds" that they can do all sorts of exciting things. Let's not just create "mobile" versions of existing, desk-bound services, let's try to create truly unique services with the capabilities available right now!

          New Momma Must-Haves        
With all the baby-bump pics showing up in my news feeds, I thought I would share what I have found to be my must-have items since gaining my own bundle of joy!  Of course I can't share them all in one post, so there will be more to come in the next few months!  These are what popped into my head when I first started brainstorming the items I couldn't live without:
1. a + a Swaddle Blankets-These are perfect for swaddling, breast-feeding cover-up, play time on the floor...pretty much anything.
2. Zo-li Buzz Nail Trimmer-This is actually a nail file and is perfect for filing down those teeny-tiny nails
3. Sleepy Sounds App (FREE)-We love the "white noise" and "nature sounds."  When we lay down at night, this app gets turned on and Miss Finlee is content to fall asleep within minutes.
4. Motorola MBP36 Video Monitor-We did extensive research before deciding on this one, but it was worth it.  Two-way talk, tilt/scan capabilities, multiple cameras, and a large monitor.  I believe we can even hook it up to the TV, we just haven't yet!  Seriously...LOVE!
5. Snuggin Go Infant Positioner-This makes all those wonderful swings and bouncy seats comfy for even the tiniest of babies.  Stick it in your Mamaroo and you are ready to go...no crooked necks here!
6. Moby Wrap-Life.Saver.  This is the only way to get anything done.  I use it when I go grocery shopping or even out to eat!
7. Ubbi Pail-No stinky diapers here.  Literally--Can't smell 'em.  This pail is AH-mazing!  It fits any bags (so you can just use your trash bags if you want!) AND they have a cloth bag for cloth diapering.  Just stick it in the wash when you wash your load of diapers and you are good-to-go!
8. BumGenius All-in-One-Can I just say that I LOVE cloth diapering.  No turning back here.  And these BumGenius all-in-ones take the cake:  no stuffing, no covers, no additional work.  It's the convenience of disposables with the earth-friendliness and cost-savings of cloth.

There ya have it!  I'll be doing a whole cloth diaper post in the future for you mommas looking into them!  This weekend, we'll be doing some projects around the house and I can't wait to show you our progress!

So mommas, what can't you live without?!  Not that I need help shopping/spending money!

**I wasn't paid or perked for linking these products.  I just had a great experience with them and wanted to share the wealth.  Happy shopping!
           Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment         
Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Blazere, A.; André, Ph.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Comerón, F.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Guarcello, M. G.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Marston, A.; Minier, V.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Röllig, M.; Roy, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Tremblin, P.; White, G. J. and Wright, N. J. (2016). Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 591, article no. A40.
           Optical – near-infrared catalog for the AKARI north ecliptic pole Deep field         
Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Murata, Kazumi; Goto, Tomotsugu; Wada, Takehiko; Takagi, Toshinobu; Ohyama, Youichi; Malkan, Matthew; Im, Myungshin; Shim, Hyunjin; Serjeant, Stephen and Pearson, Chris (2014). Optical – near-infrared catalog for the AKARI north ecliptic pole Deep field. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 566 A60.
           Physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos: reconciling radar and thermal-infrared observations         
Rozitis, B. and Green, S. F. (2014). Physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos: reconciling radar and thermal-infrared observations. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 568, article no. A43.
           How dusty is α Centauri? Excess or non-excess over the infrared photospheres of main-sequence stars         
Wiegert, J.; Liseau, R.; Thébault, P.; Olofsson, G.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J. C.; Bayo Aran, A.; Danchi, W. C.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M. C. W.; Hajigholi, M.; Krivov, A. V.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; White, G.J. and Wolf, S. (2014). How dusty is α Centauri? Excess or non-excess over the infrared photospheres of main-sequence stars. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 563, article no. A102.
           Determination of the far-infrared dust opacity in a prestellar core         
Suutarinen, A.; Haikala, L.K.; Harju, J.; Juvela, M.; André, Ph.; Kirk, J.M.; Könyves, V. and White, G. J. (2013). Determination of the far-infrared dust opacity in a prestellar core. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 555, article no. A140.
           Infrared spectroscopy of solid CO-CO2 mixtures and layers         
van Broekhuizen, F. A.; Groot, I. M. N.; Fraser, H. J. ; van Dishoeck, E. F. and Schlemmer, S. (2006). Infrared spectroscopy of solid CO-CO2 mixtures and layers. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 451(2) pp. 723–731.
           H2O emission in high-z ultra-luminous infrared galaxies         
Omont, A.; Yang, C.; Cox, P.; Neri, R.; Beelen, A.; Bussmann, R. S.; Gavazzi, R.; van der Werf, P.; Riechers, D.; Downes, D.; Krips, M.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Eales, S. A.; Fu, H.; Gao, Y.; Guélin, M.; Harris, A. I.; Jarvis, M.; Lehnert, M.; Leeuw, L.; Lupu, R.; Menten, K.; Michałowski, M. J.; Negrello, M.; Serjeant, S. ; Temi, P.; Auld, R.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Glenn, J. and Scott, K. S. (2013). H2O emission in high-z ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 551, article no. A115.
           α Centauri A in the far infrared: first measurement of the temperature minimum of a star other than the Sun         
Liseau, R.; Montesinos, B.; Olofsson, G.; Bryden, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Ardila, D.; Bayo Aran, A.; Danchi, W. C.; del Burgo, C.; Eiroa, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M. C. W.; Krivov, A. V.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Thébault, P.; Wiegert, J. and White, G. J. (2013). α Centauri A in the far infrared: first measurement of the temperature minimum of a star other than the Sun. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 549, article no. L7.
           The North Ecliptic Pole Wide survey of AKARI: a near- and mid-infrared source catalog         
Kim, S. J.; Lee, H. M.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Oyabu, S.; Im, M.; Jeon, Y.; Kang, E.; Ko, J.; Lee, M. G.; Takagi, T.; Pearson, C.; White, G. ; Jeong, W.-S.; Serjeant, S. ; Nakagawa, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Goto, T.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Pollo, A.; Solarz, A. and PÈ©piak, A. (2012). The North Ecliptic Pole Wide survey of AKARI: a near- and mid-infrared source catalog. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 548, article no. A29.
           Herschel/PACS observations of young sources in Taurus: the far-infrared counterpart of optical jets         
Podio, L.; Kamp, I.; Flower, D.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Mora, A.; Aresu, G.; Brittain, S.; Dent, W.,R. F.; Pinte, C. and White, G. J. (2012). Herschel/PACS observations of young sources in Taurus: the far-infrared counterpart of optical jets. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 545, article no. A44.
           Near infrared spectroscopy of W51 IRS-2         
White, G. J. ; Phillips, J. P.; Williams, P. M.; Watt, G. D. and Richardson, K. J. (1982). Near infrared spectroscopy of W51 IRS-2. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 116(2) pp. 293–295.
           Carbon monoxide and far-infrared observations of the S 155-Cepheus B region         
Minchin, Nigel R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek and White, Glenn J. (1992). Carbon monoxide and far-infrared observations of the S 155-Cepheus B region. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 265 pp. 733–742.
           A study of bipolar and compact nebulae at radio, submillimetre and infrared wavelengths         
White, Glenn J. and Gee, Graham (1986). A study of bipolar and compact nebulae at radio, submillimetre and infrared wavelengths. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 156(1-2) pp. 301–309.
           An investigation of the B335 region through far infrared spectroscopy with ISO         
Nisini, B.; Benedettini, M.; Giannini, T.; Clegg, P. E.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Leeks, S. J.; Liseau, R.; Lorenzetti, D.; Molinari, S.; Saraceno, P.; Spinoglio, L.; Tommasi, E.; White, G. J. and Smith, H. A. (1999). An investigation of the B335 region through far infrared spectroscopy with ISO. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 343 pp. 266–272.
           Looking at the bright side of the ρ Ophiuchi dark cloud. Far infrared spectrophotometric observations of the ρ Oph cloud with the ISO-LWS         
Liseau, R.; White, G. J. ; Larsson, B.; Sidher, S.; Olofsson, G.; Kaas, A.; Nordh, L.; Caux, E.; Lorenzetti, D.; Molinari, S.; Nisini, B. and Sibille, F. (1999). Looking at the bright side of the ρ Ophiuchi dark cloud. Far infrared spectrophotometric observations of the ρ Oph cloud with the ISO-LWS. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 344 pp. 342–354.
           The far infrared line spectrum of the protostar IRAS 16293-2422         
Ceccarelli, C.; Caux, E.; White, G. J. ; Molinari, S.; Furniss, I.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Saraceo, P.; Spinoglio, L. and Wolfire, M. (1998). The far infrared line spectrum of the protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 331 pp. 372–382.
           Shock excited far-infrared molecular emission around T Tau         
Spinoglio, L.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; van den Ankar, M. E.; Caux, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Lorenzetti, D.; Palla, F.; Pezzuto, S.; Saraceno, P.; Smith, H. A. and White, G. J. (2000). Shock excited far-infrared molecular emission around T Tau. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 353 pp. 1055–1064.
           Far infrared spectroscopy of FU Ori objects. ISO-LWS observations         
Lorenzotti, D.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Benedettini, M.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Blake, G. A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Cohen, M.; Liseau, R.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Saraceno, P.; Smith, H. A.; Spinoglio, L. and White, G. J. (2000). Far infrared spectroscopy of FU Ori objects. ISO-LWS observations. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 357 pp. 1035–1044.
           An infrared study of the L1551 star formation region         
White, G. J. ; Liseau, R.; Men'schikov, A.; Jusstanont, K.; Nisini, B.; Benedettini, M.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Correia, J. C.; Giannini, T.; Kaufman, M.; Lorenzotti, D.; Molinari, S.; Saraceno, P.; Smith, H. A.; Spinoglio, L. and Tommasi, E. (2000). An infrared study of the L1551 star formation region. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 364 pp. 741–762.
           A Herschel resolved far-infrared dust ring around HD 207129         
Marshall, J. P.; Löhne, T.; Montesinos, B.; Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Absil, O.; Bryden, G.; Maldonado, J.; Mora, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-Ch.; Bayo, A.; del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Ertel, S.; Fedele, D.; Fridlund, M.; Lebreton, J.; González-García, B. M.; Liseau, R.; Meeus, G.; Müller, S.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; White, G. J. and Wolf, S. (2011). A Herschel resolved far-infrared dust ring around HD 207129. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 529, article no. A117.
           The AKARI NEP-Deep survey: a mid-infrared source catalogue         
Takagi, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Goto, T.; Hanami, H.; Im, M.; Imai, K.; Ishigaki, T.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, M. G.; Malkan, M.; Ohyama, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Pearson, C. P.; Serjeant, S. ; Wada, T. and White, G. J. (2012). The AKARI NEP-Deep survey: a mid-infrared source catalogue. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 537, article no. A24.
           A radio and mid-infrared survey of northern bright-rimmed clouds: erratum         
Morgan, L. K.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; White, G. J. and Miao, J. (2006). A radio and mid-infrared survey of northern bright-rimmed clouds: erratum. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 457(1) pp. 207–208.
           Evolution of infrared luminosity functions of galaxies in the AKARI NEP-deep field: revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust         
Goto, T.; Takagi, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Pearson, C. ; Wada, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Oyabu, S.; Ohyama, Y.; Malkan, M.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, M. G.; Inami, H.; Hwang, N.; Hanami, H.; Im, M.; Imai, K.; Ishigaki, T.; Serjeant, S. and Shim, H. (2010). Evolution of infrared luminosity functions of galaxies in the AKARI NEP-deep field: revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 514, article no. A6.
           Infrared spectroscopic studies of hydrogenated silicon clusters - guiding the search for Si2Hx species in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216         
Kaiser, R. I. and Osamura, Y. (2005). Infrared spectroscopic studies of hydrogenated silicon clusters - guiding the search for Si2Hx species in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 432(2) pp. 559–566.
           Broadband infrared photometry of comet Hale-Bopp with ISOPHOT         
Grun, E.; Hanner, M. S.; Peschke, S, B.; Muller, T.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brooke, T. Y.; Campins, H.; Crovisier, J.; Delahodde, C.; Heinrichsen, I.; Keller, H. U.; Knack, R. F.; Kruger, H.; Lamy, P.; Leinert, C.; Lemke, D.; Lisse, C. M.; Muller, M.; Osip, D. J.; Solc, M.; Stickel, M.; Sykes, M.; Vanysek, V. and Zarnecki, J. (2001). Broadband infrared photometry of comet Hale-Bopp with ISOPHOT. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 377(3) pp. 1098–1118.
           A radio and mid-infrared survey of northern bright-rimmed clouds         
Morgan, L. K.; Thompson, M. A. ; Urquhart, J. S.; White, G. J. and Miao, J. (2004). A radio and mid-infrared survey of northern bright-rimmed clouds. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 426(2) pp. 535–545.
          Astronomers release spectacular survey of the distant Universe        
Astronomers at The University of Nottingham have released spectacular new infrared images of the distant Universe, providing the deepest view ever obtained over a large area of sky. The team, led by Omar Almaini, Professor of Astrophysics in the School of Physics and Astronomy, is presenting their results at the National Astronomy Meeting taking place this week at the University’s Jubilee Campus. The final data release from the Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) maps an area four times the size of the full Moon to unprecedented depth. Over 250,000 galaxies have been detected, including several hundred observed within the first billion years...
          fullress より 海外4/30発売予定!ナイキラボ ソックダート ネオン インフラレッド (NIKELAB SOCK DART SP NEON INFRARED) [686058-661] へのコメント        
          hf より 海外4/30発売予定!ナイキラボ ソックダート ネオン インフラレッド (NIKELAB SOCK DART SP NEON INFRARED) [686058-661] へのコメント        
          720P AHD 3.6mm Indoor Fixed Lens 20m IR Dome CCTV Camera (Grey or White)        

The MaxxOne AHD security camera range sets the standard for indoor CCTV surveillance with HD resolution output you will really notice the difference when compared to older standard TVL analogue cameras. With a high build quality and boasting a good range of professional features at a great price this camera is perfect for both business and home CCTV systems.

Great for Day and Night

This MaxxOne AHD CCTV camera operates fantastically in low light conditions using the latest Sense-UP technology which allows you to keep a colour image in even lower light conditions, and switches to Infrared nightvision mode for viewing in total darkness up to 20 metres which features IR-Cut as well.

Even Better Image Clarity

Also included in this camera is a 3D NR filter for reducing digital noise from both static images and moving footage. Image noise is interference in the video signal that shows up as grainy specks. It can be caused by low lighting situations, a nearby power interference, heat, or device algorithms.

Digital Noise Reduction or "DNR" is a technique of removing image noise from a video signal by applying a digital comb filter. It makes images clearer and reduces video file size. Whilst 3D NR adds another layer of depth to the filter to improve it even further.

Improved Picture in Varied Lighting Conditions

This camera has built-in Digital Wide Dynamic Range. DWDR is a camera function which digitally adjusts exposure in areas of the frame to maintain optimum detail in both the shadows and highlights of the image. This prevents bright spots of an image from darkening the foreground details which normally would have a silhouette effect.

Total Control

Thanks to a handy controller built into the cabling you can use On-screen display with this camera for total control over the camera’s display settings; including switching between AHD and CVBS(standard analogue) modes.

Backwards and Cross Compatible

All MaxxOne AHD cameras are backwards compatible with most BNC monitors and analogue DVRs, as well as other brands of AHD/HDA digital video recorders. It uses a standard BNC connection and the industry standard 2.1mm power connection.

Disclaimer: This camera is not suitable for outdoor use.

Price: £29.16 Special Price: £16.65
Special Expires On: 31 Aug 2017

          Maxx Digital AHD 720p or 960p 2.8-12mm Lens 60m Outdoor IR CCTV Camera        

The MaxxOne AHD security camera range sets the standard for CCTV surveillance with HD resolution output you will really notice the difference when compared to older standard TVL analogue cameras. With a high build quality and boasting a good range of professional features this camera is perfect for both business and home CCTV systems, as well as being suitable for outdoor use.

Great for Day and Night

This MaxxOne AHD CCTV camera operates fantastically in low light conditions using the latest Sense-UP technology which allows you to keep a colour image in even lower light conditions, and switches to Infrared nightvision mode for viewing in total darkness up to 60 metres which features IR-Cut as well.

Even Better Image Clarity

Also included in this camera is a 3D NR filter for reducing digital noise from both static images and moving footage. Image noise is interference in the video signal that shows up as grainy specks. It can be caused by low lighting situations, a nearby power interference, heat, or device algorithms.

Digital Noise Reduction or "DNR" is a technique of removing image noise from a video signal by applying a digital comb filter. It makes images clearer and reduces video file size. Whilst 3D NR adds another layer of depth to the filter to improve it even further.

Improved Picture in Varied Lighting Conditions

This camera has built-in Digital Wide Dynamic Range. DWDR is a camera function which digitally adjusts exposure in areas of the frame to maintain optimum detail in both the shadows and highlights of the image. This prevents bright spots of an image from darkening the foreground details which normally would have a silhouette effect.

Total Control

Thanks to a handy controller built into the cabling you can use On-screen display with this camera for total control over the camera’s display settings.

Flexible Zoom and Focus

As part of the varifocal line of cameras; this camera features a 2.8mm to 12mm manually adjustable zoom lens.

On the camera are 2 screw points for zoom & focus. Using these you can set your camera anywhere between a 109° wide-angle view by reducing the varifocal length to 2.8mm up to a 22° telescopic zoomed in view by increasing the varifocal length to 12mm.

This gives you more a lot flexibility than standard fixed lens cameras, allowing you to focus on distant objects, entrances/exits, cash points, and so on.

Backwards and Cross Compatible

All MaxxOne AHD cameras are backwards compatible with most BNC monitors and analogue DVRs, as well as other brands of AHD/HDA digital video recorders. It uses a standard BNC connection and the industry standard 2.1mm power connection.

Price: £66.66 Special Price: £24.99
Special Expires On: 31 Aug 2017

          MaxxOne 4MP, IP66 Anti-Vandal, Varifocal, PoE, IP Dome Camera        

This camera features:

  • 4MP(2592*1520) Resolution
  • 2.8-12mm manual lens
  • IP66 Weatherproof
  • Up to 40m IR range
  • 3-Axis rotation
  • SMT LEDs
  • 2.4 ONVIF compatible
  • Day & Night modes
  • 0.01 LUX illumination
  • IR-Cut
  • 3D noise reduction
  • Wide Dynamic Range
  • PoE

Surface Mounted Technology

The C410 includes SMT (Surface Mounted Technology) long-life LED for infrared which has many advantages over older DIP (Dual In-line Package) LEDs. Including:

  • Extended camera lifespan, with around 20% slower light fading
  • Energy efficient, requiring less LEDs
  • Reduced running costs by saving on electricity
  • Better heat dissipation directly to on-board heat sink
  • Up to 20% better stability compared with patch-LED in same conditions
  • Better lighting effect

Price: £89.00 Special Price: £74.99
Special Expires On: 31 Aug 2017

          MaxxOne AHD 1.0MP 720P 2.8-12mm Lens 60m External IR Surveillance Camera        

The MaxxOne AHD security camera range sets the standard for CCTV surveillance with HD resolution output you will really notice the difference when compared to older standard TVL analogue cameras. With a high build quality and boosting a good range of professional features this camera is perfect for both business and home CCTV systems, as well as being suitable for outdoor use.

Great for Day and Night

This MaxxOne AHD CCTV camera operates fantastically in low light conditions using the latest Sense-UP technology which allows you to keep a colour image in even lower light conditions, and switches to Infrared nightvision mode for viewing in total darkness up to 60 metres which features IR-Cut as well.

Even Better Image Clarity

Also included in this camera is a 3D NR filter for reducing digital noise from both static images and moving footage. Image noise is interference in the video signal that shows up as grainy specks. It can be caused by low lighting situations, a nearby power interference, heat, or device algorithms.

Digital Noise Reduction or "DNR" is a technique of removing image noise from a video signal by applying a digital comb filter. It makes images clearer and reduces video file size. Whilst 3D NR adds another layer of depth to the filter to improve it even further.

Improved Picture in Varied Lighting Conditions

This camera has built-in Digital Wide Dynamic Range. DWDR is a camera function which digitally adjusts exposure in areas of the frame to maintain optimum detail in both the shadows and highlights of the image.? This prevents bright spots of an image from darkening the foreground details which normally would have a silhouette effect.

Total Control

Thanks to a handy controller built into the cabling you can use On-screen display with this camera for total control over the camera’s display settings.

Flexible Zoom and Focus

As part of the varifocal line of cameras; this camera features a 2.8mm to 12mm manually adjustable zoom lens.

On the camera are 2 screw points for zoom & focus. Using these you can set your camera anywhere between a 109° wide-angle view by reducing the varifocal length to 2.8mm up to a 22° telescopic zoomed in view by increasing the varifocal length to 12mm.

This gives you more a lot flexibility than standard fixed lens cameras, allowing you to focus on distant objects, entrances/exits, cash points, and so on.

Backwards and Cross Compatible

All MaxxOne AHD cameras are backwards compatible with most BNC monitors and analogue DVRs, as well as other brands of AHD/HDA digital video recorders. It uses a standard BNC connection and the industry standard 2.1mm power connection.

Price: £66.66 Special Price: £24.99
Special Expires On: 31 Aug 2017

          MaxxOne AHD 1.0MP 720P 3.6mm Lens 20m IR Dome Surveillance Camera (Grey)        

The MaxxOne AHD security camera range sets the standard for CCTV surveillance with HD resolution output you will really notice the difference when compared to older standard TVL analogue cameras. With a high build quality and boosting a good range of professional features this camera is perfect for both business and home CCTV systems.

Great for Day and Night

This MaxxOne AHD CCTV camera operates fantastically in low light conditions using the latest Sense-UP technology which allows you to keep a colour image in even lower light conditions, and switches to Infrared nightvision mode for viewing in total darkness up to 20 metres which features IR-Cut as well.

Even Better Image Clarity

Also included in this camera is a 3D NR filter for reducing digital noise from both static images and moving footage. Image noise is interference in the video signal that shows up as grainy specks. It can be caused by low lighting situations, a nearby power interference, heat, or device algorithms.

Digital Noise Reduction or "DNR" is a technique of removing image noise from a video signal by applying a digital comb filter. It makes images clearer and reduces video file size. Whilst 3D NR adds another layer of depth to the filter to improve it even further.

Improved Picture in Varied Lighting Conditions

This camera has built-in Digital Wide Dynamic Range. DWDR is a camera function which digitally adjusts exposure in areas of the frame to maintain optimum detail in both the shadows and highlights of the image.? This prevents bright spots of an image from darkening the foreground details which normally would have a silhouette effect.

Total Control

Thanks to a handy controller built into the cabling you can use On-screen display with this camera for total control over the camera’s display settings; including switching between AHD and CVBS(standard analogue) modes.

Backwards and Cross Compatible

All MaxxOne AHD cameras are backwards compatible with most BNC monitors and analogue DVRs, as well as other brands of AHD/HDA digital video recorders. It uses a standard BNC connection and the industry standard 2.1mm power connection.

Disclaimer: This camera is not suitable for outdoor use, and is to be used indoors only.

Price: £29.16 Special Price: £16.65
Special Expires On: 31 Aug 2017

          MaxxOne TVI 1080p 40m IR 2.8-12mm Outdoor Dome Camera        
  • Large 1/2.7" Image Sensor
  • 40m IR night-vision
  • 2.8-12mm adjustable zoom lens; Angle of View: 35°- 102°
  • IP66 outdoor camera
  • Backlight Compensation
  • Smart Infrared
  • Improved clarity with Digital Noise Reduction
  • OSD Menu via UTC technology

Price: £65.50 Special Price: £55.00
Special Expires On: 31 Aug 2017

          How to prevent flare ups on gas grill, use GrillGrates        

GrillGrates improve the functionality and effectiveness of any grill and solve many grilling challenges. GrillGrates patented three dimensional design is highly conductive, smooths out hot and cold spots and converts much of a grill's heat into infrared heat. The bottom plate blocks flare-ups while the valleys trap juices for added moisture and flavor. I invite you to discover what our customers already know - that GrillGrates tranform the grilling experience. Feel free to contact me to see, hear, smell, and taste the difference for yourself!

          Transcend Offers the Gifts to Win Your Valentine's Heart        
As we bid farewell to Chinese New Year this Feburary, we welcome another wonderful date, Valentine's Day. Love birds in every corner of the world express their love for each other through gifts and actions on this very day. Some of us are still pondering what to give our Valentine as finding the right gifts regardless of gender is tough,

So this year, Transcend Information, Inc. (Transcend®), a leading manufacturer of storage and multimedia products, has something else for you to add a twist of tech to this year's Valentine's Day celebration.

For her: JetDrive Go 300R - No More Insufficient Storage While Capturing Memorable Moments
If your Miss/Mrs owns as iPhone, then this gift would be the most ideal gift for her. The JetDrive™ Go 300 Lightning/USB 3.1 flash comes available with capacity of up to 128GB and packed features such as quick and easy file transfer, one-touch backup via the JetDrive Go App, sharing those captured moments with friends and loved ones can now be done with ease.

What's best is that photo snapping and video recording session will no longer be interrupted by the distressing 'Not Enough Storage' warning message, as she can now save the photos, videos and audio recordings directly to the the JetDrive™ Go 300 Lightning/USB 3.1 flash drive instead of her internal storage.

No more worries about which photos to backup or needing to delete any of those memories just for new memories.

If recording videos and snapping pictures of every special moment is part of her daily routine with her iPhone, the JetDrive™ Go 300 Lightning/USB 3.1 flash drive is definitely the ideal gift for her - pair a Rose Gold JetDrive™ Go 300 Lightning/USB 3.1 flash drive with the usual bouquet of flowers, chocolates to add some techie flavor to her gift.

For him: Smart Card Reader RDC2 and RDA2 - Bridging The Gap For Cross-Platform Data Transfer 
Both the Smart Card Reader RDC2 and RDA2 are Transcend's on-the-go smart reader that is specially designed to make data transfer with SD / microSD memory cards easier for Android devices with USB type-C connector and iOS devices with Lightning connector.

The RDC2 and RDA2, comes with Transcend's own proprietary app (Transcend Elite App for RDC2 and Smart Reader App for RDA2) which allows you to explore files on the memory card, perform data backup and even encrypt the data for that extra layer of security with ease.

