Sulla critica del diritto nel giovane Gramsci        
E' successo che, preparando un commento all'ultima sortita di Saviano a proposito di storia della sinistra italiana, ho ripreso in mano, dopo anni, il vecchio volume dell'Einaudi (Torino, 1960) che raccoglie i corsivi pubblicati da Gramsci sull'"Avanti!" nella rubrica Sotto la Mole (1916-1920). Qui mi è capitato sotto gli occhi il commento di Gramsci alla sentenza sui "fatti di Torino", cioè (annotano i curatori dell'edizione) "lo sciopero generale per il pane e contro la guerra, che sfociò nella sommossa del 23-26 agosto 1917". [1]

Il commento di Gramsci fu pubblicato sull'"Avanti!" il 20 ottobre 1918: il testo, come di frequente, uscì con vistosi "vuoti" dovuti all'azione della censura. Eccolo qui di seguito [2].

BELLU SCHESC' E DOTTORI!

Il giudice Emanuele Pili non è senza storia, come gli uomini e i popoli felici. Ma la storia del giudice Emanuele Pili ha una lacuna; iniziatasi col protagonista autore drammatico, riprende ora col protagonista «ragionatore» di sentenze, e riprende con una gloriosa e strenua pugna: il «ragionamento» della sentenza per i fatti di Torino, che nell'ultimo numero della «Gazzetta dei tribunali» il misuratore di crani prof. Vitige Tirelli qualifica «dotta».
Benedetto Croce ha scritto: «Chi ha pratica dei tribunali sa che molto spesso un magistrato, presa la decisione e stabilita la sentenza, incarica un suo piú gio [dodici righe e mezzo censurate]. E il giudice giovane ha fatto sfoggio di dottrina; e il giudice giovane — poiché nella prima gíoventú aspirava alla gloria di Talia e dedicava le sue fresche energie intellettuali a scrivere commedie nei vari dialetti di Sardegna e non poté studiare tutti i risultati delle ultime ricerche sulla natura del diritto e delle costituzioni — ha ragionato [una riga censurata] nella sentenza dei fatti di Torino, rovistando nei vecchi cassettoni, rimettendo alla luce tutti gli imparaticci scolastici del primo anno universitario, quando ancora si frequentano le lezioni e si prendono gli appunti.
[Venticinque righe censurate].
Gli sono estranee le correnti del pensiero moderno che hanno ringiovanito tutta la dottrina dello Stato e del Giure — superando le concezioni puerilmente metafisiche della dottrina tradizionale, degli imparaticci da scoletta universitaria — colla riduzione dello Stato e del Giure a pura attività pratica, svolta come dialettica della volontà di potenza e non piú pietistico richiamo alle leggi naturali, ai sacrari inconoscibili dell'istinto avito, alla banale retorica dei compilatori delle storiette per la scuola elementare. Il «ragionamento» del giudice Pili è solo una filastroccola di banalità retoriche, di gonfiezze presuntuose: esso è il ridicolo parto di un fossile intellettuale, il quale non riesce a concepire che lo Stato italiano almeno giuridicamente (e come giudice questa apparenza della realtà doveva solo importare al «giovane» da tribunale) è costituzionale, ed è parlamentare per tradizione (l'on. Sonnino è gran parte dello Stato attuale, ma crediamo che il suo articolo Torniamo allo Statuto! non sia ancora diventato legge fondamentale del popolo italiano): [cinque righe censurate]. La «dottrina» del giovane da tribunale infatti si consolida (!) in esclamazioni enfatiche contro chi ha «resistito» o è accusato di aver resistito: non cerca (come era suo compito) di dimostrare, alla stregua delle prove concrete e sicure, un delitto per passare l'esatta commisurazione alla sua entità di una pena contemplata nel codice. No, il «giovane» vuole sfoggiare, come una contadina ricca del Campidano di Cagliari le vesti multicolori che hanno servito alle sue antenate per le nozze e per decine e decine di anni sono rimaste seppellite in un vecchio cassettone a fregi bestiali e floreali tra lo spigo e una dozzina di limoni: e sfoggia tutti i vecchiumi, tutti gli scolaticci dei vespasiani giuridici chiusi per misura d'igiene pubblica.
Il giudice Emanuele Pili ha scritto una commedia dialettale: Bellu schesc' e dottori! (che bel pezzo di... dottore!) L'esclamazione potrebbe essere la conclusione critica della lettura di una sentenza, cosí com'è il titolo di una commedia.

La prima lacuna è stata integrata facilmente dai curatori del testo gramsciano. Si tratta di una citazione dalla Logica di Croce, riportata come segue:

«Chi ha pratica dei tribunali sa che molto spesso un magistrato, presa la decisione e stabilita la sentenza, incarica un suo piú giovane collega di "ragionarla", ossia di apporre una parvenza di ragionamento a ciò che non è intrinsecamente e puramente prodotto di logica, ma è voluntas di un determinato provvedimento. Questo procedere, se ha il suo uso nella cerchia pratica o giuridica, è affatto escluso da quella della logica e della scienza» (B. CROCE, Logica come scienza del concetto puro, Bari 1917, pp. 87-88).

Quando Gramsci nel suo corsivo parla delle "correnti del pensiero moderno che hanno ringiovanito tutta la dottrina dello Stato e del Giure", si riferisce appunto alla filosofia del diritto di Benedetto Croce. Croce aveva infatti affermato l'assoluta separazione tra morale e diritto, e aveva sottoposto il diritto alle categorie dell'utile e della forza. Nella concezione di Croce, il diritto è forza, che viene applicata per il raggiungimento di uno scopo ritenuto (da chi agisce questa forza) utile; il diritto è inoltre amorale, in quanto prescinde dal giusto e dall'ingiusto.

E' interessante notare che qui Gramsci si serve della teoria del diritto di Croce per porre un'istanza di garantismo giuridico. Infatti, ciò che Gramsci rimprovera al giudice Pili, estensore della sentenza sui fatti di Torino, è di aver confuso il diritto con la morale. Il giudice avrebbe dovuto limitarsi a vagliare le prove, accertare se fosse stato commesso un reato, e, in caso affermativo, determinarne la pena secondo le norme del codice. Invece, questa sentenza (scrive Gramsci) pretende di condannare gli imputati non sulla base della legge, bensì sulla scorta di considerazioni di ordine moralistico, la cui infondatezza giuridica è mascherata dal ricorso all'enfasi e alla retorica.

La linea del ragionamento gramsciano è abbastanza riconoscibile, nonostante i buchi lasciati dalla censura, e nonostante un probabile refuso tipografico [3]. Comunque, in un poscritto all'articolo del giorno successivo (Le vie della divina provvidenza, 21 ottobre 1918), Gramsci scrive:

P.S. Nell'articolo pubblicato ieri sul giudice Emanuele Pili la censura ha lasciato solo la parte «floreale» che può far supporre aver noi scritto un puro pamphlet per insolentire un magistrato. La censura ha imbiancato le giustificazioni delle insolenze: la giustificazione filosofica trovata nella Logica del senatore Benedetto Croce; la giustificazione storica trovata in una notizia pubblicata dal «Journal des Débats» l'8 novembre 1817 (milleottocentodiciassette!), la giustificazione costituzionale trovata nello Statuto albertino. Un'insolenza giustificata da «pezze» di tal genere crediamo non sia piú insolenza, ma espressione plastica della imparziale giustizia. La censura pertanto ci ha solo diffamati, senza che le leggi ci diano il modo di dar querela.

La "giustificazione filosofica" delle critiche che Gramsci rivolge al magistrato corrisponde, lo abbiamo visto, ad una citazione da Croce. Rimane la curiosità di sapere quali potessero essere le altre due "giustificazioni"  imbiancate dalla censura.

La "giustificazione costituzionale", che corrisponde alla lacuna di cinque righe, si trova, dice Gramsci, nello Statuto albertino; e potrebbe forse trattarsi di uno degli articoli che, in quel testo costituzionale, tutelavano i diritti civili: per esempio l'art. 26, secondo comma, "niuno può essere arrestato e tradotto in giudizio, se non nei casi previsti dalla legge, e nelle forme che essa prescrive".

Naturalmente, non è da pensare che Gramsci si facesse particolari illusioni circa l'effettività delle garanzie prescritte dallo Statuto. Sappiamo, invece, che Gramsci sempre ritenne la borghesia italiana incapace di creare un vero Stato di diritto che tutelasse le libertà individuali [4]. Un articolo di Gramsci di qualche anno successivo a quello che stiamo ora esaminando (Lo Stato italiano, in "L'Ordine Nuovo", 7 febbraio 1920) contiene una puntuale critica, da questo punto di vista, allo Statuto albertino:

Lo Stato italiano [...] non ha mai neppure tentato di mascherare la dittatura spietata della classe proprietaria. Si può dire che lo Statuto albertino sia servito a un solo fine preciso: a legare fortemente le sorti della Corona alle sorti della proprietà privata. I soli freni infatti che funzionano nella macchina statale per limitare gli arbitrî del governo dei ministri del re sono quelli che interessano la proprietà privata del capitale. La Costituzione non ha creato nessun istituto che presidî almeno formalmente le grandi libertà dei cittadini: la libertà individuale, la libertà di parola e di stampa, la libertà di associazione e di riunione. Negli Stati capitalistici, che si chiamano liberali democratici, l'istituto massimo di presidio delle libertà popolari è il potere giudiziario: nello Stato italiano la giustizia non è un potere, è un ordine, è uno strumento della Corona e della classe proprietaria. 

Gramsci sottintendeva questo tipo di considerazioni anche all'articolo qui in commento, laddove scriveva che lo Stato italiano "almeno giuridicamente" (cioè solo formalmente) era costituzionale, ed era "parlamentare per tradizione", nel senso che lo Statuto albertino non istituiva una vera e propria democrazia parlamentare, bensì l'ordinamento parlamentare dello Stato derivava da una semplice consuetudine che poteva essere in ogni momento abrogata: così come aveva proposto di fare Sidney Sonnino nel suo articolo del 1897, appropriatamente richiamato da Gramsci, Torniamo allo Statuto!,  e come poi farà il fascismo.

Tuttavia, il fatto che la monarchia sabauda fosse uno Stato di diritto carente e imperfetto non avrebbe dovuto esimere il magistrato dall'applicare comunque quelle garanzie (pur se insufficienti) che la legge disponeva a favore degli imputati: "come giudice questa apparenza della realtà doveva solo importare" al giudice Pili, osserva giustamente Gramsci.

La "giustificazione storica", che corrisponde alla lacuna di venticinque righe, è data (scrive Gramsci) da una notizia pubblicata sul numero dell'8 novembre 1817 del "Journal des Débats". Internet consente oggi di consultare facilmente quel numero di giornale per cercare quale potesse essere la notizia che costituiva la "giustificazione storica" invocata da Gramsci.

Una delle notizie ivi contenute, che possono essere state utilizzate da Gramsci ai fini del suo commento, è una corrispondenza dalla Gran Bretagna datata 3 novembre, che riporto qui di seguito in una mia traduzione (il testo originale è in nota):

Quattro individui di nome Booth, Brown, Jackson e King, prima delle ultime assisi di Derby, erano stati condannati a morte per crimine di ribellione. Condotti sul patibolo, al momento stesso della morte hanno avuto l'audacia empia di arringare la folla, affinché li venisse a liberare. Questa folla era composta da loro vecchi amici che li avevano frequentemente visitati in carcere; ma il luogo dell'esecuzione era sorvegliato da folti distaccamenti di cavalleria e di fanteria, e la legge ha avuto esecuzione [5].

Inizialmente ho pensato che questa notizia potesse aver attratto l'attenzione di Gramsci (per analogia con i fatti di Torino) perché riferita a un episodio di ribellione delle classi subalterne conclusosi con una condanna penale. Episodio che forse è leggibile nel quadro della fase di irrequietezza sociale che fu caratterizzata, in Gran Bretagna, dalle proteste contro la legge sul grano del 1815, fase che sfociò nel massacro di Peterloo.

Tuttavia, non ho trovato alcun elemento che potesse suffragare questa ipotesi. Non è chiaro neanche se i quattro uomini giustiziati a Derby nel 1817 siano stati effettivamente condannati a morte per reati politici, o non piuttosto per reati comuni; in un elenco dei giustiziati nel carcere di Derby, compilato da Celia Renshaw, una storica locale, questi Booth, Brown, Jackson e King risultano essere stati condannati per aver appiccato il fuoco a dei covoni di paglia [6]. Inoltre è noto che Gramsci non amava gli atteggiamenti tribunizi e teatrali, né apprezzava particolarmente i gesti individuali di ribellione: lo si evince dal suo stesso comportamento di imputato durante il "processone" del 1928 [7], nonché dal suo commento, contenuto nei Quaderni del carcere, ad un libro che raccoglieva i resoconti di una serie di processi contro anarchici libertari [8]. Perciò mi sembra improbabile che, nel suo corsivo del 1918 che stiamo ora commentando, Gramsci possa aver preso ad esempio il comportamento di quattro condannati a morte per reati contro il patrimonio che, dal patibolo, incitano la folla alla rivolta.

C'è però un'altra notiziola, sempre nella prima pagina  del "Journal des Débats" dell'8 novembre 1817, che potrebbe aver attirato l'attenzione di Gramsci. Si tratta di una corrispondenza da Losanna datata primo novembre:

Il Cantone Esterno di Appenzell ha da poco emesso una singolare sentenza contro un ragazzino accusato di alcuni piccoli furti. Lo hanno condannato a 50 fl. di ammenda e a trenta colpi di verga. Gli sarà inoltre assegnato un posto particolare in chiesa per un periodo di due anni: dovrà trovarsi colà per due volte ogni domenica, e sarà punito severamente in caso d'inosservanza [9].

In questa notizia di cronaca (un ragazzino condannato con sentenza penale ad andare a messa due volte la settimana) troviamo un esempio estremo e grottesco di quella perniciosa, pre-moderna confusione tra diritto e morale, che Gramsci stigmatizza nella sua polemica col giudice relatore della sentenza sui fatti di Torino. Perciò ritengo che sia stata questa la pezza giustificativa di quella parte dell'argomentazione gramsciana, che la censura ha cancellato lasciando nell'articolo un buco di venticinque righe.

Note

[1] Sempre secondo l'apparato critico dell'edizione citata, la sentenza fu emessa dal Tribunale militare di Torino il 2 agosto 1918; il testo della sentenza è reperibile in "Rivista storica del socialismo", n. 2, 1960.

[2] A. Gramsci, Sotto la Mole, ed. cit., pp. 447-48. L'articolo è stato poi raccolto nella più recente edizione degli scritti gramsciani precarcerari: A. Gramsci, Il nostro Marx 1918-1919, a cura di Sergio Caprioglio, Einaudi, Torino 1984, pp. 360-2. In Internet si trova qui: http://www.liberliber.it/mediateca/libri/g/gramsci/sotto_la_mole/pdf/sotto__p.pdf, p. 269.

[3] "Passare l'esatta commisurazione alla sua entità di una pena contemplata nel codice" è frase di cui si capisce il senso, ma che sembra guasta anche grammaticalmente. Penso che Gramsci abbia invece scritto "fissare l'esatta commisurazione della sua entità ad una pena contemplata nel codice".

[4] Cfr. Leonardo Rapone, Cinque anni che paiono secoli. Antonio Gramsci dal socialismo al comunismo (1914-1919), Carocci, Roma 2011, pp. 162-6.

[5] Quatre individus nommés Booth, Brown, Jackson et King, antérieurement aux dernières assises de Derby, avoient été condamnés à mort pour crime de rebellion. Amenés sur l'échafaud, ils ont eu, même au moment de la mort, l'audace impie de haranguer la multitude, et de l'engager à venir les délivrer. Cette multitude étoit composée de leurs anciens amis qui les avoient fréquemment visités dans leur prison; mais le lieu de l'exécution étoit gardé par de forts détachements de cavalerie et d'infanterie, et la loi reçut son exécution.

[6] Fonte: http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/DERBYSGEN/2009-08/1250276359

[7] Cfr. Giuseppe Fiori (a cura di), Antonio Gramsci: cronaca di un verdetto annunciato, I Libri de "l'Unità", supplemento al numero del 4 aprile, Roma 1994. 

[8] Antonio Gramsci, Quaderni del carcere, edizione critica a cura di Valentino Gerratana, Einaudi, Torino 1975, pp. 6-7 e 1896-7.

[9] Les Rhodes extérieurs d'Appenzell viennent de rendre une singulière sentence contre un enfant accusé de quelques petits vols. Ils l'ont condamné à 50 fl. d'amende et à trente coups de bâtons. Il lui sera d'ailleurs assigné une place particulière à l'église pendant deux ans; il devra s'y trouver deux fois chaque dimanche sous des peines séveres.

          Update (February 11, 2017) - '..ethical standards..' ('.. Dr. Bates appeared to distance himself from some of what he wrote in the blog post..') (no replies)        
Update February 11, 2017: 'In an interview on Monday with E&E News, Dr. Bates appeared to distance himself from some of what he wrote in the blog post, and from the way his criticisms were portrayed in the Mail on Sunday article.

“The issue here is not an issue of tampering with data,” he said, “but rather really of timing of a release of a paper that had not properly disclosed everything it was.”

Climate Home, a nonprofit site based in London that offers news and analysis, also weighed in on one of the central contentions of Mr. Rose’s article, that the publication of the NOAA paper had "duped” policy makers into adopting the Paris accord. The site contacted representatives to the talks from 10 countries; none said that the paper had any influence.'

- Henry Fountain, No Data Manipulation in 2015 Climate Study, Researchers Say, February 7, 2016


Update February 09, 2017: 'Dr Bates’ main complaint is that Dr Karl and his co-authors did not follow strict procedures required for NOAA’s ‘operational’ data. It is not yet clear whether Dr Karl should have subjected his research data to the same procedures. Dr Karl, who retired from NOAA in August 2016, has not yet had the opportunity to respond fully to Dr Bates’ allegations.'

- LSE: More fake news in ‘The Mail on Sunday’, February 5, 2017 (Wikipedia Bans Daily Mail As 'Unreliable' Source, February 08, 2017))


'..a failure to observe proper ethical standards..'

'Dr John Bates’s disclosures about the manipulation of data behind the ‘Pausebuster’ paper is the biggest scientific scandal since ‘Climategate’ in 2009 when, as this paper reported, thousands of leaked emails revealed scientists were trying to block access to data, and using a ‘trick’ to conceal embarrassing flaws in their claims about global warming.

Both scandals suggest a lack of transparency and, according to Dr Bates, a failure to observe proper ethical standards.

Because of NOAA ’s failure to ‘archive’ data used in the paper, its results can never be verified.

Like Climategate, this scandal is likely to reverberate around the world, and reignite some of science’s most hotly contested debates.'

- Exposed: How world leaders were duped into investing billions over manipulated global warming data, February 4, 2017


'Whatever takes its place, said Dr Bates, ‘there needs to be a fundamental change to the way NOAA deals with data so that people can check and validate scientific results. I’m hoping that this will be a wake-up call to the climate science community – a signal that we have to put in place processes to make sure this kind of crap doesn’t happen again.

..

Dr Bates said: ‘How ironic it is that there is now this idea that Trump is going to trash climate data, when key decisions were earlier taken by someone whose responsibility it was to maintain its integrity – and failed.’ '


'Dr Bates retired from NOAA at the end of last year after a 40-year career in meteorology and climate science. As recently as 2014, the Obama administration awarded him a special gold medal for his work in setting new, supposedly binding standards ‘to produce and preserve climate data records’.

..

Less than two years earlier, a blockbuster report from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which drew on the work of hundreds of scientists around the world, had found ‘a much smaller increasing trend over the past 15 years 1998-2012 than over the past 30 to 60 years’. Explaining the pause became a key issue for climate science. It was seized on by global warming sceptics, because the level of CO2 in the atmosphere had continued to rise.

..

In the weeks after the Pausebuster paper was published, Dr Bates conducted a one-man investigation into this. His findings were extraordinary. Not only had Mr Karl and his colleagues failed to follow any of the formal procedures required to approve and archive their data, they had used a ‘highly experimental early run’ of a programme that tried to combine two previously separate sets of records.

..

Dr Bates revealed that the failure to archive and make available fully documented data not only violated NOAA rules, but also those set down by Science. Before he retired last year, he continued to raise the issue internally. Then came the final bombshell. Dr Bates said: ‘I learned that the computer used to process the software had suffered a complete failure.’

The reason for the failure is unknown, but it means the Pausebuster paper can never be replicated or verified by other scientists.

..

Whatever takes its place, said Dr Bates, ‘there needs to be a fundamental change to the way NOAA deals with data so that people can check and validate scientific results. I’m hoping that this will be a wake-up call to the climate science community – a signal that we have to put in place processes to make sure this kind of crap doesn’t happen again.

Dr Bates said: ‘How ironic it is that there is now this idea that Trump is going to trash climate data, when key decisions were earlier taken by someone whose responsibility it was to maintain its integrity – and failed.’

NOAA not only failed, but it effectively mounted a cover-up when challenged over its data. After the paper was published, the US House of Representatives Science Committee launched an inquiry into its Pausebuster claims. NOAA refused to comply with subpoenas demanding internal emails from the committee chairman, the Texas Republican Lamar Smith, and falsely claimed that no one had raised concerns about the paper internally.'

- Exposed: How world leaders were duped into investing billions over manipulated global warming data, February 4, 2017


Context '..conduct more meetings on ethics .. Respectful discussion of different points of view should be encouraged.' - John Bates

Climategate: Follow the Money - By Bret Stephens

Those Who Control the Past Control the Future, Climate Data Edition, February 5, 2017

'..Earth is warming more rapidly than previously thought was correct..'


'Trees are the best known ‘technology’ to cool our planet'

Focus Fusion - '..So, production reactors by 2020 or so.'

(Earth Defence - Earth Shield) - Faraday - Tesla - 'The Accelerating Winds of Venus.' (Electric Universe - Solar Climate Change)


(The Electric Universe - Earth Defence - Earth Shield) - Electric Fossils and Thundercrabs

(The Electric Universe) - '..weather systems .. an electric “wind” surrounds and often precedes an electric arc.'

(Thymology - Haptopraxeology) - '..entrepreneurship .. actions he will carry out and estimates the future effect of those actions..'


'...The peer review process is broken...' - '...don't have the "situational awareness"...'

On the Mail on Sunday article on Karl et al., 2015, February 5, 2017

          Resistance at Standing Rock: Dispatches from the Front Lines        

UPDATES:





  • Water Protector Legal Collective Files Suit for Excessive Force against Peaceful Protesters


  • Veterans to Serve as ‘Human Shields’ for Dakota Pipeline Protesters



  • Oceti Sakowin encampment on Oct. 6, 2016. The proper name for the people commonly known as the Sioux is Oceti Sakowin, (Och-et-eeshak-oh-win) meaning Seven Council Fires.








    Story and Photos by John Briggs

    Cool Justice Editor's Note: OK to repost, courtesy of John Briggs and The Cool Justice Report.







    Corporate – Government Alliance Versus the American People

    Native Americans from tribes across the country have gathered on the windswept plains of North Dakota to pray with Mother Earth to keep the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) from pumping 500,000 gallons of oil a day beneath the Missouri River. The natives know the pipeline will most certainly leak or break, as have most U.S. pipelines, fouling the water for the Great Sioux Nation and 18 million non-Natives downstream.

    The standoff -- which began in April -- continues as a new U.S. administration ascends to power with a president-elect who campaigned denying human-caused climate change and threatening the Paris Climate accords. This remains the overriding reality despite a mini walk back by Donald Trump pledging an open mind to The New York Times this week.

    Standing Rock illuminates the brazen alliance that has developed between corporate and government interests. Viewed from the front lines, the law has been turned into a fig leaf for repression and suppression. Only the discipline and spiritual clarity of the water protectors and the native elders has kept people from being killed or seriously injured since April when the movement began.

    The fused police-DAPL force is doing everything it can to incite a violent reaction from the resisters so as to crack down, clear the camps, imprison, or even gun down the natives. More than one commentator has found the atmosphere at Standing Rock similar to what led to the Wounded Knee massacre in 1890 when 300 Sioux were murdered by government troops who mistook their prayerful Ghost Dance for a war dance.

    A great deal is at issue at Standing Rock. The Sioux and their numerous native and non-native allies face a militarized force whose composition tells us something dark about the complex façade that U.S. democracy has become and suggests the proto-fascist zombi lurking beneath. More deeply, Standing Rock also emblemizes a struggle that is taking place at this moment in human history between two distinct modes of human consciousness.

    One mode is the familiar anthropocentric (human-centered) consciousness that the dominant culture most of us were born into favors—a consciousness that assumes reality is a collection of objects to be extracted, owned, and branded. Humans are the focus of this consciousness, meaning that our concerns about climate change focus primarily on the fate of our own species.

    Distinct from this anthropocentric mind-set is a second, ancient and spiritual mode of awareness that understands that the earth and its landscapes are not objects; they are relationships, including the tangle of relationships that gave us birth. This ancient mode of consciousness is potential in everyone, but for most it has been buried beneath the piles of conceptual objects that we have come to believe constitute our reality.

    The Indigenous Peoples gathered at Standing Rock are guided by this ancient, holistic, earth-mind consciousness, and so they understand that humans are not the most valuable living objects on the planet: we are not in control of the planet; it is not our job to manage nature; rather, our sacred task is to work with Mother Earth and other beings as members of Earth’s family. If we don’t, Mother Earth will make us face this spiritual truth one way or another.

    Guided by their ancient, earth-mind awareness, Native Americans have taken up a role as “water protectors.” “Mni Wiconi, Water is Life” is the slogan of the Standing Rock movement.

    Every day scores of Sioux from North Dakota, South Dakota and nearby states, along with Paiute, Shoshoni, Diné, and a sampling of other Natives from the 300 or so tribes whose flags fly at the Standing Rock encampments set out to pipeline construction sites in a convoy to engage in “actions” on the “front lines.”

    There the protectors sing and pray in the face of physical harassment and arrests by heavily armed police fused with a corporate security force.

    DAPL and their overlord company, Energy Transfer Partners, have lavished campaign contributions on politicians in North Dakota and the U.S. Congress so that they could use the state’s eminent domain powers to force purchase of land for the pipeline all across North Dakota, beginning in the Bakken fields in the northwest corner of the state where the fracked crude oil is extracted. Similar eminent domain arrangements were achieved in other states through which the 1,200-mile line traverses before reaching a river port in Illinois. The company promised Congress and the public that the pipeline would carry oil for 100 percent domestic use only, but it is clear from reporting done by the website The Intercept that the oil will be sold on international markets.

  • Though Promised for Domestic Use, Dakota Access Pipeline May Fuel Oil Exports


  • The DAPL line, now virtually complete except for permission from the Army Corps of Engineers to fill in the link that crosses under the Missouri River, passes just north of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation and Cannon Ball, North Dakota. The DAPL construction runs through sacred burial and archeological grounds that the Lakota people were given free access to by treaties with the U.S. Government in the 19th Century. In mounting their resistance to the pipeline, the Standing Rock Sioux have been turned into “trespassers on their own land.”

    In late August, the tribe’s lawyers filed a stop work petition in federal court detailing areas where sacred sites would be disturbed if construction continued on its planned trajectory. The federal judge routinely forwarded a copy of the filing to DAPL. Over Labor Day weekend, when the company would not have been expected to work, pipeline crews leapfrogged to the disputed sacred and preemptively bulldozed them under. Too late, the judge granted the Sioux an emergency restraining order, but, then in a curious move, allowed construction in some areas where sacred sites have been discovered. DAPL has ignored a request from the Obama administration not to work in buffer areas on either side of the river. No fines have been imposed for intentionally bulldozing the disputed sacred sites.

  • The Legal Case for Blocking the Dakota Access Pipeline


  • Burial ground at center of police confrontations is known historical site


  • In recent live-stream videos from the front lines, DAPL-police snipers can be seen perched on top of a sacred mound called Turtle Island, their high-powered rifle crosshairs trained on the water protectors who are standing in prayer in the frigid lake below.

    North Dakota wants the federal government to pick up the tab for the massive expenditures required to keep the Native Americans under their guns. Alternatively, the CEO of Energy Transfers, Kelcy Warren, has offered to pick up the millions-of-dollars tab.

  • ETP CEO Kelcy Warren Says They Have Offered to Pay Protest Related Expenses


  • Native media have documented that DAPL has already been supplying military-style equipment, drones, armored vehicles, riot gear, water canons, concussion grenades and other armaments. The tax-payer-funded and corporate-sponsored front lines phalanx is led by the Morton County Sheriff’s Department, which has local jurisdiction, reinforced by North Dakota State Troopers, North Dakota National Guard units, sheriffs and police from six nearby states—all interpenetrated by DAPL security (while the FBI lurks in the background). A contingent of Hennepin County, Minnesota, Sheriffs’ Deputies were recalled following protests back home. Residents in the state of Ohio are writing letters and calling legislators to express their distress that their law enforcement has been enlisted into this repressive force.

  • Hennepin Co. sheriff's deputies leave Standing Rock protest


  • Native media’s live stream videos show DAPL security teams in mirror-visor helmets and black ops body armor with no identification, mingling with the police, sometimes directing them when and who to mace or pepper spray. They point out media making video for arrest. The big fossil fuel company evidently has plenty of experience dealing with protestors around the world. In their blank, reflecting visors we can see the soulless Darth Vader face of the government-corporate proto-fascist state the U.S. is becoming.

    Of course, this struggle with the Wasi’chu (Lakota word for the white man, meaning literally “takes too much”) is an old story for Native-Americans. In the 18th and 19th centuries it took the form of the Sioux nations trying to hold back the tsunami of colonizers flooding into their ancestral lands, occupying and despoiling them. The big difference now is that the fire-power of the state (think Custer’s 7th Cavalry or present day militarized police) has been fused with vast profit centers dependent for their existence on plundering the earth in the name of energy-squandering lifestyle survival.

    The provocations the water protectors endure take many forms. There is the psychological pressure of constant surveillance: the heavy police presence on the roads around tribal and reservation lands, the DPLA helicopter and a small plane that circle constantly above the encampments; there is the Bureau of Indian Affairs station set up on a knoll to suck out data from the cell phones of anyone in the area. There is the pepper spraying and tasing of water protectors who are praying. There is the more recent blasting of the protectors with freezing water canons in sub zero weather. There is the constant threat of weapons pointed at them. One twitching trigger finger could set off a slaughter.

    The water protectors are unarmed. The resistance movement does not allow guns in the encampments. One day, at one of the front line actions, an armed man showed up with a pistol and began firing. Possibly he was paid by DAPL to create an incident. The Natives are aware of paid provocateurs or agitators passing through the camps, pulling dirty tricks, looking to start something. Antimedia reported about the man with the gun: “According to an official statement from the tribe, the man fired several shots from his gun before being peacefully apprehended by tribal police. Witnesses at the scene say he pointed his gun at several protesters. The man was clearly trying to provoke violence that could later be used to demonize protesters who have so far remained peaceful.”

    The news site added, “The Morton County Sheriff’s Department circulated a false report claiming the man was shot, presumably by protesters… [As images show], the man was not harmed. The Sheriff’s Department has since retracted that report. Anti-Media’s attempts to obtain clarifying comments from Morton County Sheriffs were ignored.”

  • Dakota Access Caught Infiltrating Protests to Incite Violence, Funding Trolls Online


  • On a hill overlooking Oceti Sakowin, the largest of the Standing Rock encampments, an old army tent houses the field office of the rotating teams of lawyers who come to Standing Rock to help out. They use donations made to the resistance to bail out protectors who have been arrested; they try to negotiate with the police so the protectors can be allowed to pray. The constant arrests on trumped-up charges are an ongoing harassment—people maced or beaten, violently thrown to the ground and zip-tied. Often activists are charged with trespass and “riot” on the Morton County Sheriff’s novel legal theory that if several people are arrested for trespass that must signify that they were engaged in a riot.

    All this naturally requires court time and money to defend, incarceration in usually unpleasant conditions, including dog kennels. (Though the white allies who are arrested seem to get better treatment.)

    Arrests are to be expected as a consequence of civil disobedience. But some arrests are directed at chilling speech. One lawyer who came to Standing Rock from the Oregon-based Civil Liberties Defense Center, an activist defense nonprofit primarily involved in climate protests, https://cldc.org/ told Jordan Chariton of The Young Turks Network that often after the day’s action was over, police would stop the last cars in the caravan. They would then make “snatch and grab” arrests, impounding the cars of people who had come to support the water protectors but had no expectation that they’d be arrested when the action was over and the police told them to leave. They have to pay heavy fines ($900) to get their cars back. She said the arrests and impoundment fines for their cars are unlawful. “The intention with those types of actions is to scare out-of-towners from being comfortable coming to these actions. So they’re trying to chill the rights of others to come and participate in these protests.”

  • Environmental Lawyer Explains Standing Rock Legal Issues




  • The authorities regularly characterize the natives as terrorists, and local radio spreads false rumors of farm animals being slaughtered and stolen, reported vandalism—the kind of thing you would expect from psychologically projected homesteader fears about savage Indians of earlier centuries.

    Yes, Magazine on Oct. 31 reported: “The county sheriff is claiming the water protectors were violent and that police were stopping a riot. But hours of live video feed from people caught in the confrontation showed instead a military-style assault on unarmed people: police beating people with batons, police with assault rifles, chemical mace, guns firing rubber bullets and beanbag rounds, tasers.”

  • Why Police From 7 Different States Invaded a Standing Rock Camp—and Other Questions


  • The UN has sent human rights observers. According to Salon, Nov. 16, 2016: “The U.N. special rapporteur said that American law enforcement officials, private security firms and the North Dakota National Guard have used unjustified force against protesters.

    “ ‘This is a troubling response to people who are taking action to protect natural resources and ancestral territory in the face of profit-seeking activity,’ [Maina] Kiai [U.N. special rapporteur] said in his statement, which was issued by the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights and was endorsed by several other U.N. experts.

  • Native Americans facing excessive force in North Dakota pipeline protests – UN expert


  • “At least 400 activists have been detained and often have been held in ‘inhuman and degrading conditions in detention,’ Kiai added. Some indigenous protesters have said they were treated like animals and even held in dog kennels.

  • Dakota pipeline protesters say they were detained in dog kennels; 268 arrested in week of police crackdown


  • “ ‘Marking people with numbers and detaining them in overcrowded cages, on the bare concrete floor, without being provided with medical care, amounts to inhuman and degrading treatment,’ the U.N. expert said.

    “ ‘The excessive use of State security apparatus to suppress protest against corporate activities that are alleged to violate human rights is wrong,’ he continued, noting that it violates U.N. guidelines on business and human rights.

    “Amnesty International USA, which has repeatedly criticized authorities for not respecting the rights of protesters, issued another statement on Tuesday noting that U.S. authorities had put up roadblocks to prevent journalists and human rights observers from documenting the protests and the official response.”

  • U.N. experts call for halt in Dakota Access pipeline, blast “excessive force” against protesters


  • Living on Earth reporter Sandy Tolan reflected: “You know, at times I felt I was back reporting in the West Bank, and not the Northern Plains…”

  • Standing With the Standing Rock Sioux


  • The Bundy crew was the cowboys, not the Indians

    Compare the government response at Standing Rock with the response occasioned by Ammon Bundy and his gang of armed militants when they occupied Oregon’s Malheur National Wildlife Refuge for over a month in January 2016. Imagine if the Bundy gang had been pepper sprayed, beaten, hit with water cannon, tased. But the Bundy crew were taking over the refuge to proclaim their belief that public lands should be given free to the profit-making private ranching business. In other words, the Bundy crew was the cowboys, not the Indians.

    The mainstream corporate media has largely ignored the stand-off at Standing Rock. Rallies have taken place around the world at places like Tokyo, Stockholm, and Auckland, but the sad truth is many foreigners have heard more about Standing Rock than Americans have. Not surprising. The news editors, working for corporate media conglomerates, choose what they believe we should know and what fits the larger corporate agenda, and so they devote massively more play to Brad Pitt, to the gossipy politics of who’s-on-first, and to whatever the latest glittering consumer thing is than they do to climate change and issues highlighted by the poor and the powerless, like Standing Rock. What coverage that does exist is usually cursory and misleading.

    Fortunately, alternative media have been on the scene and active at Standing Rock. As someone who taught journalism for more nearly 20 years, it has been refreshing for me to see what the alternative press is accomplishing.

    Amy Goodman of the webcast Democracy Now brought the prayer-resistance movement to national attention over the summer. She was arrested and charged with riot in absentia for her live reports of water protectors being set upon by dogs. The charge was later dismissed in court.

    Jordan Chariton of The Young Turks Network has done searching interviews and incisive commentary from the scene.

    But my absolute favorite news source at Standing Rock is Myron Dewey’s Digital Smoke Signals. Dewey does updates every day, which he posts on Facebook. I highly recommend anyone who has a Facebook account to “follow” him. I went to Standing Rock on Oct. 4-11 with two friends and I have since been able to keep up with developments on the ground through Dewey’s Facebook broadcasts. He posts live stream unedited clips that constitute what he calls an ongoing “documentation” of what is happening day-to-day at the movement.

    Here is Dewey at night standing on a hillside next to the Oceti Sakowin encampment. His face appears in the glow of his screen. Then he’s panning and zooming in on a large grassfire as he’s telling us about it. His finger appears in the screen and points out where the fire started. He says the helicopter which constantly circulates over the camp suddenly disappeared 20 minutes before they saw the first flames. He zooms to the area where he and the person he is with first spotted the fire. He says, “It looked like someone using a drip torch.” He says they called 911, but it’s been over an hour and the Morton County Fire Department hasn’t shown up. He tells the people in the camp, his audience, not to worry, though. It looks like the fire was started by DAPL employees to scare them or hurt them. But the Oceti Sakowin is full of Indians who supplement their income by wild-land firefighting, work that also benefits Mother Earth; he mentions that he is himself a “hotshot” firefighter [one of the elite crews]. He and his fellow firefighters can tell by the wind direction that the fire won’t harm the camp.

    Now here’s Dewey on a bright morning walking along the road by Oceti Sakowin. A young man appears on screen, and Dewey asks him who he is and why he’s here. He’s from the Paiute nation. “I’m here to protect the water,” he says. Dewey asks him to sing a Paiute song. The young man closes his eyes and sings.

    In another nighttime broadcast find we ourselves looking through a car windshield, headlights illuminating the highway, centerlines whizzing by. We hear voices talking in the backseat. The car drives on and on. We’re just watching the road. Then ahead is a police roadblock. The police van looms. Dewey gets out with his camera and calls over to the officers, asks them where they’re from, inquires about where the road blocks are, what are the open routes. At one level it’s a mundane exchange between a citizen and police, but you experience the edginess of the situation. More deeply, you feel the riskiness and pathos that is involved any human interaction. Dewey firmly exercises his right to have these protect-and-serve police respond to him civilly; he is cordial and respectful in a way that reinforces to them and to his viewers that he is after all not their enemy but a fellow human being. Dewey asks more questions and the lead officer says he doesn’t want to be filmed; Dewey offers to turn his camera away from them and onto himself. The distant officers disappear from the screen and Dewey’s face fills it. The contact officer walks nearer; we can hear his voice. Dewey can’t resist a joke, though. He asks the officer if he’s sure he doesn’t want to become famous by putting his face on Dewey’s screen? You realize these are just guys doing their job. Dewey understands that, but he also wants to educate them about the water protectors’ mission. He never misses an opportunity to educate his adversary, as well as his own people about the larger dimensions of the Standing Rock resistance. When he gets back in the car, someone in the back seat says “Let’s get out of here; this is enemy territory.” Dewey laughs, turning the car around, “It’s not enemy territory.”

    I believe you learn more about Standing Rock by watching Dewey’s unedited video than you ever could from watching any number of dramatically produced, commercially constricted reports on CNN, complete with the drumb-drumb latest crisis theme music.

    Dewey explains to his viewers that what they’re seeing is a “documentation” that’s not edited. “It’s not scripted. It’s not acted out.”

    After a month of watching Dewey’s daily reports I realize more fully than I ever have before how ghastly and vacuous mainstream news reporting is: a production where facts have been emptied of the humanity of real encounters, replaced by the shallow performances of reporters and news sources, slick, clichéd phrasing, behavior slotted into ready made categories, events analyzed and even predigested. The news about reality comes to us compartmentalized in trays like tasteless microwave dinners. Rarely is the reader or viewer allowed to simply experience the event unfolding through the reporter’s eyes or camera. The stories are crafted and slickly packaged. Their very polish and stimulating presentation sabotages their meaning and replaces it with a meaningless, artificial understanding.

    Note that I am not saying that the news these days is politically biased. Some obviously is, but the left or right bias charge is a serious red herring, a mis-direction. In fact, in mainstream media’s very effort to appear neutral and unbiased means events are chopped up and pieced together to fit the templates of a few hackneyed forms of storytelling: the winner-loser story, the conflict story, the individual overcoming obstacles story, the facing bad choices stories, he-said, she-said stories, scandal stories, hypocrisy stories. You’ve seen them all, repeatedly.

    Most of these templates come plated with a cynicism, skepticism, superiority, or sentimentality that grabs our attention by adding a dash of disgust. The current journalistic manner of telling stories reduces and dismisses the story in a way that sometimes makes the commercials and pop-up ads come as a relief. None of the common journalistic templates or attitude has much to do with real life as it’s lived in the moment. It’s not what people really experience in their lives. Instead, it’s how they’ve been conditioned to wrap up experience afterward in a dramatized way that leaches out the nuance, that leaves out the moment-to-moment uncertainty, or as the Lakota call it, the Wakan, the deep mystery of relationships that permeates every event. And that’s what Dewey’s broadcasts have in abundance. You get to see him interacting with the people who show up on his screen. You get to feel his humanity and the mystery of everyday relationships taking place at Standing Rock that he brings to light. It’s certainly not dramatic or melodramatic. It’s not interesting or stimulating in the usual way. It does seem really important.

    So when Dewey sits in his parked car and does an update video on “10 things to know about DAPL” (Nov. 18, 2016), there’s no editing and no script, meaning that you get to see him thinking through what those top 10 things might be. Some points he makes are incisive and comic, others not so much. But the not-so-much ones can lead you to thinking about gray areas, the imprecise observations we all make. He asks a guy who just got in the car to help out with his list and the guy, William Hawk Birdshead, goes immediately serious on him until Dewey says, “I was trying to keep it light.” So the Birdshead says, “Laughter is good medicine.” Suddenly they’re off. Dewey mimics the shifty-eyed look of the FBI guys lurking around the area and denying they are FBI, the DAPL security characters trying to look all steely and tough. We learn that in the encampments they say that “DAPL dresses up like Ninja Turtles.” You can tell that it’s DAPL undercover because those guys never drive rez cars, which are rusted and dented. Nobody is spared. Dewey describes the water protectors just arriving from California as dudes who’ve “got their animal spirits on… They’re all furred up. They’re coming in all mystical and crystals.” He and his buddy laugh, which Dewey says is laughter “in a good way,” because the whole thing going on at Standing Rock is deadly serious but you need laughter, because that’s good medicine for healing. And healing and praying are about “getting reconnected with the Earth.”

    This points to a major difference between anthropocentric prayer as most of us know it and earth-mind prayer. In the prayer that most people are familiar with, an individual seeks intercession for human needs with a transcendent being. The Native prayer is about healing not getting. The prayer is a community ceremony or song or ritual to maintain or restore the balance between and among beings, both animate and inanimate. Prayer is to all my relatives, all my relations, the birds, the water, the wind, the buffalo, my family, even those who oppose me as enemies. Mitakuye Oyasin is an important Lakota phrase that means “all my relations.” When you’re watching a Dewey update from Standing Rock you’re experiencing Mitakuye Oyasin in action. It’s newscasting as a kind of prayer, in the earth-mind sense. Whether he’s engaging in laughter or educating about the spiritual importance of water, you can see that what he’s getting at is healing relationships. Watching and listening, you get to be part of that healing.

    What Dewey does goes way beyond advocacy journalism.

    Our traveling companion for our visit to Standing Rock, Lakota elder Tiokasin Ghosthorse, also provides a good way to keep up with developments through the interviews he conducts for his weekly syndicated broadcast from WPKN in Bridgeport Conn. and WBAI in New York City. On Oct. 31, 2016, Tiokasin interviewed a young man who was seized on Oct. 27 when a frontline camp was destroyed by police. Trenton Joseph Castillas Bakeberg, in the bloodline of Crazy Horse, was praying in a sweat lodge when the militarized police swept through the camp. They yanked him out of the sweat lodge and arrested him. The young water protector told Tiokasin:

    “I pray that we’ll be able to keep a state of prayer and peace, as we have been… Although there’s some people on our side are more likely to tend toward violence. But there’s also people on our side to stop them. Don’t start a fight. That’s what it’s all about, keeping it peaceful because the elders told us in the beginning that all it takes is one single act of violence, one person attacking a police officer and they’ll unleash the fear on all of us. This wrath that we have with our military overseas, we’re beginning to see it now in the heart of our own country. All for the greed and the corporate interests of this government. They say we’re a democracy but it’s not showing anymore. The people didn’t want this pipeline, but this foreign entity that they call a corporation, Energy Transfers, is saying, we don’t care. We want this money. We need this for economic stability of the country and that somehow trumps the interests of our communities and our nation as a whole….We’re standing up to this corporate machine with prayer and love.”

  • Forcibly removed from prayer at Standing Rock


  • Against a heavily armed, corporatized democracy designed to ensure that only powerful business and political elites rule the land and possess the wealth of its objects, the Native-American people at Standing Rock stand in defense of Mother Earth armed with songs, prayers, and an understanding that Earth’s objects are us, and we are them. They are our relatives. It seems better armament than most of us Wasi’shu possess. Webster defines fascism as “a political system headed by a dictator in which the government controls business and labor and opposition is not permitted.” It’s an incendiary word, and readers might think ill of me for introducing it here. Certainly we are not a fascist state yet. But for the prayer-resistance at Standing Rock, the clear alliance between corporate and government interests to quell their opposition under color of the law has a fascist flavor.

    It should not surprise anyone that the new US president reportedly holds stocks that directly fund the Dakota Access Pipeline and that the DAPL CEO Kelcy Warren gave the Trump campaign a substantial donation.

  • Trump's Personal Investments Ride on Completion of Dakota Access Pipeline


  • This is how the proto-fascism works. Ironically (or perhaps absurdly), Trump may have been elected by people hoping he would somehow counter the tightening grip of multinational corporations on their lives. One might wish for that to happen.

    At a deep level, Standing Rock may suggest that such absurdities as a Trump presidency occur because our mode of consciousness is impaired or inadequate to the situation it has created on our planet at this historical time. Too many of us have gone dead to the natural world we come from. Our obsessive anthropocentric mode of consciousness has reduced nature and reality at large to a bunch of things we have names for—things that feed our greed. Fortunately, many Indigenous people have retained an acute and ancient consciousness that we are those rocks and trees and clouds, and birds and water that we see outside our windows, and that restoring our relationships with them is incumbent on us.

    John Briggs is emeritus distinguished Professor of Writing and Aesthetics from Western Connecticut State University. He was the English Department’s journalism coordinator for 18 years and was one of the founders of Western’s Department of Writing, Linguistics, and Creative Process. He is the author of several well-known books on chaos theory, fractals and creativity. He lives in the hilltown of Granville, Mass., where served as a Selectman for five years and as reserve police officer for 10 years.


    When people at Standing Rock talk about the black snake they mean the pipeline, referring to an old Sioux legend about a black snake that will threaten the end of the world. The Lakota prophet Black Elk said that in the seventh generation, the Sioux tribes would unite to save the world.

    Media covering the Standing Rock resistance movement:

  • Digital Smoke Signals


  • Myron Dewey, Facebook


  • The Antimedia


  • Democracy Now


  • The Intercept


  • The Guardian


  • Censored News


  • Unicorn Riot


  • Living on Earth


  • The Indigenous Environmental Network


  • Status of Standing Rock court claim



  •           Largest ever dinosaur may have been as long as 7 elephants        
    Analysis of fossils from six Patagotitan mayorum dinosaurs suggests the animals may have weighed 62 tonnes and measured more than 35 metres from nose to tail
              Big, armoured dinosaur still had camouflage to evade predators        
    The world’s most impressively preserved dinosaur fossil reveals that the 5.5-metre-long Borealopelta had camouflage despite its heavy armour
              Uno de Nosotros-One of us        


    "If seeing meant that you would have to believe
    In things like heaven and in jesus and the saints and all the prophets"

    If you don't have the will to make your dreams come true , you will not see that you have that power. Seeing is not believing, you need to have faith and will. You can do anything you want, just trust yourself, fight and never let go of your dreams!
    I hope you will start the week with a great tonus and start following your dreams!
    The giveaway winner is Mary Somerville-congratulations Mary!

    Trebuie sa vezi ca sa crezi? Atunci nu vei ajunge niciunde. Daca nu ai credinta ca iti poti face visele sa se implineasca, nu o sa le vezi implinite ca sa poti crede ca sunt reale.
    Poti face ce vrei in viata, daca ai vointa, ambitie si lupti fara incetare in ceva ce crezi, in ceva ce iti doresti sa realizezi.
    Sper ca o sa incepeti saptamana cu tonus bun , si de la prima ora o sa faceti ceva pentru visul vostru!
    Sa anunt si castigatoarea giveaway-ului: Mary Somerville! Felicitari!











    THE ART OF THE (TRUMP AND PUTIN) DEAL

    Say you’re Vladimir Putin, and you did a deal with Trump last year. Whether there was such a deal is being investigated. But if you are Putin and you did do a deal, what might Trump have agreed to do for you? 

    1. Repudiate NATO. NATO is the biggest thorn in your side – the alliance that both humiliates you and stymies your ambitions. Trump seemed intent to deliver on this during his recent European trip by bullying members about payments and seemingly not reaffirming Article 5 of the pact, which states that any attack on one NATO ally is an attack on all. (He’s backtracked on this since then, under pressure from Congress.)

    2. Antagonize Europe, especially Angela Merkel. She’s the strongest leader in the West other than Trump, and you’d love to drive a wedge between the United States and Germany. Your larger goal is for Europe to no longer depend on the United States, so you can increase your influence in Europe. Trump has almost delivered on this, too. Merkel is already saying Europe can no longer depend on America.

    3. Take the United States out of the Paris accord on the environment. This will anger America’s other allies around the world and produce a wave of anti-Americanism – all to your advantage. You’d also love for the whole Paris accord to unravel because you want the world to remain dependent on fossil fuels. Russia is the world’s second-largest exporter of oil after Saudi Arabia, and biggest exporter of natural gas. And the oil and gas industry contributes about half the revenues to your domestic budget. And, hey, there’s also all those Arctic ports that are opening up now that the earth is warming. Trump has delivered on this. 

    4. Embark on a new era of protectionism. Or at least anti-trade rhetoric. This will threaten the West’s economic interdependence and loosen America’s economic grip on the rest of the world. Trump is on the way to delivering on this one.

    5. End the economic sanctions on Russia, imposed by the United States in 2014. Oil production on land is falling so you want to tap the vast petroleum and gas reserves offshore in the Arctic. In 2011, you and ExxonMobil’s Rex Tillerson, signed a $500 billion deal to do this. But the sanctions stopped it cold. Trump has promised to lift them, but he hasn’t delivered on this yet, because he has got to cope with all the suspicions in America about his deal with you. Once it dies down, he’ll end the sanctions. In the meantime, he’ll give you back the two compounds that were seized by the Obama administration when the U.S. intelligence discovered you’d interfered in the election.

    And what might you have agreed to do for Trump in return? 

    Two things: First, you’d help him win the presidency, by hacking into Democratic Party servers, leaking the results, sending millions of fake news stories about Hillary to targeted voters, and tapping into voter lists. 

    Second, after he was elected, you’d shut up about your help so Trump wouldn’t be impeached and convicted of treason.

    In other words, if you did a deal, you both still have every incentive to fulfill your side of it. That’s the art of the deal.


