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          World: Food Assistance Outlook Brief, August 2017        
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion.


          Yemen: UNHCR Yemen Situation: 2017 Funding Update (as of 7 August 2017)        
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen

  • 79.8 M required for 2017

  • 42.0 M contributions received, representing 53% of requirements

  • 37.8 M funding gap for the Yemen situation

All figures are shown in USD


          Trust: The Power of Transformation        

Cast: Dell Multimedia

Tags: africa, trust, djibouti, emc, transformation, sony fs100 and nex


          Trust: The Power of Transformation (preview)        

How can Trust in action help impact the lives of millions? EMC's John Custer, former U.S. Major General revisits the Horn of Africa to explore how the power of Big Data is transforming the future for generations to come.

Stay tuned for the full documentary from EMC TV.

More from EMC TV emc.im/wWVBwx

Cast: Dell Multimedia

Tags: EMC, EMC TV, Big Data, Djibouti and Africa


          Creating A 12 To 24-Month Policy Bridge For A New Afghanistan Strategy        

http://dailycaller.com/2017/08/04/creating-a-12-to-24-month-policy-bridge-for-a-new-afghanistan-strategy/

LAWRENCE SELLIN

Retired Colonel, U.S. Army Reserve

3:52 PM 08/04/2017

Up until now his advisors have offered President Trump two choices for failure in Afghanistan, one quick, withdrawal, and one slow, a continuation of the failed strategy of the last sixteen years.

By now it should be apparent to all knowledgeable people that U.S. objectives cannot be achieved in land-locked Afghanistan where Pakistan, whose Afghanistan objectives differ from ours, controls the supply of our troops and the battle tempo through its support of the Taliban and Haqqani network.

An alternative is to provide the President with a 12 to 24-month plan that bridges the gap between the present untenable strategy to a longer term solution.

That is, rather than tweak the current strategy, begin to address the core problem, a strategic environment that has made success of the current strategy impossible.

Within the next two years, the Trump Administration should formulate a strategy that exploits Pakistan’s pain points, one which carves out roles for the Department of Defense, Department of State and Congress.

While preventing a further deterioration in the security situation in Afghanistan, different permutations and degrees of the following actions should be pursued, both as short term leverage against Pakistan and, ideally, to create a regional strategic environment more conducive to U.S. interests.  That is, it is not the Taliban and the Haqqani network that need to be brought to the negotiating table, but Pakistan.

Foreign aid to Pakistan – reduce it to a trickle. Even Pakistan’s former ambassador to the United States says that a tougher approach needs to be adopted toward his country: “The Bush administration gave Pakistan $12.4 billion in aid, and the Obama administration forked over $21 billion. These incentives did not make Pakistan more amenable to cutting off support for the Afghan Taliban.”Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA) status – cancel all or part of it. As a MNNA country, approved by President George W. Bush in 2004, Pakistan became “eligible for priority delivery of defense material, an expedited arms sale process, and a U.S. loan guarantee program, which backs up loans issued by private banks to finance arms exports. It can also stockpile U.S. military hardware, participate in defense research and development programs, and be sold more sophisticated weaponry.”Declaration of Pakistan as a state sponsor of terrorism – advance the House bill through Congress. On September 20, 2016, Congressman Ted Poe (TX-02), the Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Terrorism, along with Congressman Dana Rohrabacher (CA-48), introduced H.R.6069, the Pakistan State Sponsor of Terrorism Designation Act. According to Chairman Poe: “Not only is Pakistan an untrustworthy ally, Islamabad has also aided and abetted enemies of the United States for years.  From harboring Osama bin Laden to its cozy relationship with the Haqqani network, there is more than enough evidence to determine whose side Pakistan is on in the War on Terror.”Durand Line – Pakistan depends on it – question its legitimacy. The Durand Line is the arbitrary 1896 border drawn between Afghanistan and Pakistan by British Diplomat Sir Mortimer Durand. Pashtun lands have been artificially divided and Pakistan is using its Pashtun population as Taliban cannon fodder.China-Pakistan Economic Corridor – undermine it. Pakistan has significant economic incentive to exclude western countries from maintaining any influence in Afghanistan. It is called the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which is part of China’s larger Belt and Road Initiative that aims to connect Asia through land-based and maritime economic zones. CPEC is an infrastructure project, the backbone of which is a transportation network connecting China to the Pakistani seaports of Gwadar and Karachi located on the Arabian Sea. Gwadar is a potential Chinese naval base at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, which will complement another Chinese naval base in Djibouti at the mouth of the Red Sea creating two critical strategic choke points.Ethnic separatism – encourage it – Pakistan is the Yugoslavia of South Asia. Probably the greatest of all potential Pakistani pain points is ethnic separatism. Pakistan was founded on the religion of Islam and is composed primarily of five ethnic groups that never coexisted, the Bengalis, Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis and Baloch. Pakistan’s Islamic nationalism program was specifically designed to suppress ethnic separatism, an effort that eventually led to the proliferation of Islamic terrorist groups within its borders and their use as instruments of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Exploitation of ethnic separatism within Pakistan, such as in Balochistan, remains an option. That is, fight an insurgency with an insurgency.

A longer term solution for Afghanistan was described previously in the Daily Caller, one based on counterterrorism rather than counterinsurgency, providing a cost-effective, flexible and “conditions-based” strategy advocated by retired U.S. Army Major General Paul Vallely in a Diana West article.

“Such a strategy, Vallely explained, relies on ‘the maximum use of unconventional forces,’ such as Navy SEALS and other special forces, who can be deployed as needed from what are known in military parlance as ‘lily pads’ — outposts or jumping-off points in friendly countries (Israel, Northern Kurdistan, India, Philippines, Italy, Djibouti … ) and from U.S. aircraft carrier strike groups. Such strike groups generally include eight to 10 vessels ‘with more fire power,’ the general noted, ‘than most nations.’ These lily pads become ‘bases we can launch from any time we want to,’ eliminating the need for massive land bases such as Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan, by now a small city of 20,000 American personnel who continuously need to be supplied and secured at enormous expense.”

In terms of Afghanistan strategy, it is time to build a bridge to somewhere.

Lawrence Sellin, Ph.D. is a retired US Army Reserve colonel, an IT command and control subject matter expert, trained in Arabic and Kurdish, and a veteran of Afghanistan, northern Iraq and a humanitarian mission to West Africa. He receives email at lawrence.sellin@gmail.com.


          Invest in Agriculture to Boost Food Security in Africa – European Parliament        
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) call for more aid to be directed towards agricultural production and assistance to pastoralists to ensure food security Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Eritrea and Djibouti, which are currently hit by famine and drought. “The international community should make long-term investments in agriculture, as the main source of food and income […]
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 08-15-2014 with DJ Segue        
Playlist:

Onra- Welcome To Vietnam - Chinoiseries
Parva- MosemEGol The Time Of The Blossom - BMusic Drive In Turn On Freak Out
Fuka Vicente- Tempura Soul - Payback presents GI Funk 14 Vietnam Wartime Funky Club Hits
The Time Space Machine- amorous ways - Volume One LP
JPeriod Nneka- Human Rights Interlude - The Madness OnyeAla
Oh No- The Calling - Oh No Vs NowAgain 2
JPeriod Nneka- For the Good of Humanity Interlude - The Madness OnyeAla
J Dilla- 30 J Dilla Jay Dee Last Donut Of The Night -
Notorious BIG Frank Sinatra- Interlude - Bed Stuy Meets Blue Eyes
Tafo feat Nahid Akhtar- Karye Pyar - The Sound Of Wonder
wait what- a thing we have been denied for far too long interlude - this is real life
DJ Sun- InterludeMagical - One Hundred
KDefLord Tariq- In This Cold World Interlude - Most Underrated
Gil ScottHeron And Jamie XX- Jazz Interlude - Were New Here
Horace Silver- Old Mother Nature Calls - Total Response The United States Of Mind Phase 2
Flower Travellin Band- Satori Part 2 - Satori
Dbruit Alsarah- Alhalim - Aljawal
Spark Master Tape- Spark Master Tape 420 Interlude Produced by Paper Platoon - Syrup Splash
Ersen- Cakmagicak - VA Turkish Freakout Psych Folk Singles 196980
The Scammers- Sallys Walk Scammers - Carry On Kinky Beats
H Rap Brown and Leon Thomas- Leon Thomas Damn Nam I Aint Going to Viet Nam - SNCCs Rap
H Rap Brown and Leon Thomas- Leon ThomasH Rap Brown Um Um UmPart V - SNCCs Rap
Public Enemy- Incident at 666 FM Instrumental - Fear of a Black Planet
Cookin Soul x Gil Scott Heron- No Knock - The Revolution is being televised tribute
Le Damn Dog- Watch Out - Paris DJs Virtual Release 41
mr carmack- Fire No Payroll - Bang Vol 3
Dirty Filthy Mud- Forest Of Black - The Psychedelic Experience Vol2
GORK and Nick Holmes- a cartoons score adventure reunited backwards GoRk - FUN beattape album vol 002
Jan Jankeje- South Indian Line - BMusic Drive In Turn On Freak Out
The Gaslamp Killer- Lubos Fiser The Sermon FKR009 John Hill Europa FRK018 Jan Jankeje South Indian Line FKR020 - All Killer Finders Keepers Records 120
Lee Quinones- Wild Style Film Dialogue Professor Booty - Check Your Head Sample Sources
DJ Spooky- Reactive Switching Strategies for the Control of Uninhabited Air - Optometry
Weedy of 40 Winks- Interlude - Retrospect Suite
M Ashraf feat Nahid Akhtar- Good News For You - The Sound Of Wonder
Melodians- The Good The Bad And The Ugly - BMusic Drive In Turn On Freak Out
The Beatstalkers- Heard It Through The Grapevine - Pyramid Funk Dynamite Reggae
Pyramid Blue- African Jungle - Dis Is Good For You Tropical Grooves and Afrofunk International
William Onyeabor- Something You Will Never Forget - World Psychedelic Classics 5 Who Is William Onyeabor
Robin Williams- Adrian Cronauer - Good Morning Vietnam
Madlib- JB and JD Interlude - Beat Konducta Vol 56
Pantless- Moondog Monologue Moondog - ADD Vol 1
Black Merda- As Sisters and Brothers as VC L Veasey - The Psyche Funk of Black Merda
The Saphires- This Is Soul - Payback presents GI Funk 14 Vietnam Wartime Funky Club Hits
See How A White Negro Flies- 03 - Cloud Cuckoo Land
The Time Space Machine- river theme - Volume One LP
Desert Sessions- Like a Drug - The Desert Sessions Vol 6 Poetry for the MassesBlack Anvil Ego
AllahLas- Catamaran - AllahLas
- 21aswadnotguiltyvibez -
Funkgus- Memphis Soul Stew - Payback presents GI Funk 14 Vietnam Wartime Funky Club Hits
Charles Wright The Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band- Till You Get Enough - Ghostcapital III
Nichts- 16 - Cloud Cuckoo Land
Desmond Dekker- 20 Warlock -
Flower Travellin Band- Satori Part 5 - Satori
African Head Charge- treatment for a septic horn - Vision of a Psychedelic Africa
Oscar Brown Jr- But I Was Cool - Beat Generation Music Poetry
- 06 Elephantasy Incomplete -
Dan The Automator- Cartoon Capers - A Much Better Tomorrow
Al Quetz- Beat Communication Introduction - Drums Come From Africa
Full Crate- Never Never - HiHat Club Vol 5 Eggs And Pancakes
- 10 over night low the witch doctor -
Fat Albert Einstein Kabanjak- Rail To Rail Ancient Astronauts Remix - Rail To Rail Ancient Astronauts Remix
The Beatstalkers- The Tide Is High - Pyramid Funk Dynamite Reggae
Lee Scratch Perry- kiss me neck -
J Dilla- 20 J Dilla Jay Dee Geek Down -
Goony Swillz- Interlude - Free The Beats Vol2
Purple Penguin- Western Interlude - Question
African Head Charge- mr whippy does djibouti - Vision of a Psychedelic Africa
- 06 POETRY AND ALL THAT JAZZ -


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-08-15
          Secretele bazei militare chineze din Africa!        
Situata la Djibouti, suprafata primei baze navale detinuta de China in strainatate este mult mai importanta decat se crede, sustin analistului institutului american Stratfor.
          Airbus provides German troops with support communications at 15 sites worldwide        
Munich -  Airbus has successfully rolled out support communications to German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) troops deployed to military bases in Lithuania. Labelled “Connect-D”, Airbus now supplies telephone, internet and media services to a total of 15 deployed Bundeswehr units around the world, including Mali, Iraq, Djibouti, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Cyprus and Lithuania. The launch of Connect-D at the Lithuanian bases of Rukla and Pabrade was performed as part of a framework contract awarded b...
          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

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          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2011: THE CIRI REPORT        
The CIRI Human Rights Data Project has released its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2011.  The CIRI Project’s data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org.

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a variety of purposes.  The project is co-directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University), Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut), and Dr. K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). 