Owning multiple devices is a pretty common thing among the guys nowadays, but sharing and transferring data between different platforms and devices can sometimes be tedious, especially when it involves large sized files and memory cards. Why not make things easier for him with the Smart Card Reader RDC2 and RDA2?

For both: DrivePro 520 - Capture Every Moment Of Your Road Trips Without A Miss 
When it comes to the choice of dash cam for your road trips, the Transcend DrivePro 520 is definitely the ideal dash cam for such occasion. Packed with features such as 130° wide viewing angle, a large ƒ/1.8 aperture, and 6 glass lenses front camera that enables Full HD 1080P (30fps) crystal-clear video recording, and a 180° angle-wide rotatable rear camera that is equipped with four Infrared LEDs that allows you to record sharp in-car videos at night or in low-light conditions, the Transcend DrivePro 520 allows you to record both scenes inside the vehicle as well as on the road without a miss.

What's more, the DrivePro 520 is equipped with a GPS receiver that logs the coordinate, date and time into the recorded videos and you can stream, download and share videos on your iOS and Android devices via the DrivePro New App as a record for incident reporting in case of emergency.

If you're looking for a good reason to get dash cam as a gift for your road trips, look no further as the Transcend DrivePro 520 is without a doubt, the ideal dash cam that is packed with all the features that is practical and convenient for your road trip needs.

So which gifts do you plan to get for your loved ones this Valentine??? I would love to get JetDrive Go 300R this Valentine's Day as my gift as being an iPhone user, I'm always worried about not getting enough storage in my phone as I don't back up often. And also, I love to take photos and videos all the time. With JetDrive Go 300R, I would be able to expand my storage and still be able to keep my memories without the need to worry to replace my old memories with my new ones. The woes of an iPhone user when you get 16gb storage right at the start and regret instantly.
          Selected Properties of Carbon Nanostructures: from Exotic Fullerenes to Nanotubes        
The talk presents results from ongoing projects in the field of carbonnanostructures: (i) Mass selected ion beam soft-landing has been usedto generate exotic fullerene materials comprising covalent linked,non-IPR cages. Apart from microscopic structure, we have studiedthermal and electronic properties as well as reactivity towards(atomic) hydrogen. (ii) Confocal fluorescence microscopy was appliedto the near-infrared emission properties of individual semiconductingsingle-walled carbon ...
          Health Company – infrared heat cabins        

Het bericht Health Company – infrared heat cabins verscheen eerst op SaunaIndex.nl.

           Ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy of MBE grown undoped Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/(001)Si superlattices         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy of MBE grown undoped Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/(001)Si superlattices. In: Conference on Material Science and Material Properties for Infrared Optoelectronics, UZHGOROD, UKRAINE, SEP 30-OCT 02, 1996. Published in: MATERIAL SCIENCE AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES FOR INFRARED OPTOELECTRONICS, 3182 pp. 216-222.
          Napoleon LEX 730 RSBI        
Grill like a pro with at least six different ways to cook on your new Napoleon Grill. Sear quickly over the integrated infrared burner. Bake anything from the perfect roast to cakes. Use the optional charcoal smoker tray smoked pulled pork. Grill like a pro over the stainless steel tube burners. Use the infrared rear […]
          Xhorse Remote Tester for Radio Frequency Infrared        

Price: 39,99 € Special Price: 32,99 €

          Xhorse Remote Tester for Radio Frequency Infrared        

Price: 39,99 € Special Price: 32,99 €

          ThermoHAWK 400 - Touchless Infrared Thermometer        
ThermoHAWK 400 - Touchless Infrared Thermometer
Keychain-sized touchless infrared thermometer for instantly taking surface temperatures in seconds

Click Here For Complete Details

          Nokia 1100 Features        

2G Network            GSM 900 / 1800
                               GSM 850 / 1900 - Nokia 1100B for US
Announced              3Q, 2003
Status                      Discontinued


Dimensions            106 x 46 x 20 mm, 79 cc
Weight             86 g


Type                   Monochrome graphic
Size                   96 x 65 pixels, 4 lines
                  - 2-way scroll key
                   - Full display screensaver
                   Dynamic font size
                    - Softkeys


Alert types    Vibration; Downloadable monophonic ringtones, composer
Speakerphone    No

Phonebook      50
Call records     10 dialed, 10 received, 10 missed calls
Card slot     No
   - Dynamic phonebook memory
    - Editable message templates

GPRS        No
EDGE           No
3G      No
WLAN      No
Bluetooth      No
Infrared port      No
USB      No
Camera     No
Features Messaging         SMS
Browser         No
Radio         No
Games         2 - Snake II and Space Impact+
Colors         Xpress-on covers
Languages         Most major European and Asian
GPS         No

- T9 for 10 languages
- SMS to many
- Calculator
- Stopwatch
- Xpress-on front and back covers
- Picture messaging
- Flashlight

Standard, Li-Ion 850 mAh (BL-5C)
           Stand-by Up to 400 h
           Talk time Up to 4 h 30 min

SAR US 0.97 W/kg (head)     0.64 W/kg (body)    
SAR EU 0.73 W/kg (head)  

          Et tu, Fred?        
Just like Brute betrayed Ceasar, so has Singer betrayed
climate skepticism.
Gallia omnia est divisa in partes tres. All of Gaul is divided into three parts.

This quote by Julius Caesar begins a new essay by Fred Singer in the American Thinker. Singer, a longstanding opponent to the AGW scam, writes that like Gaul, the global warming debate is dvided into three parts: the deniers, the skeptics and the warmists. The title of the essay is:
"Climate Deniers Are Giving Us Skeptics a Bad Name"

The term "climate deniers", as you know, was invented by the econazi Sturmabteilung-Hitler-jugend global warming fascists in order to make sound scientific skepticism appear equivalent to holocaust denial.

So who is Fred so ignobly calling "climate deniers"? He writes:

Now let me turn to the deniers. One of their favorite arguments is that the greenhouse effect does not exist at all because it violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics -- i.e., one cannot transfer energy from a cold atmosphere to a warmer surface. It is surprising that this simplistic argument is used by physicists, and even by professors who teach thermodynamics. One can show them data of downwelling infrared radiation from CO2, water vapor, and clouds, which clearly impinge on the surface. But their minds are closed to any such evidence.
Then there is another group of deniers who accept the existence of the greenhouse effect but argue about the cause and effect of the observed increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. One subgroup holds that CO2 levels were much higher in the 19th century, so there really hasn't been a long-term increase from human activities. They even believe in a conspiracy to suppress these facts. Another subgroup accepts that CO2 levels are increasing in the 20th century but claims that the source is release of dissolved CO2 from the warming ocean. In other words, they argue that oceans warm first, which then causes the CO2 increase. In fact, such a phenomenon is observed in the ice-core record, where sudden temperature increases precede increases in CO2. While this fact is a good argument against the story put forth by Al Gore, it does not apply to the 20th century: isotopic and other evidence destroys their case.
Another subgroup simply says that the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is so small that they can't see how it could possibly change global temperature. But laboratory data show that CO2 absorbs IR radiation very strongly. Another subgroup says that natural annual additions to atmospheric CO2 are many times greater than any human source; they ignore the natural sinks that have kept CO2 reasonably constant before humans started burning fossil fuels. Finally, there are the claims that major volcanic eruptions produce the equivalent of many years of human emission from fossil-fuel burning. To which I reply: OK, but show me a step increase in measured atmospheric CO2 related to a volcanic eruption.
 Yes, those that Singer so disgracefully labels "deniers" are those who are truly skeptical to AGW. These are the genuine skeptics. Singer calls himself a skeptic, but he really believe in central parts of the warmist dogma.

Fred Singer, if you are going to combat witches, you cannot run around with a broom and a black cat. There is no such thing as selling only half your of soul to the devil. A bird cannot fly with only half a wing.

If we concede that some of the things the eco-fascists claim are true, how is Joe Sixpack going to remember what is true and what is false? Joe Sixpack is only going to be confused.You are playing into the hands of the warmists, Fred.
And who the hell are the "Us Skeptics"  you think you are speaking for? A small bunch of fence-sitters who think they are so smart they can outsmart the 2nd law of thermodynamics? Without us real skeptics, we the doubters of every tenet of the AGW religion, you are nothing, Fred. You are nothing, nothing, nothing!

You are free to believe in this AWG nonsense, Fred, if you so wish, but I'm warning you: don't come and tell us what to think! We are entitled to our own facts! That is what skepticism and science really is about.

Luckily, the people that comment Fred's essay are almost uniformly against it. They are only common folks, but they are much more well informed than Dr Singer. They are the true scientists and the real skeptics. It is Dr Singer, not them, that make us real skeptics a bad name.

This is what some of these good people write.

Fred, if I'm a denier for concluding that there's a conspiracy to suppress facts, then put me in that category. I think that the Climategate 'hide the decline' email proved that beyond a reasonable doubt.

This article seems a bit naive. When one realizes that the warmistas are not telling the truth, yet they are praised and rewarded by political allies, then you must conclude the whole theory is a scam and discount it. Now if independently one starts engaging in real science and starts proving a connection between CO2 and temperatures, then we can then start engaging in a real scientific process which must include individual verification.
The author doesn't address the common conclusion that the climate change kerfuffle is more religious than scientific. The Gaia worshippers are hellbent to protect and embrace the earth and its environment. Funny thing, one massive explosion of a volcano can do more damage in a fortnight than hundreds of factories spewing CO2 into the environment for a number of years!
How come all these wizards of smart still can't even predict the weather 3 days out? Put me on the denier side.
I think that there is a Carbon Dioxide warming effect that had been found in labs but not in the field. I hope that make me a skeptic.
I also think that the climate is changing every second. It is never the same.
What I really deny is:
1) Politicians can control the temperature of the atmosphere, or the troposphere, or the climate of this planet.
2) The climate of the whole globe changed (at the same time) in the twentieth century.
3) Any climate changes which have happened in two continents at the same time have been shown to have the same manmade cause in both continents.
I am sure that events beyond the solar system change our climate much more than humans can change our climate.
Supporters of global warming love to write about the diversity of interests on the subject. They talk about levels of agreement like
"warmists" and "deniers".
Yet, when it comes to financing their beliefs, where's the diversity? They want everyone to pay an equal part in support of their cause, whether you believe in it or not. If they want to put money down that hole, let them form a non-profit and donate their own money to it.
No man can undo what God has done!Sorry Mr.Singer but if you think man can destroy this planet you are totally wrong! I seem to remember that during the last couple million years our earth has has experienced massive volcanic activity,massive flooding and other catastrophic events.here we are.We are still here.All you warmistas which you are one need to take a closer look at yourselves because your God complex is really getting tiresome!One man can kill another.But no man can kill the human race!And no one but nature(God) can undo what nature(God)has done!
P.S.One super volcano eruption spews more pollutants than all the cars,trucks,boats,airplanes combined have produced in the history of the world!!
What a safe position, Dr. Singer. This is the typical PC approach - both sides have their extremists. You probably think the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto had their extremists as well.
Lets finish with a funny picture:

"Who believes that CO2 causes global warming?
Then the science is settled. Sehr gut, mein Volk!"

          Comment on Apollo Moon Hoax: Huge, Deadly Temperature Variation Claims by Thibault        
Fiol, Gold foils stops radiation which are above 700 nm in wavelength (Infrared) almost at 100%, while polycarbonate (not glass) blocks radiations with shorter wavelengths (inferior to 400 nm, the UV radiation). And -what a surprise- the visible light, the one which our eye can see (colors you may call them), happens to be just between these two. So NASA chose a polycarbonate visor with a gold coat to block infrared and above, and ultraviolet and below, but allowing to see up to 60% of the visible light, which is largely enough. Doing a little research is not hard. source : https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/74412/why-does-nasa-use-gold-foil-on-equipment-and-gold-coated-visors
          distributor avtech        
Distributor Avtech Dvr Jakarta | IklanMAX.com
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Authorized Distributor Camera cctv Avtech - Vivotek | Iklan Toko
PT. KOMALA JAYA SEJAHTERA, Authorized Distributor : cctv camera ( Avtech & Vivotek ). ( contoh product: Avtech dome 133 wide angel + adaptor Rp.310 ribu ...
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Agen Cctv Camera Authorized Dealer Avtech Vivotek
Authorized CCTV - Avtech - Vivotek PT. KOMALA JAYA SEJAHTERA, Distributor spesialisasi electronic security system : cctv camera. Penjualan hanya di tujukan ...
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Authorized Distributor AVTech CCTV | Iklan Baris Gratis
Blog > Authorized Distributor AVTech CCTV. Authorized Distributor AVTech CCTV ... Re: Authorized Distributor AVTech CCTV. Message: 9 + 0 = Pesan Sponsor ...
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Digital Video Recorder - AVTech - Contact Us
- [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]
Special Authorized Distributor (Philippines). Hua Yang Electronics ... AMS distributor (Austria micro systems distributor) --- AVTECH ...
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Agen Penjual Authorized Dealer Camera Cctv Avtech - Vivotek
26 Des 2009 ... Agen Penjualan Resmi CCTV CAMERA Avtech & Vivotek PT. KOMALA JAYA SEJAHTERA, Authorized, Distributor, spesialisasi, electronic, security, ...
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Dome Infrared CCTV Camera, Kamera, IR, Indonesia, Distributor ...
... Kamera, IR, Indonesia, Distributor,Security, Surveillance, Cari, Jual, Agen, ... AVTech Dome IR Camera ini mempunyai 21 Infrared LED sehingga camera ini ...
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Av-Tech Industries - Fasteners and Electronic components
- [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]
Av-Tech Industries, Inc. is a wholesale distributor of aerospace and commercial fasteners, el ectronic components, and miscellaneous aircraft parts. ...
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Belajar Forex Indo » Blog Archive » Authorized Distributor Camera ...
Authorized Distributor Camera cctv Avtech – Vivotek. Rabu, 02 Desember 2009 14:32 | Alat Kantor | dilihat 2 kali. PT. KOMALA JAYA SEJAHTERA, Authorized, ...
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          distributor avtech        
AVTech InfraRed CCTV Camera, Kamera, IR, Bullet, Indonesia ...
GriyaTekno.com:AVTech InfraRed CCTV Camera, Kamera, IR, Bullet, Indonesia, Distributor,Security, Surveillance, Cari, Jual, Agen, Supplier, Harga, Price.
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CCTV , Kamera CCTV | CCTV Studio - Professional CCTV System
CCTV Studio - Authorized distributor AVTech CCTV Camera. Miliki paket lengkap CCTV mulai dari Rp 5 jt dengan kamera CCTV kami yang dapat diakses via ...
www.cctvstudio.com/ - 6 jam yang lalu - Tembolok - Mirip
- [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]
AMS distributor (Austria micro systems distributor) --- AVTECH AVTECH's electronic disvision has got the franchise from Austria micro systems. ...
www.avtech.com.hk/eng/News_News_Releases.htm - Mirip
Digital Video Recorder -- Welcome To AVTech
- [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]
AVTECH AVC791 4CH H.264 Network Digital Video Recorder ... AMS distributor (Austria micro systems distributor) --- AVTECH ...
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CCTV Studio - Authorized distributor AVTech CCTV Camera
Miliki paket lengkap CCTV mulai dari Rp 5 jt dengan kamera CCTV kami yang dapat diakses via internet dimanapun anda berada, memiliki fitur2 sistem CCTV ...
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AVTECH CCD ANALOG Camera - Best View CCTV - Berita terkini dari ...
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Av-Tech Electronics
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Here at Av-Tech we carry many different product lines for you to choose from, We are master distributor for. We are a PI and Master Distributor for ...
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Corporate Milestones - AV TECH
- [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]
Became an authorized distributor of Linear Tech. 2008, In September, 2008, the former Electronics Components Division of AVTECH was promoted to be a 100% ...
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          How to remotely control your heat pump from your phone for under NZ$25        

A heat pump is now the most common method of heating New Zealand homes. With winter now in full force it’s safe to say most will be in use to combat the current cold weather.

One feature of relatively new heat pumps is the ability to connect them to your WiFi network and control them from a phone app. Being able to turn your heat pump on remotely as you’re on your way home, or schedule daily timer settings that can’t be easily set from the remote become incredibly handy features to have.

But what if if you’ve got an older heat pump that doesn’t have built in WiFi and an app? There are now a growing number of 3rd party hardware solutions that will allow you to control your heat pump from your phone - several New Zealand developers have even entered the market offering products.

These solutions are all very similar, consisting of a hardware Infrared (IR) transmitter that connects to your WiFi network, and an app that connects to the transmitter, typically via a cloud based server on the Internet. Simply by configuring your brand of heat pump the app can send commands to the IR transmitter which in turn sends the IR commands to the heat pump, emulating the regular remote control.

While many of these solutions work incredibly well there is one downside – the price. Many are well over NZ$200 for the hardware and app.

What if I told you that you could control your heat pump remotely from your phone for under NZ$25? You can.

Broadlink is a Chinese hardware manufacturer who builds IR transmitters and smart switches. Their miniature sized RM Mini 3 is a USB powered IR transmitter that’s perfect for controlling your heat pump, or in fact any other IR controllable device such as a TV, stereo or set top box.


The Broadlink RM Mini 3 is available from a myriad of usual sources of Chinese electronics goods such as Aliexpress, Banggood and eBay, with prices typically between US$13 and US$19 including free shipping to New Zealand. A quick search of TradeMe has shown several New Zealand sellers who are probably just importing this hardware from similar sellers and reselling it with a fairly hefty margin.

I don’t want to directly link to any Aliexpress sellers to avoid anybody accusing me of favouring a single seller. A quick search of Aliexpress will show plenty of sellers across the price range.

The Broadlink RM Mini 3 is USB powered but does not come with a power supply. Any surplus USB phone charger will work fine. Obviously the device needs to be permanently powered, and located within line of sight of the heat pump (or other device you want to control) so the IR transmitter will work.

Once powered up configuration is relatively straight forward. The device will broadcast it’s own WiFi network, so once you’ve installed the Broadlink app on your phone connect to this network. From the app you’ll now be prompted to enter the WiFi SSID and password for your home WiFi network. Once this is done the Broadlink RM Mini 3 will connect to your WiFi network and is ready to go.

Adding a heat pump is also relatively simple. Simply select the menu option to add a device and then follow the prompts on screen – simply by aiming your existing remote at the RM Mini 3 and pushing a button on the remote will allow the hardware to match the IR code with it’s database and know the brand of hardware you have. Setup is now complete.


Controlling the heat pump is now simple. Open the app, select your device and you’ll see a screen replicating your existing remote control.



From the menu you can also configure multiple timer settings across the week. You can configure one off events, or daily events to switch the heat pump on or off.


The Broadlink app is available for both Android and iOS. It’s fair to say it’s not the most beautiful app, or the best designed, but it serves it’s purpose allowing you to easily turn your heat pump on or off remotely.

For those are looking to take things further the Broadlink RM Mini 3 hardware can be integrated with openHAB or Apple Homekit via the Homebridge gateway. Fellow New Zealander Nic Wise has written up a great guide for integrating this hardware with Homekit.

          The most recent Ideas in Property and Company Security Systems        
Technology has a technique of affecting many things and something of the industries which includes benefitted greatly coming from recent advances throughout technology is the home and office security industry. Back in the day that in order to use a state of the art security system you possessed to run wires everywhere in the building, potentially redecorating parts of your surfaces and floors to match the wiring, and all of that plugged into any control panel that could acquire weeks to really determine. While you were still mastering your home security system police officers would be dispatched once or twice to answer the untrue alarms created by your whole body. The newest advances inside technology have assisted to change all of that. Far more security informations you will discover on site below. Go, Business security systems.

Nowadays a security system is very much different than it used to be and never only have they become more efficient set united parcel service but there have already been advances in the process involving protecting your home that produce the system a little more authorities friendly. For example, these days there is more wifi technology used to join various points of one's security system and this not merely eliminates the wiring that used to operate all over the house and also save you from being forced to remodel parts of your house to install a system it also helps make the system safer as criminals are not able to see a wireless link and if they cannot find it they cannot disable the idea. Go, Small Business security systems

Many security organizations offer a dispatch heart that takes in unexpected emergency signals from the safety systems and attempts to confirm that there is a dilemma before dispatching authorities to aid. This can greatly reduce the volume of false alarms nonetheless it can also help to better discover the problem as the dispatcher can easily relay any important info from the person in the dwelling to the police or any other rescue workers as well as the authorities have a much far better idea of what is going on ahead of entering the building.

Some other technology advances for instance infrared beams employed as triggers as opposed to bulky wiring and also heat sensors used to find movement have all aided to bring the business involving security into the Twenty-first century.
          Waist Trimmer - 4 Step Shape        

Waist Trimmer- 4 Step Shape

  • Buatan Jepun diperbuat dari Neoprene High Quality dengan Nano Technology Far Infra Red
  • Fabrik yang digunakan disulami dengan sinaran infrared. Infra Red akan membuatkan anda berpeluh secara tak langsung dapat membakar lemak yang berlebihan sekaligus akan dapat melangsingkan pinggang. Ia juga memberi kesan sauna yang apabila terdapat proses pemanasan, metabolisma badan akan meningkat dan mampu membakar lemak. Anda akan merasa kesan "Burning"
  • Terdapat dalam satu saiz sahaja tetapi mempunyai 4 zip yang boleh diubah pakai mengikut saiz pinggang dan keselesaan anda. Saiz pinggang antara 56cm-96cm/ 22 inci-38 inci sahaja (lebih kurang saiz bengkung biasa).
  • Sesuai untuk lelaki dan wanita yang inginkan pinggang yang ramping. DAN AMAT SESUAI UNTUK WANITA YG BARU LEPAS BERSALIN.
  • Ukuran bengkung ini dari paras dada ke bawah hanya 10 inci (26cm).
  • Untuk kesan terbaik, boleh digunakan dengan sebarang krim perlangsingan. Sapu krim perlangsingan pada perut anda. Setelah meresap sepenuhnya, baru pakai waist trimmer a.k.a. bengkung moden ini.
  • Ia tidak gatal, tidak licin, terLETAK”.

Tip memakai waist trimmer ...

  1. Cara terbaik untuk memakai Waist Trimmer ialah dalam keadaan berbaring (amat mudah untuk perut yang buncit).
  2. Laraskan Waist Trimmer mengikut zip yang sesuai dengan perut anda.
  3. Pertama kali menggunakannya, jangan gunakan zipper yg terlalu ketat, biar dalam keadaan selesa.
  4. Bila ada perubahan, baru ubah zip yang sesuai. Jangan paksa guna zip yang tidak sesuai, nanti boleh menyebabkan zip rosak.
  5. Ikuti langkah ini untuk menggunakan Waist Trimmer ini dengan lama.
  6. Waist Trimmer ini boleh pakai siang atau malam (semasa tidur). Pemakaian sekurang-kurangnya 8 jam untuk memberi hasil yang memuaskan

Cara Untuk Cuci Waist Trimmer

  • Bancuh air sabun, celup dan genyeh perlahan-lahan. Bilas dan tekap dgn tuala kering. Keringkan dibawah kipas. Jangan jemur dibawah matahari kerana nanti boleh merosakkan FIR yang berada didalam Waist Trimmer tersebut..

Harga RM45 termasuk kos penghantaran

          Best Yoga Studio        

First Place: The Hot Yoga Barre

1601 Willow Lawn Drive, No. 200

Second Place: Hot House Yoga

Third Place: Yoga Source

Hot yoga is a little unnerving to some of us who are prone to fainting, but many swear by its fat-burning properties. The Hot Yoga Barre warms up its clients with far-infrared heating panels, humidifiers and dehumidifiers, which control the air quality in its studios. The barre classes employ ballet and pilates techniques, along with yoga poses. So you’ll feel slightly less guilty if you have a Duck Donut downstairs after class.