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    Cacturne
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 B5B5FCBBCFCC8751
    Camerupt
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 B5A578B46F1B591B
    Carvanha
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 0A70DC5617BA6B8E
    Cascoon
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 528A0B971B7D1DB1
    Castform
    32D2BE301538D5E2
    Caterpie
    A3AFC93BCAE30FEC
    Celebi
    98A9EF2FD4933FE0
    Chansey
    5F4739E594A6717F
    Charizard
    86FC5D2E2AB49BE7
    Charmander
    8EF2FF70229DABA2
    Charmeleon
    025F2921710FE9F1
    Chikorita
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 145A57F6ADDF1B3A
    Chimecho
    741082FC8EF7B960
    Chinchou
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 944B4BE8D05C678B
    Clamperl
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 CA8B36FCDF163AA9
    Claydol
    A245B05BDBA62586
    Clefable
    0A960AD32D88FB71
    Clefairy
    586090DB2EAC760B
    Cleffa
    6D655CDB8564F3D6
    Cloyster
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 7CAD36227FCCA6ED
    Combusken
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 23DAFA415B1ADBC8
    Corphish
    E3CBB814F78A0FF1
    Corsola
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 A87F5761834F0FF9
    Cradily
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 2E666CF332395439
    Crawdaunt
    BA64CBD74C67DA0E
    Crobat
    7171EB15E4ADEA22
    Croconaw
    AF9A564317D23C50
    Cubone
    F3595519C41CB89F
    Cyndaquil
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 601F8154A460B6A7
    Delcatty
    8C2E6741D5F172A4
    Delibird
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 8C5DE8C8A33E9D88
    Deoxys
    E4A84A01E8F5F70B
    Dewgong
    4E0E095399832EC7
    Diglett
    5FD5479B25F61E5C
    Ditto
    CCF9E49B5E4CADA8
    Dodrio
    C86D9E0AD50F5094
    Doduo
    CBBEF9DC682596BC
    Donphan
    F4BD50DA1B890A51
    Dragonair
    B67EB1994491FC62
    Dragonite
    52F5EC2DDDD29409
    Dratini
    BA6D6DF7DE9213D6
    Drowzee
    CFBDF08694AFF44C
    Dugtrio
    E5355F5F23DE47E9
    Dunsparce
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 359F51861F36099C
    Dusclops
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 BD8E35D5CF92A431
    Duskull
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 72F95810DB6FB4EF
    Dustox
    6817CACBB3725546
    Eevee
    9746090A9B13D34A
    Ekans
    EE7D62E6377677A7
    Electabuzz
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 4E39C71B8B168004
    Electrike
    BA4A7DEEB6786158
    Electrode
    C5D22480A2CCC775
    Elekid
    ACE71E49475ACE5A
    Entei
    B33E1632D7F709D0
    Espeon
    771695BD9D8BE844
    Exeggcute
    84689B70FD33AE82
    Exeggutor
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 A587A72ACAA20267
    Exploud
    0AD1026900EF2DDC
    Farfetch'd
    1B5E43BD9713080E
    Fearow
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 D884D95282F6FD48
    Feebas
    918632C39DDE2DBB
    Feraligatr
    3FE2F064BB639BA3
    Flaaffy
    B6691108227D02B3
    Flareon
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 B02489453BC0030F
    Flygon
    1EAC10AAD4B2DF5D
    Foretress
    D8607109AD28DB09
    Furret
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 2BE7AED3B9751EC5
    Gardevoir
    5F526032B3FFFCE0
    Gastly
    EA51AA85C39E59D4
    Gengar
    F49F0B961CDA9CDE
    Geodude
    AFD25289DC56A0CD
    Girafarig
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 CB8E1E838A0B06FF
    Glalie
    D48A22E1A90FC70A
    Gligar
    191292AD8DA00EED
    Gloom
    3955CE261CBBE2B7
    Golbat
    F29255BCBB65E9A6
    Goldeen
    E668AE7B6C41ABE6
    Golduck
    981E564320350C5C
    Golem
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E1490F1B5F6C7656C3B9
    Gorebyss
    D2F305AD7D077739
    Granbull
    33202BC84B640AB3
    Graveler
    1C079E020E278333
    Grimer
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 299CE04B43341CDD
    Groudon
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 21F8BC366CC818B7
    Grovyle
    22B7647CF5951FC0
    Growlithe
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 8F6C9E12CB96CE33
    Grumpig
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 179DCADEC474D278
    Gulpin
    EA48F52876018F4F
    Gyarados
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 53D971FF007FAAEB
    Hariyama
    973AB5D9C4DD3650
    Haunter
    088236A9C6933F92
    Heracross
    513811EAEFBC54A8
    Hitmonchan
    29025DA46C67823C
    Hitmonlee
    A5C5D439AE264439
    Hitmontop
    92BB8BD9629E2D58
    Ho-oh
    78A0CD579A371B1F
    Hoothoot
    3BED40A5C056C098
    Hoppip
    A4EBBAA472E72233
    Horsea
    7FCE2C2638425484
    Houndoom
    A99587CCA49BC248
    Houndour
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 5669AB79CAF18B71
    Huntail
    E4A57331BFD72F7E
    Hypno
    E5C58F0E70ACBAAA
    Igglybuff
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 6D88B6F968D141AB
    Illumise
    AC386FDCE1057B11
    Ivysaur
    9D6FDEB59E31E1D8
    Jigglypuff
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 FBC061A9072FC320
    Jirachi
    67F9841DE968DA3D
    Jolteon
    4A91807F7E5AE2BC
    Jumpluff
    E9B195209876042D
    Jynx
    F86734D5046D3F8F
    Kabuto
    922559183F823AF8
    Kabutops
    82A3DA434AFAFC8E
    Kadabra
    2C90148596BF028B
    Kakuna
    F5CAF2C4EEB3D467
    Kangaskhan
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C07D2D075B6C82F2
    Kecleon
    FB5F56E3F2427C25
    Kingdra
    93F26FDC1621EFBB
    Kingler
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 9B8D1405198957C8
    Kirlia
    3B75EE991DE0E837
    Koffing
    3F1B3D68D4401611
    Krabby
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 9EFEC4E6F24D5813
    Kyogre
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 D4EFF5BB1311E2E8
    Lairon
    13534CCF5BB92C8C
    Lanturn
    24D3EE0E404F7B3D
    Lapras
    4C3FD6DDA72A38D9
    Larvitar
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 EA64214226D6E5A6
    Latias
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 79870CB095729832
    Latios
    349C7EAC1092228D
    Ledian
    50757C7AA393D46A
    Ledyba
    5E065A174F8282B0
    Lickitung
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 4BEFDC30B4192001
    Lileep
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 61DBEB9F92DBFA58
    Linoone
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149A755369B4BD7F6F1
    Lombre
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 2D5A7BBB525EF393
    Lotad
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 67E17F195D6EDD71
    Loudred
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 A20A4542D79124D0
    Ludicolo
    E57F3F7864F944D0
    Lugia
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 372CE7DBA9C8EB5E
    Lunatone
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 938CB852F9BB4D41
    Luvdisc
    D03BF77285346D77
    Machamp
    596DD0CA422404AF
    Machoke
    754794BB393FBB5E
    Machop
    C6A84B78810CD4FC
    Magby
    20CBDC4C87541E08
    Magcargo
    7C77F1892570754C
    Magikarp
    608711AD052765EC
    Magmar
    CCBFCC6A6B608D39
    Magnemite
    A772B75BC41A2001
    Magneton
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 E1F4794A887F06BF
    Makuhita
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 3A4F2D33CBF5A1B4
    Manectric
    16FE10289A936148
    Mankey
    F554A963EDA859B6
    Mantine
    B3323FA400976EED
    Mareep
    76ECA4FF35F8C4F9
    Marill
    B3A12885D5D4DA48
    Marowak
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 29BA2D42D510FFBA
    Marshtomp
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 BB6A3047431DFCFF
    Masquerain
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 FC8A82EA704658D9
    Mawile
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 85B4AF9A41D7B768
    Medicham
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 E9D1D48800D975CA
    Meditite
    09C6FA0D4F0F5773
    Meganium
    4107EE5459F45AC6
    Meowth
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 E62FCE6B99A4823D
    Metagross
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 72B850FD79DE57D2
    Metang
    AF02EDC2534F3FF1
    Metapod
    71E09BD117FDFD02
    Mew
    30621E6F164FED85
    Mewtwo
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 37A90703F49DE0B4
    Mightyena
    A454BB281CEC3F83
    Miltank
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 8F700F622CA08221
    Milotic
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 AC9122B26257AAE0
    Minun
    38744E791BFB4656
    Misdreavus
    A265FB705EAE2980
    Moltres
    9FC2557019FFADC8
    Mr.Mime
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 2E05069411BC05B3
    Mudkip
    88E7528B4EDE64E8
    Muk
    F3BA401D74110D94
    Murkrow
    F4462DB1AF5C874E
    Natu
    83AF0E64308DCF7A
    Nidoking
    A4115F36A58D2F6E
    Nidoqueen
    D98621833DC52ADF
    Nidoran H
    115EE33A047E08D9
    Nidoran M
    340466380412FF7B
    Nidorina
    E6FAC0215BFBC7E4
    Nidorino
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 55513D199B3DE2D4
    Nincada
    8B104BC53BBB0554
    Ninetales
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 957DE792C4607DA8
    Ninjask
    FBDBF52B3623B52C
    Noctowl
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C446CE3B97CD0DC3
    Nosepass
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 D2583A425BE8CB0E
    Numel
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 189F92E1D21F4478
    Nuzleaf
    9202ED83F6B41A95
    Octillery
    FD90C5C22B982804
    Oddish
    BA9282BB1ADDD98B
    Omanyte
    F01152ED876CFF58
    Omastar
    43CBABBBB7155781
    Onix
    28F47730F2BE0E37
    Paras
    8F320452F34DE558
    Parasect
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 1DB3DE68672324D6
    Pelipper
    574E9E37CF91E972
    Persian
    8F5688F458987C65
    Phanpy
    AE371D2FDBA3CE4E
    Pichu
    ED21FD834D34C446
    Pidgeot
    B5A3B3244A2ABD7E
    Pidgeotto
    FB5B7B2ECB8F711B
    Pidgey
    76575913837E7434
    Pikachu
    1AEE78F1D6412BED
    Piloswine
    AB82F0EE7D884FB9
    Pineco
    525180240E93A551
    Pinsir
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 84F628669F914B8B
    Plusle
    5BA115A03330A906
    Politoed
    DDCAE2B248356075
    Poliwag
    7522AE0F219A6D01
    Poliwhirl
    9895E70849248155
    Poliwrath
    3EBEFE1EA8493773
    Ponyta
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 99A5DB56D3F68AE7
    Poochyena
    D763E945C958628C
    Porygon
    F24D39631DE32FEB
    Porygon2
    29B920D4925D9207
    Primeape
    10CAB90DFBA1D606
    Psyduck
    C9AC6A5E6A92796A
    Pupitar
    6E59C1C960930723
    Quagsire
    B962659CFD1C1893
    Quilava
    7148B7F0D8D53003
    Qwilfish
    44DC46432E37823B
    Raichu
    BCFEE7CDB19EA1CF
    Raikou
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 CA880BEE01C3CE5E
    Ralts
    3D7098F8603A63BA
    Rapidash
    CBB024C33D4E94CF
    Raticate
    3F2FF398386736A6
    Rattata
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C5946A0E65BE02B0
    Rayquaza
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 6F5F7F3EFEA00143
    Regice
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 CE51186D3686F6D2
    Regirock
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 349C482149728D68
    Registeel
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E1497B29CACCD014F65D
    Relicanth
    4D67593131AC8869
    Remoraid
    195DB2BBA4007417
    Rhydon
    A50BBA40C59DE2FE
    Rhyhorn
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 B0DA39C505276564
    Roselia
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 17592A4C2C72F873
    Sableye
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 F683728DA1CB7A38
    Salamence
    A90E57848E3070F2
    Sandshrew
    DB655BDA4885F2BA
    Sandslash
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 5157CACF5EB25845
    Sceptile
    FA2F872FB24A679F
    Scizor
    C4C02E8BCB6C0843
    Scyther
    CFC5CD163BFE5AED
    Seadra
    C0BF93BBDF9273D4
    Seaking
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 CE85182FFEAF53F9
    Sealeo
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 DB37D9E1B8BA4066
    Seedot
    0C2314C919D3DAD8
    Seel
    6BC6D1883A1559EB
    Sentret
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 6E2ED8A024431D98
    Seviper
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C62B84580FC8B29A
    Sharpedo
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 665C2F42369D779C
    Shedinja
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 5CFB59B9D08C1A10
    Shelgon
    1EA5B82C6AE3C655
    Shellder
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 8DC39BCF3F710E3E
    Shiftry
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C5FFADC845F66362
    Shroomish
    919B1A5D72F996F6
    Shuckle
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 5DBF2FCF30E8F421
    Shuppet
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 8183477EE90ADD46
    Silcoon
    7E5EFBAAF9D18289
    Skarmory
    A200463BD753895E
    Skiploom
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 D7DF0A988D70EB4D
    Skitty
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 2B48952F978365BD
    Slaking
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 0F8A29BA2C2D1529
    Slakoth
    14A9A5E73C6D8285
    Slowbro
    D7E57A96CC7B875E
    Slowking
    33AD5E4E1F464A59
    Slowpoke
    2B169F23E11514BC
    Slugma
    36066CF966A42091
    Smeargle
    D035F68752B30C9D
    Smoochum
    663BCF6FE0AC9C73
    Sneasel
    65B08809FC26812C
    Snorlax
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 2817970AE0F6D0E4
    Snorunt
    5EB71E4A7E4F4C2B
    Snubbull
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 D2CE7A4B797F7E89
    Solrock
    D50BE2E3E9AC080B
    Spearow
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 D4515AC17C2BD132
    Spheal
    1BCCE89836AE52D4
    Spinarak
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E14955429ABD95D438C4
    Spinda
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 8EA4FCB93A913D4D
    Spoink
    F18A71B3474EF1FF
    Squirtle
    F289D9072638EA9B
    Stantler
    56831CCB1A47A4DC
    Starmie
    3B32D43049596504
    Staryu
    E5181BD87D70413E
    Steelix
    8A0F695E0306DC83
    Sudowoodo
    0C0BC2BE64E725C6
    Suicune
    EA4F4358A731A363
    Sunflora
    BCD70C60DC720840
    Sunkern
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C246C624FDB5125D
    Surskit
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 0DA20954262C11C0
    Swablu
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 0A68434581A60674
    Swalot
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 B8C7D72F087B6595
    Swampert
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 1DA4F7E6F247F39A
    Swellow
    432D0CD9868F6A6A
    Swinub
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 451597F6A1578DD9
    Taillow
    B1510A8B506644ED
    Tangela
    3ED3C52A46C14BD1
    Tauros
    4536DAC419FE88AB
    Teddiursa
    36F4CD32ACE8CCB4
    Tentacool
    B3106F93C70F4300
    Tentacruel
    F656D5214B02FC73
    Togepi
    53F6DE66941BAC84
    Togetic
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E1499DB4C3198219060A
    Torchic
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 F85BC8EB7CF30E57
    Torkoal
    658B55E601699F03
    Totodile
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 F406B3200DAA38F6
    Trapinch
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 5BAE22AD8F7D3013
    Treecko
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 0BB19CBCFA943A3E
    Tropius
    4281A0400FD71E37
    Typhlosion
    D9A33817C2429A0C
    Tyranitar
    057BFEC07D24A566
    Tyrogue
    E6FCAD89AF77B153
    Umbreon
    1DEE8D9BC2C80AD7
    Unown
    5668474AF3AEF7A9
    Ursaring
    418E41694A61E666
    Vaporeon
    7498F3A37D8DE734
    Venomoth
    CC91885BA7BDA5D0
    Venonat
    6C0E650D9151DC36
    Venusaur
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 007CC3331A7F8A4A
    Vibrava
    D1797B9BBC093A3F
    Victreebel
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 B3EE281789EA6EFC
    Vigoroth
    7B389B12790FFF7D
    Vileplume
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 BC71207B319D605F
    Volbeat
    6FABB900F3EEEC61
    Voltorb
    E9243AE60707C461
    Vulpix
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 6870774EDCCF5C26
    Wailmer
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 A36ED36F10EDDF89
    Wailord
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C6B2B1226711B417
    Walrein
    600C15C97A07635B
    Wartortle
    0F02955878490C5D
    Weedle
    29CC9E0EF1D7F477
    Weepinbell
    4878DB3CEA7C31E1
    Weezing
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 B964DDC53615D4B1
    Whiscash
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 D521BFDAF306CE43
    Whismur
    FF704C3BBDE35BC2
    Wigglytuff
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 BB0893DA002DE3DF
    Wingull
    1922B64C93A475E6
    Wobbuffet
    91166348E9B56CFC
    Wooper
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 C3DA6AFF0F7B7083
    Wurmple
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E1494A9EBB58037F6B34
    Wynaut
    51CAB7300E9283C0
    Xatu
    7D316ADF4B760643
    Yanma
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 8CEF1F80060461DD
    Zangoose
    9C30E2E21F157234
    Zapdos
    82FBD860AE242721313D2BCE9004E149 CBA3EA0392726DCC
    Zigzagoon
    A5F54B4743289103
    Zubat
    Para cambiar los movimientos hay que dirigirse al tutor de Pueblo Pardal y llevar Esc. corazón por cada movimiento que se desee elegir. Los códigos funcionan para las versiones en inglés y en español.
    Rubí-Zafiro
    Código
    Movimiento
    CD804409BD10B113
    Absorb
    074C6442220ABF64
    Acid
    E061BA16BF0107CD
    Acid armor
    613500C111945224
    Aerial ace
    FBDCC0FE6E146F91
    Aeroblast
    33085161A6740AC3
    Agility
    F14FA21DC1588DF6
    Air cutter
    19AAE9D9997AE74D
    Amnesia
    6054E98436A92C49
    Ancientpower
    9AE90AFEC682750E
    Arm thrust
    A16961DC8B61CA64
    Aromatherapy
    D404434C1F15BC9D
    Assist
    10AF8B297A6253E9
    Astonish
    9D8950D44300D7F5
    Attract
    947F47D044102FD8
    Aurora beam
    289E8298385F71CC
    Barrage
    D27E4849651FC94A
    Barrier
    D65E7B4CA5C81544
    Baton pass
    57C3D2883DA2A7DD
    Beat up
    D8E2033FBED0B6F1
    Bide
    0F611A0B92B2A88A
    Bind
    52168A3DFEA31E7B
    Bite
    81648070978B4000
    Blast burn
    71588FDE89E15B38
    Blaze kick
    85B865167978C21A
    Blizzard
    34A6440AD19B604D
    Block
    D9BB46CEDEB824CE
    Body slam
    6E72E0307A4EA6FB
    Bone club
    42A43F9A1677BEB7
    Bone rush
    08AF7ABA27EEE84A
    Bonemerang
    72ABD1C7AD1CA736
    Bounce
    E036AE624FC5FD97
    Brick break
    7D279F8CF3F40435
    Bubble
    DCD8CB2AE5BEEF3E
    Bubblebeam
    149C3CB73E220922
    Bulk up
    ED5FD2B9380F103C
    Bullet seed
    CE10CECF0C787895
    Calm mind
    5830688825610B40
    Camouflage
    C11851C180C84060
    Charge
    AC96D62FAF84E9A5
    Charm
    BF0B0E7550F7C388
    Clamp
    9EC5AF821916B815
    Comet punch
    D8E1C6C6908494AF
    Confuse ray
    B0AABD94336B0754
    Confusion
    F83E8C612D3DFD51
    Constrict
    002F4B3B3B071AEF
    Conversion
    13AADABB589E47F4
    Conversion 2
    63B3B87B910D5B2C
    Cosmic power
    5DA31FFBAC06DF54
    Cotton spore
    57FD854B90E10AED
    Counter
    1931B43F3219C5B5
    Covet
    B607D4E6E191E014
    Crabhammer
    38A3E576C93F4F93
    Cross chop
    65520C7AF808194D
    Crunch
    EDECE8F39F72F6B0
    Crush claw
    DF14B9CBE4546E1B
    Curse
    E6FDBCAA7C2AFD51
    Cut
    78F9E1154BE6235C
    Defense curl
    A27903670794E437
    Destiny bond
    4BFFB2E16756AAEC
    Detect
    0AD9018E810ACF43
    Dig
    A85F0777213A57FA
    Disable
    7580A2D947862666
    Dive
    7991CF06D5AF599E
    Dizzy punch
    FB2AD2A025A8B85E
    Doom desire
    88A98CA5FB3AC17A
    Double kick
    F95B470E884833E7
    Double team
    6248AC262C500465
    Double-edge
    2F1C8F9CB59A5E08
    Doubleslap
    500403C2036889DA
    Dragon claw
    A369A0F94C18A62D
    Dragon dance
    868BC3F98346232E
    Dragon rage
    C53C39A4F022632E
    Dragonbreath
    78E0302B81750E25
    Dream eater
    C1DBB59F79EDAF30
    Drill peck
    97A16296B1E940DB
    Dynamicpunch
    1FE146C13003F916
    Earthquake
    88C0735899C348F4
    Egg Bomb
    A996461FE88372A7
    Ember
    B6D30E212FE0ADE1
    Encore
    D6CD712561507C40
    Endeavor
    8D885EB34A77263B
    Endure
    453CD14110BCD868
    Eruption
    0A9FA091F1CC328B
    Explosion
    FF43F61D5EB36DFF
    Extrasensory
    B4D936A8EF17C45D
    Extremespeed
    C0BE09A57CB172E1
    Facade
    B415B262D6425157
    Faint attack
    C4DC235375875404
    Fake out
    9426FAACA60B022F
    Fake tears
    F596E98D774227ED
    False swipe
    191908034773DA70
    Featherdance
    F8183351AE192C19
    Fire blast
    A324B674271F9BC7
    Fire punch
    873046C83619F940
    Fire spin
    2CECFBE744053E2F
    Fissure
    C0BC61FFA09A9316
    Flail
    1FF5E6FA6A162F2A
    Flame wheel
    8CD7750B0FD6808E
    Flamethrower
    B5D68E52EF85CB3D
    Flash
    B98D942BFB1D53D0
    Flatters
    74A6BC4952897A68
    Fly
    A8C42055695FDBB5
    Focus energy
    D622D71AA5880E55
    Focus punch
    7C362FD7E8EBACCE
    Follow me
    3A2B7BCB7B253259
    Foresight
    45B6DB9302322022
    Frenzy plant
    BAF7199AEC0EB084
    Frustration
    122659DD06FD2C9A
    Fury attack
    D7D38492672B1DD6
    Fury cutter
    00017D8FF78A68B5
    Fury swipes
    3F46F5D8B5F9E8DE
    Future sight
    C9C5408DCA158DEC
    Giga drain
    4194951F19F41063
    Glare
    3D459F9088BA8ED4
    Grasswhistle
    916CF34085CA44E8
    Growl
    14CCF47A8AB0ECDA
    Growth
    A66BCF1281B994F2
    Grudge
    993257F49A001576
    Guillotine
    440AD37F50FEFAC3
    Gust
    294B3594F94D886D
    Hail
    2CD49769870FDED6
    Harden
    EF38FBAF9F13E67E
    Haze
    018F0F12CFDDBFB8
    Headbutt
    146DAA6892644E09
    Heal bell
    2906CE5607063E9D
    Heat wave
    FB0EFFA2DE9C1575
    Helping hand
    DCD681404EA6D55D
    Hi jump kick
    D0E0A33914AD9B7E
    Hidden power
    85B84F72F27041BD
    Horn attack
    27FCB966857A91A0
    Horn drill
    01E3A63A9C89656B
    Howl
    17DECF7FEE7EE9AE
    Hydro cannon
    109ED4A5D38FED21
    Hydro pump
    8039A7F43C5E8C4E
    Hyper beam
    691E0C2871EF2A9C
    Hyper fang
    B7D746D724E949DC
    Hyper voice
    639D354E2CBC0B79
    Hypnosis
    74F34042A55BD366
    Ice ball
    A269415325E83A95
    Ice beam
    03261C1DA79AB46C
    Ice punch
    0B297B0CF1F1FF51
    Icicle spear
    6441522E33DC426F
    Icy wind
    4B0CDD57670F2ECE
    Imprison
    7CBFCAD9A1573C09
    Ingrain
    A38551EC49CEC239
    Iron defense
    29EEAC7797771240
    Iron tail
    E7BB08FBAF5F62F6
    Jump kick
    662E26C0DF79C55E
    Karate chop
    8D05FEE0BFCE4FAB
    Kinesis
    101F1B7448704842
    Knock off
    44FDCDC107FC432A
    Leaf blade
    E91019ECE596D71E
    Leech life
    6ABD2DA9CF194803
    Leech seed
    A37E635962804DFD
    Leer
    FF4502277785EE09
    Lick
    FA06E0A2F96D1E4A
    Light screen
    DE9AFAA671152075
    Lock-on
    539FBF92B0C5AA9B
    Lovely kiss
    D37D60956D24F21C
    Low kick
    F175EA00DE26D4CD
    Luster purge
    789F5CD852C4FF99
    Mach punch
    B5371AEAA4BF212E
    Magic coat
    D82FBDAEE9FEBBE9
    Magical leaf
    4E6A815BF4DD9B66
    Magnitude
    A05B6AB00D2CA6C8
    Mean look
    4F12314F31C0EBD2
    Meditate
    A5C435DBF94FFAB3
    Mega drain
    CAC9CD359D818801
    Mega kick
    E9C8E905BB07D729
    Mega punch
    67D0F9A1BD8415AD
    Megahorn
    33AFBDE867A45E06
    Memento
    1F58852ECB67EC71
    Metal claw
    4095C21744C01D69
    Metal sound
    58E6D7C45EAF8702
    Meteor mash
    41A4744CF08612CE
    Metronome
    8DBBCC48F9466A6B
    Milk drink
    D3A76106B5875498
    Mimic
    CB89B92D1D76DF0D
    Mind reader
    89327E45E4418BB1
    Minimize
    8392B6D463157D49
    Mirror coat
    588DA182325559C2
    Mirror move
    5ED3B29A0F5CC6C4
    Mist
    524922EB6F82FBCE
    Mist ball
    5D24D1740F93DA95
    Moonlight
    79B93556E3215C41
    Morning sun
    5589834A2F2D13BC
    Mud shot
    0D4B1A18A799831F
    Mud sport
    F14A02A2E4199865
    Muddy water
    38E18B8B1F7B8190
    Mud-slap
    6DEC458D2E795ADE
    Nature power
    20164143F9685C9B
    Needle arm
    F517EF27F4B924F7
    Night shade
    4A1880198F1D517F
    Nightmare
    AE10ABBAA2319D19
    Octazooka
    61867CF3B4B7C8C1
    Odor sleuth
    04E07D1475531DA0
    Outrage
    F3FA63CD95942F27
    Overheat
    86AA0D2BCC120F892
    Pain split
    6D3C10785E5A0108
    Pay day
    CD17531A139AA7EC
    Peck
    57A8754EA6B291BA
    Perish song
    AA789A9F94080799
    Petal dance
    AA43799F3FE3519B
    Pin missile
    6B8CC006DF5436FC
    Poison fang
    3007707E1A6848BB
    Poison gas
    DD915B33B7C71C96
    Poison sting
    AD2BB52E4C8B7BCB
    Poison tail
    4176A6F8AD3D5502
    Poisonpowder
    AF536358A4F1BF11
    Pound
    E33BA0678C4EDD58
    Powder snow
    6688F058DB5A646E
    Present
    981653C8D5212B8B
    Protect
    37BDFACD3A77D1C0
    Psybeam
    C9134FBCC402A5F1
    Psych up
    EA812FBDEF26645E
    Psychic
    01CB74D4F83CED62
    Psycho boost
    0D935F9C5338FBB2
    Psywave
    B5C4A6C6A99B9D9E
    Pursuit
    F7AC1778A5F8D577
    Quick attack
    D51A7C1CB11ABA02
    Rage
    6EDAA00EF4972FED
    Rain dance
    E671FA3D13EB4DBB
    Rapid spin
    B57AC0F49C179B18
    Razor leaf
    3709801E7AE09023
    Razor wind
    9D9293564045209E
    Recover
    98464B10B0BC1E68
    Recycle
    C60F647745B6A87B
    Reflect
    942A88456FCCDAB0
    Refresh
    351F33E3DBCF8C44
    Rest
    ECA2F0C17EE3E4E2
    Return
    33A64B5266EF891E
    Revenge
    FFAE0089F380DEBC
    Reversal
    AF913F98BA392E5C
    Roar
    290286EA7C7912A9
    Rock blast
    A94DD28D11F5D153
    Rock slide
    BDA4C542CAB2D6D8
    Rock smash
    FA0BEA17DAC63776
    Rock throw
    C0007F1178A91A63
    Rock tomb
    8DE6779B26D2893A
    Role play
    4A53917A567CB69D
    Rolling kick
    781ECE04BC1D795D
    Rollout
    035345E3704A816C
    Sacred fire
    599D4545D22BD2AA
    Safeguard
    A231AFB420579023
    Sand tomb
    3BA3B695675AA2AE
    Sand-attack
    6B05A1BF11568CDA
    Sandstorm
    0B4A07B030C05A3C
    Scary face
    33CA11E32EDD10A5
    Scratch
    18A35F31D5094101
    Screech
    8FDA52A807E0BE23
    Secret power
    C1A314688829A33D
    Seismic toss
    8209000EB209E9AD
    Selfdestruct
    83F9393043F39EBF
    Shadow ball
    9EF2FDF328327183
    Shadow punch
    9728756E4C5B4F4A
    Sharpen
    91277448D28D1456
    Sheer cold
    F0A0E8E7DC255F4C
    Shock wave
    89802CF3B9D1FC08
    Signal beam
    9B5CFEA4B78FADB3
    Silver wind
    BA978810107DC45D
    Sing
    93229C4F5E409E8C
    Sketch
    D901AAAC4E9A4754
    Skill swap
    34F99BC0C2A70130
    Skull bash
    DC930EA7E1E2FE43
    Sky attack
    EBAF9D5334A7F8F1
    Sky uppercut
    FD0F1430DD2716FD
    Slack off
    A21905CACB210F21
    Slam
    0EF21E063E6A35D4
    Slash
    594761566BD06AD9
    Sleep powder
    9A701D9F678C4C4B
    Sleep talk
    C548B09FAED2262E
    Sludge
    E061257564559B41
    Sludge bomb
    CD02DDF725C896D4
    Smellingsalt
    4400951512991CC3
    Smog
    65366C7DF818F035
    Smokescreen
    B0A00306B9229028
    Snatch
    E25AB755B02FCB8A
    Snore
    C52F28102F206D67
    Softboiled
    42F371A8C387F530
    Solarbeam
    84B5AA2CC1E60D47
    Sonicboom
    FA5D6FC1456751A5
    Spark
    B18D4DA6A5DA8355
    Spider web
    1BC46CEFCB63DF0E
    Spike cannon
    9C790436C6A56C72
    Spikes
    ABD40E8F0473B9C8
    Spit up
    573606949A8F439F
    Spite
    0FC50279D2317A58
    Splash
    5FD14067175A7CCC
    Spore
    C1559879FBB054D4
    Steel wing
    D0886CCFDF5A3389
    Stockpile
    7452479A785E792E
    Stomp
    E1E1E6E351C15287
    Strength
    B2278A0531FD22F2
    String shot
    E6138EEE2C57F670
    Struggle
    A859C36F53630023
    Stun spore
    9DB9BCCD02251833
    Submission
    123C702BD65F3C11
    Substitute
    49E66F280C44A5D4
    Sunny day
    53CE9865EAD6FA18
    Super fang
    A3855CCDC9FB3CCB
    Superpower
    0032E6B802423A94
    Supersonic
    80DAF8D7540B2CB0
    Surf
    C688CAE710A80EE8
    Swagger
    093846232BB9FD71
    Swallow
    B2F90115BD51E9DE
    Sweet kiss
    41AC4211CFED51FB
    Sweet scent
    9DE18D551BE18B37
    Swift
    2D33C1F2953C122D
    Swords dance
    A89E27E881AE5703
    Synthesis
    76448459ED87ACF5
    Tackle
    13FBC52607BBFCE2
    Tail glow
    2C42696BD40035D4
    Tail whip
    CDE7DAA3F84038A6
    Take down
    D6EBE6E17E1779F3
    Taunt
    06A904AB4ABD25C6
    Teeter dance
    FC1455F17DD4381F
    Teleport
    45FFA8C9D7FE225D
    Thief
    118A979EC8BAD9A1
    Thrash
    301B052E9C0CBFB1
    Thunder
    48843533D75B5539
    Thunder wave
    96E06E82AF2E6A1E
    Thunderbolt
    2DC59282D6584860
    Thunderpunch
    A37D432A912BFF7D
    Thundershock
    68F5AD08ABE1C80A
    Tickle
    05A3B8CEA179C527
    Torment
    1D852F261344C778
    Toxic
    5CD284DE8390BA9B
    Transform
    D72BBB6629C53ABC
    Tri attack
    2AFF7C629CDB7D3B
    Trick
    C50EE3C7770C45EA
    Triple kick
    9BEE70F418F3340F
    Twineedle
    11DB51A89AFB1D09
    Twister
    4D20F1B19558EF26
    Uproar
    A94CD9A7B3213623
    Vicegrip
    2AFC552BFAD64B6F
    Vine whip
    D3F474F4B34B8CE5
    Vital throw
    8B0773A6729ACAC3
    Volt tackle
    D14DAEAFE705281A
    Water gun
    F1C680A1DF188961
    Water pulse
    8F4E6DFEC76C535F
    Water sport
    92D8B9E7E4BE36EA
    Water spout
    5510A1B61C96A7A5
    Waterfall
    4CE56262C5E7412D
    Weather ball
    5DCD35E865301578
    Whirlpool
    B757B6AFB0C564D4
    Whirlwind
    E925FB3F8906A8CF
    Will-o-wisp
    7A44C4D3F40AE7C4
    Wing attack
    E94E58CE7C2DC62D
    Wish
    64ABD82C9C0ECFFC
    Withdraw
    65F99D75E022CA07
    Wrap
    37779FB751BF6129
    Yawn
    AF42C181E0DDD42A
    Zap cannon
    El código elegido incorporará el objeto en el primer lugar de la lista de la sección objetos de la mochila. Los sharks funcionan para las versiones en inglés y en español.
    Rubí-Zafiro
    Código
    Objeto
    22B168A4328EA691
    Acro bike
    457F8D1810DE6AE5
    Aguav berry
    B7EE894FB8AF6DE2
    Amulet coin
    576A65A75D83C8E3
    Antidote
    B3EFF67E4D9AD87E
    Apicot berry
    8F803359EE2A8807
    Aspear berry
    57BC235363C90189
    Awakening
    945C6403976E9943
    Basement key
    5907D32B33AF53DA
    Bead mail
    D42D1B2A7EE37950
    Belue berry
    20B1F47154E206FE
    Berry juice
    038DD0BDF32B6628
    Big mushroom
    10ABF8B22EBB05FD
    Big pearl
    940A1B83A3137DE2
    Black belt
    86F1DC8F627D12F0
    Black flute
    5CFA7EF59C8AC697
    Blackglasses
    4905C34FCA15914D
    Bluck berry
    08B60F5A4A298C3F
    Blue flute
    A27CEB1D2D2FED5F
    Blue orb
    3F296D41D7A085FF
    Blue scarf
    6BB4C13968864F4E
    Blue shard
    6BEDDFE4EEDA2AF2
    Brightpowder
    509727A08D071401
    Burn heal
    73288A33161F95F1
    Calcium
    706EF37525C4FD10
    Carbos
    3EBB21E78B07014F
    Charcoal
    575540ECE5816B87
    Cheri berry
    99C5211AA526DD45
    Chesto berry
    13E93AC84E0C7DE1
    Choice band
    FC03009BF2143F59
    Claw fossil
    5AEB4C56C3A83D38
    Cleanse tag
    E170C83B3B968C35
    Coin case
    3D8D6479AA46C366
    Contest pass
    15252161D431B3C9
    Cornn berry
    71C272FBE53C5135
    Deepseascale
    55FF234398FAB491
    Deepseatooth
    6A16373CC693DD86
    Devon goods
    7C54460B38C28B52
    Devon scope
    82FF65ACF635B63E
    Dire hit
    3B53887F4C65B384
    Dive ball
    E0AE000C9C0113DD
    Dragon fang
    029B51FD4033A14E
    Dragon scale
    B5AC917B53473584
    Dream mail
    098893AA2BB5D801
    Durin berry
    9BBC8A1619735B43
    Elixir
    E1B8110A2AFC79F1
    Energy powder
    20507B4E58C91963
    Energy root
    4CCC3AE9495552F4
    Enigma berry
    F444CA88ABDFE871
    Eon ticket
    01FFD7869E6F27B3
    Escape rope
    F146DE589DB7C212
    Ether
    539C58138DFF1EB3
    EverStone
    B453C9D2D4AE04DD
    Exp. share
    C0B92E553E9A79CC
    Fab mail
    2DCD40CC74D3CA6F
    Figy berry
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    el codigo del pokemon es siempre arriba del nombre del pokemon
              The climate has always changed. What do you conclude?        
    Probably everyone has heard this argument, presented as objection against the findings of climate scientists on global warming: “The climate has always changed!” And it is true: climate has changed even before humans began to burn fossil fuels. So what can we conclude from that? A quick quiz Do you conclude… (1) that humans cannot […]
              Ð¨Ñ‚емпельная подушечка Distress Mini Ink - Fossilized Amber - Tim Holtz        
    Размер подушечки 3 х 3 см. Чернила на водной основе, без кислоты, не токсичны. Небольшой размер делает площадку удобным для работы и хранения, а также для проектов на ходу, презентаций и мастер-классов! Предназначены для многоразового использования. Для подушечек есть координирующие жидкие дистресс чернила, которые доливаются на подушечку, если чернила подсохли. Производство: США.
              The Power of Fertility in Inanna Literature and Today        
    Fertility has been on my mind lately. Not because I want another kid (ever!), but instead because of some lucky confluence of issues in my professional and personal lives. At the same time that I am preparing to teach a collection of myths surrounding Inanna, a Mesopotamian goddess of fertility, in my Honors humanities course in the fall, my daughter (now eight) has decided to educate herself on what will happen to her as she goes through puberty (a process that, experts say, begins for girls in the contemporary US between the ages of eight and 12). In a move surely representative of some sort of developmental milestone, Taegan apparently plucked American Girls’ The Care and Keeping of You: The Body Book for Girls off her shelf one day last week (it’s been there for at least a year) and started flipping through the pages. Minding my own business in another room, I was only alerted to the situation when she then bombarded me with a barrage of questions borne, I am certain, out of a mixture of fascination and horror at the diagrams and frank information presented in the book. Once I figured out what was happening, I made a point of stopping what I was doing and, as all of the childrearing advice books suggest that parents do, answered Taegan’s questions to the best of my knowledge. This was hard for many reasons, not least of all because I could really use a refresher course on female anatomy terms and functions myself (honestly, could you explain the female reproductive cycle off of the top of your head?). But the real stumper was a question fairly unrelated to anatomy: “So, if girls have to go through all of this so that we can have the babies, why don’t we get more respect? Why has there never been a girl president?”

    Well, first of all, this is a super question, and I’m proud my little girl for thinking this way (one point for feminism!). Secondly, the answer is kind of counterintuitive. In fact, in a lot of ways, it is precisely because we have the babies that we are still not considered ideal for high-level political leadership. There is still a wide-spread assumption that our capability for nurturing life prevents us from making tough political decisions. And, perhaps more significantly, great measures have been taken over the course of history to contain female fertility, as it has been constructed (by a white, male patriarchal power structure) over time as posing some sort of threat to humanity, civilization, order, etc.

    But I am learning that it has not always been this way! As my recent reading has shown, Inanna was revered for her duality of “feminine” and “masculine” traits. Inanna was the most prominent and lasting Mesopotamian goddess, not only of fertility, but also of sexual love and combat; she was worshiped for her ability to make babies and to make war. In a Sumerian hymn to Inanna entitled “Loud Thundering Storm” (ca. 2,000 BCE) for instance, the goddess is portrayed as simultaneously a sustaining life-force (“. . . you pour your rain over the lands and all the people”) and a destroyer of life (“You trample the disobedient like a wild bull . . .”) (Wolkstein 95). Inanna’s power is in her ability to nurture and to kill. And, in our contemporary world, wouldn’t this make her a great president? ;)

    Within the context of a fertility cult like that of Inanna, it makes perfect sense that a god or goddess would be both loving and terrible. This is because the god or goddess represents the earth (or “Nature”) itself, the source of all food and shelter and human life, but also the cause of destruction on mass scale, due to flooding, drought, tornadoes, hurricanes, cold, heat, etc. If the earth is the model for god, then of course god is terrifying and unpredictable. This basic ideology, that the divine is both nurturing and destructive, carries over into most major world religions exactly because, at their core, all religions are fertility cults in that they function to explain the dual nature of the earth that both sustains and kills us.

    Now, because we are all of the earth (and/or of god, if you prefer), I believe that we are all of dual natures, just like the earth, Inanna, Yahweh, God, etc. We are all capable of nurturing life; we are all capable of battle. The early Mesopotamians seemed to understand this, that fertility was not the purview of only women and that fighting was not the purview of only men. Gods were worshiped for their powers of fertility just as goddesses were; goddesses were worshiped for their powers of destruction just as gods were.

    Over time, though, it seems that the Mesopotamians abandoned many of their fertility goddesses and placed more and more faith in their phallic gods. Indeed, Inanna is exceptional in that she lived on as a prominent fertility goddess—as Ishtar in the Semitic languages—until the end of the Ancient Mesopotamian era. Interestingly, though, along the way, Inanna/Ishtar develops in the literature into a castrating matriarch, a man-eater, not unlike the vagina flower in Pink Floyd’s The Wall (see my discussion of this little gem here). In the Babylonian The Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 600 BCE), Gilgamesh declines Ishtar’s advances because of her long history of wounding and maiming her lovers. By way of refusal, he lists and explains Ishtar’s male conquests:

    There was Tammuz, the lover of your youth, for him you decreed wailing, year after year. You loved the many-coloured roller, but still you struck and broke his wing . . . . You have loved the lion tremendous in strength: seven pits you dug for him, and seven. . . . You have loved the shepherd of the flock; he made meal-cake for you day after day, he killed kids for your sake. You struck and turned him into a wolf; now his own herd-boys chase him away, how own hounds worry his flanks. (Matthews 6)

    Somewhere along the line, it seems, Innana/Ishtar’s sexuality, once celebrated as a representation of fertile lands and people, became threatening, perhaps especially to male kings like Gilgamesh. From a symbol of the life-giving and destructive powers of the earth, Inanna was therefore turned into an emasculating bitch.

    These later Mesopotamian religions are not alone. Many religious traditions depict female sexuality as threatening instead of—as with the early fertility cults—as life-sustaining. Paula Kirby makes this point explicit in her recent post at The Washington Post:

    The truth is that the Abrahamic religions fear women and therefore go to extraordinary and sometimes brutal lengths to control them, constrain them, and repress them in every way. Show me a non-religious society that feels so threatened by the thought of female sexuality that it will slice off the clitoris of a young girl to ensure she can never experience sexual pleasure. Show me a non-religious society that feels the need to cloak women from head to toe and force them to experience the outside world through a slit of a few square inches. All three Abrahamic religions share the myth of Adam and Eve, the myth that it was through woman that evil was let loose in the world. They share the heritage of Leviticus, which declared a menstruating woman unclean, to be set aside, untouched, a revulsion that remains even today among some orthodox Jews, who will refuse to shake a woman’s hand for fear she may be menstruating. What kind of lunacy is this? It is the lunacy of a Bronze Age mindset fossilized by the reactionary forces of religion.

    Hmmm. So, now we don’t have “girl presidents.” It seems to me that it is perhaps time to reclaim our female right to leadership on the basis of our immense powers of fertility, sexuality, and, yes, even battle. We do have the babies, as Taegan says, which makes us literal embodiments of bounty, regeneration, and violence (see my description of the childbirth process here). Just like men, we are strong and powerful in our life-giving abilities and also weak in the face of an earth that is still so often unpredictable and terrifying. What we may even have over men is that we have not been socialized to deny our weaknesses and to engage in physical combat to protect our interests, but instead to acknowledge our very human shortcomings and work through battles with communication, empathy, and—and here’s that “feminine” word again—nurturance.

    Note: I’m also working on putting together a presentation for my Humanities class on the development and meaning of fertility cults. I’d be happy to share my speech notes that will go along with the presentation.

    Works Cited

    Matthews, Roy T. and F. Dewitt Platt. Readings in the Western Humanities. Vol. 1. 3rd ed. London: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1998.

    Wolkstein, Diane and Samuel Noah Kramer. Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.
              The Beckoning of Nuclear War        
    SUBHEAD: A glimpse of sanity, or simple pragmatism, is anathema to our "national security" managers.

    By John Pilger on 4 August 2017 for JohnPilger.com -
    (www.johnpilger.com/articles/on-the-beach-2017-the-beckoning-of-nuclear-war)

    [IB Publisher's note: As much as Trump may not wish a nuclear exchange with Russia, he seems quite amenable to turning North Korea into an ashtray. World War III may begin in  Guam and relay to Hawaii on its way  to the US mainland. Here in Hawaii it may mean Duck and Cover!]


    Image above: Detail of original paperback cover of Nevil Shute's 1957 novel "On the Beach". From (https://www.pinterest.com/pin/267542034087528868).

    In Nevil Shute's book "On the Beach" the US submarine captain says;
    "We've all got to die one day, some sooner and some later. The trouble always has been that you're never ready, because you don't know when it's coming. Well, now we do know and there's nothing to be done about it."
    He says he will be dead by September. It will take about a week to die, though no one can be sure. Animals live the longest.

    The war was over in a month. The United States, Russia and China were the protagonists. It is not clear if it was started by accident or mistake. There was no victor. The northern hemisphere is contaminated and lifeless now.

    A curtain of radioactivity is moving south towards Australia and New Zealand, southern Africa and South America. By September, the last cities, towns and villages will succumb. As in the north, most buildings will remain untouched, some illuminated by the last flickers of electric light.
    This is the way the world ends
    Not with a bang but a whimper

    These two lines from T.S. Eliot's poem The Hollow Men appear at the beginning of Nevil Shute's novel On the Beach, which left me close to tears. The endorsements on the cover said the same.

    Published in 1957 at the height of the Cold War when too many writers were silent or cowed, it is a masterpiece. At first the language suggests a genteel relic; yet nothing I have read on nuclear war is as unyielding in its warning. No book is more urgent.

    Some readers will remember the black and white Hollywood film starring Gregory Peck as the US Navy commander who takes his submarine to Australia to await the silent, formless spectre descending on the last of the living world.

    I read On the Beach for the first time the other day, finishing it as the US Congress passed a law to wage economic war on Russia, the world's second most lethal nuclear power.  There was no justification for this insane vote, except the promise of plunder.

    The "sanctions" are aimed at Europe, too, mainly Germany, which depends on Russian natural gas and on European companies that do legitimate business with Russia. In what passed for debate on Capitol Hill, the more garrulous senators left no doubt that the embargo was designed to force Europe to import expensive American gas.

    Their main aim seems to be war - real war. No provocation as extreme can suggest anything else. They seem to crave it, even though Americans have little idea what war is. The Civil War of 1861-5 was the last on their mainland. War is what the United States does to others.

    The only nation to have used nuclear weapons against human beings, they have since destroyed scores of governments, many of them democracies, and laid to waste whole societies - the million deaths in Iraq were a fraction of the carnage in Indo-China, which President Reagan called "a noble cause" and President Obama revised as the tragedy of an "exceptional people"He was not referring to the Vietnamese.

    Filming last year at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, I overheard a National Parks Service guide lecturing a school party of young teenagers. "Listen up," he said. "We lost 58,000 young soldiers in Vietnam, and they died defending your freedom."

    At a stroke, the truth was inverted. No freedom was defended. Freedom was destroyed. A peasant country was invaded and millions of its people were killed, maimed, dispossessed, poisoned; 60,000 of the invaders took their own lives. Listen up, indeed.

    A lobotomy is performed on each generation. Facts are removed. History is excised and replaced by what Time magazine calls "an eternal present".

    Harold Pinter described this as "manipulation of power worldwide, while masquerading as a force for universal good, a brilliant, even witty, highly successful act of hypnosis [which meant] that it never happened. Nothing ever happened. Even while it was happening it wasn't happening. It didn't matter. It was of no interest."

    Those who call themselves liberals or tendentiously "the left" are eager participants in this manipulation, and its brainwashing, which today revert to one name: Trump.

    Trump is mad, a fascist, a dupe of Russia. He is also a gift for "liberal brains pickled in the formaldehyde of identity politics", wrote Luciana Bohne memorably. The obsession with Trump the man - not Trump as a symptom and caricature of an enduring system - beckons great danger for all of us.

    While they pursue their fossilised anti-Russia agendas, narcissistic media such as the Washington Post, the BBC and the Guardian suppress the essence of the most important political story of our time as they warmonger on a scale I cannot remember in my lifetime.

    On 3 August, in contrast to the acreage the Guardian has given to drivel that the Russians conspired with Trump (reminiscent of the far-right smearing of John Kennedy as a "Soviet agent"), the paper buried, on page 16, news that the President of the United States was forced to sign a Congressional bill declaring economic war on Russia. Unlike every other Trump signing, this was conducted in virtual secrecy and attached with a caveat from Trump himself that it was "clearly unconstitutional".

    A coup against the man in the White House is under way. This is not because he is an odious human being, but because he has consistently made clear he does not want war with Russia.

    This glimpse of sanity, or simple pragmatism, is anathema to the "national security" managers who guard a system based on war, surveillance, armaments, threats and extreme capitalism. Martin Luther King called them "the greatest purveyors of violence in the world today".

    They have encircled Russia and China with missiles and a nuclear arsenal. They have used neo-Nazis to instal an unstable, aggressive regime on Russia's "borderland" - the way through which Hitler invaded, causing the deaths of 27 million people.  Their goal is to dismember the modern Russian Federation.

    In response, "partnership" is a word used incessantly by Vladimir Putin - anything, it seems, that might halt an evangelical drive to war in the United States. Incredulity in Russia may have now turned to fear and perhaps a certain resolution. The Russians almost certainly have war-gamed nuclear counter strikes. Air-raid drills are not uncommon. Their history tells them to get ready.

    The threat is simultaneous. Russia is first, China is next. The US has just completed a huge military exercise with Australia known as Talisman Sabre. They rehearsed a blockade of the Malacca Straits and the South China Sea, through which pass China's economic lifelines.

    The admiral commanding the US Pacific fleet said that, "if required", he would nuke China. That he would say such a thing publicly in the current perfidious atmosphere begins to make fact of Nevil Shute's fiction.

    None of this is considered news. No connection is made as the bloodfest of Passchendaele a century ago is remembered. Honest reporting is no longer welcome in much of the media. Windbags, known as pundits, dominate: editors are infotainment or party line managers. Where there was once sub-editing, there is the liberation of axe-grinding clichés. Those journalists who do not comply are defenestrated.

    The urgency has plenty of precedents. In my film, The Coming War on China, John Bordne, a member of a US Air Force missile combat crew based in Okinawa, Japan, describes how in 1962 - during the Cuban missile crisis - he and his colleagues were "told to launch all the missiles" from their silos.

    Nuclear armed, the missiles were aimed at both China and Russia. A junior officer questioned this, and the order was eventually rescinded - but only after they were issued with service revolvers and ordered to shoot at others in a missile crew if they did not "stand down".

    At the height of the Cold War, the anti-communist hysteria in the United States was such that US officials who were on official business in China were accused of treason and sacked. In 1957 - the year Shute wrote On the Beach - no official in the State Department could speak the language of the world's most populous nation. Mandarin speakers were purged under strictures now echoed in the Congressional bill that has just passed, aimed at Russia.

    The bill was bipartisan. There is no fundamental difference between Democrats and Republicans. The terms "left" and "right" are meaningless. Most of America's modern wars were started not by conservatives, but by liberal Democrats.

    When Obama left office, he presided over a record seven wars, including America's longest war and an unprecedented campaign of extrajudicial killings - murder - by drones.

    In his last year, according to a Council on Foreign Relations study, Obama, the "reluctant liberal warrior", dropped 26,171 bombs - three bombs every hour, 24 hours a day.  Having pledged to help "rid the world" of nuclear weapons, the Nobel Peace Laureate built more nuclear warheads than any president since the Cold War.

    Trump is a wimp by comparison. It was Obama - with his secretary of state Hillary Clinton at his side - who destroyed Libya as a modern state and launched the human stampede to Europe. At home, immigration groups knew him as the "deporter-in-chief".

    One of Obama's last acts as president was to sign a bill that handed a record $618billion to the Pentagon, reflecting the soaring ascendancy of fascist militarism in the governance of the United States. Trump has endorsed this.

    Buried in the detail was the establishment of a "Center for Information Analysis and Response". This is a ministry of truth. It is tasked with providing an "official narrative of facts" that will prepare us for the real possibility of nuclear war - if we allow it.


    Video above: "On the Beach" the complete 1959 movie from Nevil Shute's  novel. From (https://youtu.be/Ue8hC5qqMt4).

    .

              Just wait a little while        
    SUBHEAD: You’ll have to earn everything worth having, including self-respect and your next meal.

    By James Kunstler on 7 August 2017 for Kunstler.com -
    (http://kunstler.com/clusterfuck-nation/just-wait-little/)


    Image above: Aarly 20th century Russian painting of "A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuri's Day" by Sergei V. Ivanov. From (https://www.kp.ru/radio/26511/3430500/).

    The trouble, of course, is that even after the Deep State (a.k.a. “The Swamp”) succeeds in quicksanding President Trump, America will be left with itself — adrift among the cypress stumps, drained of purpose, spirit, hope, credibility, and, worst of all, a collective grasp on reality, lost in the fog of collapse.

    Here’s what you need to know about what’s going on and where we’re headed.

    The United States is comprehensively bankrupt. The government is broke and the citizenry is trapped under inescapable debt burdens. We are never again going to generate the kinds and volumes of “growth” associated with techno-industrial expansion.

    That growth came out of energy flows, mainly fossil fuels, that paid for themselves and furnished a surplus for doing other useful things. It’s over.

    Shale oil, for instance, doesn’t pay for itself and the companies engaged in it will eventually run out of accounting hocus-pocus for pretending that it does, and they will go out of business.

    The self-evident absence of growth means the end of borrowing money at all levels. When you can’t pay back old loans, it’s unlikely that you will be able to arrange new loans.

    The nation could pretend to be able to borrow more, since it can supposedly “create” money (loan it into existence, print it, add keystrokes to computer records), but eventually those tricks fail, too.

    Either the “non-performing” loans (loans not being paid off) cause money to disappear, or the authorities “create” so much new money from thin air (money not associated with real things of value like land, food, manufactured goods) that the “money” loses its mojo as a medium of exchange (for real things), as a store of value (over time), and as a reliable index of pricing — which is to say all the functions of money.

    In other words, there are two ways of going broke in this situation: money can become scarce as it disappears so that few people have any; or everybody can have plenty of money that has no value and no credibility.

    I mention these monetary matters because the system of finance is the unifying link between all the systems we depend on for modern life, and none of them can run without it.

    So that’s where the real trouble is apt to start. That’s why I write about markets and banks on this blog.

    The authorities in this nation, including government, business, and academia, routinely lie about our national financial operations for a couple of reasons.

    One is that they know the situation is hopeless but the consequences are so awful to contemplate that resorting to accounting fraud and pretense is preferable to facing reality.

    Secondarily, they do it to protect their jobs and reputations — which they will lose anyway as collapse proceeds and their record of feckless dishonesty reveals itself naturally.

    The underlying issue is the scale of human activity in our time. It has exceeded its limits and we have to tune back a lot of what we do. Anything organized at the giant scale is headed for failure, so it comes down to a choice between outright collapse or severe re-scaling, which you might think of as managed contraction.

    That goes for government programs, military adventures, corporate enterprise, education, transportation, health care, agriculture, urban design, basically everything. There is an unfortunate human inclination to not reform, revise, or re-scale familiar activities.

    We’ll use every kind of duct tape and baling wire we can find to keep the current systems operating, and we have, but we’re close to the point where that sort of cob-job maintenance won’t work anymore, especially where money is concerned.

    Why this is so has been attributed to intrinsic human brain programming that supposedly evolved optimally for short-term planning. But obviously many people and institutions dedicate themselves to long-term thinking.

    So there must be a big emotional over-ride represented by the fear of letting go of what used to work that tends to disable long-term thinking. It’s hard to accept that our set-up is about to stop working — especially something as marvelous as techno-industrial society.

    But that’s exactly what’s happening. If you want a chance at keeping on keeping on, you’ll have to get with reality’s program. Start by choosing a place to live that has some prospect of remaining civilized. This probably doesn’t include our big cities.

    But there are plenty of small cities and small towns out in America that are scaled for the resource realities of the future, waiting to be reinhabited and reactivated.

    A lot of these lie along the country’s inland waterways — the Ohio, Mississippi, Missouri river system, the Great Lakes, the Hudson and St. Lawrence corridors — and they also exist in regions of the country were food can be grown.

    You’ll have to shift your energies into a trade or vocation that makes you useful to other people. This probably precludes jobs like developing phone apps, day-trading, and teaching gender studies.

    Think: carpentry, blacksmithing, basic medicine, mule-breeding, simplified small retail, and especially farming, along with the value-added activities entailed in farm production.

    The entire digital economy is going to fade away like a drug-induced hallucination, so beware the current narcissistic blandishments of computer technology.

    Keep in mind that being in this world actually entitles you to nothing. One way or another, you’ll have to earn everything worth having, including self-respect and your next meal.

    Now, just wait a little while.

    .

              Energy consumption by states        
    SUBHEAD: Texas consumes the most energy, Vermont the least. Per capita New York the least. Hawaii close.

    By Mickey Francis on 2 August 2017 for EIA.gov -
    (https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=32312)


    Image above: Mountain of damaged oil drums near Exxon refinery. From (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_MOUNTAIN_OF_DAMAGED_OIL_DRUMS_NEAR_THE_EXXON_REFINERY_-_NARA_-_546000.jpg).