This data release has also been accompanied by a number of changes at the CIRI Project.  A new country was added to the data for 2011 (South Sudan), and, reflecting the addition of a new co-director (K. Chad Clay) in Fall 2012, the project’s citation has changed.  Perhaps most importantly, CIRI’s release schedule has changed.  In the future, data updates will be issued annually in January to cover the year that began two years previous.  As such, the 2012 ratings will be released in January 2014.

Below, we present four stories from the 2011 data:


THE BEST AND WORST OF 2011

All 14 of CIRI’s individual indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world.  The best score a country can receive is 30, representing high respect for all 14 human rights; the worst score is 0, representing very low respect for all 14 human rights.  The world average was 17, and the USA scored 24 (tied for the 7th highest score, but still ranking behind 37 countries).  Below are the best and worst of 2011.

Top 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Luxembourg [30]
Netherlands [29]
New Zealand [29]
San Marino [29]
Andorra [28]
Australia [28]
Denmark [28]
Iceland [28]
Norway [28]

Bottom 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Iran [1]
Eritrea [2]
Saudi Arabia [2]
Burma [3]
China [3]
Libya [3]
Yemen [3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea [4]
Syria [4]


STABILITY & CHANGE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index measures government respect for the freedoms from torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, and disappearance. It varies from 0 (no respect for physical integrity rights) to 8 (full respect for physical integrity rights).  Overall, government respect for physical integrity declined in 2011, as the mean score on the physical integrity rights index fell from 5.01 in 2010 to 4.82 in 2011.  In particular, respect for physical integrity rights saw the following dramatic changes in 2010-2011:

Largest Declines in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Bahrain [-5]
Djibouti [-3]
Egypt [-3]
Republic of Korea [-3]
Libya [-3]
Mauritania [-3]
Oman [-3]

Largest Improvements in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Panama [+4]
Croatia [+3]
Belarus [+2]
Nepal [+2]
Togo [+2]

Further, as these lists suggest, it would appear that changes in government respect for physical integrity rights in 2011 were not evenly distributed across the globe.  Indeed, as demonstrated below, South Asian states experienced a net improvement in average government respect for physical integrity, while some of the largest declines in government respect for physical integrity rights were concentrated in the Near East & North Africa:

Average Change in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights by Region
Africa [-0.04]
East Asia & the Pacific [-0.12]
Europe & Eurasia [0]
Near East & North Africa [-1.37]
South Asia [+0.25]
Western Hemisphere [-0.11]






THE “ARAB SPRING” & HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEAR EAST & NORTH AFRICA

Beginning in Tunisia in December 2010, the wave of demonstrations, protests, and conflicts known as the “Arab Spring” swept through the Arab world in 2011.  What effect did this have on respect for human rights in the Near East and North Africa (as defined by the US State Department)?  Table 1 displays the change in the overall human rights score, as well as in the CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index, from 2010 to 2011. 

 
As can be seen, most states in the region demonstrated reduced respect for human rights in 2011, particularly those states that experienced some of the highest levels of unrest that year, e.g. Bahrain, Libya, and Egypt.  Of course, other states, like Syria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, already had extremely low scores on our indicators and thus, had little room to move down.  On the other hand, Tunisia experienced a large increase in its overall human rights score, owing to the overthrow of its government early in the year and the elections held in October.  However, this was not enough to overcome the high level of physical integrity rights abuse that accompanied the protests early in the year, which led to a decrease in respect for physical integrity rights from an already low score of 3 in 2010 to 2 in 2011.
 
STABILITY & CHANGE IN WOMEN’S RIGHTS
 
CIRI also annually codes two measures of internationally-recognized women’s rights: women’s political rights and women’s economic rights.  The women’s political rights measure is aimed at capturing the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy the rights to vote, to run for political office, to hold elected and appointed government positions, to join political parties, and to petition government officials.  The women’s economic rights measure captures the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy equal pay for equal work, free choice of profession or employment, the right to gainful employment, equality in hiring and promotion, job security, freedom from discrimination by employers, freedom from sexual harassment, and the right to work in dangerous professions, including working at night and working in the military and police forces.
 
Our two measures of women’s rights moved in opposite directions in 2011.  While women’s political rights improved for the second straight year, women’s economic rights suffered a setback after two consecutive years of improvement.  Indeed, this is in keeping with these measures’ performance over time.  As shown in the graph below, respect for women’s economic rights has lagged behind respect for women’s political rights consistently since 1981.  However, that gap has widened with time, as respect for women’s political rights has consistently grown while respect for women’s economic rights has remained relatively flat.
Note: The shapefile used to construct the above map comes from Weidmann, Kuse, and Gleditsch’s cshapes, version 0.4-2.  The map was made using Pisati’s spmap package in Stata 12.1.  Another version of this post can be viewed at the The Quantitative Peace.

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          ANEXOS        
Artículo Enciclopedia encarta:




Constitución

Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.


Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.


Constituciones en el mundo
Constituciones vigentes en el mundo





1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
4. Andorra : 1983
5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
21. bhutan : 1953
22. Bolivia 1967
23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
26. brasil: 5 de octubre de 1988.la primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
44. Cuba: 1976
45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
79. Haiti. 1987
80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.





Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

1) Chad: 1996
2) Camerún: 1996
3) Sudáfrica: 1996
4) Georgia: 1995
5) Armenia: 1995
6) Kazajstan:1995
7) Malwi:1994
8) Bielorusia:1994
9) Lusemburgo: 1994
10) Rusia: 1993








No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

1) Israel
2) Nueva Zelanda
3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
4) San Marino
5) Vaticano
6) Bhutan
7) Omán
8) Somalia




Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
          Tobacco Control Measures before Parliament Health Committee        

The Vision for Alternative Development (VALD) and Coalition on the Tobacco Control Bill, have called on Parliament to enact a strong and formidable law on tobacco control measures to protect the lives of the people.

They also appealed for the speedy passage of the Public Health Bill and avoid attempts of the tobacco industry in interfering in the making of public health policy, because it would not only affect the well-being of Ghana but was also a breach of article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).

Mr Issah Ali, Executive Director of VALD who made the call in a statement copied to the Ghana News Agency in Accra said Ghana had failed to meet its obligations on article 8, 13 and 5.2 of the FCTC, deadline for which fell on February 27, 2010.

He said Ghana should have implemented a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, ban smoking in public places and pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation five years after ratifying the FCTC.

Mr Ali said although Ghana was making headway in the process of enacting laws against tobacco, its urgency was unfortunately relegated.

‘Till it happens to a close relation or a friend, one might never realize how close and deadly the tobacco canker is to all of us. However, much as one might wish never to believe tobacco is dangerous especially to the secondhand smoker, the evidence is glaring and therefore must be curbed earnestly before it degenerates.”

The Executive Director stressed that the FCTC did not recognize the tobacco industry in the discussion of public health polices and therefore their participation in Ghana’s Parliamentary Select Committee on Health’s public health hearings on the Bill was a violation of the Convention.

He cautioned the legislature to be on the lookout for any attempt of the tobacco industry to interfere with public health policy.

“We should be wary because unlike other national health threats such as cholera, malaria, maternal mortality, among others, this menace has multinational public relations firms well established promoters and lobbyists who may not leave anything to chance in interfering with public health policies,” he noted.

Some countries have fallen prey to the tobacco industry interference in their public health policy, thereby making their tobacco control legislations weak and ineffective and this should be a wakeup call to Ghanaian policy makers, he urged.

Mr Ali stated, “The Tobacco Control Measures of the Public Health Bill when passed will mandate the implementation of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs to enable smokers and non-smokers with low level of formal education to understand the hazardous effect of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke."

He indicated that countries such as Mauritius, Egypt, and Djibouti, among others in Africa, have implemented a pictorial and text health warning covering on their tobacco pack.
          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - August 2014        
Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the August 2014 FIFA Rankings.

Best Ranking
1 - Germany
15 - Costa Rica
29 - Venezuela
50 - Sierra Leone
73 - Azerbaijan
105 - Lesotho
165 - Montserrat


Worst Ranking
122 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
197 - Cayman Islands
201 - British Virgin Islands
201 - Cambodia
203 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - July 2014        

Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the July 2014 FIFA Rankings.


Best Ranking
1 - Germany
16 - Costa Rica
30 - Venezuela
73 - Azerbaijan
166 - Montserrat

Worst Ranking
70 - Republic of Ireland
118 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
200 - Cambodia
202 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          Northeastern Quartersphere - Wikipedia        

Northeastern Quartersphere

This is the Wikipedia article for "Northeastern Quartersphere" as it appeared on January 26, 2012, shortly prior to its expected deletion as original research.

The terms Northeastern Quarter or Northeastern Quadrant or simply Northeast are sometimes applied to the portion of the Northern Hemisphere in the Eastern Hemisphere or vice versa. If it's lateral boundaries are based on the Prime Meridian, this region includes most of Asia and Europe, a large portion of Africa and some islands in Oceania. The Northeast covers about two fifths of the Earth's land surface area and hosts 75-80% of the world's population. It is the only quarter bounded by the Prime Meridian and Equator that is mostly land. The Northeast hosts about two fifths of the world's economic activity.
Eastern portion of Earth's Northern Hemisphere

Countries

* Europe
o If the Prime Meridian is used as the Western boundary, all except Portugal, most of the United Kingdom, much of Spain and France. If the 20th meridian west, then all of Europe.

* Africa
o If the Prime Meridian is the lateral boundary, then all of Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, most of Somalia, most of Kenya, most of Uganda, Southern Sudan, part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, parts of Gabon, parts of Equatorial Guinea, parts of Rio Muni, parts of Sao Tome and Principe, Cameroon, Nigeria, Benin, Chad, most of Niger, part of Mali, most of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia are in this region. If the 20th meridian west is used, then all of Africa North of the Equator.

* Asia
o all except some portions of Indonesia.

* Oceania
o If Prime Meridian is used as the lateral boundary, then Palau, Guam, the Marianas Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, part of Kiribati and Wake Island. If the 20th meridian west is used as the boundary in the West and the 160th meridian east in the East, then only Palau, Guam, the Marianas, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Bodies of water

* The Arctic Ocean in the Eastern Hemisphere,
* The Western portion of the North Sea, most of the Mediterranean Sea, and all of the Baltic Sea and Black Sea of the Atlantic Ocean,
* The Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean,
* The Eastern Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan/East Sea, the Yellow Sea, East China Sea the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, Gulf of Thailand and open ocean in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
          Visualtraveling - The Horn of Africa (Photozine Trailer)        

I am currently working on a quite ambitious photo-book - let's call it 'The Eurasia Project' until it is finished by mid/late 2017. In preparation, it made sense to practise a bit with print so why not create a thin photozine? And why not go to a remote part of the world with some of your best friends? Everything just made sense when we were flying to Egypt early 2016. The purpose was twofold: to have an explorational-holiday and to create a keepsake to possibly lay around a coffee-table.

Photography by Patrik Wallner, Tommy Zhao and Tobias Ulbrich within Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Djibouti during a two week trip towards the horn of Africa. Illustrations are created by the talented Ben Rubin.

'The Horn of Africa' is a 50 page, perfect bound, A4 (8.3 x 11.7in), limited edition 'zine with only 101 copies printed in Bangkok, Thailand.

To purchase go to visualtraveling.com on August 3rd!

Cast: Patrik Wallner

Tags: Visualtraveling, Sudan, Tommy Zhao, Egypt, Djibouti, Skateboarding, Tobias Ulbrich, Ethiopia and Patrik Wallner


          Djibouti Telecom peers at France-IX's IXPs in Paris and Marseille        
(Telecompaper) Djibouti Telecom has become the first France-IX's member head-quartered in the African continent to start peering at both the Internet Exchange Points in Paris and Marseille...
          School Daze        

What a strange language.

  • aisle
  • bdellium
  • czar
  • djembe
  • Djibouti
  • djinn
  • euphrates
  • gnarly
  • gnat
  • gnome
  • herb
  • herbivore
  • honor
  • hour
  • knee
  • kneel
  • knickers
  • knife
  • knight
  • knob
  • knock
  • knot
  • know
  • mdomo
  • mnemonic
  • ouija board
  • phone
  • phonics
  • physical
  • physics
  • pneumatic
  • pneumonia
  • psalm (as in the Bible)
  • pseudonym
  • psych
  • psychic
  • psychotic
  • tsunami
  • who
  • wren
  • wrestle
  • wright
  • wrinkle
  • write
  • wrong
  • Xian
  • yiperite

          Les « Maman Lumière » de Djibouti donnent l’exemple pour changer de comportement et améliorer la santé        

Mothers discuss child rearing in Djibouti (credit: Marie Chantal Messier).

Nous étions assises sur des tapis de sol, dans la chaleur et la poussière du quartier Moustiquaire, le plus pauvre de Djibouti, pour parler des pratiques d’alimentation des enfants. Des voix se sont soudainement élevées dans le groupe. Plusieurs femmes insultaient et montraient du doigt l’une d’entre elles qui baissait honteusement la tête.