          IR Transmitter Tester. Application Circuit 4        
We make Infrared Transmitter circuits to generate Pulsed Infrared rays to use with IR Sensor based receivers. The IR Transmitter circuit based on IC 555 generates IR rays pulsating in the frequency typically at 38KHz. The IR Sensor used in the receiver is TSOP 1738 which also works in the same frequency. So here is […]
          Hacking a Remote. Application Circuit 3        
We construct different types of Infrared Receiver LED ( Rx) or IR Sensor ( TSOP 1738 ) based circuits. To test, the working of the circuit we have to use an IR Transmitter. Usually we use IC 555 based IR transmitter for this. But the frequency of the IR from the Transmitter should match with […]
          Infrared Heater | Anderson Thermal Devices        
Anderson Thermal Devices specializes in shortwave and medium wave infrared solutions for the process heating industry such as Infrared Heaters and Infrared Lamps. Anderson Thermal devices also specializes in different types of panel heaters, specialty heaters such as Radiant Round Heaters which work great for wire, cable, tube, hose, medical tubing and profiles.
          NASA Selects Proposals to Study Galaxies, Stars, Planets        
NASA has selected six astrophysics Explorers Program proposals for concept studies. The proposed missions would study gamma-ray and X-ray emissions from clusters of galaxies and neutron star systems, as well as infrared emissions from galaxies in the early universe and atmospheres of exoplanets, which are planets outside of our solar system. The selected proposals, three Medium-Class Explorers missions and three Explorers Missions of Opportunity, call for focused scientific investigations an...
          LM Will Build New Space Instrument Focused on Vegetation Health and Carbon Monitoring        
Scientists will get a better understanding of our planet's carbon cycle and vegetation health through a first-of-a-kind NASA instrument built by Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT). The Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory (GeoCARB) mission will use an advanced infrared spectrograph hosted on a commercial geosynchronous satellite. The project is led by Principal Investigator Dr. Berrien Moore at the University of Oklahoma. "Lockheed Martin has the right skills to make GeoCARB a success, bringing to...
          HP Compaq Evo N610C használt, hiányos laptop - Jelenlegi ára: 4 000 Ft        
Eladó a képeken látható állapotú hiányos HP Compaq Evo N610C laptop.
CPU:  Pentium 4 1800 MHzRAM:  512 MBHDD:  nincs (hdd keret nincs, hdd takaró műanyag nincs)Optikai meghajtó: DVDKijelző: 14"
Billentyűzet: németAkkumulátor: hibásTöltő: nincs
1 x parallel - IEEE 1284 (EPP/ECP) - 25 pin D-Sub (DB-25)1 x display / video - S-video output - 4 pin mini-DIN1 x display / video - VGA - 15 pin HD D-Sub (HD-15)1 x docking / port replicator1 x serial - RS-232C - 9 pin D-Sub (DB-9)1 x keyboard / mouse - generic - 6 pin mini-DIN (PS/2 style)1 x audio - line-out/headphones - mini-phone stereo 3. 5 mm 1 x audio - line-in/microphone - mini-phone stereo 3. 5 mm 1 x modem - phone line - RJ-111 x network - Ethernet 10Base-T/100Base-TX - RJ-451 x infrared - IrDA2 x USB 2. 0 - 4 pin USB Type A
Ismert hibái:  hiányos, akku hibás, használatból eredő apróbb, alig észrevehető karcok a burkolaton

HP Compaq Evo N610C használt, hiányos laptop
Jelenlegi ára: 4 000 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2017-08-18 12:05
          HP NC6000 Laptop 1.6 Ghz Centrino Cpu 512Ram 60Gb Hdd,Új wifi,Töltővel eladó. - Jelenlegi ára: 11 499 Ft        
Eladó a képeken látható laptop, Töltője van a képeken látható. HP NC6000 laptop 1. 6cpu, 512ram, 60gb hdd, Új wifi! 1 x audio - line-out/headphones - mini-phone stereo 3. 5 mm 1 x docking / port replicator 2 x USB 2. 0 - 4 pin USB Type A 1 x display / video - S-video output - 4 pin mini-DIN 1 x serial - RS-232 - 9 pin D-Sub (DB-9) 1 x parallel - IEEE 1284 (EPP/ECP) - 25 pin D-Sub (DB-25) 1 x infrared - IrDA 1 x network - Ethernet 10Base-T/100Base-TX/1000Base-T - RJ-45 1 x modem - phone line - RJ-11 1 x microphone - input - mini-phone mono 3. 5 mm 1 x display / video - VGA - 15 pin HD D-Sub (HD-15) Memory Card Reader Yes (SD Card) Akkuja képen látható.
HP NC6000 Laptop 1.6 Ghz Centrino Cpu 512Ram 60Gb Hdd,Új wifi,Töltővel eladó.
Jelenlegi ára: 11 499 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2017-08-11 13:02
          FLIR T440BX Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager        
by Jason Kaylor FLIR T440BX Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager for building diagnostics. FLIR T440BX http://www.netzerotools.com/flir-t440bx-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera http://www.aikencolon.com/flir-t440bx-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera
          FLIR T440 Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager        
by Jason Kaylor FLIR T440 Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager for industrial applications. FLIR T440 http://www.aikencolon.com/flir-t440-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera http://www.netzerotools.com/flir-t440-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera
          FLIR T420BX Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager        
by Jason Kaylor FLIR T420BX Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager for building diagnostics. FLIR T420BX http://www.netzerotools.com/flir-t420bx-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera http://www.aikencolon.com/flir-t420bx-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera
          FLIR T420 Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager        
by Jason Kaylor FLIR T420 Infrared Camera / Thermal Imager for industrial applications. FLIR T420 http://www.aikencolon.com/flir-t420-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera http://www.netzerotools.com/flir-t420-thermal-imaging-infrared-camera
          Spesifikasi dan Harga Apple iPhone 4S 64GB        
Quick View
Harga Baru: Rp 7.999.000,00
Harga Bekas: Rp 7.350.000,00
GENERAL    Network    GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1900 / 2100
LAYAR    Tipe    LED-backlit IPS TFT, capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
Ukuran    640 x 960 pixels, 3.5 inches (~330 ppi pixel density) - Scratch-resistant oleophobic surface - Multi-touch input method - Accelerometer sensor for auto-rotate - Three-axis gyro sensor - Proximity sensor for auto turn-off

Apple iPhone 4   dilengkapi kamera dua arah yang memungkinkan anda melakukan video call dengan mudah dan cepat, iPhone ini bisa merekam video dengan kualitas HD . Fitur unggulan dengan retina display beresolusi tinggi 960x640 pixel dan sistem operasi iOS 5. Fitur kamera 5 MP, Wi-Fi 802.11n, 7.2 Mbps HSDPA, Three-axis gyro, Apple A4 processor, serta Dual-mic noise suppression  menjadikannya sebagai pilihan terbaik untuk pecinta profuk apple.

Spesifikasi Apple iPhone 4S 64GB
GENERALNetworkGSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1900 / 2100
LAYARTipeLED-backlit IPS TFT, capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
Ukuran640 x 960 pixels, 3.5 inches (~330 ppi pixel density) - Scratch-resistant oleophobic surface - Multi-touch input method - Accelerometer sensor for auto-rotate - Three-axis gyro sensor - Proximity sensor for auto turn-off
DIMENSIUkuran/Berat115.2 x 58.6 x 9.3 mm / 140 g
AUDIOFiturVibration, MP3 ringtones
Jack3,5mm Jack Audio
MEMORYInternal64 GB storage, 512 MB RAM
DATA3GHSDPA, 14.4 Mbps; HSUPA, 5.8 Mbps
WLANWi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n, Wi-Fi hotspot
BluetoothYa, v4.0 with A2DP
USB/PortYa, v2.0
KAMERAPrimer8 MP, 3264x2448 pixels, autofocus, LED flash, check quality, Fitur: Touch focus, geo-tagging, face detection, HDR
SekunderYa, VGA, 480p@30fps, videocalling over Wi-Fi only
Video RecordYes, 1080p@30fps, LED video light, video stabiliza
BATERAITipeStandard battery, Li-Po 1432 mAh
StandbyUp to 200 h (2G) / Up to 200 h (3G)
Talk TimeUp to 14 h (2G) / Up to 8 h (3G)
CPU1 GHz dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 processor, PowerVR SGX543MP2 GPU, Apple A5 chipset
BrowserHTML (Safari)
GPSYa, with A-GPS support and GLONASS
MessagingiMessage, SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Em
JavaTidak - MicroSIM card support only - Scratch-resistant glass back panel - Active noise cancellation with dedicated mic - Siri natural language commands and dictation - iCloud cloud service - Twitter integration - Digital compass - Google Maps - Audio/video player and editor - Image editor - Voice command/dial - TV-out
Video PlayerYa
MP3 PlayerYa
Audio RecordYa

How Rainbow is Formed
Rainbow is one of  optic phenomena that happens in the atmosphere of the earth naturally. We can see it at mountin range, or  when it is cloudy, or  when it is raining and rising of sun. We have to be the other side for looking.  We  just can see it a half of circle form, but acctually the rainbow is a circle form. We can see it perfectly, if it is seen by standing in the high place. It is real that rainbow is a circle form not like parabola form. On the ground, we can not see perfectly, except if we are in the high place like in the air plane or standing on top of  moutain. When we are looking at rainbow’s colors, we will see them that ordered of red is on the highest order,  and purple is on  the lowest order.
Red is more dominant than another color caused by having biggest wave between others. Therefore the red one is in the highest order  and purple one is in lowest order. How rainbow is formed?  Try to watch it when light of sun concerns a 90-degree angle mirror or a glass prism side, or surface of  soap foam. We can see colors on the light. The light is rayyed to be some  wave lenght of light that it is seen by our eyes as red, bright red, yellow, green, blue and purple. These colors are compnents of light that they are called visible light. The other component is invisible light such as infrared (red is in the right side), and ultraviolet (bright red is in the left side).
So, we can see the beautiful rainbow because there are some processes to be beautiful rainbow that it appears in the sky.

          The ghost of Christmas past, IC 63        

I have shot this target many times at this time of year. Every time I have a different result due to seeing conditions, exposure times used and different optical configurations. Naturally I am more experienced to process astronomical images now, that few years back.

IC 59 and IC 63

Please, click for a large image!

A bicolor composition by the light of ionized elements, hydrogen and oxygen. (H-alpha and O-III)
The blue color in the photo is not a reflection component but weak O-III emission.

Hydrogen emission only (H-alpha)
Please, click for a large image!

H-alpha emission only


IC 59 and IC 63 at the distance of about 600 light years in the constellation Cassiopeia.
Image spans about 0,8 degrees vertically, that's about ten light years at its estimated distance.
IC 59 is at left edge of the image and IC 63 at middle. Nebulae are ionized from the ultraviolet radiation of hot, luminous star gamma Cas at upper right it locates only three to four light years from the nebulae.

C 63 is a combination of emission and reflection nebulae. Since this is a narrow band image, reflection component is not get captured due to a broad band nature of it. Instead there is an ionized Oxygen, O-III, in this image and it can be seen as a Blue.
Nebula is next to the Gamma Cassiopeiae, a bright, mag. 2.47, star in middle of the "W" asterism in constellation Cassiopeia.

Orientation in Cassiopeia

The area of interest can be seen at the middle of the image. Click for a large image.

Technical details

Processing work flow

Image acquisition, MaxiDL v5.07.
Stacked and calibrated in CCDStack2.
Deconvolution with a CCDStack2 Positive Constraint, 21 iterations, added at 25% weight
Color combine in PS CS3
Levels and curves in PS CS3.

Imaging optics
Celestron Edge HD 1100 @ f7 with 0,7 focal reducer for Edge HD 1100 telescope
Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera optics (For S-II and O-III channels)
10-micron 1000
Meade LX200 GPS 12" (For S-II and O-III channels)

Cameras and filters
Imaging camera Apogee Alta U16 and Apogee seven slot filter wheel
Guider camera, Lodestar x2 and SXV-AOL
QHY9 (For S-II and O-III channels)

Astrodon filter, 5 nm H-alpha
Baader filter, 8,5 nm O-III
Baader filter, 8 nm S-II

Exposure times
H-alpha, 21 x 1200 s binned 2x2 
O-III, 6 x 1200 s binned 4x4 = 

Variable Star of Mira Cet type, an animation
00 59 34.72 60 43 21.9

A variable star can be seen at center right, it's much brighter at 2010 image.
Click for a large image.

While I was combining data from 2010 to a new data, I noticed a difference between images.
There was a bright star in image from 02.10.2010, the same star in new image set from 24.12.2012 was much dimmer. I did use a Simbad astronomical database and it gave me a report of an variable star. 

V* AV Cas -- Variable Star of Mira Cet type
with radius arcmin
Distance to the center arcsec: 6.34
Other object types: Mi* () , V* (V*,AN,AAVSO) , * (CSI,[I81]) , IR (2MASS,MSX5C)
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) : 00 59 34.00 +60 43 18.4 ( Infrared ) [ 70 60 0 ] B 2003yCat.2246....0C
FK5 coord. (ep=J2000 eq=2000) : 00 59 34.00 +60 43 18.4 ( Infrared ) [ 70 60 0 ] B 2003yCat.2246....0C
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) : 00 56 30.55 +60 27 08.4 ( Infrared ) [ 70 60 0 ] B 2003yCat.2246....0C
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) : 123.9263 -02.1343 ( Infrared ) [ 70 60 0 ] B 2003yCat.2246....0C
Spectral type: M8 C ~
Fluxes (4) :
B 13.5 [~] E 2003AstL...29..468S
J 7.136 [0.020] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
H 6.170 [0.026] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
K 5.670 [0.020] C 2003yCat.2246....0C

          Toshiba Satellite M50 Drivers Windows XP         
Toshiba Satellite M50. Download Driver Toshiba Satellite M50 for Windows XP. Update your laptop drivers online with direct links from official website of Toshiba Satellite M50 Drivers.

Download Drivers Toshiba Satellite M50 For Windows XP

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Driver LAN Driver Realtek Semiconductor Corporation Windows XP

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Driver Modem Driver Toshiba Windows XP

Driver PC diagnostic tool Toshiba Windows XP

Driver Power Saver Toshiba Windows XP

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Sound Driver Realtek Semiconductor Corporation Windows XP

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Touchpad Driver Alps Electric Windows XP

Touchpad Driver Alps Electric Windows XP

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The above are the direct links from official website of laptop Toshiba Satellite M50 to download drivers Toshiba Satellite M50 Windows XP. Toshiba Satellite M50 Drivers Update. Download Drivers Online. Laptop Toshiba Reviews, Laptop Driver, Laptop drivers for windows 7 32bit 64bit, Laptop Insurance, Laptop for Lawyer, drivers satellite for windows vista, windows xp and windows 8. Find your laptop drivers from it's official website.

          Comment on Mon appareil photo : Canon AE1 by 35mm Film – Aerochrome FPP Color Infrared Film ( 4-Roll Pack) | Digital Photo Lens        
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          NASA’s New Horizons Mission Honors Memory of Lisa Hardaway        
Lisa Hardaway

NASA’s New Horizons mission team honored the life and contributions of aerospace engineer Lisa Hardaway on Thursday by dedicating the spectrometer she helped to develop – which brought the first color close-up images of Pluto to the world – in her memory. 

Hardaway, who died in January at age 50, was the program manager at Ball Aerospace for “Ralph,” one of seven instruments flying aboard the New Horizons spacecraft. Ralph contains a powerful infrared spectrometer called LEISA – an acronym for Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array, and pronounced “Lisa” – that the team has now named after Hardaway.

She was a CU Boulder aerospace PhD graduate who remained active with the university and served as a member and chair of the Smead Aerospace External Advisory Board.

“Lisa made incredible contributions to New Horizons and our success in exploring Pluto, and we wanted to celebrate those contributions in a special way by dedicating the LEISA spectrometer in her honor,” said Alan Stern, New Horizons principal investigator from Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

After flying more than nine years and three billion miles, New Horizons sped... Read the full story at NASA.gov

          Motorola A925 review        
The Motorola A925 adds Bluetooth™ and Infrared wireless connectivity to the A920 3G smartphone.
          Eclipse science along the path of totality        
BOULDER, Colo. — Leading U.S. solar scientists today highlighted research activities that will take place across the country during next month's rare solar eclipse, advancing our knowledge of the Sun's complex and mysterious magnetic field and its effect on Earth's atmosphere.Experts at the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) provided details at this morning's press conference about the array of technologies and methodologies that will be used to obtain unprecedented views of the Sun on Aug. 21. The experiments, led by specialized researchers, will also draw on observations by amateur skywatchers and students to fill in the picture."This total solar eclipse across the United States is a fundamentally unique opportunity in modern times, enabling the entire country to be engaged with modern technology and social media," said Carrie Black, an associate program director at NSF who oversees solar research. "Images and data from potentially as many as millions of people will be collected and analyzed by scientists for years to come."Total solar eclipse over India in 1980. (©UCAR, High Altitude Observatory. This image is freely available for media & nonprofit use.)"This is a generational event," agreed Madhulika Guhathakurta, NASA lead scientist for the 2017 eclipse. "This is going to be the most documented, the most appreciated eclipse ever."The scientific experiments will take place along the path of totality, a 70-mile wide ribbon stretching from Oregon to South Carolina where the moon will completely cover the visible disk of the Sun. Depending on the location, viewers will get to experience the total eclipse for as long as 2 minutes and 40 seconds. It will take about an hour and a half for the eclipse to travel across the sky from the Pacific Coast to the Atlantic.NASA and other organizations are reminding viewers to take eye safety precautions because it is not safe to look at the Sun during an eclipse.For scientists, the celestial event is a rare opportunity to test new instruments and to observe the elusive outer atmosphere of the Sun, or solar corona, which is usually obscured by the bright surface of the Sun. Many scientific questions focus on the corona, including why it is far hotter than the surface and what role it plays in spewing large streams of charged particles, known as coronal mass ejections, that can buffet Earth's atmosphere and disrupt GPS systems and other sensitive technologies.Black noted that the moon will align exactly with the Sun's surface, which will enable observations of the entire corona, including very low regions that are rarely detectable. Obtaining observations from the ground is particularly important, she explained, because far more data can be transmitted than would be possible from space-based instruments."The moon is about as perfect an occulter as one can get," she said. "And what makes this an even more valuable opportunity is that everyone has access to it."In addition to training ground-based instruments on the Sun, scientists will also deploy aircraft to follow the eclipse, thereby increasing the amount of time they can take observations.An NCAR research team, for example, will use the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream-V research aircraft to take infrared measurements for about four minutes, helping scientists better understand the solar corona's magnetism and thermal structure. Scientists with the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder will use visible and infrared telescopes on NASA's twin WB-57 airplanes in a tag-team approach, enabling them to get a unique look at both the solar corona and Mercury for about eight minutes. The goal is to better understand how energy moves through the corona as well as learning more about the composition and properties of Mercury's surface.Scientists will also study Earth's outer atmosphere during the eclipse. The ionosphere is a remote region of the atmosphere containing particles that are charged by solar radiation. Disturbances in the ionosphere can affect low-frequency radio waves. By blocking energy from the Sun, the eclipse provides scientists with an opportunity to study the ionosphere's response to a sudden drop in solar radiation.For example, a Boston University research team will use off-the-shelf cell phone technology to construct a single-frequency GPS array of sensors to study the ionospheric effects of the eclipse. This project could lay the foundation for using consumer smartphones to help monitor the outer atmosphere for disturbances, or space weather events, caused by solar storms. Another experiment, run by researchers at the University of Virginia and George Mason University, will use transmitters broadcasting at low frequencies to probe the response of regions of the ionosphere, while a Virginia Tech team will use a network of radio receives and transmitters across the country to observe the ionosphere's response during the eclipse.Citizen scientists also are expected to play a major role in taking valuable observations during the eclipse."This is a social phenomenon, and we have a significant opportunity to promote this and do all the science that we can," Guhathakurta said.The Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment by the National Solar Observatory, for example, will rely on volunteers from universities, high schools, informal education groups, and national labs for an eclipse "relay race." Participants spaced along the path of totality will use identical telescopes and digital camera systems to capture high-quality images that will result in a dataset capturing the entire, 93-minute eclipse across the country. And a project led by the University of California Berkeley will assemble a large number of solar images, obtained by students and amateur observers along the eclipse path to create educational materials as part of the Eclipse Megamovie project."As these projects show, the eclipse will place the Sun firmly in the forefront of the national eye," said Scott McIntosh, director of NCAR's High Altitude Observatory. "This is a unique opportunity to communicate the fact that our star is complex, beautiful, and mysterious. At the same time, it is more critical than ever to study it, as solar activity can pose significant threats to our technologically driven society." 

          The Week’s Weather up to Friday 04 August. Five-day outlook to Wednesday 09 August        
Satellite image: Infrared view of Southern Africa at 11:00 CAT, Friday 04 August 2017, taken from a position over 0° longtitude. Source: Eumetsat   An intricate system of high pressure cells controlled local conditions for the duration of the week. Early in the week, the South Atlantic high made landfall between Oranjemund and Saldanha Bay, […]
          TV Ears 10041 Original System (Black) This instant        
A good idea ruined by poor design and poorer quality. Maybe I got a bad one, but if so their quality control is horrible. First, I had to jiggle it just to get it to charge. Not nearly as easy as the video suggests. The small pins on the base unit do not make a solid contact with the headphones. Even if they work initially they most likely will fail once some tarnish sets in. The contacts are not gold plated, so they will tarnish. The range was horrible. If I got further back than about 6', all I got was static. And even at 6' it was extremely directional. If you turned your body the slightest, the sound completely dropped out. Someone walking in front of the set would kill the sound. I mistrust companies which throw out gratuitous marketing terms, solely to bamboozle the less-technically capable. 2.3MHZ, the box screams. Um, this thing runs on infrared light, not radio. Maybe there's something inside the box that uses a 2.3MHz signal, but that's got nothing to do with its operation. Complete marketing techno-babble. Bottom line, a complete rip-off!Get more detail about TV Ears 10041 Original System (Black).

          VL6180X Time-of-Flight Distance Sensor Carrier with Voltage Regulator - 12,99 €         

This sensor is a carrier/breakout board for ST’s VL6180X proximity and ambient light sensor, which measures distance with 1 mm resolution over a detection range of 0 cm to 10 cm or greater. The VL6180X uses time-of-flight measurements of infrared pulses to determine the range to a target object, allowing it to give accurate results independent of the target’s color and surface.

          DLR fire detection satellite BIROS successfully releases BEESAT-4 picosatellite into space         
On 9 September 2016 at 13:00 CEST, the BIROS (Bi-Spectral Infrared Optical System) fire detection satellite developed and built by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) released BEESAT-4 (Berlin Educational and Experimental Picosatellite) into space 515 kilometres above the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago.
          BIROS fire detection satellite successfully launched into space        
BIROS erfolgreich ins All gestartetOn 22 June 2016 at 05:55 CEST, the BIROS (Bi-Spectral Infrared Optical System) microsatellite was successfully launched into space from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in India on board a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).
          ÐšÑƒÑ€Ñ 30 ноября – 11 декабря 2015 проведен        
Последний в 2015 году курс подготовки и сертификации термографистов прошел с 30 ноября по 11 декабря в Санкт-Петербурге. Традиционно общая подготовка по тепловизионному контролю прошла по программе курса Infrared Thermography Level 1 от ITC (Infrared Training Center, Sweden). Специальная подготовка и аттестация по самым востребованным направлениям тепловизионной диагностики прошла ...

Macam-macam Peripheral Komputer ( DI )