    EIA’s State Energy Data System (SEDS) recently released 2015 data estimates for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. The estimates include data on both total energy consumption and energy consumption per capita, which is calculated by dividing total consumption by population.

    In 2015, Texas consumed a total of 13 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu), or about 13% of total U.S. energy consumption. Texas has consumed the most energy in every year since 1960, the earliest year for which EIA has data. California ranked second in energy use, with a total consumption of 8 quadrillion Btu, about 8% of U.S. total energy use.

    Louisiana, Florida, and Illinois round out the top five energy-consuming states, which together account for more than one-third of total U.S. total energy use. Total energy consumption by the top 10 states exceeded the combined energy use of the other 41 states (including the District of Columbia).

    Vermont was the lowest energy-consuming state in 2015 at about 132 trillion Btu; it was the only state with a lower consumption level than the District of Columbia’s 179 trillion Btu. Historically, Vermont has used less energy than any other state since 1961. Rhode Island, Delaware, Hawaii, and New Hampshire round out the top five lowest energy-consuming states, which together accounted for only 1% of total U.S. energy use in 2015.

    Overall, total U.S. energy consumption in 2015 was about 97 quadrillion Btu, a decrease of about 1% from 2014. In percentage terms, the states with the largest year-over-year percentage changes in energy use ranged from Minnesota, with a 7.6% decrease from 2014, to Florida, with a 3.7% increase from 2014.

    Thirty-five states and the District of Columbia had less energy consumption in 2015 than in 2014, led by states in the Midwest.

    The seven largest percentage decreases in energy use all occurred among Midwestern states: energy consumption in Minnesota, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, and Missouri decreased by a total of 704 trillion Btu from 2014 to 2015, accounting for nearly half of the total decline among states that had lower energy use in 2015 than in 2014.


    Image above: Total BTU consumption by state. From original article.

    In terms of total energy consumption per capita, Louisiana ranked the highest of any state, totaling 912 million Btu (MMBtu) per person in 2015. These rankings reflect the total consumption across all sectors in the state: residential, commercial, transportation, industrial, and electric power. Wyoming ranked second with 893 MMBtu, followed by Alaska (840 MMBtu), North Dakota (802 MMBtu), and Iowa (479 MMBtu).

    High per capita energy consumption in these states is largely attributable to industrial sector energy consumption, which accounts for more than 50% of all consumption in those five states.

    High production in the energy-intensive fossil fuel industry contributes to the high industrial sector consumption: Louisiana, Alaska, and North Dakota are all among the top ten states in crude oil production, while Wyoming is a leading producer of coal and natural gas. Iowa’s agriculture and manufacturing industries contribute to its relatively high consumption of energy in the sector.


    Image above: Total BTU consumption per capita by state. From original article.

    In 2015, New York had the lowest total energy consumption per capita at 189 MMBtu, followed by Rhode Island, California, Hawaii, and Florida. Again, relatively low per capita consumption reflects the relatively low industrial sector energy consumption in those states. Overall, the 2015 U.S. national average total energy consumption per capita was 303 MMBtu in 2015, about 2% lower than in 2014 and 1.6% lower than in 2000.

    EIA’s State Energy Data System contains a complete set of state-level estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures through 2015.

    .

              The worst product ever marketed        
    SUBHEAD: Eventually we learn what's the good way to do things. Too bad that it is almost always too late.

    By Ugo Bardi on 30 July 2017 for Cassandra's Legacy -

    (http://cassandralegacy.blogspot.com/2017/07/what-is-worst-product-ever-marketed.html)


    Image above: Detail of Bic advertisement celebrating the 40th anniversary of the introduction of the Bic lighter.  From original article.

    Greens often exaggerate in inviting people to save energy and be happier by staying in the dark and eating insects. However, it is also true that sometimes wastefulness goes a few notches higher and becomes truly a scandal. It is the case of the ordinary disposable lighter.

    Bic alone produces almost a billion lighters per year and has produced some 20 billions of them in the past 30 years. The whole world production is probably of a few billion per year. A good example of a successful product, but is it a good product?

    The disposable lighter is surely practical but also, if you think about it, a very bad deal. It contains some 5 cc of butane, that you pay, typically, more than $1. That means around $200 per liter, or $800/gallon.

    You wouldn't be happy to pay that kind of money when you refill the tank of your car. And, being powered by a fossil fuel, butane, every time you light up one you add some CO2 to the atmosphere, some of which will stay there for tens of thousands of years.

    Then, the disposable lighter doesn't contain just non-renewable fuel but plastics manufactured from fossil fuels and also polluting. Then, it contains metals such as cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, praeseodymium and more.

    These metals are classified as "rare earths;" they are not so rare as the name seems to imply, but they are not so common, either. And the lighter is thrown away after use and it will never be recycled. The rare earths it contains will be lost forever.

    Is all that enough to qualify disposable lighters as "the worst product ever marketed"? Well, everything can be questioned, but if you line up the characteristics of a bad product as;
    1. uses rare and non-renewable resources, 
    2. is not recycled and not supposed to be recyclable, 
    3. is manufactured on a large scale, 
    4. it has non-polluting and less expensive alternatives, there are few examples other than lighters for which you can tick all the four boxes.
    I can hardly think of anything so wasteful to set something on fire, no matter whether you are a professional arsonist or simply an ordinary smoker.

    After all, what was so wrong with using the old matches? Matches contain only recyclable materials: wood, paper, phosphorous, sulfur. I can't see anything that can be done with a lighter that cannot be done with a match, except that a lighter can burn steadily for a longer time.

    But if your purpose is to light up a cigarette or a kitchen burner, it makes no difference. And, by all means, there is no way that a lighter would cost less than a match, at least if manufactured on a comparable scale.

    So, disposable lighters are all an example of how a combination of financial factors and government regulations can push a bad product to dominate the market. It is, after all, what has happened with fossil fuels, still gathering large government subsidies, despite the damage they are doing to all of us.

    In the case of lighter vs. matches, the playing field has been made unfavorable to matches from the beginning, because they have been traditionally taxed by governments (also lighters, in some cases, but not always).

    Add to that the rapid expansion of the cigarette market during the past decades, with some six billion cigarettes sold worldwide every year, and growing, some large companies saw their chance.

    They engaged in the large scale manufacturing of lighters and they crushed the match manufacturers, mainly small companies that couldn't match (indeed!) the financial power of large corporations.

    The advertising power, too, played a big role, with the appeal of colored and fashionable items that could also be collected. And it was world domination for the disposable lighter.

    Could we reverse this demonic trend? Maybe there are signs of an inversion of the tendency and, not long ago, I saw again courtesy matchboxes appearing in an Italian Hotel.

    Maybe it was because finally (in 2015) the Italian government decided to abolish the tax on matches, a good idea that, unfortunately, arrived at least 50 years too late (the French Government did that in 1999).

    Whatever the case, it is high time that someone realizes that some ideas, such as disposable lighters, are evil to the bone. And that the mythical "free market" cannot turn evil into good.

    But maybe you think that the old matches are passé? In this case, we have technologies for getting rid of the obsolete propane lighters without having to get back to the somewhat primitive matches. For instance, we have spark lighters that use only electricity.

    They are a solid state alternative to propane lighters in the same way as photovoltaic energy is a solid state alternative to fossil energy. In the picture, you see one of these super hi-tech lighters in the hands of my daughter, Donata.


    Image above: Donata Bardi holds solid state spark lighter.  From original article.

    So, eventually, we learn what's the good way to do things. Too bad that it is almost always too late.

    .

              From Hyundai to Tatra: today's slice of the atuomotive world!        
    Well my initial intention was to do a bit of an in-depth analysis of Fiat-Chrysler's new long-term plan, but so many automotive journalists have already weighed in that I didn't really think it was worth my time.  Probably the most important thing to remember is tat the company that makes your Caravan (which is slated for the chopping block) also makes Ferrari.  Which means, this new Dodge Challenger Hellcat should be AMAZING (although also not long for a world where fossil fuel preservation is a key issue). 
    On the less amazing front, but still fairly important, the newly redesigned Hyundai Sonata is going to cost about $300 less than the current version.  Of course after taxes, dealer fees and set of snow tires, it isn't really much in the way of savings.  Then again $300 is $300.  Of course it could be a rebate for the decrease in horsepower across the board.  I'm not too sure if there is a big market for slower cars, but if there is Hyundai is sure going to tap into it. Having driven Sonatas with both motors, the power on the turbo version is going to be missed by some.  It was a blast to drive.  

    Speaking of speed, the new Mustang is doing well in Europe already.  The first 500 units slated for European soil were spoken for in 30 seconds!  Having spoken to some Europeans regarding American cars, I do know for a fact that there is a huge market for classic USA muscle.  Just like we covet the vehicles that are only released in foreign markets, those foreign markets covet the vehicles that are only released here.  We're not so different after all. 

    On the Eastern front of the performance car spectrum, apparently Mitsubishi will continue to sell it's four door rally monster, the Evo, for another model year.  Originally, the company had stated that there was going to be no 2015 Evo.  However, the gods of fun said "nay!" and the uber-boosted riot on wheels gets one more crack at the can. 

    Now on to Mitsubishi's rival, Subaru.  Their BRZ (twin of the Scion FRS and the Toyota F-86) was universally applauded for its amazing handling and low traction tires that allowed for a "safe" level of hooliganism with relatively little power being produced under the hood.  Thus, despite what looks on paper to be a lackluster effort, the BRZ scores super high on fun scale.  However, just about every review I've read mentioned that the car could certainly benefit from a few more ponies under the hood.  Most cite the WRX and STI as potential power plant sources for this as-of-now-imagined turbo powered BRZ.  Well, if you were hoping that the new Blue edition would be the answer to that hope, you better be sitting down.  Although the car is peppered with STI badging, the BRZ Blue does not benefit from that car's awesome motor.  Bummer. 

    And last but not least, it looks like Roman from TFLCar made it to Prague to buy himself a Tatra that he will now have to bring to Pebble Beach in time for the annual car show their.  The good folks from my favourite Colorado automotive blog had been trying to raise money for this adventure for some time.  The last time I had checked out their kickstart page they weren't even close to raising the money needed to do the trip right.  I'm glad to see that things seem to have worked out somehow and Roman can now make his dream a reality.  You can visit their site here to see a list of posts that cover the journey TFLCar has taken to get this project from concept to reality.     

    TTFN!
              Solar Power Your House And Give Those Energy Companies 'The Middle Finger'!        


    It's only a matter of time, before the escalating price of oil, hits everybody. This, in turn, will raise other cost. For example, if the price of oil rises, so will transportation cost, and therefore, the price of food. See where I'm coming from?

    As electricity and gas requirements increase every day, solar power is being seen more and more as the solution. Not only is it clean, green and limitless, but it happens to be one of the most powerful sources of energy on earth. If all the suns energy was collected in a day, it would supply enough power to the world for a whole year! This is why it is important for you to start thinking about how to solar power your house. The potential is almost limitless!

    What are the other benefits on offer? Well for one thing, its free! Yes, you do have to pay to buy the panels and have them put in; however, they should last a very long time and should therefore be thought to be a very good investment. What ever you pay for initial buying and installation, youll easily make back from energy savings.
    Another advantage that often gets missed is that solar energy is silent. You dont have to contend with noisy generators. The solar panels on your roof will also keep your attic cool during the summertime season, which is also great

    To summarize, the benefits, when you solar power you house far outweight the disadvantages (of which there is only 1 - the buying and installation cost). Furthermore, as our fossil fuel supplies shrink and cost increases, solar power may be an alternative that simply cannot be overlooked!

    Want to know more about the awesome secreats of how to solar power your house? Let me show you how you can achieve the above results in the fastest, inexpensive and most effective way. All you have to do, is click the above link!

    Seriously, I'm not kidding! I don't joke about this stuff when I'm writing 300-500 word articles on the subject! Judge for yourself, on the benefits in taking proactive action to solar power your house.

    For more articles like the one above, click here:

    Solar Power Your House And Give Those Energy Companies 'The Middle Finger'!




              Richard Dawkins: The Greatest Show on Earth – Do Dawkins' claims regarding the fossil record follow logically?        
    Do Dawkins' claims regarding the fossil record follow logically? What can we learn from his book?
              The Cambrian Explosion Video        
    An abrupt appearance of a wide range of organisms, mainly invertebrates, with hard (fossilizable) parts in Cambrian strata, which mainstream scientists date from about 540 million years ago.
              Dallas : Benefits of Resort-Style Living When You Buy a New Home in WatersBend        

    When you purchase a new home in WatersBend, you not only get a captivating home at a great price, you also get all the benefits of living in a resort-style community. Location, amenities, and smart design combine to create an ideal home and community in the Fort Worth area. Plantation Homes are more than just a house; living in one of their communities is like living in a vacation resort all year long.

    Fossil Park and Canyon Crossing are master-planned sister communities at WatersBend. Both offer a wealth of conveniences and attractions for all ages and you can choose from a wide variety of plans and features from Plantation Homes to ensure you have the perfect home for you and your family. The homes have been designed to include the kinds of elements that modern families want, with spacious, open-living floor plans, functional and stylish kitchens, and energy efficient construction and appliances.

    If a well-built, attractive home isn’t enough, WatersBend is sure to entice you with all of its community attractions. Although it has quick and easy access to I-35W, WatersBend is home to a wealth of resources and attractions so that you never have to go far from home to find just what you want.

    Enjoy a leisurely lunch with friends or a romantic dinner at the many restaurants located nearby. Whether your idea of a workout is a day spent shopping or an intensive session at the YMCA, you won’t be disappointed. WatersBend also offers a movie theater and other entertainment venues, not to mention a state-of-the-art $2,400,000 recreation center. Residents can take advantage of the center’s soccer field, baseball field, and its stunning four-acre water park for fun and entertainment throughout the year.

    A new home in WatersBend combines relaxed, easy living with all of the conveniences and services of a top-notch resort. Spend the day shopping, playing sports, dining out, or just having fun, knowing that your beautifully built Plantation home is just minutes away. WatersBend is an ideal place to call home.


              Verissimo. D'accordo anche sulla fatica costan...        
    Verissimo. D'accordo anche sulla fatica costante di ricominciare ogni ciclo daccapo, ma forse allo stesso tempo non ci si fossilizza , come altri lavori e il carattere portano a fare.
    Io me li ricordo bene i colloqui di quel periodo: è stata l'ultima volta che ho sentito parlare con entusiasmo delle potenzialità dei miei figli. Da allora in poi, tranne rare eccezioni, ho solo sentito parlare delle caratteristiche negative dei miei figli, della loro estraneità a quel mondo. Più crescono d più gli insegnanti si arroccano ai voti e alle nozioni invece che alla loro crescita e allo sviluppo della curiosità sana per la conoscenza. Ti auguro di continuare a trovare persone speciali che abbiano scelto questo lavoro per passione e non per avere un part time.
              Solar Power Home Kits        
    Solar power home kits are becoming more popular as energy concerns are on the forefront of people's minds. Many people realize that our fossil fuels are limited, so they are searching for energy alternatives to help save the environment and also to help save money.
              Solar Power For Your Home        
    The sun is an amazing source of energy available to us, we need to learn how to better us the energy for our day-to-day activities. Using solar power in your home can help to reduce the use of regular electricity and thus lower your monthly utility bills. Additionally, installing a solar power kit on your house will help to protect the environment because it reduces the amount of fossil fuels that are being used.
              Did You Know Personalized Printing Is Green Printing?        
    When you think about personalization, do you think about lower cost per lead, higher per order values, and increased ROI? You should. But you should also get excited about how personalized printing helps you go green. Here are three reasons why: Targeting means you send out fewer pieces of mail—saving trees, chemicals, and fossil fuels. […]
              Global Telecom Power Systems Market 2020: Trends, Drivers, Strategies, Applications and Competitive Landscape        

    Global Telecom Power Systems Market 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

    Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- The Global Telecom Power Systems Market Research Report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Global Telecom Power Systems Industry for 2017-2021. Global Telecom Power Systems Market, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts.

    Power systems are used in all telecommunication installations for controlling, monitoring, and measuring the flow of power across telecom networks. These systems are made up of a combination of smaller systems such as converters, distributors, controllers, and backup systems that bear different technical specifications. The primary application of telecom power systems is in wireless and fixed-line environments. They are used in several other related applications including network equipment, xDSL terminals, mobile broadband, cellular sites, and transmission applications.

    Report analysts forecast the Global Telecom Power Systems Warming Devices market to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% during the period 2017-2021.

    Browse more detail information about Global Telecom Power Systems Report at: https://www.absolutereports.com/global-telecom-power-systems-market-2016-2020-10350980  

    The Global Telecom Power Systems Market Report is a meticulous investigation of current scenario of the global market, which covers several market dynamics. The Global Telecom Power Systems market research report is a resource, which provides current as well as upcoming technical and financial details of the industry to 2021.

    The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years and discussion of the key vendors effective in this market. To calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of Global Telecom Power Systems globally.

    Key Vendors of Global Telecom Power Systems Market:

    -Delta Electronics
    -Eaton
    -Emerson Network Power
    -GE Industrial Solutions
    -Huawei Technologies

    Other prominent vendors
    -ACME
    -AEG Power Solutions
    -Alstom
    -Alta
    -APC
    -Bel Fuse
    -Benning Power Solutions
    -C&D Technologies
    -Cummins Power
    -Dyna Hitech Power Systems

    Get a PDF Sample of Global Telecom Power Systems Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10350980

    Global Telecom Power Systems market report provides key statistics on the market status of the Global Telecom Power Systems manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Global Telecom Power Systems industry.

    Global Telecom Power Systems Driver:
    -Increased deployment of small cell power systems for LTE
    -For a full, detailed list, view our report

    Global Telecom Power Systems Challenge:
    -High OPEX associated with fossil fuel power systems
    -For a full, detailed list, view our report

    Global Telecom Power Systems Trend:
    -Rapid growth of urban population with increased telecom subscriber base
    -For a full, detailed list, view our report

    Purchase report @ http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10350980  

    Geographical Segmentation of Global Telecom Power Systems Market:
    - Global Telecom Power Systems in Americas
    - Global Telecom Power Systems in APAC
    - Global Telecom Power Systems in EMEA

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              The Gaping Holes in the Gap Theory        

    Scripture gives us a complete—albeit contested—account of God’s work on the first day of creation.

    In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. (Genesis 1:1–5)

    Verse 1 is a general statement. The rest of Genesis 1 unfolds the sequence of God’s creative work, starting with a “formless and void” earth.

    The Barren Planet

    As day one emerges from eternity, we find the earth in a dark and barren condition. The construction of the Hebrew phrase that opens verse 2 is significant. The subject comes before the verb, as if to emphasize something remarkable about it. It might be translated, “As to the earth, it was formless and void.” Here is a new planet, the very focus of God’s creative purpose, and it was formless and void. The Hebrew expression is tohu wa bohu. Tohu signifies a wasteland, a desolate place. Bohu means “empty.” The earth was an empty place of utter desolation.

    The same expression is used in Jeremiah 4:23. There, Jeremiah is lamenting the doom of Israel. He says in verse 19, “My soul, my soul! I am in anguish! Oh, my heart! My heart is pounding in me; I cannot be silent.” Why? Because the trumpet signaling God’s judgment of Israel had sounded. “Disaster on disaster is proclaimed, for the whole land is devastated” (v. 20). And he borrows the very words from Genesis 1:2: “I looked on the earth, and behold, it was formless [tohu] and void [bohu]; and to the heavens, and they had no light” (v. 23). That is how he describes the condition of Judah under the devastating destruction that was brought upon it by the judgment of God. What was once a fruitful land had become a wilderness (v. 26). It was a wasted, devastated place without any inhabitants. It had lost its former beauty. It didn’t have any form. It didn’t have any beauty. It had reverted to a state of barrenness that reminded Jeremiah of the state of the earth in the beginning, before God’s creative work had formed it into something beautiful.

    Isaiah borrows the same expression. Prophesying the destruction that would come in the day of the Lord’s vengeance against the Gentiles, he says their land will be turned into desolation. “He will stretch over it the line of desolation [tohu] and the plumb line of emptiness [bohu]” (Isaiah 34:11). That pictures God as the architect of judgment, using a plumb line of tohu, which is kept taut by weights made of bohu.

    So these words speak of waste and desolation. They describe the earth as a place devoid of form or inhabitants—a lifeless, barren place. It suggests that the very shape of the earth was unfinished and empty. The raw material was all there, but it had not yet been given form. The features of earth as we know it were undifferentiated, unseparated, unorganized, and uninhabited.

    Reading Eons Between the Lines

    Some have suggested that an indeterminate interval of many billions of years is hidden between verses 1 and 2. This theory, known as the “gap theory,” was once quite popular, and is featured prominently in the Scofield Reference Bible. According to the gap theory, God created a fully–functional earth in verse 1. That ancient earth ostensibly featured a full spectrum of animal and plant life, including fish and mammals, various species of now–extinct dinosaurs, and other creatures that we know only from the fossil record.

    Proponents of the gap theory suggest that verse 2 ought to be translated, “The earth became without form, and void.” They speculate that as a result of Satan’s fall, or for some other reason, the prehistoric earth was laid waste by an untold calamity. (This presupposes, of course, that Satan’s fall or some other evil occurred sometime in the gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2.) Then, according to this view, God created all the life forms that we now see and thus remade earth into a paradise in six days of recreation.

    Like other old–earth theories, the gap theory is supposed to explain the fossil record and harmonize the biblical account with modern scientific theories about a multiple–billion–year–old earth.

    Most who hold to the gap theory suggest that the sun was not created on day four; it was merely made visible on that day by the clarifying of earth’s atmosphere or the receding of a vapor cloud that had encircled the earth. Other than that, the gap theory has one advantage over most other old–earth views: It allows for a straightforward literal interpretation of the creation days of Genesis 1.

    The Gaping Holes in the Gap Theory

    But the theory is accepted by relatively few today, because the biblical and theological problems it poses are enormous. For example, in Genesis 1:31, after God had completed all His creation, He declared it “very good”—which would not be a fitting description if evil had already entered the universe. Furthermore, if the fossil record is to be explained by an interval in the white space between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, that means death, disease, suffering, and calamity were common many ages before Adam fell. Yet Scripture says Adam’s sin was the event that introduced death and calamity into God’s creation: “By a man came death” (1 Corinthians 15:21); “Through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin” (Romans 5:12). The gap theory also flatly contradicts Exodus 20:11: “For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day.”

    The plain meaning of the text seems to be that the barrenness described in verse 2 is simply the original state of the universe in the twenty–four hours immediately following its initial creation. It is not a state of desolation into which the earth fell; it is how the universe appeared in situ (in its original condition), before God finished His creative work.

    The picture it conjures up is reminiscent of a potter wishing to fashion a beautiful vessel and then fill it to be used. He first takes a lump of unformed clay and places it on the wheel to mold and fit it to his purpose. In a similar way, God began with raw material. He first created a basic mass of elements that contained everything necessary to make a habitat for the life He would later create. And then using that mass of elements, He carefully shaped it and formed it into the perfect finished work He had planned from the beginning. So aside from the life–forms He created, His work throughout those first six days is comparable to the potter’s finishing work. It was mostly a process of perfecting what He had already created in the beginning.

    (Adapted from The Battle for the Beginning.)

           

              The Fallacy of Uniformitarianism        

    [Editor’s Note: This article was first published in the earliest days of the GTY Blog. As we recently culled through the ministry archives in preparation for a new blog series on God’s work of creation—which coincides with the broadcast of The Battle for the Beginning sermon series on “Grace to You”—we believed this post deserved further consideration.]

    The hypothesis that the earth is billions of years old is rooted in the unbiblical premise that what is happening now is just what has always happened. This idea is known as uniformitarianism. It is the theory that natural and geological phenomena are for the most part the results of forces that have operated continuously, with uniformity, and without interruption, over billions and billions of years. Uniformitarians assume that the forces at work in nature are essentially fixed and constant. Scientists who hold this view explain nearly all geological phenomena in terms of processes that are still occurring. The uniformitarian sees sedimentary rock strata, for example, and assumes that the sediments that formed them resulted from the natural, slow settling of particles in water over several million years. A uniformitarian observes the Grand Canyon and assumes the natural flow of the Colorado River carved that immense chasm over many ages with a steady (though constantly decreasing) stream.

    Uniformitarianism was first proposed around the beginning of the nineteenth century by two British geologists, James Hutton and his best–known disciple, Charles Lyell. Lyell’s work Principles of Geology was an explicit rejection of creation and flood–based explanations for geological formulations. Lyell insisted that all the features of earth’s geology must be explainable by natural, rather than supernatural, processes. He regarded all biblical or supernatural explanations as inherently unscientific and therefore false. In other words, he began with the presupposition that Scripture itself is untrue. And his work essentially canonized atheistic naturalism as the basis for "scientific" research.

    As we have noted previously, naturalism itself is a religious belief. The conviction that nothing happens supernaturally is a tenet of faith, not a fact that can be verified by any scientific means. Indeed, an a priori rejection of everything supernatural involves a giant, irrational leap of faith. So the presuppositions of atheistic naturalism are actually no more "scientific" than the beliefs of biblical Christianity. That obvious fact seems to have escaped Lyell and many who have followed him.

    Nonetheless, Lyell’s uniformitarian theory was enormously influential on other scientists of his age. (Darwin even took a copy of Lyell’s work with him when he sailed on the Beagle in 1831.) And from the first publication of Lyell’s work until today, the hypothesis that the earth is ages old has dominated secular science. The theory of evolution itself was the predictable and nearly immediate result of Lyell’s uniformitarian hypothesis.

    Of course, modern scientists have expanded their estimates of the age of the earth beyond anything Lyell himself ever imagined. But the basic theory of uniformitarianism first emerged from Lyell’s antibiblical belief system.

    The opposite of uniformitarianism is catastrophism, the view that dramatic geological changes have occurred in sudden, violent, or unusual events. A catastrophist observing sedimentary rock formations or large canyons is more likely (and more accurately) to interpret them as the result of massive flooding. Of course, this yields a much younger time frame for the development of earth’s geological features. (A sudden flood, for example, can produce a thick layer of sediment in a few hours. That means a large stratum of sedimentary rock, which a uniformitarian might assume took millions of years to form, could actually be the result of a single flash flood.) Catastrophism therefore poses a major challenge to the evolutionary timetable, eliminating the multiple billions of years demanded to make the evolutionary hypothesis work. And for that reason it is rejected out of hand by most evolutionists.

    But a moment’s reflection will reveal that the fossil record is impossible to explain by any uniformitarian scheme. For a living creature to become fossilized (rather than to decay and turn to dust—Job 34:15), it must be buried immediately under a great weight of sediment. Apart from a catastrophic deluge on a scale unlike any observed in recent history, how can we explain the existence of massive fossil beds (such as the Karoo formation fossil field in Africa, which is thought to hold eight hundred billion vertebrate fossils)? Natural sedimentation over several ages cannot explain how so many fossils came to be concentrated in one place. And every inhabited continent contains large fossil beds where millions of fossilized species are found together in large concentrations, as if all these creatures were destroyed and buried together by massive flooding. Fossils of sea creatures are even found on many of the world’s highest mountain tops. How do uniformitarians explain such phenomena? The only way they can: They constantly increase their estimate of the age of the earth.

    Scripture expressly condemns uniformitarianism in 2 Peter 3:4. Peter prophesied that this erroneous view would be adopted in the last days by scoffers—men walking after their own lusts—who imagine that "all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation." The apostle Peter goes on to write, "For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, by which the world that then existed perished, being flooded with water" (2 Peter 3:5–6).

    In other words, the plain teaching of Scripture is that this world’s history has not been one of uniform natural and geological processes from the beginning. But according to the Bible, there have been at least two global cataclysmic events: creation itself and a catastrophic worldwide flood in Noah’s time. These would sufficiently explain virtually all the geological and hydrological features of the earth as we know it.

    In fact, large–scale catastrophic forces are the only really plausible explanation for some geological features. Not far from where I live is an area known as Vasquez Rocks. It has the appearance of a rugged moonscape (and is a familiar site in science–fiction films, where it is often employed as a setting for scenes depicting exotic planets). Its main features are massive shards of jagged rock strata, broken sharply and thrusting out of the ground to great heights. Whatever force stood those rocks on end was obviously sudden and violent, not slow and gradual. The entire region is filled with similar evidences of catastrophe. Not far away is the notorious San Andreas fault. There, where the roadway has been cut into the hillside, travelers may observe violently twisted rock strata. These features are mute evidence to extraordinary forces that have shaped the topography of Southern California—far exceeding the power of any known earthquake. Such phenomena are what we might expect, given the historicity of the biblical record. Scripture says, for example, that when the Flood began, "all the fountains of the great deep were broken up" (Genesis 7:11). No doubt the Flood was accompanied by volcanic activity, massive geological movements, and the shifting of the earth’s tectonic plates. Such a catastrophe would not only explain twisted and upthrust rock strata, but it would also easily explain why so many of the earth’s mountain ranges give evidence of having once been under the sea. Uniformitarians cannot agree on any feasible explanation for features like these.

    A massive flood would also explain the formation of the Grand Canyon. In fact, it would be a better explanation of how the canyon came to be than any uniformitarian hypothesis. The features of the canyon itself (extremely deep gorges with level plateaus at the rims) suggest that it was formed by rapid erosion. A strikingly similar formation is Providence Canyon, near Lumpkin, Georgia—a spectacular canyon that covers more than eleven hundred acres. In the early 1800s the entire area was flat farmland. By the mid 1800s, farmers had completely cleared the area of trees and their root systems, leaving the area susceptible to erosion. In 1846, heavy rainfall began forming small gullies and crevices. These expanded with every successive rainfall. By the 1940s, nearby buildings and towns had to be moved to accommodate the growing canyon. Today the canyon comprises sixteen fingers, some more than one mile in length. At places the distance from the canyon floor to the rim is as high as a fifteen–story building. Today it is a scenic area, lush with trees and wildlife, often called "Georgia’s Little Grand Canyon." Its features are indistinguishable from canyons geologists claim took billions of years to form.

    Douglas F. Kelly writes:

    The uniformitarian assumption that millions of years of geological work (extrapolating from present, slow, natural processes) would be required to explain structures such as the American Grand Canyon for instance, is called into serious question by the explosion of Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington on the 18 of May 1980. Massive energy equivalent to 20 million tons of TNT destroyed 400 square kilometers of forest in six minutes, changing the face of the mountain and digging out depths of earth and rock, leaving formations not unlike parts of the larger Grand Canyon. Recent studies of the Mount St. Helens phenomenon indicate that if attempts were made to date these structures (which were formed in 1980) on the basis of uniformitarian theory, millions of years of formation time would be necessarily postulated. [1]Douglas F. Kelly, Creation and Change (Fearn, Ross-shire, U.K.: Christian Focus, 1997), 164-165.

    Christians who reinterpret the biblical text to try to accommodate the uniformitarians’ old–earth hypotheses do so unnecessarily. To imagine that the earth was formed by natural processes over billions and billions of years through slow and steady evolution is to deny the very essence of what Scripture teaches about the earth’s creation. It is to reject the clear account of God Himself that He created the earth and all its life in six days.

    (Adapted from The Battle for the Beginning.)

           

              Dethroning the Judge        

    [Editor’s Note: This article was first published in the earliest days of the GTY Blog. As we recently culled through the ministry archives in preparation for a new blog series on God’s work of creation—which coincides with the broadcast of The Battle for the Beginning sermon series on “Grace to You”—we believed this post deserved further consideration.]

    Evolution was introduced as an atheistic alternative to the biblical view of creation. According to evolution, man created God rather than vice versa. The evolutionists' ultimate agenda is to eliminate faith in God altogether and thereby do away with moral accountability.

    Intuition suggests a series of questions to the human mind when we contemplate our origin: Who is in control of the universe? Is there Someone who is sovereign—a Lawgiver? Is there a universal Judge? Is there a transcendent moral standard to live by? Is there Someone to whom we will be accountable? Will there be a final assessment of how we live our lives? Will there be any final judgment?

    Those are the very questions evolution was invented to avoid.

    Evolution was devised to explain away the God of the Bible—not because evolutionists really believed a Creator was unnecessary to explain how things began, but because they did not want the God of Scripture as their Judge. Marvin L. Lubenow writes,

    The real issue in the creation/evolution debate is not the existence of God. The real issue is the nature of God. To think of evolution as basically atheistic is to misunderstand the uniqueness of evolution. Evolution was not designed as a general attack against theism. It was designed as a specific attack against the God of the Bible, and the God of the Bible is clearly revealed through the doctrine of creation. Obviously, if a person is an atheist, it would be normal for him to also be an evolutionist. But evolution is as comfortable with theism as it is with atheism. An evolutionist is perfectly free to choose any god he wishes, as long as it is not the God of the Bible. The gods allowed by evolution are private, subjective, and artificial. They bother no one and make no absolute ethical demands. However, the God of the Bible is the Creator, Sustainer, Savior, and Judge. All are responsible to him. He has an agenda that conflicts with that of sinful humans. For man to be created in the image of God is very awesome. For God to be created in the image of man is very comfortable. [1]Marvin L. Lubenow, Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1992), 188-189.

    To put it simply, evolution was invented in order to eliminate the God of Genesis and thereby to oust the Lawgiver and obliterate the inviolability of His law. Evolution is simply the latest means our fallen race has devised in order to suppress our innate knowledge and the biblical testimony that there is a God and that we are accountable to Him (cf. Romans 1:28). By embracing evolution, modern society aims to do away with morality, responsibility, and guilt. Society has embraced evolution with such enthusiasm because people imagine that it eliminates the Judge and leaves them free to do whatever they want without guilt and without consequences.

    It's important to remember that evolutionary theories (e.g., favorable mutation, millions of years) did not arise from honest scientific inquiry—evolution is science with an agenda. Evolution began and continues in rebellion against the Creator, ignoring the Lawgiver and dethroning the Judge. Even its science is afloat on a sea of irrationality, supported only by the murky depths of contradiction and speculation.

    Many professing and influential Christians are ignoring that evidence these days—i.e., the origins of evolution—when they encourage us to harmonize evolutionary theory with the Bible. Why surrender the ground to unlawful rebels? Why dialogue with the enemy about this? Why give the interloper a voice?

    There are far too many who claim Christ's name but are not delighted with His law; they are not content to meditate on God's Word day and night. Rather, they are intimidated by the counsel of the wicked (evolutionary theory), are attracted to the way of sinners (desire for relevance and academic credibility), and are longing for the seat of scoffers (positions of respect and influence). Try as they may, there's no dethroning the Judge; they'll meet Him one day.

    (Adapted from The Battle for the Beginning.)

           

              5 Of The Biggest Objects On Display At HMNS        
    HMNS is a huge place full of things both big and small. When I used to guide public tours through our exhibit halls, I used to always stress that size does not determine an object’s importance. Sometimes the tiniest artifacts, the most minuscule fossil specimens can change everything we know about their respective fields. But […]
              Learn How to Make Homemade Solar Panels        

    The sun's energy or the solar energy is the most abundant form of energy that can be utilized on this planet. The sun is capable of giving us more than heat and light. The sun continues to be one of the largest factors dictating every living entities stay on the earth. If we go the right route, we can make use of more from the solar power, like ustilizing power for daily use.


    What are the advantages of solar power?

    The solar energy solution is increasing in weight amongst the alternative energy solutions.

    • Green energy solution: When you look at the solar energy solution, you will come to see that it uses absolutely no fuel other than the sun's light. Moreover, it does not give back into the atmosphere anything harmful.

    • Most affordable power solution: Firstly, the energy doesn't cost anything. Then, the setup charges are a one-time cost. Finally, the investment is recouperated within a couple of years of setup, making the power created by solar energy absolutely free.

    • Convenience of storage: You are not able to store conventional power but you are able to store solar power for future use. The sun's energy comes to our aid even in the times of darkness! Storing it also allows a 24x7 supply of power, thus freeing you from any power outage.

    • Low on maintenance: The solar powersystems are easy to maintain. They do not involve high costs or too much effort, thus letting you reap the benefits of the solution affordably.


    How can solar power be utilized?

    Solar power via homemade solar panels can be utilized in our everyday lives by making use of the following solar power systems:

    • Solar cooking system: Solar cooking is about cooking without burning fossil fuels or using electricity! Before you think about it, let me advise that solar cooking is not about bland cooking. You can cook in many ways - boil, roast, or bake; cook the way you want! The only demand that solar cooking asks of you is being wait a little longer; it is a matter of just a little bit more. However, it is not requiring a lot given that you will get tasty and healthy food without the concern about paying for gas or electricity bills.

    • Solar lighting system: You can now light up your entire home, use every electrical appliance without thinking about saving on bills. The solar lighting system lights up your home even at night, thanks to the power storage feature it has.

    • Solar heating system: You can keep your home comfortable and warm using the solar heating system without thinking about costs.

    Solar power is now much more accessible than it used to be. There are now many ways available to make the conversion using homemade solar panels . The materials are now readily available on the market.

    To fit a solar power system you can choose to consult a firm who specializes in this type of work or you can find out about Homemade Solar Panels yourself.

    The process is not hard and the experience necessary are those of the normal DIY'er. Depending on the area of the project the time taken would not be more than a couple of days.

    There are a number of excellent guides available with instructional videos and step by step plans.

    Follow the link to find out more about Homemade Solar Panels and using solar energy to get rid of your power bill.
              The Buzz Tour - Interview with Eve Carnall        

    Eve Carnall is about to set off on a four month journey, across the length and breadth of England. In this interview, she talks about her science background, her work at the Environment Agency and the motivations for her journey.

    To find out more visit her blog - buzztour.org

    Twitter - @buzztour

    email - changepollination@gmail.com

    divestment - http://gofossilfree.org/uk


              Beatrix Potter Syndrome        

    When trying to understand something new, we automatically look for parallels in our previous experience: we seek examples from the familiar in order to better understand the unfamiliar. Often, this can be helpful, as when we learn a new language and we draw on our knowledge of another language with a common root.

    Unfortunately, this strategy can also take us down a path that leads not to greater understanding, but to the confusion of fact with conditioned thought and to a form of distorted vision.

    This can readily be observed in the interpretation of animal behaviour by reference to human behaviour, which is one form of what we call anthropomorphism. Myths and fables and children's tales are so suffused with the granting of human values and character traits to animals that it is hard to think of a creature that has not, in our imaginations, been stereotyped and imprinted with characteristics ascribed to it by someone with a particular point to make, or axe to grind. Thus the fox is 'wily and cunning'; the dog is 'faithful and obedient'; the elephant is a 'gentle giant' and the snake is 'sneaky and deceitful'. Aesop probably started the trend, but I prefer to call it the 'Beatrix Potter Syndrome', in recognition of her influence on the developing minds of 20th-century children, of whom I was one.

    Beatrix Potter was an accomplished illustrator and observer of nature, who, had she been born a century later, may well have had a distinguished career in science. Sadly, she is now only remembered for her children's books depicting animals in human clothing who walk on their hind legs. From her stories, a direct line can be drawn to the emotionally charged portrayals of animals in many Disney films, while the brutal reality of the lives of wild animals is hidden beneath a veil of sugary sentimentality.

    Potter's assignation of human attributes and behaviour to animals is only one form of anthropomorphism. There are at least two other ways in which we routinely corrupt our understanding of the non-human world by our choice of language: the use of words to name or describe an animal and the description of animal behaviour in human terms.

    We can draw examples from the world of bees to illustrate both of these phenomena.

    When we label the egg-laying mother of the colony as 'queen' bee, we impose on her by implication all the meaning with which that English word is loaded. Thus we may expect to find her as a monarch in charge of the colony, issuing orders and, perhaps, punishments for infringements of 'colony law'. The term 'queen bee' has passed back into the English language as a description of a woman with a controlling and manipulate nature, who likes to have people around her to serve her needs and give her attention. This reinforces the popular but inappropriate picture of a real 'queen' bee, which should really be more accurately thought of as the egg-laying servant of the colony and certainly not its ruler. While the queen bee does indeed have a retinue of attendants to feed and groom her, it is they who lead her around and prepare places for her to lay. When she begins to show any signs of a decline in her ability to provide eggs, she will be superseded, ignored and left to starve.

    Likewise the male bee, or drone, which has inherited the popular meaning of its name as a parasitic loafer, or one who lives off the labours of others. While the male bees do no obvious and visible work compared to their sometimes hyper-active sisters, we know remarkably little about their day-to-day activities due to the comparatively small amount of research that has been conducted on them. I suggest it is highly improbable that a colony would deliberately encumber itself with a 'useless' 10-15% of its population at a time when gathering food is its primary concern. Simply because we have so far failed to study them with due care does not entitle us to label them as 'surplus to requirements', which is how they are regarded by most conventional beekeepers. In fact, research by Juergen Tautz at Wurtzburg University has shown that drones may indeed have hitherto unsuspected duties within the hive and may well have functions in the outside world that have so far eluded detection. As long ago as 1852, Moses Quinby (Mysteries of Beekeeping Explained) suggested that drones would likely have functions beyond mating with a queen, perhaps including helping to keep the brood warm. R.O.B.Manley noted that his best honey-producing hives generally had "a large number of drones" (Honey Farming, 1947).

    When we come to bee behaviour, so much of it is alien to us that we struggle to make sense of it, so it is not surprising that we resort to attempts to explain aspects of their world in human terms. We talk freely of bees foraging for food, scouting for a nest site, communicating by means of the 'waggle dance', defending their home, mating and carrying out their dead because these are all activities that we can easily relate to and make practical sense in terms of day-to-day survival in a colony.

    What is perhaps more surprising - and infinitely less helpful - is when people concoct mystical 'explanations' derived entirely from their imaginations and pass them on as if they had some scientific validity or foundation in fact.

    Myths and legends, populated by gods and heroes, are poetic allegories through which we have conveyed information - both oral and written - from generation to generation and thus gained some understanding of our cultural history. Many myths are anthropomorphic in their personification of natural phenomena, but as long as we understand their origins and true nature, we can learn from them without confusing their content with objective reality.

    However, as our scientific understanding of the natural world grew rapidly throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there was a parallel growth of popular interest in such things as clairvoyance, telekinesis, telepathy, reincarnation, ghosts, out-of-body experiences and suchlike para-psychological phenomena that appear not to be subject to the known laws of physics, chemistry or biology. Despite the lack of verifiable evidence for such phenomena, they appear to occupy a nether region that stubbornly persists in popular culture.

    In the context of this article, the consideration of whether or not such phenomena really exist is less relevant than the fact that they have, since Victorian times at least, been routinely presented as if they were genuine by people with a considerably greater talent for showmanship than for scientific rigour. Demonstrations of 'manifestations from the spirit world' were fashionable in late nineteenth century society, while Ouija boards and 'table-tipping' have floated in and out of fashion almost to the present day, despite the efforts of rationalists such as James Randi and Derren Brown to expose the trickery behind them. Variations on the 'clairvoyance' theme have been around at least since the days of the Delphic Oracle - probably the first example of a tourist industry built around a mystical cult - and show no signs of losing popularity, despite various myth-busting public exposures of fraud and trickery.

    Rudolf Steiner, in his lectures on bees, delivered in November and December of 1923 at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland, sought to interpret the world of bees by means of 'Anthroposophy', a Christianized, version of the mystical 19th century eastern-derived 'religious philosophy' of Theosophy, whose best-known proponent, Helena Blavatsky, was also a performing clairvoyant. Both Steiner and Blavatsky claimed to derive their occult knowledge from outside the material world, by a process that would nowadays be called 'channeling'.

    Steiner believed that mankind had existed on Earth - although not necessarily in material form - since its creation, and that bees (as well as other animals) were created for our benefit. This chronological reversal of the truth as revealed by fossil evidence - bees having certainly been around for more than 100 million years before Homo sapiens - sets the scene for further dubious assertions, such as when he talks of embryonic queens "giving off light" that somehow causes a colony to swarm from "fear that 'it no longer possesses the bee poison".

    Anyone unfamiliar with Steiner's idiosyncratic cosmology and his other writings about the supposed history of the Earth may be surprised by passages such as:

    "Our earth was once in a condition of which one could say that it was surrounded by clouds that had plant-life within them; from the periphery, other clouds approached and fertilised them; these clouds had an animal nature. From cosmic spaces came the animal nature; from the earth the essence of plant-being rose upwards." (Lecture VIII)

    Back in the world of bees, Steiner makes much of the 21-day gestation period of a worker bee as being equivalent to "a single rotation of the sun on its axis" (Lecture II), apparently unaware that the equatorial regions of the sun perform a single rotation in 25.6 days, while polar regions rotate once in about 36 days (NASA).

    He goes on to say that 'the drone is thus an earthly being' (because its completion takes longer than the sun's rotation - which in fact, as we now know, it does not).

    He further elaborates on this thesis:

    "The drones are the males; they can fertilize; this power of fertilization comes from the earth; the drones acquire it in the few days during which they continue their growth within the earth-evolution and before they reach maturity. So we can now say: in the bees it is clearly to be seen that fertilization (male fecundation) comes from the earthly forces, and the female capacity to develop the egg comes from the forces of the Sun. So you see, you can easily imagine how significant is the length of time during which a creature develops. This is very important for, naturally, something happens within a definite time which could not occur in either a shorter or a longer time, for then quite other things would happen."

    As happens numerous times in the Lectures, Steiner makes a statement that is demonstrably erroneous, and then goes on to elaborate a sequence of specious arguments from it, which, being derived from false premises, must inevitably lead to false conclusions.

    It would be tedious to cite every instance where Steiner is obfuscatory, unnecessarily mystical or just plain wrong. Suffice to say that, while not being totally devoid of interest, his Lectures are about as useful a source of insights into bees as a medieval book of medicinal herbs would be for conducting modern surgery. Indeed, Steiner even betrays his lack of basic understanding of the functions of the human body (Lecture VII) in saying that:

    "...it is represented as though the heart were a kind of pump, and that this pumping of the heart sends the blood all over the body. This is nonsense, because it is in reality the blood which is brought into motion by the ego-organization, and moves throughout the body."

    However, Steiner does make some non-mystical statements that must be considered, as they at least fall into alignment with observable reality. He warns against pushing bees for over-production, drawing a parallel with the dairy industry (Lecture V); he emphasizes that "... the bee-colony is a totality. It must be seen as a totality." (Lecture V); The one much-vaunted but often mis-quoted, 'prediction' made by Steiner, usually misrepresented as a 'prophesy' of the general demise of bees, amounts to a rather mild criticism of the then relatively new practice of artificial insemination: "...we must see how things will be in fifty to eighty years time...".

    Right at the end of the final Lecture, we find clear evidence that Steiner's view of nature is actually highly anthropocentric:

    'Thus we can say: When we observe things in the right way, we see how the processes of Nature are actually images and symbols of what happens in human life. These men of olden times watched the birds on the juniper trees with the same love with which we look at the little cakes and gifts on the Christmas tree. "...I have therefore spoken of the juniper tree which can truly be regarded as a kind of Christmas tree, and which is the same for the birds as the blossoms for the bees, the wood for the ants, and for the wood-bees and insects in general."

    And so Steiner's personal mysticism, as well as his sentimentality, turns out to have a large component of anthropomorphism lurking within it.

    Having reached this point in our analysis, we have to consider what is left to us: what would be a legitimate methodology for the study of bees, that would be free from the elephant traps of anthropocentrism, anthropomorphism, sentimentality and mysticism, yet can encompass the sense experienced by many who come into contact with bees that there is 'something else' present, beyond the purely material?

    A rationalist would say, 'observe without interpretation: see what is there and describe it as accurately as possible, but without overlaying it with meaning. Be true to observable reality'.

    And yet, many people report some kind of transcendental experience in the presence of bees en masse, so are their reports to be written off as mere whimsy?

    Speaking from my own experience, I can say that while working with bees and maintaining a calm, unhurried demeanour, I have had moments of inner peace akin to that I have also experienced while meditating or engaging in certain martial arts practices that aim to 'still the mind'. Having one's unprotected hands in a hive containing 50,000 fully-armed bees has a way of focusing the mind very much in the moment, while any deviation from the 'now' is likely to be punished more rapidly and more severely than by a Zen master's staff.

    Being present 'in the moment' is a rarer - and thus more precious - experience for the 21st-century Twitter-dweller than for our ancestors. For the opportunity to experience that sense of timelessness in the company of a wild creature so many millennia our senior is a privilege that beekeepers should celebrate and cherish.

    Mysticism has had its day. We are grown-ups now: we have seen the atom bomb and the double helix and we need to come to terms with objective reality in all its wonderful forms without ascribing all phenomena just beyond our understanding to the work of gods, aliens, faeries or gnomes. We can appreciate nature without projecting our aspirations or values onto it. We can observe without always needing to know the 'hidden meaning' of what we see hear, smell and taste. We can be elevated by what is around us and enjoy all the sensations available in this remarkable, natural world. We can even compose poems and songs, myths and fables to entertain us and our children, but we no longer need to sit at the feet of all-too-mortal men who exert power over the ignorant by interposing themselves between us and authentic experience of the mysteries of life.

    Philip Chandler



    Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6814638


              Does bad news harm the prospects for climate change mitigation strategies? ... by gimleteye        
    A month ago, we wrote about the gloomy NY Magazine report on the doomsday climate change scenario. Science News, "the magazine of the Society for Science & the Public", responded: "Does doom and gloom convince anyone about climate change?"

    That the article is disappointing isn't a surprise. How could it be, when the over-arching issue of the public response to climate change is such a disappointment.

    Earlier studies acknowledge that too much doom and gloom turns people off the subject, or, irrigates a sense of hopelessness; ie. nothing can be done, it's the weather.

    The primary driver of the public response to climate change continues to be the profit principle. Those with the most to gain, like the fossil fuel supply chain and large centralized, leviathan electricity producers, continue to game out scenarios that allow them to continue to profit -- in some cases, guaranteed by public policies -- as long as possible. On the other hand, government policies, when in the hands of those who believe climate change mitigation is an essential goa, can incentivize economic behavior and energy production that is less damaging to the atmosphere compared to carbon and methane emissions.

    Bluntly, the science of climate change is resolved: it is happening, and it is happening at a rate much faster than science anticipated only a decade ago. It is also well established that contrarians in the science community have ties to polluters and anti-science initiatives by corporate sponsors in the past, ie. tobacco and Big Sugar.

    Eye On Miami takes the side that sounding the alarm bells continues to be the most clarifying position. We speak from experience in Florida, having spent nearly 30 years calling out similar messages on the fate of the Everglades and Florida Bay.

    We know what needs to be done. We just haven't been able to summon the political will, the voters and leadership to protect our shared future. The result is muddy at best, but our conscience is clear.

              China Vietnam relations fall to a one year low over new Maritime dispute        

    https://www.forbes.com/sites/ralphjennings/2017/07/31/china-vietnam-relations-fall-to-a-one-year-low-over-a-new-maritime-dispute/?c=0&s=trending#576e5ec61365

    An anti-China activist holds a poster saying '74 (Vietnamese) martyrs live forever' during a rally marking the 42nd anniversary of the 1974 naval battle between China and then-South Vietnamese troops over the Paracel Islands, in Hanoi on January 19, 2017. (HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images)

    After a world court tribunal ruled last year in July that Beijing lacked legal rights to claim most of the South China Sea, it stepped up talks with the chief maritime disputant Vietnam. Vietnam and China contest sovereignty over the sea’s two major island chains and a lot more. Both remember deadly naval clashes in 1974 and 1988 for control over some of those islets. Three years ago, anti-China riots broke out in Vietnam after Beijing let a Chinese offshore oil driller park a rig 240 kilometers east of the Vietnamese coast.

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    Now they’re at it again despite all the talking. This dispute has pushed Sino-Vietnamese ties to a one-year low that will probably last a while yet not lead to any use of force.

    The latest problem began when Vietnam and a Spanish contractor set out in June to explore for oil or natural gas beneath the seabed near Vanguard Bank, which is under Vietnamese control, say analysts who follow Southeast Asia. Beijing says that feature in the Spratly chain rightfully belongs under its flag. It may separately resent the influence of India, a not-so-pro-China country without a claim of its own to the disputed 3.5 million-square-kilometer sea. Vietnam this year extended a deal with the overseas subsidiary of India’s state-run firm ONGC to explore for fossil fuels in a tract that China contests.

    China says about 90% of the sea is its own, including tracts that overlap the exclusive economic zones of Brunei and Malaysia. It has landfilled disputed islets for military installations to bolt down its claims. Five other governments claim parts of the sea. Vietnam, which has also fought China over a land border, historically has been the most outspoken.

    In June a Chinese Central Military Commission vice chairman cut short his visit to Vietnam, the official Xinhua News Agency in Beijing reported. It didn’t say Vietnamese oil exploration prompted the official to leave early, but experts call that the chief reason. In late July China strongly pressured Vietnam to withdraw from the tract near Vanguard Bank, analysts believe.

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    “China’s reported threat to Vietnam forms part of a pattern of increased bellicosity from China,” Carl Thayer, emeritus professor at The University of New South Wales in Australia, says in a July 25 research note. “At the extreme end of the spectrum, China could fire warning shots at the exploration vessel or, as threatened, take some form of limited military action against one of the features that Vietnam occupies.”

    Neither government wants another clash by force, so analysts expect them to keep talking, possibly at the Communist Party-to-Communist Party level at first. But that dialogue would only dampen the dispute, not solve it. The core disagreement just runs too deep.

    Vietnamese officials say the world court ruling gives it rights to Vanguard Bank, while China rejects the whole ruling. Vanguard Bank had loomed as a sticking point in 2011 too, when a Chinese fishing vessel cut a Vietnamese boat’s cable there. “Vietnam may withdraw its rig this time because it has completed operation, or to defuse tension, but it will not give up its claim there,” says Le Hong Hiep, research fellow with the ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute in Singapore. “Future waves of tensions over this area should be expected


              Fossil es3816 đẳng cấp dây da tha hồ khoe cá tính        
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              New photo: Chapman's Pool        
    Chapman's Pool

    Chapman's Pool, part of Dorset's Jurassic Coast. As you would expect the cove is rich in both geology and fossils.
    Located just outside of Worth Matravers, the cove is both dramatic and beautiful


              Des dinosaures canadiens et de l’odeur des beignes        
    Des dinosaures canadiens et de l’odeur des beignes De toutes les régions du monde, l’Alberta compte parmi les régions où on trouve le plus grand nombre de fossiles. De façon intéressante, c’est aussi la province natale du Premier Ministre canadien Stephen Harper. De façon encore plus intéressante, c’est également l’image qui ...
              Google Earth, class is now in session        

    So much of what students learn in the classroom—from social studies to history, science and literature—relates to a geographic place on Earth. Recently, we announced a new version of Google Earth, and since then, educators have been telling us what a valuable tool Google Earth is for their students. They use the “I’m feeling lucky” feature to inspire writing exercises, do research exercises with Knowledge Cards, and explore satellite imagery and cloud strata with their students. Now, to make it even easier for teachers to use Google Earth in the classroom, we’ve created a new “Education” category in the Voyager section, which includes new stories—complete with classroom activities—from National Geographic Society, PBS Education, HHMI Biointeractive and Mission Blue.