Mes homologues djiboutiennes m’ont expliqué que la femme embarrassée était critiquée parce que son fils ne parlait pas encore à 5 ans. Au lieu de donner de l’eau à boire à son nouveau-né comme le veut la tradition, elle avait choisi d’allaiter son dernier enfant au sein exclusivement jusqu’à l’âge de six mois.  Le groupe pensait que ce choix expliquait les problèmes de développement de l’enfant.

Ma première réaction a été de me dire : « la pression du groupe est un véritable obstacle à la promotion des méthodes d’allaitement optimales à Djibouti ! Â»


          Djibouti’s "Shining Mothers": Role models for behavior change, better health        

Also available in: FrançaisMothers discuss child rearing in Djibouti (credit: Marie Chantal Messier).

We were sitting on floor mats in the hot and dusty Quartier Moustiquaire, the poorest neighborhood of Djibouti City, observing a group of new mothers and their children discussing child feeding practices. All of a sudden, there was an uproar in the group. One woman had her head bent down in shame, and several other women shouted and pointed fingers at her.  

My Djiboutian counterparts told me the embarrassed woman was being criticized because her 5-year-old son still doesn’t speak.  Rather than follow the ancestral tradition of giving water to her newborn, she chose to exclusively breastfeed her last child until he was 6 months old. The group asserted that this choice had led to the child’s developmental problems. 

My immediate reaction to the scene was, “Peer pressure is a true obstacle to promoting optimal breastfeeding in Djibouti!”


          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Africa        
Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          Dynaflex appointed authorized representative for TGI ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses in Middle East & Africa        
TGI's factory in Ilmenau

Ilmenau — 22 June 2012 — Dynaflex Corporation, the authorized importer, stockist & representative in India for ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH, has been allotted by TGI the additional territories of the Middle East & Africa to cater to requirements of their ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses in the region. With this appointment, Dynaflex Corporation will now export Ilmadur Gauge & Sight Glasses to Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kurdistan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Northern Cyprus, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Comoros, Djibouti, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan & Sahrawi.

ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses are manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH at it's Ilmenau plant. ILMADUR gauge and sight glasses are manufactured from borosilicate “I-420” material developed and patented by TGI particularly to produce high-quality sight glasses.

About TGI
Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH is a leading manufacturer of laboratory and household glassware, sight and gauge glasses, pressed technical glasses, glass tubes, capillaries & rods in Ilmenau, a town located in the district of Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany.

About Dynaflex Corporation
Dynaflex Corporation is a leading importer and one of the largest stockists in the world of technical & safety glasses from the leading manufacturers in Europe & the USA. Most of the products are again re-exported to South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, North & South Americas & Europe.

Contact
To learn more about this topic, please contact
Dynaflex Corporation, Media Relations
Tek Towers (DOXA)
No.11, Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR)
Thoraipakkam
Chennai 600097, INDIA
pr@dynaflex.asia


          Mass Migrations: How to know who's being impacted by a the surge in "refugees"        
Ripped from the headlines - UN urges Europe to help Italy with refugee 'tragedy'
The UN refugee agency is putting pressure on Europe to help Italy defuse the "unfolding tragedy" of tens of thousands of migrants and refugees flooding its shores.

The move comes as interior ministers of France, Germany and Italy prepare to meet in Paris on Sunday to discuss a "coordinated approach" to help Rome.

Italy needs more international support to cope with a growing number of people who have braved a perilous Mediterranean crossing to reach Europe this year, Filippo Grandi, the UN high commissioner for refugees, said on Saturday in a statement.

"What is happening in front of our eyes in Italy is an unfolding tragedy.

"In the course of last weekend, 12,600 migrants and refugees arrived on its shores, and an estimated 2,030 have lost their lives in the Mediterranean since the beginning of the year."

Italy, he said, was "playing its part" in taking in those rescued and offering protection to those in need.

"These efforts must be continued and strengthened. But this cannot be an Italian problem alone."

Last week, Italy threatened to close its doors to people arriving on boats that were not flying Italian flags.
But the EU says "no" to opening more European ports to migrants:
EU interior ministers have refused to support an Italian proposal to open up European ports to ships carrying migrants.

But governments did agree to help the Libyan coastguards do more and step up deportations of failed asylum-seekers.

“Returns in this case are being backed up by a common visa policy. That means that those countries, which don’t comply with returns will have to face visa restrictions, by single EU countries, said Marco Minitti, Italian interior minister.

Italy plans to draw up a code of conduct for NGOs as some EU officials believe sea rescue services are a pull factor for would-be migrants.

“We abide by Humanitarian principles, by the principle of Humanitarian action, by Medical Ethics, by International Refugee Law and by International Maritime Law, because we operate at sea. So, we are quite clear about the frame in which we operate, and we doubt that a Code of Conduct will complement that,” said Aurélie Ponthieu of Doctors Without Borders.

Italy had sought help, even at one point, threatening to close their ports to foreign humanitarian ships

Escaping wars and poverty, more than 360,000 refugees and migrants arrived on European shores across the Mediterranean last year. More than 85,000 have reached Italy so far this year.
So, Italy mulls sending navy into Libyan waters to stop migrants:
Italy is considering a plan to send its navy into Libyan waters to stop migrants and send them back. Approval for the mission could go before parliament as early as next week.

taly's center-left government will brief lawmakers about a plan to deploy Italian navy vessels along Libya's shores to stop traffickers sending migrants to Italy, Premier Paolo Gentiloni said Thursday.
A Libyan request to send Italian navy ships to patrol its waters was "a possible turning point" in the migration crisis, said Gentiloni, who convened military chiefs and ministers on Thursday to discuss immigration, security, and Libya.
Libyan Prime Minister Fayez Serraj, who leads the UN-backed unity government in Tripoli, made the request for Italian naval help while in Rome on Wednesday. His visit came after Serraj and the rival government of General Khalifa Hifter met in France and agreed on a ceasefire and possible national elections in the unstable North African country.
Nearly 600,000 boat migrants have arrived in Italy since 2014 after making the dangerous cross-Mediterranean journey in boats.
Which generates a response from another Libyan group Libya's eastern commander vows to destroy Italian warships if sailed to Libyan water:
The Libyan eastern commander of Dignity Operation forces, Khalifa Haftar, has ordered to bombard any warships sailing into the Libyan waters, in a U-turn that could see escalations between eastern Libya and the UN-proposed government's bodies in western Libya get tense.
The call of Haftar came just hours after the Tobruk-based House of Representatives (HoR), which backs Haftar's Dignity Operation forces, announced in a statement the rejection of any agreements made by the Head of the UN-proposed government's Presidential Council, Fayez Al-Sirraj, and any requests he made to Italy.
"We reject Al-Sirraj request to Italy which can vividly violate the sovereignty of Libya under the pretext of fighting illegal immigration." The spokesman of the HoR Abdullah Belheeq said.
He also said that agreements with other countries come from legislative bodies like the HoR, not by executive ones like the UN-proposed government, which has not been given the confidence vote by the HoR yet, he added.
The HoR statement warned that Italy - by its deal with Al-Sirraj - is trying to export the crisis of illegal immigration to Libya by returning scores of migrants to Libya, making a new security, social and economic dilemma for the country.
The HoR also urged the UN to help thwart the current violation of Libya's sovereignty as it is a member of the UN just like Italy, which means that the latter should commit to the international laws and conventions by respecting Libya's sovereignty.
Meanwhile, Wednesday afternoon, the Italian parliament voted for sending a naval mission to Libya's waters to help stem the current migrants flow right from the inside, knowing that Amnesty International called the step earlier this week a shameful attempt by the Italian authorities to circumvent their duty to rescue refugees and migrants at sea and to offer protection to those who need it.
For those who follow such things, Amnesty International is an NGO which offers up the EU as a resettlement area for migrants and refugees because . . . Central Mediterranean: Death toll soars as EU turns its back on refugees and migrants:
The soaring death toll in the central Mediterranean and the horrific abuses faced by thousands of refugees and migrants in Libyan detention centres are clearly linked to failing EU policies, said Amnesty International in a report published today.

A perfect storm: The failure of European policies in the Central Mediterranean finds that by ceding the lion’s share of responsibility for search and rescue to NGOs and by increasing cooperation with the Libyan coastguard, European governments are failing to prevent drownings and turning a blind eye to abuse, including torture and rape.
***
“Rather than acting to save lives and offer protection, European Ministers meeting today are shamelessly prioritizing reckless deals with Libya in a desperate bid to prevent refugees and migrants from reaching Italy,” said John Dalhuisen, Amnesty International’s Europe Director.

“European states have progressively turned their backs on a search and rescue strategy that was reducing mortality at sea in favour of one that has seen thousands drown and left desperate men, women and children trapped in Libya, exposed to horrific abuses.”

Measures implemented by EU leaders to strengthen search and rescue capacity in the central Mediterranean in April 2015 dramatically decreased deaths at sea. But this priority, which saw several countries provide more rescue boats closer to Libyan territorial waters, was short-lived. Instead, EU governments have shifted their focus to disrupting smugglers and preventing departures of boats from Libya: a failing strategy that has led to ever more dangerous crossings and a threefold increase in the death-rate from 0.89% in the second half of 2015 to 2.7% in 2017.

Changes to smugglers’ practices and an increasing use of unseaworthy boats with a complete lack of safety equipment on board have made the sea crossing even more unsafe. But despite a spike in deaths - more than 2,000 since January – the EU is failing to deploy an adequately resourced and dedicated humanitarian operation near Libyan territorial waters. Instead it is focusing on strengthening the abilities of the Libyan coastguard to better prevent departures and perform interceptions.
So, what prompted this mass movement again? The EU or the miserable states these people are fleeing? What's AI saying about that? Not much, as the AI piece from which I just quoted quotes a man from Bangladesh and one from Gambia.

Here we get to the nut of the issue. Given that EU governments are paid for by the taxes of their citizenry and those taxes are being used to sustain tens of thousands of migrants many of whom are not "refugees" at all, at what point can a government tell migrants "No vacancy?"

An excellent post by Claude Berube and Chris Rawley at War on the Rocks, DUELING NGOS ON THE SEAS: ‘WHAT SHIPS ARE FOR’ covers what happens when nation states don't react as non-state actors may wish and the Non-state actors start taking matters into their own hands and perhaps into confrontation with other non-state actors with a different view of matters:
Today’s ideological battles are not simply confined to land or cyberspace. Nor is conflict at sea reserved for state-sponsored navies. The high seas are increasingly a battlespace for non-government organizations (NGOs). Although organizations such as Greenpeace and Sea Shepherd Conservation Society have been conducting maritime operations in support of their environmental missions for four decades, in recent years other maritime NGOs have emerged for a variety of causes.

The recent wave of migration from Africa and the Middle East into Europe – often by boat – has encouraged both state and non-state navies to begin rescue and interdiction operations in the Mediterranean. The thousands of people fleeing growing instability in North Africa and the Near East have set the stage for competing political positions.

Search-and-rescue organizations seeking to help migrants have found themselves in conflict not with the government, but with a competing NGO, Defend Europe. The dispute highlights that future maritime battles may not be restricted to governments or to militant groups on the seas, especially as government resources shrink and NGOs see increasing political incentives to enter this space.
This could get interesting.

It seems some NGOs are "more equal than others" and are getting local law enforement to reject other NGOs. As in Far-Right Anti-Migrant Ship Told It’s Not Welcome In Crete:
The Djibouti-flagged C-Star is part of an operation by the far-right Generation Identity movement called Defend Europe, aimed at stopping nongovernmental organizations and national coast guards from rescuing refugees and migrants in the Mediterranean.
Defend Europe set out its mission:
Every week, every day, every hour – ships packed with illegal Immigrants are flooding into European waters. An invasion is taking place. This massive immigration is changing the face of our continent. We are losing our safety and our way of life and there is a danger we Europeans will become a minority in our own European homelands.

We want to start an identitarian search-and-rescue (SAR) mission in July on the Libyan coast. Our goal is to document the doings of the NGOs, expose their collaboration with the human smugglers, and intervene if they do something illegal.

We will reach out to the Libyan Coast Guard and offer them our help as a recon ship. Our goal is to step in where our politicians are failing and to do what is necessary to stop the deadly illegal migration into Europe.

If we get an SOS signal, we will of course save the people in distress — and hand them over to the Libyan Coast Guard to make sure that they are brought to the closest harbour, according to international law. We will not enter territorial waters without their permission!

Defend Europe will make the Mediterrenean Sea more safe. An additional ship is able to answer SOS calls and our “No Way” policy for illegal immigration will discourage human traffickers and NGOs to lure people into the sea.

The closing of the Mediterranean route is the only way to Defend Europe and save lives.
Stay tuned.
          Energy efficiency blogs on 08 July 2013        

SolarCity and Energy Efficiency | The Energy Collective
By StephenLacey
After SolarCity shifted its energy efficiency strategy and pulled back from doing residential retrofits in-house, the solar services behemoth is moving straight into intelligent efficiency.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Is the U.S. Cowardly in Its Approach to Energy Efficiency? -
By Michael Todd
There's a raft of national benefits to being more energy efficient that don't need to invoke climate or politics.
Pacific Standard. Smart Journalism....