Peripheral Komputer
Peripheral komputer merupakan peralatan tambahan komputer yang dibutuhkan untuk keperluan – keperluan lain. Misalnya koneksi jaringan, mencetak, atau mengambil gambar. Peripheral tersebut meliputi Printer, Scanner, Modem, Network Card, dan lain sebagainya. Instalasi peripheral meliputi instalasi secara fisik dan instalasi secara software. Instalasi fisik meliputi pemasangan peripheral dengan baik dan benar, dan instalasi software meliputi pengenalan peripheral terhadap sistem operasi yaitu dengan menginstall driver yang dibutuhkan.
1) Printer
Printer merupakan komponen output yang digolongkan sebagai Hard Copy Device. Yaitu merupakan alat yang digunakan untuk mencetak keluaran dari proses yang dilakukan oleh komputer baik tulisan maupun grafik secara langsung dengan menggunakan media kertas ataupun yang lainnya.
Ada tiga jenis printer yang beredar dipasaran.
  • Printer Dot Matrik merupakan printer yang menggunakan pita sebagai alat percetakannya.
  • Ink Jet menggunakan tinta.
  • Laser jet menggunakan serbuk laser.
Printer Dot Matrik
Ink Jet Printer
Laser jet Printer
Menurut konektor printer ada dua macam yaitu melalui konektor Paralel Port dan USB Port.
Langkah – langkah instalasi printer :
  • - Tancapkan kabel printer pada printer dan konektor parallel port male/konektor USB port pada komputer dengan benar.
  • - Pastikan catridge printer sudah terpasang dengan benar.
  • - Hubungkan printer ke jala-jalla listrik
  • - Dan pastikan ada ativitas dalam printer tersebut (catrigde bergerak).
  • - Sampai langkah ini instalasi peripheral secar fisik sudah selesai
  • - Selanjutnya tinggal instalasi untuk software yaitu pemasangan driver.
  • Pada instalasi driver, biasanya pada sistem operasi Windows XP akan secara otomatis menjalankan file instalasi driver tersebut. Langkah – langkahnya adalah sebagai berikut :
  • - Masukan CD Driver bawaan printer tersebut, dalam praktek kali ini printer yang akan diinstal adalah printer Canon BJC-2100.
  • - Setelah CD dimasukan, Windows akan secara otomatis menjalankan file eksekusi dan akan muncul kotak dialog
  • - Setelah itu tekan tombol Next, untuk konfirmasi bahwa Anda akan menginstall driver tersebut. Dan setelah itu akan muncul kotak dialog.
  • - Klik tombol Start, untuk memulai proses instalasi dengan memilih option Printer Driver.
  • - Setelah proses peng-copy-an file selesai, akan muncul kotak dialog seperti gambar di bawah ini.
  • - Untuk selanjutnya tekan tombol Manual Selection untuk memilih port yang akan digunakan. Dan setelah itu akan muncul kotak dialog
  • - Setelah pemilihan port selesai, tekan tombol Next dan proses instalasi akan selesai dan printer siap digunakan.
2) Scanner
Scanner adalah suatu alat elektronik yang fungsinya mirip dengan mesin fotokopi, scanner hasilnya ditampilkan pada layar monitor komputer dahulu kemudian baru dapat dirubah dan dimodifikasi sehingga tampilan dan hasilnya menjadi bagus yang kemudian dapat disimpan sebagai file text, dokumen dan gambar.
Scanner berukuran pena dinamakan Quicklink. Pena scanner itu berukuran panjang enam inci dan beratnya sekitar tiga ons.
Pada saat ini banyak sekali scanner yang beredar di dunia dengan berbagai merk pula, Di antaranya scanner keluaran dari Canon, Hewlett Packard ( HP ), EPSON, UMAX dan masih banyak lagi. Perbedaan tiap scanner dari berbagai merk terletak pada pemakaian teknologi dan resolusinya.
Langkah-langkah instalasi driver scaner:
  • - Masukan CD Driver Scaner tersebut, dalam hal ini Scaner yang akan dicontohkan adalah Scanner CanoScan 3200/3200F.
  • - Langkah selanjutnya memilih bahasa yang akan digunakan dalam proses instalasi.
  • - Selanjutnya adalah memilih software yang diinstall dalam hal ini software untuk mengambil gambar yang diambil oleh Scaner.
  • - Setelah muncul kotak dialog seperti gambar di atas dan pilih Install the Software, maka akan muncul kotak dialog
  • -Pada kotak dialog tersebut, pengguna dapat memilih software yang akan diinstall dan software yang tidak akan diinstall. Kemudian klik tombol Start Instalation.
  • - Setelah itu tinggal mengikuti konfirmasi yang ditampilkan. Dan setelah selesai proses instalasi, Scaner siap digunakan.
3) Modem
Modem merupakan salah satu perangkat komputer untuk perantara komputer dengan saluran telphone agar data berhubungan Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Modem ada dua macam, yaitu modem internal dan modem external. Modem internal yaitu modem yang pasang di dalam motherboard dalam bentuk kartu. Teknik pemasangannya sama seperti kartu – kartu lain pada umumnya. Sedangkan modem external adalah yang dapat dipasang dan dilepas sewaktu – waktu.
Modem External Modem Internal
Sebelum mengaktifkan jaringan internet di rumah kita, sebaiknya kita harus mengetahui dulu bagaimana cara menginstal modem. Modem merupakan perangkat wajib yang harus ada pada komputer rumah kalau ingin mengaktifkan internet.
Cara menginstall modem :
1 Pastikan bahwa modem anda telah terpasang dengan baik dan terhubung ke komputer dengan keadaan menyala.
2. Klik ganda My Computer > klik ganda Control Panel > klik ganda Modems, atau cara lain klik Start > Settings > Control Panel > klik ganda Modems,
3. Pada kotak dialog Install New Modem klik Next, windows akan mendeteksi modem anda secara otomatis.
4. Jika windows telah berhasil mendetect modem klik Next > Finish
5. Jika muncul pesan windows did not find any modem attach to your modem, klik Next
6. Kemudian pilih jenis modem yang sesuai dengan modem anda.
7. Klik Next, kemudian pilih port yang akan saudara pakai biasanya COM 1
8. Klik Next > Finish > OK
Konfigurasi untuk Telkomnet instan
TELKOMNet INSTAN adalah layanan Internet Dial Up (dengan menggunakan line telepon) yang paling mudah dalam hal setting. Selain itu layanan ini memiliki kapasitas bandwidth ke luar negeri yang besar dari beberapa link. Untuk dial ke TelkomNet Instan hanya diperlukan tiga langkah saja, yakni:
1. Setting Modem
2. Setting Koneksi ke TelkomNet Instan
3. Dial ke TelkomNet Instan
• Nomor dial : 0809 8 9999
• User id : telkomnet@instan
• Password : telkom
• DNS : Sebaiknya dikosongkan , boleh diisi : dan
• Proxy : Sebaiknya dikosongkan, boleh menggunakan proxies.telkom.net.id
(diambil dari www.telkomnet.com)
4) Webcam
Webcam atau web camera adalah kamera digital yang terhubung dengan computer dan terhubung dengan halaman web .Dengan menggunakan teknologi ini, maka kamera yang ada pada komputer akan memberikan informasinya, yaitu berupa gambar yang dimunculkan melalui halaman web.
Pertama, pastikan Anda mengikuti instruksi dari produsen kamera Anda untuk memastikan kamera Anda diinstal dengan benar.
Ini termasuk memasukkan CD instalasi kamera, dipandu melalui beberapa langkah instalasi, dan me-restart komputer Anda. Menghubungkan kabel USB kamera di saat yang tidak tepat selama prosedur instalasi perangkat lunak kamera dapat menyebabkan berbagai masalah.
Untuk menginstal ulang webcam Anda:
Batalkan instalasi kamera yang ada. Klik “Start,” “Settings,” “Control Panel,” dan “Add/Remove Programs”. Dari daftar, pilih perangkat lunak webcam Anda dan klik Remove.
Cabut kabel USB kamera dari komputer.
Hidupkan kembali komputer Anda.
Masukkan CD instalasi/pengaturan kamera Anda.
Ikuti instruksi yang diuraikan oleh program pengaturan kamera, dan sambungkan kamera Anda hanya saat diminta. Biasanya dilakukan setelah me-restart komputer Anda.
5) Speaker
Suatu alat yang mengkonversi isyarat audio analog ke dalam getaran udara yang sejenisnya dalam rangka membuat bunyi;serasi dapat didengar.
Cara Menginstal :
-klik kanan my computer pilih propertise
- lalu, klik hardware pilih device manager
- klik sound, video and games controller
-masukkan CD bawaan Kmptr lalu
Klik kanan tanda tanya / seru tsb, pilih update driver.
5) Network Card
Kartu jaringan ( network interface card disingkat NIC atau juga network card) adalah sebuah kartu yang berfungsi sebagai jembatan dari komputer ke sebuahjaringan komputer. Jenis NIC yang beredar, terbagi menjadi dua jenis, yakni NIC yang bersifat fisik, dan NIC yang bersifat logis. Contoh NIC yang bersifat fisik adalah NIC Ethernet, Token Ring, dan lainnya; sementara NIC yang bersifat logis adalah loopback adapter dan Dial-up Adapter. Disebut juga sebagai Network Adapter. Setiap jenis NIC diberi nomor alamat yang disebut sebagai MAC Addres, yang dapat bersifat statis atau dapat diubah oleh pengguna.
Wireless Network Card PCI Network Card
Prosedur yang dilakukan untuk menginstall dan mengkonfigurasi kartu jaringan:
  • Control Panel, double-klik icon Network.
  • Pilih tab Configuration, klik Add.
  • Setelah itu muncul kotak dialog Select Network Component Type, klik Adapter, lalu klik Add.
  • Pilih jenis adapter yang digunakan, setelah itu klik OK.
  • Klik OK untuk menutup kotak dialog Network Properties.
Setelah meng-copy file yang dibutuhkan untuk menginstall kartu jaringan, Windows 98 akan me-restart komputer.
  • Setelah komputer di-restart, konfigurasi kartu jaringan dari Control Panel dan double-klik icon Network.
  • Pilih Adapter, lalu klik Properties.
  • Menginstall Protokol Jaringan
Untuk dapat “berkomunikasi” antara dua buah komputer atau lebih dalam jaringan komputer, gunakan protokol yang sering (umum) digunakan.
Prosedur yang dilakukan untuk menginstall protokol jaringan:
  1. Buka Control Panel dan double-klik ikon Network.
  2. Dalam tab Configurasi klik Add.
  3. Pada kotak dialog Select Network Component Type, pilih Protocol dan klik Add.
  4. Pilih Manufacturer dan Network Protocol dan klik OK.
Windows98 menyediakan multiple-protokol di dalam satu komputer meliputi
  • NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI)? protokol sederhana yang dapat digunakan untuk hubungan LAN sederhana dengan hanya satu subnet yang bekerja berdasarkan penyiaran (broadcast base).
  • Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)? protokol yang digunakan dalam lingkungan Novell NetWare. IPX/SPX tidak direkomendasikan untuk penggunan non-NetWare, karena IPX/SPX tidak universal seperti TCP/IP.
  • Microsoft Data-link Control(DLC)? dibuat oleh IBM digunakan untuk IBM mainframe dan AS/400.
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protokol(TCP/IP)? protokol standar yang umum digunakan.
  • Fast Infrared Protocol ? digunakan secara wireless (tanpa kabel), protokol yang mendukung penggunaan hubungan jarak dekat dengan menggunakan infrared. IrDA (infrared Data Association) digunakan antara lain oleh komputer, kamera, printer, dan personal digital assistant (PDA) untuk saling berkomunikasi.
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)? teknologi jaringan high-speed yang mampu mengirim data, suara, dan video secara real-time.
  • Mengkonfigurasi TCP/IP
Implementasi TCP/IP pada Windows98 meliputi protokol standar TCP/IP, kompatible dengan TCP/IP berbasis jaringan.
Protokol standar TCP/IP termasuk:
1. Internet Protocol,
2. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP),
3. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP),
4. Address Resolusion Protocol (ARP),
5. User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
TCP/IP harus dikonfigurasikan sebelum dahulu agar bisa “berkomunikasi” di dalam jaringan komputer. Setiap kartu jaringan komputer yang telah diinstall memerlukan IP address dan subnet mask. IP address harus unik (berbeda dengan komputer lain), subnet mask digunakan untuk membedakan network ID dari host ID.
Memberikan IP Address
IP address dan subnet mask dapat diberikan secara otomatis menggunakan Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) atau disi secara manual.
Prosedur yang dilakukan untuk mengisikan IP address:
1. Buka Control Panel dan double-klik icon Network.
2. Di dalam tab Configuration, klik TCP/IP yang ada dalam daftar untuk kartu jaringan yang telah diinstall.
3. Klik Properties.
4. Di dalam tab IP Address, terdapat 2 pilihan:
  • Obtain an IP address automatically
IP address akan diperoleh melalui fasilitas DHCP. DHCP berfungsi untuk memberikan IP address secara otomatis pada komputer yang menggunakan protokol TCP/IP. DHCP bekerja dengan relasi client-server, dimana DHCP server menyediakan suatu kelompok IP address yang dapat diberikan pada DHCP client. Dalam memberikan IP address ini, DHCP hanya meminjamkan IP address tersebut. Jadi pemberian IP address ini berlangsung secara dinamis.
  • Specify an IP address
IP address dan subnet mask diisi secara manual.
Jika menggunakan IP address statik, pastikan bahwa ip address tersebut akurat. Jika memasukan alamat IP yang tidak benar, Komputer tidak bisa berkomunikasi dalam jaringan. juga pastikan ip address belum dipakai oleh komputer lain pada jaringan karena akan menimbulkan konflik.
5. Klik OK.
6. Jika diperlukan masuk kembali ke dalam kotak dialog TCP/IP Properties, klik tab Gateway, masukkan nomor alamat server.
7. Klik OK.
8. Jika diperlukan untuk mengaktifkan Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) server, kembali ke dalam kotak dialog TCP/IP Properties, klik tab WINS Configuration, dan klik Enable WINS Resolution serta masukan nomor alamat server.
9. Jika diperlukan untuk mengaktifkan domain name system (DNS), kembali ke dalam kotak dialog TCP/IP Properties, klik tab DNS Configuration, klik Enable DNS, masukkan nomor alamat server.
10. Klik OK.
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White Sands NM (Wikimedia Commons/CC)
Wow, these two lost hikers sure had a lot of resources come to their aid....

From the NPS Digest:

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Newly Engaged Couple Found By Interagency Searchers

"On the afternoon of Monday, January 9th, the Park learned that two visitors who had been hiking within the dunes since noon were lost and unable to find their way out. Russell Vandameer and Karen Renshaw, both of Oklahoma, left to go hiking with their three dogs, Stitch, Suzy, and Griswald. After finding a suitably beautiful spot within the dunes, Vandemeer proposed to Renshaw. The newly engaged couple then attempted to hike back to their car, but were unable to find their way back. Rather than continue to wander becoming more lost, they contacted a cousin via cell phone and requested that help be sent.

An interagency effort was begun that involved the NPS, the Alamo West Volunteer Fire and Rescue Department, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Army. While two Army Rescue Blackhawk helicopters were en route from Fort Bliss, approximately an hour away, Holloman Air Force base diverted an F-22 Raptor from a training mission to the search effort. The pilot of the Raptor was able to positively identify the couple with their three dogs.  Two Air Force drones were also tasked, which were able to relay specific coordinates and monitor the lost hiker's location and movement from the air while the Army helicopters were en route.

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“Packaging testing market projected to grow at a CAGR of 12.0%”The packaging testing market is projected to reach USD 14.64 billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 12.0% from 2017. The market is driven by factors such as the establishment of stringent regulations in the packaging and packaged products industry by developed as well as emerging countries due to increasing product recalls and cases of illness & hospitalizations caused by faulty packaging. The growth in the market is also attributed to the technological advancements due to increased R&D investments by companies.
Factors such as increasing packaging testing cost with the adoption of advanced technologies and the lack of standardization in regulations across various regions are restraining the market growth.

“Plastics segment dominated the market with the largest share in 2016”
The plastic packaging segment accounted for the largest market share among the different material types for packaging testing in 2016 with the wide usage of plastic packaging in various industries due to its advantages such as lightweight and cost effectiveness over other packaging materials. The largely tested plastic packaging types are flexible plastics and rigid plastics. The demand for rigid plastic testing has been driven by high demand from the packaging industry. The market for flexible package testing is driven by its convenience.

“Physical tests segment led the market with the largest share in 2016”
Physical testing methods are segmented into conventional and non-conventional. The conventional techniques are visual or optical inspection, dye penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, Eddy current testing, radiography testing, and ultrasonic testing. The non-conventional methods are used only for specific applications and include neutron radiography, acoustic emission, thermal and infrared testing, strain sensing, leak testing, and holography. The physical test technologies provide assurance of reliability, quality, and high performance of packaging, which in turn drives its market.

“Pharmaceutical industry dominated the market in 2016”
The packaging quality of pharmaceutical products plays a vital role in ensuring their protection. It involves the testing of a wide range of packaging materials such as paper, paperboard, cardboard, and rigid plastic packaging materials. This market is driven by the need for new safe packaging material and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) compliance for packaging materials used by pharmaceutical companies.

“China contributed to the largest market share in the Asia-Pacific region in 2016”
The European region dominated the packaging testing market in 2016, whereas the Asia-Pacific region is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. The high amount of retail and FMCG industry development in countries such as India and China is also a contributing factor for the growth of this market in the Asia-Pacific region.

The figure below shows the breakdown of the primaries on the basis of the company, designation, and region, conducted during the research study.
By Company Type: Tier 1 – 38%, Tier 2 – 42%, and Tier 3 – 20%
By Designation: C level – 45% and D level – 55%
By Region: North America – 10%, Europe – 70%, Asia-Pacific – 15%, RoW – 5%

Major players such as SGS S.A. (Switzerland), Bureau Veritas SA (France), Intertek Group Plc. (U.K.), Eurofins Scientific SE (Luxembourg), TÜV SÜD AG (Germany), and Mérieux NutriSciences Corporation (U.S.) collectively accounted for a majority of the global packaging testing market. Other players in the market include ALS Limited (Australia), National Technical Systems, Inc. (U.S.), Microbac Laboratories, Inc. (U.S.), EMSL Analytical Inc. (U.S.), Campden BRI (U.K.), and Institut fur Produktqualitat GmbH (Germany).

Research Coverage:
The report focuses on packaging testing services for different materials and regions. It aims at estimating the market size and future growth potential of this market across different segments—type, material type, technology, end-use industry, and region. Furthermore, the report includes an in-depth competitive analysis of the key players in the market along with their company profiles, competitive leadership mapping, recent developments, and key market strategies.

Reasons to buy this report:
• To get a comprehensive overview of the global packaging testing market
• To gain wide-ranging information about the top players in this industry, their service portfolios, and key strategies adopted by them
• To gain insights of the major countries/regions in which the packaging testing market is flourishing

The post 包装検査の世界市場予測(~2022年):物理的検査、化学的検査、微生物学的検査 appeared first on 世界の市場調査資料.

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Digital InfraRed Thermometer

Digital InfraRed Thermometer

          DJI Inspire 2 Quadcopter        
DJI Inspire 2 Quadcopter

DJI Inspire 2 Quadcopter

DJI Inspire 2 Specs The next generation of professional quadcopters: intelligent, intuitive and perfect for aerial filmmaking. Aircraft Model T650. Weight 7.25 lbs (3290 g, including two batteries, without gimbal and camera) Diagonal Distance(propeller excluded) 18 inch (605 mm, Landing Mode) Max Takeoff Weight 8.82 lbs (4000 g) Max Takeoff Sea Level 1.55 mi (2500 m); 3.1 mi (5000 m with specially-designed propeller) Max Flight Time Approx. 27 min (with Zenmuse X4S) Max Tilt Angle P-mode: 35° (Forward Vision System enabled: 25°); A-mode: 35°; S-mode: 40° Max Ascent Speed P-mode/A-mode: 16.4 ft/s (5 m/s); S-mode: 19.7 ft/s (6 m/s) Max Descent Speed Vertical: 13.1 ft/s (4 m/s); Tilt: 13.1-29.5 ft/s (4-9 m/s) Default tilt is 13.1 ft/s (4 m/s), can be set in-app. Max Speed 58mph GPS Hovering Accuracy Vertical: ±1.64 feet (0.5 m) or ±0.33 feet (0.1 m, Downward Vision System enabled) Horizontal: ±4.92 feet (1.5 m) or ±0.98 feet (0.3 m, Downward Vision System enabled) Operating Temperature 14° to 104° F (-10° to 40° C) Downward Vision System Velocity Range <32.8 ft/s (10 m/s) at height of 6.56 feet (2 m) Altitude Range <32.8 feet (10 m) Operating Range <32.8 feet (10 m) Operating Environment Surfaces with clear patterns and adequate lighting (> 15 lux) Ultrasonic Sensor Operating Range 0.33-16.4 feet (10-500 cm) Ultrasonic Sensor Operating Environment Non-absorbing material, rigid surface (thick indoor carpeting will reduce performance) Upward Infrared Sensor Obstacle Sensing Range 0-16.4 feet (0-5 m) Field Of View ±5° . Operating Environment Large-size non-reflective obstacles Charger Mode. IN2C180 Voltage 26.1 V Rated Power 180 W Charging Hub Mode. IN2CH Input Voltage 26.1 V Input Current 6.9 A Gimbal Angular Vibration Range ±0.01° Controllable Range Pitch: -130° to+40°; Roll: ±20°; Pan: ±320° Max Controllable Speed Pitch: 90°/s; Roll: 90°/s; Pan: 90°/s Forward Vision System Obstacle Sensing Range 2.3-98.4 feet (0.7-30 m) Field Of View Horizontal: 60°; Vertical: 54° Operating Environment Surfaces with clear patterns and adequate lighting (> 15 lux) Remote Controller Operating Frequency 2.400-2.483 GHz; 5.725-5.850 GHz Max Transmitting Distance 2.4 GHz: 4.3 miles (7 km, FCC); 2.2 miles (3.5 km, CE); 2.5 miles (4 km, SRRC) (unobstructed, free of interference) 5.8 GHz: 4.3 miles (7 km, FCC); 1.2 miles (2 km, CE); 3.1 miles (5 km, SRRC) EIRP. 2.4 GHz: 26 dBm (FCC); 17 dBm (CE); 20 dBm (SRRC) 5.8 GHz: 28 dBm (FCC); 14 dBm (CE); 20 dBm (SRRC) Battery 6000mAh 2S LiPo Output Power 9 W (Not supply power for mobile device) USB Supply Power iOS: 1 A @ 5.2 V (Max); Android: 1.5 A @ 5.2 V (Max) Operating Temperature 14° to 104° F (-10° to 40° C) Intelligent Flight Battery Mode. TB50-4280MAH-22.8V Capacity 4280 mAh Voltage 22.8 V Battery Type LiPo 6S Energy 97.58 Wh Net Weight 515 g Charging Temperature 41° to 104° F (5° to 40° C) Operating Temperature 14° to 104° F (-10° to 40° C) Max Charging Power 180 W

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DJI Phantom 4 Pro

DJI Phantom 4 Pro

DJI Phantom 4 Professional The most popular quadcopter on the market has just got an upgrade. Aircraft Weight (Battery & Propellers Included) 1388 g Diagonal Size (Propellers Excluded) 350 mm Max Ascent Speed S-mode: 6 m/s; P-mode: 5 m/s Max Descent Speed S-mode: 4 m/s; P-mode: 3 m/s Max Speed 45 mph (72 kph) (S-mode); 36 mph (58 kph) (A-mode); 31 mph (50 kph) (P-mode) Max Tilt Angle 42° (S-mode); 35° (A-mode); 25° (P-mode) Max Angular Speed 250°/s (S-mode); 150°/s (A-mode) Max Service Ceiling Above Sea Level 19685 ft (6000 m) Max Flight Time Approx. 30 minutes Operating Temperature 32° to 104° F ( 0° to 40° C) Satellite Positioning Systems GPS/GLONASS GPS Hover Accuracy Range Vertical: ±0.1 m (With Vision Positioning); ±0.5 m (With GPS Positioning) Horizontal: ±0.3 m (With Vision Positioning); ±1.5 m (With GPS Positioning) Vision System Velocity Range ≤31 mph (50 kph) at 6.6 ft (2 m) above ground Altitude Range 0 – 33 ft (0 – 10 m) Operating Range 0 – 33 ft (0 – 10 m) Obstacle Sensory Range 2 – 98 ft (0.7 – 30 m) Field Of View 60°(Horizontal), ±54°(Vertical) Detection Frequency 10 Hz Operating Environment Surfaces with clear patterns and adequate lighting (> 15 lux) Camera Sensor 1’’ CMOS; Effective pixels: 20M Lens Spec FOV (Field of View) 84°, 8.8 mm / 24 mm (35 mm format equivalent), f/2.8 - f/11. auto focus at 1 m - ∞ ISO Range Video: 100 - 3200 (Auto); 100 - 6400 (Manual) Photo: 100 - 3200 (Auto); 100- 12800 (Manual) Mechanical Shutter 8 - 1/2000 s Electronic Shutter 1/2000 - 1/8000 s Max Image Size 3:2 Aspect Ratio: 5472 × 3648 4:3 Aspect Ratio: 4864 × 3648 16:9 Aspect Ratio: 5472 × 3078 PIV Image Size ・4096 × 2160 (4096 × 2160 24/25/30/48/50p) ・3840 × 2160 (3840 × 2160 24/25/30/48/50/60p) ・2720 × 1530 (2720 × 1530 24/25/30/48/50/60p) ・1920 × 1080 (1920 × 1080 24/25/30/48/50/60/120p) ・1280 × 720 (1280 × 720 24/25/30/48/50/60/120p) Still Photography Modes Single Shot Burst Shooting: 3/5/7/10/14 frames Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB): 3/5 bracketed frames at 0.7EV Bias Interval: 2/3/5/7/10/15/30/60 s Video Recording Modes H.265 ・C4K:4096×2160 24/25/30p @100Mbps ・4K:3840×2160 24/25/30p @100Mbps ・2.7K:2720×1530 24/25/30p @65Mbps 2720×1530 48/50/60p @80Mbps ・FHD:1920×1080 24/25/30p @50Mbps 1920×1080 48/50/60p @65Mbps 1920×1080 120p @100Mbps ・HD: 1280×720 24/25/30p @25Mbps 1280×720 48/50/60p @35Mbps 1280×720 120p @60Mbps H.264 ・C4K:4096×2160 24/25/30/48/50/60p @100Mbps ・4K:3840×2160 24/25/30/48/50/60p @100Mbps ・2.7K:2720×1530 24/25/30p @80Mbps 2720×1530 48/50/60p @100Mbps ・FHD:1920×1080 24/25/30p @60Mbps 1920×1080 48/50/60 @80Mbps 1920×1080 120p @100Mbps ・HD: 1280×720 24/25/30p @30Mbps 1280×720 48/50/60p @45Mbps 1280×720 120p @80Mbps Video Storage Bitrate 100 Mbps Supported File Systems FAT32 (≤ 32 GB); exFAT (> 32 GB) Photo JPEG, DNG (RAW), JPEG + DNG Video MP4/MOV (AVC/H.264;HEVC/H.265) Supported SD Cards Micro SD, Max Capacity: 128GB. Write speed ≥15MB/s, class 10 or UHS-1 rating required Operating Temperature 32° to 104° F (0° to 40° C) Charger Voltage 17.4 V Rated Power 100 W Gimbal Stabilization 3-axis (pitch, roll, yaw) Controllable Range Pitch: -90° to +30° Max Controllable Angular Speed Pitch: 90°/s Angular Control Accuracy ±0.01° Infrared Sensing System Obstacle Sensory Range 0.6 – 23 ft (0.2 – 7 m) Field Of View 70° (Horizontal), ±10° (Vertical) Detection Frequency 10 Hz Operating Environment Surface with diffuse reflection material, and reflectivity > 8% (such as wall, trees, humans, etc.) Remote Controller Operating Frequency 2.400 - 2.483 GHz and 5.725 - 5.825 GHz Max Transmission Distance 2.400 GHz - 2.483 GHz(Unobstruoted, free of interference) FCC: 4.3mi (7km); CE: 2.2mi (3.5km); SRRC: 2.5mi (4 km) 5.725 GHz - 5.825 GHz(Unobstruoted, free of interference) FCC: 4.3mi (7km); CE: 1.2mi (2 km); SRRC: 2.5mi (4 km) Operating Temperature 32° to 104° F (0° to 40° C) Battery 6000mAh LiPo 2S Transmitter Power (EIRP) 2.400 GHz - 2.483 GHz FCC: 26 dBm; CE: 17 dBm; SRRC: 20 dBm 5.725 GHz - 5.825 GHz FCC: 28 dBm; CE: 14 dBm; SRRC: 20 dBm Operating Voltage 1.2 A @7.4 V Video Output Port GL300E: HDMI,USB GL300F: USB Mobile Device Holder GL300E:Built-in display device (5.5 inch screen, 1920×1080, 1000 cd/m2, Android system, 4G RAM+16G ROM) GL300F:Tablets and smart phones Intelligent Flight Battery Model PH4-5870MAH-15.2V Capacity 5870 mAh Voltage 15.2 V Battery Type LiPo 4S Energy 89.2 Wh Net Weight 468 g Charging Temperature Range 14° to 104° F (-10° to 40° C) Max Charging Power 100 W

          DJI Phantom 4 Pro+ (Plus)        
DJI Phantom 4 Pro+ (Plus)

DJI Phantom 4 Pro+ (Plus)