    Edu-category600px.gif
    Just click the new "Education" category on the Voyager homepage for new stories, complete with classroom activities for teachers

    The National Geographic Society stories take students on adventures following explorers through the Middle East, India, and coral reefs. To supplement the experience, National Geographic Society created idea for activities that highlight a range of geographical concepts, such as interpreting land forms and comparing map projections.

    With PBS Education, classrooms can go back in time and track the paths of famous explorers, from Lewis and Clark to the Vikings. As students follow along, they, in turn, become modern-day explorers.

    HHMI Biointeractive and Mission Blue created Voyager stories more geared towards science and math. With HHMI Biointeractive, students join “Scientists at Work” as they investigate important problems, from endangered coral reefs to the Ebola outbreak. And Mission Blue’s story teaches students about the unique oceanographic conditions of Costa Rica thermal dome. Short videos and questions embedded in the stories will help guide students with their own scientific research.

    Educators everywhere can find classroom activities (created by teachers, for teachers) at our new Google Earth Education website, and easily share locations and stories directly to Google Classroom. In addition, this week Google Earth will become an Additional Service for Google for Education users, which can be managed by IT administrators through the Google Admin console.

    Google Earth was built to inspire curious minds to explore, learn and care about our vast, fragile planet. With these updates, we’re excited to make it easier for the next generation to see the world from a new perspective.


              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-11-2017 with Bob Cosmo        
    Playlist:

    Sam Amidon- Fortune - The Following Mountain
    Mac DeMarco- This Old Dog Instrumental - This Old Dog Instrumentals
    Hand Habits- All The While - Wildly Idle Humble Before The Void
    Imaginary Tricks- Mr Big Idea - Skommel
    Tinariwen- Imidiwn NkallIn - Elwan
    Jay Som- Remain - Everybody Works
    Blondes- Kdm - Warmth
    Steve Lacy- Dark Red - Steve Lacys Demo EP
    Cuddle Magic- Spinning - AshesAxis
    Beach Fossils- Social Jetlag - Somersault
    Bonobo- Bambro Koyo Ganda feat Innov Gnawa - Bambro Koyo Ganda Single
    Janka Nabay The Bubu Gang- Sabanoh - Build Music
    The Como Mamas- Count Your Blessings - Move Upstairs
    Hoops- Benjals - Routines
    Nicholas Payton- El Guajiro - AfroCaribbean Mixtape
    Jain- Lil Mama - Zanaka Deluxe
    Jain- So Peaceful - Zanaka Deluxe
    Arthur Verocai- Presente Grego - Arthur Verocai
    Thundercat- Jethro - Drunk
    Handsome Boy Modeling School- Ive Been Thinking - White People
    Ebo Taylor- Will You Promise - My Love And Music
    Xiu Xiu- Falling - Plays The Music Of Twin Peaks
    Bob Weir- Cottonwood Lullaby - Blue Mountain
    Luciano Pavarotti And James Brown- Its A Mans World - Luciano Pavarotti And James Brown
    David Axelrod- Mucho Chupar - Heavy Axe
    Cocteau Twins- Iceblink Luck - Heaven Or Las Vegas Remastered
    Captain Beefheart His Magic Band- Big Eyed Beans From Venus The Country Club Reseda CAUSA 2911981 - Magnetism The Best Of Captain Beefheart His Magic Bands Live 7281
    Kraftwerk- Robots - The Man Machine
    Alexander skip Spence- Broken Heart - Oar
    Magma- Lirik Nekronomikus Kahnt - Attahk
    My Bloody Valentine- We Have All The Time In The World - My Bloody Valentine
    Stereolab- Cybeles Reverie - Emperor Tomato Ketchup
    Orchestra Baobab- Sey - Tribute To Ndiouga Dieng
    Botany- Au Revoir with Milo - Dimming Awe The Light Is Raw


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2017-07-11
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-05-2017 with Michael Buck        
    Playlist:

    Morning Teleportation- Rise And Fall - Salivating For Symbiosis
    - voicebreak -
    Citrus Clouds- Always Tomorrow - Imagination
    Beach Fossils- Sugar - Somersault
    Forest Swords- Raw Language - Compassion
    Nym- Light Catcher - Lilac Chaser
    Aldous Harding- Party - Party
    - voicebreak -
    Monoswezi- Esta Bem - A Je
    Nina Miranda- Silken Horse - Freedom Of Movement
    The Mountain Goats- Shelved - Goths
    Kevin Morby- City Music - City Music
    Palm- Walkie Talkie - Shadow Expert EP
    Harriet Brown- Cryptid - Contact
    - voicebreak -
    Lea Porcelain- Out Is In - HYMNS TO THE NIGHT
    The Black Angels- I Dreamt - Death Song
    Freelsds Badtrip- Gallop - Freelsds Badtrip EP
    The Buttertones- Geishas Gaze - Gravedigging
    Evolfo- Frank The Fiddler - Last Of The Acid Cowboys
    The Afghan Whigs- Arabian Heights - In Spades
    - voicebreak -
    Vieux Farka Tour- Ouaga - Samba
    Mux Mool- Sympathy - Implied Lines
    House And Land- The Day Is Past And Gone - House And Land
    Perfume Genius- Slip Away - No Shape
    Nicole Mitchell- Forestwall Timewalk - Mandorla Awakening II Emerging Worlds
    Triptides- What For - Afterglow
    Thunder Dreamer- The Bridge - Capture
    - voicebreak -
    Fujiya Miyagi- RSI - Fujiya Miyagi
    Cody ChesnuTT- Africa The Future - My Love Divine Degree
    Coldcut OnU Sound- Aztec Riddim feat Adrian Sherwood - Outside The Echo Chamber
    Negritage- Kyrenia Dreams - Greetings From The Planet Dub
    Chastity Belt- Different Now - I Used To Spend So Much Time Alone
    Dan Auerbach- Cherrybomb - Waiting On A Song
    - voicebreak -
    King Gizzard The Lizard Wizard- Welcome To An Altered Future - Murder Of The Universe
    King Gizzard The Lizard Wizard- Digital Black - Murder Of The Universe
    King Gizzard The Lizard Wizard- HanTyumi The Confused Cyborg - Murder Of The Universe
    Dream Machine- The Illusion - The Illusion
    Sandy Alex G- Guilty - Rocket
    Branson Anderson- Talldog - Graydog
    Contry- Cash Out - Cell Phone 1
    Deep State- Infinitesimals - Thought Garden


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2017-07-05
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-21-2017 with Indra Raj        
    Playlist:

    Beach Fossils- Tangerine - Somersault
    Nick Waterhouse- Its Time - Never Twice
    Janka Nabay The Bubu Gang- Game Ova - Build Music
    Lone- Chroma - Ambivert Tools Volume One Single
    Marika Hackman- Boyfriend - Im Not Your Man
    Night Drive- Trapeze Artist Regrets - Night Drive
    Pacific Mambo Orchestra- Sakura feat Nora Suzuki - Live From Stern Grove San Francisco
    Triptides- Invitation - Afterglow
    UMFANG- Weight - Symbolic Use Of Light
    - voicebreak -
    Chicano Batman- Passed By You - Freedom Is Free
    The Heliocentrics- Oh Brother - A World Of Masks
    Nick Hakim- JP - Green Twins
    Daym Arocena- Negra Caridad - Cubafona
    Mulatu Astatke- Chifara - Mulatu Of Ethiopia
    - voicebreak -
    Com Truise- Isostasy - Iteration
    - Our Love U Can Get - Shake The Shudder
    - voicebreak -
    Girlpool- She Goes By - Powerplant
    Dan The Man- Flowerpot Men - Circadian Circus
    Cende- Bed - 1 Hit Single
    La Cuneta- La Rebusca feat Deuce Eclipse - Caambuco
    Eliot Lipp- Till The End - Come To Life
    - voicebreak -
    Washed Out- Get Lost - Mister Mellow
    Das Mrtal- Backseat Love Affair - Always Loved
    Ondatrpica- Caldo Parao - Baile Bucanero
    Mux Mool- Sympathy - Implied Lines
    Daniel Romano- Sucking The Old World Dry - Modern Pressure
    Little Dragon- Push - Season High
    Blondes- Kdm - Warmth
    Jimmy Whoo- Wildcats - Motel Music Pt 2
    ERIMAJ- Conflict Of A Man - Insecure Music From The HBO Original Series
    Phoenix- Tuttifrutti - Ti Amo
    Tuxedo- Rotational - Tuxedo II


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2017-06-21
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-14-2017 with Dave Blackwood        
    Playlist:

    Dion Lunadon- Howl - Dion Lunadon
    The Courtneys- Silver Velvet - The Courtneys II
    Spaceface- Sun Kids feat Mikaela Davis - Sun Kids
    Eyedress- Feel Like Giving Up - Manila Ice
    Thurston Moore- Exalted - Rock N Roll Consciousness
    Here Lies Man- You Aint Going Nowhere - Here Lies Man
    The Black Angels- Medicine - Death Song
    Sun Cop- When You Hear The Drum feat Lauren Whitacre - When You Hear The Drum You May Speak
    - voicebreak -
    Sandy Alex G- Powerful Man - Rocket
    Triptides- Throne Of Stars - Afterglow
    Beach Fossils- Be Nothing - Somersault
    Mike Edge- Ive Got Time - Mike Edge EP
    The Budos Band- The Sticks - Burnt Offering
    Height Keech- Dead Rider Ride On - Mind Moves The Mountain
    Gorillaz- Charger feat Grace Jones - Humanz
    Tay Sean- Kathedral Spectre - Leavings
    Balkan Beat Box- Give It A Tone - Shout It Out
    James Brown- The Payback - Make It Funky The Big Payback 19711975
    Govt Mule- Stone Cold Rage - Revolution ComeRevolution Go
    Dream Machine- I Walked In The Fire - The Illusion
    Spencer Radcliffe- Land Sea - Enjoy The Great Outdoors
    Daniel Romano- The Pride Of Queens - Modern Pressure
    Cende- What I Want - 1 Hit Single
    Walrus- Regular Face - Family Hangover
    LA Takedown- Bad Night At Blacks Beach - II
    Timber Timbre- Skin Tone - Sincerely Future Pollution
    DON BRYANT- A Nickel And A Nail - Dont Give Up On Love
    Chuck Berry- Wonderful Woman - Chuck
    Boss Hog- 17 - Brood X
    Land Of Talk- This Time - Life After Youth
    Sneaks- Inside Edition - Its A Myth
    Eyelids- Slow It Goes - Or
    Kevin Morby- City Music - City Music
    Sam Amidon- Trouble In Mind - The Following Mountain
    Black Lips- Overture Sunday Mourning - Satans Graffiti Or Gods Art
    Black Lips- Occidental Front - Satans Graffiti Or Gods Art
    King Gizzard The Lizard Wizard- Nuclear Fusion - Flying Microtonal Banana
    Nick Hakim- Roller Skates - Green Twins


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2017-06-14
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-05-2017 with Jamie Morgan        
    Playlist:

    Boxcutter- Glyphic - Glyphic
    The Books- A Cold Freezin Night - The Way Out
    Mount Kimbie- Carbonated - Crooks Lovers
    DJ Nate- Footwurk Homicide - Da Trak Genious
    DJ Nate- Ima Dog - Bangs Works Vol 1 A Chicago Footwork Compilation
    DJ Taye- Burnin Ya Boa feat DJ Manny - Move Out EP
    Beach Fossils- Down The Line - Somersault
    Constrobuz- Cant Be Friends - Cyborg Kama Sutra
    Rheteric Ramirez- Ignore Armor - Single
    Clark- Vengeance Drools - Body Riddle
    Nick Hook- Sirens with ElP Rood - Without You
    Juvenile- Ha - 400 Degreez
    Fluxxy- Ay Can I Tell U Somting - Last Things First EP
    Oh No- Adventure - Dr Nos Ethiopium
    Dr Yen Lo- Day 3 - Days With Dr Yen Lo
    Pussy Riot- Organs - Xxx EP
    Dark Time Sunshine- Take My Hand feat Swamburger Aesop Rock - Anx
    Eyedea Abilities- This Story - By The Throat
    Curta- Planned Obsolete - Clickbait
    Aesop Rock- Kirby - The Impossible Kid
    Hail Mary Mallon- Garfield - Are You Gonna Eat That Deluxe Edition
    Flying Lotus- LTWXRMX - Shhh
    CULP- SHAVEDWOOKIE - Marineland
    Gold Panda- Quitters Raga - Companion
    Constrobuz- Not Out - Beats Vol 2
    - voicebreak -
    Hudson Mohawke- Star Of A Story - Hudsons Heeters Vol 1 06
    Crooklyn Dodgers 95- Return Of The Crooklyn Dodgers Radio Edit Clean Version - Return Of The Crooklyn Dodgers
    Aesop Rock- Crows 2 - Skelethon
    3LLL- A I R F O R T R E S S - M E T A L
    3LLL- L E A D S T O R M - M E T A L
    Eraserhead Fuckers- Fung - Single
    Andrew Jackson Jihad- The Michael Jordan Of Drunk Driving - Knife Man
    Bleep Bloop- Water On Mars - The EP With Five Eyes
    - voicebreak -
    Eprom- Super Fx - Halflife
    The Gibbs- Youll Never Understand Me - Youll Never Understand Me
    Eraserhead Fuckers- Loma Prieta - Loma Prieta
    WuTang Clan- Triumph - Disciples Of The 36 Chambers Chapter 1
    Raekwon- Glaciers Of Ice feat Masta Killa Ghostface Killah - Only Built 4 Cuban Linx
    Pharoahe Monch- Simon Says - Internal Affairs
    Killer Mike- Reagan - RAP Music
    Volume 10- Pistol Grip Pump - Hip Hopera
    Prefuse 73- The End Of Biters International - One Word Extinguisher
    Taquwami- The Gathering - Moyas
    Taquwami- Otogi Bass - Moyas
    Jonwayne- Time Trial - Bowser
    Andre Nickatina- Dice Of Life The Battle - Conversation With A Devil
    DJ Shadow- Organ Donor - Endtroducing Deluxe Edition
    000 534 Mr Muthafuckin EXquire Ft Despot Das Racist Danny Brown ELP- The Last Huzzah Remix - The Last Huzzah
    DJ Shadow- Midnight In A Perfect World - Endtroducing


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2017-06-05
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-11-2016 with Dave Blackwood        
    Playlist:

    Radiohead- Daydreaming - A Moon Shaped Pool
    Youth Lagoon- Daydream - The Year Of Hibernation
    Anoushka Shankar- Boat To Nowhere - Land Of Gold
    13th Floor Elevators- Reverberation Doubt - Mojo Presents Paint It Black
    The Lonelyhearts- First The Bad News - Age Of Man
    - voicebreak -
    Ash Koosha- Mudafossil - I AKA I
    All India Radio- The Slow Light - The Slow Light
    JeanMichel Jarre- The Heart Of Noise Pt 1 - Electronica 2 The Heart Of Noise
    Shlohmo- Druid Caravan Of Smoke - Star Wars Headspace
    The Defeated County- Kids - Bar Tabs Baby Names
    Santana- Yambu - Santana IV
    Parquet Courts- Human Performance - Human Performance
    King Gizzard The Lizard Wizard- Wah Wah - Nonagon Infinity
    Black Mountain- Mothers Of The Sun - IV
    Suuns- Instrument - HoldStill
    Prince Rama- Now Is The Time Of Emotion - Xtreme Now
    A Giant Dog- Sleep When Dead - Pile
    Tacocat- Dana Katherine Scully - Lost Time
    Head Wound City- Scraper - A New Wave Of Violence
    - voicebreak -
    Saul Williams- Think Like They Book Say - MartyrLoserKing
    The Movement- Blinded - Golden
    Damien Jurado- QACHINA - Visions Of Us On The Land
    Bob Marley The Wailers- Exodus - Africa Unite The Singles Collection
    Talking Heads- Girlfriend Is Better - Stop Making Sense
    Fela Ransome Kuti His Koola Lobitos- Everyday I Got My Blues Live - HighlifeJazz And AfroSoul
    Grace Kelly- Blues For Harry Bosch Mocean Worker Remix - Trying To Figure It Out
    Bibio- Petals - A Mineral Love
    Br Gr- Choppa - Have You Lost Your Faith In God
    Tourist- U - U
    Moderat- Running - III
    Tame Impala- Let It Happen - Currents
    White Denim- Holda You Im Psycho - Stiff
    Mike The Melvins- A Friend In Need Is A Friend You Dont Need - Three Men And A Baby
    The Last Shadow Puppets- Aviation - Everything Youve Come To Expect
    The Heavy- Since You Been Gone - Hurt The Merciless
    Charles Bradley- Changes - Changes
    John Barry- Midnight Cowboy - Midnight Cowboy Original Motion Picture Soundtrack


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2016-05-11
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-15-2015 with Barry Roark        
    Playlist:

    Courtney Barnett- Porcelain - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
    The Waterboys- Song Of Wandering Aengus - An Appointment With Mr Yeats
    Metronomy- Im Aquarius - Love Letters
    - voicebreak -
    Spiritualized- Broken Heart - Ladies And Gentlemen We Are Floating In Space Deluxe Version
    Talking Heads- Houses In Motion - Remain In Light
    Message To Bears- Find Our Way Home - Departures
    The Antlers- Prologue - Hospice
    Sufjan Stevens- Impossible Soul - The Age Of Adz
    Metric- Youth Without Youth - Synthetica
    Easy Star AllStars- Wanna Be Startin Somethin feat JoWil Ruff Scott - Easy Stars Thrillah
    The Amazing- Picture You - Picture You
    Real Estate- Younger Than Yesterday - Days
    Beach Fossils- Clash The Truth - Clash The Truth
    Jphnny Bertram And The Golden Bicycles- Out Of Darkness - Neon City
    Sasha- Wavy Gravy Original Mix - Deconstruction Reconstructed 004 EP
    Elizabeth Carpenter- Clint Eastwood Dream - Flirting
    The Velvet Underground- Who Loves The Sun - Loaded
    Ben Watt- A Girl In Winter feat Robert Wyatt - Summer Into Winter EP
    Gayngs- Faded High - Relayted
    Danny Michel The Garifuna Collective- This Is What Is - Black Birds Are Dancing Over Me
    Tribal Seeds- Night Day - Representing
    Tribal Seeds- Representing feat Vaughn Benjamin - Representing
    Yo La Tengo- Autumn Sweater - I Can Hear The Heart Beating As One
    The Walkabouts- Feel Like Going Home - Satisfied Mind
    Locas In Love- Blackbox - Use Your Illusion 3 4


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2015-09-15
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 08-17-2015 with Andy Zicklin        
    Playlist:

    Molehill- The Repeating - Tin God EP
    Magnets Ghosts- Drug Money - Be Born
    La Luz- Sleep Till They Die - Weirdo Shrine
    Dengue Fever- Rom Say Sok - The Deepest Lake
    Django Django- Giant - Born Under Saturn
    Gasoline Lollipops- Longest Night - Dawn
    The Vibrators- Baby Baby - Pure Punk
    Flogging Molly- Factory Girls featuring Lucinda Williams - Within A Mile Of Home
    Irka Mateo- Liborio - Anacaona
    A Tom Collins- Jesus - Stick And Poke
    Timber Timbre- Demon Host - Timber Timbre
    Calexico- Cumbia De Donde - Edge Of The Sun
    Alabama Shakes- Dont Wanna Fight - Sound Color
    Veruca Salt- The Museum Of Broken Relationships - Ghost Notes
    Leon Bridges- Better Man - Coming Home Single
    Florence The Machine- Ship To Wreck - How Big How Blue How Beautiful Deluxe
    - voicebreak -
    Hinds- Bamboo - Demo Single
    The Reverend Horton Heat- Callin In Twisted - Revival
    Michel Camilo- Take Five - Whats Up
    XTC- Ballad Of Peter Pumpkinhead - Fossil Fuel The XTC Singles Collection 1977 1992
    - voicebreak -
    Tessa Torrence- 8th St Hustle - Feel No Evil
    Old 97s- If My Heart Was A Car - Hitchhike To Rhome
    Dan Bern- Welcome Madmen With Guns - Songs Of Fall
    The Tallest Man On Earth- Dark Bird Is Home - Dark Bird Is Home
    - voicebreak -
    The Thermals- God And Country - Fuckin A
    Amos Milburn- One Scotch One Bourbon One Beer - The Greatest Rhythm Booze Collection
    Motopony- Easy Come Easy Go - Welcome You
    Ramones- Bonzo Goes To Bitburg - Animal Boy
    The Damned- I Just Cant Be Happy Today - Machine Gun Etiquette
    - voicebreak -
    Black Lips- Starting Over - 200 Million Thousand
    The Beatnigs- Welcome Television - The Beatnigs
    Wall Of Voodoo- Lost Weekend - Call Of The West
    Payola Presley- Empty Plastic Bags - EP Of The Year EP
    Von Grey- Forever Bound - Panophobia
    Aloe Blacc- I Need A Dollar - Good Times
    The Black Sparrows- Cant Give Up On You - Certified Blue
    Julia Haltigan- A Girl And A Gun - Magneto EP
    L7- Off The Wagon - The Beauty Process Triple Platinum
    John Zorn- Batman - Naked City


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2015-08-17
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-03-2015 with 99 & Barry        
    Playlist:

    GIA Hang On The Box- You Hate Me But I Love You - No More Nice Girls
    Meridian Brothers- Salvadora Robot - Salvadora Robot
    Quasi Dub Development- Snake Squeezer - Little Twister Vs Stiff Neck
    Estradasphere- The Terrible Beautypower Of Meow - Palace Of Mirrors
    Art Zoyd- Unsex Me Here - Berlin
    Holger Czukay- Sudetenland - Der Osten Ist Rot Rome Remains Rome
    - voicebreak -
    Cedric Vuille- Two Girls Two Bicycles - 804 Center Street
    Annette Peacock- Pony - Im The One
    Henry Threadgill Zooid- Off The Prompt Box Exordium - In For A Penny In For A Pound
    Sonny Sharrock- Blind Willie - Black Woman
    Bondage Fruit- Old Blind Cat - IV
    - voicebreak -
    Frank Zappa- Goat Polo - Dance Me This
    Herbert- Safety - The Shakes
    Ikue Mori- Agate Amulets - In Light Of Shadows
    Brian Eno And Jon Hassell- BaBenzele - Fourth World Vol 1 Possible Musics
    Novy Svet- La Razn - Faccia A Faccia
    The Residents- Sorry - The Big Bubble
    - voicebreak -
    Ruins- Still Life - Refusal Fossil Special Edition
    Boredoms- Mogo - Wow 2
    Can- Oh Yeah - Tago Mago 40th Anniversary Edition
    The Hand To Man Band- The Down Moveables - You Are Always On Our Minds
    ExGirl- ESaYa - Endangered Species
    - voicebreak -
    El Guincho- Cuando Maravilla Fui - Alegranza Bonus Track Version
    The Fiery Furnaces- Blueberry Boat - Blueberry Boat
    Ligeia Mare- Entry - Amplifier
    The Clash- Shepherds Delight - Sandinista
    Jun Miyake- Eden4 - Lost Memory Act2
    Wayne Horvitz- Goes Round And Round - The President
    - voicebreak -
    Ed And Alice Gorin- California Cruiser - Songs In The Key Of Z Vol 4
    Bain Wolfkind- Shiny Steel Blade - Music For Lovers Gangsters
    Boyd Rice- Absence Makes The Heart Grow Fonder With Tiffany Anders - The Way I Feel
    Red Baraat- Horizon Line - Gaadi Of Truth
    Nozinja- Baby Do U Feel Me - Nozinja Lodge
    Chico Trujillo- Malgeniosa - Reina De Todas Las Fiestas
    Sun City Girls- Eye Mohini - Eye Mohini Sun City Girls Singles Vol 3


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2015-07-03
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-11-2015         
    Playlist:

    John Frusciante- Murderers - To Record Only Water For Ten Days
    David Bromberg- Sharon - My Own House You Should See The Rest Of The Band Remastered
    Tatanka- Give Green feat Triston Palma - Tatanka
    The Budos Band- Black Hills - Burnt Offering
    Calexico- Algiers - Algiers
    Panda Bear- Boys Latin - Panda Bear Meets The Grim Reaper Bonus Mr Noah EP Edition
    Belle And Sebastian- The Party Line - Girls In Peacetime Want To Dance
    The Tallest Man On Earth- Timothy - Dark Bird Is Home
    Ben Harper Charlie Musselwhite- I Ride At Dawn - Get Up
    Viet Cong- Pointless Experience - Viet Cong
    Talkdemonic- Midcentury Motion - Ruins
    New Orleans Suspects- Pocketful Of Grits - Ouroboros
    Father John Misty- Chateau Lobby 4 in C For Two Virgins - I Love You Honeybear
    Chet Faker- No Diggity - Thinking In Textures
    King Sunny Ade- Ogun Party Part I - The Best Of The Classic Years
    Frank Solivan Dirty Kitchen- The Letter - On The Edge
    Run The Jewels ELP- Get It - Run The Jewels Instrumentals
    Elvin Bishop- Fooled Around And Fell In Love - Raisin Hell Revue
    Monophonics- Promises - Sound Of Sinning
    Kid Koala- Skanky Panky - Some Of My Best Friends Are DJs
    Rubedo- Love Is The Answer - Love Is The Answer
    My Morning Jacket- Golden - It Still Moves
    Ty Segall- Susie Thumb - Manipulator
    AA Bondy- Killed Myself When I Was Young - American Hearts
    Gasoline Lollipops- Failed Bed Frame - Death
    Delbert McClinton- Before You Accuse Me - 20th Century Masters The Millennium Collection The Best Of Delbert McClinton
    The Polish Ambassador- Earth Versus The World - Diplomatic Immunity
    Aoife ODonovan- Glowing Heart - Fossils
    Emancipator- Soon It Will Be Cold Enough To Build Fires - Soon It Will Be Cold Enough
    Heartless Bastards- Only For You - Arrow
    Goat- Bondye - Commune
    Rhiannon Giddens- Shake Sugaree - Tomorrow Is My Turn
    Morgan Heritage- Darlin - Miracle
    Big Gigantic- The Night Is Young feat Cherub - The Night Is Young
    Delicate Steve- Wally Wilder - Positive Force
    Johnny Griffith Billy ShaRaes Band- Do It Instrumental - The World Needs Changing
    Tennis- Solar On The Rise - Ritual In Repeat
    Shakey Graves- Dearly Departed feat Esm Patterson - And The War Came
    The Babysitters- Brand New Dog - Split Seams
    The Robby Wicks Band- Devil In Your Head - Songs From The Biltmore
    Autechre- Bike - Incunabula


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2015-06-11
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-20-2015 with Wally        
    Playlist:

    John Frusciante- Murderers - To Record Only Water For Ten Days
    Miraculous Mule- In The Light - Mojo Proudly Presents Physical Graffiti Redrawn
    Squarepusher- Stor Eiglass - Damogen Furies
    Mac Wiseman Doc Watson Del McCoury- Live And Let Live - Mac Doc Del
    Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Big Fat Dog - Radio Salone
    Yellowbirds- Rainmaker - This Is The Town A Tribute To Nilsson Vol 1
    My Morning Jacket- Wordless Chorus - Z
    Mariachi El Bronx- Valya - Mariachi El Bronx III
    Sohail Rana- Badal Aur Bijli - Disco Dildar
    The Babysitters- Paint This Picasso - Split Seams
    Goat- The Light Within - Commune
    The Ridgelings- Blindfold - The Ridgelings
    The Black Keys- Bullet In The Brain - Turn Blue
    Shakey Graves- Call It Heaven feat Esm Patterson - And The War Came
    Pretty Lights- Yellow Bird - A Color Map Of The Sun Deluxe Version
    Sarah Lee Guthrie Johnny Irion- Chairman Meow - Wassaic Way
    Chui Wan- Beijing Is Sinking - Chui Wan
    Panda Bear- Lonely Wanderer - Panda Bear Meets The Grim Reaper
    Policulture- Great Respect - The Bridge
    Metalachi- Rainbow In The Dark - Uno
    Scatter Gather- Sirens - Just Smile
    The Budos Band- Magus Mountain - Burnt Offering
    Aoife ODonovan- Red White Blue Gold - Fossils
    Hiss Golden Messenger- Black Country Woman - Physical Graffiti Redrawn
    The Tamed West- Floating - PDX Pop Now 2014 Compilation
    Gasoline Lollipops- Devils In The Ace - Death
    Kings Of Leon- The Bucket - Aha Shake Heartbreak
    The Kinks- Mirror Of Love - Preservation Act 2
    Viet Cong- Bunker Buster - Viet Cong
    A Tribe Called Red- Electric Pow Wow Drum - A Tribe Called Red
    Speedy Ortiz- Raising The Skate - Foil Deer
    King Sunny Ade- John Ali - Gems From The Classic Years 19671974
    Electric Guitars- Work - Work Single
    Sohail Rana- Too Hai Phooi Main Dali - Disco Dildar
    Tennis- Viv Without The N - Ritual In Repeat
    Calders Revolvers SF1- See To Believe - Sunday Morning
    Karl Hector The Malcouns- The Cave - Coomasi
    Twinsmith- Constant Love - Alligator Years
    Ty Segall- Green Belly - Manipulator
    Donovan- Hurdy Gurdy Man - Hurdy Gurdy Man
    Monophonics- Strange Love - Sound Of Sinning
    Grizzly Bear- Yet Again - Shields
    Maker- Walk Away Son - Maker Vs NowAgain


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2015-05-20
              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-12-2015 with Wally        
    Playlist:

    John Frusciante- Murderers - To Record Only Water For Ten Days
    Dengue Fever- Golden Flute - The Deepest Lake
    Kronen- Transducer Abuser - Peace Of Mind
    Giant Sand- Hurtin Habit - Heartbreak Pass
    Karl Hector The Malcouns- The Cave - Coomasi
    Atomga- Empire - Atomga
    Ty Segall- Mister Main - Manipulator
    Gillian Welch- Annabelle - Revival
    Gregory Alan Isakov- Suitcase Full Of Sparks - The Weatherman
    The Budos Band- Magus Mountain - Burnt Offering
    The Way Low Down- Punch That Ticket - Take One
    Chui Wan- Beijing Is Sinking - Chui Wan
    Speedy Ortiz- No Below - Major Arcana
    Miraculous Mule- In My Time Of Dying - Mojo Proudly Presents Physical Graffiti Redrawn
    Pretty Lights- Yellow Bird - A Color Map Of The Sun Deluxe Version
    Goat- The Light Within - Commune
    The Babysitters- Dancers Dont Go - Split Seams
    Sohail Rana- Badal Aur Bijli - Disco Dildar
    Tennis- Solar On The Rise - Ritual In Repeat
    Father John Misty- Strange Encounter - I Love You Honeybear
    Grizzly Bear- Will Calls Marfa Demo - Shields BSides
    Courtney Barnett- Aqua Profunda - Sometimes I Sit And Think And Sometimes I Just Sit
    Tatanka- Show Me Love - Tatanka
    Twinsmith- Alligator Years - Alligator Years
    Maker- Walk Away Son - Maker Vs NowAgain
    Foxygen- Cosmic Vibrations - And Star Power
    Wild High- Ophelia - Sdreams
    Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Goat Smoke Pipe - Rise Shine
    Scatter Gather- Stay Awhile - Dreams
    Panda Bear- Butcher Baker Candlestick Maker - Panda Bear Meets The Grim Reaper
    A Tribe Called Red- Electric PowWow Drum - A Tribe Called Red
    Excision- Execute Original Mix - X Rated
    King Sunny Ade- Dele Davis - Gems From The Classic Years 19671974
    Lee Ranaldo Feat J Mascis- Albatross - Just Tell Me What You Want A Tribute To Fleetwood Mac
    Lightning Bolt- The Metal East - Fantasy Empire
    Delicate Steve- Wally Wilder - Positive Force
    Sohail Rana- Tere Saath Mulagaat Ek Raat Ki - Disco Dildar
    Bonobo- Jets - The North Borders
    Monophonics- Find My Way Back Home - Sound Of Sinning
    Mr Scruff- Kalimba - Ninja Tuna
    Shakey Graves- Dearly Departed feat Esm Patterson - And The War Came
    Rose Windows- The Wanton Song - Physical Graffiti Redrawn
    Aoife ODonovan- Fire Engine - Fossils
    Houndstooth- Bliss Boat - No News From Home
    Breakbot- Lion - Lion


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2015-05-12
              03.12.17 11:00 Uhr - Erlangen - "Der Karneval der Tiere" von Camille Saint-Saëns - Familienkonzert für Kinder ab 6 Jahren        
    Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung214949-tickets

    Ein absoluter „Klassiker“, Camille Saint-Saëns berühmter „Karneval der Tiere“ in einer Version für Kinder ab 6 Jahren, steht im Mittelpunkt des nächsten gVe-Familienkonzerts, das mit freundlicher Unterstützung der Sparkasse Erlangen am 03. Dezember 2017 im Kleinen Saal der Heinrich-Lades-Halle stattfindet.
    Die Hummel fühlt sich so einsam, weil sie keine anderen Hummeln kennt. Um ihr zu helfen, haben sich alle anderen Tiere als Hummeln verkleidet. Der Karneval der Tiere wird zum großen Hummel-Rummel, bei dem Löwe, Elefant und Fossilien dann allerdings doch immer wieder durch die Maske schauen und zur Musik von Saints-Saëns‘ „zoologischer Phantasie“ ihre Runden drehen. Die Musiker der Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg spielen Saint-Saëns so plakativ-bilderreiche Musik in der kammermusikalischen Originalfassung, der Schauspieler Pius Maria Cüppers führt durch das Programm.
              India Motors Toward Electrifying Transport on Two Wheels        

    India is motoring toward an electric vehicle revolution -- on two wheels.

    That's what figures from the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers show. Of the 22,000 electric vehicles sold across the country in 2016, just 2,000, or 9 percent, were four-wheeled automobiles.

    The trend mirrors a fondness for two-wheelers in general, with motorbikes and scooters making up 80 percent of total vehicle sales in the 2015-2016 fiscal year.

    Passenger cars accounted for a further 14 percent and commercial vehicles and three-wheelers added another 3 percent each. 

    "Unlike most OECD countries, growth in electric vehicles is expected to be rapid in the two- and three-wheeler segment [in India], and eventually grow into [the] four-wheelers [segment]," said Madhavan Nampoothiri, managing partner of the financing firm Aspiration Cleantech Ventures.

    Indian lawmakers are keen to push electrification on the back of growing motor-vehicle ownership. By 2020, India is expected to become the third-largest vehicle market in the world. 

    This is forecast to lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption, along with soaring air pollution.

    To head off the problem, India launched a National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) in 2013 aiming to get between 6 million and 7 million electric or hybrid vehicles on the road by 2020.

    In 2015, the government launched a further plan, called FAME India (for Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of hybrid and Electric vehicles), under the NEMMP 2020. The two-year initiative was due to end in March this year but has been extended to September.

    Meanwhile, in June, Indian lawmakers announced plans to phase out internal-combustion engine vehicles by 2030.

    The government announced it will unveil a revised electric-vehicle policy by the end of this year, and is pressing ahead with charging station initiatives in conjunction with component makers and energy firms, including Bharat Heavy Electricals, REIL Electricals India and NTPC.

    Private-sector players are also looking to move into the charging station market, Nampoothiri said. Last month, the electric-vehicle manufacturer Mahindra Reva installed 25 stations in Bangalore.

    “Similar pilot stations are coming up in cities like Delhi, Jaipur and Chandigarh,” said Nampoothiri.

    The government provides support of up to INR₹29,000 (USD $455) for two-wheel vehicles, ₹61,000 ($955) for three-wheelers, ₹138,000 ($2,160) for four-wheelers, and ₹187,000 ($2,930) for light commercial vehicles.

    Despite this, cost remains a barrier to electric-vehicle adoption in India. A Mahindra e2o, India’s best-known all-electric four-wheeler, costs around ₹800,000 ($12,530) compared to around ₹500,000 ($7,830) for an ICE equivalent such as the Maruti Suzuki Wagon R.

    At this price, which is mainly due to the cost of the battery, observers say the electric-car option simply does not make economic sense in India, even assuming lower running costs.

    Range anxiety and a lack of charging infrastructure are other factors conspiring against wider adoption. Because of this, and despite the fact that India’s first domestically produced model, the Reva, came to market way back in 1994, electric vehicles remain an unfamiliar sight in the country.

    Today, FAME India estimates there are around 151,800 electric vehicles on the road, having cost taxpayers ₹187,500,000 ($30 million). They are “predominantly seen as an urban transport tool,” Nampoothiri said.

    Undeterred, a growing number of vehicle manufacturers are targeting the market, primarily with sights set on two-wheeler sales.

    Hero Electric is India’s top electric motorcycle brand, said Nampoothiri, and has invested in a startup called Ather Energy that is looking to launch a high-end scooter called the S340 by the end of this year.

    Other contenders include Ampere Electric Vehicles, which is targeting rural customers; electric bike pioneer Tork Motorcycles; and Emflux Motors, which is looking to launch a superbike with a top speed of 170 kilometers per hour.

    While most of the electric-vehicle action is undoubtedly on two wheels, India also boasts a limited number of manufacturers of four-wheel vehicles. Mahindra, India’s No. 1 utility-vehicle maker, also leads the way in electrics with the e2o and the eSupro van.

    The country even has a budding luxury electric-vehicle maker to rival Tesla. Mean Metal Motors hopes to bring its stylish M-Zero model to the Indian market in 2019, at a price of up to around ₹8,000,000 ($125,000). Whether anyone will buy it -- or just opt for a much cheaper two-wheeler -- remains to be seen. 


              Rex Tillerson advises diplomats to sidestep questions about the Paris climate deal        
    US Secretary of state and former Exxon chief Rex Tillerson told diplomats to sidestep questions about whether the US will reconsider its withdrawal from the Paris climate change agreement, according to the Guardian. Last Friday Tillerson sent a cable to embassies that also directs diplomats to tell foreign officials the United States is prepared to help facilitate fossil fuel transactions in other countries - even though pretty much every other nation agrees that climate change represents one of...
              Apotemnophilia        
    Recently I read the article Brain Games by John Colapinto in the New Yorker. It's a wonderful portrait, 13 or so pages long, of V.S. Ramachandran, the father of mirror therapy for phantom limb pain (according to me, at least). It provides the reader with a biographical account of Ramachandran, glimpses into his childhood, how he thinks (like Sherlock Holmes), a window into his personal life (can't remember his wife's birthday, forgets where he parked the car), and an account of his professional trajectory through life, how he ended up with a dinosaur fossil named after him, discussions of his interest in mirror neurons, synesthesia, ichthyology.

    Lately he's been studying a patient, dubbed for the article, "Arthur Jamison". I am going to provide excerpts from the article now, direct quotes:
    "Jamieson is seventy years old and lives in the Midwest. He is a physician and an amateur cellist, and has been married for forty-seven years. He also suffers from a rare and bewildering condition called apotemnophilia, the compulsion to have a perfectly healthy limb amputated--in his case, the right leg, at mid-thigh."
    "After interviewing several apotemnophiliacs--Jamieson is the fifth person with the disorder whom he has studied--Ramachandran was struck by the fact that all of them said they became aware of the compulsion in early childhood, that it centered on a particular limb (or limbs), that they could draw a line at the exact spot where they wanted the amputation to occur, and that they attached little or no erotic significance to the condition. Furthermore, none rejected the limb as "not belonging" to them, as some stroke victims do in the case of a paralyzed arm or leg, and as Ramachandran had predicted they might. Instead, they said that the limb over-belonged to them: it felt intrusive. "If you talk to independent apotemnophiliacs, they say the same bloody things," Ramachandran told me. " 'The line for cutting is here.' 'It started in early childhood.' 'It's over-present.'
    They're not crazy.""
    "Asked where he would make the cut line for the amputation, Jamieson unhesitatingly drew an index finger across the middle of his right thigh. As to whether he felt that his leg didn't "belong" to him, Jamieson was emphatic. "Somehow, for me, that just doesn't compute, that kind of language," he said. "I have always been fascinated by amputation and wished that I had one. Why? Who the hell knows?"
    "Ramachandran and other researchers have shown that the brain is what scientists call "plastic"--it can reorganize itself. Not only are different regions of the brain engaged inongoing communication with one another, with the body, and with the surrounding world; these relationships can be manipulated in ways that can reverse damage or dysfunction previously believed to be permanent. Ramachandran's work with patients at U.C.S.D. has led to one of the most effective treatments for chronic phantom-limb pain and to a new therapy for paralysis resulting from a stroke. (In both instances, his treatment involves only a five-dollar household mirror.) It has also provided suggestive insights into the physiological cause of such mystifying syndromes as autism."
    "In the seventies, Michael Merzenich became expert at using microelectrodes to map the sensory cortex of monkeys. In one experiment, he mapped a monkey's hand area in the brain, then amputated its middle finger. Some months later, he remapped the monkey's hand and discovered that the brain map for the missing finger had vanished and been replaced by maps for the two adjacent fingers, which had spread to fill the gap. The results, published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology in 1984, were decisive proof that the brain can reorganize itself--at least across very short distances of one to two millimetres."
    "After interviewing Jamieson in his office, Ramachandran led him to a lab for a Galvanic Skin Response, or GSR, test, which would reveal how Jamieson's legs reacted to a mild pain stimulus... David Brang, one of Ramachandran's graduate students, attached a sensor to the middle two fingers of Jamieson's right hand using a Velcro strap. The sensor would measure the reaction of Jamieson's sympathetic nervous system by monitoring the sweat on his fingers. With a sterilized pin, Brang pricked Jamieson's legs at random points, waiting a few seconds between each prick. A scrolling graph on the computer screen registered Jamieson's responses.

    The unaffected leg--the left one--and the right leg above where he wished to have it amputated showed a normal response: the graph at first shot upward with each prick, but with further pricks it ceased to rise, then began to flatten out, indicating that Jamieson's nervous system was getting used to the stimulus. But when Brang pricked Jamieson anywhere on the leg below the amputation line, his nervous system responded with increasing distress, the graph climbing higher and higher with each prick.

    The experiment seemed to support Ramachandran's theory about the disorder. He believed that people with apotemnophilia had a deficit in the right superior parietal lobule, where the body-image map is assembled. According to this notion, Jamieson was missing the neurons in the map that corresponded to his right leg from the mid-thigh down. He had normal sensation in the unwanted part of his leg--he felt the pin prick. But when the pain signal travelled to the right superior parietal lobule there was nothing in the body-image map to receive it.

    "So there's a big discrepancy--a clash--and the brain doesn't like discrepancies," Ramachandran said."When a discrepancy comes in, it says, 'Shit! What the hell is going on here?,' and it kicks in and sends a message to the insular part of the brain, which is involved in emotional reactions--so you're getting this crazy GSR." In apotemnophilia sufferers, the discrepancy causes a feeling of distress that is no less agonizing for being below the level of conscious awareness.

    In the past two years, Ramachandran has tested four other apotemnophiliacs using MEG brain scans. "You touch them anywhere in the body and the right superior parietal lobule lights up, as you would expect," Ramachandran said. "But if you touch him here"--he gestured to a point on Jamieson's leg below the amputation line--"nothing happens." Ramachandran said that the experiment needed to be repeated by other researchers, but, he added, "This takes a spooky psychological phenomenon and, as Shakespeare said, gives it a 'habitation and a name.' " Furthermore, the findings suggested to Ramachandran a possible method for alleviating the oppressive sensations in the unwanted limb.

    Later, he asked Jamieson to stand in a corner of his office and placed a three foot-high mirror in front of him, in such a way that in place of his right leg Jamieson saw his left, which he held bent at the knee. Jamieson gazed into the mirror. "Astonishing," he said. For a moment, the leg looked "right.""


    This is fascinating stuff. I was reminded of reading Michael Gershon's book The Second Brain, about the gut and enteric nervous system, how if neural crest cells didn't make it in to colonize the large intestine, Hirschsprung's Disease (Megacolon) is the unfortunate result. So much depends on exquisite timing during embryological unfoldment. Miss one little beat and some batch of baby neurons won't exist, and the resulting human organism can end up with major deficit. It can affect the body, and maybe, as in the case of Apotemnophilia, one's sensory perception of one's body.

    As I checked out Apotemnophilia online, I saw it was quite consistently coupled with notions of a sexualized nature with heavy overtones of psychiatric implications.

    About this, Colapinto writes:
    "Jamieson, who was born and raised in New York City, first remembers having an unusual relationship with his right leg when, at around the age of seven, he was waiting for a bus. He found himself thinking that if he stuck out his leg it would be crushed and severed by the bus. "What came to me was not 'No, I don't want to do that' but 'How would I ever explain this?' " he told Ramachandran. In recounting his childhood memories, he said, "One of the things that's astonishing to me is how clear these recollections are."

    "These things are very salient," Ramachandran said... "It's interesting to contrast these very clear-cut descriptions with these vague, Freudian notions about this whole phenomenon--that it's primarily connected with sexual stuff."

    "Yeah," Jamieson said with disgust. "I've got no desire to cozy up to anyone with a stump. It's psychobabble.""


    That it could be due to some embryologic formation error makes more sense. The thigh is actually the last part of the leg to form. Feet (in the form of ectodermic limb buds) poke out first, from the body wall. As toes begin to form, these feet, already containing vasculature and neural structure, begin to lengthen away from the body wall, and the "lines" of supply (vasculature) and communication (nerves) must grow to keep pace. Within the lengthening limb buds, bones begin to condense from cartilaginous masses which have formed from prior condensations of mesoderm; neural and vascular structures must simultaneously penetrate these condensations. Pathways of sensation of a limb to a brain include not just large diameter fibers from skin, but also many sorts of receptors, some very tiny, which report on all sorts of tissue, including vascular tissue (nervi vasorum). Some of these report on the sensory nerves themselves (nervi nervorum). Lots end up just inside the spinal cord, while others get all the way up as far as the insular cortex (1). The brain uses information coming in from many parallel kinesthetic channels(3) as well as visual ones, to construct its sense of self and body awareness/embodiment, to learn who is touching its organism, how it feels about that, what salience to assign in that moment. Apparently some sort of reverse processing occurs between afferents that go to the somatosensory cortex and those that go only to the insula(2). Apparently those going to the left insula are processed differently from those which go to the right (4).

    All it would take would be some little screw-up in neural crest implantation into either the limb itself or else at the other end, in the brain itself (it would seem that quite a bit of "peripheral" "nerve", from neural crest, goes all the way into the brain, into some of its very touchy touch processing areas), so I can see how neural crest mishaps could be connected with body perception problems. Perhaps neural crest abnormality might become a target of investigation for body perception disorders some day.

    1. Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex (Olausson et al.)
    2.
    Unmyelinated tactile afferents have opposite effects on insular and somatosensory cortical processing. (Olausson et al.)
    3.
    Unmyelinated afferents constitute a second system coding tactile stimuli of the human hairy skin. (Olausson et al.)
    4.
    Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans. (Löken et al.)

              CO2 Producing Hollow Food        

    Rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels will make many key food crops like rice and corn less nutritious, a new study shows. Important food crops will contain lower levels of zinc and iron by mid-century without major cuts in CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels, an analysis of field experiments conducted on three continents has found. […]

    The post CO2 Producing Hollow Food appeared first on Inter Press Service.


              Fast Fat Burning Meals        
    Losing weight as well as maintaining a slim frame is commonly as a final result of dieting as well as exercising. In this guide , we’ll last talking virtually 1 of the newer dieting programs that seems to last producing dandy weight loss results as good as correcting or providing relief to for certain dietary problems similar Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) as well as gluten sensitivity.

    This is known as the Wheat Belly Diet. Created yesteryear Dr. William Davis , a renowned preventive Cardiologist as well as Author , the footing of this dieting computer program is predicated on the fact that the consumption of wheat as well as grains take hold resulted inward to a greater extent than people beingness pre-diabetic , diabetic , overweight as well as obese.

    According to the goodness MD , lxxx per centum of the patients he sees are either pre-diabetic or diabetic. And the worse matter is they don’t fifty-fifty know that they take hold the condition.

    Dr. Davis came upward with the persuasion of cutting out all grains –particularly processed as well as wheat based ones- from his diet afterwards he realized that he had unwittingly gained xxx pounds. He started yesteryear cutting out all wheat based foods from his diet , as well as recommended the same to his patients.

    Within ninety days of strict adherence to the dieting regimen , he as well as other participating patients , observed a marked reduction inward their blood saccharide levels –with most of them recording normal blood saccharide levels , as well as considerable weight loss.

    Naturally , he experimented with cutting out fifty-fifty other grains –whole grains included- from his diet as well as his patients.

    This produced fifty-fifty to a greater extent than remarkable results that essentially reversed pre-diabetes , dropped blood saccharide levels as well as translated into impressive , salubrious weight loss. This is non surprising genuinely seeing as carbs play a huge role inward weight gain as well as high blood saccharide levels.

    Studies carried out yesteryear the USA Department of Agriculture (USDA) , take hold indicated that most Americans convey inward 500 to a greater extent than calories present than they did 4 decades ago. Most of these calories are commonly inward the cast of processed foods as well as unhealthy fats.

    Interestingly , other studies take hold also shown that the average nutrient helping is immediately 4 times the regular size of nutrient inward the 1950’s , piece the average private is 26 pounds heavier than their contemporaries inward the ‘50s.

    No wonder we’re all becoming fatty , obese as well as breaking novel records with the number of individuals living with cardiovascular disease. The Centers for Disease Control as well as Prevention (CDC) estimates that at that spot are over 600 ,000 deaths annually attributed to cardiovascular diseases.

    Another 735 ,000 Americans endure a pump assault , piece some other 370 ,000 individuals kicking the bucket from coronary pump affliction every year. And all these atmospheric condition are oftentimes preceded yesteryear diabetes , obesity , misfortunate diet , as well as a sedentary lifestyle.

    Of the 4 aforementioned factors , iii of them are linked to food. This way that if Americans tin give the sack alter their diets for something healthier , as well as cutting out the carbs , the chances of developing cardiovascular diseases drastically drops.

    This is apparent inward the correlation betwixt the quantity of refined as well as processed grains consumed yesteryear the average American. For instance , surveys take hold shown that the average American buys thrice the amount of processed foods recommended yesteryear national wellness organizations. Naturally , this has resulted inward a phenomenon that is immediately tagged “wheat belly”.

    What is the Wheat Belly Diet?
    The Wheat Belly Diet Program is a predominantly depression carb , high poly peptide diet. It has features as well as characteristics that are similar to other depression carb diets similar paleo diet. Its major characteristic is the consummate as well as total elimination of wheat from your foods.

    While many people would disagree with the demand to completely eliminate the consumption of wheat as well as other grains from their diet , this dieting computer program has gone to evidence its efficacy inward reducing weight as well as lowering blood saccharide drastically.

    Fast Fat Burning Meals
    Why the Emphasis on Wheat?
    After all , we’ve eaten wheat for years as well as years. In fact , nutritionists routinely recommend whole wheat grains as an alternative nutrient source for people looking to alter their eating habits , improve their wellness as well as eliminate for certain wellness conditions.

    Well , Dr. Davis , through conscientious query believes that what nosotros immediately consider as wheat is non the “real” wheat. He believes that this is a completely dissimilar grain type which is a final result of nutrient technology as well as advancement over the concluding v or so decades.

    According to him , eating these genetically “improved” wheat-like grains are genuinely unsafe to your overall wellness as well as well-being as well as is responsible for insanely high amounts of gluten content as good as the accompanying allergies. He outlines some of the wellness implications of consuming the so-called wheat that most people eat nowadays. These include:
    • Tendency to overeat , increased nutrient cravings as well as appetite
    • High blood saccharide levels necessitating frequent blood saccharide spikes as well as drops , which inward plough increment the craving for to a greater extent than saccharide as well as so on. This wheel is considered as partly responsible for what is known as insulin resistance , as well as is really mutual alongside obese , pre-diabetic as well as diabetic people. It is also a peril factor for all the aforementioned conditions.
    • Increases the peril of developing a status known as metabolic syndrome; a province that predisposes the private to cardiovascular diseases , as well as exacerbates their bad cholesterol levels.
    • Increases the individual’s peril factor as well as susceptibility to affliction as good as accelerated aging.
    • Impacts the wellness of the gut negatively as well as causes atmospheric condition similar leaky gut , frequent constipation , diarrhea , celiac affliction as well as other digestive problems.
    • Can deport upon the individual’s pH such that it creates an environs inward the trunk that becomes conducive to illnesses as well as diseases.
    • Could deport upon cognitive processes resulting inward increased languor , consistent tiredness , reduced mental acuity as well as productivity.
    • Increases the peril of developing articulation as well as cartilage problems which oftentimes leads to other debilitating as well as painful wellness atmospheric condition such as articulation hurting as well as arthritis.
    Please sympathise that the elimination of wheat from your meals also way no gluten. This may or may non last an number depending on how of import gluten is to your diet.

    In the yesteryear nutritionists used to recommend the consumption of gluten as a way of lowering overall trunk inflammation –a major contributor to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases as well as cancers , an effective way of enhancing your body’s powerfulness to digest nutrient properly , as well as because of its immune scheme aiding functions.

    However , as with all goodness things , excess intake coupled with the genetic modifications resulted inward meaning wellness related problems , which inward plough affected millions of people as well as caused them to prepare gluten intolerance as well as allergies.

    Worse , is the fact that it has been linked to weight gain , peculiarly fatty deposits approximately the waist line. This is partly why you’ll give away men as well as women inward their 30’s as well as older struggling with belly fat. Unfortunately , this is oftentimes false as beer belly , when it is genuinely a by-product of excessive wheat as well as grain consumption , as good as indicative of pre-diabetes (more potbellied men tend to last on the verge of becoming diabetic without fifty-fifty knowing it).

    Anyway , if you lot are looking to acquire rid of excess fatty peculiarly approximately the mid-section , you’ll give away the Wheat Belly Diet effective for doing this. This also applies to people who are overweight or obese , as well as endure from allergies to gluten.

    This diet is also for those who are looking for a non-restrictive way to eat healthier. You’ll handgrip that most dieting programs tend to deprive us of 1 or to a greater extent than nutrient categories that nosotros are already used to.

    For instance , many diets advise drastically cutting dorsum on carbs as well as eating loads of proteins. Only occupation is that you lot demand the fullness that carbs –particularly salubrious carbs- provides.

    So , when people maintain high poly peptide depression carb diets , they essentially start missing that fullness that entirely carbs supply inside a few days. This is the major argue why many diets fail.

    But , with the Wheat Belly Diet , you lot never take hold to worry virtually this at all. You’ll substitute wheat with other whole grains as well as fiber rich carbs that volition maintain you lot feeling total piece burning off the fatty inward your body.

    The average American is undeniably overweight as well as needs this diet. Doubt it? Check your trunk majority index (BMI). Then , come upward dorsum to encounter how you lot tin give the sack drastically shed some of that weight using this amazingly effective diet.

    H5N1 2010 diabetes study estimates that virtually 33 per centum of all living Americans volition last diabetic yesteryear 2050 , piece some other 2007 study estimates that obesity volition presently last “the leading preventable movement of decease inward the US”. The keyword at that spot beingness “preventable”.