June-July Public Policy Tracker: Energy Efficiency Funding ...
By John Otterbein
The spring 2013 legislative sessions have once again breezed by! This Policy Tracker focuses on the recent developments in energy efficiency policy in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. Good News, Bad News for Energy Efficiency ...
Energy Efficiency Matters

Efficiency Research and Energy Consumption | The Energy Collective
By MaxLuke
Last week energy analyst Thomas Gerke wrote an article where he made an argument that research and development is an ancillary clean energy policy at best, and a distraction at worst. But it's much more complicated than that.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Is The United States Becoming More Energy Efficient? - Peak Oil News
By admin
Peak Oil News and Message Boards is a community and collaboration portal about energy-related topics.
Peak Oil News and Message Boards

An Outsider Looking In… - Bard College
By Serafina Zeringo
So do you know a lot about energy efficiency?” Uh no, no actually I don't know anything about energy efficiency policies or energy efficiency or what I'm doing here… That is how my first two weeks at NEEP felt. Between writing bill summaries, ...
The Bard CEP Eco Reader

Renewable Energy Potential in Eritrea | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
The Belesa plant runs at low efficiency, due to aged generating equipment, A lack of maintenance, and high voltage drops in the distribution system. CAPACITY CONCERNS. Eritrea is facing acute shortages of modern energy services, ...
Afribiz.info

Renewable Energy Potential in Djibouti | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
With distribution and transmission losses in the region of 16%, the potential for efficiency improvements in the electrical power sector are evident. The promotion of energy efficiency in the residential sector has also been identified as a key ...
Afribiz.info

Turn Off the Lights to Save Money and Extend the ... - Bounce Energy
By Vernon
A good rule of thumb for an energy efficient home has been that if you are going to be out of room for 15 minutes or more, then turn the lights off. Shorter than 15 minutes, you can leave them on. The trick is that this rule varies depending on the ...
Bounce Energy Blog

Renewable Energy Potential in Equatorial Guinea | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
Renewable Energy Potential in Equatorial Guinea · LinkedIn · Email Print Share. Written by: Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership on July 7, 2013. ENERGY SOURCES. Total installed electricity capacity (2008): 31 MW. Thermal: ...
Afribiz.info

Renewable Energy Potential in Republic of Congo | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
ENERGY EFFICIENCY. The Republic of the Congo has many important energy resources which are far from being completely exploited. Only 3.6% of the potential hydroelectric energy is currently being used as fossil fuels are still the most ...
Afribiz.info

World record in silicon integrated nanophotonics - More energy ...
Researchers of the Institute of Electrical and Optical Communications Engineering (INT) at the University of Stuttgart and the Institut für Mikroelektronik Stuttgart (IMS CHIPS) achieved a new world record in the energy efficient integration in ...
Nanotechnology Now Recent News

Save energy, save money : News : UpperMichigansSource.com
By Dustin Bonk
MARQUETTE -- Energy efficiency kits save homeowners money by conserving energy. Kerry Noble at Home Evaluation Services in Marquette says installing certain items is good for your home and for your wallet. Low flow shower heads ...
Upper Michigan's Source - TV6 News

President Obama Touts Renewable Energy, Efficiency in Climate Plan
By RealEstateRama
WASHINGTON, D.C. – July 3, 2013 – (RealEstateRama) — President Obama announced on June 25 his climate action plan, which includes significant goals related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The plan directs the U.S. ...
RealEstateRama

Dartblog: "Jim Kim Is Saving the World"
By Joseph Asch '79
SE4ALL, co-chaired by UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon and World Bank president Jim Yong Kim, aims to achieve universal energy access, double the use of renewable energy and improve energy efficiency by 2030 (see Update 83).
Dartblog

shaheen tours affordable housing communities, touts clean energy ...
By New Hampshire RealEstateRama
Berlin, NH – July 5, 2013 – (RealEstateRama) — U.S. Senator Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) toured affordable housing communities today in Conway and Berlin and commended their investments in clean energy and energy efficiency measures ...
RealEstateRama

Clean Energy Industry Could Grow Greatly Under Carbon Plan ...
By Natural Resources Defense Council
Already supporting more than 400,000 workers, the energy efficiency economy is made up of private industry and government agencies, can be found across red states and blue states, big cities and small towns. It employs workers retrofitting ...
EarthTechling

Smart Grid: The 'social building:' using social media to save energy
While Smart Meters are now providing data that can allow consumers to pinpoint prime targets for energy efficiency measures, making sense of all that data is not as simple as collecting it, which could pose an obstacle to consumers' ability to ...
SmartGridNews.com

Why can't we talk about energy conservation in Nova Scotia? - Rabble
By rabble staff
Efficiency Nova Scotia, the conservation agency funded by your power bill, is reporting good progress as the public buys into the notion of saving both energy and money. The province-wide electricity load has been cut by 4.3 per cent so far ...
rabble.ca

£400 million spent on energy in South West Devon – huge potential ...
By Sophia Wildman-Gurung
This is an independent assessment of current energy consumption and opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy generation across the area.” Said Kate Royston Chair of the SWD CEP. The study has provided some surprising ...
Transition Town Totnes

Healthy Home Builders | The Examiner News
By Pat Casey
Donovan further explained that the energy-efficiency building materials he uses are way above building code standards for insulation, wall thickness and roof quality. Passive solar energy will be used to heat water, and geothermal technology ...
The Examiner News

Combined Heat-Energy Power System Can Cut Emissions - Care2 ...
By Kit B.
Combined heat and power (CHP) systems could play an important role in that plan by raising energy efficiency and reducing energy waste. And through a flexible framework, CHP systems could cut emissions from power plants, which now ...
Care2 News Network

Obama Climate Change Plan and Carbon Emissions | The Energy ...
By JEMiller_EP
In addition to expanding on the scope of previous plans that would increase clean energy supplies, energy efficiency, and reduce high global warming potential gases, the President now recommends better preparing the country for future ...
The Energy Collective - The world's...


          Soldiers teach western medical practices to Djiboutian caretakers        
TADJOURAH, Djibouti -- A cool breeze sets under the blistering sun as kids play in the streets of Elimo neighborhood. Days can be filled with fun and excitement for children living at the SOS Village d' Enfants compound, but for the caretakers they can be stressful and exhausting. Watching over curious toddlers and monitoring overstimulated kindergartners can be challenging for caretakers who are responsible for each child's safety and well-being.
          153rd Cavalry Regiment holds Spur Ride in Djibouti, Africa        
Twenty-eight U.S. Army Soldiers and one Air Force Airman participated in an Army traditional event, a Spur Ride, to earn their silver spurs, Oct. 21, 2016, at a nearby airfield in Djibouti. U.S. Army cavalry scouts and infantrymen from the 1st Squadron, 153rd Cavalry Regiment attached to the 1st Battalion, 124th Infantry Regiment, assigned to Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa, partook in 10 tasks in 19 hours. One Air Force firefighter from the 870th Air Expeditionary Squadron also participated in the Spur Ride.
          US Soldiers, French Marines take on desert survival course        
CAMP LEMONNIER, Djibouti -- Approximately 46 U.S. Army Soldiers with 1st Battalion, 124th Infantry Regiment, assigned to Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa, along with French Marines completed the French Marine Desert Survival Course Oct. 12 at Arta Plage, Djibouti. The soldiers and French Marines worked together during the French-led course to learn desert survival skills and operational techniques and train for future real world conditions in environments as austere as Arta Plage.
          FAD troops learn to see in the dark        
Nearly 40 soldiers from the Djiboutian Army will be able to see in the dark after completing night vision goggle training Oct. 9-12, 2016, in Djibouti City, Djibouti. The training, conducted by members of the U.S. Army's Charlie Company, 411th Civil Affairs Battalion, which is currently mobilized to Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa, comes as the Djiboutian troops prepare for a two-year deployment to Somalia, as part of the African Union Mission in Somalia's effort to remove al-Shabaab from the region.
          Network training readies Djiboutian soldiers for Somalia mission        
U.S. Army Soldiers from the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa communications directorate held an Africa Data Sharing Network (ADSN) sharing of best practices and validation session with Djibouti Armed Forces (FAD) members Sept. 28, 2016, at FAD Headquarters in Djibouti City, Djibouti. The ADSN works as an internal network that the Africa Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troop contributing countries can use to communicate and share information amongst each other.
          U.S., French and Djiboutian military forces celebrate St. Michel's day        
U.S., French and Djiboutian airborne forces came together to celebrate St. Michel, the patron saint of paratroopers, Sept. 29, 2016, at the local French air base in Djibouti City, Djibouti. The airborne forces began the celebration with a static line and a high-altitude low opening (HALO), or free fall, jump at a nearby drop zone. Following the jump, participants attended a mass at the French air base to honor St. Michel and a ceremony where several American jumpers were awarded French jump wings.
          Dikhil children to get new schoolhouse addition        
A team from the 403rd Civil Affairs Battalion, assigned to Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa, traveled to Dikhil, Djibouti, and met with village elders and community members Sept. 27, 2016, to learn about the education and general welfare of an existing school system in the village. During their visit, the CA BN team gauged the community's response to a new schoolhouse being built as part of a humanitarian assistance project.
          EARF Soldiers conduct demolition training        
U.S. Army Soldiers from Bravo Company, 3rd Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, completed demolition training and learned how to use explosives to breach through buildings, Aug. 30, 2016 at Arta, Djibouti. From Fort Stewart Georgia, Bravo Co., 3/15 Inf. Rgt. (also known as Bandit Company) serves as the East Africa Response Force assigned to Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa. In a crisis event, the EARF provides rapid response and security to protect embassies and foreign assets in CJTF-HOA's area of responsibility.
          Florida National Guard Task Force Seminole leaves ironclad legacy in Djibouti        
Last year, Task Force Seminole's B Troop, 1st Squadron, 153rd Cavalry Regiment began their deployment on a security mission to Djibouti, which involved day and night surveillance and a continuous improvement of their defensive fighting positions (DFP). As the Seminoles' tour draws to a close, they can look back on their 11-month security mission, which, at times, left them exposed to the elements or rained on, soaking the soldiers' uniforms and gear.
          Djiboutian Armed Forces soldiers finish a five-month training        
CAMP CHEIK OSMAN, Djibouti -- Djiboutian Armed Forces, also known as the Force Aérienne du Djibouti (FAD) soldiers completed their final test, May 16, and graduated from Area Logistics Training, May 19, 2016. The five month training with the U.S. Army Regionally Aligned Forces Soldiers taught the FAD several skills necessary for their new logistics company.
          2016 French Commando Course        
More than 35 U.S. forces joined French Cadets, infantry and legionnaires to negotiate the French Desert Survival Course April 25 to May 10, in Djibouti. The course exposed the forces to the fundamentals of desert combat, survival and troop movements while bridging language and cultural barriers between French and American troops. This evolution of the course also adds two U.S. Air Force instructors to the French instructor team.
          Army Civil Affairs provides medical care to Djibouti village        
The medical civic action program, brought together American, Djiboutian and Cuban doctors. The team worked together to compare diagnoses for illnesses seen during the two-day program and also provided medications to patients.
          2016 French Commando Course        
More than 35 U.S. forces joined French Cadets, infantry and legionnaires to negotiate the French Desert Survival Course April 25 to May 10, in Djibouti. The course exposed the forces to the fundamentals of desert combat, survival and troop movements while bridging language and cultural barriers between French and American troops. This evolution of the course also adds two U.S. Air Force instructors to the French instructor team.
          Djiboutian soldiers train on the range        
Soldiers from the Djiboutian Armed Forces (FAD) completed basic rifle marksman training with help from U.S. Army Regionally Aligned Forces (RAF) Soldiers, March 10, 2016, at Arta range, Djibouti.
          Business Game Changers Radio with Sarah Westall: On the Brink of WWIII - Why the U.S. is in Syria and How it Dominates Militarily with Space Technology        
EpisodeWorld War III is building up in the Middle East as 20 countries participate in a military “exercise” dubbed “Northern Thunder”. The exercise includes 350,000 soldiers, 20 thousand tanks, 2450 warplanes, and 460 military helicopters supplied by Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Senegal, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Kuwait, the Maldives, Morocco, Pakistan, Chad, Tunisia, Comoro Islands, Djibouti, Malaysia, Egypt, Mauritania, and Mauritius. While this is occurring, Turkey has been bom ...
          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Bandar Udara London Gatwick        
Bandar Udara London Gatwick (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) merupakan bandar udara terbesar ke-2 dan tersibuk ke-2 di London setelah Heathrow. Gatwick juga merupakan bandar udara tersibuk dengan landasan pacu tunggal, dan bandar udara tersibuk ke-22 (ke-7 berdasarkan jumlah penumpang internasional) di dunia berdasarkan jumlah penumpang per tahunnya. Terletak di Crawley, West Sussex (sebenarnya Charlwood, Surrey) 2.7 nm (5 km atau 3 mil) utara dari pusat kora, dan 24.7 nm (46 km atau 28 mil) selatan London, dan 40 km utara Brighton.London Gatwick memiliki CAA Public USE Aerodrome Licence (Nomor P528) yang mengizinkan penerbangan transport penumpang atau untuk instruksi
penerbangan.Dengan sekitar 200 destinasi, bandar udara ini telah menangani lebih dari 34 juta penumpang dengan 263,363 pergerakan pesawat pada 2006.Banyak penerbangan dari dan menuju Amerika Serikat menggunakan Gatwick karena banyaknya larangan pada penerbangan Trans-Atlantik dari Heathrow. Bandar udara ini merupakan hub kedua bagi British Airways dan Virgin Atlantic.