DJI Phantom 4 Pro+ The most popular quadcopter on the market has just got an upgrade. Aircraft Weight (Battery & Propellers Included) 1388 g Diagonal Size (Propellers Excluded) 350 mm Max Ascent Speed S-mode: 6 m/s; P-mode: 5 m/s Max Descent Speed S-mode: 4 m/s; P-mode: 3 m/s Max Speed 45 mph (72 kph) (S-mode); 36 mph (58 kph) (A-mode); 31 mph (50 kph) (P-mode) Max Tilt Angle 42° (S-mode); 35° (A-mode); 25° (P-mode) Max Angular Speed 250°/s (S-mode); 150°/s (A-mode) Max Service Ceiling Above Sea Level 19685 ft (6000 m) Max Flight Time Approx. 30 minutes Operating Temperature 32° to 104° F ( 0° to 40° C) Satellite Positioning Systems GPS/GLONASS GPS Hover Accuracy Range Vertical: ±0.1 m (With Vision Positioning); ±0.5 m (With GPS Positioning) Horizontal: ±0.3 m (With Vision Positioning); ±1.5 m (With GPS Positioning) Vision System Velocity Range ≤31 mph (50 kph) at 6.6 ft (2 m) above ground Altitude Range 0 – 33 ft (0 – 10 m) Operating Range 0 – 33 ft (0 – 10 m) Obstacle Sensory Range 2 – 98 ft (0.7 – 30 m) Field Of View 60°(Horizontal), ±54°(Vertical) Detection Frequency 10 Hz Operating Environment Surfaces with clear patterns and adequate lighting (> 15 lux) Camera Sensor 1’’ CMOS; Effective pixels: 20M Lens Spec FOV (Field of View) 84°, 8.8 mm / 24 mm (35 mm format equivalent), f/2.8 - f/11. auto focus at 1 m - ∞ ISO Range Video: 100 - 3200 (Auto); 100 - 6400 (Manual) Photo: 100 - 3200 (Auto); 100- 12800 (Manual) Mechanical Shutter 8 - 1/2000 s Electronic Shutter 1/2000 - 1/8000 s Max Image Size 3:2 Aspect Ratio: 5472 × 3648 4:3 Aspect Ratio: 4864 × 3648 16:9 Aspect Ratio: 5472 × 3078 PIV Image Size ・4096 × 2160 (4096 × 2160 24/25/30/48/50p) ・3840 × 2160 (3840 × 2160 24/25/30/48/50/60p) ・2720 × 1530 (2720 × 1530 24/25/30/48/50/60p) ・1920 × 1080 (1920 × 1080 24/25/30/48/50/60/120p) ・1280 × 720 (1280 × 720 24/25/30/48/50/60/120p) Still Photography Modes Single Shot Burst Shooting: 3/5/7/10/14 frames Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB): 3/5 bracketed frames at 0.7EV Bias Interval: 2/3/5/7/10/15/30/60 s Video Recording Modes H.265 ・C4K:4096×2160 24/25/30p @100Mbps ・4K:3840×2160 24/25/30p @100Mbps ・2.7K:2720×1530 24/25/30p @65Mbps 2720×1530 48/50/60p @80Mbps ・FHD:1920×1080 24/25/30p @50Mbps 1920×1080 48/50/60p @65Mbps 1920×1080 120p @100Mbps ・HD: 1280×720 24/25/30p @25Mbps 1280×720 48/50/60p @35Mbps 1280×720 120p @60Mbps H.264 ・C4K:4096×2160 24/25/30/48/50/60p @100Mbps ・4K:3840×2160 24/25/30/48/50/60p @100Mbps ・2.7K:2720×1530 24/25/30p @80Mbps 2720×1530 48/50/60p @100Mbps ・FHD:1920×1080 24/25/30p @60Mbps 1920×1080 48/50/60 @80Mbps 1920×1080 120p @100Mbps ・HD: 1280×720 24/25/30p @30Mbps 1280×720 48/50/60p @45Mbps 1280×720 120p @80Mbps Video Storage Bitrate 100 Mbps Supported File Systems FAT32 (≤ 32 GB); exFAT (> 32 GB) Photo JPEG, DNG (RAW), JPEG + DNG Video MP4/MOV (AVC/H.264;HEVC/H.265) Supported SD Cards Micro SD, Max Capacity: 128GB. Write speed ≥15MB/s, class 10 or UHS-1 rating required Operating Temperature 32° to 104° F (0° to 40° C) Charger Voltage 17.4 V Rated Power 100 W Gimbal Stabilization 3-axis (pitch, roll, yaw) Controllable Range Pitch: -90° to +30° Max Controllable Angular Speed Pitch: 90°/s Angular Control Accuracy ±0.01° Infrared Sensing System Obstacle Sensory Range 0.6 – 23 ft (0.2 – 7 m) Field Of View 70° (Horizontal), ±10° (Vertical) Detection Frequency 10 Hz Operating Environment Surface with diffuse reflection material, and reflectivity > 8% (such as wall, trees, humans, etc.) Remote Controller Operating Frequency 2.400 - 2.483 GHz and 5.725 - 5.825 GHz Max Transmission Distance 2.400 GHz - 2.483 GHz(Unobstruoted, free of interference) FCC: 4.3mi (7km); CE: 2.2mi (3.5km); SRRC: 2.5mi (4 km) 5.725 GHz - 5.825 GHz(Unobstruoted, free of interference) FCC: 4.3mi (7km); CE: 1.2mi (2 km); SRRC: 2.5mi (4 km) Operating Temperature 32° to 104° F (0° to 40° C) Battery 6000mAh LiPo 2S Transmitter Power (EIRP) 2.400 GHz - 2.483 GHz FCC: 26 dBm; CE: 17 dBm; SRRC: 20 dBm 5.725 GHz - 5.825 GHz FCC: 28 dBm; CE: 14 dBm; SRRC: 20 dBm Operating Voltage 1.2 A @7.4 V Video Output Port GL300E: HDMI,USB GL300F: USB Mobile Device Holder GL300E:Built-in display device (5.5 inch screen, 1920×1080, 1000 cd/m2, Android system, 4G RAM+16G ROM) GL300F:Tablets and smart phones Intelligent Flight Battery Model PH4-5870MAH-15.2V Capacity 5870 mAh Voltage 15.2 V Battery Type LiPo 4S Energy 89.2 Wh Net Weight 468 g Charging Temperature Range 14° to 104° F (-10° to 40° C) Max Charging Power 100 W

          Element 9 Physical & Psychological Health – Hazards & Control        

A slightly different tack on this element as I am a bit behind on the course, but an excellent source of information is Andy Brazier's page http://healthandsafetycertificate.blogspot.com/ lots and lots of stuff here. I even bought his book for a £5 it's a bargain. Below is chapter 13 covering the relevant topic

Physical and psychological hazards

The following can cause physical and/or psychological harm:

Ionising and non-ionising radiation;

  • Noise;
  • Vibrations;
  • High or low temperatures;
  • High humidity;
  • Poor ergonomics - body position;
  • Repetitive actions;
  • Fatigue;
  • Stress.

Ionising radiation

Ionising radiation occurs as either electromagnetic rays (such as X-rays and gamma rays) or particles (such as alpha and beta particles). It occurs naturally (e.g. radon gas) but can also be produced artificially. Everyone receives some exposure to natural background radiation.

It is used or occurs in the following work settings

  • Medicine (for diagnosis and treatment);
  • Industry (for measurement and non-destructive testing);
  • Power generation (nuclear power stations);
  • Research and teaching.

Exposure to ionising radiation can alter human cells. It can cause radiation burns, poisoning and lead to cancer. It can be dangerous to unborn babies. Exposure can be directly from a source of ionising radiation. Consequences can be particularly severe when radioactive material is ingested as the exposure lasts as long as the material is inside the body.

Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 require employers to make sure exposure is restricted as far as reasonable practicable and is kept below dose limits. Practices must be authorised by the HSE and suitable risk assessments need to be carried out prior to work commencing and reviewed at suitable intervals. Where radiation accidents are reasonably foreseeable, contingency plans need to be developed.

Employers need to appointment Radiation Protection Advisers (often an individual from a specialist company) who achieve competence in the management of risk due to ionising radiation. They should be consulted with to ensure regulations are being complied with.

The regulations specify circumstances when controlled areas need to be defined because people may be exposed to certain levels of ionising radiation within them. Where such areas are necessary it is a requirement to develop .Local Rules. And appoint Radiation Protection Supervisors who have a fundamental role in ensuring compliance with regulations and local rules. They do not need to be present at the worksite at all times, but are the first point of contact for help and advice and so need to be readily available.

People who have the potential to be exposed to certain levels of ionising radiation need to be designated as a .Classified Person. and their dose must be monitored and records kept. Action needs to be taken where someone is exposed to excessive doses of ionising radiation.

Non-ionising radiation

Non-ionising electromagnetic radiation (NIEMR) is the term used to describe the part of the electromagnetic spectrum covering two main regions

  1. Optical radiation including ultraviolet (UV), visible light and infrared.

    Hazardous exposure may result from the sun, sunbeds, lasers and welding.

  2. Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) including power frequencies, microwaves and radio frequencies.

Exposure of the eyes to UV radiation can damage the cornea and produce pain and symptoms similar to that of sand in the eye.

The effects on the skin range from redness, burning and accelerated ageing through to various types of skin cancer.

High-power lasers can cause serious damage to the eye (including blindness) as well as producing skin burns.

Exposure of people to high levels of EMFs can give rise to acute effects. The effects depend on the frequency, with low frequencies affecting the central nervous system and high frequencies causing heating effects that can lead to a rise in body temperature. In reality, these effects are extremely rare and will not occur in most day-to-day work situations

Noise at work can cause hearing loss. This may be temporary, but continued exposure, or short term exposure to very high noise can cause permanent damage.

Also, exposure to high levels of noise can cause tinnitus (ringing, whistling, buzzing or humming in the ears) and working in a noisy environment makes communication difficult and can mean people cannot hear warnings and alarms.

Noise levels are measured in Decibels (dB). Control of Noise at Work Regulations

2005 set limits for short and long term exposure and require employers to:

Assess the risks to their employees from noise at work;

  • Take action to reduce the noise exposure that produces those risks;
  • Provide employees with hearing protection if the noise exposure cannot be reduced enough using other methods;
  • Make sure the legal limits on noise exposure are not exceeded;
  • Provide employees with information, instruction and training;
  • Carry out health surveillance where there is a risk to health.

Legal limits are defined in three categories

  1. Lower exposure action values which are a daily or weekly exposure of 80 dB or peak sound pressure of 135 dB . above these levels hearing protection must be available for employees (although they do not need to use it) and information and training must be given regarding the risks and controls;
  2. Upper exposure action values which are a daily or weekly exposure of 85 dB or peak sound pressure of 137 dB . above these levels the noise must be reduced to as low as reasonably practicable and employees must wear hearing protection;
  3. Maximum exposure limit values which are a daily or weekly exposure of 87 dB or peak sound pressure of 140 dB . exposure must not exceed these levels.

A key element of the regulations is that noise levels should be reduced before

considering hearing protection. Employees have a duty to co-operate with their

employers in protecting hearing, including wearing hearing protection provided.

Reference . .Noise at work Guidance for employers on the Control of Noise at

Work Regulations 2005. available free at



There are two main concerns regarding vibration

  1. Whole body vibration
  2. Hand arm vibration

Whole-body vibration is shaking or jolting of the human body through a supporting surface (usually a seat or the floor), for example when driving or riding on a vehicle along an unmade road, operating earthmoving machines or standing on a structure attached to a large, powerful, fixed machine which is impacting or vibrating. It can cause back pain, often aggravating a previous problem.

Hand-arm vibration can be caused by operating hand-held power tools (e.g. road breakers), hand-guided equipment (e.g. powered lawnmowers) or by holding materials being processed by machines (e.g. using pedestal grinders). Regular and frequent exposure to hand-arm vibration can lead to permanent health effects (occasional exposure is unlikely to cause ill health).

Symptoms include:

  • Tingling and numbness in the fingers;
  • Not being able to feel things properly;
  • Loss of strength in the hands;
  • The fingers going white (blanching) and becoming red and painful on recovery (particularly in the cold and wet, and probably only in the tips at first).
  • Continued exposure can mean people cannot use their fingers properly, especially in cold conditions.

The Control of Vibration at Work Regulations require employers to:

Assess the vibration risk to employees;

  • Decide if they are likely to be exposed above the daily exposure action value (EAV), and if so introduce a programme of controls to eliminate risk, or reduce exposure to as low; and provide health surveillance
  • Decide if they are likely to be exposed above the daily exposure limit value (ELV) and if they are take immediate action to reduce their exposure below the limit value;
  • Provide information and training to employees on health risks and the actions you are taking to control those risks;
  • Consult trade union safety representative or employee representative on your proposals to control risk and to provide health surveillance;
  • Keep a record of risk assessment and control actions;
  • Keep health records for employees under health surveillance;
  • Review and update your risk assessment regularly.

The exposure action value (EAV) is a daily amount of vibration exposure above which employers are required to take action to control exposure.

For hand-arm vibration the EAV is a daily exposure of 2.5 m/s2 A(8) and for whole body vibration 0.5 m/s2 A(8)

The exposure limit value (ELV) is the maximum amount of vibration an employee may be exposed to on any single day. For hand-arm vibration the ELV is a daily exposure of 5 m/s2 A(8) and for whole body vibration 1.15 m/s2 A(8)

Reference . .Control back-pain risks from whole-body vibration. available free at


Reference . .Control the risks from hand-arm vibration. available free at



Working in conditions that are too hot can cause heat stress that can affect a person.s ability to work, potentially leading to heat exhaustion and heat stroke (can result in unconsciousness and can be fatal). Also, dehydration.

Working in cold conditions can cause cold stress and hypo-thermia.

Temperatures in the workplace are covered by the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992. Employers must provide a .reasonable. temperature in the workplace.

It is suggested that the minimum temperature in workrooms should normally be at least 16 degrees Celsius, or 13 degrees Celsius if much of the work indoors involves severe physical effort. A meaningful figure cannot be given at the upper end of the scale because other factors have an affect including radiant temperature, humidity and air velocity.


Humidity is the amount of water vapour in air. Levels are usually quoted as relative humidity, which is the ratio between the actual amount of water vapour in the air and the maximum amount of water vapour that the air can hold at that air temperature High relative humidity (>80%) starts to prevent evaporation of sweat from the body. This evaporation is a major way of regulating body temperature. Therefore, high humidity can contribute to heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Humidity is particularly a concern when people are required to wear extra clothing (i.e. in the form of personal protective equipment PPE). In this case the humidity inside clothing can be significantly higher than outside.

Humidity is covered by the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992.

Managing the risks associated with physical hazards


Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use. The aim is to use this information to ensure comfort, efficiency, productivity and safety. Ergonomics comes into everything which involves people. In a phrase, the job must .fit the person. in all respects, and the work situation should not compromise human capabilities and limitations.

Ergonomics covers anatomy, physiology and psychology.

Neck and back pain

Neck and back pain can arise in many situations, but the following are known to cause problems:

  • Heavy manual labour;
  • Manual handling in awkward places;
  • Repetitive tasks;
  • Sitting at a workstation for a long time (especially if not set up properly);
  • Stooping, bending over or crouching (poor posture);
  • Pushing, pulling or dragging excessive loads;
  • Stretching, twisting and reaching;
  • Prolonged periods in one position, leading to postural strain;
  • Situations where the whole body is subjected to vibration, jolting and jarring (including driving long distances or over rough ground).

As with many ill health conditions, some people are more susceptible to back pain than others.

HSE have dedicated web pages for neck and back pain at


Work related upper limb disorders (WRULD)

WRULD, sometimes known as repetitive strain injury are problems with the shoulder and arm, including the forearm, elbow, wrist, hand and fingers, and can include neck pain. Any type of work that involves a worker using their arms to carry out tasks can lead to WRULDs, although they are frequently associated with computer use and assembly work. Symptoms include tenderness, aches and pain, stiffness, weakness, tingling, numbness, cramp and swelling.

  • Risk factors include:
  • Repeating an action;
  • Uncomfortable working position;
  • Using a lot of force;
  • Carrying out a task for a long period of time;
  • Poor working environment;
  • Psychosocial issues (lack of control or status).

Finding solutions is not always easy, and it is important to recognise that people are different sizes, have different abilities and some are more susceptible due to disabilities. Certainly workstation and job design can have a significant impact, but behaviours are equally important, including posture, exercise and taking breaks. People need to be informed of the risks and how to minimise them. If someone contracts WRULD it may be sufficient for them to change their working methods. However, in some cases medical treatment and rehabilitation may be required.

Reference- Aching arms (or RSI) in small businesses, available free at


Display screen equipment (DSE)

Poor physical layout of DSE workstations can cause WRULD. Also, screen glare and poor image quality can contribute to tired or sore eyes and headaches (especially for people who wear contact lenses or bi-focal glasses). People using

DSE can suffer from stress due to the expected pace of work or anxiety about new technology.

There is no evidence to suggest radiation from screens is a problem, even for pregnant women. A few people claim skin problems, but this is more likely to be with air quality (that may be affected by electrical equipment) rather than the DSE itself. A small number of epileptics may have problems.

The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 require that operators or users have:

  • Adequate training and information;
  • Proper breaks or changes of activity;
  • Work stations suitable for them which meet, where necessary, the standards in the schedule;
  • Eye tests if they request them.

There are many devices available that are designed to minimise health impacts from using DSE. They include specialised computer mice, document holders and arm rests. As with WRULD, whilst these can assist it is often behaviour (combined with well design standard DSE) that can have the greatest impact.

Reference . .Working with VDUs. available free at


Working environment

Welfare and hygiene

People cannot remain healthy at work if their basic welfare needs are not catered for. This includes the following:

  • Toilets;
  • Facilities to wash (including showers where necessary);
  • Drinking water supply;
  • Places to eat;
  • Places to change and store clothes (if work clothes are required);
  • Rest facilities for pregnant women (i.e. reasonably practicable).

It is important to recognise that people eating with dirty hands can result in them ingesting hazardous materials. Also, that dirty clothes can mean people taking hazardous materials into their car and possibly home to their family.

Facilities have to be kept clean, in good condition and supplied with materials (e.g. toilet paper, soap). Also, rooms need to be well ventilated and at a reasonable temperature (not too hot or cold).

These requirements are all covered by the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992.

A safe place to work

The following fall into the category of general safety:

  • Lighting must be sufficient for people to work safely;
  • People need enough space. As a minimum there should be 11m3 per person (with any height above 3m being considered as 3m for this calculation);
  • Floors and traffic routes must be sound and strong enough. They must not have holes, not be slippery or obstructed;
  • Handrails must be provided for stairways;
  • Clear/glass doors must be arranged so people are not liable to walk into them, and they need to be protected against breaking;
  • It must be possible to clean windows safely;
  • Doors that swing both ways must allow people to see through so people behind them are not hurt;
  • Escalators and moving walkways must be of safe design and condition, and have emergency stop buttons.

Reference: Workplace health, safety and welfare - a short guide for managers, available free at



Stress is the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them. Whilst pressure is an integral part of work and helps to keep people motivated, when it is excessive it can lead to stress. Stress causes chemicals to be released into the body that impact on how the body works. Overtime this can cause significant health problems. Also, stress affects peoples. concentration, information processing and decision making, which undermines their performance and can cause them to commit errors or behave unsafely.

The primary sources of stress at work include:

  • High demands, excessive workload, unhealthy work patterns and working poor environment;
  • Lack of control, no say in the way they do their work;
  • Lack of support, lack of encouragement and resources from the organisation;
  • Poor relationship, tension with management or colleagues and a failure to deal with unacceptable behaviour such as bullying;
  • Poorly defined roles .people not understanding their responsibilities or the scope of their job;
  • Poorly managed change . people not considered in the change management process or not given sufficient information about what is happening or why.

Organisations should have systems in place to manage stress. They should include a policy, organisation and arrangements to identify potential stress (through risk assessment), actual stress (sickness rates) and deal with it. Proactive monitoring of stress, often through the use of staff surveys, should be part of the arrangements. The HSE have a website dedicated to stress at



Fatigue occurs when people get very tired over a long time and/or are unable to rest. It significantly increases the likelihood of human error and over the long term can cause of contribute to stress (with subsequent health problems). Poor working conditions (e.g. noise, lighting, DSE) tend to increase levels of fatigue.

Shift and night work

Shift and night workers are particularly prone to fatigue because their workingpatterns differ from natural .circadian rhythms,. meaning they have to be awake when their body wants to be asleep. They are known to be prone to stomach, heart and psychological problems. Also, working unusual hours can impact on relationships causing stress.

People working at night are likely to be tired and so prone to errors. Also, it is likely to be dark and there is usually less support (e.g. technical), which can create problems.

Good shift patterns and controls over hours actually worked can minimise fatigue.

Plenty of exercise, a healthy diet and getting sleep whenever possible are particularly important for shift and night workers to minimise the risks due to their patterns of work.

          Video: The flying observatory SOFIA        
How does the flying observatory SOFIA work? What is infrared astronomy? What sets SOFIA apart from other space observatories, and what happens on a typical day in the air?
          Video: The flying observatory SOFIA        
In Palmdale, USA, approximately 60 kilometres north of Los Angeles, is the home of the flying infrared observatory SOFIA. SOFIA takes off from here, expansively gazing into space as it flies across the night sky four days a week. The crew’s work begins when twilight descends: SOFIA takes off for 10-hour scientific flights, criss-crossing the USA at a cruising altitude of around 12 to 14 kilometres. Once in the stratosphere, a hatch opens in the hull of the converted Boeing 747 SP, revealing the 2.7-metre telescope that gives the scientists an unobstructed view of the heavens.
          Technology Based Innovations Capable of Changing the Face of Education        

Traditional form of classroom learning is fast giving the way to technology based learning. Different technological innovations like educational CDs, mobile devices, interactive devices, educational software systems and distant learning have proved to be beneficial. These innovations engage each and every student and establish better learning mediums.

If you own a school, you will soon feel the need of integrating these technological innovations with the existing education system. If you have a store dealing in educational products, you must know how to make profits with advanced learning products. Here is a useful discussion in this regard.

Educational CDs 
The simple concept of educational CDs is to offer information in an interesting format using audio and video capabilities. The traditional form of textbook learning has constantly failed to trigger the interest of all the students. It is better to teach and explain graphically, with the help of a number of examples. From nursery rhymes and phonics games to mathematics and science lessons, everything can be made interactive and easy to understand using these educational CDs.

Interactive Whiteboards 
The technologies like resistive touch screens, electromagnetism, infrared lasers and many others have made interactive whiteboards as great learning mediums for the students. The products can help disabled students to participate in collaboration with other students. Just like educational CDs, these boards make learning extremely interesting by integrating different components. Collaborative engagements of students and mutual discussions are possible with whiteboard presentations. Other technology based products used in conjunction with interactive whiteboards include stylus and projectors.

Laptops and Tablets 
In the past few years, the potential use of mobile devices in classroom learning has been identified. These technology products replace the traditional text materials for better performance outputs. Moreover, they are as good as educational CDs in grasping knowledge. The students can browse information related to any subject or topic instantly and prepare better notes, projects and presentations.

The use of different types of cameras to enhance classroom learning is in its nascent stage. One good example is that of document camera that can be used to display different documents on large screens. Digital cameras are also being suggested to help the students take pictures related to their lessons and projects.

Distant E-Learning 
Finally, the concept of distant learning has been significantly improved with the help of e-learning. These setups allow the students located in different countries to attend classrooms and lectures at distant universities and institutes using web technologies. The internet and use of conference tools and technologies make it possible for the students to ask questions and queries and indulge in group discussions. At the same time, they have the access to the online resources to search for any particular topic simultaneously. Online books, encyclopedias and research papers can be accessed that definitely contribute towards effective learning.

From the educational CDs for primary classes to laptops, cameras and whiteboards for higher class learning, the technological innovations have certainly set numerous milestones. Manufacturers all across the world are engaged in improving the features and functionality of these products.

          The Global Automotive Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) Market: Current Trends        
Automotive advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) applications are considered as precursors to the fully automated driverless cars that are still being tested. Although still in its early days, the global market for ADAS has shown impressive growth. The current market revenue, however, pales in comparison to that of audio and telematics meant for cars. This is due, partly on account of the fact that some of the most promising ADAS applications are still being further refined or are yet to hit the market. Besides, their steep prices are also hampering the market growth.  Various Ways in Which Global ADAS Market can be Segmented  The global advanced driver assistance systems market consists of the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and aftermarket. OEMs have a dominant market share in terms of revenue in the global ADAS market, and is predicted to hold on to its leading position in the coming years too.  Depending on the type of vehicle, the global market for can be divided into passenger vehicle and commercial vehicle. The passenger vehicle segment has been leading the global advanced driver assistance system market and is expected to remain a market leader in the near future as well. Technology-wise, global advanced driver assistance systems consist of infrared sensors, radar sensors, laser sensors, ultrasonic sensors, and image sensors. Depending upon type, the global market for advanced driver assistance systems can be divided into adaptive cruise control (ACC), park assist, blind spot detection (BSD), tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), lane departure warning system (LDWS), and others. Shifting Trends in the Market and the Competitive Landscape Presently, the advanced driver assistance systems come embedded in premium cars, but in the future, with more product development, they will be found in less costly cars plying on streets too.  OEMs and their suppliers are fast realizing the importance of advanced driver assistance systems as a crucial differentiator for automotive brands, which will go a long way in augmenting their sales. At present the market is highly fragmented with a host of global and regional players jostling for market space.   

Original Post The Global Automotive Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) Market: Current Trends source Twease
          Now iPhone Cameras can be deactivated at Live Concerts        
It has long been termed as a nuisance when audience in live shows and concerts record videos on their phones to share on social media. Now, technology giant Apple Inc. has patented a technology that would address this nuisance. The new technology will let organizers of live shows and concerts to throw a beam of infrared light to disable the camera on iPhones, thereby stopping people from taking videos and photos. There has been a growing frustration among such show organizers with people recording live events. Even actors and musicians performing live have been affected by this. Pop singer Adele had recently told a female fan to stop filming her at a concert held in Italy. Hamlet’s actor Benedict Cumberbatch too had to plead with his fans to stop filming him during his performance. The patent acquired by Apple Inc. can make an iPhone temporary disabled just with the help of an infrared transmitter. When the infrared transmitter installed at shows is switched on, a “recording disabled” message would come up when the user tries to take videos or click photos. Else, a blur or watermark effect might be applied to restrict people from sharing the photos and videos on social media. Patented Technology Might Prove Harmful If Used by Oppressive Governments Apple has not mentioned it clearly that whether the technology would be applied to the latest iPhones. It has been observed that companies usually patent inventions without using them. However, if implemented, the move would be welcomed by artists and organizers alike. To stop people from using their phones during live performances, many show organizers have resorted to shining lasers on visitors when they use their cell phones for clicking photos and making recordings. This tactic is already used across movie theatres in China. However, the technology is also feared to be used by oppressive governments to restrict their citizens from documenting oppression.

Original Post Now iPhone Cameras can be deactivated at Live Concerts source Twease
          Fleet Case Study: San Antonio Sweeping Service        
Fleet Dashcam Case Study: San Antonio Sweeping Service image: Fleet Dashcam Case Study: San Antonio Sweeping Service | The Dashcam Store Blog

Learn about the businesses that trust The Dashcam Store with their fleets and see how they have benefited from having the dashcam defense.

Get to know San Antonio Sweeping Service

San Antonio Sweeping Service was founded in 1996. They have become a leader in construction, maintenance, and restoration cleaning services in the South West. SASS is a leader in green tech in the waste management space, as demonstrated by their use of environmentally friendly sweeper truck tech to reduce both noise and air pollution. San Antonio Sweeping Service is an owner operated company and they pride themselves in customer communication and their outstanding service.¹

image: Brian Cooper, Owner of San Antonio Sweeping | Fleet Dashcam Case Study | The Dashcam Store Blog

Brian Cooper, the owner of San Antonio Sweeping Service, worked for a local sweeping company at night while he was finishing his degree at the University of Texas, San Antonio in the early nineties. Once the company was sold, Cooper saw an opportunity to pave the way for his very own company.² The rest, as they say, is history.