    So , let’s arrive at a quick recap: that’s basically 1 inward iii Americans becoming diabetic yesteryear 2050 , as well as obesity killing to a greater extent than people than it should fifty-fifty when it’s preventable.

    If you’re smart , you’ll arrive at everything possible to withdraw yourself from the category of people who are predisposed to diabetes as well as obesity. Right immediately , virtually 67 per centum of all Americans are considered overweight.

    This way , 2 out of iii are already on their way to becoming obese as well as maybe diabetic. Everyone needs this diet program. The goodness intelligence is that there’s no inconvenience whatsoever per se , except for the elimination of for certain calorie filled as well as unhealthy foods. And the rewards are huge too.

    Benefits of the Wheat Belly Diet

    Fast Fat Burning Meals
    1. Can Help Reverse Pre-Diabetes
    Prediabetes is a status that commonly precedes diabetes. It’s oftentimes characterized yesteryear mild to intermediate insulin resistance , weight gain , high blood saccharide as well as obesity. As a final result , most fatty or overweight individuals are oftentimes prediabetic. Unfortunately , most don’t know it.

    The distressing matter is that , if left for 5-10 years , these individuals’ wellness volition worsen as well as progress towards diabetes. The goodness intelligence is that this status is preventable if you lot convey the necessary steps to forestall it.

    The Wheat Belly Diet addresses this clearly. According to the computer program , wheat based foods tend to come upward inward processed forms. For instance , a combined study carried out yesteryear both the Harvard Medical School as well as the Obesity Society , determined that most wheat products come upward inward the cast of refined , processed , high sodium as well as saccharide foods.

    As a final result , people who eat wheat inward this cast farther worsen their wellness , fifty-fifty when they recall they’re eating healthy. So , cutting out wheat from your diet naturally reduces your peril of consuming to a greater extent than of these foods. Most of the wheat available inward your average grocery store , are lacking inward the necessary nutrients.

    They take hold been stripped of most nutrients during the processing phase. Even to a greater extent than interesting is the fact that these foods are oftentimes really high inward calorie content. As much as possible , you lot should build an endeavor towards eating to a greater extent than depression calorie foods.

    Harvard Medical School has released a listing of the top calorie filled foods inward the USA today. The less of these calorie filled foods you lot eat , the higher your chances of reversing or preventing prediabetes. Following the Wheat belly Diet , you lot are for certain to acquire rid of these from your meals naturally as well as supplant them with healthier , as dandy tasting options that are to a greater extent than nutritious too.

    2. Can Help You Lose Weight as well as Prevent Weight Gain
    Obesity is oftentimes linked to the consumption of foods that take hold a high glycemic index (high GI). Wheat based foods are known for their medium to high glycemic index. Some examples of these include bagels , white breadstuff , minute oatmeal , cornflakes , popcorn , rice cakes , pretzels , as well as curt grain white rice to shout a few.

    As a final result , non entirely arrive at they take hold the vogue to movement weight gain , they also contribute to your high blood saccharide levels. Therefore , the telephone substitution to losing some of that excess fatty or keeping it off inward the kickoff house is to eat to a greater extent than depression glycemic index (low GI) foods.

    Some goodness examples of depression GI foods include converted rice , lima beans , yam , corn , muesli , oat bran , brownish rice , carrots , non-starchy veggies , sweetness white patato , fruits , unrefined pasta , lentils as well as butter peas. If you lot demand a to a greater extent than consummate listing , the Wheat Belly Diet provides you lot with a listing of depression GI foods that volition fill upward you lot upward without the added peril of weight gain.

    3. Helps Improve Your Eating Habits
    The foods you lot eat as well as the drinks you lot convey oftentimes play a critical role inward the overall province of your health. People who eat junk foods typically experience bloated , gain weight as well as travel sick. Show me your eating habits as well as I may last able to create upward one's hear only how long you’ve got to live.

    Poor as well as bad eating habits are an epidemic as well as 1 that nosotros demand to actively scrap inward this country. The average American eats to a greater extent than processed nutrient than is goodness for his health. Interestingly , these are sometimes sold inward the cast of refined grains.

    Eating these grains commonly increases your blood saccharide levels , as good as triggers the publish of for certain feel-good hormones similar dopamine. This is why most people are hooked on eating them. Switching from these foods mutual frigidity turkey hence , creates cravings , which is why many diets fail.

    Most diets cutting out some harmful , if addictive foods without replacing them with healthier options that tin give the sack supply an as feel-good sensation. The Wheat Belly teaches you lot to supplant these unhealthy options with healthier ones that “trick” the encephalon into thinking you’re yet eating the same matter , causing it to inundation your trunk with the same dopamine.

    Therefore , every fourth dimension you lot eat the healthier options , you’re essentially unlearning the bad habits as well as relearning the novel , healthier ones. With this diet , you lot volition last able to resist the cravings for cakes , cookies , sugary drinks as well as other junk foods.

    4. Encourages Food Education
    The average American doesn’t know what is inward his or her food. They don’t know what nutrients to hold off for , how much tabular array salt to convey , how much saccharide consumption is acceptable as well as how many calories you lot demand to eat every twenty-four hours inward monastic say to forestall weight gain. The data provided inward the Wheat Belly Diet volume is something nosotros all demand as well as require inward this country.

    The procedure of getting rid of all forms of wheat as well as other refined foods , naturally forces you lot to start paying to a greater extent than attending to the nutrient labels on the shelf inward the grocery store. You’ll larn all that you lot demand to virtually nutrient , study nutrient ingredients , as well as utilisation that cognition to improve your nutrition.

    Interestingly , people who adopt this diet take hold shown remarkable improvement inward their nutrient consumption , eat to a greater extent than intelligently , prefer dwelling theater cooked meals –because they know what’s inward the nutrient , as well as tend to eat far less calories than their contemporaries who eat out inward restaurants.

    This naturally results inward weight loss , improved wellness , meliorate liberate energy levels , lesser predisposition to wellness atmospheric condition that are worsened as well as caused yesteryear unhealthy foods as well as an overall sense of meliorate well-being.

    5. Aids as well as Improves Gastrointestinal (GI) Health
    Gluten , a major constituent of wheat has been linked to multiple digestive disorders as well as diseases. From mild diarrhea as well as constipation to celiac affliction , gluten has travel a major movement of GI problems.

    Many sufferers of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as well as celiac affliction take hold flora their wellness improved as well as tum problems reduced afterwards cutting out all gluten rich foods –most of which are wheat as well as its other variations similar rye as well as barley.

    Also , there’s an alarming charge per unit of measurement of increment inward the number of individuals who take hold some grade of intolerance for wheat as well as its related products but aren’t suffering from celiac disease.

    These people routinely exhibit gluten allergies peculiarly afterwards eating most of what is immediately referred to as modern wheat –the gluten rich , processed wheat that’s oftentimes false for the master copy , whole grain wheat.

    People similar this are said to take hold a status known as the non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). So , if you lot take hold been battling with frequent tum disorders peculiarly afterwards eating wheat , you lot powerfulness desire to speak with your MD virtually the possibility of cutting wheat from your diet.

    After all , this beats the embarrassment of IBS as good as the discomfort of celiac affliction , ulcerative colitis , as well as other digestive atmospheric condition oftentimes triggered yesteryear the consumption of wheat. Many fans of this diet computer program take hold showed marked improvements inward their GI health.

    Some take hold experienced far fewer episodes of digestive problems afterwards cutting out wheat from their diets. In people who endure wheat induced constipation as well as diarrhea with alarming frequency , cutting out wheat as well as all wheat based foods has led to them becoming meliorate as well as experiencing trivial or no episodes.

    Even though at that spot are no exact figures on the number of individuals who react adversely to gluten , it is estimated yesteryear many nutritionists as well as wellness experts , that the number is pretty significant. With such high prevalence , it is quickly becoming a menace inward the guild as well as a borderline wellness epidemic.

    While there’s no clear argue why people react adversely to gluten , at that spot are scientists who recall that these adverse reactions may last linked to gluten’s interference with the functions of gut microbiota.

    If this is truthful , as well as so this is a pretty large number seeing as our wellness as well as wellness is oftentimes straight tied to the province of our digestive system. Not entirely does it serve as the passageway for your nutrition , it also plays a critical role inward strengthening as well as reinforcing your immune system.

    So , an private with a poor/weak digestive scheme is basically a “sitting duck” for ailments as well as infections. People who are allergic to gluten tend to exhibit the next symptoms upon ingestion of whatever gluten based food:
    • Mild to severe abdominal cramps or pain
    • Frequent bloating
    • Constipation as well as diarrhea
    • Inability to metabolize for certain foods as well as nutrient
    • May endure from crucial chemical element deficiencies
    • Significantly depression liberate energy levels
    • May prepare peel problems similar rosacea , acne , eczema as well as dermatitis
    • Serious inflammation of the tum lining
    6. Might Provide Relief for Some Inflammatory Conditions
    When it comes to your wellness , inflammation is the enemy. This is because it is linked to everything from arthritis to pump affliction to rapid aging. This way hence , that if nosotros tin give the sack arrive at something virtually eliminating the frequency as well as charge per unit of measurement if inflammation , nosotros only powerfulness last able to alive longer , healthier , as well as affliction free. Whenever you lot experience hurting inward your trunk , it’s largely because there’s some cast of inflammation inward that affected share of your body.

    Interestingly wheat has been linked to some grade of inflammation inward the body. There are many practitioners of the Wheat Belly Diet whose wellness situations drastically improved when they cutting out wheat as well as its associated foods. And this is coming from people who take hold been on arthritis meds for as long as 15-20 years.

    7. Improves Overall Sense of Well Being
    To a large extent , the province of your wellness is oftentimes tied to what you lot set into your body. So , it way that if you lot tin give the sack command what goes into your trunk , chances are you’ll last able to fend off ailments for prolonged periods.

    Many fans of the diet take hold reported a meaning improvement inward their overall sense of well-being. Many take hold reported sleeping meliorate –it’s possible that this is linked to weight loss – feeling less tired , having to a greater extent than liberate energy , improving their sexual wellness as well as eliminating the typical encephalon fog that comes with eating junk or processed foods.

    How to Get the Most Out of Your Wheat Belly Diet Program
    To acquire the best results from this dieting computer program , you lot demand to know what foods to eat as well as which ones to avoid. So , let’s start with the right foods to eat:
    • Eat lots of non-starchy vegetables similar artichoke , mushrooms , Brussels sprouts , leafy light-green vegetables , broccoli as well as asparagus. These are splendid vegetables , as well as take hold really depression calorie content.
    • Eat to a greater extent than fruits similar oranges , H2O melons , apples , as well as berries. These are depression saccharide , but highly nutritious fruits that volition supply you lot with tons of antioxidants.
    • Eat to a greater extent than seeds , kokosnoot milk , nuts , avocado , as well as utilisation olive or kokosnoot fossil oil for your cooking. You powerfulness also desire to add together grass-fed butter as well as cocoa butter to your diet
    • The meat as well as fish you lot eat should last grass-fed or caught straight from the river.
    • Only eat cheese made from organic , raw milk
    • If you lot desire dairy products , seek taking unsweetened yoghurt
    • As for fermented foods , kefir , nato , miso , tempeh as well as tofu are great
    • Grains similar brownish rice , buckwheat (not related to wheat) , millet as well as quinoa are dandy too.
    The absolute worst foods to eat include the following:
    • Any grains made from or related to some oat types , wheat , rye as well as barley.
    • No uncomplicated sugars inward the forms of soda , refined saccharide or whatever sucrose based sweetener. If you lot must convey sweeteners , seek stevia or xylitol
    • Fruits that are excessively sweetness as well as comprise meaning amounts pf calories. These include pineapples , bananas , mangoes as well as pawpaw
    • Flour based desserts similar doughnuts , crackers , cakes , chips , candies , granola bars as well as cookies
    • Scotch eggs , hot dogs , fish n batter , chicken cutlets… all processed forms of poly peptide covered yesteryear flour as well as fried
    • White flour foods similar breadstuff , cornmeal , pizza , noodles , for certain pasta , as well as the like
    • Grains similar white rice as well as corn which tend to pack to a greater extent than calories as well as take hold less nutrients compared to the alternatives mentioned inward the foods to eat section
    • Cereals , tacos , burritos , wheat based tortillas , burgers , deli sandwiches , as well as other forms of junk foods
    • Refined white patato as well as rice
    These are only some of the foods that you lot demand to acquire rid from your diet inward monastic say to acquire as well as remain salubrious whilst losing the weight as well as improving your overall health.

    Shopping Tips for Getting Rid of Wheat as well as Other Unhealthy Foods
    The telephone substitution to making this piece of work is inward beingness able to command the source from which wheat as well as other processed grains acquire into the household. The next volition acquire you lot started as well as ensure that when side yesteryear side you lot travel shopping , you lot won’t last buying whatever nutrient items with wheat as well as other gluten based foods.
    • Pay attending to the listing of ingredients at the dorsum of the pack as well as containers. Always spotter out for those with barley , rye as well as wheat. If you’re e'er inward uncertainty , hold off for the certified gluten-free products inward the market. These are guaranteed to take hold no gluten , which inward plough way , there’s no wheat.
    • Shop at the farmer’s market. The vendors at that spot tend to sell entirely organic create , whether it’s dairy , eggs , chicken , beef or grains.
    • Most breads as well as baked goods tend to comprise wheat inward 1 cast or the other. Therefore , unless they are clearly labeled as certified gluten-free , steer clear of them.
    • However if you lot absolutely can’t arrive at without breadstuff , at that spot are alternatives such as the sprouted grain bread. These take hold all the benefits of wheat without the side effects.
    • For your baking , almond , chickpeas , quinoa as well as brownish rice serve as splendid as well as healthier alternatives.
    • Also pay attending to your sauce as well as soup condiments. These tend to comprise wheat based ingredients. As much as possible , avoid seasonings containing sugar. Instead , utilisation organically grown spices , herbs , existent os broth as well as vinegar. These are confirmed wheat costless seasonings that volition improve your food’s flavors.
    • Just because you’re on the Wheat Belly Diet doesn’t hateful you lot can’t drink. You only take hold to avoid the regular beers as those tend to comprise barley or rye , which are wheat products. Instead , bask your alcohol inward the cast of whisky , wines , scotch , rum , cognac as well as brandy.
    For those who recall the requirements are only also much , the goodness intelligence is that the Wheat Belly Diet is comparable to your regular depression carb diet. So , if you lot take hold been on whatever cast of depression carb diet , this shouldn’t last hard at all.

    You tin give the sack yet bask delicious meals inward the cast of grilled fish , chicken soups , omelettes , stir-fries as well as many other delicious meals. To demo you lot that this is slowly , hither are few repast ideas to start working with:
    • Start the twenty-four hours with veggie smoothies , poly peptide shakes or eggs
    • For tiffin , eat a poly peptide based repast –lean chicken- with salubrious fats as well as lots of veggie salads
    • For your dinner/supper , bask some grilled fish , grass-fed beef , fruits as well as vegetables.
    • If you lot demand to snack on anything , seek repast replacement options similar smoothies , poly peptide shakes , nuts , or boiled eggs.

              Mes vacances        

    Suite de mes vacances au Liban.

    Après la visite des grottes de Jeita, nous sommes partis dans les montagnes libanaises du Nord, mais avant, nous avons fait escale à Jbeil, la Byblos antique

    BYBLOS

    ruine_byblos_1

    ruine_byblos_2_modifi__1          ruine_Byblos_3_modifi__1

    "Port de pêche depuis le néolithique, Byblos  est une des cités les plus anciennes du monde. Elle est habitée de façon continue depuis sa fondation, depuis plus de 7.000 ans. Son nom de "Jbeil" signifie "poterie" en phénicien. Mais ce nom serait peut être dérivé de la contraction des mots "Jeb" qui veut dire "puits" ou "source" et "El" qui signifie "Dieu le père" dans la triade adorée par les Phéniciens et le Cananéens. Le nom de "Byblos" n'a quant à lui été utilisé que par les étrangers, les Grecs en particulier.

    La ville est née au cours du néolithique, lorsque des pêcheurs ont construit leurs cabanes au bord de la mer. Plus tard, au alentours de 3000 av. JC, ce petit village connut un bel essor grâce à son commerce avec l'Egypte. Il exportait le bois des montagnes qui servait aux Pharaons dans la construction navales, et importait des objets en or et en albâtres, des rouleaux de papyrus et des tissus de lin. Ceci contribua a tisser de puissants liens culturels avec l'Egypte.

    L'une des plus anciennes inscriptions utilisant l'alphabet phonétique est celle qui fut gravée sur le sarcophage du roi Ahiram qui ce trouve aujourd'hui au Musée national de Beyrouth.

    A l'époque romaine, Byblos est remaniée et adopte un nouveau tracé urbain. Elle se dote de temples, de thermes et d'édifice publics.

    L'époque byzantine suivie par l'époque arabe ont laissé peu de vestiges.

    La ville reprend de l'importance lors des croisades.

    Église St Jean-Marc

    Saint_Jean_Marc___Byblos   Saint_Jean_Marc_2___Byblos   Saint_Jean_Marc_3___byblos

    L'église Saint Jean-Marc y est édifiée au 13ème siècle par les croisés. Détruite par un tremblement de terre, sa façade sud a été reconstruite.

    La citadelle des croisés

    citadelle_crois_e_1_byblos   citadelle_crois_e___XII___Byblos

    Au début du 12ème siècle, les croisés construisirent cette puissante forteresse, composée d'un puissant donjon, d'une cour et d'une enceinte formée de quatre tours d'angle, à l'emplacement d'une fortification datant de l'époque fatimide. L'ensemble était entouré d'un fossé.

    Pour sa construction, les Croisés utilisèrent des matériaux arrachés à des monuments plus anciens.

    Au cours des époques Mamelouk, puis Ottomane, certaines parties du château furent restaurées.

    Il me reste encore tant de choses à visiter dans cette ville (et partout ailleurs au Liban, d'ailleurs ;) ).

    • les ruines en elles mêmes, avec tous ses temples ;

    • la source du Roi ;

    • le Musée des fossiles

    Toutes mes informations sont piochées dans le Guide Officiel du Liban.

    Voilà, c'est tout pour aujourd'hui. Cela fait un bout de temps que je suis sur ce post. Scanner les photos m'a pris un temps fou ... (Et oui, je n'avais pas mon appareil photo numérique ...). Mais maintenant, comme c'est fait, je vais pouvoir vous en faire profiter.

    Et puis, je dois aussi vous parler d'une autre manifestation qui c'est tenue pas loin de chez moi, à Ribeauvillé.

    Suite au prochain épisode

    Peut être ce soir ;)


              Interview of Mort D. Turner by Brian Shoemaker        
    Interview of Mort D. Turner by Brian Shoemaker Turner, Mort D. Dr. Turner graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, with a major in Geology in the Department of Mining in the College of Engineering. The Army Reserve permitted him to complete his college degree before going to Aberdeen Proving Grounds. At Aberdeen, Edwin Hubble assigned Mort to the exterior ballistics division, where his primary task was to photograph projectiles flying through the air. Later, he worked with Dr. Goddard in tracking rockets. Dr. Turner helped survey the White Sands Proving Ground and worked with Dr. Werner von Braun. After leaving the army, Dr. Turner earned an M.S. in Geology and did the field work in Puerto Rico. Before completing his thesis, he accepted a position with the State Geological Survey in San Francisco. After a few years, he accepted a position as the State Geologist of Puerto Rico. In 1959, Dr. Turner joined the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs as a project officer. He served in many capacities until his retirement in 1985. It was considered desirable for him to have a Ph.D. He studied in the Department of Geology at Kansas and used his Puerto Rico work for part of the thesis. Upon return to NSF, he was in charge of geology and geophysics and recruited many of the important scientists during this time. Dr. Turner discusses the problems of maintaining research projects when the budget is cut. He also discusses some of the ice core storage problems. In the 1960s and 1970s, the research projects tended toward large groups. It became difficult to convince scientists to do projects in Antarctic. The Bureau of Mines was interested in identifying and locating mineral deposits. Dr. Turner observed that bureaucracy increased under the Nixon administration. The Navy resisted the sending of women scientists to Antarctica. The Navy did not want a scientist from the University of Venezuela to go because he was on the wrong side in the Spanish Civil War. Upon Dr. Turner’s retirement from NSF in 1985, he went to the University of Colorado in Boulder. Major Topics 1. Dr. Turner’s educational background. 2. His work for Edwin Hubble at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. 3. He photographed the flights of rockets developed by Dr. Goddard. 4. As an employee of California State Geological Survey he worked on industrial minerals. 5. His position as State Geologist in Puerto Rico. 6. National Science Foundation Office of Antarctic Programs. 7. The pressure to earn a Ph.D. the selection of Kansas, and how his work was handled at NSF are described. 8. The discovery of various fossils in Antarctica supported the continental drift theory. 9. Bureaucracy grew under President Nixon. 10. The transition from Navy to NSF funding is discussed. Key Individuals Mentioned 1. Edwin Hubble – p.2 2. Dr. Edgerton – p.2 3. Dr. Goddard – p.3 4. Dr. Werner von Braun – p.4 5. Laura Pérezy Mendez – p.4, 20 6. Tom Jones – p.6, 8, 16, 21, 34, 36, 41, 42 7. George Toney – p.7, 8, 41 8. Phil Smith – p.7, 8, 41, 42 9. President Eisenhower – p.7 10. John Mullingan – p.10, 29 11. Ed Zeller – p.10, 11, 15, 17, 19, 29 12. Ernie Angino – p.10 13. Bob Nichols – p.11 14. Charles Bentley – p.13 15. John Behrendt – p.13, 30 16. Cassidy – p.13 17. Harry Hess – p.17, 23 18. Frank Foley – p.17 19. Berty Crary – p.19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 42 20. George Llano – p.17, 41 21. Bernie Lettow – p.19 22. Joanne Church Dort – p.20 23. Lamont – p.21, 23, 25 24. Bob Dietz – p.23 25. Ed Thiel – p.24 26. Chet Langley – p.26 27. Gorden Robin – p.27 28. Lyle McGinnis – p.31 29. David Elliott – p.33, 35 30. Ned Colbert – p.33 31. Scott – p.36 32. Larry Frakes – p.36, 40 33. John Crowell – p.36 34. Finn Ronne – p.38 35. Jerry Huffman – p.41 36. Helen Gerasimou – p.42 37. Cruxent – p.45 38. Mary Alice McWhinney – p.46
              Tamil Hot Actress Pics        
    Source(google.com.pk)
    Tamil Hot Actress Pics Biography


    Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital is Chennai, the largest city. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Gulf of Mannar, the Palk Strait in the south east, and by the Indian Ocean in the south.
    Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the seventh most populous state. It is the second largest state economy in India as of 2012.The state ranked among the top 5 states in India in Human Development Index as of 2006. Tamil Nadu is also the most urbanised state in India.The state has the highest number (10.56%) of business enterprises and stands second in total employment (9.97%) in India,compared to the population share of about 6%.
    The region has been the home of the Tamil people since at least 500 BCE. Its official language Tamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for over 2000 years.Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

    Main article: History of Tamil Nadu
    Tamil Nadu's history dates back to pre-historic times. Archaeological evidence points to this area (In places like Adhichanallur,Tirunelveli) being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.[10] In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic celts, giving evidence confirming them to be of the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago.The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi.Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.About 60% of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu and most of which are in Tamil language.Geologists have discovered hundreds of fossilised dinosaur eggs, perhaps 65 million years old, underneath a stream in a tiny village in Ariyalur district.Researchers from the Salem-based Periyar University believe that the clusters of eggs belonged to the aggressive Carnosaur and the leaf-eating Sauropoda.
    [edit]Early history (Sangam Period- 300BCE-300CE)
    Main article: Sangam period

    Roman pottery excavated in Arikamedu (1st century AD, Guimet Museum)
    The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is spotlighted by Tamil literature known as Sangam literature. Numismatic, archaeological and literature sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries spanning 300 BCE – 300 CE. Three dynasties, namely Chera, Chola and Pandya, ruled the whole of present-day Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Chera ruled the whole of present day Kerala and parts of western Tamil Nadu comprising Coimbatore, Karur, Salem and Erode districts from the capital of Vanchi Muthur (thought to be modern day Karur). The Chola dynasty ruled the northern and central parts of Tamil Nadu from Uraiyur as capital, and the Pandya dynasty ruled southern Tamil Nadu from Korkai and Madurai as capital. All three dynasties had extensive trade relationships with then known ancient kingdoms of Rome, Greece, Egypt, Ceylon, Phoenicia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. Trade flourished in commodities like spices, ivory, pearls, beads and gems. Chera traded extensively from Muziris on the west coast, Chola from Arikamedu and Puhar and Pandya through Korkai port. The Greco-Roman trade and travel document Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. 60–100 CE) gives an elaborate description of the Tamil country and its ports. The Kalabhras invaded and displaced the three Tamil kingdoms and ruled between the third and the seventh centuries CE of the Sangam period. This is referred to as the Dark Age in Tamil history. They were expelled by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the sixth century.

    During the Kalabhras' rule Buddhism flourished in the land of the Tamils. The didactic work Naaladiyar was composed during their reign. It consists of moral sayings in the venpa meter, 400 in number in 40 chapters, each by one Buddhist ascetic, according to tradition. Following the tradition of Tamil Buddhism, Naaladiyar emphasises virtues such as control of the senses, Dhamma (Lord Buddha's teaching), renunciation, and other desirable social qualities. Pali was the court language of the Kalabhras who were also called Kalapara or Kalaparaya according to the Koramangalam inscription.

    Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram (c. eighth century C.E.) – UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    During the fourth to eighth centuries C.E., Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallavas under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I and his uncle Bodhidharma.The Pallavas ruled a large portion of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Dravidian architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Pallavas were replaced by the Cholas as the dominant kingdom in the 10th century C.E. and they in turn were replaced by Pandyas in the 13th century C.E. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century C.E. Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

    Main article: Chola dynasty
    Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E.
    A sculpture at Airavatesvara Temple, Darasuram, built by Tamil Chola Kings. The group of monuments are UNESCO World Heritage sites
    The Cholas, who were very active during the Sangam age, were entirely absent during the first few centuries.The period started with the rivalry between the Pandyas and the Pallavas, which in turn caused the revival of the Cholas. During the ninth century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from the local clans of Mutharayar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. Parantaka Chola II expanded the Chola empire into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose to a notable power in South East Asia. Now the Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal and Sir Lanka. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular South India and parts of Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola's navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now Myanmar) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
    Brihadeeswara Temple built by Raja Raja Chola I in 1010 C.E.
    Natarajan, Siva as celestial dancer, an example of Chola art
    The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola, who built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India the fine figures of Siva in various forms, Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints are the examples of Chola bronze. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.
    With the decline of the Chola dynasty between 1230 and 1280 C.E., the Pandyas rose to prominence once again, under Maravarman Sundara Pandya and his younger brother, the celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan. This revival was short-lived as the Pandya capital of Madurai itself was sacked by Alauddin Khilji's troops under General Malik Kafur in 1316. The Muslim invasion led to the establishment of the short-lived Madurai Sultanate.

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              Un coracoides de ave del Cretácico Superior de Patagonia, Argentina        
    Título : Un coracoides de ave del Cretácico Superior de Patagonia, Argentina Autor(es) : Agnolin, Federico L. Resumen : In the present paper, the new genus and species of neornithine bird, Lamarqueavis australis is described. The specimen consists on an isolated coracoid collected in Campanian-Maastrichtian beds of the Allen Formation, at the Bajo Trapalcó fossiliferous locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The specimen constitutes the first record from South America of the neornithine clade Cimolopterygidae, a group of modern-like birds that previously were known from Cretaceous and Paleogene strata of North America, Europe, and Asia. The new genus Lamarqueavis also includes previously described taxa, such as “Cimolopteryx” minima and “C.” petra, from the Late Cretaceous of North America. The new specimen fits well with the traditional hypothesis that suggests that derived ornithurine birds were the dominant taxa of shoreline and marine habitats during the Cretaceous, whereas in inland environments basal taxa were more abundant. Finally, on the basis of the meagre fossil neornithine record of the Cretaceous, previous hypotheses concerning the place of cradle of modern birds in Antarctica or North America are discussed.; En el presente artículo, se describe el nuevo género y especie de ave Neornithes Lamarqueavis australis. El espécimen consiste en un coracoides aislado procedente de la Formación Allen (Campaniano-Maastrichtiano: Cretácico Superior) de la localidad de Bajo Trapalcó, provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. El espécimen constituye el primer registro sudamericano para el clado Cimolopterygidae, un grupo de aves previamente reconocido en estratos mesozoicos y paleógenos de Norteamérica, Europa y Asia. El nuevo género Lamarqueavis incluye también especies previamente descriptas como “Cimolopteryx” minima y “C.” petra, provenientes del Cretácico Superior de Norteamérica. El nuevo espécimen es coincidente con la hipótesis tradicional que sugiere que las aves Ornithurae derivadas fueron los taxones dominantes de los ambientes costeros y marinos mundiales a fines del Cretácico, mientras que en los ambientes estrictamente continentales abundaron taxones basales. Finalmente, sobre la base del pobre registro fósil de Neornithes en el Mesozoico, hipótesis previas acerca del Centro de Origen de las aves modernas en Norteamérica y Antártida son discutidas y analizadas en detalle.
              Ictiofauna y herpetofauna del pleistoceno superior continental de la localidad de Salto, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina        
    Título : Ictiofauna y herpetofauna del pleistoceno superior continental de la localidad de Salto, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Autor(es) : Bogan, Sergio; Agnolin, Federico L.; Ramírez, José L. Resumen : In contrast with the present knowledge of the Upper Pleistocene paleomastofaunas of the Pampean region, the fossil ichthyofaunas and herpetofaunas are poorly known. In the present paper we describe fossil remains of fishes, anurans, and chelonians recovered on sedimentary sequences corresponding to the Lujanian Stage (Upper Pleistocene) from the outcrops of the Salto-Arrecifes River at Salto city, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Among fossil fishes, four different taxa, belonging to the families Silurifor mes Callichthyidae, Loricariidae, Pimelodidae, and Heptapteridae were recovered. All the recorded species are currently present in the locality. Among anurans, only a single element referable to the subfamily Ceratophryinae was recovered, whereas among chelonians at least two different species are registered. In addition, it is worth to mention the presence of the Testudinidae cf. Chelonoidis far away from its current geographic distribution.; En contraposición a lo que ocurre con la paleomastofauna, las ictio- faunas y herpetofaunas del Pleistoceno superior de la región Pampeana en la República Argentina son escasamente conocidas. En esta oportunidad se dan a conocer los restos fósiles de peces, anuros y quelonios recuperados en las secuencias sedimentarias correspondientes al Piso-Edad Lujanense (Pleistoceno superior) de las barrancas del río Salto-Arrecifes en la localidad de Salto, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. En el caso de los peces, se han registrado cuatro taxo- nes diferentes asignables a las familias de Siluriformes Callichthyidae, Loricarii- dae, Pimelodidae y Heptapteridae. Todos los taxones identificados cuentan con representantes actuales en el área de estudio. Entre los anuros se ha identificado únicamente un elemento referible a la subfamilia Ceratophryinae mientras que, en cuanto a los quelonios, se recuperaron al menos dos especies diferentes. Vale la pena remarcar la existencia de un Testudinidae cf. Chelonoidis que se encuen- tra alejado de su área actual de distribución.
              Conferenze preistoriche a Firenze        
    Non mancate all'appuntamento con la paleontologia nelle conferenze legate alla mostra Dinosauri in Carne e Ossa a Firenze, al giovedì alle 17:00 presso la Sala Strozzi (Via La Pira 4). L'ingresso è libero.
    Di seguito l'elenco degli incontri già programmati:

    Giovedì 15 marzo:
    Dal più piccolo al più grande: i dinosauri predatori Scipionyx e Spinosaurus, di Simone Maganuco

    Il piccolo Scipionyx, primo dinosauro rinvenuto in Italia, è un cucciolo di carnivoro che conserva parti di organi e tessuti molli fossilizzati. Il gigantesco Spinosaurus, a quasi un secolo dalla scoperta dei primi resti, si rivela uno dei più grandi e più bizzarri predatori di terraferma mai esistiti.


    Giovedì 22 marzo:
    Dinosauri del Far West: oltre un secolo di scavi sotto il Grande Cielo, di Alessandro Carpana
    Barnum Brown in Montana (Wikipedia)

    Il Montana è da sempre una terra di frontiera anche per la paleontologia: dai primi pionieri del lavoro sul campo, che raccoglievano fossili nel mezzo delle Guerre Indiane, e Barnum Brown, che in quelle badlands scoprì il primo Tyrannosaurus rex, ai moderni paleontologi e Jack Horner, che dai resti scoperti sotto il Grande Cielo ha dato il via a una vera e propria rivoluzione scientifica.    


    Giovedì 5 aprile:
    Oh...che denti lunghi hai!, di Lorenzo Rook e Davide Bonadonna

    Paleontologo e paleoartista esploreranno insieme alcuni aspetti di morfologia funzionale ed evoluzione di alcuni tra i carnivori più affascinanti e misteriosi, le cosiddette tigri dai denti a sciabola.


    Giovedì 19 aprile:
    Sulle tracce dei dinosauri: storie e comportamenti conservati nella roccia, di Marco Avanzini

    Verranno forniti alcuni dettagli sulle tracce dei tetrapodi dei Monti Pisani, attualmente in esposizione nella mostra “Dinosauri in carne e ossa”.

              Can’t discover a fossil ichthyosaur in Scotland without invoking a fictional monster?        
    Another “spectacular” sea monster fossil discovery is ruined by some ridiculous journalists who can’t rid themselves of the stupid pop culture habit of comparing every ancient sea predator to a mythical creature. This is really getting old. The recent news is of a nearly intact ichthyosaur skeleton discovered on Scotland’s Isle of Skye and announced in…
              Up to 50% off Fossil, Skagen & More Top Fashion Watches – Prices start at $49.99!        
    I love it! Watches are making a comeback! For a long time it seemed watches were being replaced by cell phones. Who needed a watch when a quick check of the cell phone told the time? We’ve seen the popularity of watches turn upwards – even if it for fashion and not function. Check out these GREAT prices! Check out Amazon’s DEAL OF THE DAY – Up to 50% off Fossil, Skagen & More Top Fashion Watches! Prices start at $69.99. This item will ship free for all Amazon Prime members. Or, regular members can score free shipping by adding $49 or more worth of eligible items to your cart. You can get a 30-day free trial of Amazon Prime here.
              The Pseudoscientists Episode 118: Aquatic Sloths on YouTube (with Rhys Morgan)        

    Podcast Feature Image 2 scale

    Jack is joined by young UK skeptic Rhys Morgan to discuss the health effects of wind farms, why multi-level marketing schemes are horrible scams, and why dozens and dozens of whale fossils are being found in one spot in Chile - while Jargonauts persists with "extant".
              Comment on IEEFA Op-Ed: Blind Faith in Fossil-Fuel Industries Will Strand Economies, Communities, Workers by IEEFA Update: Will Southern Company Refund Mississippi Ratepayers for Failed $7.5 Billion Kemper ‘Clean Coal’ Experiment? - Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis : Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis        
    […] IEEFA Op-Ed: Blind Faith in Fossil-Fuel Industries Will Strand Economies, Communities, Workers […]
              Comment on IEEFA Update: Wonder Where Electricity-Generation Markets Are Going? Follow the Money by IEEFA Op-Ed: Blind Faith in Fossil-Fuel Industries Will Strand Economies, Communities, Workers - Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis : Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis        
    […] IEEFA Update: The U.S. Energy Narrative Is Shifting IEEFA Update: Wonder Where Electricity-Generation Markets Are Going? Follow the Money […]
              Comment on IEEFA Update: The U.S. Energy Narrative Is Shifting by IEEFA Op-Ed: Blind Faith in Fossil-Fuel Industries Will Strand Economies, Communities, Workers - Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis : Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis        
    […] IEEFA Update: The U.S. Energy Narrative Is Shifting IEEFA Update: Wonder Where Electricity-Generation Markets Are Going? Follow the Money […]
              Comment on Some in Japan Push for a Rethinking of How the World’s Third-Largest Economy Produces Electricity by Japan Co2 Emissions • Japan Technology News        
    […] Kiyoshi Tanigawa, manager of the environment and energy policy bureau at Keidanren, said by e-mail. [8] Japan’s energy consumption derives mostly from fossil fuels, which are un-secure and release […]
              Comment on IEEFA Asia: India’s Electricity-Sector Transformation Is Happening Now by IEEFA Update: Pulling Out of the Global Climate-Risk Accord Is Trump’s Biggest Business Blunder Yet - Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis : Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis        
    […] include Japan, Taiwan and South Korea are plotting futures less reliant on fossil-fuel investment. Change is coming to India, the second-most populous country on the planet, much faster than anticipated.  Japan and China […]
              Comment on IEEFA Report: State-Owned Utility NTPC Takes a Lead Role in India’s Electricity Transition by IEEFA Update: ‘American Isolationism Will Hasten the Asian Century’ - Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis : Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis        
    […] Corp.) despite its deep historical connection to coal-fired electricity-generation technology, is becoming a key renewable energy enabler. Its shift away from the increasingly stranded assets of the fossil fuel industry cannot be […]
              Comment on IEEFA Asia: More Evidence of Stark Change in Seaborne Thermal Coal Markets by IEEFA Update: Pulling Out of the Global Climate-Risk Accord Is Trump’s Biggest Business Blunder Yet - Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis : Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis        
    […] energy industry transition is occurring around the world. Major Asian economies that include Japan, Taiwan and South Korea are plotting futures less reliant on fossil-fuel investment. Change is coming to India, the […]
              Comment on IEEFA Swamp Watch: Discord Within the Fossil-Fuel Industry Over What to Do Now by IEEFA Update: Shareholder Vote on Exxon Mobil’s Climate-Risk Transparency Suggests a Larger Opening - Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis : Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis        
    […] IEEFA Energy-Swamp Watch: Discord Within the Fossil-Fuel Industry Over What to Do Now IEEFA Asia: More Evidence of Stark Change in Seaborne Thermal Coal Markets […]
              Flucidity        


    I got so fascinated reading about flucidity that I almost forgot to come back over here & write about it. I've been wandering around the website and following one link to another, trying to wrap my head around the idea. It's not difficult to understand, but it does require a different way of thinking. Everyone is familiar with some very basic concepts like the power of positive thinking and using visualization techniques to see your goals, right? Flucidity is the next level. It is The Universal Language and says that everything exists in one of the following ways:

    Representation
    Potential Energy
    Measurement & Structure
    Interaction & Association


    No, that's not geek-speak. It actually makes a lot of sense and can bring focus and clarity to your thought processes. Obviously the Theory of Everything can and does explain it much better than I can, but I'll take the first one just to give you an idea of the thought process:

    Representation is proof of existence. A name, a photograph, a fossilized bone, a souvenier from your last vacation. It's the starting point for your thought processes. You can see, visually or in your mind, this focal point. And every representation is filled with potential energy, leading you to the next step. See how easy that is?

    I like this very organized way of thinking. I've been going through a lot of changes in my life recently which have led me to restructure some short- and long-term goals. I think that the Theory of Everything can help me clarify those goals and achieve them. I'm glad this sponsored opportunity came my way so I could investigate it myself and share it with you.


              Dark Money and the new American politics        


    Last weekend I finished Dark Money by Jane Mayer, which appeared last year.  It was marketed, largely, as a history of the involvement of the fossil fuel magnates Charles and David Koch in American politics over the last few decades, but it is much more than that.  I intend in what follows to summarize what I found in the book, but from a slightly different perspective than Mayer’s, and without much of any attention to the voluminous, and fascinating, personal data that she provides about the Kochs and other financiers of our new “conservative” political movement.  Instead I am going to treat the book as the first draft, as it were, of a genuine political history of the last 40 or 50 years—because it explains more about where we are and how we got here than anything else that I have ever read.   Mayer leads her readers through the story in rough chronological order, and I recommend the book to everyone.  I on the other hand am going to try to identify its major features in an effort to explain how we got to the miserable point at which we find ourselves.

    Charles and David Koch are the most striking example of extraordinarily wealthy Americans who have had an outsized impact on the politics of the last forty years—and whose impact is reaching a new peak right now.  They followed in the footsteps of their father Fred, who in the 1950s was one of the founding members, along with candy manufacturer Robert Welch, of the John Birch Society.  Nothing illustrates what has happened to American politics in my lifetime in more striking fashion than this.  The ideas of the John Birch Society, a group of fanatically anti-government lunatics who in the 1950s identified Dwight D. Eisenhower as a member of the international Communist conspiracy, are now the single most influential set of ideas in American political life. Their main tenets are an unlimited faith in free enterprise and a conviction that government attempts to moderate the negative impacts of capitalism are simply a power grab designed to establish dictatorship.  And because of the success of their political movement, their fortunes have grown by orders of magnitude over the last few decades.

    In addition to the Kochs, the superrich political elite has included John Olin, a chemical manufacturer; Richard Mellon Scaife, a scion of a Pittsburgh family prominent in banking and industry; and Harry Bradley, another Birch Society acolyte who ran the Allen-Bradley Electronics Company in New York.  In the middle of the twentieth century, when marginal income tax rates topped out at 91%, these men had all taken advantage of a provision in the tax code—first used by the Rockefeller family—to create a “philanthropic” foundation to shield substantial portions of their enormous income from taxes.  Unfortunately, the definition of philanthropy has been broad enough to include the subsidy of a particular ideology—and ultimately, direct intervention in politics.  That one tragic flaw in our tax code has reshaped opinion and redistributed power at every level of American government.

                Now I have rarely been impressed by any of the ideas coming out of the new Right during the last few decades, but like many liberal Democrats, I suspect, I have assumed that conservative intellectuals had honestly come by their ideas.  I am not suggesting now that they have lied about them, but Mayer leaves no doubt that the entire new right wing intellectual establishment was created from the ground up by the handful of major benefactors listed above.  Both the American Enterprise Institute and the Heritage Foundation—the two centers of conservative “thought” in Washington—were originally funded largely by Richard Mellon Scaife. The Bradley and Olin Foundations were also powers behind the Heritage Foundation, and the Kochs have been involved as well.  I have always thought of the Cato Institute as a nest of principled libertarians—partly because it tends to oppose foreign interventions—but it turns out to have been started by Charles Koch.  Charles Murray was an unknown writer before the Olin foundation adopted him and subsidized his first book, Losing Ground, arguing that social programs were hurting the poor.  (Spoiled, perhaps, by success, Murray went a bridge too far when he and Richard Herrnstein argued in The Bell Curve that black people were intellectually inferior to whites.)  And I was amazed to learn from Mayer that the Bradley foundation gives four annual awards of $250,000 each to leading conservative journalists, activists, and intellectuals. Winners have included George Will, Charles Krauthammer, Thomas Sowell, Ward Connerly, Heather MacDonald, Shelby Steele, Victor Davis Hanson, John Bolton, William Kristol, Paul Gigot, Michael Barone, Jeb Bush, Harvey Mansfield, Edwin Meese, Roger Ailes of Fox News, General John Keane, and Charles Murray.

    Changing the intellectual climate was step 1 in the program.  Another spectacularly successful front was opened within the American legal system, Started in 1982 with money from the Olin Foundation and affiliates of the Scaifes and the Kochs, the Federalist Society has become a behemoth, an organization of conservative legal thinkers that includes all the conservative members of the US Supreme Court.   That is not all. The Olin Foundation has sponsored two week seminars on Law and Economics for sitting judges, somewhat reminiscent of the seminars drug companies hold for physicians at major resorts.  There they have exposed sitting judges to the evils of regulation and the glories of the free market—and this may explain some of the more extraordinary decisions that federal courts have handed down lately, such as one that limited the legal definition of insider trading to narrowly as to make most prosecutions for it impossible.

    Nor is this all: the foundations have not hesitated to challenge liberal intellectuals in their own presumed stronghold, universities.  Using the irresistible lever of their wealth—which no American university, in this day and age, can resist—they have established beachheads such as the Olin Center at Harvard University (promoting conservative ideas on foreign policy) and several institutes at George Mason University, conveniently located in the Washington suburbs.  These have opened career paths for conservative public policy intellectuals—at the same time that mainstream academic departments have been going in directions largely irrelevant to real politics.

    This vast intellectual infrastructure works in tandem, of course, with the right wing media, led by Fox News and Clear Channel Radio, to shift public opinion on key events.  The alternative media outlets are largely self-financing, of course, but I was very surprised that another key rightwing organization, Freedom Works—funded largely by the Scaife foundation—had paid Glenn Beck more than $1 million a year to allow them to write his monologues.  And this infrastructure has not only convinced many Americans, and probably most better-off Americans, that social programs do more harm than good, but it has also convinced millions that lower taxes on the wealthy increase economic growth—and, critically, created real doubt as to whether man-made global warming exists.  Mayer traces the campaign against global warming effectively.  It employed some of the same personnel and used the same playbook as the tobacco companies’ earlier effort to create doubt as to whether cigarettes caused cancer—but evidently with far more significant results.  (I am leaving out of this essay the names of many key operatives within the network who have organized particular legal, lobbying and electoral campaigns.  They are the battlefield commanders of our new political struggle.)  The intellectual infrastructure also carries out campaigns against academics and journalists who stand in its way—including Mayer herself.

    The other long-running campaign waged by the new right was the attempt to undo a century of regulation of spending on political campaigns. At the dawn of the Progressive Era a consensus emerged that the influence of money on politics had to be restricted, and Watergate had reinforced that lesson. But the counteroffensive against regulation began in the decade after Watergate, won various victories, and culminated in the Citizens United decision, the Kochs’ and their allies’ greatest and perhaps most influential triumph.  The floodgates are now open, and the results are clear for all to see.

    The right wing network gained much power over the Republican Party by 2000 and was rewarded by very friendly Bush Administration policies towards the energy industry, which turned fracking loose and set the US on the path to energy independence.  It could not prevent a groundswell of negative feeling against the Bush Administration in its second term, however, or stop the election of a Democratic Congress and Barack Obama.  But it went into high gear to stop Obama from accomplishing very much.  To begin with, implementing a long standing plan to form a mass base, the Kochs and their allies took advantage of the financial crisis to get the Tea Party movement going in 2009.  Their newly won financial power under Citizens United allowed them to intimidate virtually every Republican Senator and Representative with the threat of primary opposition, bringing them all into line for total opposition to the President. The Kochs now hold seminars every year for Republican officeholders, where they are informed in secret of the party line.   They convinced millions of Americans that the financial crisis was really the fault of the federal government.  When Obama threatened the carried interest tax loophole, their lobbying organizations found new allies among private equity titans and hedge fund managers on Wall Street.  All this enabled the Republicans, backed by this network of plutocrats, to win their extraordinary victory in the 2010 elections.  After redistricting was finished with the help of techniques provided by the same set of conservative donors, the Republicans probably had secured control of the House of Representatives for the rest of this decade.

    The Koch network has also made a huge and successful effort at the state level, making the Democratic Party irrelevant in large parts of the nation.  Originally founded with Scaife money in the 1970s, the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) now writes draft anti-government, pro-business legislation for state legislatures all over the country.  Local Kochs have also sprung up, such as Art Pope, a North Carolina discount store owner who in the last decade has taken over the state Republican Party and orchestrated its (now partial) takeover of the North Carolina state government.  At the national level, ideological loyalties are still strong enough to allow Democratic candidates to win the popular vote in 4 of the last five Presidential elections, but at the local level, in red and some purple states, there is no alternative force that can stand up to the Koch-led network. And the ultraconservative domination of state legislatures poses perhaps the greatest threat to our democracy of all: a constitutional convention called by those legislatures which could rewrite key provisions of the Constitution along more “libertarian” lines.

    Another chapter of this story does not appear in Mayer’s book.  She finished it when Donald Trump’s presidential candidacy had just begun, and he initially exchanged insults with the Kochs, who did not trust him.  Six months into his Administration it seems to represent an unqualified victory.  The Kochs had a long-standing connection to Mike Pence. The DeVos family—the founders of Amway, an organization that has escaped serious legal trouble more than once—has also been a long-standing member of the megadonor network with a particular interest in education, and they have provided Trump with his education secretary.  The EPA and the Department of Energy and firmly in the hands of Koch allies and are now taking the skeptical line on climate change.  New rounds of tax cuts are being prepared.  The Kochs are undoubtedly unhappy about the failure to repeal the ACA, but they now hold more levers of power than they ever did. 

    A political revolution has been in progress for more than four decades, a reaction to the New Deal and the more just society that it created.  Fueled by successive rounds of tax cuts, this revolution has created a tiny group of billionaires that now control most of our political life.  This is way, as a widely cited study by Marin Gilens and Benjamin I. Page discovered, the beliefs of average American citizens and broad-based activist groups on key issues have very little influence on policy outcomes, while the beliefs of interest groups have a great deal. It's also why most Republicans will vote for legislation that will clearly hurt far more of their constituents than it will help. This is, I believe, the new America that our current Fourth Turning has created, and like the Gilded Age, it will not be overturned, in all probability, for a very long time.

              Trump, the Republicans, and History        
    Even before Donald Trump took office, comparisons between him and the right wing totalitarian leaders of the 20th century were flying freely around the net and social media.  I have made comparisons of my own here before, but my comparisons incline me to reject any equivalence between Trump on the one hand and Hitler, Mussolini, or Franco on the other.  Trump and the Republican Party with which he is working are simply not totalitarians.  They want less government authority, not more. Their model is the United States before the Progressive era, not Italy or Germany during the last great Atlantic crisis.  Yet in another way, as the President's speech withdrawing from the Paris accords showed, there is a profound similarity between Trump and the Republicans on the one hand, and all the totalitarian movements of the last century on the other, including not only National Socialism and Fascism, but Communism in both the USSR and Mao's China. Like the Nazis, the Stalinists and the Maoists, the Republicans and Trump have sold themselves on a view of the world that has little or no relation to reality.  Having developed that worldview over several decades, they are now trying to implement it.  But because it is a fantasy, this attempt is bound to do enormous harm--whether the American people find the strength to reject it during the next 20 years or so or not.

    President Trump in his speech last week did not warn that the United Nations was planning to land a force in black helicopters to take over teh USA, but he might as well have.  The Paris accord, he said, "is simply the latest example of Washington entering into an agreement that disadvantages the United States, to the exclusive benefit of other countries, leaving American workers, who I love, and taxpayers to absorb the cost in terms of lost jobs, lower wages, shuttered factories and vastly diminished economic production."  The Green Climate Fund, he claimed, "is costing the United States a vast fortune," although our commitment of $3 billion amounted to just $10 per US citizen.  Incredibly, Trump claimed that the fund would cost us tens or hundreds of billions of dollars, with no evidence whatever. This is the way that Hitler (with more justification, actually) talked about the Versailles Treaty and the reparations settlements that followed it during the 1920s, and the way the Bolsheviks talked about the huge prewar loans from France, Britain, and other nations, which had funded the development of the Russian railway system.  Continuing, Trump claimed that the Paris accord was going to cost us 2.7 million jobs by 2025, citing a discredited study from a conservative think tank.  Their report painted a picture of incredible economic devastation which the President of the United States treated as fact.  Rather than give in, the President promised a renaissance of American coal mining and jobs for miners--which no one believes can possibly happen in the current energy environment.  The President talked about the rest of the world the way Communist leaders talked about the capitalism world, painting it as a vast conspiracy designed to cripple the United States for their own benefit. "The rest of the world," the President said, "applauded when we signed the Paris Agreement. They went wild.  They were so happy. For the simple reason that it put our country, the United States of America, which we all love, at a very, very big economic disadvantage. . . .The agreement is a massive redistribution of United States wealth to other countries."  Unspoken was the obvious conclusion, spread by Dinesh D'Souza and other conservative pundits, that President Obama signed it because he has always hated the United States.

    The President specifically argued that China and India would take advantage of the agreement to increase coal production while the US had to cut it, but those countries are in fact moving away from it.  He said nothing, of course, about the rapidly falling price of clean energy and the jobs that could be gained by investing in it.  That is because the Republican Party is virtually a wholly owned subsidiary of the most conservative elements of the energy industry, led by the Koch brothers.  And that is a key difference between today's Republicanism on the one hand, and the National Socialists and Communists on the other. They were genuinely motivated by ideology; the Republicans are simply slaves to private interests.

    The recurring theme of Trump's speech, that he is reasserting America's national sovereignty against illegitimate international authority, could be traced back to the 1950s and the founding of the John Birch Society--led, among others, by the Koch brothers' father. "It would once have been unthinkable that an international agreement could prevent the United States from conducting its own domestic economic affairs," he said. "But this is the new reality we face if we do not leave the agreement or if we do not negotiate a far better deal."  And the Paris agreement--which is based, in fact, entirely on voluntary compliance--will be, he warned, only the prelude to further attacks on our sovereignty. In the last 60 years, such fringe ideas have found their way to the summit of power.  That idea may also have led Trump to refuse to promise our NATO allies that he would defend them all against attack, and it will encourage him to take more and more unilateral steps in foreign affairs, just as Hitler boasted of freeing Germany from the shackles of the Versailles Treaty and the subsequent Locarno Pact before he unleashed the Second World War.

    The situation with regard to health care is similar.  Committed to the belief that the free market will provide the most people with the best insurance, the Republicans have to ignore the unpleasant reality that insurance companies love writing policies for healthy people but would rather not insure sick ones.  Thus they are trying to eliminate the ACA, and insurance for at least 20 million Americans, while claiming that this will make things better.

    Where will all this lead?  History is not especially encouraging.

    National Socialism could not, as I pointed out in an earlier post, deliver on its promises to the German people, but totalitarian methods secured its hold on power .It destroyed itself because it was dedicated to a hopeless war of expansion that brought it into conflict with three superior industrial and military powers.  Fascism was not particularly successful, but it had survived for 18 years before Mussolini in 1940 made the fatal mistake of following Hitler into war.  Franco,. who carefully avoided that mistake, survived for the rest of his life, 36 years, after seizing power.  And the Soviet Union, with the help of totalitarian methods, survived for more than four decades after the Second World War despite its clear failure to meet the needs of its people.

    Trump and the Republicans, it seems to me, will further enrich the fossil fuel industry, take away health care from millions of Americans, and roll back some of the regulations of the financial industry--which have never been severe enough as it is.  But given the entrenched power of the Republicans, the continuing movement of population to the Sunbelt, and the Democrats' inability to unite behind a compelling alternative set of policies, we cannot be sure that the Republican philosophy, which has been steadily gaining in power since the 1980s, will not remain dominant for some time to come.  The politics of the Gilded Age disgusted many educated and patriotic Americans from the time of the Grant Administration forward, but not until Theodore Roosevelt--30 years later--did any real reforms begin. 