Maskapai Penerbangan dan Kota Tujuan
Terminal Utara
Pengguna utama Terminal Utara adalah British Airways dan operator Oneworld lainnya.
Adria Airways (Ljubljana)
Air Comet (Madrid)
Air France
Air France dioperasikan oleh Brit Air (Strasbourg)
Air Namibia (Windhoek)
Air Southwest (Newquay, Plymouth)
Arkia Israel Airlines (Tel Aviv)
American Airlines (Dallas/Fort Worth, Raleigh/Durham [diakhiri 29 Maret])
Astraeus (Accra, Alghero, Aqaba, Aswan, Banjul, Bastia, Bergen, Bodrum, Brescia, Calvi, Chambery, Corfu, Deer Lake, Dubrovnik, El Alamein, Fagernes, Freetown, Geneva, Hassi Messaoud, Heraklion, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kuusamo, Las Palmos, Malabo, Malaga, Monrovia, Murcia, Murmansk, Mykonos, Olbia, Paphos, Preveza,Santorini, St. John's, Salzburg, Sharm El Sheikh, Split, Taba, Tenerife, Thira,Verona,Volus, Uralsk, Zadar, Zakinthos)
Atlas Blue (Marrakech)
British Airways (Aberdeen, Algiers [diakhiri 30 Maret], Amsterdam, Antalya [dimulaii 30 Maret], Antigua, Atlanta, Barcelona, Bari, Bermuda, Bologna, Bordeaux, Bridgetown, Cagliari, Catania, Dallas/Fort Worth [diakhiri 30 Maret], Dresden, Dublin, Dubrovnik, Edinburgh, Geneva, Genoa [dimulai 30 Maret], Glasgow-International, Grenada, Grenoble, Houston-Intercontinental [diakhiri 30 Maret], Izmir, Jersey, Kingston, Krakow, Luxembourg, Lyon-Satolas [seasonal], Madrid, Manchester, Marseille, Naples, Newquay, Nice, Orlando, Pisa, Poznan [begins 30 March], Port of Spain, Prague, Priština, Reykjavik-Keflavik, Rome-Fiumicino, Salzburg, Sarajevo, St Lucia, Split, Tampa, Tirana, Thessaloniki, Tobago, Toulouse, Turin, Varna, Venice, Verona, Warsaw [dimulai 30 Maret], Zürich)
British Airways operated by GB Airways (Agadir, Ajaccio, Alicante, Arrecife, Bastia, Corfu, Dalaman, Faro, Fez, Funchal, Gibraltar, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marrakech, Montpellier, Mykonos, Nantes, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Rhodes, Sharm el Sheikh, Tenerife South, Tunis)
Brussels Airlines (Brussels)
Clickair (Seville)
Continental Airlines (Cleveland [seasonal], Houston-Intercontinental, Newark)
Cyprus Turkish Airlines (Antalya, Dalaman)
Daallo Airlines (Djibouti)
Delta Air Lines (Atlanta, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, New York-JFK)
Emirates (Dubai)
First Choice Airways (Agadir, Alicante, Almeria, Antayla, Antigua, Arrecife, Aruba, Banjul, Barcelona, Bodrum, Bourgas, Cancún, Chania, Colombo, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubrovnik, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Goa, Grenoble, Heraklion, Holguin, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kittala, Kos, Krakow, Liberia (CR), Larnaca, Las Palmas, Ljubljana, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Malta, Mitilini, Mombasa, Monastir, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Porlamar, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Porlamar, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, St. Thomas, Skiathos, Taba, Tel Aviv, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Toulouse, Turin, Varadero, Varna, Verona, Zadar, Zakynthos)
FlyLal (Vilnius)
GB Airways Charter (Aqaba, Aswan, Geneva, Kittilla, Kuusamo, Luxor, Lyon, Salzburg)
Israir (Tel Aviv)
Malév Hungarian Airlines (Budapest)
Nationwide Airlines (Johannesburg)
Oman Air (Muscat [dimulai 15 November])
TAROM (Cluj Napoca)
Virgin Nigeria (Lagos)

Terminal Selatan
Aer Lingus (Dublin)
African Safari Airways (Mombasa)
Afriqiyah Airways (Tripoli)
Air Zimbabwe (Harare)
Air Malta (Catania, Malta)
Air Transat (Calgary, Fredericton [begins 6 May], Halifax [dimulai 6 Mei], Montréal, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver)
airBaltic (Riga, Vilnius)
Alexandair (Heraklion, Kos)
Aurigny Air (Guernsey)
Azerbaijan Airlines (Baku)
Belavia (Minsk)
BH Air (Bourgas, Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna)
BritishJET (Malta)
Bulgaria Air (Sofia, Varna)
Centralwings (Krakow, Warsaw, Wroclaw)
Croatia Airlines (Dubrovnik, Pula, Split)
Cubana de Aviación (Havana, Holguin)
easyJet (Alicante, Almeria, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Belfast-International, Berlin-Schönefeld, Bucharest-Băneasa, Budapest, Cologne/Bonn, Edinburgh, Faro, Gdansk, Geneva, Glasgow-International, Ibiza, Inverness, Innsbruck [begins 14 December], Krakow, La Rochelle, Lisbon, Madrid, Malaga, Marrakech, Marseille, Menorca, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Nice, Olbia, Palermo, Palma de Mallorca, Pisa, Prague, Rome-Ciampino, Sofia, Split, Toulouse, Valencia, Venice)
Estonian Air (Tallinn)
Eurocypria Airlines (Larnaca, Paphos)
European Aviation Air Charter (Rimini)
Flybe (Belfast-City, Guernsey, Inverness, Isle of Man, Jersey)
Flyglobespan (Calgary [dimulai 13 Mei], Vancouver [dimulai 13 Mei]) [seasonal]
Free Bird Airlines (Antalya, Dalaman)
Ghana International Airlines (Accra)
Germanwings (Hamburg)
Iberia
operated by Air Nostrum (Mahon)
Jet2.com (Newcastle)
Karthago Airlines (Monastir)
KD Avia (Kaliningrad)
LTE International Airways (Las Palmas, Palma, Tenerife)
Meridiana (Cagliari, Florence, Olbia)
Monarch Airlines (scheduled) (Alicante, Arrecife, Faro, Granada, Ibiza, Lisbon, Malaga, Murcia, Tenerife)
Monarch Airlines (charter) (Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Barcelona, Bodrum, Calgary, Cancún, Chania, Colombo, Corfu, Faro, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Goa, Grenoble, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Kos, Lanzarote, Las Palmas, Luxor, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Mombasa, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofio, Taba, Tenerife, Toulouse, Trivandrum, Turin, Venice, Verona, Zacinthos)
MyTravel Airways (Agadir, Almeria, Arrecife, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Corfu, Dalaman, Edmonton, Fuerteventura, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kefallinia, Kos, La Romana, Las Palmas, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Monastir, Montego Bay, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Tenerife, Toronto-Pearson, Turin, Vancouver, Zakinthos)
Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul)
Norwegian Air Shuttle (Oslo, Stavanger)
Nouvelair Tunisia (Djerba, Monastir)
Oasis Hong Kong Airlines (Hong Kong)
Olympic Airlines (Athens, Thessaloniki)
Onur Air (Bodrum, Dalaman)
Pegasus Airlines (Dalaman)
Qatar Airways (Doha)
Rossiya (St. Petersburg)
Ryanair (Cork, Dublin, Shannon)
Scandinavian Airlines System (Aalesund, Bergen)
SATA International (Ponta Delgada)
Sterling Airlines (Aalborg, Billund, Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm-Arlanda)
Sudan Airways (Khartoum)
TAP Portugal (Funchal, Lisbon, Porto)
Thomsonfly (Agadir, Alghero, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Cancun, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubrovnik, Enontekio, Faro, Figari, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kos, Las Palmas, Lamezia, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Luxor, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mombasa, Monastir, Montego Bay, Niš [seasonal], Orlando-Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Reus, Rovaniemi, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Sofia, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Toulouse, Turin, Varadero, Varna, Verona, Zakynthos)
Thomas Cook Airlines (Agadir, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Cayo Coco, Corfu, Cunagua, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Halifax, Hassi Messaoud, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Izmir, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Monastir, Montréal, Munich, Orlando-Sanford, Ottawa, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofia, Split, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Toronto-Pearson, Toulouse, Turin, Vancouver, Varadero, Verona, Zakinthos)
Ukraine International Airlines (Kiev-Boryspil)
US Airways (Charlotte, Philadelphia)
Viking Airlines (Heraklion)
Virgin Atlantic (Antigua, Barbados [diakhiri 11 Desember/dimulai 17 Maret], Grenada, Havana, Kingston, Las Vegas, Montego Bay, Orlando, St Lucia, Tobago)
Wizz Air (Katowice [dimulai 31 Januari])
XL Airways (Alicante, Algarve, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Athens, Barbados, Bastia, Bodrum, Brescia, Cagliari, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Goa, Grenada, Heraklion, Holguin, Hurghada, Kalamata, Kavala, Kefallina, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lemnos, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mitilini, Mombasa, Murcia, Mykonos, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Pula, Punta Cana, Rhodes, Samos, Santa Clara, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, St. Kitts,St.lucia, Taba, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Tobago, Volos, Zakinthos)
Zoom Airlines (Kanada) (Calgary, Edmonton, Halifax, Montréal, Ottawa, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, Winnipeg)
Zoom Airlines (UK) (Bermuda, New York-JFK)

Terminal Selatan
Terminal Selatan dibanguna selama konstruksi Bandar Udara London Gatwick pada tahun 1956-1958.
African Safari Airways (Mombasa)
Afriqiyah Airways (Tripoli)
Air Atlanta Europe (Faro, Hurghada, Paphos, Orlando-Sanford, Sharm el-Sheikh)
Air Zimbabwe (Harare)
Air Malta (Catania, Malta)
Air Transat (Calgary, Halifax, Montréal, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver)
airBaltic (Riga, Vilnius)
Alexandair (Heralion, Kos)
Aurigny Air (Guernsey)
Azerbaijan Airlines (Baku)
Belavia (Minsk)
BH Air (Bourgas, Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna)
BritishJET (Malta)
Bulgaria Air (Sofia, Varna)
Centralwings (Krakow, Warsaw, Wroclaw)
Continental Airlines (Cleveland [seasonal], Houston-Intercontinental, Newark)[dipindahkan ke Terminal Utara pada Juni 2007]
Croatia Airlines (Dubrovnik, Pula, Split)
Cubana de Aviación (Havana, Holguin)
easyJet (Alicante, Almeria, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Belfast-International, Berlin-Schönefeld, Budapest, Cologne/Bonn, Edinburgh, Faro, Fez [begins September 2007], Geneva, Glasgow-International, Ibiza, Inverness, Krakow [begins September 2007], La Rochelle [begins July 14, 2007], Madrid, Malaga, Marrakech, Marseille, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Nice, Olbia, Palermo [begins June 18, 2007], Palma de Mallorca, Pisa, Prague, Rome-Ciampino, Split, Toulouse, Valencia, Venice)
Estonian Air (Tallinn)
Eurocypria Airlines (Larnaca, Paphos)
European Aviation Air Charter (Rimini)
Flybe (Belfast-City, Bergerac, Guernsey, Inverness, Isle of Man, Jersey)
Flyglobespan (Calgary, Toronto-Hamilton, Vancouver)
FlyLal (Vilnius)
Free Bird Airlines (Antalya, Dalaman)
Futura (Tenerife)
Ghana International Airlines (Accra)
Germanwings (Hamburg)
Iberia
operated by Air Nostrum (Mahon)
Jet2.com (Newcastle)
Karthago Airlines (Monastir)
LTE International Airways (Las Palmas, Palma, Tenerife)
Meridiana (Cagliari, Florence, Olbia)
Monarch Airlines (Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Barcelona, Bodrum, Calgary, Cancún, Chania, Colombo, Corfu, Faro, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Goa, Grenoble, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Kos, Lanzarote, Las Palmas, Luxor, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Mombasa, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofio, Taba, Tenerife, Toulouse, Trivandrum, Turin, Venice, Verona, Zakyinthos)
Monarch Airlines (Alicante, Faro, Granada, Lisbon, Malaga)
MyTravel Airways (Agadir, Almeria, Arrecife, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Corfu, Dalaman, Fuerteventura, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kefallinia, Kos, La Romana, Las Palmas, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Monastir, Montego Bay, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Tenerife, Toronto-Pearson, Turin, Vancouver, Zakynthos)
Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul)
Nouvelair Tunisia (Djerba, Monastir)
Oasis Hong Kong Airlines (Hong Kong)
Olympic Airlines (Athens, Thessaloniki)
Onur Air (Bodrum, Dalaman)
Pegasus Airlines (Dalaman)
Qatar Airways (Doha)
Rossiya Airlines (St. Petersburg)
Ryanair (Cork, Dublin, Shannon)
Scandinavian Airlines System (Aalesund [dimulai pada 1 Juni 2007], Bergen)
SATA International (Ponta Delgada)
Sterling Airlines (Aalborg, Billund, Copenhagen, Stockholm-Arlanda)
Sudan Airways (Khartoum)
TAP Portugal (Funchal, Lisbon, Porto)
Thomsonfly (Agadir, Alghero, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Cancun, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubrovnik, Enontekio, Faro, Figari, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kos, La Palma [begins November 2007], Lamezia, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Luxor, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mombasa, Monastir, Montego Bay, Niš [seasonal], Orlando-Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Reus, Rovaniemi, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Sofia, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Toulouse, Turin, Varadero, Varna, Verona, Zakynthos)
Thomas Cook Airlines (Agadir, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Cayo Coco, Corfu, Cunagua, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Halifax, Hassi Messaoud, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Izmir, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Monastir, Montréal, Munich, Orlando-Sanford, Ottawa, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofia, Split, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Toronto-Pearson, Toulouse, Turin, Vancouver, Varadero, Verona, Zakynthos)
Titan Airways (Chambery)
Travel Service (Prague)
Ukraine International Airlines (Kiev-Boryspil)
US Airways (Charlotte, Philadelphia)
Viking Airlines (Heraklion)
Virgin Atlantic (Antigua, Barbados, Grenada, Havana, Las Vegas, Montego Bay, Orlando, Port Louis [dimulai pada November 2007], St Lucia, Tobago)
Zoom Airlines (Canada) (Calgary, Edmonton, Halifax, Montréal, Ottawa, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, Winnipeg)
Zoom Airlines (UK) (Bermuda [dimulai pada 8 Juni 2007], New York-JFK [dimulai pada 21 Juni, 2007])
XL Airways (Alicante, Algarve, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Athens, Barbados, Bastia, Bodrum, Brescia, Cagliari, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Goa, Grenada, Heraklion, Holguin, Hurghada, Kalamata, Kavala, Kefallina, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lemnos, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mitilini, Mombasa, Murcia, Mykonos, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Pula, Punta Cana, Rhodes, Samos, Santa Clara, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, St. Kitts, Taba, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Tobago, Volos, Zakynthos)