San Antonio Sweeping Service has a team of nine employees.²

Their customers range from state, city, military, construction, residential, and property management, in the commercial and private sectors. San Antonio Sweeping Service serve more than 200 properties in and around South Texas.¹


image: Fleet Dashcam Case Study: San Antonio Sweeping Service | One of the Trucks in the Fleet of 9 vehicles | The Dashcam Store Blog

There are a total of 9 vehicles in the San Antonio Sweeping Service fleet:

  • Tymco 435 for heavy construction and road cleaning ²
  • Nitehawk sweepers for smaller parking lot work ²
  • 2012 Toyota Tundra for leading oversized loads

Needs for a Solution

One of the reasons we were concerned with getting a camera was to make sure our guys are doing what they are supposed to be doing [...&91; it was more for our protection and just to verify that things were being done the way we needed them to be done, and make sure everybody was doing what they were supposed to be doing. ³

– Brian Cooper, Owner, San Antonio Sweeping Service


SASS trucks run 24/7. Cooper preferred to use GPS over driver logs so he can know exactly when and where an employee is at a job-site at all times. The ability to refer back to GPS location files on a case-by-case basis will save him time and allow him to focus his energy on sales-driving initiatives.²

Interior-Facing Camera

Placing a dashcam on the front windshield and facing the camera lens inside the cabin towards the driver was a must-have criteria for Cooper so he can check-in on his drivers in real-time and ensure that they aren’t having any issues.²


image: The best solution for San Antonio Sweeping Service: BlackVue DR650GW-2CH dashcam

My original search for dashcams started on the internet, just basically punching in 'dashcam' because I had no knowledge about them. I might have seen them on the internet and seen their uses, but for the most part I didn’t have any idea on where to even begin searching for them. So, I did like anybody would do and went to the Google machine and punched in “dashcam” and lo and behold The Dashcam Store popped up, I found out that they are local, right in Austin, our neighbors, so I gave them a call and can’t tell you how thankful I am I did it. ³

– Brian Cooper

After working with Andrew Hunter, the VP of Global Sales at The Dashcam Store, and reviewing San Antonio Sweeping Service's needs, it was clear that the remote access capability and the two-channel setup made the BlackVue DR650GW-2CH the best solution for their fleet.


Originally, Cooper worked with a local San Antonio installer, but the end result of the dashcam installation wasn’t the quality that he was anticipating. Cooper then contacted The Dashcam Store to schedule an installation, and The Dashcam Store’s Lead Technician, Matthew Ritchie, and Hunter traveled to San Antonio to perform the professional installations.

image: Power Magic Pro Installation | Fleet Dashcam Case Study: San Antonio Sweeping Service | The Dashcam Store Blog

The dashcam installation was performed on 5 of San Antonio Sweeping Service's trucks. On day 1, The Dashcam Store technicians installed the BlackVue DR650GW-2CH dashcams in the first 3 trucks in 5 hours. Cooper requested that the dashcam installation be performed in installments so the rest of his fleet could continue to travel to job sites, so The Dashcam Store’s technicians returned and finished the dashcam installation on the last 2 trucks


After the dashcams were installed, Hunter and Ritchie trained Cooper on the operation of the new BlackVue DR650GW-2CH dashcams, focusing on how to view and retrieve video files, how to use the remote access feature, and how to format the memory cards.

End Result

We have incorporated GPS tracking and real-time video monitoring in all the vehicles. This allows us to keep up-to-the minute communication with our drivers, as well as inform our customers about when and where we are sweeping so that they can have that for their records. Real-time cameras are outstanding for educating and training our drivers because we can see what they see and answer their questions in real time while they are on the job. The phone app allows us to send a GPS reading to our customer immediately if there is ever a discrepancy about services rendered. This has minimized any disputes that were once hard to verify in the past. Our customers appreciate getting this kind of immediate feedback. ²

– Brian Cooper

image: Complete Installation | Fleet Dashcam Case Study: San Antonio Sweeping Service | The Dashcam Store Blog

It didn’t take long for San Antonio Sweeping Service to utilize their BlackVue dashcam video footage in a dispute. Only one week after SASS had their fleet outfitted with BlackVue dashcams, one of their drivers was involved in an accident. A San Antonio Sweeping Service truck was struck at an intersection, and the SASS driver was adamant that he was not at fault and the other vehicle involved was adamant that he was not at fault. No witnesses came forward to provide perspective on the collision.

The Dashcam Store prides itself on reliable, personalized customer service. When the San Antonio Sweeping Service needed help locating the dashcam video file of the accident, The Dashcam Store technicians traveled to San Antonio to assist Cooper and his staff access and download the specific video files to send to their insurance provider.

My call into The Dashcam Store for support was absolutely top-notch. The guys over there, especially Andrew, walked me through everything that I needed to do (because I’m not a very tech guy, I don’t understand how these things work most of the time) but he walked me through it step-by-step, got the chip out, got the video, got it to the insurance company, and he just knocked it out of the park. The Dashcam Store was just a great experience and I’ll always do business with them. ³

– Brian Cooper

The dashcam footage provided unbiased evidence to Cooper and to the insurance provider to show what exactly happened at the intersection and prove that his staff member was not at fault.

I can’t tell you the excitement of how I felt when I watched the video for the first time […&91; Just to see everything happen the way that it did and to know without a doubt that my driver was telling the truth and that he did not run the red light and that the other driver was at fault was a great feeling. Well worth any money that I spent on the camera. ³

– Brian Cooper

The Accident


¹ San Antonio Sweeping Service

² San Antonio Sweeping Service, North American Sweeper Magazine

³ Dashcam Testimonial by a Commercial Business Fleet Owner (Full Interview)

Want to learn more about dashcams for your fleet? We can help.

Use this form to request a phone call from one of our sales representatives to get your questions answered. We’re here to help you discover the right solution for you and your fleet.
          Discovery of New Nanomaterial to Revolutionize Thermophotovoltaic Cells        
The pace at which research and development activities are currently taking place in the field of solar energy, and technologically advanced, more efficient and novel materials are being discovered with a view to leverage the potential of photovoltaic cells is astonishing. Scientists all over the world are challenging themselves with the development of highly efficient photovoltaic cells that will be capable of harnessing the vast potential of solar power that is effortlessly available on most parts of the earth, in ample amounts in several seasons. The field of solar thermophotovoltaic cells is one of the most researched segments of the solar power production industry, as thermophotovoltaic cells are said to have the potential of converting as much as 80% solar energy to usable power. A new experiment has led to the discovery of a radical new variety of nanomaterial that has opened the possibilities of developing highly effective thermophotovoltaic cells. A research team from the Australian National University and the University of California Berkeley has fabricated a nanomaterial, or metamaterial, as the team refers to it, that emits an unusual glow when it is heated.  The material is said to be capable of driving a revolution in the development of thermophotovoltaic cells and make the field of solar power conversion even more competitive and more resourceful. Analysts estimate that thermophotovoltaic cells are at least two time more efficient, in terms of conversion efficacy, as compares to conventional solar photovoltaic cells. Thermophotovoltaic cells do not require direct sunlight for generating power, and can instead harvest the heat that is present in their surroundings as infrared radiations. As a result, thermophotovoltaic cells can be used to recycle heat that is radiated by hot engines or be combined with a burner for the production of on-demand power. The material, said to have demonstrated capabilities of radiating heat in specific directions, has been developed from nanoscale structure of gold and magnesium fluoride. The researchers state that the geometry of the material can also be tweaked to make the material radiate heat in specific spectral range, in contrast to the conventional materials that are capable of emitting their heat in all directions. This makes the material ideal for use in a thermophotovoltaic cell. 

Original Post Discovery of New Nanomaterial to Revolutionize Thermophotovoltaic Cells source Twease
          Baking Industry in Europe Focussing on Energy Conservation        
Europe’s love for baking is well-known. However, growing concerns over high energy consumption during prolonged baking process has led the European Union to look for energy-efficient ovens. A project funded by the EU has developed three prototype ovens that will significantly reduce the duration of baking as well as consume less energy. The Low Energy Ovens project uses infrared technology to reduce the baking time by 70% and lessens the energy consumption by 20-40%. The usage of infrared technology for baking is not a new concept though. It was first found out to be ideal for baking processes in the FP6 EU-FRESHBAKE project.  LEO Prototype Ovens Developed for Small and Medium-Sized Bakeries in Europe The three prototype ovens developed by the LEO are: Batch-ventilated oven Conveyor oven Batch-deck oven These prototype ovens have been not only tested under lab conditions but also in two professional bakeries in Germany and France. The prototype ovens are being targeted at small and medium-sized craft and bake-off bakeries. Small and medium-sized bake-off bakeries constitute about 40% of the baking industry in Europe. The LEO conveyor oven prototype is similar to the medium-scale ovens used in these bake-off bakeries. The batch oven prototypes have been specially developed for small traditional craft bakers who represent the bulk of the regional baking industry.   Infrared Technology to Revolutionize European Baking Industry The LEO consortium partners have concluded that the project’s final results indicate that the infrared technology has a strong market potential and can transform the European baking industry. The project partners have already prepared a business plan to commercialize the technology. With the help of these prototype ovens, the baking industry is expected to contribute significantly towards energy conservation.

Original Post Baking Industry in Europe Focussing on Energy Conservation source Twease
          Global Photoelectric Sensors Market Capitalizes on Increasing Demand from Manufacturing Industries        
With the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT), manufacturing facilities around the world are eyeing to capitalize on automation of their production processes. Photoelectric sensors have, therefore, become indispensable to manufacturing industries. Photoelectric sensors are used to detect the color, distance, shape, size, and absence or presence of targeted entity. These sensors are produced using the latest and most contemporary technologies, owing to which an increasing number of industries are considering them as best substitutes for inductive proximity sensors. Furthermore, the demand for photoelectric sensors is also largely escalating due to the demand for sensor-based data and information-based manufacturing across manufacturing units.  The demand for photoelectric sensors is increasing exponentially from industries including automotive, defense and aerospace, healthcare, food and beverages, and others. Of these, the demand from the automotive industry has been increasing at a robust pace. Based on functional type, the global photoelectric sensors market can be segmented into through beam, diffuse reflective, and retro-reflective. Regionally, the global market photoelectric sensors comprise Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, and Rest of the World.  Photoelectric sensors use infrared lights for performing the tasks designated. The enterprises operating in the global photoelectric sensors market are looking forward to invest in the emerging economies of Asia Pacific. These countries are at present witness rapid expansion of the automotive sectors, which according to market surveys will provide impressive opportunities for the enterprises to capitalize on in the near future.  Photoelectric sensors are inbuilt with optical components that are used for remote sensing. The electrical components of the sensors however, are integrated in a separate control panels. The design makes control panels of photoelectric sensors easily accessibility. Owing to efficacy of these sensors in controlling and monitoring the movement of products during the manufacturing process, they have become indispensable inclusion in manufacturing facilities. While the global market for photoelectric sensors is gaining impetus from the rising demand from emerging economies, the U.S. and Mexico are at the forefront of deploying the latest technology across their manufacturing units.  In the forthcoming years the demand for photoelectric sensors is anticipated to increase around the world, as automation grows in importance.

Original Post Global Photoelectric Sensors Market Capitalizes on Increasing Demand from Manufacturing Industries source Twease
          Rising Cost of Transparent Ceramics Leads to Development of Suitable Alternatives        
Transparent ceramics have emerged as a promising alternative to single-crystal technologies and traditional glass technologies across various application fields such as infrared domes and high-energy radiation detection. Emergence of new technologies has led to usage of transparent ceramics for applications such as inertial confinement nuclear fusion and automobile ignition. Optoelectronics and optics has emerged as the most important application segment in the global transparent ceramics market. For fabricating solid state lasers, transparent ceramics are used as optical windows. Further, transparent ceramics are used for the production of bulb and lamp envelopes for commercial lighting products and vehicles. The potential application of transparent ceramics for developing lights and displays in LEDs will open new opportunities for the global transparent ceramics market in the coming years. The wide range of applications of transparent ceramics has boosted the growth of the market.  However, the rising cost of transparent ceramics might restrain the growth of the global transparent ceramics market in the coming years. High cost of transparent ceramics has led researchers to find out suitable alternatives. In majority of smartphone screens, the touchscreen capability can be attributed to the transparent ceramic Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). ITO is applied on glass through physical vapour deposition to create a thin film that is both conductive and see through. However, extensive usage of this transparent ceramic has fuelled its price. This has negatively affected the overall cost of the technology. Researchers at the Penn State Materials Research Institute have found a viable cheaper alternative to ITO. They have developed a new group of materials called correlated metals that display conductivity as well as high optical transparency. Examples of such correlated metals are calcium vanadate and strontium vanadate. Cheaper than transparent ceramics, these correlated metals have the potential to drive down the high price of touchscreen technology.

Original Post Rising Cost of Transparent Ceramics Leads to Development of Suitable Alternatives source Twease
          The Most Innovative Medical Technologies of 2015        
A look at this past year in terms of medical technologies affirms the notion that these are truly revolutionary times. Fascinating and exciting technologies are being developed and introduced at a regular basis by universities, small and large companies, and several independent groups. Scientists, researchers, and engineers are devising innovative solutions to medical problems that have been around for ages.  Here’s a quick recap of the inspiring medical capabilities of 2015. Nanomedicine made remarkable progress in 2015 by not only addressing the main challenge that is cancer, but also tackled many other difficult conditions. Researchers at the University of Massachusetts’ New England Center for Stroke Research and Harvard’s Wyss Institute combined pressure activated nanoparticles with a narrow stent to unblock vessels in the brain and avoid ischemic strokes.  At-a-distance, hands-free ultrasound technology in a pair of glasses became a reality. The Eyes-On device by Evena Medical uses Epson’s Moverio technology to project and display both infrared light and ultrasound waves to visualize the deeper and peripheral vasculature for procedures.  The XStat Rapid Hemostasis System was originally developed to stop bleeding from gunshot wounds at battlefields. This year, however, the FDA approved it for civilian use. The syringe is filled with tablets that are made of some kind of absorbent material and this syringe is inserted into the wound. The sponge tablets swell as soon as they come in contact with blood, fill up the space of the wound, and prevent additional bleeding.  Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles – with the help of NeuroRecovery Technologies – combined non-invasive spinal cord stimulation with a powered exoskeleton to allow a paralyzed man to actually walk again.  Children born with a complete heart block were given a ray of hope with fetal pacemakers. A team of researchers from the University of Southern California and the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles built the pacemaker that can be placed in utero.

Original Post The Most Innovative Medical Technologies of 2015 source Twease
          New Research on Laser Promising Faster Data Transmission        
Scientists around the world for years have been researching on ways to boost data transmission rate. In the past decade, this technology has progressed by leaps and bounds. At present, it is possible to transfer GBs of files in just a few minutes or less. However, there is still ongoing research that is aiming to take this data transmission a notch higher. This technology involves using laser. Laser have been in use since the 1960s. But, many people are unaware about their capability to transfer data just as efficiently as the fiber optic technology or even Wi-Fi. A group of scientists at the Brno University of Technology based in the Czech Republic are working on a project that aims to make laser communication more affordable and dependable. According to the Professor Wilfert, they are talking about last mile, this is the last mile technology. In order to transmit data files over the last mile, mostly fiber optic links are used. Nevertheless, in some cases these links would not work and laser communication can help. Beaming data using laser offers a wide range of benefits. Unlike cable communication or Wi-Fi, laser is virtually impossible to hack into and it makes it extremely secure for government or military use. It also provides similar bit rates to fiber optic cables and unlike Wi-Fi does not need special licensing. In this project, the laser used falls in the infrared spectrum and are not harmful to the eyes or animals or birds. Nonetheless, there are certain challenges the scientists involved in this project are facing. An assistant professor, Lucie Hudcova at the Department of Radio Electronics said that when there is some obstruction in the way of a beam one can see that the signal is lost. The signal tends to be renewed after the removal of obstruction

Original Post New Research on Laser Promising Faster Data Transmission source Twease
          Stanford Engineers Develop a Cool Way to Boost Efficiency of Solar Cells        
The global solar industry is growing rapidly. This rapid expansion of the global solar industry is driving innovation. Independent researchers and organizations around the world in the industry are focused on inventing tools and techniques that will drive the efficiency of the solar power technology. At present, the trend is to drive the efficiency of solar panels has become intense and companies have come up with several ways to boost the efficiency. Many firms have come up with solar panel designs that are inspired from the wings of a butterfly or inspired from the Japanese art of origami. On the other hand, there are other firms that have come up with innovations such as integrated roof, curtain, and window PVs. Then there are some other organizations that are intensely involved in developing coatings and films that fuel the efficiency of solar panels. A group of engineers at Stanford have come up with a coating that helps to boost the efficiency of solar cells in a unique way. Heating of solar panels affects the efficiency of solar panels. The more the solar panels get heated, the lower is their efficiency. However, this invention from Stanford engineers improves the efficiency of solar panels as this coating shuns away the heat created by a solar cell under the sun’s light and cools it down in a way allowing the cells to convert more photons in electricity. This solution is based on thin, patterned material of silica that is laid on top of conventional solar cell. The coating is transparent and captures and emits back the thermal radiation/heat from the infrared rays. This work is by Shanhui Fan and his associate Aaswath Raman. Fan is a professor of electrical engineering based at Standford. The details of this study are available in the issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Original Post Stanford Engineers Develop a Cool Way to Boost Efficiency of Solar Cells source Twease
          Is the universe made of fields or particles?        

A few ancient Greek philosophers seriously considered this question and concluded that everything is made of tiny particles moving in empty space. The key 17th-century scientist Isaac Newton agreed, but a century later, Thomas Young's experiments convinced him and others that light, at least, was a wave, and Michael Faraday and James Maxwell showed that light and other radiations such as infrared and radio are waves in a universal "electromagnetic field."

The post Is the universe made of fields or particles? appeared first on OUPblog.


          New Transparent Material can Work as a Solar Power Generator        
A team of scientists at Michigan State University declared this week the creation of a luminescent transparent solar concentrator which has the potential to turn windows and cell phone screens into solar-power generating equipment. This technology can revolutionize the way we use solar power. It cans enable entire skyscrapers one day to generate solar power without obstructing light or the view. This new material works by absorbing light from the invisible spectrum which is ultraviolet and near infrared. After absorbing the light it re-emits it in the infrared. This infrared light can be channeled to the edge of the transparent surface, where thin strips of photovoltaic cells can generate the necessary power. Since, infrared and ultraviolet are not visible to us; the new material remains transparent even during concentrating sunlight. Previously, the solar concentrators developed didn’t emit light in the invisible spectrum, which resulted in a stained-glass like effect. According to a lead lab researcher, nobody wants to sit behind colored glass, comparing such an experience to working in a disco. However, this new technology looks promising and needs to be further developed to make it more efficient. Researchers stated that the solar conversion efficiency is approximately one percent, which can be increased to five percent. The researchers noted that the highest efficiency conversion achieved using a luminescent non-transparent solar concentrator amounts to seven percent. Earlier this year, there were rumors that Apple’s iPhone 6 will come equipped with a different type of solar screen. However, a Forbes contributor stated that this technology is not quite ready yet.

Original Post New Transparent Material can Work as a Solar Power Generator source Twease
          AVEW Holdings Inc. Announces Dealership Agreement With High Tech Clearlight Infrared Saunas         
AVEW Holdings Inc. (OTC PINK: AVEW) today announced a dealership agreement with Clearlight Infrared Saunas, http://www.infraredsauna.com. Clearlight Saunas is a fourteen (14) year old California based sauna manufacturer known for Infrared technology with many health benefits over traditional saunas.

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          BLM finalizes rule to curb methane pollution. We must fight for it under the new administration!        
The Bureau of Land Management has finalized a rule to cut natural gas waste and methane pollution from oil and gas operations on public lands.

A new federal rule seeks to curb significant waste and benefit our nation by reducing the output of one of the largest contributors to global warming—methane gas. 

The new rule, released by the BLM on Nov. 15, aims to reduce natural gas waste and its associated methane pollution from all oil and gas operations on lands the BLM leases to oil and gas companies for drilling.

If implemented correctly, over several years the BLM rule is expected to reduce the waste of natural gas from federal oil and gas operations by more than 40 percent.

Will the rule last under Trump?

This is a major victory in the fight against climate change, but like other Obama administration orders and priorities, we expect it may come under attack in the Trump administration.

It will be difficult, but not impossible, for the next administration and Congress to undo the progress made on methane pollution. This rule has broad support across the political spectrum because of its immense economic benefits, not to mention preventing natural gas waste is a bipartisan concern. It is up to us and all Americans to ensure that all future presidents and congresses understand stopping natural gas waste and methane pollution is a promise that needs to be kept.

The Wilderness Society has advocated for this new rule through its years in making, and we will fight for it under the new Trump administration. It will improve outdated, decades-old BLM regulations for oil and gas production on public lands by requiring oil and gas producers to adopt current technology and practices that will reduce waste. Other benefits are limiting climate emissions and air pollution that is harmful to human health.

Natural gas wells in the Roan Plateau (Colorado) are sources of methane pollution that need to be better regulated. Photo: Ecoflight, flickr

Rule will help slow global warming

Almost 21 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, including methane, can be traced to oil, gas and coal extracted from federal lands. In fact, the oil and gas industry is estimated to be the highest largest source of methane emissions in the United States.

The BLM rule would help move us toward agreements to cut U.S. methane emissions by 40 to 45 percent by 2025, building on 2015 U.S. commitments in Paris to reduce emissions and slow global warming, which were finalized in early November.

Importantly, this rule applies to all oil and gas wells on public lands—those already in operation, as well as new wells. This is crucial, since it is estimated that nearly 90 percent of methane emissions in 2018 will come from sources that existed in 2011.

Provisions of the rule:

  1. Limit wasteful venting and flaring of natural gas. Venting natural gas directly into the atmosphere is one of the worst ways to add to climate emissions, yet the practice is widely accepted by oil and gas companies for disposing of uneconomical gas. That’s because many companies see it as a short-term advantage to vent gas straight from a well, instead of capturing it for sale later. Over 90 percent of natural gas is made up of methane, and methane is a greenhouse gas 84 times more harmful to our climate than carbon dioxide. The rule seeks to limit this polluting practice—except for in emergencies—and reduce the amount of natural gas burned off through flaring, aiming to halve the amount of methane vented and flared from federal oil and gas infrastructure compared to 2013 rates.
  2. Stop preventable leaks. Through the rule, operators of oil and gas wells on BLM lands must inspect wells and infrastructure for leaks and repair faulty equipment as the rule is implemented over the course of a few years. This is a reasonable provision, given that affordable technology like infrared cameras makes it easier for operators to more quickly and easily identify leaks, also helping to stop what could be a growing problem for methane emissions.
  3. Minimize natural gas waste. The industry must submit a feasible plan to capture excess or unwanted natural gas before a permit to drill is issued. Between 2009 and 2014, it’s estimated that enough natural gas was wasted through venting, flaring and leaks to supply 5.1 million homes—about the size of Denver—for a year.
  4. Improve royalty rates to give taxpayers a fair share. The rule clarifies how royalty rates will be applied to ensure taxpayers get a fair share on energy development on land they own. In the past, the rate was set at 12.5 percent of the total revenue generated from the sale of federal oil and gas, where it has remained for many years. The rule reinforces BLM’s authority to raise the rate as the market and prices changes.

This rule comes at a time when we need to be more accountable for pollution on our public lands—pollution that we recently reported threatens tens of thousands of people in five western states with high drilling activity.

Pollution from natural gas infrastructure threatens those living nearby in Douglas, Wyoming. Photo: Kris Mogen, WORC

Let's continue fighting climate change

Fighting climate change often feels like an uphill battle, but this rule provides steps to curb methane emissions that are a big contributor to global warming. As we move to a new administration, we will continue will work to ensure that these regulations to curb harmful climate emissions are fully implemented. It will be incumbent on the new Department of the Interior to continue to move forward and with important reforms of energy development, like oil and gas, on our shared public lands, and The Wilderness Society will be leading the charge to ensure that progress continues.

Oil and gas wells on public lands spew methane pollution into our atmosphere. 

WildEarth Guardians, flickr.

          Eye-Vac Home Touchless Vacuum – Just $99.00! It’s a WOW Product!!!        

HOW HAVE I NEVER SEEN THIS BEFORE!?!?! I know some of you are going to be just as wowed as I am. I need this vacuum in my life! I can’t even begin to think about what a game changer this is going to be in my house! It is always on and always ready with infrared sensors that activate Eye Vac automatically and it automatically turns off when the debris has been vacuumed into the bag-less canister! How about this deal from Amazon?   Get on over to Amazon and get the Eye-Vac Home Touchless Vacuum for just $99.00! This item will ship free for all Amazon Prime members. Or, regular members can score free shipping by adding $25 or more worth of eligible items to your cart. You can get a 30-day free trial of Amazon Prime here.

The post Eye-Vac Home Touchless Vacuum – Just $99.00! It’s a WOW Product!!! appeared first on Pinching Your Pennies.

          testo 880 ir infrared thermal imaging camera        
          testo 880 ir infrared thermal imaging camera        
          testo 890 - 885 thermal imager infrared camera        
          Testo 882 Infrared Photographic camera         
          Infrared Camere Filmed Hot Sex Scenes        
Watch Infrared Camere Filmed Hot Sex Scenes at XXXPorn.rs - best free online XXXPorn videos for you to enjoy.
          Win Motorola Focus 85 HD Wi-Fi video monitoring cameras (RRP £89.99)        
Motorola Focus 85 HD Wi-Fi video monitoring camera

The term ‘Connected Home’ has become synonymous with a lot of tech products, but Motorola has taken this one step further, creating a number of products that work to create a ‘Connected World’ Not only are these perfect for those who are hopping on and off planes for work or heading off on their holidays, but they’re equally as useful for everyday use, and capture moments that you would otherwise miss.  

Motorola’s innovative new Focus 85 HD Wi-Fi video monitoring camera helps people stay connected to their favourite people, pets and places from anywhere at any time, perfect if you have an elderly loved one that you want to keep an eye on, but still want to retain their independence.This hi-tech new addition to the Motorola line up boasts a range of features to make sure you never miss any of the action.