    The threat of climate change is, of course, very real.  In fact, serious students of the subject have argued for some time that the Paris accords were grossly inadequate to meet the threat and threatened to lull the public to sleep.  I have been convinced for some time that only a series of environmental catastrophes such as the flooding of Miami will mobilize the world to the necessary extent in any case.  Such a chain of events is, paradoxically, perhaps our best hope of recovering some civic spirit and mobilizing resources for good ends.   I can't see much else that would have that effect.
              Comment on Your Brain on Politics: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Liberals and Conservatives by Benjamin David Steele        
    @ 65. rational revolution - I think you might be trapped in an ideological reality tunnel. Let me take your own example: "For example, conservatives in America are ardently against federal programs like Social Security, even though the program has been around for as long as just about anyone alive in America can remember and its a tremendously stable system of consistency, that provides not only individual stability in old age, but stability to the entire American economy." Many conservatives and Republicans would like to reform Social Security, but very few are ardently against it. Diverse data proves my point: http://benjamindavidsteele.wordpress.com/2010/08/16/most-oppose-cutting-social-security-data/ http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2011/images/09/12/rel15b.pdf I have no desire to analyze your long post. I just wanted to show how disconnected your analysis is from the actual data. By your own definitions, you know what 'conservatives' should be for and against. But apparently your definitions aren't the same as the basic beliefs and values that motivate most American conservatives. I will, however, offer a simple explanation for your confusing right-wing/left-wing ideology with 'liberal'/'conservative' psychological predisposition: http://www.tnr.com/blog/alan-wolfe/false-distinction "[E]verywhere I go, the moment I tell people that I have written a book about liberalism, I am invariably asked which of the two I mean. Classical liberalism, my interlocutors patiently explain to me, is that wonderful notion of the free market elucidated by Adam Smith that worships the idea of freedom. The modern version, by contrast, is committed to expansion of the state and, if taken to its logical conclusion, leads to slavery. One must choose one or the other. There really is no such thing, therefore, as modern liberalism. If you opt for the market, you are a libertarian. If you choose government, you are a socialist or, in more recent times, a fascist. "I try to explain to people that in my book I reject any such distinction and argue instead for the existence of a continuous liberal understanding that includes both Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes. But so foreign is this idea to them that they stare at me in utter disbelief. How could I have possibly written a book on liberalism, I can almost hear them thinking, when this guy doesn’t know a thing about it? "[ . . . ] I think of the whole question of governmental intervention as a matter of technique. Sometimes the market does pretty well and it pays to rely on it. Sometimes it runs into very rough patches and then you need government to regulate it and correct its course. No matters of deep philosophy or religious meaning are at stake when we discuss such matters. A society simply does what it has to do. "When instead we do discuss human purpose and the meaning of life, Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes are on the same side. Both of them possessed an expansive sense of what we are put on this earth to accomplish. Both were on the side of enlightenment. Both were optimists who believed in progress but were dubious about grand schemes that claimed to know all the answers. For Smith, mercantilism was the enemy of human liberty. For Keynes, monopolies were. It makes perfect sense for an eighteenth century thinker to conclude that humanity would flourish under the market. For a twentieth century thinker committed to the same ideal, government was an essential tool to the same end." http://benjamindavidsteele.wordpress.com/2011/03/18/is-classical-liberalism-liberal/ "Liberalism and conservatism aren’t specific ideologies so much as they are general attitudes. By definition, a conservative wishes to conserve and a liberal does not. This brings us to one of the problem of American politics. As Gunnar Myrdal explained, “America is conservative in fundamental principles… but the principles conserved are liberal and some, indeed, are radical.” So, conservatism will criticize the living breathing liberalism of the moment often in defense of the fossilized liberalism of the past. This is why conservatives will claim classical liberalism as their own. Liberalism of the past is safe because it’s been cleansed of all unknown, and hence uncontrollable, elements. Even though neither is a specific ideology, conservatism is forever seeking to conserve the ideologies of the past whether they are considered liberal or conservative. Conservatives in the past would have criticized classical liberalism, but conservatives today can safely admire it because it’s been made into a set doctrine. This might also explain why many Americans identify as conservative even as they hold traditionally ‘liberal’ positions. Progressive policies were liberal when they were first proposed, but now that they’ve been established for almost a century they’ve become a part of the American tradition and so many conservatives will seek to conserve something like Social Security. "Liberalism, by nature, is constantly changing, constantly pushing the boundaries, constantly trying new things (or putting old things in new contexts). As such, liberalism isn’t a single set of beliefs and policies. When conservatives are getting used to classical liberalism, liberals are already onto another original concept or system. Liberals adapt to present circumstances seeking to go in new directions."
              Nautilus Mineral and Fossil Show, Ghent, Belgium         
    Published: Sun, 19 Mar 2017, Subject: Nautilus Mineral and Fossil Show, Ghent, Belgium
              "US Fossil Fuel Consumption Has Peaked, and Will Never Return"        
    none
              Altenew August 2017 Challenge        



    I had just received my selection from Altenew's latest release the day this beautiful Altenew Inspiration Challenge arrived in my inbox ... how could I resist?

    Erum's gorgeous card really inspired me to use my new Sketchy Floral... if you haven't made it your own yet, there is something you need to be aware of... it stamps a full 5" x 7" panel!  You read that right... and I was able to create two cards with one go of the stamp, and gold heat embossing!

    The first is the lower half of the stamped image - splatter-stamped with Altenew Dusk ink, and two Oxides: fossilized Amber, and Vintage Photo.


     ... that bit of gold peeking from the corner is from Altenew's current card kit.

    The upper half of the panel was fussy cut, and turned about for my second card:


    This card panel is the Dusk-y card stock from their kit.

    Isn't that splatter a fun way to color without really coloring?  Off to the gallery for one ... which one will I choose? 

    =]  Michele

              Margaret Wooldridge Receives Department of Energy’s E.O Lawrence Award        

    The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that Margaret Wooldridge, a University of Michigan Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Mechanical Engineering, is one of six 2013 recipients of the prestigious E.O. Lawrence Award, the agency’s highest award for mid-career scientists. Created in 1959, the award celebrates contributions in research and development that support the Energy Department’s science, energy and national security missions.

    Wooldridge’s award acknowledges “her work advancing energy science and innovation.” Her research group focuses on combustion, that powerful release of energy from fossil fuels that powers much of modern life− at great environmental cost. Her work explores combustion’s possibilities in both traditional and new energy supplies, in the context of the growing need to mitigate climate change and plan for an ecologically sustainable and secure energy future.

    “It’s hard to change our behavior when it comes to energy, not only because we use so much fuel, but because we don’t want the cure to be worse than the disease. When we switch to sustainable fuels, fuels built on a short carbon life cycles, as opposed to the long carbon life cycle associated with fossil fuels, we have to be careful about the impact on performance and environmental effects, as well as the larger social implications,” Wooldridge explained.

    “If we tinker with these fuels, we want to know, what are the specific properties that are attractive to us, and how can we leverage them? We look at traditional fossil fuel chemistry, but also explore new feedstocks. We want to understand how to leverage the best − and avoid the worst − properties of these fuels in engines, combustors, stationary power plants, and other combustion systems.”

    Five of this year’s six Lawrence awardees hold positions at national laboratories; Wooldridge is the only recipient who’s also juggling a teaching load.

    “Sometimes I can keep all the plates spinning, and sometimes a couple come crashing down,” she joked Tuesday, reacting to her award while preparing a lecture for the coming day and answering the questions of a student at her door.

    After the student leaves, she explained, “Each time you teach, you have to answer one of the hardest questions researchers are asked: ‘What does this mean to me?’ It constantly requires that you be able to translate very fundamental research in a way that communicates its practicality and its essential nature. It’s hard, but it’s good to do, and it’s fun- most of the time.”

    Just six percent of the Lawrence Award’s 218 past winners have been women. “I’ve always been interested in the energy sector, and that research is justifiably dominated by combustion. Once you get into the fundamental research in combustion, it’s pretty male-dominated, but I can’t say I thought about it too much as I was choosing my field,” Wooldridge said.

    Past Lawrence awardees have included Nobel Prize-winners Richard Feynman, Saul Permutter, Richard Smalley, Burton Ricter, Sam Ting, Murray Gell-Mann, Bob Laughlin and George Smoot, as well as HIV research pioneer Bette Kerber.

    Another Lawrence award winner from U-M is former University of Michigan President and prominent nuclear physicist James Duderstadt, who received the award in 1986. Of this year’s awardee, he said, “Dr. Wooldridge has become one of the world's leaders in combustion science. Her research on fuel reaction chemistry and combustion diagnostics has provided important tools for many areas of both basic and applied energy research. As a Thurnau Professor, she is also one of our most outstanding teachers.”

    Edward Larsen, a U-M professor of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, won a Lawrence Award in 1994 "for his profound impact on the analytic and numerical methods used to model the transport of particles and radiation in complex systems, with applications in diverse areas of nuclear technology ranging from nuclear weapons design to nuclear reactor safety."

    Today, U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz weighed in on the award winners, saying, “The Lawrence Award recipients announced today have made significant contributions to the national, economic and energy security of the United States – strengthening U.S. leadership in discovery and innovation. I congratulate the winners and thank them for their work on behalf of the Department of Energy and the Nation."

    Wooldridge has been a member of the U-M faculty since 1998. She received an M.S. and a Ph.D from Stanford University. Her research has been funded by the Department of Energy, Ford Motor Company, the National Science Foundation, Hyundai, and Honda.

    The E.O. Lawrence Award was established to honor the memory of Dr. Ernest Orlando Lawrence, who invented the cyclotron – an accelerator of subatomic particles – and received a 1939 Nobel Laureate in physics for that achievement. Dr. Lawrence later played a leading role in establishing the U.S. system of national laboratories, and today, the Energy Department’s national laboratories in Berkeley and Livermore, Calif., bear his name. The six Lawrence Award recipients announced today will receive a medal and a $20,000 honorarium at a ceremony in Washington, D.C., later this year.

    A full list of past E.O. Lawrence Award winners can be found here. 

    Referenced Faculty: 
    Margaret Wooldridge
    Image: 
    Date: 
    Wednesday, April 16, 2014
    Author: 
    Amy Mast

              Herek Clack         

    Research focuses on the study, characterization, and enhancement of fluid, thermal, and mass transport processes, primarily associated with combustion and combustion emissions control. Specific areas of interest include: droplet combustion, especially involving radiant heating effects; control of trace toxic and metallic compounds emitted as a result of fossil fuel combustion; electrostatic precipitation and novel uses of electro-hydrodynamics (EHD) to augment heat and mass transfer; particulate carbon emissions and their climate forcing effects, especially as they intersect with other air pollutant emissions. Activities are primarily experimental in nature, with computational modeling used to extrapolate to larger scales or to experimentally challenging environments. This research has funding from and implications for both industrial clients and federal and international agencies tasked with addressing environmental hazards relating to air quality and the emission of air pollutants.

    Last name: 
    Clack
    First Name: 
    Herek
    Title/Position: 
    Research Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering
    Image: 
    Phone: 
    (734) 764-6830
    Disciplines: 

              lé #8 (extrait||version texte)        


    CD


    Vinyle
    face A
    Ô ma lyre immortelle !

    « Vous qui venez ici dans une humble posture,
    Débarrasser vos flancs d’un importun fardeau Â»
                       Emmanuel Arago, Le petit endroit.



    PREMIER MOULÉVEMENT

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    les seconds les reproduiront

    voilà où trouver l’ennemi social l’usine à croquettes et toutes les médiations les intermédiaires
    pour en assurer la conception la publicité la diffusion le transport la distribution
    les mange-merde
    les lèche-culs
    les suce-sang
    les bouffe-vies
    les ferme-horizons
    les conservés
    les intéressés
    les pourcentagés
    les jougs-au-pas
    les ferme-mots
    les experts-du-fion
    les compères-du-pot
    les pieds à coulisse
    de la dernière série
    les assermentés
    des chaînes
    les beaufs
    qui se la jouent à
    3 500 € par mois
    etc dans mon cul l’etc
    chier par procuration et pisser partout
    se triturer la socialisation via chiens interposés les néo-niards adultes en sont experts traits       d’union       entre deux dégénérations d’usines à croquettes et leurs tapis à vomir de la boîte à son chien-chien et du paquet à son matou et des robots auto-cooling-roulants

    en concurrence avec les pneus et les semelles pour étaler la merde en tant qu’intime transformation mutante       des usines       à croquettes certains éditeurs et autres producteurs de la culture soi-disant à gauche et du bon sentiment génuflexionnel façon confession              sur papier matériel ou virtualisé que recyclent-ils sinon de l’usinage de croquettes de mots

    les souliers des gens et les pies qui sont des coprophages bien connus noir blanc et mutants
                           de la mauvaise haleine
                           MH le meilleur chanteur de méthane a oublié son clignotant droit vert et mutant
    corps méthanisé marchandisé transparent portant capsules de travail produits et producteurs
    siège de gauche il y a
    capsule au-dedans pas conducteur mis en attente
    ceinture airbag un embryoniard dedans

    130 rappel
    ne chier pas plus vite
    que l’aire à venir
    pompes à robots
    hauteur maxi 2,3 mètres

    dépose de merde en famille
    oubliée la viande d’un niard de 5 ans
    près la pompe n° 3

    un autre ailleurs dix cent
    dézingués pour quelques litres dans ton réservoir

    illusion d’individualité
    du grand corps financier
    dès qu’il pond un niard niais cent chiards chiants
    tant et tant
    de marques pour dupliquer
    la mêmeté

    de l’ingénierie œuvrée
    par l’industrie
    du BTP et de l’énergie
    fossilisée

    l’on démembre de l’humain
                 approximativement égal ≈
                 à de la grande étendue de
                 matière

                 traces de pneus frein pas
                 ≈ rein pas
                           démembre de l’humain
    en rouleaux
    transgénérationnel
    1-2-3 voies
    où s’accrochent leur cul
                           en devenir

                 post-mortem

    croquette quasi mondialisée
    et musique en CD
    conserve de son trompette avec
    ou sans
    sourdine
                 on lance le CD au plafond
                              et il reste collé

                                           en est-il autrement
                                                      du PQ
                                                                 poétique

                 en général et des médias
                 gratuits en particulier

    le capot paludéen émergera
    à marée basse
    PQ hexadécimal en pointillé
    PQ en ligne continue
    PQ en glissière de sécurité
    PQ au chromé du pare-chocs
    PQ sur les essuie-glaces
    PQ sur le pare-brise
    PQ resté dans le cul à l’arrêt-pipi
    PQ dans les croquettes du chien
    les ablutions n’ont pas eu lieu
    liste inaboutie incongrueauniveau du siphon
    PQ vacancier avec vélo
    de trois néo-chiards
    sur le hayon 2 grands post-idem
    sur le toit bref

    des siècles de crime et
              Possible life found in sediments between 3.8 and 4.3 billion years old        
    The Earth is about 4.54 billion years old, and the oldest undisputed life on our planet appears as bacterial “microfossils” 3.5 billion years ago. But because bacteria are already quite complicated organisms, it’s a good bet that life (however you define it), began well before that. But how long? The seas weren’t around much before about […]
              Readers’ wildlife photographs        
    As I mentioned when in Portland, I encountered reader Bruce Thiel at my free will talk; Bruce’s avocation is preparing fantastic fossils that he finds locally. I’ve featured some of his preparations before; have a look, as I’ve never seen anything like them. Using a dental drill and working slowly and meticulously, he produces fossils like […]
              Readers’ wildlife photos (including paleobiology!)        
    I’m pleased to feature some paleontology today from reader John Scanlon.  In case you didn’t know, stromatolites are layered accretions of microorganisms, usually cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”), and they represent some of the oldest fossils on earth: about 3.5 billion years old—only about a billion years after the Earth was formed. But these accretions are still formed today by living bacteria, […]
              Putative amphibian fossil shows “broken” bone; said to be first indication of terrestriality        
    Now this paper is way above my pay grade, as it involves all kinds of complicated scanning, computer, and mathematical analysis of a “fishapod” fossil. The conclusion, from a new paper in PLoS ONE by Peter Bishop et al., is that the fossil, Ossinodus sp., shows a callus on its radius (one of the two lower […]
              New fossils: the world’s earliest known bird        
    Here’s a short scientific report (yesterday’s didn’t inspire much enthusiasm)—short because much of the paleontology is beyond my expertise, as the paper consists largely of describing features I’m not familiar with. But this new paper in Nature by Min Wang et al. (link and reference below) is quite important, for it describes what appears to be the earliest […]
              More on the dino-bat Yi qi        
    Five days ago I wrote about the new Nature paper revealing the “dino-bat” fossil Yi qi, a bizarre species of theropod that had feathers but also membranous wings like a bat—and a special new bone, evolved from the wrist, that supported its wing. It isn’t clear whether this creature could fly, but it surely could […]
              Anuario Musical 2012 (by eL_aBeLo)        
    Me organizo mejor por EPs y discos que por canciones, así que paso a detallar mis discos destacados de este 2012 en orden cronológico, a modo de resumen musical del año, remarcando las canciones oportunas.

     

    Enero

    Lisäbo (2011) Animalia Lotsatuen Putzua [InfO / LinK]

    Los vascos Lisäbo publicaron Animalia Lotsatuen Putzua el 30 de Diciembre de 2011, con lo que prácticamente se puede decir que pertenece a este año. Se espera verles con esta nueva carta de presentación.

    Tema: 02. Ez Zaitut Somatu Iristen

     

    Message To Bears (2012) Folding Leaves [InfO / LinK]

    Difícil de rastrear y no me preguntéis como di con este disco. Folk Post Rock Experimental puede ser una buena definición. La explicación la tienen en el link.

    Tema: 02. Wake Me y 03. Mountains

     

    Lana Del Rey (2012) Born To Die [InfO / LinK]

    Ha llegado el momento de parar y volver a escuchar estas dos canciones. Anuncios, series de TV, etc. Otro disco que, aunque Pitchfork no esté de acuerdo, pienso que no faltará en algunas listas de mejores discos de 2012. Ha costado (este verano sólo estuvo en el Sónar 2012 de BCN) pero vendrá a visitarnos: En la Sala la Riviera de Madrid, el Jueves, 09 de Mayo de 2013 tenemos una cita con ella. [InfO / LinK].

    Tema: 04. Video Games y 01. Born To Die

     

    Band Of Skulls (2012) Electric Blues EP [InfO / LinK]

    Ya saben, banda de blues rock y garage fundamental hoy en día. No lo duden si pueden ir a verles. Yo estaré allí, porque no lo dudaré. En Junio sacaron nuevo disco, Sweet Sour (2012), pero no he tenido tiempo de escucharlo. Estoy en ello.

    Tema: 01. Wanderluster y 02. Devil's Rug (y ya de paso termináis el EP que solo son cuatro cancioncitas)

     

    Febero

    Perfume Genius (2012) Put Your Back N 2 It V0 [InfO / LinK]

    Un mejor disco del año. También en el hilo Folk Post Rock. No he parado de escuchar Put Your Back N 2 It V0 de Perfume Genius. Piano, tranquilidad, casa, montaña, frio, sofá, mantita, fuego...

    Tema: 02. Normal Song y 06. Dirge

     

    Air (2012) Le Voyage Dans La Lune [InfO / LinK]

     ... pues eso, en el hilo del anterior y con detalles Trip Hop...

    Tema: 02. Seven Stars (¡¡Un temazo!! Una mejor canción del año…)

     

    John Talabot (2012) ƒin [InfO / LinK]

    Y esto es lo que se dice comenzar bien el año, musicalmente hablando. Un disco muy muy difícil de dejar de escuchar. Electrónica Soulera.

    Tema: 03. El Oeste y 04. Oro y Sangre

     

    We Have Band (2012) Ternion [InfO / LinK]

    Y... de repente... no tenía oídos para otra cosa que para este disco. Y encima, confirmados en el SOS 4.8 2012 (fue un gran momento). Indie Electrónica.

    Tema: 01. Shift, 08. Watertight y 07. Tired of Running

     

    Pond (2012) Beard, Wives, Denim [InfO / LinK]

    Otro mejor disco del año. Este álbum es la manifestación del alma en sí misma (psicodelia). Sinceramente, como molaría una gira de Pond con The Spyrals, Tame Impala and so on…

    Tema: 02. When It Explodes, 08. Moth Wings y 09. Leisure Pony

     

    Marzo

    The Spyrals (2012) The Spyrals [InfO / LinK]

    Y otro mejor del año. Fue genial encontrarme con este álbum mientras raneaba por la red. Las mismísima psicodelia de los 70s en los 10s. Debe ser la banda que más me ha sorprendido. ¡Increíbles!

    Tema: 01. Lonely Eyes y 02. Disguise (Y sigan sigan, no se corten...)

     

    Pegasvs (2012) Pegasvs [InfO / LinK]

    Voy por Marzo y poco castellano observo en mi anuario. Había que solucionarlo...

    Tema: 03. El Final De La Noche y 01. Brillar

     

    The Soul Snatchers (2012) Scratch My Itch [InfO / LinK]

    Soul y Funk con mucho teclado Hammond. Desde Holanda, un pedazo de banda con un pedazo de disco. Keep Funking my friends!!

    Tema: 04. Good To Me y 08. Finish What You Started

     

    Los Evangelistas (2012) Homenaje a Enrique Morente [InfO / LinK]

    Ell@s de nuevo se juntaron para homenajear al maestro y ell@s de nuevo lo bordaron. De obligada escucha.

    Tema: 05. Encima De Las Corrientes, 08. La Estrella y 10. Amante

     

    If These Trees Could Talk (2012) Red Forest [InfO / LinK]

    ¡¡Post Rock!! No podría vivir sin el Vol. I

    Tema: 04. They Speak With Knives (y el resto de canciones).

     

    The American Dollar (2012) Awake In The City [InfO / LinK]

    Marzo esta petado, lo se. Con este termino. Básicamente incluyo el disco porque, amig@s, esto sí que sí que es un temazo. Electronic, Ambient, Rock Progressive.

    Tema: 01. Faces In The Haze (Me repito, vaya temazo, digno de escuchar en cualquier momento…)

     

    Abril

    Dinosaur Jr. (2012) I Bet On Sky [InfO / LinK]

    Conocidos por tod@s. Un no parar. Y un pedir a los Reyes Magos visita de Dinosaur Jr. ¡¡Ya!! ¡¡De Ya!! De lo mejor del año, sin duda. No atendería a ninguna lista que no incluya esta maravilla.

    Tema: 10. See It On Your Side (¡¡Ojo!! ¡¡Cuidado!! ¡¡Engancha!! Yo no me hago responsable de las consecuencias).

     

    Alabama Shakes (2012) Boys & Girls [InfO / LinK]

    Disco debut de este pedazo de banda. Lo tiene todo: rock, blues, soul, etc. Directazo que dieron en la sala El Sol.

    Tema: 01. Hold On y 05. You Ain't Alone

     

    Bear In Heaven (2012) I Love You, It's Cool [InfO / LinK]

    Indie rock electronica post-rock experimental. Más o menos, es eso.

    Tema: 04. Sinful Nature

     

    Modelo de Respuesta Polar (2012) Así Pasen Cinco Años [InfO / LinK]

    Más en castellano. Presentación en directo impecable.

    Tema: 02. La Jaula De Oro, 03. Estados De Un Salto y 07. Estimado V

     

    Mayo

    Japandroids (2012) Celebration Rock [InfO / LinK]

    Y otro mejor. Garage, punk, rock, power-pop, diversión… En fin, todo y poco más de lo que uno necesita.

    Este disco y el homónimo de Yuck del año pasado han sido mis MUST del 2012. Ahm, se queda corto el disco, muy corto, poco más de 35min.

    Tema: 07. The House That Heaven Built

     

    Piano Magic (2012) Life Has Not Finished With Me Yet [InfO / LinK]

    Me ha costado entenderles pero al final fui capaz. Pitchfork no ha sido muy buena con ellos, pero créanme merece la pena…

    Tema: 03. The Slightest Of Threads

     

    Caspian (2012) Waking Season [InfO / LinK]

    ¡¡Post Rock!! No podría vivir sin el Vol. II

    Tema: 01. Waking Season (y el resto de canciones).

     

    Kindness (2012) World, You Need A Change Of Mind [InfO / LinK]

    Siempre he pensado que un disco nunca viene solo. Este es similar al de John Talabot, lo que hace que esta parejita de álbumes sean los inseparables de 2012.

    En el Primavera Sound de Barcelona tuvisteis la suerte de verle. Yo no. Pero estoy en ello.

    Tema: 06. House y 02. Swingin Party

     

    Junio

    Clams Casino (2012) Instrumental Mixtape 2 [InfO / LinK]

    Cuando lo escuché, lo descarté. Suerte tuve que no lo borre del reproductor ya que, al tiempo, al volver a por él, me pareció que está muy muy bien. Electrónica mezclada.

    Tema: 01. Palace [A$AP Rocky] (Les invito a seguir con la 02. Wassup [A$AP Rocky], 03. ...)

     

    Actress (2012) R.I.P. [InfO / LinK]

    Electrónica Oscurantista. Y fundamental.

    Tema: 06. Jardin

     

    dEUS (2012) Following Sea [InfO / LinK]

    Desde Amberes, ¡¡anda!! Como los diamantes (¿no vienen de allí?). Antes no les tragaba (más bien, no les escuchaba). Con este disco cambié de opinión y ahora sí que sí que necesito algún directito suyo.

    Tema: 01. Quatre Mains

     

    DIIV (2012) Oshin [InfO / LinK]

    Desde Beach Fossils y pasando por DIVE aparecen DIIV. Dream Pop, ShoeGaze, Psicodellia. Visto que el Nocturne (2012) de Wild Nothing no ha calado mucho, al menos no tanto como aquel Genini (2010), éste es el perfecto sustituto.

              Dong skovler milliarder hjem pÃ¥ uønsket fossildivision        
    Den ophørende fossilforretning tjener lige så mange penge hjem til Dong Energy, som resten af koncernen tilsammen. Resultatet er dog ikke direkte sammenligneligt, påpeger analytiker.
               On the identification of the first secondary fossil found in Australia         
    Etheridge, Robert (Jnr) (1879) On the identification of the first secondary fossil found in Australia. Papers & Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of Tasmania. pp. 18-23.
               Note on the discovery of Spondylostrobus smythii, Muell., and other fossil fruits in the deep lead drift at Brandy Creek goldfield         
    Johnston, Robert Mackenzie (1879) Note on the discovery of Spondylostrobus smythii, Muell., and other fossil fruits in the deep lead drift at Brandy Creek goldfield. Papers & Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of Tasmania. pp. 25-28.
               Notes on the relations of the yellow limestone (Travertin), of Geilston Bay, with other fluviatile and lacustrine deposits in Tasmania and Australia, together with descriptions of two new fossil Helices.         
    Johnston, Robert Mackenzie (1879) Notes on the relations of the yellow limestone (Travertin), of Geilston Bay, with other fluviatile and lacustrine deposits in Tasmania and Australia, together with descriptions of two new fossil Helices. Papers & Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of Tasmania. pp. 81-90.
              A crayfish in the garden        

    Over the years that I’ve spent in gardens, I’ve come across all sorts of curious things – chocolate eggs, lost toys, hundreds of clay pipe stems, old bottles, fossils and oyster shells - but last week I made the oddest find to date. I was happily pruning a rambling rose that was trained against a lovely old Cotswold stone wall, when a flash of blue appeared amongst the foliage. The first thing that came to mind was a faded Hydrangea flower head, but there weren’t any Hydrangeas. Looking closer, I was astonished to find, hanging in the branches about 2m from the ground, a long-dead crayfish.



    I admit that I’m not especially familiar with crayfish, wildlife on dry land has always been more my area of interest. I’ve watched them scurrying about the bottom of a shallow stream in the Lake District and I’ve been served them once – I’d would rather not repeat that experience, it was one of the most fiddly and unrewarding meals I’ve ever had. Crayfish haven’t been part of my life, so to come across one dangling in a rambling rose was a considerable surprise.

    Back indoors, I set out upon the agreeable pursuit of looking things up and discovered that there is only one native crayfish in the UK, the freshwater white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, which is increasingly threatened by an invasive American type, the signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The signal crayfish eats everything in its path and damages river banks by digging deep burrows which cause the river banks to collapse. Crayfish need lively-flowing streams and rivers to live in and it happens that there is a lively-flowing river running through this town, the river Windrush. I then discovered that signal crayfish have been found in the Windrush and that the many holes I’d seen in the banks are likely to have been dug by them. Comparing the shape, colour and markings of claw of the crayfish I found to the one shown here, I concluded that it is very probably a signal crayfish.

    Read more


              Riflessioni sul nucleare e le fonti energetiche “alternative”.        

    Visto che mi han cancellato un commento sulla questione, perché considerato “trolloso”, lo ripropongo qui. nucleare o fonti energetiche alternative?La discussione era nata chiedendo pareri su questo video (che allego sotto, se volete guardarlo), realizzato dal Forum Nucleare Italiano.

    Sono riflessioni semplici su un argomento complesso, su cui un minimo ritengo di essere preparato: quindi o mi ribattete con i numeri ai numeri che ho proposto, altrimenti potete andarvene a fare in culo (solo che io non cancello i commenti; se poi eventuali discussioni degenerano, sono cazzi vostri, perché rimarrete fossilizzati e ignoranti).

    Visto il trattamento ricevuto (rimossi 2 post), non riporto né la conversazione integrale, né alcun credito nei confronti di chi l’ha iniziata/moderata. Riporto comunque un cordiale “vaffanculo”, quello sì.

    Questo il mio secondo intervento che è stato cancellato:


    Non è per nulla trolloso.
    Con le tecnologie attuali, per produrre 1.6 GW di potenza elettrica (l'equivalente di una centrale nucleare di attuale generazione) ti servono 8000000 metri quadri coperti di pannelli fotovoltaici (considerando 200W a metro quadro, che è comunque superiore a quanto vi vendono ora; nel corso degli anni, poi, il rendimento CALA).
    I pannelli fotovoltaici non sono fatti di biscotti e Nutella e, al termine del loro ciclo di vita, devono essere smaltiti.
    I materiali di cui sono fatti sono il silicio, più tutti i droganti (arsenico, gallio, boro, fosforo e praticamente tutta la tabella periodica).
    I fotovoltaici di "nuova generazione" seguiranno due strade:
    1) Utilizzare i processi produttivi dell'elettronica di consumo della "vecchia generazione", in modo da aumentare l'area coperta da celle solari (strada seguita da Intel).
    2) Pompare i sistemi di dissipazione del calore, ad esempio tramite miscele di metallo liquido basato su indio+gallio o affini (strada seguita da IBM). Che non è come un bicchiere di succo d'arancia.

    L'impatto ambientale per la loro produzione NON lo puoi trascurare, così come quello relativo al loro smaltimento.
    Sarò retrò, ma a me l'inquinamento da nanocosi buttati in un campo dall'idiota di turno spaventa più di quello da radioattivcosi stoccati dentro una montagna.

    Quindi, caro Giulio, prima di liquidare come trollata il problema dello smaltimento, ti chiedo cortesemente di informarti e verificare quanto ho riportato io (che penso comunque di saperne 2 righe).


    "Eh, ma ci sono altre fonti di produzione alternativa"...
    - Geotermico: COMPLETAMENTE sfruttato in Italia.
    - Idroelettrico: Completamente sfruttato. "Eh, ma il fosso vicino casa mia... Mica c'è la turbina!". PROBLEMA: Impatto ambientale. Se prendi come esempio la centrale idroelettrica sul lago di Cavazzo, qui vicino, ha il "piccolo" problema che ha abbassato la temperatura del lago. "Eh, ma chissenefrega". Bene, ciò ha avuto ripercussioni pesantissime sull'ecosistema circostante. E poi gli ambientalisti rompono.
    - Eolico: praticamente NESSUN progetto passa l'analisi di IMPATTO ambientale. "Eh, le multinazionali corrotte...". FALSO: Anche in questo caso, chi non sa cosa sia un Watt, perché quel giorno a scuola era impegnato a marinare, ma ha la pretesa di venirmi ad insegnare il lavoro perché l'ha detto Grillo, dimentica di fare il calcolo dei watt per metro quadro e la cementificazione dell'area corrispondente.
    E non ha mai sentito parlare di impatto acustico.
    - Biomasse: Eh, sì... Queste sì che sono pulite... mica come il gas o il petrolio... Ah, no, inquinano di più. Mi sono sbagliato.

    Per concludere, caro Vishquelcheè: una centrale ce la faranno al 95% QUI (a Monfalcone), perché siamo considerati alla stregua del Biafra. Quindi piantala di rompere trollando con 'sta storia della centrale nei pressi di casa e, se ti ritieni esperto di analisi di impatto ambientale, sentiti pure libero di citare qualche numero a supporto delle tue tesi.
    Altrimenti sono fuffa.


    Come promesso, segue il video.


              315,000-Year-Old Fossils From Morocco Could Be Earliest Recorded Homo Sapiens        
    A team of European and Moroccan scientists has found the fossil remains of five individuals who they believe are the most ancient modern humans (Homo sapiens) ever found. In a remote area of Morocco called Jebel Irhoud, in what was once a cave, the team found a skull, bones and teeth of five individuals who lived about 315,000 years ago. The scientists also found fairly sophisticated stone tools and charcoal, indicating the use of fire by this group. The researchers' claim is controversial, however, because anthropologists are still debating exactly what physical features distinguish modern humans from our more primitive ancestors. Archaic forms of humans — other, earlier species of Homo — emerged more than a million years ago. Exactly how and when our species — Homo sapiens — evolved is a mystery. Up to now, the oldest known bones widely recognized as Homo sapiens were from people who lived in East Africa about 200,000 years ago. The new discovery in Morocco would push the date for
              Environmentalists, Coal Companies Rally Around Technology To Clean Up Coal        
    Coal has long had a grip on American politics. That's why politicians worry about its fate. They tout the fossil fuel's contribution to the U.S. economy, but lately they've also been trying to find a way to clean up coal's image. President George W. Bush said in his 2008 State of the Union address, "Let us fund new technologies that can generate coal power while capturing carbon emissions" — emissions that contribute to global warming. That same year, candidate Barack Obama visited coal country in Virginia and said this about cleaner coal: "We figured out how to put a man on the moon in 10 years. You can't tell me we can't figure out how to burn coal that we mine right here in the United States of America and make it work. We can do that." And now President Trump is on board the coal train, saying recently: "My administration is putting an end to the war on coal. We're going to have clean coal, really clean coal." Right now, burning coal contributes more carbon dioxide to the
              Natural Gas Plant Makes A Play For Coal's Market, Using 'Clean' Technology        
    President Trump wants America to use more " clean coal " to make electricity. He hasn't elaborated on what kind of coal that might be. But there is, in fact, a way to capture and contain or reuse one of coal's worst pollutants — carbon dioxide, which warms the atmosphere. Though " carbon capture " has been slow to catch on among those who run coal-fired power plants (despite billions spent on research), entrepreneurs are now starting to adapt the technology for natural gas — coal's biggest competitor. Bill Brown , co-founder of the venture capital firm 8 Rivers Capital, in Durham, N.C., is one of those entrepreneurs. I met him on a construction site near Houston. He's a big guy in steel-toed boots and a hard hat, and he's got a big idea: Build a demonstration power plant that burns fossil fuels without dumping carbon dioxide into the air. "We're doing something that no one else has thought of before," he told me. Brown had a hard time persuading people to give him money to build the
              Fossil sees company share value slashed as times they are a changing        
    none
              How to divest from fossil fuels        
    What if you want to root out petroleum investments in your own life? Could you? Granted, your contribution may be small as ever, but divestment is picking up steam. It got name checked by the president during his now-legendary Sweaty Forehead Speech, and it’s getting attention from the mainstream media. Here’s The New York Times […]
               The first half of tetrapod evolution, sampling proxies, and fossil record quality         
    Benton, Michael J. and Ruta, Marcello and Dunhill, Alexander M. and Sakamoto, Manabu (2013) The first half of tetrapod evolution, sampling proxies, and fossil record quality. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 372 . pp. 18-41. ISSN 0031-0182
              Chu backpedals on call for higher gas prices (Too late)        
    What a difference a week makes for President Obama, as rising gas prices put more and more pressure on his administration. Last Tuesday at a news conference, the president insisted to Fox News that it was fallacy to think his team was in favor of higher gas prices to wean Americans off fossil fuels. "You think the president of the United States going into reelection wants gas prices to go up higher?" the president asked. "Is that -- is there anybody here who thinks that makes a lot of sense?" Fast forward to this week, when the president's Energy Secretary...
              Max 2013        
    Dags för årsbästalistorna, som vanligt så här års. Och precis som vanligt är det en kraftigt haltande lista - inte heller i år har jag lyckats konsumera lika delar ny litteratur, film, poesi och musik, men här kommer en sammanfattning av vad jag faktiskt har lyckats ta del av:

    LÃ¥tar

    Of Montreal - Fugitive air
    Quadron - Better off
    Haim - Falling
    Veronica Maggio - Jag lovar
    Kendrick Lamar - Poetic justice
    Lovers - Luxury
    Vampire Weekend - Step
    Julia Spada, Mack Beats - Lägg dig ner
    Icona Pop - Girlfriend
    Nicole Sabouné - I Surrender
    Drake - Started from the bottom
    Nord & Syd - En av er
    Håkan Hellström - När lyktorna tänds
    Steve Martin, Edie Brickell - When you get to Asheville
    Looptroop Rockers, Cleo - Hårt mot hårt
    Daniel Gilbert - Vipera Berus
    Peace - Float forever
    The Black Heart Rebellion - Ein Avdat
    Simone Dinnerstein, Tift Merritt - Night and dreams
    Emmylou Harris, Rodney Crowell - Hanging up my heart
    New Found Land - Nothing's ever been easier
    Daughter - Youth
    Samling - Varje sekund, varenda minut
    Cult of Luna - In awe of
    Solange - Some things never seem to fucking work
    Skogen Brinner - Pundarvarning
    James Blake - Overgrown
    Junip - Line of fire
    Kurt Vile - Pure Pain
    Britta Persson - Walk my bike
    Caitlin Rose - No one to call
    Iron & Wine - Caught in the briars
    Xenia Kriisin - Firearms
    Makthaverskan - Antabus
    Mattias Alkberg - Skända flaggan
    Rhye - Last Dance
    Laura Mvula - Is there anybody out there?
    Saturday Monday, Julia Spada - The Ocean
    Youth Lagoon - Mute
    Phosphorescent - Song for Zula
    Beach Fossils - Clash the truth
    Yo La Tengo  Ohm
    Matthew E. White - Will you love me
    The Embassy - I-D
    Klabbes Bank - Protect the forest
    A$AP Rocky - Long Live A$AP

    Skivor



    Laura Mvula - Sing to the moon



    Iron & Wine - Ghost on ghost



    Håkan Hellström - Det kommer aldrig va över för mig



    Quadron - Avalanche



    Matthew E White - Big Inner




    Simone Dinnerstein, Tift Merritt - Night


    Konserter

    Kendrick Lamar, Håkan Hellström, Beach House, Dungen - Way out West, aug 2013
    Matthew E White - Hornstull Strand, sep 2013
    IKI, Vi drar på jazzklubb, Nefertiti, nov 2013



    Böcker

    Jag har läst mycket skönlitteratur i år, men inte mycket nytt. En som förtjänar att nämnas är Helena Östlunds "Kari 1983", som är en mystisk och svårgreppad läsning med ständiga upprepningar, nästan helt utan interpunktion. Jag kan inte säga att jag älskade den, men den har stannat kvar i mitt medvetande. Maria Svelands "Hatet" är viktigt läsning inför 2014, annars har jag fått mina största kickar av Marguerite Duras och Vladimir Nabokov, men de är ju tyvärr borta sedan länge.

    Övrigt
    Bastudbad på Domarudden, Viasats Premier League-sändningar, Palestina-turné med besök på Taybeh Beer (Västbankens enda mikrobryggeri) i juni, semlor på POCK, Bibimbap på Arirang, spontan ölprovning på Hus 13 i Varberg dagen efter Ulf Lundells spelning, handboll i Hamburg, IS Halmias damers serievinst och efterföljande avancemang till elitettan.

              Heartland Institute NIPCC Climate Denier Craig Idso: “Climate Change Is Good For You”        

    This is a guest post by Kert Davies, cross-posted with permission from Climate Investigations Center.

    This week the Heartland Institute will release another chapter of its NIPCC, the “not the IPCC” document that will tell you the opposite of the main message that’s been coming from the prestigious IPCC, namely that climate change is a threat to security, food and mankind and especially a threat to the world's poor, along with ecosystems worldwide including coral reefs, polar regions, and the wildlife and myriad of creatures these ecosystems support.

    Heartland Institute on the other hand, in its NIPCC “Climate Change Reconsidered II: the Biological Impacts” document, will say that climate change is good for the world, will have a net benefit for both plants and human health. This is the latest line run by right wing think tanks like Heartland, the coal industry’s ACCCE coalition, Peabody Coal, the American Legislative Exchange Council, and echoed across the blogosphere by climate deniers.

    This set of messaging and all 'reports' to back this line, all appear to be coming from one organization, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, and specifically from its chairman and former president, Craig Idso, one of the NIPCC’s lead authors, who has been arguing the same “C02 is beneficial” line for nearly 20 years, along with his father, Sherwood Idso.

    Background

    Craig Idso, his father Sherwood B. Idso, and brother Keith Idso, founded Arizona-based organization in 1998.

    The Center's claimed mission is to “separate reality from rhetoric in the emotionally-charged debate that swirls around the subject of carbon dioxide and global change.” Its main publication is CO2 Science, a weekly magazine that features articles questioning the science verifying man-made climate change and its impacts.

    In 2012, leaked documents from the Heartland Institute revealed that they were paying Craig Idso $11,600 a month for his NIPCC work.  We do not know how much Idso has been paid since that time, or prior.

    The organization’s total funding peaked in 2009 at $1.5 million a year. Funders have included ExxonMobil (total, $100,000 since 1998), Donors Trust, Sarah Scaife Foundation and a number of other right wing funders. See Conservative Transparency for a recent (but not full) breakdown. The Center's IRS 990’s are here at Citizen Audit.

    Publications produced by Craig Idso, with members of C02Science,org:

    After founding the organisation, Idso got his PhD in geography at Arizona State University under the tutelage of one of the very early climate deniers employed by the fossil fuel industry, Robert C Balling Jr.

    More resources at DeSmogBlog:  Craig Idso; Sherwood Idso

    Idso, the Greening Earth Society and the Western Fuels Association

    Robert Balling, Idso's mentor, was one of the leading scientists paid by the Greening Earth Society, the climate science-denying front group created by the Western Fuels Association, one of the first and earliest coal industry groups funding the denial of climate change. But the coal industry's line was not 'climate denial' but 'climate change is good for you'.  The Western Fuels Association is a cooperative of utilities and power companies supplying coal from the Powder River Basin in the western U.S.

    Robert Balling was one of the seven scientists deployed by Western Fuels in the 1990s to challenge the prevailing consensus in climate science. Other names included some who are still on the core climate denial team today: Willie Soon and Patrick Michaels.

    It was the Greening Earth Society for which Craig and Keith Idso penned a paper in 1995: “The Greening of the American West: The Atmosphere’s Rising CO2 Concentration Is Stimulating Woody Plant Growth in the U.S. Forests, Grasslands, and Deserts.”

    Idso, Fred Palmer and Peabody Coal

    From its inception, the Chair and CEO of the Western Fuels Association and the Greening Earth Society was Fred Palmer, who was also a registered lobbyist for the Western Fuels Association, a coalition of utility and coal companies.

    Palmer is now the Senior Vice President of Government Relations at Peabody Energy (Peabody Coal). (Guardian backgrounder 2011), and was in the media in 2010 leading the charge for “green coal.”  He chaired the World Coal Association from 2010 to 2012.   Peabody is behind the recent climate denial hub “Advanced Energy for Life” campaign, working with Burson Marsteller as revealed by Climate Investigations Center.

    From 2001-2002, Craig Idso served as Director of Environmental Science at Peabody Energy in St. Louis, MO.  This was to set up the long relationship with the company that continues to this day.

    Idso and ACCCE Tout the Social Benefits of Carbon

    The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE) is an industry group promoting coal, of which Peabody coal is a key corporate member.

    There is a major fight heating up at the State and Federal level on how we set what the government calls the Social Cost of Carbon, a metric calculated by the Government on the harm carbon (C02) does the economy, to our health and to the planet. These social costs range from the medical bills and lost workdays (when a mother has to take her asthmatic child to the hospital), all the way to the impact of sea level rise on coastal communities.

    In 2013, the EPA recalculated the social cost of carbon and increased the figure to  $35 per metric ton, up from $21. 

    ACCCE and Peabody Coal retaliated by questioning why the Obama EPA didn’t included analysis of the benefits of CO2, enhancing agriculture, for instance.

    As part of this argument, ACCCE released a report in January, entitled “The Social Costs of Carbon. No, the Social Benefits of Carbon” claiming the government is vastly underestimating the social benefits of coal as well as the benefits from the carbon dioxide pollution produced by burning that coal, including enhancing photosynthesis and agricultural productivity. DeSmogBlog has more details.

    Footnotes of the report reveal ACCCE commissioned Craig Idso to undertake a study that appears to be a rehash of the work he has done for 20 years.  Idso's contracted study, titled “The Positive Externalities of Carbon Dioxide,” which makes up a large part of Chapter III of the ACCCE “Social Benefits” report.

    Idso and ALEC

    Idso’s “benefits of C02” was also a topic at the 2011 American Legislative Exchange Council Annual meeting. According to Sourcewatch, he spoke at a workshop of state legislators that was to be titled “Warming Up to Climate Change: The Many Benefits of Increased Atmospheric CO2.” The title was later changed to “Benefit Analysis of CO2”.

    Idso was joined in that workshop by two other speakers and fellow climate skeptics, Roger Helmer and Robert Ferguson.[8]

    ALEC has also used that same “CO2 is beneficial” line in submissions to the EPA.  

    Idso told the audience that we “should let CO2 rise unrestricted, without government intervention”, a very different recommendation than that emanating from the IPCC and the vast majority of the world's climate scientists.
     

    Image credit: Head in the sand like an ostrich via Shutterstock.


              Heartland Institute        

    The Heartland Institute

    Background

    The Heartland Institute is a Chicago-based free market think tank and 501(c)(3) charity that has been at the forefront of denying the scientific evidence for man-made climate change. The Heartland Institute has received at least $676,500 from ExxonMobil since 1998 but no longer discloses its funding sources. The Union of Concerned Scientists found (PDF) that “Nearly 40% of the total funds that the Heartland Institute has received from ExxonMobil since 1998 were specifically designated for climate change projects.” [1]

    David Padden founded The Heartland Institute in 1984 and served as its Chairman between 1984 and 1995, co-chairing with Joseph Bast. Padden was also one of the original members of the Board of Directors of the Cato Institute. Padden, a Chicago, IL-based investment banker and then owner of Padden & Company, passed away in October 2011. [13]

    Padden also served on the original Board of Directors of another organization founded that year, Citizens for a Sound Economy, which later split into two groups, FreedomWorks and Americans for Prosperity (AFP). The Cato Institute and both of these organizations received their initial seed money from Koch Industries. [14]

    According to a July 2011 Nature editorial,

    “Despite criticizing climate scientists for being overconfident about their data, models and theories, the Heartland Institute proclaims a conspicuous confidence in single studies and grand interpretations… . makes many bold assertions that are often questionable or misleading. … Many climate skeptics seem to review scientific data and studies not as scientists but as attorneys, magnifying doubts and treating incomplete explanations as falsehoods rather than signs of progress towards the truth. … The Heartland Institute and its ilk are not trying to build a theory of anything. They have set the bar much lower, and are happy muddying the waters.” [15]

    2012 Heartland Document Leak

    In 2012, leaked documents revealed some of the Heartland Institute's initiatives and climate change strategy including a tailored high school curriculum. As reported at the New York Times, (“Leak Offers Glimpse of Campaign Against Climate Science”) the Heartland Institute would have help from the Charles G. Koch Foundation to “cast doubt on the scientific finding that fossil fuel emissions endanger the long-term welfare of the planet.”  

    The documents also discussed “Operation Angry Badger,” which the New York Times described as “a plan to spend $612,000 to influence the outcome of recall elections and related fights … in Wisconsin over the role of public-sector unions.” [2], [3]

    Heartland has promoted itself using a partial quote from The Economist that describes Heartland as “the world's most prominent think-tank promoting scepticism about man-made climate change.” However, the full paragraph in The Economist's 2012 article provides a more complete picture: “The Heartland Institute, the world's most prominent think-tank promoting scepticism about man-made climate change, is getting a lot of heat.”

    Heartland lost an estimated $825,000 in expected donations, a number of directors and almost its entire branch in Washington, DC shortly after putting up a billboard comparing those who believed in man-made global warming to the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski. At its annual meeting in Chicago, the institute's president, Joseph Bast, said Heartland had 'discovered who our real friends are.' The 100-odd guests who failed to show up for the '7th Climate Conference' were not among them.” [4], [5]

    Heartland Institute and Tobacco

    In the 1990s, the Heartland Institute worked with the tobacco company Philip Morris to question the science linking second-hand smoke to health risks, and lobbied against government public health reforms. Heartland continues to maintain a “Smoker's Lounge” section of their website which brings together their policy studies, Op-Eds, essays, and other documents that purport to “[cut] through the propaganda and exaggeration of anti-smoking groups.” [6]

    In a 1998 op-ed, former Heartland president Joe Bast claimed that “moderate” smoking doesn't raise lung cancer risks, and that there were  “few, if any, adverse health effects” associated with smoking. In a fundraising letter to Phillip Morris, Bast wrote to a Phillip Morris executive  that “Heartland does many things that benefit Philip Morris’s bottom line, things that no other organization does.” Later, in 2014 Bast denied that he had claimed cigarettes were not harmful, until confronted with his own op-ed. [7], [182], [8]

    Roy Marden, past Corporate Affairs Policy Analyst and Manager of Industry Affairs at Philip Morris, served as a board member at the Heartland Institute from 1996 until 2008. According to Heartland, “The public health community's campaign to demonize smokers and all forms of tobacco is based on junk science.” Joseph Bast, current President and CEO, was a strong defender of RJ Reynolds brand Camel's “Joe Camel” campaign, which some have argued (here, and here, for example)  targeted younger children. [9], [10], [11], [12]

    Incoming President Tim Huelskamp

    In June, 2017, The Heartland Institute announced Kansas Rep. Tim Huelskamp would be replacing Joe Bast as president, to begin working starting July, 2017. Bast said he would remain with Heartland as CEO until some time in 2018. [182]

    Huelskamp is former chairman of the Tea Party Caucus and a member of the far-right House Freedom Caucus. Huelskamp maintains a lifetime score of 5% with the League of Conservation Voters, with a score of 0% in 2016. A full list of legislation sponsored or cosponsored by Huelskamp is available at Congress.gov. According to his voting record tracked at OnTheIssues, Huelskamp has consistently voted against any legislation that would combat fossil fuel emissions or climate change. [183], [184], [185], [186]

    According to data from OpenSecrets, Huelskamp's top donor is Koch Industries and he has received the highest lifetime campaign contributions from the Oil and Gas industry, totally over one-quarter of a million dollars. Below are career totals added up by OpenSecrets. [187], [188]

    Industry Total Contributor Total Indivs PACs
    Oil & Gas $252,393 Koch Industries $40,900 $3,400 $37,500
    Retired $209,441 Watco Companies $36,200 $36,200 $0
    Crop Production & Basic Processing $196,178 American Bankers Assn $35,000 $0 $35,000
    Republican/Conservative $167,254 B&G Production $34,400 $34,400 $0
    Leadership PACs $152,163 House Freedom Fund $34,025 $250 $33,775
    Health Professionals $124,755 National Assn of Home Builders $32,500 $0 $32,500
    Misc Manufacturing & Distributing $102,850 Russell Stover Candies $32,200 $32,200 $0
    Commercial Banks $93,600 Vess Oil Corp $30,000 $30,000 $0
    Real Estate $75,310 Hodgdon Powder $28,700 $28,700 $0
    Railroads $67,848 Onyx Collection $25,500 $25,500 $0
    Agricultural Services/Products $65,700 KMG Tool $24,400 $24,400 $0
    General Contractors $59,647 Berexco Inc $23,700 $23,700 $0
    Food & Beverage $59,550 National Auto Dealers Assn $22,500 $0 $22,500
    Home Builders $58,900 Citizens United $22,000 $0 $22,000
    Securities & Investment $55,286 Every Republican is Crucial PAC $20,000 $0 $20,000
    Misc Finance $53,250 AT&T Inc $19,500 $500 $19,000
    Livestock $51,025 American Medical Assn $19,000 $1,000 $18,000
    Insurance $50,613 National Assn of Realtors $19,000 $0 $19,000
    Retail Sales $44,700 Ariel Corp $18,900 $18,900 $0
    Lawyers/Law Firms $42,422 Ag Services $18,250 $18,250 $0

    Tim Huelskamp also a signatory to Americans for Prosperity's “No Climate Tax” pledge. The pledge reads as follows:[189]

    “I, ________________, pledge to the American people that I will oppose any legislation relating to climate change that includes a net increase in government revenue”

    He also told HuffPost that he didn't believe that climate change was “settled “science.” [190]

    “I don’t think there’s a scientific consensus on that,” Huelskamp said. “If you want to print that life begins at conception, that’s settled science.”

    Stance on Climate Change

    “Probably two-thirds of the warming in the 1990s was due to natural causes; the warming trend already has stopped and forecasts of future warming are unreliable; and the benefits of a moderate warming are likely to outweigh the costs.

    “Global warming, in other words, is not a crisis.” [16]

    “You may also know us from our work exposing the shoddy science and missing economics behind the global warming delusion. Our videos, books, studies, and international conferences changed the debate and led to the defeat of 'cap and trade.'” [17]

    “Some environmentalists call for a 'save-the-day' strategy to 'stop global warming,' saying it is better to be safe than sorry. Such a position seems logical until we stop to think: Immediate action wouldn't make us any safer, but it would surely make us poorer. And being poorer would make us less safe.” [18]
    “Unfortunately, global warming is an issue that is well suited to political demagoguery, which can be defined as pandering to misinformed voters and promising unrealistic solutions. Since opinion polls indicate a majority of the public believes warming is happening, politicians might think the safe strategy is to say 'I believe global warming is a serious problem and I support measures to reduce global warming pollution by supporting renewable fuels and energy efficiency.' Such politicians should be 'outed' for claiming to be smarter than scientists who have studied climate for many years and for using scare tactics to win elections.” [19]
    “There is no consensus about the causes, effects, or future rate of global warming.” [20]

    Funding

    501(c)(3) Charitable Status

    According to Heartland in 2011, “Approximately 1,800 supporters support an annual budget of $6 million. Heartland does not accept government funding. Contributions are tax-deductible under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.” As of June 2015, that number has increased to 8,300 supporters, (budget remains listed at $6 million). [21], [22]

    Computer scientist John Mashey filed a complaint in 2012 with the IRS questioning Heartland's charitable status: 

    “I believe there was a massive abuse of 501c(3),” Mashey said. “My extensive study of these think tanks showed numerous specific actions that violated the rules – such as that their work is supposed to be factually based. Such as there was a whole lot of behavior that sure looked like lobbying and sending money to foreign organizations that are not charities.” [23]

    Mashey's 2012 report on the Heartland Institute (see PDF) also examines the finances and actions of other organizations including the Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP), and the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (CDCDGC).

    According to his report (p. 39), the Heartland Institute has received roughly $395,000 from the tobacco company Philip Morris.