Referensi
United Kingdom AIP
Gwyne, Peter. (1990) A History of Crawley (2nd Edition) Philmore. ISBN 0-85033-718-6
King, John, with Tait, Geoff, (1980) Golden Gatwick, 50 Years of Aviation, British Airports Authority.

Pranala luar
Website Resmi Bandar Udara Gatwick
Gatwick Airport Consultative Committee
Website Gatwick Airport Planespotting
Peta dan Foto Udara
Gambar satelit dari WikiMapia atau Google Maps
Peta jalan dari Multimap atau GlobalGuide
Foto udara dari TerraServer
Sumber, http://id.wikipedia.org/


          Inondations sur Djibouti le 25 mars 2013        

 

Capture_d__cran_2013_03_26___14Capture_d__cran_2013_03_26___14

Source : www.lanation.dj

 

 

 


          La foret du Day        

La forêt du Day se traduit comme une forêt primaire ou “fossile”.

En quittant Ali-Sabieh, la route qui mène à Djibouti remonte en altitude pour pénétrer dans la forêt du Day, la seule couverture végétale permanente du territoire, qui mérite le détour. Il s'agit d'un vestige d'une ère très ancienne, lorsque le Sahara était couvert de graminées et de fleurs. La cascade de Bankoualé, à mi-chemin entre Randa et la forêt du Day, abrite une agréable palmeraie. On accède à la forêt du Day depuis Randa, par une piste d'une quinzaine de kilomètres qui serpentent sur la montagne. En chemin, vous croiserez des populations nomades et vous admirerez un panorama magnifique sur le golfe de Tadjoura.

Le parc national de la forêt du Day est situé à 1500 mètres d'altitude, sur les pentes du Mont Goda. Vestige vivant de ce que devait être la végétation du Sahara et de l'Arabie il y a quelques milliers d'années, la forêt héberge des acacias géants, des genévriers, des oliviers sauvages, des jujubiers... La faune y est également très diversifiée.

Les plus chanceux d'entre vous pourront même apercevoir la silhouette furtive d'un guépard ou d'une panthère. Malgré des pluies espacées, l'humidité des sols est conservée grâce à un épais brouillard de condensation, récurrent dans la région, et par de basses températures hivernales. Cependant, la forêt du Day est en danger: la sécheresse, le sur-pâturage, le surpeuplement et un champignon parasite la fragilisent peu à peu.

La forêt du Day, écosystème exceptionnel, forêt relique d'une superficie de 3,2 km² permet aux biologistes et botanistes d'étudier les profonds changements climatiques intervenus sur le continent… quand les montagnes du Sahara et de l'Arabie étaient encore recouvertes de forêts…

Les plateaux du Day laissent apparaître une véritable forêt de genévriers, d'oliviers sauvages, de buis et d'acacias. Les arbres morts tendent leurs bras blancs tordus, torsadés et habillés de lichens gris qui s'effilent en longue chevelure le long des branches.

Djibouti, terre de rencontres et d'échanges trouve dans le domaine de l'ornithologie une signification toute particulière : des centaines d'oiseaux observés dont le Francolin de Djibouti, unique au monde. Si la flore est étonnamment diversifiée, la faune demeure bien préservée, expression vivante des contraintes physiques et climatiques mêmes si guépards et panthères sont rares à observer ! Nuages et brouillards apportent à cette forêt primaire, milieu rare, original et varié, ainsi qu'à l'ensemble des Monts du Goda l'humidité bienfaisante qui permet aux arbres de subsister malgré les pluies trop espacées.

Cette forêt est désormais en danger. La sécheresse de plus en plus dure, le sur-pâturage, le surpeuplement progressif de la zone et la venue d'un champignon parasitaire contribuent à fragiliser l'écosystème.

Différentes plantes existent : oliviers sauvages, genévriers géants, acacias, jujubiers ainsi que des figuiers géants qui étranglent les autres espèces d’arbres.

Au détour des chemins, on peut apercevoir des termitières, chèvres, dig dig et cyno (singes) qui profitent de la fraicheur et de l’humidité de la forêt.

Vue sur le golfe de Tadjourah, la maison du gouverneur mais aussi la maison du président et de son champ de khat, production privée, bien gardée, avec mirador s’il vous plait , pour éviter tout vol, de la denrée précieuse importée chaque jour à pris d’or d’Ethiopie ou du Yemen !!! Cette drogue puissante ahinile toute volonté chez celui qui la consomme.

Source internet


          250 millions + de francophones en Afrique Sub-Saharienne        
PosPays Population -Pays Francophones d'Afrique Sub-Saharienne 257,642,9091 RDCongo 68,692,542 2 Madagascar 20,653,556 3 Côte d'Ivoire 20,617,068 4 Cameroun 18,879,301 5 Burkina Faso 15,746,232 6 Niger 15,306,252 7 Sénégal 13,711,597 8 Mali 12,666,987 9 Guinée 10,957,975 10 Rwanda 10,473,282 11 Tchad 10,329,208 12 Burundi 8,988,091 13 Bénin 8,791,832 14 Togo 6,619,000 15 République Centrafricaine 4,511,488 16 Congo-Brazzaville 4,012,909 17 Mauritanie 3,129,486 18 Gabon 1,514,993 19 Maurice 1,284,264 20 Comores 752,438 21 Djibouti 516,055 22 Seychelles 87,476 Source: us census bureau 2009 by countries http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa#Demographics
          Taux d'aphabétisation dans les pays Africains        
Taux d'alphabétisation en Afrique Sub-Saharienne A garder à l'esprit. voir aussi cet article d'Avril 2009 sur l'Afrique de l'Ouest Etude "From closed books to open doors, West Africa's literacy challenge" article en anglais 1. RDC : 89 2. Maurice: 87,4 3. Congo : 86,8 4. Gabon: 86,2 5. Cameroun: 81,1 6. Rwanda: 72,7 7. Madagascar: 66 8. Togo: 63 9. Mauritanie: 55,8 10. Burundi: 53,9 11. RCA: 53,9 12. Tchad: 53,6 13. Cote d'Ivoire: 53,6 14. Djibouti: 51,4 15. Sénégal: 42 16. Guinée: 41 17. Bénin: 40,5 18. Niger: 30,4 19. Mali: 23,3 20. Burkina: 20,7 Statistiques Encarta
          S'acosta Sant Jordi i us recomano alguns llibres de viatges (4)        
I anem per la quarta recomanació literària per Sant Jordi, avui un clàssic no gaire conegut que segur que us agradarà...

TRES ANYS A LES NOVES HÈBRIDES de Manuel Bosch Barrett

L'any 1935, l'advocat barceloní Manuel Bosch va ser nomenat president del Tribunal Mixt de les Noves Hèbrides (actualment Vanuatu), un remot arxipèlag del Pacífic Sud aleshores disputat per britànics i francesos. Amb aquest insòlit encàrrec, abandonà Barcelona el febrer de 1936 per emprendre el llarg i apassionant viatge.

 Al llarg del llibre, es van succeint com un calidoscopi multicolor les diverses escales de la seva singladura- Port Saïd, Djibouti, Ceilan, Singapur, Saigon, Hong Kong, Canton, Macau, Java, Bali, Nova Guinea... abans d'arribar al seu destí, on ha d'exercir el seu càrrec d'alt funcionari colonial, sense oblidar la llarga estada a Tahití, que l'autor defineix com un dels pocs paradisos que queden a la terra.

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1 Guatemala Quetzal = 24.14192 Djibouti Franc
          â€˜Defend Europe’: Far-right activists launch mission to rescue, send back illegals from Libya        
A 40-meter-long ship called the C-Star, which was charted by the group, set sail from the African port of Djibouti on July 6 and is expected to take the…
          List of African Countries by region        
List of countries of East Africa Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda Seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe List of countries of West Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Nigeria Guinea Guinea Bissau Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Sierra Leone Togo List of countries of ...
          List of countries of Africa by Region        
The countries of Africa by region are as follows; Angola Cameroon Central African Republic Chad DR. Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Republic of Congo Sao Tome and Principe Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe  Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan Tunisi Botswana Lesotho Maurtius NamibiaSouth ...
          Comment on Djibouti : l’Allemand Green Enesys annonce une centrale solaire de 300 MW by ahmed        
bonsoir ca va selvoples je veus des documant sur ETUDE DE FAISABILITE TECHNICO-ECONOMIQUE DE LA FILIERE PHOTOVOLTAÏQUE RACCORDEE RESEAU
          What is bird flu?        
What is bird flu?

Last Updated: 12:01am GMT 21/11/2006

What is bird flu?

Avian influenza or 'bird flu' is a contagious disease of birds, caused by influenza A viruses that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild illness and low mortality to a highly contagious disease with a near 100% fatality rate. The bird flu virus currently affecting poultry and some people in Asia and other areas is the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of the virus.

How is it spread?

As the virus can remain viable in contaminated droppings for long periods, it can be spread among birds, and from birds to other animals, through ingestion or inhalation. All bird species are thought to be susceptible to avian influenza. Migratory birds such as wild ducks and geese can carry the viruses, often without any symptoms, and show the greatest resistance to infection. Domestic poultry flocks, however, are particularly vulnerable to epidemics of a rapid, severe and fatal form of the disease.

What kind of virus is it?

There are many different subtypes of influenza A virus. The most virulent are called highly pathogenic avian influenza and can reach epidemic levels among birds. Of these, subtype H5, and more particularly subtype H5N1, pose the greatest concern for human health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is mounting evidence that the H5N1 strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in people.

How did the current outbreak start?

The outbreak of avian influenza of most concern - H5N1 - began in poultry in South Korea in mid-December 2003, and has affected birds in many countries in Asia, Europe, Middle East and Africa. It involves a variant of the same virus subtype as that associated with the 1997 Hong Kong outbreak.

How can bird flu infect people?

H5N1 is able to infect people although it does not do this easily. In human populations, where domestic pigs and wild and domestic birds live in close proximity with people, the mingling and exchange of human and animal viruses can more easily occur. Those who have become infected have had close direct contact with infected birds.

What symptoms does it cause?

Human infection with avian influenza viruses usually causes conjunctivitis (eye infection) and mild flu-like symptoms, with one notable exception, the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus which can be deadly. The first documented cases in people appeared in Hong Kong in 1997, when 18 people infected with an H5N1 virus strain were admitted to hospital, six of whom died. As of 15 November 2006, 258 reported cases of H5N1 infection in people have occurred in ten countries, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, China, Turkey, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Egypt, and Djibouti. One hundred and fifty-three of these have been fatal.