Key Features:

  • Monitor from your smartphone, tablet or computer
  • Wi-Fi connectivity
  • Remote pan, tilt and zoom, allowing for a 300 degree view of the room
  • Two-way communication
  • Infrared night vision
  • Room temperature display
  • Motion & Sound triggered recording
  • Room temperature display and notifications
  • Image snap shot
  • Push button video recording
  • Remote HD video streaming
  • Easy installation
  • Compatible with free Hubble app on iOS and Android.
  • ­­­Safe & secure monitoring
Competition closing date

Sunday, 21 February 2016 - 11:59pm

Competition prize

To win 1 of 3 Motorola Focus 85 HD Wi-Fi video monitoring cameras (RRP £89.99); simply answer the question below:-


Beth Crunden, Oksana Fitzgerald and Tony Houghton

          Liposukcja kawitacyjna z zabiegiem Infrared: 12 zabiegów za 299,99 zł i więcej opcji w instytucie Fantastic Body        
          LG 7.3 Cu. Ft. Electric Double Oven Range w/ ProBake™ Convection, EasyClean® Express & Infrared Grill System (LDE4415ST)        


Sale $1,549.99

          Liposukcja kawitacyjna z zabiegiem Infrared: 12 zabiegów za 299,99 zł i więcej opcji w instytucie Fantastic Body        
           Near-infrared ink differentiation in medieval manuscripts         
Psarrou, Alexandra, Licata, Aaron, Kokla, Vassiliki and Tselikas, Agamemnon (2011) Near-infrared ink differentiation in medieval manuscripts. International Journal of Computer Vision , 94 (1). pp. 136-151. ISSN 0920-5691
          1T-C2-100 One Task C2-100 Down Converter        
1T-C2-100 One Task C2-100 Down Converter

1T-C2-100 One Task C2-100 Down Converter

1T-C2-100 Down Converter is based on TV One’s exclusive CORIO2™ technology and provides high quality scan conversion from Computer or HDTV signals to standard video formats in a compact package. It handles any computer resolution up to 2048x2048 at any vertical refresh rate and all HDTV resolutions up to 1080p. In order to deal with PC & Mac and most Computer Workstation signals & a wide variety of computer signal formats can be accommodated. Video outputs are switchable between NTSC and PAL and are simultaneously provided in Composite and S-Video. A PC loop-thru is also provided.Our exclusive AutoSet® feature takes the hassle out of setup by automatically sizing and positioning the computer image to fit exactly on the video screen. All settings are stored in non-volatile memory and are retained even when power is switched off. All the functions can be controlled via the front panel Push Buttons & an Infrared Control Remote Unit or via an RS-232 connection. A Windows Control Panel is provided and most third party control systems interface directly with the entire C2 range of products. An On-Screen Display is available to assist in setup.Variable Zoom to 10X allows you to enlarge any part of the computer screen to fill the entire video screen and position controls allow you to move around to any area desired. Variable Shrink to as little as 10% allows fitting the image onto most displays. The advanced Digital Flicker Elimination circuitry and high sampling rate insures crisp & clear images & while full bandwidth chroma sampling insures faithfully reproduced & high resolution colors. The 1T-C2-100 is housed in a compact desktop case and a single/dual rackmount kit is available as an option.

          1T-C2-150 One Task C2-150 Down Converter inc Overlay        
1T-C2-150 One Task C2-150 Down Converter inc Overlay

1T-C2-150 One Task C2-150 Down Converter inc Overlay

1T-C2-150 Down Converter is based on TV One’s exclusive CORIO2™ technology and provides high quality scan conversion from Computer or HDTV signals to standard video formats in a compact package. It handles any computer resolution up to 2048x2048 at any vertical refresh rate and all HDTV resolutions up to 1080p. In order to deal with PC & Mac and most Computer Workstation signals & a wide variety of computer signal formats can be accommodated. Video outputs are switchable between NTSC and PAL and are simultaneously provided in Composite and S-Video. A PC loop-thru is also provided.Our exclusive AutoSet® feature takes the hassle out of setup by automatically sizing and positioning the computer image to fit exactly on the video screen. All settings are stored in non-volatile memory and are retained even when power is switched off. All the functions can be controlled via the front panel Push Buttons & an Infrared Control Remote Unit or via an RS-232 connection. A Windows Control Panel is provided and most third party control systems interface directly with the entire C2 range of products. An On-Screen Display is available to assist in setup.Variable Zoom to 10X allows you to enlarge any part of the computer screen to fill the entire video screen and position controls allow you to move around to any area desired. Variable Shrink to as little as 10% allows fitting the image onto most displays. The advanced Digital Flicker Elimination circuitry and high sampling rate insures crisp & clear images & while full bandwidth chroma sampling insures faithfully reproduced & high resolution colors. The 1T-C2-100 is housed in a compact desktop case and a single/dual rackmount kit is available as an option.1T-C2-150 Down Converter PLUS has all the functions and features of the 1T-C2-100 and adds a wide variety of additional capabilities & such as Genlock & Chromakey and Lumakey. The Key Mode allows computer graphics to be keyed over an external Composite or S-Video signal. The keyed image may be faded in and out. Due to the 4:4:4 sampling format & precise keying at the pixel level can be achieved. The Mix Mode permits glitch-free mixing between the computer image and external video. The PIP Mode allowsthe computer input to be inset in a window over either of the video inputs.The Genlock feature insures precise synchronization of the incoming signals by providing a wide Subcarrier lock range with Subcarrier phase adjustment.

          1T-C2-400 One Task PC/HD Scaler        
1T-C2-400 One Task PC/HD Scaler

1T-C2-400 One Task PC/HD Scaler

1T-C2-400 PC/HD Scaler is based on TV One’s exclusive CORIO2™ technology and provides bidirectional & high quality conversion between Computer and HDTV signals in a compact package. Both input and output support any computer resolution up to 2048x2048 at any vertical refresh rate and all HDTV resolutions up to 1080p. Cross conversion within formats is also supported. The wide variety of computer signal formats available support PC & Mac and Workstation formats as well as analog HDTV display devices.All the functions can be controlled via the front panel Push Buttons & an Infrared Control Remote Unit or via an RS-232 connection. A Windows Control Panel is provided and most third party control systems interface directly with the entire C2 range of products. An On- Screen Display is available to assist in setup. Variable Zoom to 10X allows you to enlarge any part of the video image to fill the entire computer screen. The full bandwidth chroma sampling insures faithfully reproduced & high resolution colors.

          1T-C2-750 One Task Dual PIP DVI-I Scaler        
1T-C2-750 One Task Dual PIP DVI-I Scaler

1T-C2-750 One Task Dual PIP DVI-I Scaler

1T-C2-750 Dual-PIP DVI-I Scaler is based on TV One’s exclusive CORIO®2 technology and has two high quality graphic scalers capable of working at full DVI video rates. The two scalers can be used to convert digital DVI-D or analog DVI-A signals to another format & with full CORIO®2 picture-in-picture flexibility.DVI-D resolutions up to 1920x1200@60Hz and 1080p are supported along with analog DVI-A (or HD15 via optional adaptor) resolutions up to 2048x2048 at virtually any refresh rate. A wide variety of computer signal formats are available to support PC & Mac and Workstation formats.The 1T-C2-750 can also be used as a Seamless Switcher device & enabling the user to toggle between the two DVI inputs with instantaneous cuts. Two Still Image Stores are built into the unit which can store ten graphic images each to be used in place of one or both of the DVI-I inputs to add custom logos or backgrounds.All settings are stored in non-volatile memory and are retained even when power is switched off. Ten user defined presets (two controlled from the front panel) are also available to customize settings for various applications. An On-Screen Display is available to assist in setup. Functions can be controlled via the front panel Push Buttons & Infrared or RS-232. Windows Control Panel software is provided and most third party control systems interface directly with the entire C2 range of products. The unit is housed in a desktop case and an optional rack mount kit holds one or two units.Variable Zoom to 10X allows you to enlarge any part of the graphic image to fill the entire computer screen and position controls allow you to move around to any area desired. Variable Shrink to as little as 10% allows fitting multiple images next to each other & with full positional controls.Advanced Features include Genlock & Chromakey & Lumakey & Mixing and Dual PIP. The Key Mode allows computer graphics to be keyed over each other (one input over another). The keyed image may be faded in and out. Due to the 4:4:4 sampling format & precise keying at the pixel level can be achieved. The PIP mode allows either input to be inset into a window over the other input. Both inputs can be placed side by side in a Dual PIP configuration.

          1T-C2-760 One Task Single PIP DVI-I Scaler with Key & Mix & Seamless Switching        
1T-C2-760 One Task Single PIP DVI-I Scaler with Key & Mix & Seamless Switching

1T-C2-760 One Task Single PIP DVI-I Scaler with Key & Mix & Seamless Switching

1T-C2-760 DVI Scaler is based on TV One’s exclusive CORIO®2 technology and has a single Enhanced-Bandwidth high quality graphic scaler capable of working at full DVI video rates. The scaler can be used to convert digital DVI-D or analog DVI-A signals to another format & with full picture-in-picture flexibility.DVI-D resolutions up to 1080p & 1920x1200@60Hz and 2880x900@60Hz are supported along with analog DVI-A (or HD15 via optional adaptor) resolutions up to 2048x2048 at virtually any refresh rate. A wide variety of computer signal formats are available to support PC & Mac and Workstation formats.Enhanced-bandwidth processing ensure that both SD (525i/625i) and HD (1080i) YPbPr inputs are de-interlaced using pixel-based motion compensation at full resolution & and also features motion adaptive noise reduction. 3:2 pull-down is also included for SD/HD movie sources. Temporal interpolation is present to greatly improve frame-rate conversion.The unit can also be used as a Seamless Switcher device & enabling the user to toggle between the two DVI inputs with cuts or other transitions. A Still Image Store is built into the unit which can store ten graphic images to be used by the scaler to add custom logos or masks.Edge-blending is fully supported & complete with variable blend widths & gamma correction & and projector black-level adjustments. Two units can thus be used to create a large wide-screen display using two matched projectors.All settings are stored in non-volatile memory and are retained even when power is switched off. Ten user defined presets (two controlled from the front panel) are also available to customize settings for various applications. An On-Screen Display is available to assist in setup. Functions can be controlled via the front panel Push Buttons & Infrared or RS-232. Windows Control Panel software is provided and most third party control systems interface directly with the entire C2 range of products. The unit is housed in a desktop case and an optional rack mount kit holds one or two units.Variable Zoom to 10X and Variable Shrink to as little as 10% gives full control over the scaled window. Multiple units can be cascaded to add additional windows. A border may also be placed around the scaled window & of variable color & size & offset and transparency.Advanced Features include Genlock & Chromakey & Lumakey and Mixing. The Key Mode allows computer graphics to be keyed over each other (one scaled input over or behind a non-scaled input). The images may be faded in and out. Due to the 4:4:4 sampling format & precise keying at the pixel level can be achieved. The PIP mode allows either input to be inset into a window over the other input.

          1T-VS-558 One Task PC/HD DVI Video Scaler        
1T-VS-558 One Task PC/HD DVI Video Scaler

1T-VS-558 One Task PC/HD DVI Video Scaler

1T-VS-558 Video Scaler is a high bandwidth & professional Cross Converter for Analog and DVI formats. The unit has separate Analog inputs and outputs via HD-15 and DVI-I connectors respectively. It accommodates resolutions up to WUXGA and 1080p and allows conversion between them as well as between digital and analog. The unit also accepts 480i or 576i YUV interlaced analog component video & such as from a DVD Player for up-conversion.Advanced features & such as 3-D Motion Adaptive De-Interlacing and 3-D Noise Reduction & provide extremely high quality signal conversion. An OSD (On Screen Display) menu system makes the 1T-VS-558 easy to set up and control via front panel joystick or by the Infrared Remote Control. An Auto Adjust button allows for the automatic size and position of the image. DVI Inputs and Outputs are fully HDCP Compliant.The unit requires external 5VDC and an AC Adapter is provided. It has a locking DC connector for added security. An optional RM-220 Rackmount kit is available that can house either one or two units.

          1T-VS-658 One Task HDMI Up Converter with Stereo Audio        
1T-VS-658 One Task HDMI Up Converter with Stereo Audio

1T-VS-658 One Task HDMI Up Converter with Stereo Audio

1T-VS-658 Video Scaler is a professional Up and Cross Converter with an HDMI output. Fully scaleable video inputs include HDMI & DVI (via the HDMI connector) & Analog RGB via an HD-15 & Analog YPbPr or 480i/576i YUV Component via three RCA & YC and Composite Video. It handles I/O Resolutions up to 1080p and WUXGA. Both digital and analog audio processing is supported and audio delays of up to 150ms can be introduced to insure lip sync. Five Analog Stereo and a SPDIF Coaxial Digital Audio input can be selected for embedding into the HDMI output. A separate Coaxial Digital Audio output is also provided.Advanced features & such as 3D Motion Adaptive De-Interlacing & 3D Noise Reduction and 8-bit triple ADC/PLL technology & combine to provide extremely high quality signal conversion. The HDMI I/O is HDCP Compliant. An OSD (On Screen Display) menu makes the 1T-VS-658 easy to set up. Control is via front panel joystick and buttons & Infrared Remote or RS-232 interface.

          Jean Chiar – studying the origins of everything        

jean chiarNot everyone is aware that the space between the stars isn’t exactly empty. These vast interstellar tracts are filled with a fog of ice and dust particles that is scarcely perceptible. Understanding how this thin particle soup affects the formation of stars and their accompanying planets is the work of astrophysicist Dr. Jean Chiar.

To study these small, dark particles, Dr. Chiar uses infrared telescopes both on the ground and in orbit (including NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope) to search for the absorption lines that are characteristic of ices, simple organic hydrocarbons, and silicates. While tiny ice-coated particles floating in space may seem like an esoteric field of study, Jean points out that it is exactly these small particles that can aggregate to form water-covered worlds such as Jupiter’s moon Europa. The main ingredient of life – water – eventually comes from the cold mists that waft between the stars.

Very briefly, describe your research projects.
I use optical telescopes equipped with infrared detectors to study molecules in space. I look at very small submicron-size particles, 1/1000 the size of a grain of sand, located in the more diffuse regions of space where stars aren’t forming. In these regions, these small mineral grains abound. They are made of materials similar to grains of sand on a beach – silicate minerals and carbon-bearing, or carbonaceous, dust particles. Deep within the denser colder regions, called “dark clouds,” stars are forming or will eventually form. The thousand-fold increase in density and extremely cold conditions in the dark clouds encourage the formation of ice coatings, known as mantles, which form on the particles. Water-ice is the most abundant of the ice molecules. Since water is equated with life, that’s when things really get interesting! Picture an M&M -- the chocolate is the mineral and the candy coating is the ice. The ratio of the ice is about right in terms of the thickness, so the mantle layers are very thin. Most of my research is based on targets outside our solar system but within our own galaxy.

Why should the general public care about your research?
My research involves learning about the building blocks, or origins, of everything! Our Earth, the Sun, the entire Solar System, and even we humans are essentially made of this minute particle “stardust.”  The process of tracking and learning how the stars and planets come into being is extremely relevant not only to our understanding of our Solar System and the entire universe, but to the advancement of science in general.


pipe nebula
The Pipe Nebula is a well-known star-formation region. The dark patches are where starlight is blocked by large amounts of dust in the dense "dark cloud." It is in these regions where we see the fingerprints of ice mantles. Ice in dark clouds is not actually in the form of cubes, but rather forms a coating around the particles. The brighter regions are where the more diffuse distribution of dust allows the starlight to shine through. No ice exists in these regions.


What tools do you use to study these ultra-small grains and determine their composition?
We use ground-based observatories located on high mountaintops and observatories in space as well as in air space, such as NASA’s SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy). The most recent space mission was NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope Mission. It’s still in orbit but its cryogen has run out so it can no longer measure spectra, but can still take images with precision that would rival a 30-meter telescope on Earth.

Once we locate a diffuse or dark cloud region, we then choose stars beyond the region. The starlight gets absorbed by the particles in front if it, which is what we’re really interested in. We point our telescope toward the region and take an absorption fingerprint or “spectrum.” We then relay the data back to computers on Earth so we can examine and analyze the chemical fingerprints of the ice and mineral molecules. 

What is the coolest thing about your project?
As our instrumentation gets more sensitive, we’re able to see deeper into these obscured and distant regions. It’s like seeing further back in time, which allows us to actually witness our Solar System’s evolutionary process. For some time now, we’ve been able to observe stars that are much more massive that our Sun forming because they are fairly bright and illuminate everything around them. Today, we can actually see into regions forming Solar-mass stars and those not yet forming a star, allowing us to look further back into the genesis of the star formation process. Imagine being able to see the birth of a star! 

Have you had any unique discoveries so far?
I’ve been fortunate in that my research has allowed me to solve some ongoing problems that scientists have been talking about for decades. It was commonly believed that the constant cycling back and forth between where stars form and where they do not turned the crunchy ice coating around the mineral grains into organic “goo” outside the star-formation regions. Through my observations, I determined the organic “goo” material is actually its own separate entity in a separate particle, similar to what is observed in the atmospheres of stars. This detail is important in terms of the study of dust grains because it more directly links the dust we observe in diffuse regions to that output from dying stars.

What first sparked your interest in science?
Neither of my parents are scientists but my mom was particularly good about taking us to museums. Even when traveling, she would find the local science museums for us to visit. The hands-on museums were fairly new when I was a kid and I found them the most interesting. I always wanted to go back, even if the exhibits were the same.

In high school, I attended an all-girls school that didn’t offer much science or math. After my second year, I switched to our public high school, which had physics and calculus. I took those courses in my junior year and really loved physics. I had an excellent teacher, and he’s the one who got me thinking that I could do this forever.

What attracted you to apply your physics background to the study of interstellar dust?
As a sophomore in college, I became involved in research right away. I asked my professor if he had some work for me and his projects involved spectroscopy. I thought, “Oh no!” because I hated chemistry and it just seemed like a lot of memorization. To my surprise, applying chemistry towards something I liked was a lot more interesting and understandable, and it turned out to be a good fit for me. My professor’s specialty was applying spectroscopy to the study of interstellar medium (the space between the stars) and I’ve been doing it ever since. I continued at Rensselaer Polytechic Institute to work on my Ph.D.

What do you currently consider your biggest challenge?
I tend to be on the quiet side so I don’t always voice my ideas to the external world. A second challenge is funding. My work relies 100% on grants. I need several grants funded annually to support my research and fund meeting attendance, equipment and so forth.

How did you come to join the SETI Institute?
I joined the Institute in 1999. I started at NASA-Ames in a Post-Doc position. When it came to an end after two years, I applied for NASA’s Long-Term Space Astrophysics grant. It was a rare bird in the grants world because the grant was for five years and paid nearly all my salary. It was the first grant I ever wrote and I was successful. I practically fell over! I knew the SETI Institute had great administrative support and the scientists covered a broad spectrum of research. I thought it would be a great fit -- and I was right!

How do you manage to balance your work and home lives?
My husband, also a scientist with the SETI Institute, and I help each other as much as possible so we can cover the various activities. I also work in the evenings after my four-year old goes to sleep. It’s difficult but doable.

jean on horse backHow do you spend your time outside of work?
My family members are all animal lovers. We have two horses; so much of my free time is spent with my daughter and the horses. I used to show my horse before my daughter was born. Now it’s mostly trail riding. That’s always been my first love outside of astronomy. We also have four cats that we’ve adopted from animal shelters. I didn’t have pets growing up so I’m now making up for all that lost time.

I also teach astronomy at San Jose City College. I started an evening lab course for them in 2005, which has been very popular. I really enjoy it, but it can be extremely challenging. My classes are comprised of mostly low-income, minority adults who are working full time, so they are pretty tired when they come to class. The students have a lab-science requirement so they take astronomy lecture and lab, thinking astronomy involves looking at pretty pictures. But it does involve more than that.

What is your philosophy of life?
Work hard toward your goals, no matter what obstacles get in your way. Even if you think you can’t do it, just be disciplined, put your mind to it, and then do your best.

What types of people do you admire?
In general, I admire the average person who is working hard to reach his or her goals, especially those who are overcoming odds, whether they be ethnic, gender, or economic stresses. I have a lot of respect for people like my students who are working really hard to balance school, family, and a full-time job. 

What is your favorite vacation destination?
Hawaii. I used to go quite often for observing. Unfortunately, most observing is now done remotely because it saves costs. Yet the Hawaiian Islands remain one of my favorite places to visit. I particularly enjoy the Big Island on the east side where there is less tourism and it’s easier to connect with the culture. After I got married and received my grant, my husband and I moved there for four months. I worked as a visiting scientist at the Joint Astronomy Center in Hilo. I became totally immersed in the Hawaiian culture. I felt so sad when it came time to leave.

What is your favorite movie and why?
I enjoyed the Spiderman movie series, starring Tobey Maguire, who, coincidentally, plays the jockey in the horseracing movie, Seabiscuit. Both are stories that involve unlikely heroes. I resonate with the great quote in the first Spiderman movie, in which Spiderman’s uncle said, “With great power comes great responsibility.” I think that can be applied to anyone. Each of us is in a position to help others less fortunate, and I like that aspect of the movie.

If you could have a month to do whatever you wanted, what would you do?
I’d like to go to a training barn where I could learn more about horses and work with young horses. I’d love the area to be in a remote area where I could ride the horses during the day and then sit out under the dark sky at night gazing at all the stars.

          Ingesting Clay-Trendy or Actually Beneficial?        

About a month ago, one of my best friends introduced me to The Springs, ...a relatively new Wellness Center in Downtown LA and now I’m completely hooked. I mean honestly-where else can you chill, eat healthy, do yoga, meditate, listen to live music AND take a $25 personal infrared sauna!?

The post Ingesting Clay-Trendy or Actually Beneficial? appeared first on Lindsay and Lace.


HTC Shift, perangkat komputasi HTC Corp generasi terakhir berbasis Windows Vista siap diluncurkan di Inggris menjelang akhir bulan ini. Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC) ini rencananya akan didistribusikan via agen retail European Expansys pada 19 Februari mendatang.

Shift dibandrol dengan kisaran harga sekitar 1.185 euro atau USD1.720. Beberapa kalangan menilai harga ini terlampau tinggi, bahkan apabila mau dihitung, harganya mencapai empat kali lipat harga notebook Asus Eee. Namun, untuk sebuah mobile device yang disupport teknologi 3G built-in tercanggih, harga ini masih terbilang pantas untuk UMPC yang diluncurkan November tahun lalu ini.

HTC Shift, yang beberapa hari lalu baru saja resmi diluncurkan di Senayan Trade Center Jakarta, mempunyai onboard tri-band UMTS/HSDPA dan quad-band GSM/GPRS/EDGE untuk mensupport konektivitas data dengan super cepat hingga 3,6MB per detik.

Dengan layar sentuh berukuran 7inci slide-and-tilt, HTC Shift memperlihatkan ekslusivitasnya. Dia juga dilengkapi dengan keyboard QWERTY yang tersembunyi, OS Windows Vista Business Edition, memori DDR 2 sebesar 1GB, dan hard drive 30GB, untuk membuat UMPC ini terlihat lebih sempurna dibanding UMPC lain segenerasinya

Specifications :

General Network HSDPA / GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
Size Dimensions 190 x 135 x 30 mm
Display Type TFT touchscreen, 16M colors
Size 800 x 480 pixels (Wide-VGA), 7 inches
- QWERTY keyboard
- Handwriting recognition
Ringtones Type Polyphonic, MP3
Customization Download
Vibration Yes
- Dual speakers
Memory Phonebook In shared memory
Call records Yes
Card slot miniSD
- 1 GB RAM
- 30 GB HDD drive
- 1.2 GHz VIA CPU
Data GPRS Yes
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g
Bluetooth Yes, v2.0
Infrared port No
USB Yes, miniUSB
Features OS Microsoft Vista Business OS
Messaging SMS, MMS, Email, Instant Messaging
Browser WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML (PocketIE)
Games Yes
Camera 1.2 MP videocall camera
- Java MIDP 2.0
- Voice memo
- Windows media player 11
- Video/audio album
- File manager
- Built-in handsfree
- Fingerprint recognition
Battery Standard battery, Li-Ion

          PPTV King 7S Smartphone 3D 2K Screen 4G LTE 6.0 Inch IPS Helio X10 Octa Core Android 5.1OS        

Model:PPTV KING 7s
Android 5.1 System
Support HiFi
Dual SIM: Micro SIM + NANO SIM / TF Card (The SIM Slot Can Be Used in Combination with a NANO SIM Card or a TF Card)
Band: GSM 850/900/1800/1900MHz, WCDMA 850/900/1900/2100MHz, FDD-LTE B1/B3/B7, Support 2G & 3G & 4G LTE Network
Support Naked eye 3D & Infrared remote control
Service Provide Unlocked
Style Bar
Color Gold
Shell Material Metal
CPU Helio X10 MTK6795 2.0GHz Octa Core
Display Size 6.0 Inch
6.0 Inch 2K 2.5D IPS Screen, 2560*1440 Pixel
3GB RAM + 32GB ROM, Support 128GB TF Card Expansion
Support Format
LED Notification -
FM Radio No
Earphone Port 3.5mm
Card Extend Not support
Data Transfer & Connectivity
Data transfer USB/Bluetooth
Mobile internet WAP/WiFi
13 MP PDAF Back Camera + 8 MP Front Camera

Language English, Simplified Chinese/Traditional Chinese
Phonebook 500
Message SMS/MMS
Input Handwrite/Keypad
GPS Yes, built in, support GPS, GLONASS
WIFI Yes, 802.11 b/g/n
Bluetooth Yes, BT4.2
Gravity Sensor Yes
Multi-Touch Yes
Dimensions 158.4 × 82.7 × 8.65mm
Net Weight(Including battery) 183.5g
Standby Time About 2~3 days
Other Feature 4G, GPS, FM, Bluetooth, Ebook, Email, Messaging, wallpapers,
calendar, calculator, clock, camera, Play Store, Fingerprint, etc.
1 x 3610mAh Battery
1 x Data Cable
1 x Charger
1 x User Manual

Price: $199.99 Special Price: $139.99

          My New Favorite Website: Weatherspark        
Having run the astronomy labs at Elon for many years, I have spent many hours checking many weather sites, trying to predict whether the skies will be cloudy. I would click back and forth between weather.com, accuweather.com, and wunderground.com to access different data slices and maps. Today, I got a glimpse into the future of weather sites with weatherspark.com.  Oh my god! What middle-school girls feel for Justin Bieber, I feel for WeatherSpark! If Edward Tufte and Al Roker had a love child, this would be it.

Ok...putting aside my "shiny new toy" feelings for this site, let me give two critical comments.