    Heartland no longer reveals their individual donors, they explain, because “listing our donors in this way allowed people who disagree with our views to accuse us of being 'paid' by specific donors to take positions in public policy debates, something we never do. After much deliberation and with some regret, we now keep confidential the identities of all our donors.” [24]

    Greenpeace's ExxonSecrets reports that the Heartland Institute has received $676,500 from ExxonMobil since 1998. Greenpeace also reports that Heartland received at least $55,000 from Koch Industries. [25], [26]

    990 Forms

    Heartland Institute as Recipient

    The following is based on data from the Conservative Transparency project and from publicly available 990 forms. Not all funding values have been verified by DeSmogBlog. [27]

    See the attached spreadsheet for additional information on Heartland Institute funding by year (.xlsx).  [27]

    Donor Total Contributions
    Donors Capital Fund $19,310,544
    Mercer Family Foundation $5,088,000
    The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $1,215,500
    Barbara and Barre Seid Foundation $1,037,977
    Dunn's Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking $830,000
    DonorsTrust $632,000
    Exxon Mobil $531,500
    Walton Family Foundation $400,000
    Chase Foundation of Virginia $364,500
    Sarah Scaife Foundation $325,000
    Searle Freedom Trust $300,000
    American Action Network $300,000
    Barney Family Foundation1 $280,000
    Friedman Foundation For Educational Choice $205,100
    Jaquelin Hume Foundation $201,000
    The Rodney Fund $194,000
    Charlotte and Walter Kohler Charitable Trust $190,500
    Stuart Family Foundation $175,000
    Ed Uihlein Family Foundation $150,000
    The McWethy Foundation $125,000
    Castle Rock Foundation $110,000
    PhRMA $90,000
    JM Foundation $82,000
    Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation $62,578
    Armstrong Foundation $60,000
    National Association of Manufacturers $52,500
    John William Pope Foundation $50,000
    Windway Foundation $47,000
    Arthur N. Rupe Foundation $44,000
    Robert P. Rotella Foundation $42,500
    The Roe Foundation $41,500
    Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation $40,000
    John M. Olin Foundation $40,000
    American Petroleum Institute $25,000
    Hickory Foundation $23,000
    The Robertson-Finley Foundation $18,000
    Woodhouse Family Foundation $12,500
    The Carthage Foundation $10,000
    Deramus Foundation2 $10,000
    The Challenge Foundation $6,000
    Foundation for Economic Education $255
    Grand Total $32,722,454

    1Has funded to DonorsTrust, a group that has distributed over $80 million to conservative causes, many of which deny man-made climate change.

    2Has funded Philanthropy Roundtable, a spinoff of DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund. They all operate in a similar way to cloak the identity of donors by having donations under the name of DonorsTrust, Donors Capital Fund, or Philanthropy Roundtable.

    Heartland Institute as Donor

    Heartland Institute donations are listed on their 990 forms up to the year 2010. Current values are not available. [27], [28]

    Recipient Total
    Shimer College $500,000
    Moving Picture Institute $250,000
    Texas Public Policy Foundation $100,000
    Americans for Prosperity Foundation $50,000
    Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy $50,000
    Evergreen Freedom Foundation $50,000
    Maine Heritage Policy Center $50,000
    James Madison Institute $50,000
    International Climate Science Coalition $45,000
    Galen Institute $43,000
    Alabama Policy Institute $40,000
    Free Enterprise Education Institute $25,000
    Africa Fighting Malaria $25,000
    Frontier Centre for Public Policy $25,000
    Kansas Taxpayers Network $25,000
    New Zealand Climate Science Coalition $25,000
    Natural Resources Stewardship Project $25,000
    Council for Affordable Health Insurance $20,000
    Science & Environmental Policy Project $15,000
    South Carolina Policy Council $10,000
    Grand Total $1,423,000

    Koch Funding

    According to Greenpeace USA, Koch Foundations contributed $55,000 to the Heartland Institute between 1997 and 2011. [26]

    *Original tax forms prior to 1997 are no longer available for verification. If you include these values, the grand total jumps to $100,000 in Koch funding from 1987 to 2011. [26]

    Year Charles Koch Foundation Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation Grand Total
    *1987 $5,000 $5,000
    *1988 $5,000 $5,000
    *1989 $5,000 $5,000
    *1992 $10,000 $10,000
    *1995 $10,000 $10,000
    *1996 $10,000 $10,000
    1997 $10,000 $10,000
    1998 $10,000 $10,000
    1999 $10,000 $10,000
    2011 $25,000 $25,000
    Grand Total $60,000 $40,000 $100,000

    The Heartland Institute's leaked 2012 Fundraising Plan states that “The Charles G. Koch Foundation returned as a Heartland Donor in 2011. We expect to ramp up their level of support in 2012 and gain access to the network of philanthropists they work with.”

    However, the Foundation since released the following statement: “… the Charles Koch Foundation provided $25,000 to the Heartland Institute in 2011 for research in healthcare, not climate change, and this was the first and only donation the Foundation made to the institute in more than a decade. The Foundation has made no further commitments of funding to Heartland.” [29]

    Donors Capital Fund/DonorsTrust

    Donors Capital Fund (DCF) and its partner organization DonorsTrust allow donors to fund organizations anonymously. They appear to be a spinoff of the Philanthropy Roundtable, a group run by Whitney Ball, who also launched DonorsTrust.

    The Heartland Institute has received large anonymous donations through DCF and DonorsTrust, with a combined total of at least $15,391,794.

    See p. 58 of the 2012 Mashey Report for more details.John Mashey also covers DCF on page 65 of his 2012 report. According to DCF's website, “Donors Capital Fund is an IRS-approved, 501(c)(3), 509(a)(3) supporting organization that is associated with DonorsTrust, a public charity and donor-advised fund formed to safeguard the charitable intent of donors who are dedicated to the ideals of limited government, personal responsibility, and free enterprise.”


    DonorsTrust refers clients to Donors Capital Fund if they expect to open donor-advised funds of over $1,000,000. [30]

    DonorsTrust

    DonorsTrust contributed at least $631,250 between 2008 and 2012 to the Heartland Institute: [31]

    Source 990 forms:

    Year Project
    2008 general operations $11,750
    2009 general operations $1,000
    general operations $1,000
    general operations $3,000
    general operations $5,000
    “advertising in response to organization's emphasis on marketing of research.” $6,500
    general operations $500,000
    Total $516,500
    2010 general operations $250
    general operations $1,000
    general operations $1,000
    Total $2,250
    2012 Seventh International Conference on Climate Change $100,000
    general operations $250
    general operations $500
    Total $100,750
    Grand Total $631,250

    Donors Capital Fund

    From 2005 to 2013, DCF contributed at least $14,760,544 to the Heartland Institute (possibly more, as some details are missing from 2006's 990): [32]

    Source 990 forms:

    Year Project
    2005 Individual projects not listed. $550,427
    2007 Individual projects not listed. $2,955,437
    2008 general operations $2,000,000
    “the global warming research project” $900,000
    “media materials” $100,000
    “staff directed research” $126,000
    “final installment of three-year general ops support” $1,300,000
    “global warming research projects” $184,000
    Total $4,610,000
    2009 “CORE” $10,590
    “G.W. reporting for one year” $150,000
    “health care project” $190,000
    “Ranthum, Australia and Old projects” $300,000
    general operations $400,000
    $620,940 for “GW-end” and $500,000 for annual support $1,120,940
    Total $2,171,530
    2010 for the organization's India Meeting Project $14,150
    general operations $1,650,000
    Total $1,664,150
    2011 $49,000 for the NIPCC/Climate Change Project and $80,000 for School Choice in TX $129,000
    2012 general operations $1,000,000
    2013 for Climatism books & DVD projects $100,000
    for the Sri Fi Project ($60,000) and the  New Zealand Project ($20,000) $80,000
    general operations $1,500,000
    Total $1,680,000
    Grand Total $14,760,544

    Anonymous Donor

    One Anonymous Donor has contributed a large percentage of Heartland's budget in past years, with a focus on their global warming projects.

    According to the Heartland 2012 Fundraising Plan, the Anonymous Donor made the following contributions from 2007-2011:

    Project 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
    General Operating $500,000 $500,000 $500,000 $700,000 $350,000
    Ramp Up Program $800,000 $800,000 $400,000 $0 $0
    Global Warming Projects $1,976,937 $3,300,000 $1,732,180 $964,150 $629,000
    Health Care $0 $0 $190,000 $0 $0
    School Reform $0 $0 $0 $0 $80,000
    Total $3,276,937 $4,600,000 $2,822,180 $1,664,150 $979,000

    Illinois auditor reports for 2003-2009 reveal that a single donor (possibly the same individual as the “Anonymous Donor”) contributed the following percentages of outstanding accounts receivable in those years (also see p. 56 of John Mashey's report):

    2004 (PDF — See p. 27) — 74% contributed by two donors.

    2005 (PDF — See p. 32) — 74% from one donor.

    2006 (PDF — See p. 33) — 25% from one individual.

    2007 (PDF — See p. 32) — 38% fr

              Growth Patterns: From 100 Million Times Six, to Mood in the Summer Season of 2015         

    When it comes to geologic time scales, 600 million years is a big span. As in, long enough to accommodate the life cycle of every carbon-based life form in the entire fossil record. That is indeed the ambition of the just-published lead article in The Socionomist...


              Magical May        
    Good morning Darlings
     At the beginning of May I went of a little trip to Dorset. I wanted to show you all the cutesy pictures,as they still make we feel warm and fuzzy!


    Lulworth cove
     Lovely Lulworth
    Forget-me-nots
     
     Corfe Castle
     Swanage steam railway
    Luggage at the station

    Dorset is such a lovely place to visit and is steeped in so much history.
    If you are an Enid Blyton fan then Corfe Castle and the Swanage railway is for you. 
    If you are more of a fossil hunter then Lulworth and the surrounding jurrasic coast is what you are looking for. 

    Sometimes you really can't beat a holiday in dear ol' Blighty!

    Love, Pins. X

              Monumental, unsustainable environmental impacts        
    CFACT Senior Policy Analyst Paul Driessen explains the huge costs and inefficiencies of replacing fossil fuels with wind, solar, and biomass fuels.
              What Does Fossil Fuel Divestment Mean For Texas?        
    “I think it is worth asking ourselves as a society how much longer we think we need to have an oil economy.” — Michael Webber, UT Energy Institute This week in New York, the UN Climate Summit is underway, and the Rockefeller Foundation made news with the announcement that it will divest close to a billion dollars from fossil [...]
              Comment on Westgate Mall; Madison, Wisconsin by Daniel        
    I remember going to this mall in the mid nineties(can't believe it's been 20 years!) when there was actually people in it. I remember going into the fossil store and playing with all of the rocks and buying some geodes there. One time I was watching kids doing karate at Karate America with my father while we were waiting for my mom and sister. I think the fossils and relics store moved to a different storefront, I thought they used to be by the carpeted area if I recall correctly and not by the Milios. I saw the movie daylight in the movie theater back in 1996 and even though the screens were small I still remember the movie fairly well. They sold concessions and I think I had some sort of candy when I saw it. It's strange to think of all the memories of this place back when it was a happening place to be, and now when I walked through it a few months ago it's sad to see the memories dying with this place. The Rocky's has been there for as long as I can remember but on my most recent trip I saw that even the Milios isn't there anymore. How much longer can this mall go on for until they say enough is enough? Some of the pictures make the mall look bigger than what it really is until I walked through it again myself. They put mirrors in the main lobby when you walk in to make it seem larger than what it really is. It's also sad to see the directory pretty much empty. I wish someone would take a camcorder and walk through the entire mall just one final time to see the entire mall and post it on YouTube so everyone can see it before it shuts it's doors for good.
              Home Solar Panels - Should I Install a Home Solar Panel? (Sure, and Here's Why)        
    War, financial crisis and environmental destruction have created stress for millions. At the core of all of these conflicts is energy-its price cycle dictates much of our economy, we import much of it from hostile parts of the world and burning fossil fuels is destroying our natural habitat. Home solar panels offer an individualized, reliable, green source of energy that can save and even make you money.
              Solar Panel Kits - Are They Really Worth It? (Looking at All the Facts)        
    It has become increasingly clear that humanity faces an energy crisis. The most common sources for our energy - fossil fuels - are environmentally destructive and increasingly scarce. Solar energy offers the alternative of generating your own power from the same clean source as all life on Earth: the sun.
              amber teething necklaces        
    The amber beads from Baltic regions become the most popular as well as the best type of fossilized pine tree resin for their highest percentage of succinic acid, the key property which provides pain relieving solution for baby and stress relief for adults.
              Today's Alternative Fuel Car Benefits * Fuel Savers.        
    Discover Today's Alternative Fuel Car Advantages * Fuel Savers

    How 2 Save Fuel ( http://how2savefuel.com ) a a company with its base in the San Fernando Valley town of Northridgecompany is continuously moving towards converting vehicles to hydrogen in an innovativeand unique way. What they do is revolutionary, a stupendous step in the right direction, the most expert hydrogen hybrid solution on the market and an answer which is cheap.

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars have been in the public range of vision for some number of years now, however we still don't see them on our streets and highways. The notion of utilizing hydrogen as see them on could very possibly be the long term remedysolution, but storing hydrogen on board is an unworkable idea. Big fuel cells that put forth chemical disposal problems and the exigencyfor expensive infrastructure with hydrogen fueling service stations has cast genuine doubt on the actuality of ever seeing cars, trucks and suvs that run strictly on hydrogen occup our streets and highways.

    How 2 Save Fuel (How2SaveFuel.Com), a Northridge, California established company is steadily moving towards the idea of converting fuel to hydrogen in a different manner.

    Rather than exposing automobile owners to the hazards of carrying supplies of hydrogen on board their vehicles, their patent pending technology generates hydrogen which automobiles to hydrogen in the fuel mix promptly. How2SaveFuel.Com economically converts pre-existing vehicles to environmentally friendly hybrids one vehicle at a time with a system that extracts the hydrogen on demand from a reservoir of distilled water

    Benefits
    To begin with, mpg improves completely on hydrogen hybrid system is installed. The improvement deviate broadly, but an average of 25 to 35% mpg boost is normal Additionally, consumers notice an increase in horsepower and torque. A dynamometer test run recently on a 1989 Ford F250 Truck increased the horsepower from 181.75 to 188.75 and the torque from 266.20 ft pounds to 293.53. That equates to 7 more horsepower and 27.33 more foot pounds of torque.

    But perhaps the biggest advance for all of us, markedly pronounced on older vehicle torque.is a startling lessening in toxic vehicular emissions.

    The advance on a tested Ford F250 was over a one third decrease in nitrous emissions and carbon emission went down to nothing, and this Ford's "before" scores were within the passng numbers. This is a great solution for environmentalists and all of the rest of us.

    With all the benefits of improved gas mileage, more power and torque and less toxic emissions which will lead to a reduction of dependence upon imported fossil fuels it is obvious that what How2SaveFuel.Com is doing will become the normal power configuration for the generations to come to save fuel.

    Today's Alternative Fuel Car Advantages * Fuel Savers For more information visit their website or contact Alex Rivera - Founder at (818) 882-1189.


              Today's Alternative Fuel Car Benefits * Fuel Savers.        
    Discover Alternative Fuel Cars * Fuel Sipping Cars

    How 2 Save Fuel ( http://how2savefuel.com ) a a company with its base in the San Fernando Valley town of Northridgecompany is steadily nearing converting vehicles to hydrogen in a new and inventive manner. What they are doing is revolutionary, a mighty motion in the right direction, the most professional hydrogen hybrid solution on the market and an answer which is reasonably priced.

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars have been in the public range of vision for a number of years now, still we still don't see them on the streets. The notion of utilizing hydrogen as a clean burning fuel is might just be the long term answer, but storing hydrogen on board is an unwise idea. Big fuel cells that put forth chemical disposal hazards and the requisitefor high-priced infrastructure with hydrogen fueling service stations has cast solemn dubiousness on the validity of ever seeing cars, trucks and suvs that run strictly on hydrogen occup our roads.

    How 2 Save Fuel (How2SaveFuel.Com), a Northridge, California based company is steadily providing the idea of upgrading fuel to hydrogen in a innovativestyle.

    Rather than exposing automobile owners to the hazards of carrying supplies of hydrogen on board their vehicles, their patent pending technology generates hydrogen which automobiles to hydrogen in the fuel mix instantaneously. How2SaveFuel.Com economically converts pre-existing vehicles to environmentally friendly hybrids one vehicle at a time with a system that extracts the hydrogen on demand from a reservoir of distilled water

    Benefits
    To begin with, gas mileage increases when a How2SaveFuel.Com hydrogen hybrid system is installed. The amounts range considerably, but an average of 25 to 35% mpg boost is commonplace Additionally, consumers notice an increase in horsepower and torque. A dynamometer test run recently on a 1989 Ford F250 Truck increased the horsepower from 181.75 to 188.75 and the torque from 266.20 ft pounds to 293.53. That equates to 7 more horsepower and 27.33 more foot pounds of torque.

    But possibly the biggest boost for all of us, especially pronounced on older vehicle torque.is a powerful reduction in toxic vehicular emissions.

    The advance on a tested Ford F250 result in less waste, decrease in nitrous emissions and carbon emission dove down to zero, and this vehicle's "before" results were in the range considered acceptable. This is a great solution for environmentalists and all of the rest of us.

    But with the "side-benefits" of increased gas mileage (mpg) and horsepower which also point to future diminished reliance upon fossil fuel from other countries it is obvious that what How2SaveFuel.Com is doing will become the normal power configuration for the generations to come to save fuel.

    Alternative Fuel Cars * Fuel Sipping Cars For more information visit their website or contact Alex Rivera - Founder at (818) 882-1189.


              Today's Alternative Fuel Automobile Benefits * Fuel Savers .        
    Discover Today's Alternative Fuel Automobile Benefits * Fuel Savers .

    How 2 Save Fuel ( http://how2savefuel.com ) a company located in Northridge, CAcompany is continuously nearing converting cars to hydrogen in an excitingly freshand unique fashion. What they do is revolutionary, a mighty motion in the right direction, the most expert hydrogen hybrid solution presently available and a solution which is reasonably priced.

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars have been in the public panorama for a number of years now, nonetheless we still don't see them on the streets. The notion of utilizing hydrogen as see them on may very well be the long term answer, but storing hydrogen on board is an unfeasible idea. Large fuel cells that present chemical disposal problems and the exigencyfor high-priced infrastructure with hydrogen fueling stations has cast severe apprehension on the actuality of ever seeing hydrogen cars riding on our streets and highways.

    How 2 Save Fuel (How2SaveFuel.Com), a Northridge, California headquartered company is steadily providing the idea of converting fuel to hydrogen in a specialstyle.

    Instead of creating new problems by introducing the hazards of having hydrogen on board vehicles in a compresed fashion their patent pending technology generates hydrogen which automobiles to hydrogen in the fuel mix instantly.

    Benefits
    To begin with, mpg increases run completely on hydrogen hybrid system is installed. The improvement range widely, but an average of 25 to 35% mpg boost is commonplace Additionally, consumers notice an increase in horsepower and torque. A dynamometer test run recently on a 1989 Ford F250 Truck increased the horsepower from 181.75 to 188.75 and the torque from 266.20 ft pounds to 293.53. That equates to 7 more horsepower and 27.33 more foot pounds of torque.

    But possibly the greatest advance for all of us, markedly notable on older vehicle engines, is a powerful reduction in toxic vehicular emissions.

    The advantage on a tested Ford F250 result in less waste, decrease in nitrous emissions and carbon emission went down to nada, and this vehicle's "before" scores were within the passng numbers. This is great news for all, whether you believe in climate change or global warming or not since we can all agree less pollution would be a good thing

    But with the "side-benefits" of increased gas mileage (mpg) and horsepower which will lead to a reduction of dependence upon imported fossil fuels it is obvious that what How2SaveFuel.Com is doing will become the normal power configuration for the generations to come to save fuel.

    {For more information visit their website at How To Save Fuell| To discover more about how to save fuel or contact Alex Rivera - Founder at (818) 882-1189.


              Today's Alternative Fuel Automobile Benefits * Fuel Savers .        
    Discover Today's Alternative Fuel Automobile Benefits * Fuel Savers .

    How 2 Save Fuel ( http://how2savefuel.com ) a a company with its base in the San Fernando Valley town of Northridgecompany is continuously approaching converting vehicles to hydrogen in an innovativeand different manner. What they do is revolutionary, a stupendous step in the right direction, the most professional hydrogen hybrid solution available and a solution which is affordable.

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars have been in the public field of vision for a number of years now, but we still don't see them on the streets. The idea of making use of hydrogen as on may very well be the long term answer, but storing hydrogen on board is an unwise idea. Large fuel cells that put forth chemical disposal problems and the exigencyfor costly infrastructure with hydrogen fueling service stations has cast serious apprehension on the reality of ever seeing hydrogen cars populate our roads.

    How 2 Save Fuel (How2SaveFuel.Com), a Northridge, California established company is steadily moving towards the idea of converting fuel to hydrogen in a uniquestyle.

    Rather than exposing automobile owners to the hazards of carrying supplies of hydrogen on board their vehicles, their patent pending technology generates hydrogen which automobiles to hydrogen in the fuel mix instantly. How2SaveFuel.Com economically converts pre-existing vehicles to environmentally friendly hybrids one vehicle at a time with a system that extracts the hydrogen on demand from a reservoir of distilled water

    Benefits
    What most people want to know about, mpg increases entirely on hydrogen hybrid system is installed. The amounts alternate broadly, but an average of 25 to 35% mpg boost is routine Additionally, consumers notice an increase hydrogen hybrid solution available and torque. A dynamometer test run recently on a 1989 Ford F250 Truck increased the horsepower from 181.75 to 188.75 and the torque from 266.20 ft pounds to 293.53. That equates to 7 more horsepower and 27.33 more foot pounds of torque.

    But possibly the biggest advance for all of us, chiefly observable on older vehicle engines, is a dramatic decrease in smog emission gasses

    The advance on a tested Ford F250 was over a one third decrease in nitrous emissions and carbon emission decreased to nothing, and this vehicle's "before" results were within the passng numbers. This is a great solution for environmentalists and all of the rest of us.

    But with the "side-benefits" of increased gas mileage (mpg) and horsepower which also point to future diminished reliance upon fossil fuel from other countries it is obvious that what How2SaveFuel.Com is doing will become the normal power configuration for the generations to come to save fuel.

    {For more information visit their website at How To Save Fuell| To discover more about how to save fuel or contact Alex Rivera - Founder at (818) 882-1189.


              Mark Petterson Writes an Article on Desert NWR        
    IF you haven't read it yet, author extraordinaire Mark Petterson has written a wonderfully descriptive article about the Desert NWR. It can be found in the July/August edition of Nevada magazine on pages 22 - 23. Mark has made many trips to the refuge back country and he's always happy to take his friends along. He always takes many photos and unusually shaped Joshua trees hold a special place in his heart. If you know Mark Petterson, then you know he often relays his impression that traveling on the Mormon Well Road through the pass between the Sheep Range and Fossil Ridge is like entering a whole different world. There is also a little blurb about Mark on page 5 of the magazine. Read his article and comment on it here. We'd love to know what you think.

    You can read Mark Petterson's article if you click here http://nevadamagazine.com/Nevada_Magazine_turning_book
              B.C.'s NDP Government Begins Legal Challenge Of Trans Mountain Pipeline        
    John Horgan makes a statement to the media at Government House following a non-confidence vote in Victoria on June 29, 2017.

    VANCOUVER — The British Columbia government wants to join the legal fight against the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline as it warned the company behind the project that it cannot begin work on public land until it gets final approval from the province.

    The province's NDP government has hired former judge Thomas Berger to provide legal advice to the government as it seeks intervener status in legal challenges against the federal government's approval of the pipeline expansion.

    The NDP has opposed the expansion of the pipeline, which received the blessing of the province's former Liberal government earlier this year.

    Premier John Horgan promised in the provincial election this spring to use "every tool in the toolbox" to stop the $7.4-billion project by Trans Mountain, a subsidiary of Kinder Morgan Canada.

    Several First Nations and municipalities have filed legal challenges against the expansion, which would triple the capacity of the Alberta-to-B.C. pipeline and increase the number of tankers in Vancouver-area waters seven-fold.

    Environment Minister George Heyman said the increase in tanker traffic is not in the province's ``best interests.''

    "Not for our economy, our environment, or thousands of existing jobs. We will use all available tools to protect our coastal waters and our province's future," he said in a statement.

    Trans Mountain has said construction on the project is set to begin in September, but Heyman said only three of eight environmental management plans that would allow work to begin have been accepted and it is unlikely those remaining will get approval before work was to start.

    The other five management plans have not been accepted because the company didn't adequately consult First Nations, Heyman said.

    CANADA-PIPELINE/TRANSMOUNTAIN

    "Until that has been completed, Kinder Morgan, with the exception of some private land and some clearing of right-of-way cannot put shovels in the ground."

    Heyman said the province is also committed to further consultations with First Nations on the project, including the impact it has on Aboriginal rights and title.

    The province's position won support from the Green party, which has signed an agreement giving its backing to the minority NDP government in the legislature.

    "Government has a responsibility to base major decisions affecting the lives and livelihood of so many people on sound evidence, and in the case of Trans Mountain that standard was not met," Green Leader Andrew Weaver said in a news release.

    "B.C.'s future lies in innovative growth areas like clean tech and the value-added resource sector, not the sunset fossil fuel industry of the last century.'"

    Also on HuffPost:


              R-EVOLUTION (an idea of Hal Ex)        
    Today (24 Nov 2015) Lucy is been honoured with a Google Doodle on the 41st anniversary of her discovery.
    Who is Lucy?
    Well is nothing but a collection of fossilised bones that once made up the skeleton of a hominid from the Australopithecus afarensis species, who lived in Ethiopia 3.2 million years ago.
    Researchers who support Darwin's THEORY OF EVOLUTION are used to think at this finding as one of the most important evidence that man kind is an "evolution" of previous animal spieces.
    While "evolution" might be reasonable proven by the great number of fossils found by archaeologists which likely by the time and the location and the shape are evidence of living beings who lived in a subsequent time to each other and which their shape were gradually changing like in a "morphing" generational ongoing process, the Theory of Evolution, which is based on the idea that "changes" between generation are "random" and then "selected" by the natural law of "survivor of the fittest", is far from being proven and is indeed a very weak theory.
    Unfortunately the Darwin's THEORY OF EVOLUTION is the only one that is "officially" accepted and supported by the so called scientific community (whatever that term might mean) as explanation of the evolutionary process.
    The "theory" doesn't require any "design", any form of "intelligence" that attend to the evolution process, instead it suppose that all is happened by "chance" and environmental "selection" and so it better fit with the atheist ground on which are supposed to rely who deserve to be called a "scientific researcher".
    As alternative to the "official" theory, I will now expose my own theory, the Hal's Theory of Evolution, which is kind of r-evolutionary theory but that in my opinion better fits with the available "evidences" and provide an original explanation of the evolution of living beings and doesn't rely on the inconsistent assumption that all existing species are the result of a "natural selection".
    Why I state that natural selection and random changes on animal bodies is an inconsistent assumption?
    Because is easy to observe in real life that a random small change on the living being DNA doesn't outcome in a new being with relevant differences from the source, and if the difference aren't relevant, then the process of "natural selection" cannot take place.
    Let's make it clear with one example.
    It is said, that birds are evolution of previous species that didn't have anything like "wings", they were plain terrestrial animals.
    So it's obvious that unless a "random" change had suddenly made appear the wings to an individual whose parents were not provided of wings, then the the small modification that might have been appeared by chance and seems toward to a future shape of wings, isn't enough to differentiate the new individual from the spieces it originates and therefore isn't enough to provide the better survival ability which the birds are supposed to have in comparison to terrestrial.
    So here is my theory.
    I've observed that in nature "evolution" is a very common thing.
    Think at how a human being turns from a single cell, to a complete body.
    The "source" cell is the one that comes from the union of the female "egg" and the male "sperm" which both carries half of the human DNA.
    Once the two half are together the resulting LIVING cell with the complete DNA set start to "reproduce" itself.
    At the beginning the first few generations of cells are all same each other, but then something happens and the "differentiation" process take place.
    So, by the time that generation and generations of cells comes to "life" we can observe that a number of different kind of cells are existing... all STILL carrying the same DNA!
    So we can observe blood cells, tissue cells, skin cells, bone cells, brain cells, etc... etc... those are all carrying the SAME DNA, still they are "evolution" of the 1st cell, the union of egg and sperm, which must have had "inside" the "descriptions" of all the other cells that had to come after a number of generations.
    How do scientist explain cells differentiation?
    They say that the DNA contains the description of all the kind of cells that are part of the human body and for "some reason", each kind of cell is the "result" of just a "portion" of the DNA which is "activated" after are past a number of generations from the 1st source cell.
    So each cells, despite it carries inside the whole DNA containing the description of all the cells, is just the result of one portion only of that DNA.
    So, here is my guess.
    What if the same "process" apply to the evolution of the living being species?
    What if at the beginning there's a "source" living being that contains in it the description of all the future different species of animals (and/or plants) and those different species appears when, after a number of generation, their portion of DNA is "activated"?
    We are used to think that primitive live being, the one from where we are suppose to be evolved, were very simple, as simple as a single cells living being.
    So, we may imagine that the DNA of those primitive and unicellular living beings have to be somewhat "short", compared to the one of evoluted animals like a human being as a high degree of complexity require more organic informations.
    Well, it seems that scientist, by studying the genomes, had proven the opposite.
    According to recent findings (see here) «In the animal kingdom, the relationship between genome size and evolutionary status is not clear. One of the largest genomes belongs to a very small creature, Amoeba dubia. This protozoan genome has 670 billion units of DNA, or base pairs. The genome of a cousin, Amoeba proteus, has a mere 290 billion base pairs, making it 100 times larger than the human genome.»
    Those findings are actually an evidence that support my Hal's Theory of Evolution as my theory assume that the primitive original living beings, despite their simple "shape", must have contained the description of the next species on which the original being will evolve slowly generation after generation.
    Hal Ex
    #HalEx

              Panama moves to boost power generation        
    Efforts to meet rising demand for power in Panama took a key step forward in January, with news that state-owned Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica (ETESA) would be seeking bids to supply 700 MW of thermal energy.
    The tenders form part of a broader move to diversify the energy mix and boost capacity in one of Latin America’s fastest-growing economies with ambitious investment plans – from both public and private sources – being rolled out across the utility spectrum. Panama plans to make available two separate contracts, each for the supply of 350 MW of thermal energy. Contractors will be given 90 days to prepare bids for the first project – a 10-year contract commencing July 2017 – while a deadline of 180 days has been set for a second, 15-year contract, scheduled for launch in January 2019.
    ETESA’s general manager, Iván Barría, said that with interest among industry players high, he was confident competition around pricing for the projects would be aggressive. Barría also explained Panama’s shift in focus towards thermal energy, saying: “...we have hard energy needs, having contracted significant renewable energy in the past: now we need to complement that.”

    Boosting capacity

    In a separate development, the World Bank’s financing arm, the IFC, announced in January that a $300m financing package for constructing the second and third phases of the Penonome wind farm project had been finalised. Once completed, the project will offer 215 MW of installed capacity, making it the largest grid-connected wind farm in Central America. The wind farm, which will house 86 turbines, is expected to generate around 448 GWh of energy annually, equivalent to about 5% of total electricity demand.
    Panama is also looking to boost the role of hydroelectric power in meeting rising demand for electricity. Its $1bn Chan II hydroelectric project, earmarked for the western province of Bocas del Toro, will add around 214 MW of capacity once operational, which is expected to provide up to 9% of total demand.
    The country is currently struggling to keep up with soaring demand for power. Electricity consumption is expected to grow at around 8% annually, according to government forecasts, with the cost of putting in place the additional power-generating capacity required to meet demand over the next decade estimated at around $3bn. More than a third of the country’s electricity comes from burning fossil fuels, which, until the recent slump in oil prices, have been costly, and bring environmental risks.

    Harnessing the elements

    While Panama’s hydroelectric plants, which account for around half of total supply, provide cleaner, renewable energy, they remain vulnerable to the effects of the dry season.
    The risks of the large share of water in the energy mix were highlighted at the start of 2013 when, due to a prolonged summer, reservoir water had fallen to such low levels that generation capacity was being compromised at the same time that peak demand reached a record 1445 MW. As a result, the government implemented emergency measures to reduce national energy consumption, particularly in the month of May when the water levels reached one of their lowest points in history.
    However, the dry season is also traditionally marked by stronger winds, which Panama is keen to harness through its Penonome project, as a means of offsetting the drop in hydro capacity. The Penonome wind farm initiative is operated by a subsidiary of regional player InterEnergy Holdings, while construction of the Chan II dam was awarded to Brazilian civil engineering company Odebrecht. Work is expected to begin in December and Panama hopes to start generating electricity at the site in 2019.

    Addressing the challenges

    However, there are concerns that the project could run into opposition from local communities. The site lies to the west of lands occupied by the Ngobe Bugle indigenous community, which has protested against mining and hydro projects there. Protests have also been held over the Barro Blanco hydro project to the south in Chiriquí province.
    Panama additionally faces challenges at the opposite end of the power chain. Distribution companies Ensa and Gas Natural Fenosa have both highlighted the problem of electricity theft, with combined costs to the two players over the past five years estimated at the equivalent of $125m. Ensa put its losses from theft at $80m, while Gas Natural Fenosa’s manager, Vivian Pineda, said the firm believed the number of households in Panama stealing electricity stood at around 40,000, costing the provider some $45m.
    Broadening the energy mix will certainly strengthen Panama’s efforts to keep pace with rising demand for power and support economic growth. However, rumblings of discontent among local communities, alongside concerns about electricity theft, highlight the importance of carefully managing the sector’s development.
     
    Full text in http://www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com/news/panam%C3%A1-busca-elevar-su-generaci%C3%B3n-de-energ%C3%ADa?utm_source=Oxford+Business+Group&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=5373099_EU+-+Panama+-+19%2f02%2f2015+-+Panam%c3%a1+busca+elevar+su+generaci%c3%b3n+de+energ%c3%ada&utm_content=Panama-EU-19%2f02%2f15&dm_i=1P7V,375WR,HYTLQE,BGEP9,1#”english”
     
    

              Genetic Failure        
    Rasanya baru kemarin tanganku menggenggam tangan kecilnya, 
    rindu yg teramat dalam, Ale.

    Aryo, I am pregnant.
    Seriously?
    Yeah, I think its more than 6 weeks.

    Medya.. well I am just regular girl who loves to travel a lot. I was lucky, very lucky to have family who had travel a lot. My mum said about our first family travel to Thailand, she said Papa was held a short study conference there for 3 weeks, he brought whole family to enjoy the elephant country.

    Sebut saja Africa, Sydney, Turkey, Singapore, South East Asia so many travelled countries. Keberuntunganku bertambah saat saya menikah dg Aryo, a blog traveller who has travel agent in West Jakarta, what a serendipity luck.

    1.5 years marriage conquered 11 cities in all over the world until my 5th ultrasonogram doctor examination said.

    Bu Medya dan Pak Aryo, saya sangat bersedih, mohon untuk tabah, namun kandungan ibu ada kelainan janin, banyak kebocoran jantung dan organ dalam lainnya yg tdk pada seharusnya, namanya Patau Syndrom, salah satu kelainan genetik. Saya menyarankan ibu dan bapak untuk mencari second opinion dr obgyn lainnya secepatnya dalam 2-3 hari.

    Dokter nya ngomong apa sih hon.

    Waktu itu aku masih seperti fly, jet lag, setengah arwahku seperti berada di awang-awang.
    Kita pulang yuk-Aryo, sepanjang perjalananku bengong seperti orang bego, apa sih patau sindrom, untuk memegang hp dan meng gugel nya pun aku tak berani.

    Jam menunjukkan pukul 09.30 malam, Aryo tak berani berbicara, aku langsung menuju kamar dan terlelap dan bermimpi menggendong bayi lelaki yg sangat sempurna, ganteng seperti kakeknya, aku menyusuinya di kamar nursery di kursi goyang yg dibelikan oma.

    Seperti ditampar pelan sejumlah ratusan kali, apa yg terjadi. Keberuntunganku sepertinya terhenti disini. To be honest, I have rich family, I used to have a close friend when in was college back then at Fak Ilmu Budaya Univ Indonesia jurusan Bahasa Inggris, namanya Fara, dia selalu bilang..

    Med lu mah enak bisa halan-halan *liburan* tiap bulan sama bokap lu nyokap kakak atau nenek..lah gue kudu gawe buat nambahin uang semesteran heheh tp gpp gue seneng py temen kaya elu dapet banyak oleh-oleh.

    I only have one big sister, my dad was a head division at Telkom Japati Bandung, my mom is a successfully working mom at Bank of America. We are perfectly potrait family who just blessed abudantly, aku juga menjalani sekolah dengan sempurna, sd swasta islam, smp sma negeri, kuliah di UI, lulus dg predikat cum laude, bekerja 2 th di media online. My life was never getting in any trouble hingga saat ku melahirkan Ale.

    Bu harus diinduksi yah, mulesnya gak nambah.

    Aryo terus menggenggam tanganku, dia tdk melepaskan sedikit pun sejak aku msk ugd kemarin sore.

    My water just broke I think ay, we should go to Medistra right away, dont forget to get baby blue bag.

    Iya bu dorong yah, rasanya ku tak sanggup, aku lelah namun badan kecil itu terus ingin mendorong dr tubuhku.

    Is it done?

    Aryo emang udah yah, mana suara bayi nya, kok gak nangis sih, aku berasa udah ngeden gede barusan.

    He kissed me on my forehead.

    Bentar hon saya liat dulu.

    Then I cried a lot and really tired and fell a sleep sambil sayup terdengar suster.

    Bayinya biru, gak nangis, langsung masuk ventilator yah kemudian book NICU agar lebih mudah perawatannya.

    Secara fisik normal tapi harus di cek DSA untuk organ dalamnya, ronsen.

    Maaf ibu bapak, anaknya siapa namanya? Ale?

    Ale mengalami patau syndrome atau trisomi 13 yaitu kelainan genetik, kalau kasus umum yg sering kita dengar mungkin ibu bapak tau adalah down syndrome atau keterbelakangan mental kalau ini namanya trisomi 13, maaf Ale sewaktu pembentukan genetik tidak sempurna kelebihan kromosom yg hrsnya sepasang sehingga berpengaruh pada organ dalam yg tdk sempurna.

    Untuk kasus Ale, jantungnya banyak sekali kebocoran sehingga jika siap setelah kita observasi harus dioperasi, ginjal dan lambung juga kurang berfungsi dengan baik, ada juga pneumonia dan dandywalker. Secara fisik Ale sempurna, tdk ada sumbing, jari lengkap tdk lebih, namun memang muka seperti bengkak karena ada kelainan otak juga dimana cairan otak yg tdk terpakai seharusnya terbuang di salurannya, cairan ini malah kembali dan menumpuk di otak.

    Kami juga harus membuat lubang trakea agar Ale bisa bernapas sempurna, bedah trakeostomi agar bisa dimasukkan tabung utk bernapas. Nanti CoAs Dokter saya akan memberikan copy article mengenai sindrom ini ya ibu bapak bisa baca sedikit.

    I just got headache, and suddenly I remember our trip to Cape Town Africa when our honeymoon. The scenery was great, the life there was pathetic, terutama di desa, air sedikit, anak anak kekurangan gizi, cuaca panas ekstrem. Banyak penyakit dimana mana.

    Aku kembali teringat saat konsul ke 4 spog lainnya di Jakarta, medistra, pondok indah, rs kemang dan cipto. Satu dokter malah memberikan pendapat ini, maaf ibu kalau misal mau delivery early bisa diusahakan, karena janin dengan kondisi ini life rate nya kemungkinan hanya 40%, kalaupun bertahan akan ada keterbelakangan mental.

    Is that even a legal thing? What about my responsibility to God, God trusted my kid to me and I just gave it away.

    Med, sorry to say, tapi kalau ada opsi digugurin? maaf banget gue bukan seorang ibu tapi sodara gue down syndrome keluarganya hilang banyak secara finansial dan ibunya harus terapi psikiater seminggu dua kali. This is all your family choice beib but you have thinking future ahead. My best friend said that.

    Aku seperti orang gila kehilangan arah selama 2 minggu hanya diam tdk melakukan aktivitas apapun.

    Africa where all the scary disease growing up fast, diarrhea, rubella, polio, toxoplasma. I got pregant there, is that even relevant.

    Aryo gue gak bisa kaya gini lagi, harusnya gue pilih delivery early yg dibilang dokter weni, shes right this is so hard.

    Are you freakin kidding right, kita sudah survive di 4 bulan kehamilan kamu kemarin, Ale sudah hampir 2 bulan, kalau kamu pesimis kasian Ale, mostly babies with trisomi 13 died right after delivery.

    Somehow he survived.

    Belum pernah Aryo semarah itu, kami berpacaran 4 tahun, we are college sweetheart, loves travel, back then travel is the most important, now I blame all of those travellings. Aryo sering marah namun diam kemudian dia meminta maaf dan kami seperti biasa kembali, he such a sweetheart, he would put an effort for me. Suatu waktu saya sangat membutuhkan  novel lord of the ring, i need the books not the soft copy, I was in kupang accompany my mother. This crazy dosen put me on hard proposal and Kupang doesnt have gramedia and I still have to be here for the next 5 days. Voila Aryo sent me in 2 days, bukan buku baru dan proposal saya dinilai A+ by that crazy dosen.

    6 months after we get married, my ankle was hurt because of that stupid trip to brunei. Like usual Aryo order go food everyday and go clean for cleaning, taking leave to take care, meski dia owner dia bukan direktur, dia malah ingin menjadi konsultan saja research for tourism city in the world, he would put big effort for me. I just have to get bed rest.
    And now I have to put big effort for Ale for him.

    Mela, "Baby, kalau kamu mau take a break boleh loh, I will be Ale all the time, I mean trip is your thing right, kamu bisa ketemu Ale kemudian ke Bandara, bsk nya kamu bisa bernafas sebentar, recharge, thinking, and the day after you could see Ale again. We can have video call now, not to forget for a while cos youre a mom just go, yg deket aja Med, Bali Sing atau Belitung sounds good.

    Mela is my 2 y big sis, dia memang belum menikah tapi urusan keibuan dia selalu menang, taun lalu dia mengadopsi anak panti komplek secara edukasi saja sih, membiayai semua urusan sekolah dan keperluannya, she is successfull carrier thing like mom and always take care of me.

    Mela is right, after I diagnosed genetic failure baby, I never went on trip again, it just all wrong padahal trip dan travel adalah selalu menjadi kebutuhanku. Bahkan aku menjadi jurnalis travel di salah satu media online terbesar di Jakarta, like I said my life was just perfect after that stupid diagnose.

    Usia ku masih 27 tahun tapi secara mental sangat lelah, hari ini Ale akan operasi otak untuk dandy walker syndrome, sebuah prosedur bedah yang disebut shunt diperlukan untuk mengalirkan kelebihan cairan dari dalam otak yg berfungsi untuk mengurangi tekanan intrakranial dan membantu mengontrol pembengkakan otak dan kepala. Terkadang terlintas untuk menyudahi semua ini, bisakah yg Kuasa memanggilnya, semua tubuhnya terpasang kabel selang pada ventilator, air mataku sudah kering atau malah entah dirasuki sesuatu yg membuatku dingin sedingin es batu.

    Ruangan perinatologi khusus untuk perawatan bayi sudah tidak menyeramkan seperti sebelumnya, aku menyusui bayiku disana, bayi bayi lain menangis mencari kehangatan ibunya. Aku tidak pernah suka rumah sakit entah kenapa, beberapa kali dirawat karena tipes, db, dan dehidrasi cairan namun tdk pernah terbiasa dengan keadaan dan bau alkohol rumah sakit yg begitu menyengat.

    Saat aku hamil 7 bulan aku baru mencari tau lebih dalam apa itu patau sindrome,

    https://www.vemale.com/topik/kehamilan/29942-sindrom-patau-trisomi-13.html 

    Ada beberapa kelainan yang bisa menjangkit bayi dalam kandungan. Kelainan tersebut dapat menyebabkan cacat pada bayi. Salah satu kelainan yang dapat menjangkit bayi dalam kandungan adalah kelainan yang disebabkan kromosom. Salah satu dari kelainan ini adalah trisomi 13.

    Trisomi 13 atau biasa dikenal dengan sindrom Patau merupakan kelainan kromosom yang ditandai dengan cacat intelektual dan kelainan pada tubuh di beberapa bagian tubuh. Bayi yang terjangkit sindrom ini biasanya mempunyai kelainan pada jantung, kelainan saraf otak dan tulang belakang.
    Menurut ghr.nlm.nih.gov, trisomi 13 atau sindrom patau dapat terjadi pada 1 dari 16.000 kelahiran. Sindrom ini dapat terjadi pada semua wanita, tetapi wanita yang hamil pada usia tua mempunyai resiko yang lebih tinggi terjangkit sindrom ini.
    Bayi yang terjangkit sindrom ini biasanya hanya mampu bertahan satu sampai tujuh hari setelah dilahirkan. Hanya 5%-10% yangdapat bertahan, itu pun hanya akan bertahan sampai 1 bulan. Sindrom Patau ini merupakan kelainan genetik yang terjadi pada bayi yang memiliki kelebihan kromosom pada kromosom 13. Oleh karena itu, sindrom ini biasa disebut trisomi 13.
    Setiap untaian kromosom membawa informasi genetik yang dapat menentukan proses perkembangan dan pertumbun janin. Untuk itu, kelainan pada kromosom akan berakibat fatal bagi janin. Cacat yang dialami karena kelainan pada kromosom tidak dapat diatasi namun dapat di diteksi dengan melakukan pengecekan pada usia kandungan 10-12 minggu.
    Oleh: Ratna Komala Dewi

    Kami setuju dengan salah satu Obgyn bahwa kami akan meneruskan kehamilan apapun yg terjadi dgn baby A, jika memang terjadi komplikasi serius yang dapat menyebabkan kematian dari kami berdua, kami akan mengambil opsi termination atau early delivery namun jika tidak ada apa2, aku ingin melahirkan secara normal. Ada beberapa kasus bayi trisomi yang dapat hidup dengan sewajarnya tentu dengan treatment yang banyak bahkan operasi yang harus dijalani, insyallah kami siap untuk baby A.

    Saat lahir biasanya bayi trisomi hanya bertahan bbrp jam saja di NiCu namun Ale bisa sampai 61 hari lamanya.

    He is a strong baby

    I had a very big contraction on my way to hospital, and I feel blank what should I do we do after the baby delivery.

    Hon are you ok?

    Dalam hatiku yang sangat egois mengatakan jangan sampai operasi caesar, I have to deliver defect one with big pain scar, please God No.

    Tetapi masih sangat menyakitkan, jahitan, induksi, butir peluh, tenaga yg sudah habis, aku tidak akan pernah melupakan itu.

    He made it ay, 6 hours, tapi msh di ventilator NiCu. Kata dokter ini jarang biasanya 2-3 jam -Aryo-
    Jadi mau dikasih nama Ale.

    Terserah kamu.

    Can he just he died, I cried a lot when Aryo is seeing Ale at night. Dear God, he is my responsibilty to you but that little hand connecting to all cable.

    Ibu maaf, bayinya harus disusui setiap 3 jam di ruang perina, jam 6 dan 9 pagi, jam 12 3 siang, jam 6 sore, jam 9 12 malam dan jam 3 dini hari. Jangan lupa ya bu bisa dibantu bapaknya dan pasang alarm. Suster berkata seperti itu.

    Jam 1 ini telat sejam, yuk kuantar

    Masih terasa ngilu jahitan itu. Aku berjalan melintasi lorong bangsal, tidak menyeramkan namun terasa menyesakkan. Bayi bayi lain ada yg menangis.

    Yang ini kenapa ya sus?

    Bocor jantung juga bu udah sebulan malah disini.

    Tangisan itu terasa pilu.

    Kalau kata orang tua jaman dulu, mungkin nenek saya bisa berkata seperti ini

    Bayi cacat biasanya ada yg salah sama ibu bapaknya atau mungkin melakukan suatu dosa yg menyebabkan karma.

    Is that true, lalu kemudian untuk apa kita menganut suatu agama tertentu, untuk apa kita menghadap Tuhan dan bertobat atas dosa yg kita lakukan.

    Medya tentunya gadis baik-baik, perawan, sehat wal afiat, kaya raya, keluarga baik idealnya melakukan vaksin lengkap saat masa pertumbuhannya.

    Saya tdk pernah terlibat narkoba, saya pernah meminum beberapa champagne dan anggur namun tidak hingga mabuk.

    Saya benci sushi jadi tidak ada cacing bakteri aneh dalam tubuh saya. Saya pernah dirawat karena patah kaki jatuh dari motor. Saya tidak pernah main perempuan, saya mencium 3 orang wanita but I dont play the boy.

    Saya tentunya tidak memiliki hubungan darah dan keluarga dengan Medya, if you are related there will be a genetic crash.

    Lalu mari kita bicara dosa, saya jujur pernah membully adik kelas, push up dan joget di acara angkatan kelas.

    Itukah dosa nya sehingga ada Ale saat ini.

    Logic says, its all genetic failure. Happen in 1:1.000 embrio, Ale adalah satu chance dari 1.000 pembuahan yg terjadi, kromosom nya lebih satu, hanya lebih satu dari yg seharusnya.

    Mungkin ini hanya keberuntungan yg terhenti sementara atau mungkin Ale adalah keberuntungan kami berdua yg baru. Mungkin saja.

    Sus maaf kalau pak Satria suka jenguk kemari gak ya?

    Pak Satria?

    Hmm ayah saya kakeknya Ale

    Ooh kayanya gak ada deh bu lagipula klo ruang perina yg boleh jenguk hanya bapak dan ibu kandung nya saja.

    Seorang pak Satria yg notabene sangat humble bahkan istri ob nya aja lahiran ditengokin, dia terkenal sangat care dengan anak buahnya namun tampaknya tidak pada cucunya sendiri. Hanya satu kali jengukan saat aku melahirkan Ale, selebihnya tidak ada kabar. Lain dengan ibu, beliau selalu menyempatkan diri menjenguk Ale setidaknya setiap minggu entah di hari weekend atau lainnya.

    Ibu selalu bilang beliau sedang banyak handle project di Sumatera, but I know she lied.

    Beliau seperti menyalahkan putri nya ini akan kelahiran Ale yg tdk sempurna hingga Aryo bilang its not our sins nor family that Ale had genetic failure. It just God put this us I dont know to build our strenght.

    It just takdir you know hon.

    Bu Medya, sudah siap untuk melihat Ale.

    Dokter mungkin mengatakan itu karena sejak Ale lahir, aku didera post partum syndrome dan tentunya baby blues yang sangat parah. Tidak banyak bicara, kebanyakan melamun bahkan untuk makan saja perlu diingatkan suster. Aryo bahkan berkata seperti ini..

    Sus kalau jam makan tolong ditepuk ibu nya, sampai dia bilang iya, piringnya tolong diletakan dekat kasur, jangan sampai lupa ya karena kalau tidak gitu dia tidak akan makan. Maaf merepotkan sebelumnya.

    Karena esok nya setelah melahirkan Ale, aku tidak menyentuh makan siang yg biasanya menjadi komponen penting dalam hidupku.

    Ale saat ini berada di ventilator, nah ibu kita harus observasi setidaknya hingga 14 hari baru kemudian operasi jantung yang akan pertama kami lakukan..
    Penyakit jantung bawaan pada bayi bermacam-macam penyebabnya, maka dari itu pengobatannya pun berbeda-beda. Jenis-jenis kelainan jantung bawaan antara lain defek septum atrium, defek septum ventrikel, defek kanal atrioventrikular, foramen ovale persisten, duktus arteriosus persisten, tetralogi Fallot, transposisi arteri besar, dan lain sebagainya


    Nah ibu untuk ke depannya karena bayi dengan kasus Trisomi 13 itu butuh perawatan di ventilator mungkin ibu harus menyewa bahkan membeli mesinnya. Tapi itu nanti setelah full observasi yg kami akan lakukan.

    Maaf ibu yang penting ibu fokus saja menyusui dan pompa asi nya, kami menyediakan pompa asi di bagian divisi ibu dan anak, mungkin di waktu tertentu Ale perlu menyusui dari botol susu. Kalaupun asi nya seret bisa dibantu formula tapi itu pilihan kedua ya bu.

    Hm, aku mau balik kamar ya Yo.

    Sayup terdengar,
    Maaf dok itu biaya operasi nya kira kira berapa ya saya ingin mempersiapkan diri terlebih dahulu, oh ya dan juga mesin ventilatornya?

    Mungkin 250 juta tapi bapak bisa ke bagian administrasi rumah sakit ya.

    link source

    Dokter kemudian menjelaskan "Untuk menutup lubangnya ada 2 pilihan, pertama melalui kateterisasi jantung. Nanti dimasukkan selang kecil melalui pembuluh darah ke arah jantung. Setelah itu, ada alat seperti payung yang namanya Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO) yang akan ditempatkan di tempat yang bocor dan dikembangkan sehingga lubangnya tertutup. Jika setelah pemeriksaan echo ternyata kelainannya tidak memungkinkan untuk dipasang ASO, maka operasinya akan dilakukan dengan pembedahan."
    Med, hmm saya mau daftar BPJS dulu ya, kamu gak apa apa kan sendirian, hon.
    Iya
    Keluarga kaya harusnya gak usah pake bpjs yah, kan banyak duitnya, harusnya pemerintah memprioritaskan masyarakat yg tdk mampu dulu.
    Ibu-ibu di ruang tunggu pasien berbicara seperti itu, rasanya seperti dikomentarin habis-habisan yah, ah sudahlah aku search ventilator bayi 17 juta, sepertinya bisa aku sale abis-abisan koleksi fossil dan kate spade ku, my close friends will definitely help me, they are willing to buy my stuff.
    Sepertinya aku harus garage sale kak, bisa bantu arrange soalnya belum boleh pulang dari RS nih.
    Tapi dugaan ku salah, Aryo bilang mesin ventilatornya khusus yang harganya hingga 500 juta rupiah. 

    Our life was just perfect. It was like struk lightning. I still remember that day, we had a trip to Cape Town 2 weeks before.

    Meskipun kami adalah travel freak yg menjadikan hobby sebagai pekerjaan namun saat tidak melakukan trip kami juga ngantor di weekday. I am travel writer, he has travel agent and love doing survey and research. Travelnya dia unik, kita bisa provide trip kemana saja di seluruh dunia selain negara konflik tentunya dengan budget yg bisa disesuaikan, you mention, even there was a milyuner who went gone to Alaska, ya seriously.

    Aku ingat hari itu hujan, hanya gerimis tepat pukul 06.30 di hari Sabtu aku bangun tidur, Aryo sudah tidak di tempat tidur, belakangan ini dia punya hobi baru merawat tanaman hidroponik nya, ada bayam kangkung strawberry. Aku melihat jendela, Jakarta pagi ini cukup segar karena gerimis. Tidak ada pikiran apa-apa, kuakui weekday adalah hari yg tepat utk bangun lebih siang sedikit. Apalagi 2 minggu yg lalu kami baru pulang dari Africa, rasanya badan ini masih butuh sedikit lagi istirahat.