Risk of a human influenza pandemic

"We do not know what the virus is that will cause pandemic 'flu. What we do know is that Mother Nature has the recipe book and its just a matter of time before she starts cooking,." said Sir Liam Donaldson, Chief Medical Officer. "Wherever in the world a flu pandemic starts, perhaps with its epicentre in the Far East, we must assume we will be unable to prevent it reaching the UK. When it does, its impact will be severe in the number of illnesses and the disruption to everyday life."

What is a pandemic, and what causes it?

We are used to epidemics of 'ordinary' flu, which occur seasonally, every year, around the world. An epidemic is a widespread outbreak of disease occurring in a single community, population or region. A pandemic, on the other hand, occurs on a much greater scale, spreading around the world and affecting many hundreds of thousands of people across many countries.

Three influenza pandemics occurred in the last century - 1918 to 1919 (Spanish flu), 1957 to 1958 (Asian flu) and 1968 to 1969 (Hong Kong flu). All affected large numbers of the population, causing many deaths and huge economic and social disruption. In the case of the 1918 outbreak, around 50 million people are thought to have died.

What are the most important signals that a pandemic is about to start?

The most important warning signal comes when clusters of patients with clinical symptoms of a new influenza, closely related in time and place, are detected, as this suggests human-to-human transmission is taking place. For similar reasons, the detection of cases in health workers caring for H5N1 patients would suggest human-to-human transmission.

Why are they worried about H5N1?

The H5N1 virus is one of 16 different known subtypes of influenza virus. Experts fear that the H5N1 subtype could trigger the next pandemic for several reasons. Firstly, it has already demonstrated an ability to infect people and kill - one of the key characteristics of a pandemic strain. Secondly, the virus has the ability to mutate and acquire genes from viruses infecting other species. Experts are concerned that the virus could either: adapt, giving it greater affinity for humans, or; exchange genes with a human flu virus, thereby producing a completely new virus strain capable of spreading easily between people, and causing a pandemic. Alternatively the pandemic could arise from a strain of influenza A unrelated to H5N1.

Why is this influenza virus called H5N1?

Subtypes of influenza virus are named according to two specific proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, on the surface of the virus. Hemagglutinin allows the virus to "stick" to a cell and initiate infection, while neuraminidase enables newly formed viruses to exit the host cell. Currently, there are 16 known variants of hemagglutinin protein and 9 known variants of neuraminidase proteins. This particular subtype of influenza virus has hemagglutinin type 5 and neuraminidase type 1, so it is known as H5N1.

If there was a flu pandemic, what could I do?

You can reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading influenza during a pandemic by: covering your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, using a tissue when possible; disposing of dirty tissues promptly and carefully – bag and bin them; avoiding non-essential travel and large crowds whenever possible; maintaining good basic hygiene, for example washing your hands frequently with soap and water to reduce the spread of the virus from your hands to your face, or to other people; cleaning hard surfaces (e.g. kitchen worktops, door handles) frequently, using a normal cleaning product; making sure your children follow this advice.

Are drugs effective in treating avian influenza in humans?

The recently circulating H5N1 strains are susceptible to two antiviral drugs —oseltamivir (sold as Tamiflu) and zanamivir (sold as Relenza). However, these medicines need to be started early enough—usually within the first two days of infection—to be effective. Many of the recently circulating H5N1 influenza viruses have been shown to be resistant to two older, inexpensive antiviral drugs, rimantadine and amantadine. Scientists are studying how the H5N1 viruses became resistant to these older drugs and watching for any signs of resistance to the newer drugs.

What is the status of vaccine development and production?

Vaccines effective against a pandemic virus are not yet available. Vaccines are produced each year for seasonal influenza but will not protect against pandemic influenza. Although a vaccine against the H5N1 virus is under development in several countries, no vaccine is ready for commercial production and no vaccines are expected to be widely available until several months after the start of a pandemic.

Some clinical trials are now under way to test whether experimental vaccines will be fully protective and to determine whether different formulations can economize on the amount of antigen required, thus boosting production capacity. Because the vaccine needs to closely match the pandemic virus, large-scale commercial production will not start until the new virus has emerged and a pandemic has been declared. Current global production capacity falls far short of the demand expected during a pandemic.

Is the world adequately prepared?

No. Despite the advance warning the world is ill-prepared to defend itself during a pandemic. The World Health Organisation has urged all countries to develop preparedness plans, but only around 40 have done so. WHO has further urged countries with adequate resources to stockpile antiviral drugs nationally for use at the start of a pandemic. Around 30 countries are purchasing large quantities of these drugs, but the manufacturer has no capacity to fill these orders immediately. On present trends, most developing countries will have no access to vaccines and antiviral drugs throughout the duration of a pandemic.

Sources: Department of Health, National Institutes of Health, World Health Organisation

Information appearing on telegraph.co.uk is the copyright of Telegraph Media Group Limited and must not be reproduced in any medium without licence. For the full copyright statement see Copyright
                  

          WAA TAHAY WADAAD SHARIIF MAANTANA MAXAAD TIDHI….?        
(Waridaad)-
WAA TAHAY WADAAD SHARIIF MAANTANA MAXAAD TIDHI….?
Bani Aadamka Ilaahay abuuray tasarufaatkiisa waxbaa xakameeya: Hanoqota mid Diineed, mid dhaqan, mid dadnimo oo damiirku ka xishood waxyaabaha qaarkood. Ma haddiise Aadamaha joojiyuhu u fakado wax la xeeriyaaba ma jirto. Hab dhaqanka siyaasiyiinta Soomaali konfureed ayaa manta ka dhigan moodhikaar injiinkii u fakaday. Wadaad Shariif iyo ina Cabdirashiid, kuwii ka horeeyey, iyo kuwa ka dambeeyaba xaaloodu waa siduu Ilaahay Qura’anka Kariimka ku sheegay: “ Man kaana fii haadihii acmaa fa huwa fil aakhirati acmaa wa adalu sabiilaa.” Ragga tamartoodii dhaafiweydey in ay adduunka ka dhowteystaan oo ay kiish kunta ka daloola hadba meel ula cararaan oo ay gacmaha hoose hoorsadaan ajnebi. Weli ma dareensana magacii xumaa ee la kowsaday dowladdii lagu hungoobay ee lixdankii dhalatay eek u caanbaxday qabrigii qaraamaadka addunka. Wadaad Shariif iyo ina Rashiidoow ummadda reer Somaliland indinka iyo qeyrkiin midna wax ka sugimeyso dibna wax ula wadaagimeysoe, samir iyo iimaan Ilaahay ha idinka siiyo midnimo Soomaaliyeed oo dib loosoo yagleelo.

Wuxuu yidhi: Maandeeq markay curatay ay laba mataanaysay eed midig ka Haaneeday, markayaal markaad heemiseen ee maataadii qadisey, maantana midaad soo waddaa sow macaac ma ? aha//: Waa taan isniintii dhoweyd awrta kuu raraye, maantana maxaa I kaa ag dhigay sow arbaca ma aha? Nin indho la’ oo dhego la’ oo hadba dhinac u rooraya wuxu halis u yahay in uu aakhirataanka haadaan ka shalwado. Hore waxa loo yidhi waano dhalan baa ka adage miciin ha moodo kub aan daalin, kubo an dhergin, iyo kas aan garan. Wanaag iyo walaatinimo hore ayey Walaweyn u deeqi weydeye ilaa inta suurtii yumal qiyaamaha la afuufayo midnimo Soomaaliyeed weligiinba ku eedaama, taasi u ka dhian siduu Qur’aan sheegay: “ Kamaa ya’isal kufaaru min asxaabil qubuur” ama “Xattaa yalujal jemelu fii simmil khayaad.” Nin hoggaan siyaasadeed u hanqal taagay seddex hal in uu ku sifoobo waa xaraan: Ma quuste, ma qabsoome, iyo ma qaderiye! Wax yaab noqotay labaatankan sannadood ee u dambeeyey siyaasiyiintii koonfureed seddexdaa hal ayey ka masoobeen. Nin kaa tashaday oo dalkoodii dhistay wax idin kulmiyaaba jirin waxaad u daba gebleysaaba waa gardaro. Marka hore Soomaali koonfureed ha is weydiiso waxa looga tegey. Markay Soomaali koonfureed teeda meel dhigto tu cid kale haka hadasho.

CULIMADII SHALAY IYO KU MAANTA?

Werdi iyo kitaab, wacdi iyo wax sheeg intii la xidhiidha Diinta Islaamka waxa lagu ogaa wadaad caalim ah oo bulshada ka mudan qaderin, sharaf, maamuus, iyo karaamo gaar ah oo salka ku haysa xadiiska odhanaya, “ Culimaa’u ummati ka anbiyaa bani Israaiil.” Oo macnihiisu yahay culimada ummadeydu waxay la midyihiin nebiyadii reer Israaiil.

Marka aynu is barbar dhigno culimadii hore ee Soomaaliyeed iyo kuwomaantajooga ayaa faraq weyni u dhexeeyaa. Hirdanka culimadii hore iyo kuwa manta ayaa salka ku haya dagaal qadhaadh oo dibadda laga soo maamulayo looguna talo galay in ummadda Soomaaliyeed caqiidadeedi shaki la geliyo hilfahana loogu laabo Madhabtii Shaaficiyada ee boqolaalka sannadood aynu ku soo dhaqmayney. Aaafadan ayaa si gaar ah ugu habsatay Soomaali Konfureed ka dib markay hadhaagii Siyaad Barre ay qori u adeegsadeen Kitaabkii Ilaahay.

Waa masiibadii bilowga boqol guurada shan iyo tobnaad ee tariikhdii Hijradii Nebi Muxamed Sallalaahu Calayhi wa Salam, oo lagu tijaabinayo deegaanada Soomaalida dhammaantood.

RAADRAACKOOBAN TAARIIKHDII ISLAAMKA

Hadaba marka aynu bilowga taariikhda Islaamka dib u raacno, ayaa waxa jirta in markasta oo ay boqol guuro buuxsantaba in fitno aan hore loo arag lana maqalini dhacdo. Tii ugu dambeyseyna waatan riiqdeedii sii qoyantahay(1399H). Bal hada aynu dib u raadraacno siddeedii boqol ee sannadood ee taariikhda Islaamka u horesey iyo waxyaabihii dhacay:

Masiibadii u horessey: Waxa dhacday fidmadii Xujjaaj Bin Yuusuf Al Thaqafi, waa tii uu masaajid kaga khudbadeeyey, “ Yaa Ah-lal Ciraaq, yaa Ahlal-kurfi wal-nifaaqi waash-shirki, innii araa ru’uusan qad aynacat wa xaana waqtu qidaafuhaa; la tacrifuunii mattaa adicu cimaamati..”=” Reer Ciraaqoow, waxa la bahaowdeen Gaalnimo, munaaqnimo, iyo Ilaahay oo cid kale ku lammaaneyseen; waxa ii muuqda madaxyo bislaaday oo xiligii la goyn lahaa gaadhay; waxay dun I garan markaan cimaamadda dhigto..” Xujjaaj hadalkiisii wuu kaga dhabeeye oo ummad farabadan ayuu dilay.

Tii labaadna: Waxay la kowsatay dagaal ba’an oo dhexmaray Ma’muun [Cabdallah Abu Al-Cabbas ibn Rashiid] iyo walaalkiis oo uu si foolxun u dilay. Waxa kale oo taa ka darneyd in Ma’muun ummaddii ula shir yimaado wax aan hore loo maqal ooo ahayd in Qur’aanka Kariimka ah la abuuray- Sumxaan Allaah min Ma’muun.

Tii Seddexaadna: Waxa soo baxay nin la yidhaa Alqurmudi iyo wixii ka dhacay caleemo saarkii Al-Muqtadir Billaah Abu Al Fadl Jacfar Ibn Muctadad Ibn Al-Muwafaq Dalxa Ibn Mutawakil Ibn Al-Muctassim Ibn Rashiid,wakhti yar ka dib xilkii ayaa Muqtadir laga xayuubiyey, waxana lagu bedeley Ibn Ul-Muctas Billah Muxamed Abu Cabdallah Ibn Mutawakil Ibn Muctasim Ibn Rashid. Ibn Ul-Muctas isna xilkii ayaa laga xayuubiyey, khilaafadiina waxa dib loogu caleemo saaray Al-Muqtadir, isna markiiba wuxu ku dhaqaaqay in uu gowraco Qaadigii iyo Culimo kale oo fara badan, dil, dhac, boob, iyo tacadiyo kale ayaa dowladdii Islaamka hadheeyey.

Tii Afraadna: Waxa yahayd Fidmadi Al Xaakim Bi-Amrillah[Abu A- Cabbaaas Axmed bn Abi Cali Al-Xasan Ibn Abi Bakr Ibn Al Xasan Ibn Cali Al-Qubi Ibn Al-Khaliifah Al-Mustarshid Bilah Ibn Al-Mustadhir Bilah] iyadana sheekadeeda. Halkan laguma soo koobi karo.

Tii Shanaadna: Waxay dhacday markay Saliibiyiintu la wareegeen Beit Ul-Muqadas iyo dhulkii la odhan jirey Sham.