POSITIVE: This is the first site I've seen that clearly illustrates the difference between actual weather, predicted weather, and climate. I will certainly have students look at it in class when I start to talk climate change and/or scientific uncertainty.

NEGATIVE: The WeatherSpark map is missing two data products I rely on: infrared satellite data (for tracking clouds that aren't raining) and a future button for the map (so I don't have to use a ruler and estimate when the clouds will show up myself).
          Veyron Multi Sensor Thermal Imaging/Ranging System        

Veyron hand held Multi Sensor advanced GeoRanging Thermal Infrared Imaging System The Veyron is the worlds most compact image stabilized multi sensor imaging system that solves a multitude of surveillance challenges. ...

The post Veyron Multi Sensor Thermal Imaging/Ranging System appeared first on SPI Corp.

          LWIR Infrared Cameras        
The optris PI 450 and PI 640 infrared cameras can now also be calibrated for a temperature measurement range of up to 1500 °C. This allows the two high-resolution cameras to be integrated into applications which far exceed the previous threshold of 900 °C. The camera models feature a dynamic range from 200 °C to 1500 °C. The two high-resolution models with 382 x 288 and 640 x 480 pixels can now...
          Comment on Smokies Infrared, Year ONE, Epilogue by Tony Sweet        
Thanks a lot, Ron. November will be here before we know it! See you then.
          Comment on Smokies Infrared, Year ONE, Epilogue by BLANCHARD RON        
Awesome images-great inspiration-hope to join you for IR in 2018! CU in Myrtle Beach in Nov.!
          Webinar: Cutting Costs with the Help of Infrared Imaging        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

August 15, 2017 | 12:00 PM ET Online — Infrared imaging is a “hot” topic in machine vision and imaging that spans a wide variety of applications and industries. This … Continue reading

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          FLIR Introduces New Series of Fixed Thermal Infrared Security Cameras        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

The FLIR FB-Series O. Online  —  FLIR Systems has introduced a new series of fixed thermal infrared security cameras, the FLIR FB-Series O. Designed for short to mid-range perimeter protection, … Continue reading

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          Upcoming Infrared Thermography Training Classes        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

USA & Canada By The Snell Group Online  —  Expand your IR & EMT horizons with The Snell Group’s top notch live infrared training and webinar courses. If you are … Continue reading

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          Landsat Views the Evolution of Antarctica’s Huge Iceberg in The Infrared        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Delaware-sized Iceberg  Hiving Pieces Online — As Antarctica remains shrouded in darkness during the Southern Hemisphere winter, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on Landsat 8 captured a new snap of … Continue reading

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          Announcing The World’s 1st MegaPixel SW Infrared Camera        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

With No ITAR Export Restrictions MONMOUTH JUNCTION, NJ, USA. – Princeton Infrared Technologies, Inc. (PIRT) announces the world’s first and only MegaPixel (MP) shortwave-infrared (SWIR) camera with no ITAR export … Continue reading

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          Inspecting Solar Panels with UAVs        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

New video to show you featuring a FLIR thermal imager mounted on a UAV inspecting solar panels for damage.

This application of infrared thermography has come a long way and now, with a new aerial perspective, is an extremely efficient tool for maintenance and quality assurance inspections of solar systems. In contrast to time consuming traditional methods, large solar installations can now be inspected quickly from the right distance and view point.

Even with these advancements in the technology, however, a thermal imager still does not have the ability to detect problems on its own – you still need a qualified operator with the right knowledge and skills to use it properly.

That’s where ITC can help with training and certification! Check out our website for a complete list of course locations and dates now available through September 2016.

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          Bespoke Infrared Optics for Demanding Applications        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Innovative, high performance IR OEM lenses Chesham, UK  —  Resolve Optics is a leading designer and supplier of bespoke fixed focus and zoom lenses as well as beam splitters that operate in the infrared … Continue reading

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          Thermal Imaging Speeds Up Repair of Printed Circuit Boards        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

FLIR’s New ETS320 Thermal Infrared Imager Meer. Belgium. —  FLIR Systems has published an application note that describes how their ETS320 thermal infrared imaging camera is being used by ISOMEDIA … Continue reading

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          What’s New in Infrared Sensing & Imaging Hardware & Software?        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Vendors Presentations and Reception XIV @ SPIE DCS via ThermoSense XL Online. —  This session is now in its 14th year and has become very popular with attendees at SPIE’s … Continue reading

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          CPF: ThermoSense XL Thermal Infrared Applications Conference        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Abstracts due 9 October 2017 Call for Papers ThermoSense XL:  The Thermosense conference promotes worldwide exchange of information about research, uses and applications of infrared (IR) imaging technology. This includes … Continue reading

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          High Speed Infrared Detectors        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Aid Ballistic Testing Meer, Belgium. — FLIR Systems has published a technical article that discusses the benefits of next-generation ROIC and detector material technologies and how they are pushing the … Continue reading

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          New Electrical Infrared Thermography Service Provider        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Preventive maintenance in Fort Lauderdale, FL area Cooper City, FL, USA — (ReleaseWire) — — JPEG Inc. announces the service of electrical infrared thermography which is thermal analysis tool that … Continue reading

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          CFP for Infrared Conference IR/INFO 2018        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Deadline for abstract submissions is 31 July 2017 Online. — Infraspection Institute are pleased to announce that their annual Advanced Training Conference, Technical Symposium and Technology Expo on infrared thermography, … Continue reading

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          HGH Infrared Systems to Present at IFSEC International 2017        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Exhibiting compact solution for surveillance in London London, United Kingdom (PRWEB) — HGH Infrared Systems will be exhibiting at IFSEC International 2017 this week, presenting their latest and smallest sensor … Continue reading

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          Sofradir designs its first supersize near infrared detector        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

ALFA, a 2048x 2048 15?m pixel pitch for space observation programs Palaiseau, near Paris, France – Sofradir has announces it is developing its first very large format (2048×2048) 15?m-pitch infrared … Continue reading

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          NEW CompactIR 400Thermal Infrared Inspection Camera from InfraTec        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

The First of its Kind Dresden, Germany  —  The latest handheld thermographic camera from InfraTec extends the segment of the entry level cameras by a unique detector format Thermographic cameras … Continue reading

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          ADOT advances wrong-way detection with Thermal Infrared Cameras        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Arizona State Transportation Board approves I-17 pilot program PHOENIX, AZ, USA – A $3.7 million project to construct a first-in-the-nation thermal detection system, which will detect wrong-way vehicles and alert … Continue reading

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          NEW integrated camera, capable of imaging visible & infrared simultaneously        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

ICFO develops the first graphene-quantum dot based CMOS integrated camera Online — This obstacle has now been overcome. ICFO researchers have shown for the first time the monolithic integration of … Continue reading

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          NEW Fluke 64 MAX Infrared Thermometer        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Multifunction IR Thermometer 20:1 D:S Online. —  The Fluke 64 MAX infrared thermometer works when you can’t with unattended monitoring and a 99 data point memory. Its flashlight, 30 hour … Continue reading

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          ImageIRÆ Thermal Infrared Cameras Increased Pixel Count        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

InfraTec MicroScan Yields 2,560 x 2,048 Resolution Dresden, Germany. — Concepts for increasing the geometrical resolution of thermographic cameras have belonged to the state of the art of technology for … Continue reading

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          Infrared Cyclope ADS B plugin for Airports        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Online. — Cyclope’s ADS-B plug in provides aerial target identification of a commercial airplane within the 360 degree images provided by Spynel. Watch as an airplane’s complete information is automatically … Continue reading

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          Thermal Infrared Imaging in Hummingbird Research        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Using FLIR Infrared Drone Camera Online  —  Mothering hummingbirds have an incredible ability to maintain strength with little rest, and researchers at Loyola Marymount University’s (LMU) Center for Urban Resilience … Continue reading

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          New Frontiers for Applications of Thermal Infrared Imaging Devices:        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Computational Psychopshysiology in the Neurosciences Online: A recent technical review article by Daniela Cardone * and Arcangelo Merla of the Infrared Imaging Lab, ITAB Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, Department … Continue reading

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          Hi Resolution Dual Sensor EVS System (Thermal Infrared & Visible light)        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Max-Viz Proudly announces the certification and production of the Max-Viz 2300 EVS ONLINE — Max-Viz (Enhanced Vision Systems) EVS helps pilots to see better at night, in bad weather, smog, … Continue reading

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          Webinar: How to use Infrared Technology for Gas Detection        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

FREE: 25 MAY 2017 Meer, Belgium  —  FLIR Systems, through its Infrared Training Centre (ITC), has announced a live online tutorial on 25th May 2017 that addresses the subject ‘Discover how … Continue reading

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          New metamaterials-based technology could replace infrared sensors        

From: News of Temperature & Moisture Sensors

Gold-Plated Crystals Set New Standard Online — Materials scientists and engineers have developed a sensor that is fast, sensitive and efficient enough to detect specific wavelengths of electromagnetic energy while … Continue reading

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          Jackpot! Cosmic Magnifying-Glass Effect Captures Universe's Brightest Galaxies        

Galaxies Shine with the Brilliance of up to 100 Trillion Suns

Astronomers were fascinated in the 1980s with the discovery of nearby dust-enshrouded galaxies that glowed thousands of times brighter than our Milky Way galaxy in infrared light. Dubbed ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, they were star-making factories, churning out a prodigious amount of stars every year. What wasn't initially clear was what powered these giant infrared light bulbs. Observations by the Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers confirm the source of the galaxies' light output. Many of them reside within "nests" of galaxies engaged in multiple pile-ups of three, four or even five galaxies. The dust is produced by the firestorm of star birth, which glows fiercely in infrared light.

Now Hubble is illuminating the bright galaxies' distant dust-enshrouded cousins. Boosted by natural magnifying lenses in space, Hubble has captured unique close-up views of the universe's brightest infrared galaxies. The galaxies are ablaze with runaway star formation, pumping out more than 10,000 new stars a year. This unusually rapid star birth is occurring at the peak of the universe's star-making boom more than 8 billion years ago. The star-birth frenzy creates lots of dust, which enshrouds the galaxies, making them too faint to detect in visible light. But they glow fiercely in infrared light, shining with the brilliance of 10 trillion to 100 trillion suns.

The galaxy images, magnified through a phenomenon called gravitational lensing, reveal a tangled web of misshapen objects punctuated by exotic patterns such as rings and arcs. The odd shapes are due largely to the foreground lensing galaxies' powerful gravity distorting the images of the background galaxies. Two possibilities for the star-making frenzy are galaxy collisions or gas spilling into the galaxies.

          A Lot of Galaxies Need Guarding in This NASA Hubble View        

Power of Massive Galaxy Cluster Harnessed to Probe Remote Galaxies in Early Universe
Like the quirky characters in the upcoming film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has some amazing superpowers, specifically when it comes to observing galaxies across time and space. One stunning example is galaxy cluster Abell 370, which contains a vast assortment of several hundred galaxies tied together by the mutual pull of gravity. That's a lot of galaxies to be guarding, and just in this one cluster! Photographed in a combination of visible and near-infrared light, the immense cluster is a rich mix of galaxy shapes. Entangled among the galaxies are mysterious-looking arcs of blue light. These are actually distorted images of remote galaxies behind the cluster. These far-flung galaxies are too faint for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the gravity of the cluster acts as a huge lens in space, magnifying and stretching images of background galaxies like a funhouse mirror. Abell 370 is located approximately 4 billion light-years away in the constellation Cetus, the Sea Monster. It is the last of six galaxy clusters imaged in the recently concluded Frontier Fields project — an ambitious, community-developed collaboration among NASA's Great Observatories and other telescopes that harnessed the power of massive galaxy clusters and probed the earliest stages of galaxy development.

          The 20th Anniversary of the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS Instrument        

The Versatile Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) Opens New Vistas in Astronomy
Twenty years ago, astronauts on the second servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope installed the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard Hubble. This pioneering instrument combines a camera with a spectrograph, which provides a "fingerprint" of a celestial object's temperature, chemical composition, density, and motion. STIS also reveals changes in the evolving universe and leads the way in the field of high-contrast imaging. The versatile instrument is sensitive to a wide range of wavelengths of light, from ultraviolet through the optical and into the near-infrared. From studying black holes, monster stars, and the intergalactic medium, to analyzing the atmospheres of worlds around other stars, STIS continues its epic mission to explore the universe.

          Dr. Laurent Pueyo Receives 2016 Outstanding Young Scientist Award        

The Maryland Academy of Sciences has selected Dr. Laurent Pueyo of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, as the recipient of the 2016 Outstanding Young Scientist award. He will receive the award in a ceremony on Nov. 16 at the Maryland Science Center, located in Baltimore's Inner Harbor.

Pueyo joined STScI in 2013 as an associate astronomer after spending three years as a Sagan Fellow at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. His duties at STScI include working on improving the extrasolar-planet imaging capabilities of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to launch in late 2018. The STScI astronomer was a member of the team, led by STScI's Remi Soummer, that discovered that three planets around the nearby star HR 8799 had been hiding in plain sight since 1998 in archival images taken by Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer.

          Gluttonous Star May Hold Clues to Planet Formation        

In 1936, astronomers observed signs that the young star FU Orionis had begun gobbling material from its surrounding disk of gas and dust with a sudden voraciousness. During a three-month binge, as matter turned into energy, the star became 100 times brighter, heating the disk around it to temperatures of up to 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The brightening is the most extreme event of its kind that has been confirmed around a star the size of the sun, and may have implications for how stars and planets form. The intense baking of the star's surrounding disk likely changed its chemistry, permanently altering material that could one day turn into planets. FU Orionis is still devouring gas to this day, although not as quickly.

Visible-light observations of FU Orionis, which is about 1,500 light-years away from Earth, in the constellation Orion, have shown astronomers that the star's extreme brightness began slowly fading after its initial 1936 burst. But to understand the relationship between the star and the surrounding disk, and to find out what the star was still snacking on, astronomers combined infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the world's largest airborne observatory, which is jointly owned by NASA and the German Aerospace Center. They found that FU Orionis had continued its ravenous snacking after the initial brightening event, eating the equivalent of 18 Jupiters over the next 80 years. They also predict that FU Orionis will have run out of hot material to nosh on within a few hundred years. At that point, the star will return to the state it was in before the dramatic 1936 brightening event.

For images and to learn more about FU Orionis and Spitzer and SOFIA, visit:
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2016-151 .

          Hubble's Journey to the Center of Our Galaxy        

Hubble's infrared vision pierced the dusty heart of our Milky Way galaxy to reveal more than half a million stars at its core. Except for a few blue, foreground stars, the stars are part of the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster, the most massive and densest stellar cluster in our galaxy. Located 27,000 light-years away, this region is so packed with stars, it is equivalent to having a million suns crammed into the volume of space between us and our closest stellar neighbor, Alpha Centauri, 4.3 light-years away. At the very hub of our galaxy, this star cluster surrounds the Milky Way's central supermassive black hole, which is about 4 million times the mass of our sun.

To learn even more about the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster and Hubble, join astronomers and scientists during a live Hubble Hangout discussion at 3pm EDT on Thurs., March 31 at http://hbbl.us/y6k.

          Hubble Directly Measures Rotation of Cloudy 'Super-Jupiter'        

Though nearly 2,000 planets have been found around other stars, the light from only a handful of them has ever been collected by the world's most powerful telescopes. Ironically, a lot of them are detected by the shadows they cast, as they pass in front of their parent stars. Follow-up observations measure the planet's feeble, but telltale, gravitational tug on its parent star. Now, Hubble Space Telescope astronomers have been able to pick up the faint infrared glow of a giant planet located 170 light-years away from Earth. Not only is it glowing, but also rhythmically flickering as the planet spins on its axis like a top. The interpretation is that the subtle changes in the planet's brightness are due to a variegated cloud cover of comparatively bright and dark patches coming and going. These measurements have led to an estimate of how fast the planet is spinning through direct observation – a first for exoplanet astronomers. The gaseous world completes one rotation approximately every 10 hours, which, coincidentally, is the same rotation rate as Jupiter.

The planet is dubbed a "super-Jupiter" because it is four times the mass of Jupiter, the largest known planet in our solar system. Because the planet is a comparative newborn, it is still hot as it contracts under gravity. These characteristics allow for infrared observations. The planet orbits a faint brown dwarf, designated 2M1207. The dwarf is too small to shine as stars do through nuclear fusion. The dwarf is so dim and far from the planet astronomers were able to isolate the planet's glow.

          NASA Introduces New, Wider Set of Eyes on the Universe: Baltimore's Space Telescope Science Institute to Partner on New NASA 'Wide-View' Space Telescope        

After years of preparatory studies, NASA is formally starting an astrophysics mission designed to help unlock the secrets of the universe the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). WFIRST will image large regions of the sky in near-infrared light to answer fundamental questions about dark energy and the structure and evolution of the universe. It will also find and characterize planets beyond our solar system, and as a general-purpose observatory, revolutionize many other astrophysical topics. WFIRST will have a mirror the same size as Hubble's, but it will have a 100 times wider view of space. Slated for launch in the mid-2020s, it will complement the capabilities of NASA's other major astrophysical observatories.

WFIRST is managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, with participation by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California; the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland; the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), also in Pasadena; and a science team comprised of members from U.S. research institutions across the country. STScI will be a partner on the WFIRST science operations and will focus during the mission formulation phase on the observation scheduling system, wide-field imaging data processing system, and the data archive.

To learn more about the WFIRST mission and STScI, join a live Hubble Hangout discussion with scientists at 3:00 p.m. EST on Thurs., Feb. 18, at http://hbbl.us/y6I.

          NASA's Great Observatories Weigh Massive Young Galaxy Cluster        

Astronomers have made the most detailed study yet of an extremely massive young galaxy cluster using three of NASA's Great Observatories. This multiwavelength image shows this galaxy cluster, called IDCS J1426.5+3508 (IDCS 1426 for short), in X-rays recorded by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in blue, visible light observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in green, and infrared light from the Spitzer Space Telescope in red.

This rare galaxy cluster, which is located 10 billion light-years from Earth, is almost as massive as 500 trillion suns. This object has important implications for understanding how these megastructures formed and evolved early in the universe. Astronomers have observed IDCS 1426 when the universe was less than a third of its current age. It is the most massive galaxy cluster detected at such an early age.

          NASA Space Telescopes See Magnified Image of the Faintest Galaxy from the Early Universe        

Hunting for faraway galaxies that existed long, long ago is like a fishing trip for astronomers. So far only the "big fish" have been found, bright galaxies that existed just a few hundred million years after the big bang. Now, using the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, astronomers have caught a "smaller fish," a very compact and faint early galaxy that was forming 400 million years after the big bang, which happened 13.8 billion years ago.

As there are many smaller fish than big fish in the sea, the new finding is evidence for an underlying population of dim galaxies that must have been common in the early universe. Hubble's upcoming successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, should be able to survey this population. But for now, Hubble can do some pioneering work by exploiting a "zoom lens" in space that captures a galaxy that would otherwise not be detectible. The phenomenon is called gravitational lensing, where the intense gravity of a cluster of galaxies magnifies the light of fainter background sources. Astronomers needed the infrared sensitivity of both the Hubble and Spitzer telescopes to measure the galaxy's great distance through its color, which is affected by the expanding universe.

          Hubble Uncovers Clues of Earliest Galaxies        

Astronomers at the University of California at Irvine (UCI) and the Space Telescope Science Institute have made the most accurate statistical estimate of the number of faint, small galaxies that existed only 500 million years after the big bang. This was culled from an analysis of the deepest Hubble Space Telescope sky survey, CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey). Previously, studies using Caltech's CIBER (the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment) rocket-borne instrument and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope images confirmed the presence of "intra-halo light" from stars distributed outside of galaxies. The Hubble data found a new component in the infrared background in addition to intra-halo light – the collective glow of entire galaxies that formed first in the universe. UCI's Asantha Cooray believes that these early galaxies are very different from the well-defined spiral and disk-shaped galaxies seen in the present-day universe. They were more diffuse and populated by giant stars. This discovery paves the way for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to see these very faint galaxies individually, after its launch in 2018.

For more information about this study, visit UCI's story at
http://news.uci.edu/press-releases/parsing-photons-in-the-infrared-uci-led-astronomers-uncover-signs-of-earliest-galaxies/ .

          Newly Discovered World Is Most Like Jupiter        

A team of astronomers, including half a dozen from the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, have used the Gemini Observatory's new Gemini Planet Imager to find the most solar system-like planet ever directly imaged around another star. The planet, known as 51 Eridani b, is about two times the mass of Jupiter and orbits its host star at about 13 times the Earth-sun distance (equivalent to being between Saturn and Uranus in our solar system). The planet is located about 100 light-years away from Earth. The Gemini data provide scientists with the strongest-ever spectroscopic detection of methane in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet, adding to its similarities to giant planets in our solar system. "This planet looks like a younger, slightly bigger version of Jupiter," said Dr. Laurent Pueyo of STScI, one of the astronomers who carefully measured the planet's light against the background glare of starlight. "That we can see so clearly the presence of methane for a planet a million times fainter than its star, even through the atmosphere, bodes very well for the future characterization of even fainter planets from space using the James Webb Space Telescope and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope."

For more information, visit Gemini Observatory's press release at:

          Hubble Sees the 'Teenage Years' of Quasars        

Quasars are the light fantastic. They are the brightest beacons in the universe, blazing across space with the intrinsic brightness of one trillion suns. Yet the objects are not vast galaxies, but they appear as pinpoint sources in the biggest telescopes of today – hence the term "quasar" for quasi-stellar object. Discovered in the 1960s, it took more than two decades of research to come to the conclusion that quasars are produced by the gusher of energy coming from over-fed supermassive black holes inside the cores of very distant galaxies. And, most quasars bloomed into a brief existence 12 billion years ago.

The big question has been, why? What was happening in the universe 12 billion years ago? The universe was smaller and so crowded that galaxies collided with each other much more frequently than today. Astronomers using Hubble's near-infrared vision tested this hypothesis by looking at dusty quasars where their glow was suppressed by dust, allowing a view of the quasar's surroundings. Hubble's sharp vision revealed chaotic collisions between galaxies that gave birth to quasars by fueling a supermassive central black hole.

Join astronomers during the live Hubble Hangout discussion at 3:00 pm EDT on Thurs., June 18, to learn even more about quasars and the Hubble Space Telescope. To join, visit http://hbbl.us/z7F .

          Astronomers Set a New Galaxy Distance Record        

The universe is incredibly big. But how do astronomers know that? Billion-mile-long tape measures can't be found at the hardware store. Instead, astronomers use the expansion of the universe itself to establish milepost markers. The light from remote objects is attenuated and weakened as space stretches like a rubber band. The consequences are that starlight will look redder relative to a nearby star of the same temperature. When starlight is spread into its component color via spectroscopy, features in the light will be shifted to the red end of the spectrum. This "redshift" can be used to reliably calibrate distances. The challenge is the farthest objects in the universe are typically too faint for spectroscopy to work. So instead, astronomers deduce a galaxy's distance by precisely measuring its colors in visible and infrared light. This technique has found candidates for the farthest object in the universe.

Now, in a synergy between the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, and the giant W. M. Keck Observatory, astronomers have set a new distance record to the farthest redshift-confirmed galaxy. It is so far away the light we receive left the galaxy over 13 billion years ago, and it is just arriving now. Hubble found the galaxy in deep-sky surveys, and Keck's 10-meter-diameter segmented mirror is powerful enough to collect a spectrum from the unusually bright galaxy. The new observations underline the very exciting discoveries that NASA's James Webb Space Telescope will enable when it is launched in 2018.

          Our Sun Came Late to the Milky Way's Star-Birth Party        

Our Sun missed the stellar "baby boom" that erupted in our young Milky Way galaxy 10 billion years ago. During that time the Milky Way was churning out stars 30 times faster than it does today. Our galaxy was ablaze with a firestorm of star birth as its rich reservoir of hydrogen gas compressed under gravity, creating myriad stars. But our Sun was not one of them. It was a late "boomer," arising 5 billion years later, when star birth had plunged to a trickle.

Astronomers compiled this story of our Milky Way's growth from studying galaxies similar in mass to our galaxy, found in deep surveys of the universe. Stretching back in time more than 10 billion years, the census contains nearly 2,000 snapshots of Milky Way-like galaxies. The analysis comprises the most comprehensive multi-observatory galaxy survey yet, and includes data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

Join Hubble scientists during the live Hubble Hangout discussion at 3pm EDT on Thurs., April 9, to learn even more. Visit Google+ at http://hbbl.us/kd3, or YouTube at http://hbbl.us/y6r .

          NASA and STScI Select Hubble Fellows for 2015        

NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) have announced the selection of 17 new Hubble Fellows. STScI in Baltimore, Maryland, administers the Hubble Fellowship Program for NASA. The Hubble Fellowship Program includes all research relevant to present and future missions relating to NASA's Cosmic Origins Program. These missions currently include the Herschel Space Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the James Webb Space Telescope, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The new Hubble Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2015.

          Hubble's High-Definition Panoramic View of the Andromeda Galaxy        

The largest NASA Hubble Space Telescope image ever assembled, this sweeping view of a portion of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) is the sharpest large composite image ever taken of our galactic neighbor. Though the galaxy is over 2 million light-years away, the Hubble telescope is powerful enough to resolve individual stars in a 61,000-light-year-long section of the galaxy's pancake-shaped disk. It's like photographing a beach and resolving individual grains of sand. And, there are lots of stars in this sweeping view – over 100 million, with some of them in thousands of star clusters seen embedded in the disk. This ambitious photographic cartography of the Andromeda galaxy represents a new benchmark for precision studies of large spiral galaxies which dominate the universe's population of over 100 billion galaxies. Never before have astronomers been able to see individual stars over a major portion of an external spiral galaxy. Most of the stars in the universe live inside such majestic star cities, and this is the first data that reveal populations of stars in context to their home galaxy.

The panorama is the product of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) program. Images were obtained from viewing the galaxy in near-ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths, using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard Hubble. This view shows the galaxy in its natural visible-light color, as photographed with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys in red and blue filters July 2010 through October 2013.

          STScI Astronomer Margaret Meixner Elected AAAS Fellow        

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Council has elected Margaret Meixner of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and 401 other AAAS members as Fellows of AAAS. Election as an AAAS Fellow is an honor bestowed upon AAAS members by their peers.

Meixner is cited by the AAAS for her "leadership in the area of infrared instrumentation for astronomy, both from