    Med, kalau udah trimester tiga sebaiknya jangan melakukan perjalanan lagi ya kata Mama, apalagi ke yg jauh2.

    Aku nurut saja namun trip yg kmrn memang sudah ada kontrak dengan salah satu aplikasi pencari tiket yg baru dr setahun sebelumnya, tak mungkin kutolak apalagi Aryo bisa ikut.

    Aku berjejak dari kasur.

    Aryo kamu udah makan?

    Tadi baru roti sedikit.

    Oh ya nanti kubuatkan nasi goreng yah.

    Gak usah lah hon nanti kita makan di RS aja sambil nunggu.

    Hari itu 15 Mei 2016, jadwal kontrol kandungan bulanan. Aku baru tau saat hamil bahwa kontrol kandungan itu cukup sebulan sekali nanti bulan ke 8 baru 2 minggu dan bulan ke 9 baru seminggu sekali.

    Kami bergegas ke rumah sakit, you know how long queque for obgyn. Sudah banyak deretan ibu hamil, pasangan muda bahkan yg baru melahirkan krn salah satu dr mereka menggendong bayi merahnya, yg mengantri dokter kandungan.

    Sudah kebagian nomor 17 aja nih. Makan dulu yuk laper.

    Tidak ada firasat apapun, hingga saat dokter menempelkan alatnya di perutku terasa lebih lama dari biasanya. Kalau bbrp bulan kemarin si pak dokter langsung cerewet bicara soal air ketuban, menunjukkan mana kepala, mendengarkan denyut jantung namun hari itu beliau bolak balik mengkerenyitkan dahi di balik kacamatanya.

    Hingga beliau membicarakan Patau Sindrom.

    ***

    I woke up and still pregnant. Tak lama Aryo melihat ke kamar.

    Med mama mau bicara.

    As in my mother in law, she is very sweet.

    Ya ma.

    Med kata bapak kamu USG 4 dimensi ya di Kemang, kebetulan ada kenalan dokter kandungan yg bagus dan sudsh dibuatkan janji hari ini pukul 11 yah.

    Oh ya baik ma.

    Aryo pasti sudah cerita banyak.

    Kamu mau mandi dulu, makan, aku buatkan sarapan atau mau beli nasi uduk di depan.

    Ini jam 9 yah, ke Kemang biasanya macet, aku makan sandwich aja.

    Aku gorengkan sosis yah.

    Bapak dan Ibu, usia kandungannya 28 weeks yah, sejauh ini tidak ada cacat secara fisik semua sempurna, tidak ada bibir sumbing. Namun saya masih tidak tau untuk organ penglihatan, pendengarannya apa berfungsi dengan baik. Yang parah adalah organ dalam terutama kebocoran jantung. Bayi bapak ibu dapat dilahirkan hingga masuk term nya. Namun pasti akan banyak perawatan di perinatologi dan masuk ventilator. Itu yang bisa saya katakan sejauh ini. Untuk ended pregnancy sudah tidak disarankan.

    Malam itu kondisi Ale kritis, padahal ia sudah pulang ke rumah dengan ventilator barunya. Usianya besok tepat 91 hari sejak dilahirkan lalu.

    Suara sirine mendampingiku dan Ale ke rumah sakit saat itu.

    Ale langsung dioperasi jantung malam itu juga.

    Bayiku kritis sudah 3 hari.

    Ibu Medya dan Bapak Aryo, diagnosis terakhir adalah brain dead.

    Tubuh kecilnya kembali dipenuhi kabel-kabel itu.

    Sungguh ku sudah tidak tahan lagi.

    210 hari sudah kulewati, lampu-lampu di mesin mesin itu sudah tidak berkedip lagi.
     
    ***
    *cerita ini hanya cerita fiksi terinspirasi oleh beberapa kejadian di instagram ditulis oleh newbie yg tdk tahu mengenai dunia kedokteran atau kesehatan dan melakukan google search utk bahan referensi*

              Animal Crossing: City Folk        


    If life were an endless vacation, what would you do? Go fishing, collect shells or watch fireworks with friends? Build a snowman, exchange presents with family or decorate your house for the holidays? Take a trip to the city, go on a shopping spree or visit friends from all over the globe? In Animal Crossing: City Folk, life moves at a relaxed pace, but the world brims with endless possibilities.

    • There’s always something new to do. In the living, breathing world of Animal Crossing: City Folk, days and seasons pass in real time, so there’s always something to discover. Catch fireflies in the summer, go trick-or-treating on Halloween or hunt for eggs on Bunny Day. If you’re in the mood for something a little faster paced, take a bus to a new urban city area that’s unique to Animal Crossing: City Folk. There you can catch a show at the theater or check out the sales at Gracie’s boutique. But if you don’t show your face back home for too long, your neighbors will miss you.

    • Up to four people from your household can live and work together to build the perfect town. Design clothes and patterns, write letters and post messages on the bulletin board for each other, or invite up to three friends to visit your town using Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection. With the new WiiSpeak microphone, it’s like you’re all in the same room. The microphone sits atop the sensor bar and picks up the conversation of everyone in the room to encourage a more inclusive experience.

    • Get to know your neighbors. The heart of Animal Crossing: City Folk is building relationships with the animals in your town as well as with other players. Befriend your animal neighbors by exchanging letters, gifts and favors. Animals can also move from town to town, bringing their memories and stories from their old towns with them. And since animals are notoriously loose-lipped, they spill all the juicy details.

    • Express your personal style. Customize your town, your house and yourself by collecting bugs, fish, fossils, art, furniture, clothes and accessories. You can also go to the salon in the city to change your hairstyle and get a Mii makeover. Plus, if you design clothes in the tailor’s shop, animals will wear them and maybe even bring them to other towns.




              The climate-conscious corpse (part 1)        
    It would be hard to devise a more climate-unfriendly way to go than the conventional American burial. Figuratively and in many cases literally, we drench our dead in fossil fuels.
              We have seen the enemy…        
    The fossil fuel industry is not your friendly neighborhood pharmacist, it is the drug cartel. It is not God’s army, it is the terrorist network. It is not the honorable cop on the beat, it is the armed and deranged criminal roaming the streets.
              Does doom and gloom convince anyone about climate change?        

    New York magazine article brings teachable moment on communicating climate change science

    Science & the Public
    parched landscape

    An apocalyptic message about climate change might motivate some people to act but make others feel hopeless, science communication experts say.

    A couple of weeks ago, an article in New York magazine laid out a horrific scenario of global warming. The photo at the top summed up the tone: A fossilized human skull, jaw gaping beneath aviator sunglasses, hovered over a caption warning that people could be “cooked to death from both inside and out” in a hotter climate.

    If that’s not doom and gloom, I don’t know what is. Yet despite being a complete downer, the article quickly became New York magazine’s most-read story ever.

    The article also reignites a debate over how best to communicate the science of climate change. Scientists and others who hope to inform the public or spur action have long struggled with how to convey the high stakes of global warming without making people feel helpless or fueling deniers by coming across as alarmist.

    “Certainly a lot of people paid attention to it, and it sparked a very good conversation about what we’re up against,” says Anthony Leiserowitz, director of the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication. But its message of impending doom can have very different effects on people, he notes. “There are different audiences in this country, and they’re affected by extreme scenarios differently.”

    That became clear as soon as the article was published, when just about everyone with an opinion on climate change jumped on it. Scientists questioned its accuracy — we don’t know that it will be that bad, many said. Breitbart News, aiming from the right, proclaimed that New York had “broken the world record for the scariest, most catastrophic, hysterical exercise in extravagant climate doom-mongering in the history of the universe.”

    Others suggested it was just the kick in the pants that America needs. In fact, Slate said, the article isn’t too alarmist; the rest of us just haven’t been alarmist enough.

    The real question now, though, is what the article’s impact will be, measured not only by how many people read it but, more importantly, by whether it will change anything. In 2015, when Kathryn Schulz wrote a chilling Pulitzer Prize‒winning article for the New Yorker about the inevitability of an earthquake destroying much of the Pacific Northwest, droves of people ran out to buy earthquake preparation kits.

    But there’s no preparation kit for climate change, and it seems unlikely that a news story will change U.S. policy on climate change. So it remains to be seen whether this article, or others that might copy its doom-and-gloom tack, might change any minds or spur the public to act.

    But perhaps it holds a lesson for anyone who is concerned about climate change and doesn’t know how to talk to friends and family who aren’t.

    First, it depends who you’re talking to. Leiserowitz’s research has shown that there are six Americas, on a scale from “dismissive” to “alarmed” about global warming. Those groups interpret the same information differently based on the community they identify with. For instance, those who think climate change is a hoax will probably continue to think so. People in the middle, who don’t know much about the issue, might become more concerned by a vivid account of how bad things could get.

    And those who are most concerned about climate change may accept a gloomy message as vindication of their views — but there’s always the chance they might lose hope about fixing the problem, Leiserowitz says.

    “And that’s the critique some scientists have put forward,” he says, “that it’s not enough to just totally scare the bejesus out of people.” Indeed, as a science journalist who has covered climate change, I can vouch that scientists and the media have been told over and over that the public will ignore a message that’s too depressing. As paleoclimatologist Michael Mann of Penn State University said of the New York article, overstating the severity of climate change could feed a “paralyzing narrative of doom and hopelessness.”

    This concern about public paralysis came out of communication studies years ago, when most reporters were still focused on a relentless drumbeat of bad news, Leiserowitz says. “It’s more complicated than that. We weren’t saying every piece of journalism has to present solutions.”

    So maybe there’s a place for a little gloominess in talking about climate change. “The scientists should just tell us what they know and not worry too much about whether there’s too much gloom and doom in it,” says Dan Kahan, a Yale law and psychology professor who leads the Cultural Cognition Project, studying public perceptions of risk.​

    What’s more, most people don’t form their opinions based on the news they read, he says. “They get the memo from their communities.” His work has shown that people’s cultural identity, not their knowledge of science, drives their opinion on climate change.

    “What we need isn’t more evidence, but people seeing other people who they identify with acting on the basis of the evidence,” he says.

    So while it looks like there’s an audience out there for gloomy words, ultimately it’s actions that speak loudest of all.  


    Erika Engelhaupt is a freelance science writer in Knoxville, Tenn., and was previously an editor and blogger at Science News. Find her on Twitter as @GoryErika.


              When coal replaces a cleaner energy source, health is on the line        

    Tennessee Valley case study links higher air pollution to lower birth-weight babies

    Science & the Public
    Paradise Fossil Plant

    COAL’S COST  In response to nuclear power plant shutdowns, Kentucky’s coal-fired Paradise Fossil Plant (shown) began producing more power, and more air pollution. Babies born nearby were smaller, an indicator of poorer health, a study finds.

    Where I grew up in Tennessee, a coal-fired power plant perches by the river, just down from the bridge that my wild brothers and their friends would jump off in the summer. Despite the proximity, I never thought too much about the power plant and the energy it was churning out.

    But then I read an April 3 Nature Energy paper on coal-fired energy production that used my town — and others in the Tennessee Valley Authority area — as a natural experiment. The story the data tell is simultaneously fascinating and frustrating, and arrives at a politically prescient time. In recent weeks, the Trump administration has signaled a shift in energy policy back toward the fossil fuel.  

    The roots of this story were planted in the 1930s, when the TVA was created as a New Deal project to help haul America out of the Great Depression. The organization soon got into the power business, relying on a mix of energy sources: hydropower, coal and nuclear. After the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island — a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania — stricter regulations driven by public fear prompted TVA to shut down its two nuclear reactors. Those temporary closures in 1985 left a gaping hole in the region’s energy production, a need immediately filled by coal.

    Economist Edson Severnini realized that this dramatic shift from nuclear to coal offered a chance to study the effects of coal-fired power on health. He analyzed power production, particle pollution and medical records of babies born near coal plants. One in particular picked up the most slack: Paradise Fossil Plant in Paradise, Ky. (Incidentally, that town is the same coal-ravaged one John Prine sings about in arguably the best song ever written.) The plant’s power production increased by about 27 percent, replacing about a quarter of the missing nuclear energy.

    Not surprisingly, air pollution near the Paradise plant rose, Severnini found. The levels of an air pollution indicator called total suspended particulate fell below the Environmental Protection Agency’s limit at the time (but wouldn’t have passed today’s tougher standards, Severnini says). Still, babies born near the plant in the 18 months after the nuclear shutdowns in 1985 were about 5 percent smaller than babies born in the 18 months before. No difference in birth weight showed up in babies born near other power plants that didn’t change their output (including my town’s).

    Story continues below map

    Shifting power

    After two nuclear reactors in Tennessee were temporarily shut down in the 1980s, coal-fired power plants picked up various amounts of the slack. Babies born near the Paradise Fossil Plant (red diamond), which saw the biggest increase in production, tended to be born smaller after the shift.

    That 5 percent difference was “really, really surprising,” says Severnini, of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. Studies have linked low birth weight to trouble later in life, including a lower IQ, lower earnings and health problems, particularly heart disease.

    UCLA environmental epidemiologist Beate Ritz puts that 5 percent drop in context. “These coal-fired power plants coming online can be compared with a pregnant woman smoking one pack of cigarettes a day,” she says. “That’s pretty bad.”

    Ritz, who studies the hazards of air pollution in Los Angeles, points out that it’s not just the lowest birth weight babies affected. The whole curve of birth weights shifted, so that in all likelihood, most babies born there were impacted in some way. “There’s only a small percent in the upper end of the curve that is unaffected,” she says. “Everybody else has probably some kind of subtle effect that you can’t measure on their brain development, on their lung development, on their immune system.”

    The study compares nuclear energy to coal. But the issue is far more complex than that, Severnini says. He hopes the example he found will serve as a reminder of how all energy decisions come with complex trade-offs. “Any energy production choice we make has costs and benefits, and we need to weigh them fully.”

    The TVA case study fits with many other examples of how coal pollution can harm health, says Bernard Goldstein, a physician and environmental public health expert at University of Pittsburgh. “We should get rid of particulates, and coal contributes to that,” he says.

    U.S. dependence on coal is ebbing, in part because natural gas is cheap right now. But coal isn’t dead yet. “My administration is putting an end to the war on coal,” President Donald Trump said March 28, before he signed an executive order that lifted the ban on coal leases on federal land. He also aims to lift other restrictions that affect the coal industry. It’s not yet clear how — or whether —those policies will be enacted, or whether they’ll be enough to revive the coal industry. (Tellingly, the Paradise plant plans to shut down two of its three coal-burning units as it shifts to natural gas.)

    “If the president gets his way, this would slow [coal’s descent] down,” says Goldstein, who coauthored a March 23 New England Journal of Medicine opinion piece on why the Trump administration should pay attention to environmental science. Goldstein likens the situation to government efforts to discourage teenage smoking, a trend that’s also decreasing. Just because the numbers are already falling doesn’t mean we shouldn’t hasten that drop, he says.

    And unlike exposure to other pollutants like cigarette smoke, air isn’t optional. “You don’t have a choice,” Ritz notes. We are all breathing the air that’s around us, whether we are in Paradise or not.


              Did domesticated dogs give humans an advantage over Neanderthals?        
    Anthropologist Pat Shipman believes that domesticated dogs may have given humans an advantage over Neanderthals. Shipman analyzed the results of excavations of fossilized canid bones — from Europe, during the time when humans and Neanderthals overlapped. Put together, they furnish some compelling evidence that early humans, first of all, engaged in ritualistic dog worship. Canid [&hellip
              "FrackNation" Part Two: The Koch Industries Ties That Bind        

    Part one of the DeSmogBlog investigation of “FrackNation” - a film made in response to “Gasland 2” - honed in on the past track records and funding streams of co-directors Phelim McAleer and Ann McElhinney.

    We revealed that Donors Trust/Donors Capital - the “dark money ATM of the right” - partially funded their first two films, “Mine Your Own Business” and “Not Evil, Just Wrong.”

    We also revealed that “Not Evil,” a climate change denial documentary, was utilized by a partner of Americans for Prosperity (AFP) to push the Balanced Education for Everyone (BEE) campaign.

    That campaign calls for a “balanced” scientific teaching of the climate change “controversy” and parallels ones pushed for via an American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) model bill, by the Discovery Institute, and by the Heartland Institute.

    Yet, what about “FrackNation”? Who bankrolled it and are the screenings and is the tour really a grassroots endeavor? 

    It might seem that way based on its marketing, but as Jean de La Fontaine once said, “Beware, so long as you live, of judging men by their outward appearance.”

    Grassroots or Astroturf? Follow the Email List

    Interested in where “FrackNation” and its film-making team are getting their funding from, I signed up for its email list. In so doing, I learned that Market Aces LLC runs it. 

    “From the start, Market Aces had a vision to offer low-cost website development solutions to small businesses and a niche market within the political and non-profit sector – but only those who are dedicated to protecting the American Dream and freedom,” its website reads. 

    Market Aces LLC shares an office with The Leadership Institute (LI). 

    According to LI's website, it “teaches conservative Americans how to influence policy through direct participation, activism, and leadership.” Its website also explains that “since 1979, [it] has trained more than 119,000 conservative activists, leaders, and students.”

    Playing by API's Employee Advocacy Playbook?

    Beyond getting email list building help from one of the key “feeder” nodes in the right-wing network, it's also questionable how many of the funders of “FrackNation” were of the grassroots variety. As the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette explained, 

    [T]he roster of “executive producers” who have donated at least $1 includes scores of energy industry associates. The filmmakers said Thursday they plan to return any donations given by “senior” workers in the industry, which they define as executives. 

    Among those who donated money to the KickStarter campaign: “the director of an Ohio-based oil and gas outreach program and the head of external affairs at Cabot Oil and Gas, the company that's fought accusations of water contamination in Dimock, Pa., for the past several years,” according to the Post-Gazette.  

    Within four weeks of the Kickstarter fundraising campaign's launch, “FrackNation” had already raised over $150,000, raising over $22,000 in the first two days of fundraising. 

    Perhaps “FrackNation” is playing by the American Petroleum Institute's employee advocates' “corporate citizen” playbook.

    In a presentation given at an industry PR conference attended by DeSmogBlog in Houston, TX titled, “Educating Employees On Key Issues To Encourage Brand Management Energy Nation: Empowering Employee Advocates,” API's Director of External Mobilization Tara Anderson explained how - in essence - to create an armada of fracking advocates from within the employee base of oil and gas corporations. 

    “Employees are the best brand ambassador you can come by…The most important principle to remember is to create a culture of advocacy,” she said in Houston. “This is really a community that regularly communicates and engages in the political process. It gives them all the necessary tools and empowers them to get involved and make a difference.” 

    This may explain why the film not only raised money with such rapidity, but also has full industry backing for its nationwide tour

    “FrackNation” Tour's Americans for Prosperity Pitstops  

    For an alleged grassroots-funded film, “FrackNation” has enjoyed robust support from Big Oil and other corporate interests in the first several months of its roadshow. Both Energy in Depth and the Marcellus Shale Coalition - for example - are also promoting the film.

    “The film is a case of the good guys hitting a home run that changes the entire game,” exclaimed Energy in Depth in a Jan. 2013 review of the film. 

    Former Big Tobacco lackey Grover Norquist - now head of Americans for Tax Reform (ATR)  - also wrote a favorable review of the film to coincide with the film's premiere on the Mark Cuban-owned AXS TV in Jan. 2013 and ATR's hosting of the filmmaker's for lunch.

    Ezra Lavant of “Ethical Oil” infamy has also aided in promoting the film. “FrackNation” co-director Magdalena Segieda will speak on Levant's “Freedom Cruise” in August and he also had McElhinney and McAleer on his show in February.  

    In Feb. 2013, Joint Landowner’s Coalition of NY Inc. (JLCNY) hosted two “FrackNation” screenings in upstate New York, both of which McAleer attended. Just three months later in May, JLCNY announced its new partnership with AFP. 

    Later, in March, AFP-Michigan played host to a “FrackNation” screening, a fracking battleground state where the toxic process has yet to commence. In April and May, AFP–Illinois hosted a total of eight screenings of “FrackNation,” another state with an ongoing fracking battle. AFP-MT and the Montana Petroleum Association - a state-level API - also screened the film. 

    Most recently to coincide with the launch of the grassroots launch of “Gasland 2,” McAleer has taken “FrackNation” on-tour to bird-dog it.

    On May 22, AFP-Colorado hosted a “FrackNation” screening at the same time University of Colorado hosted a showing of “Gasland 2,” and the next “showdown of the century” - as the “FrackNation” promoters put it - will take place on May 31 in Santa Barbara, CA. Young America's Foundation will play host to the “FrackNation” Santa Barbara screening.  

    AFP-Maryland also hosted a screening of “FrackNation” on June 2.  

    “FrackNation” Screens at House Committee, Josh Fox Arrested in Hearing of Same Committee

    “FrackNation” also screened at CPAC in March 2013 and in front of the U.S. House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology in Feb. 2013.   

    “It’s important that politicians educate themselves about fracking. It’s the future of American energy,” McAleer wrote in an email promoting the Capitol Hill screening. “With all the lies and misinformation out there, we’re excited to bring the truth about fracking to Capitol Hill.” 

    Dave Weigel of Slate reported that “around 40 Republican staffers and members of Congress made time for a private movie screening.”

    Among those in the room, according to Weigel, was Committee Chair U.S. Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX), a climate change denier who took $10,000 from Koch Industries and $83,750 from Big Oil for his 2012 electoral campaign.  

    “He was glad to have these points made in an easily digestible way, on screen,” McAleer told Weigel of Smith's reaction to seeing the film. “People know there's something smelly about Gasland, but people are suspicious about how it smells.”

    As a direct juxtaposition, “Gasland 2” director Josh Fox was arrested at this same Committee's hearing in Feb. 2012 while filming for his then-upcoming film for “unlawful entry.” Though he had a pass to do the filming during the hearing, he was was slapped with this charge anyway.

    “This is a public hearing. I’m within my First Amendment rights, and I’m being taken out,” Fox calmly stated to those in the hearing room while being escorted out during his arrest. 

    Independent Journalists? Oh, Really?

    Then there's the big question: how do two so-called independent journalists afford to pay for a $1 million condo off the Pacific Ocean in Marina Del Rey, CA?

    This condo was purchased by them in May 2010, according to property records matching the listed address for Hard Boiled Films LLC, the listed producer of “FrackNation.”

       

    And though it's obvious from the filmmaker's track-records that they have ties to powerful right-wing upper-level circles, sources told DeSmogBlog that McAleer interviewed them under deceptive pretenses. 

    McAleer's Interview Requests Under Misleading Pretenses

    One of the featured interviewees in the film is Dimock, PA's Craig Sautner alongside his wife, Julie. The Sautners were interviewed for the first “Gasland” and had their water contaminated by Cabot Oil and Gas in 2008.

    “Trees were cleared and the ground leveled to make room for a four-acre drilling site less than 1,000 feet away from their land,” an account in Vanity Fair explained. “The Sautners could feel the earth beneath their home shake whenever the well was fracked. Within a month, their water had turned brown. It was so corrosive that it scarred dishes in their dishwasher and stained their laundry.”

    In an interview with DeSmogBlog, Sautner said McAleer approached him under misleading pretenses, claiming to be an anti-fracking filmmaker hoping to help out in Ireland's fracking fight. 

    “I was hesitant at first to do the interview, but he begged us and we said 'okay.' Everything he ended up using in the video he took out of context. He had it all set up from the beggining of what he wanted to show and he wasn't going to show the truth,” Sautner told DeSmogBlog.

    Victoria Switzer, another Dimock victim of Cabot interviewed for “FrackNation” who spent four hours speaking with McAleer in her house (her interview did not appear in the film), also expressed similar sentiments to DeSmogBlog.  

    He called he assured me he was doing an unbiased documentary both sides of the issues. I think it is significant because it goes to his lying, his manipulation of the truth, and misrepresentation of his agenda. I never would have let him in my home if I knew what his agenda was. Later when I saw some of his other work I was sickened that this man sat at the table my husband built in the home that is now threatened by the industry he serves! 

    McAleer mislead interviewees during the filming of “Mine Your Own Business,” too. Stephanie Roth - a 2005 recipient of the prestigious Goldman Environmental Prize and a grassroots activist who has helped in the anti-mining fight in Romania - was also approached by McAleer for an interview for that film.

    The catch: he did so - according to one account - under a psudonym and Roth refused to speak to him because McAleer was uninterested in interviewing any of the local grassroots activists she suggested should be interviewed besides her.

    Big Tobacco Player, Climate Changer Deniers Makes Film Apperances

    “FrackNation” itself features numerous fossil fuel industry shills-for-hire, climate change deniers, as well as one former Big Tobacco apologist, all posing as “independent experts.” The roster of hired guns is robust: 

    -Bruce Ames - Ames sits on the Advisory Board of Collegians for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT), a climate change denial, fossil fuel industry-funded group on college campuses nationwide. He also formerly sat on the Advisory Board for The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC), created by Philip Morris, as explained in the book “Trust Us We're Experts” by Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber.

    In the film, Ames compares the chemical compounds found in fracking fluid to those found in cabbage.

    “If I gave you all of the long names of the chemicals in cabbage that give cancer to rats in high levels, you could get scared, but there's really no danger in cabbage,” he stated in the film. “If people say fracking's causing cancer, then they don't know what they're talking about.” 

    -Robert Bryce - Bryce's analysis was also featured early-on in the film, though his fellowship at the Manhattan Institute Center for Energy Policy and the Environment - heavily funded by the oil and gas industry - goes unmentioned. Bryce was also interviewed extensively in the industry propaganda film, “Haynseville.” 

    -James Delingpole - Delingpole is an infamous climate change denier and columnist for the UK Telegraph. In the film, Delingpole hints that the U.S. anti-fracking movement might be funded by Russia for geopolitical purposes. 

    “In fact, I would say Russia is screwed if it can't export its gas,” Delingpole said in the film. “So, it really is very important for Russia that the shale gas revolution does not happen. It is also in Russia's interest to fund those environmental groups which are committed to campaigning against fracking. That's how it works.”

    -Terry Engelder - Engelder is viewed by many as a shale gas industry spokesman. He is the co-founder of Appalachian Fracture Systems, a natural gas consulting firm and was interviewed in “Truthland,” a documentary made in response to “Gasland” by Energy In Depth. 

    -Jon Entine - Entine is a visiting fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, which The Guardian revealed takes millions to deny climate change from, among others, ExxonMobil. He also has a fellowship at George Mason University, heavily funded by the Koch Brothers.

    Mother Jones referred to Entine as an “agribusiness apologist” in a Feb. 2012 piece pointing to some his unsavory advocacy on behalf of multnational agribusiness corporation, Syngenta.   

    -Bryan Shaw - Shaw serves as head of the Texas Center for Environmental Quality (TCEQ). He's also a notorious climate changer denier whose fellow climate change denying boss - TX Republican Gov. Rick Perry - took $5,204,795 from Big Oil before his 2010 electoral victory. Perry has already raised $671,069 in advance of his forthcoming 2014 electoral efforts.  

    “Merchants of Doubt” At It Again

    McAleer can best be described as a favorite corporate third-party advocate, a hired gun to sow seeds of doubt on the ecological impacts of fracking. 

    “[Third party advocacy] offers camouflage, helping to hide the vested interest that lurks behind a message,” wrote Rampton and Stauber in “Trust Us We're Experts.” “Putting the same message in someone else's mouth gives it a credibility that it would not otherwise enjoy.”

    Thus, while many critics write McAleer off as a convoluted goof ball, there's more to the story than originally meets the eye: it's the story of the Tobacco Playbook's redux and the stakes of the climate crisis couldn't be higher. 

    In Dec. 1953, PR hegemon Hill and Knowlton formed the Tobacco Industry Committee for Public Information, also forming the Tobacco Institute in 1963. The U.S. Dept. of Justice would later say that “deceive[d] the American public about the health impacts of smoking.”

    60 years later, more of the same. Hill and Knowlton now represents America's Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA), the unconventional oil and gas industry's lobbying tour de force. 

    With influential news outlets ranging from The New York Times, Variety, New York Post, National Review, and the Associated Press all covering the film favorably, whoever is bank-rolling “FrackNation” understands how the dark arts of PR are utilized. That is, when “both sides” of a one-sided scientific debate are covered in a news story, the “merchants of doubt” always wins. 


              Exposed: "FrackNation" Deploys Tobacco Playbook in Response to "Gasland 2"        

    Big Oil has deployed the “Tobacco Playbook” once again, this time in response to the release of “Gasland 2.”

    It comes in the form of a documentary film titled, “FrackNation,” whose co-directors' funding in the past came from Donors Capital and Donors Trust, referred to by Mothers Jones' Andy Kroll as “the dark-money ATM of the right” and a major source of funding for climate change denial. 

    Both “Gasland 2” and “FrackNation” cover hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), the toxic horizontal drilling process via which unconventional oil and gas is obtained from shale rock basins around the country and world. Co-produced and co-directed by Irish couple Phelim McAleer and Ann McElhinney, “FrackNation” purports to be “funded by the 99 percent to combat the misrepresentations by the 1 percent of urban elites who want to tell rural Americans how to work and live.”

    McAleer and McElhinney also say they are independent journalists working independently of corporate funding. McAleer was referred to by the San Francisco Chronicle as “climate denial's Michael Moore” and both McAleer and McElhinney are listed as “experts” by the climate change-denying Heartland Institute.

    “FrackNation is an independent film and we want to remain independent of the Gas industry and be funded by ordinary people,” it says on its KickStarter page that it used to raise $212,265 from 3,305 backers of the film between February-April 2012.

    This isn't the first dip in the “doubt is our product” pond for McAleer and McElhinney. In the past, they co-directed and co-produced a pro-mining documentary titled “Mine Your Own Business” and a climate change denial documentary titled, “Not Evil, Just Wrong.”

    Both McAleer and McElhinney have made a living in recent years deploying the “Tobacco Playbook,” mutating settled scientific debates on energy and climate catastrophe into false two-sided affairs, which corporate-funded news media take and run with as “he-said, she-said” stories. 

    Filmmaker's History of Tobacco Playbook Deployment

    “FrackNation” made its public debut in Jan. 2013, coinciding with the release of “Promised Land,” a Hollywood drama starring Matt Damon. 

    “It's time Hollywood celebrities and environmentalists were asked some difficult questions about their anti-fracking activities and ideologies. And that's what FrackNation does,” McAleer said in a press release announcing the world premiere. 

    McAleer and McElhinney are now singing a similar tune about “Gasland 2,” as it approaches its July 8 HBO release date. 

    “Mine Your Own Business”

    Countering popular environmental struggles and luminaries is the modus operandi for McAleer and McElhinney, with a track record of doing so dating back to the mid-2000's. Their first public foray into the world of “marketing doubt” came with the release of their “Mine Your Own Business: The Dark Side of Environmentalism.”  

    Released in 2006, the film was produced in response to the anti-mining protests that popped up against Gabriel Resources proposed open-pit gold mines in Romania, slated to be the largest in Europe. McAleer said it was “the world's first anti-environmentalist documentary.” 

    One key funder: Gabriel Resources. This moved local Romanian citizen Eugen David to write that the film was pure propaganda. 

    “Because the gold lies squarely under and around the village of Rosia Montana, Gabriel needs to move out the local population – roughly 2000 people all in all. But it's not only the people that will need to go,” David wrote in Jan. 2007. “Gone also would be our mountains, pastures, rivers and our churches, cemeteries and school – our community with its social fabric and traditions.”

    The purpose of the film was obvious: complicate the narrative on the proposed mine through ad hominem attacks on environmentalists, rather than addressing environmental issues associated with the mine itself. David and fellow citizens living in the proposed mining area didn't buy the bluff. 

    “After a first unannounced test screening in Bucharest, Gabriel Resources had to stop the film after 15 minutes because people were so revolted by what they saw,” he further explained. 

    “Mine Your Own Business,” however, did have a loyal fan base: the right-wing echo chamber. 

    Steve Milloy, a tobacco industry front man-turned-fossil fuel industry front man, wrote two favorable reviews for Fox News. The Salt Institute and Atlas Society (named after Ayn Rand's “Atlas Shrugged”) echoed Milloy's efforts.  

    “Not Evil, Just Wrong”

    In response to the proposed 2009 federal climate legislation and in the run-up to the 2009 Copenhagen United Nations international climate summit, McAleer and McElhinney released the film, “Not Evil, Just Wrong.” Akin to “FrackNation” with “Gasland 2” director Josh Fox, the film spends much time attacking former Vice President Al Gore in ad hominem fashion, with the film serving as a response Gore's “An Inconvenient Truth.”  

    “It has no commercial distributor, but instead debuted on an October 18 webcast heavily promoted by social conservative organizations like Focus on the Family and the American Family Association, as well as local Tea Party groups,” a Mother Jones article explained.

    Paralleling “Mine Your Own Business,” the film was met with great fanfare within the right-wing echo chamber despite lack of commercial distribution. 

    “They’ve held pre-screenings for bloggers and brought the film to every major conservative conference of 2009, including the Values Voter Summit and Americans for Prosperity’s Defending the American Dream Summit,” one news media report explained. “At the Conservative Political Action Conference [CPAC], McAleer and McElhinney spoke right before Rush Limbaugh.”

    Other Big Tobacco apologists-turned-Big Oil apologists also helped promote the film: Grover Norquist's Americans for Tax Reform and the Heritage Foundation, the Cornwall Alliance, The Washington Examiner, Collegians for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT), the Fraser Institute, Breitbart.com, and Right Online.      

    McAler and McElhinney have brought the Tobacco Playbook to the big screen. The question remains: who's funding them?

    Donors Trust, Donors Capital Funding McAleer, McElhinney

    “Mine Your Own Business”

    “Mine Your Own Business” was funded by Gabriel Resources, but Gabriel wasn't the only fundee. The other patron: Donors Trust/Donors Capital.

    In the past, McElhinney and McAleer were formerly Fellows at the Moving Picture Institute (MPI), founded by Thor Halvorssen. MPI, in turn, produced “Mine Your Own Business” and is a member of the State Policy Network (SPN), a right-wing echo chamber network for state policy that publishes PR “studies” to promote the corporate agenda.

    Halvorssen also runs the Human Rights Foundation (HRF), which has taken $764,950 from Donors Trust and Donors Capital since 2005, according to a recent investigative story by Max Blumenthal. Blumenthal also explains MPI took more than $300,000 from Donors between 2005 and 2011. 

    “Not Evil, Just Wrong”

    “Not Evil, Just Wrong” also received funding from Donors. DeSmogBlog contributor and Guardian (UK) climate changer writer Graham Readfearn explained in a Feb. 2012 article that Donors funnelled $24,753 toward the film. 

    This lends an explanation as to why “Not Evil, Just Wrong” was promoted by well-heeled climate change deniers in the mid-2010 Balanced Education for Everyone (BEE) campaign, calling for a “balanced” scientific teaching of the climate change “controversy.” The BEE campaign parallels ones pushed for via an American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) model bill, by the Discovery Institute, and by the Heartland Institute. 

    “Global warming alarmists want Americans to believe that humans are killing the planet,” BEE's former website explained in promoting the film. “But Not Evil Just Wrong, a documentary by Phelim McAleer and Ann McElhinney, proves that the real threats to America (and the rest of the world) are the flawed science and sky-is-falling rhetoric of Al Gore and his allies in environmental extremism.”

    BEE's campaign was run by the Independent Women's Forum (IWF), which in Oct. 2003 signed a partnership with Americans for Prosperity (AFP), an astroturf front group founded and funded by the Koch Brothers, key funders of the climate change denial machine. The two entitites at the time announced they would share leadership, senior staff and office space, a formal relationship they say ended in 2005. 

    IWF - before it disbanded - was formerly headed by current AFP Board Member Nancy Mitchell Pfotenhauer from 2000-2005, who also sat on IWF's Board of Directors from 2005-2007. From 1998-2000, Pfotenhauer served as a lobbyist for Koch Industries, also serving as Senior Policy Advisor and spokesperson for the 2008 John McCain presidential campaign. 

    Pfotenhauer was also the former Executive Vice President of Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE), established by Charles Koch and affiliate Richard Fink and propelled by $13 million in grants from Koch Family Foundations. After CSE split into FreedomWorks and AFP, she served as AFP's President and CEO. She now sits on the Board of Visitors of George Mason University and on the Board of Directors of the CATO Institute, two other key entitites that make up the Koch echo chamber.  

    “Not Evil, Just Wrong” shared the same PR firm with BEE, Go Ahead PR, a sure sign that the film's release and the campaign were part of a well-coordinated campaign. 

    And though McAleer and McElhinney say “FrackNation” was bankrolled via a grassroots KickStarter fundraising drive, a deeper dig into its books - as will be seen in part two of this investigation - calls that all into question. 

    Image Credit: ShutterStock | grynold


              Robert Bryce        

    Robert Bryce

    Credentials

    • B.F.A., University of Texas at Austin (1986). [1]

    Background

    Robert Bryce is an American author and journalist based in Austin, Texas. [17] He has regularly been cited as an “expert” on energy issues in the media, but has been under increased scrutiny after writing numerous articles in media outlets that did not disclose his ties to the fossil fuel industry. [16]

    Many of Bryce's articles have been on the energy business. He spent 12 years writing for The Austin Chronicle. From 2006 to September 2010 he worked as the managing editor of the online publication Energy Tribune. [17]

    From October 2007 to February 2008 he was a fellow at the Institute for Energy Research (IER). In April, 2010 he joined the Manhattan Institute as a senior fellow in its Center for Energy Policy and the Environment. [2], [17]

    The Manhattan Institute is a policy think tank that has received significant funding from both ExxonMobil and Koch Industries. According to media transparency, the Manhattan Institute has been known to “obscure” science supporting man-made climate change. [3]

    Bryce has been unwilling to answer questions about the funding the Manhattan Institute receives from the fossil fuel industry. [15]

    Stance on Climate Change

    “The science is not settled, not by a long shot. […] If serious scientists can question Einstein’s theory of relativity, then there must be room for debate about the workings and complexities of the Earth’s atmosphere. Furthermore, even if we accept that carbon dioxide is bad, it’s not clear exactly what we should do about it.” [4]

    “On the science of global climate change, I'm an agnostic. I've seen Al Gore's movie, and I've read reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. I've also listened to the 'skeptics.' I don't know who's right.” [5]

    Key Quotes

    “[W]e should be cheering the news that coal use is rising. For it means that more people are escaping the darkness and joining the modern world.” [25]

    ”[…] the job [at the Manhattan Institute] gives me a platform where I can focus on the themes that I explored in both Gusher of Lies and Power Hungry: that the myths about “green” energy are largely just that, myths; that hydrocarbons are here to stay; and that if we are going to pursue the best “no regrets” policy with regard to energy, then we should be avidly promoting natural gas and nuclear energy.” [6]

    “It’s time to move the debate past the dogmatic view that carbon dioxide is evil and toward a world view that accepts the need for energy that is cheap, abundant and reliable.” [4]

    Key Deeds

    May 15, 2016

    Robert Bryce published an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal titled “An Ill Wind: Open Season on Bald Eagles“ criticizing new regulations put in place by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) governing the accidental harming of bald and golden eagles. According to Bryce, the FWS is “trying to make it easier for the wind industry to kill” eagles. [19]

    On May 6, the blog Daily Kos predicted Bryce's piece, saying Bryce and the Journal would likely contribute a “fresh round of fossil fuel-penned pieces crying crocodile tears for birds” shortly after the FWS regulations were announced: [20]

    “Bryce wrote op-eds attacking wind power in February, October and November 2013, which are all similar to one he wrote in 2009, and just like what he wrote in 2015. Since he already attacked wind power back in February of this year, one might think the WSJ editors wouldn’t want to go back to him for essentially a rerun of the same op-ed. But the WSJ has published over twenty of his pieces since 2009, all of which are either explicitly anti-wind or pro-fossil fuels,” Daily Kos writes.

    Media Matters notes that Bryce's Op-Ed piece is “misleading”: [21]

    “Bryce complained that the new rules would allow wind energy producers to kill or injure up to 4,200 eagles per year and hyped data showing that wind turbines were responsible for about 573,000 total bird deaths (not just eagles) in 2012. But as the Daily Kos piece explained, it is misleading to cite these figures without explaining that wind turbines are responsible for only 'about 3 percent of human-caused eagle deaths' and that other factors – including the oil and gas industry and climate change – are a much greater threat to birds than wind energy.”

    May 4, 2016

    Robert Bryce authored a Manhattan Institute report titled “What Happens to an Economy When Forced to Use Renewable Energy?” (PDF). [28]

    Bonner R. Cohen promoted the new study at the Heartland Institute. He writes that policies to combat climate change in Europe “have led to soaring electricity costs for residential and commercial customers, leading the authors to recommend the United States reject similar policies.” [29]

    “To avoid the kinds of results seen in Europe, U.S. policymakers at the federal and state levels should be required to do rigorous cost-benefit analyses before imposing renewable-energy mandates,” Robert Bryce said. “U.S. policymakers must also consider the impact higher energy costs will have on overall employment and industrial competitiveness.” [29]

    February 7, 2016

    Robert Bryce published an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal “attacking [Bernie] sanders' renewable energy plan,” reports Media Matters. [23]

    In the op-ed, Bryce claimed that Sanders “better check with his Vermont constituents about the popularity of wind energy.” He adds, “Nowhere is the backlash [against wind energy] stronger than in Mr. Sanders's state.” [24]

    According to Media Matters, Bryce's statement is not accurate: “ despite the presence of a vocal minority who oppose large-scale wind projects, support for wind energy development is actually very strong in the Green Mountain State.” They cite a 2014 poll by Fairbank, Maslin, Maulin, Metz & Associates for the Vermont Public Interest Research Group (VPIRG) that found 71 percent of Vermonters support building wind turbines along the state's ridgelines, while only 23 percent oppose wind energy development.  [23]

    June 22, 2015

    Robert Bryce wrote a column in the National Review titled “The Poor Need More Energy: What BP Knows and Pope Francis Doesn't,” where he  maintained that the best, low-cost energy source for developing countries is coal. [14]
     
    According to Bryce, “[Pope Francis's] new encyclical on climate change, Laudato Si’ (Be praised), shows a shallow understanding of global energy use and, in particular, of how energy consumption is soaring among the people he claims to care most about: the poor.” 
    “But if developing countries are going to prepare for possible changes in the climate, they will have to get richer so they can afford to deal with any calamities that may occur. And how will they get richer? The answer is obvious: by consuming more energy. And for countries throughout the developing world, the lowest-cost energy is still coal,” Bryce writes. [14]

    February 25, 2014

    Robert Bryce testified before the Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works where he contends that “federally subsidized efforts that are being undertaken to, in theory, address climate change, are damaging America’s wildlife.” [26]

    Bryce focused his attacks the wind industry: 

    “Given the studies already done on wind energy’s deleterious impact on wildlife, combined with the 'energy sprawl' that will come with the industry’s continuing expansion, it is virtually certain that as the wind sector adds more turbines, more federally protected wildlife – including more bald eagles, an animal that has been on the Great Seal of the United States since 1782 – will be killed.[xl] And thanks to the production tax credit, taxpayers will be subsidizing the slaughter.

    The question at hand is obvious: why are policymakers implementing an energy policy that is a known killer of wildlife in exchange for what are infinitesimally small reductions in carbon dioxide emissions?” [26]

    October, 2011

    An October 2011 Petition submitted by the Checks and Balances Project complained about Bryce, pointing to “a disturbing trend of special interests surreptitiously funding “experts” to push industry talking points in the nation’s major media outlets.” [7]

    DeSmogBlog reported on this issue here, and here.

    According to the letter, “pundits like Mr. Bryce have the right to share their views, but we believe media outlets have the responsibility to inform their readers of opinion writers’ true ties and conflicts of interest.”

    It appears that an Op-Ed by Bryce titled “the Gas is Greener” which criticizes renewable energy including wind projects and reports to expose hidden costs and “deep contradictions” in the “renewable energy movement.” [8]

    Signatories asked the New York Times to set the standard by revealing the ties of these “expertS” and ensuring readers get the full story.

    New York Times editor Arthur S. Brisbane responded, dismissing the petition's request and saying that “I don’t think Mr. Bryce is masquerading as anything: experts generally have a point of view. And the Manhattan Institute’s dependence on this category of funding is slight — about 2.5 percent of its budget over the past 10 years. But the issue of authorial transparency is an important one, albeit one that isn't always simple.” [9]

    August 11, 2011

    According to SourceWatch, Bryce was a featured speaker at the 2011 American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) Annual Meeting at a workshop titled “Unconventional Revolution: How Technological Advancements Have Transformed Energy Production in the United States.”

    The panel advocated the process of fracking for reaching unconventional gas reserves. Bryce has also published articles in favour of fracking and in one example where he presents the often-repeated industry claim that fracking poses “minimal risk” to groundwater.  He stressed that New York “can’t afford to be left behind in the shale revolution.” [18], [10]

    In a June 13, 2011 piece published in the Wall Street Journal he wrote that the “shale revolution now underway is the best news for North American energy since the discovery of the East Texas Field in 1930.” [11]

    May 12, 2010

    Bryce wrote an Op-Ed in the New York Times revealing his opposition to the implementation of carbon capture technology. 

    He was particularly critical of a senate energy bill introduced by John Kerry and Joseph Lieberman which would include incentives of $2 billion per year for carbon capture and sequestration.

    Bryce wrote “That's a lot of money for a technology whose adoption faces three potentially insurmountable hurdles: it greatly reduces the output of power plants; pipeline capacity to move the newly captured carbon dioxide is woefully insufficient; and the volume of waste material is staggering. Lawmakers should stop perpetuating the hope that the technology can help make huge cuts in the United States’ carbon dioxide emissions.”

    He also predicted public opposition to carbon dioxide sequestration areas, writing how “few landowners are eager to have pipelines built across their property. And because of the possibility of deadly leaks, few people will to want to live near a pipeline or an underground storage cavern. This leads to the obvious question: which members of the House and Senate are going to volunteer their states to be dumping grounds for all that carbon dioxide?” [12]

    April 8, 2009

    Wrote an article titled “Let Exxon Run the Energy Dept.” in The Daily Beast. The article is strongly critical of the Obama Administration which he claims is “working to marginalize America's single biggest sector, the sliver of the economy that produces our most essential commodities: gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, coal (which provides about half of the country’s electricity) and natural gas.”

    Bryce writes “the U.S. has never had a secretary of Energy who has actually drilled an oil well, built a nuclear power plant, or dug coal out of the ground. Indeed, actual experience in the energy business appears to be grounds for disqualification. This is stunning.”

    In conclusion, Bryce suggests that maybe we should include more people representing the energy industry in government: “Maybe—just maybe—those energy companies aren’t so villainous after all. And here’s another wacky thought: Maybe—just maybe—we should have a few people in government who really understand how the energy business works.” [13]

    Affiliations

    Publications

    Many of Robert Bryce's recent articles can be viewed at RobertBryce.com. In 2011, Media Matters noted 39 times that Robert Bryce appeared in the media where sources failed to mention his ties to the oil industry. [3]

    Bloomberg

    Media Matters reports that Bloomberg has published several columns by Robert Bryce without disclosing that he is a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute's Center for Energy Policy and the Environment, which has received significant funding from ExxonMobil. Some of Bryce's cited publications below: [22]

    Manhattan Institute

    Some sample Manhattan Institute Publications below:

    In the past, the Manhattan institute also listed “research” by Robert Bryce: [27]

    Books

    Other Recent Publications

    Robert Bryce has contributing hundreds of articles to multiple news sources, often attacking renewable energy sources and environmentalists while encouraging the use of fossil fuels and coal power. View the attached spreadsheet for samples of Robert Bryce's latest publications (.xlsx).

    Resources

    1. “Robert Bryce,” Profile at the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Archived May 26, 2016.

    2. “Bio,” Robertbryce.com. Archived May 26, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hmTUbf60

    3. “Who Is Robert Bryce?” Media Transparency, October 7, 2011. Archived May 26, 2016.

    4. “Five Truths About Climate Change,” The Wall Street Journal, October 6, 2011. Republished by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Archived July 6, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    5. Robert Bryce. “If More CO2 Is Bad … Then What?” The Austin Chronicle, December 7, 2007. Archived May 26, 2016.

    6. Robert Bryce. “Farewell: My Final Column for Energy Tribune,” September 30, 2010. Archived May 26, 2016.

    7. “Letter To The New York Times,” TrueTies, October 6, 2011. Archived May 26, 2016.

    8. Robert Bryce. “The Gas Is Greener,” The New York Times, June 7, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    9. Arthur S. Brisbane. “The Times Gives Them Space, but Who Pays Them?” The New York Times, October 29, 2011. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    10. Robert Bryce. ”Phony Franking Fears for NY,” New York Post, December 15, 2011. Archived July 6, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    11. Robert Bryce. ”America Needs the Shale Revolution,” Wall Street Journal, June 13, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    12. Robert Bryce. “A Bad Bet on Carbon,” The New York Times (Opinion), May 12, 2010.

    13. Robert Bryce. “Let Exxon Run the Energy Dept.” The Daily Beast, April 8, 2009.

    14. Robert Bryce. “The Poor Need More Energy: What BP Knows and Pope Francis Doesn't,” National Review, June 22, 2015. Archived September 5, 2015.

    15. Brendan DeMelle. “Accountability Moment: Manhattan Institute's Robert Bryce Squirms And Evades Question on Fossil Fuel Funding,” DeSmogBlog, February 9, 2012.

    16. Farron Cousins. “Robert Bryce – The Media’s Industry-Funded Go-To Guy,” DeSmogBlog, October 12, 2011.

    17. “About Bryce,” RobertBryce.com. Archived October 3, 2010. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    18. Robert Bryce. “How fracking lies triumphed,” New York Daily News, January 22, 2012. Archived May 26, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hmSizDSE

    19. Robert Bryce. “An Ill Wind: Open Season on Bald Eagles,” Wall Street Journal, May 15, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    20. “The Birds and the ‘Bines: Wind Turbine Regulations Revised,” Daily Kos, May 6, 2016. Archived May 26, 2016.

    21. Andrew Seifter. “Big Oil Cheerleader Robert Bryce Predictably Misleads On Wind Energy And Eagle Deaths In WSJ,” Media Matters for America, May 16, 2016. Archived May 26, 2016. 

    22. “Why Has Bloomberg Given Robert Bryce A Platform To Attack Renewables Without Disclosing That Oil Pays His Salary?” Media Matters for America, June 9, 2015. Archived May 26, 2016.

    23. Andrew Seifter. “Bernie Sanders' Wind Energy Plan Falsely Attacked By Big Oil Ally, With Help From The Wall Street Journal,” Media Matters for America, February 8, 2016. Archived May 26, 2016.

    24. “The Windmills of Bernie's Mind,” The Wall Street Journal. Republished by the Manhattan Institute, February 8, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    25. Robert Bryce. “Coal use is soaring – that's good news,” The Hill, December 22, 2014. Archived May 26, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hnZoXg9b

    26. “U.S. Senate Testimony: Killing Wildlife in the Name of Climate Change,” RobertBryce.com, February 25, 2014. Archived May 26, 2016. Webcite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hnaxQpe1

    27. “Robert Bryce,” Manhattan Institute. Archived July 6, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    28. Robert Bryce, “What Happens to an Economy When Forced to Use Renewable Energy?” (PDF), The Manhattan Institute, May 4, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

    29. Bonner R. Cohen. “Study Shows the High Economic Costs of Renewable Energy,” Heartland Institute, June 14, 2016. Archived June 25, 2016. WebCiteURL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iXTFFgPV

    Other Resources

    File attachments: 

              Accountability Moment: Manhattan Institute's Robert Bryce Squirms And Evades Question on Fossil Fuel Funding        

    Robert Bryce from the fossil fuel industry-funded Manhattan Institute just can't bring himself to answer a simple question about the fossil fuel industry funding flowing into his group. Readers of DeSmogBlog may recall our previous coverage about Bryce's anti-clean energy attacks in the New York Times op-ed pages and elsewhere.

    Citing the prime example of Robert Bryce's conflict of interest, I asked the Public Editor at the New York Times last year why the paper doesn't require its op-ed contributors to disclose their funding sources so that readers can make up their own minds about the potential bias of these contributors.

    Since Bryce is typically only listed as a Manhattan Institute senior fellow, that doesn't let the reader know that his organization has received a significant amount of money from dirty energy interests including ExxonMobil and Koch Industries. That's an important factor in evaluating the rationale behind Mr. Bryce's bias against clean energy.

    Watch below as Gabe Elsner, my friend at the Checks and Balances Project, asks Bryce the simple question about his funding from fossil fuel interests. 

    Gabe explains: 

    I asked Bryce if he had financial ties to the fossil fuel industry after his debate appearance before the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners conference on Monday. Not only did Bryce refuse to answer the question, he also launched into an angry, finger-pointing tirade saying that I’d “made up” the amount of fossil fuel support documented by Manhattan Institute records.

    Watch the clip with Gabe's analysis embedded:


              Robert Bryce – The Media’s Industry-Funded Go-To Guy        

    Robert Bryce, a fellow at the dirty industry-funded Manhattan Institute, is under increasing scrutiny as media outlets continue to use him as an “expert” on energy issues without disclosing his ties to the energy industry. DeSmogBlog’s Brendan DeMelle has written several pieces on Bryce’s connections to the industry, as well as how media outlets, including the New York Times, continue to allow Bryce to write op-eds on energy issues that are laden with fallacies without disclosing his conflict of interest.

    From Brendan’s previous reports on Bryce’s New York Times piece:

    Bryce penned an op-ed attacking renewable energy while promoting nuclear and fracked shale gas, with no disclosure in his byline about the Manhattan Institute’s fossil fuel clients. I offered Bryce's piece as an example in order to formally seek answers about the disclosure policy at the Times and whether it was adequate in light of the failure to disclose Bryce’s dirty energy backing.

    Now Media Matters has done a fantastic job of detailing the numerous media outlets that are allowing the industry hack Bryce to pen his agenda-driven drivel, as well as uncovering where his group's funding is coming from:

    Manhattan Institute Is Funded By ExxonMobil. According to ExxonSecrets.org, the Manhattan Institute has received $385,000 from Exxon since 1998, including $50,000 in 2010.

    Manhattan Institute Has Received Funding From The Koch Family Foundations. The Manhattan Institute has received over $1.3 million total from the Claude R. Lambe Foundation and the David H. Koch Foundation over the years, both of which are associated with Koch Industries, an oil, gas and chemical corporation. From 2001 to 2009 (the most recent year for which data is available), the Lambe Foundation gave The Manhattan Institute $200,000 annually. The Lambe Foundation's board of directors is “comprised entirely of Koch family members, senior Koch executives, and staff who serve Koch foundations,” including the CEO of Koch Industries Charles G. Koch, according to Greenpeace.

    In addition to the reporting of Media Matters, a website called TrueTies.org has taken a close look at Bryce's clear conflicts of interest and asked the New York Times to craft a policy of disclosure of conflicts of interest for its op-ed contributors.

    Agenda-driven journalism is a growing problem in America, and without full disclosure from media out