Ta Lixaadna waxa dhacay sicir barar aan hore loogu ilaa sebenkii Nebi Yuusuf
Ta todobaadna waxay ahayd weeraradii Tataarku ku soo qaadeen dowladdii Islaamka oo dad aad u tiro badani ku nafwaayeen oo dhiig badani ku daatay.
Ta Siddeedaadna wa dagaaladii dhexmaray Islaamka iyo Tamerlane.

HADALADA KOOXDA WADAAD SHARIIF

Intaa haddiii aan ku dhaafo hordhacii tusmadan, waxan jecelahay in aan waxooga ka idhaado hadalo aad u macno daran oo had iyo jeer ka soo yeedhay hadba ciddii loo cumaamado talada Soomaali koonfureed oo ay ugu dambeysey tan wadaad Shariifka Muqdusho lahaa Somaliland annaga ayey sugeysaa inta aanu xasileyno ee xiska iyo maanku dib noogu soo noqonayaan. Waxaad aad moodaa in tubtii uu kii u horeeyey maray in kuwa dambena ku raadjoogo oo ay taxliil wada cabeen. Aadamaha sidiisaba waxa uu hadalku ku habooyahay in uu marka hore u meeldayo oo aanu ka noqon waran isaga dib ugu soo noqda. Waxa dunidii waakeeyey wadaad werdigii, wacdigii, weysadii, iyo Kitaabkii lagu ogaa intuu xooray yidhi siyaasad ayaan u xuubsiibtay oo anna wey kan. Isla markiiba waxa ka barbar oogsaday kuwo aan Kitaab iyo Diintoona ehel u ahayn oo Kitaabkii Ilaahay ka dhigtay wadkii Soomaali dabargoynayey. Wadaad Shariif iyo kooxda uu horboodayaa marka ay maareeyaan halaaga ay ummadoodii u horseedeen ka dib arrimo kale ha ka hadlaan. Gaar ahaan wadaadka waxa la gudboon marka u horeysa in uu isku dayo bal in uu midigtiisa iyo bidixdiisa mattaaneeyo oo meel isugu keeno inkastoo aanya taasi marnaba u suurto geleyn.

WADAAD IYO DOWLADNIMADII LIXDANKII?

Ilaa intii ka dambeysey gobanimadii lixdankii koleyba wadaada waxbaa laga urinayey oo haddii aynu tilmaan u soo qaadano berigii[1961] loo codeynayey Distoorkii/Xeerkii Israaca waxay kaba caddu ku balweyn jirtey:

Waa tahay wadaad wadadii cadeyd naga weecise; Waa tahay wadad wan dambood cuntaa waa kaa wallee.

Isla wakhtiyadaa ayaa Webi Shabeele iyo Juuba dulkii konfureed ku fataheen oo dad iyo xoolaba galaafteen. Addun weynaha ayaa soo gurmaday oo deeqo raashin iyo daawooyin isugu jira deg deg u soo gaadhsiiyey. Waxay kale oo jirtey in dowladdii Soomaaliyeed ee xiligaa jirtey dadkii hormoodka ka ahaa in ay ku taliyeen in mucaawinooyinka laga soo dejiyo Boosaaso! Weynu qiyaasi karnaa goobta dadku ku tabaaloobay iyo halka wax laga so dejinayaa inta ay isu jiraan. Fikradda noocan ihi waa mid soo jirtey tan iyo maalintii wixii la isku odhan jirey Jamhuuraddii Soomaaliyeed iskeed u haligantay. Tusaalo kale haddii aynu soo qaadano waxa tan hore la mid ah wersheddii sibidhka ee Berbera laga dhisay muddo shan iyo tan sannadood ah ayaa la hadal hayey oo waxa dhacday golihii kacaanka oo maalin arrinta ka hadlaya in nin madasha fadhiyey soo jeediyey in dhagaxa Berbera baabuur lagu soo qaado wersheddana laga dhiso Buur Xakaba! Tani waxa markhaati ka ah mashaariicdii Soomaaliya laga hirgeliyey mudadii dhexeysey 1985-1990 oo qiimahoodu ku kacay US$4.3605 Billion, waxa Somaliland ka soo gaadhay US$142.00

Million, oo US$68.00 Million oo ka mid ihi ku baxday wersheddii sibidhka.
Dhalinyaro iyo waayeel meesha wax isdhaamaba kuma dhaqnee ma dhambal ayaa caqliga loogu shubay. Berigaa webiyadu fataheena dhalinyaradii kaba cadda la odhan jirey waxay ku heeseen:
Ilaahii Walaweynta webiga ku rogoow waraabahan shacabka rooraayiyo weeggan naga qabo wadaadada.

Toloow berigaana xagay wax ka qaloocdeen ee culimada laga raacay? Waa su’aal iswediin mudan.

SOOMAALI KONFUREED MAXAY KU HIRDAMAYSAA?

Si kastaba wax ha u dhaceen dhibaatada loo caalwaayey ee Soomaali koonfurees ragaadisey waa mid ay iyagu gacmohooday ku abuureen ee dowladdii Siyaad Barre wixii ay Somaliland ka geysatey iyo mid u dhow toona koonfur kulamay kicin. Tii oo koonfuri fayowdahay ayuu Siyaad Bare ka tegay, dabadeedna Cali Mahdi iyo Maxamed Faarax Caydiid ayaa xukunkii isku qabsaday oo Magaaladii Muqdusho ayaa noqotay goob dagaal oo laba dhinac u kala saffan. Markii xigaeyna Cabdiqaasim-Qasbaaye ayaa Carta, Djibouti lagu soo caleemo saaray. Isna Cabdillaahi Yuusuf iyo xulafadiisii ayuu tab ka rogi waayey wakhtigiina sidaas ayuu kaga dhammaaday. Waxa xigay Cabdillaahi Yuusuf oo isna Embagathi lagu soo caleemoo saaray; isaga iyo gacan yarihiisii Cali Geedi waxa ka horyimid kooxdii labaxday Maxaakiimta. Xasuuqyadaii Xamar ka dhacay dunidu wey ogtahay oo halkan laguma soo koobi karo. Cabdillaahi ujeedadii u kala haa markuu gaadhay ayuu Yaman magangelyo siyaasadeed isku dhiibay. Isbahaysigii Maxakiimtuna wuxu u kala jabay laba kooxood oo iskasoo horjeeda: Kooxda Asmara iyo Kooxda uu horboodayo wadaad Shariif ee Djibouti lagu soo dhoobdhoobay oo hadda dagaal qadhaadhi ku dhexmarayo meelo badan oo koonfur ka mid ah. Waa tabtii ninkii Carbeed ee gabyey laha:
Acdatu lil shcaraa’I summan naaqican; fa asqaytu aakhirahum ka’asal aweli= Waxan gabayaagii u diyaarshay sun ay ku go’aan,Kii u dambeeyeyna waxan ku waraabshey koobkuu kii u horeeyey ku cabbay!

Suntaa lagu le’day waxa manta ka dhigan hoggaanka madaxtinimo ee Soomaali konfureed ku halaagantay. Dambarkii maadeeq laga lisay oo sun isu bedel ayaa hadba mid cumaad madaxweyne duubtay leeyahay anna aan dhadhamiyee markayga ii dhiiba.

Halkaa ha inoo joogto

Axmed Cali Ibrahim Sabeyse
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          2017 Trafficking in Persons Report - Djibouti        
Publisher: United States Department of State - Document type: Annual Reports
          Djibouti: Requirements and procedures to obtain a passport, including circumstances under which consent is required by another adult; information indicated by the field marked "domicile"; appearance of regular passports (2015-April 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Djibouti : information sur les exigences et la marche à suivre pour obtenir un passeport, y compris les circonstances dans lesquelles le consentement d'un autre adulte est requis; les renseignements qui figurent dans le champ « domicile »; l'aspect des passeports réguliers (2015-avril 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Djibouti: Requirements and procedures for an adult woman to travel inside and outside the country, including whether the female's marital status influences the process; whether women require the authorization or support from a male member of their family to travel (2015-April 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Djibouti : information sur les exigences et la marche à suivre que doivent respecter les femmes adultes pour voyager à l'extérieur du pays, y compris information indiquant si l'état matrimonial d'une femme influe sur le processus; si les femmes doivent obtenir l'autorisation ou l'appui d'un homme au sein de leur famille pour voyager (2015-avril 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Djibouti        
Publisher: United States Department of State - Document type: Annual Reports
          Djibouti: Inter-agency update for the response to the Yemeni situation #51 (January-February 2017)        
Publisher: UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) - Document type: UNHCR Country Updates
          Djibouti: Requirements and procedure to follow to obtain a national identity card, including identity documents required, the authorities who issue them, the validity period and the circumstances in which they are used in Djibouti (2014-June 2016)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          DJIBOUTI : Robleh seeks to quit government        
none
          DJIBOUTI : Rubis Energie plays its political wild card        
none
          DJIBOUTI : Guelleh and the Bozize syndrome        
none
          DJIBOUTI : How the boss of GSK hoodwinked the tax collector        
none
          Relevo        
O relevo africano é caracterizado pela constante presença de planaltos constituídos por rochas muito antigas, resultantes da ação erosiva nas antigas elevações. Os planaltos possuem uma área mais desgastada que é uma grande linha de fraturas(Rift Valley), e essa grande linha é ocupada por muito lagos como o Alberto, o Tanganica, Niassa e o Vitória.Em tempo de cheia esses lagos ajudam muito para a agricultura no país. O Rift Valley tem um vasto sistema de fossos tectônicos, por isso as varias montanhas e elevações.
Muitos dos picos da África tem (ou tiveram no passado) atividade vulcânica, como os montes Kilimanjaro, Quénia, Karisimbi, Nyiragongo, Meru e Elgon. O vulcão Ol Doinyo Lengai continua ativo, sendo o único vulcão de natrocarbonatite no mundo. Outra zona vulcânica extremamente ativa é o Triângulo de Affar, no Djibouti.
Um quarto do território africano é ocupado pelo deserto do Saara, este é o mais grande deserto do mundo. E a vasta depressão do Saara é espalhada de relevos. Certas partes do deserto, como o Tanezrouft e o deserto da Líbia, são extremamente áridas. Ao leste, o deserto é atravessado pelo Nilo. Os solos desérticos, pobres em componentes orgânicos, cobrem uma vasta extensão.



Mapa de relevo da África


Monte Kilimanjaro, Tanazânia


Monte Quénia


Monte Karisimbi


Monte Nyiragongo


Monte Meru


Triângulo de Affar, que originou Rift Valley


O vulcão Ol Doinyo Lengai


O vulcão Ol Doinyo Lengai


Deserto do Saara
          Morning Briefing, International        
NCR Today

NCR Today: What is going on around the world, for Catholics, in Europe's changing governments (including Brexit), and even in Djibouti, where China has established its first overseas military base.


          10 Negara Termiskin Di Dunia        
10. Togo
PDB Per Kapita: $ 899 (Pada 2011)

Republik Togo adalah sebuah negara di Afrika Barat, berbatasan dengan Ghana di barat, Benin di timur dan Burkina Faso di utara. Di sebelah selatan, Togo mempunyai pesisir Teluk Guinea yang kecil, di mana ibu kota Togo, Lomé berada.
Kakao, kopi, dan kapas menghasilkan sekitar 40% dari pendapatan ekspor dengan kapas menjadi tanaman komersial yang paling penting. Sekitar satu setengah dari penduduknya hidup di bawah garis kemiskinan internasional US $ 1,25 per hari.
9. Malawi
PDB Per Kapita: $ 860 (Pada 2011)

Republik Malawi adalah sebuah negara yang terkurung daratan di Afrika bagian selatan. Malawi berbatasan dengan Tanzania di sebelah utara, Zambia di barat laut, dan Mozambik di timur, selatan dan barat.
Malawi memiliki salah satu pendapatan per kapita terendah di dunia, dengan 53% (2004) hidup di bawah garis kemiskinan. Pada bulan Desember 2000, IMF menghentikan pencairan bantuan karena masalah korupsi, dan banyak poendonor individu mengikuti, mengakibatkan penurunan hampir 80% anggaran pembangunan Malawi.
8. Sierra Leone
PDB Per Kapita: $ 849 (Pada 2011)

Republik Sierra Leone adalah sebuah negara di Afrika Barat, tepatnya di pesisir Samudra Atlantik. Negeri ini berbatasan dengan Guinea di sebelah utara, Liberia di tenggara dan Samudra Atlantik di barat daya.
Sebuah negara Afrika Barat dengan bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa resminya, Sierra Leone telah mengandalkan pertambangan, khususnya berlian, basis ekonomi dan rumah bagi pelabuhan alami terbesar ketiga di dunia di mana pengiriman dari seluruh tempat tidur merk terkenal dunia. Meskipun kekayaan alam ini, 70% penduduknya masih hidup dalam kemiskinan. Jika Anda melihat film Blood Diamond begitulah kehidupan masyarakat Sierra Leone.
7. Niger
PDB Per Kapita: $ 771 (Pada 2011)

Republik Niger adalah sebuah negara yang terkurung oleh daratan (landlocked) di bagian barat Afrika. Niger berbatasan dengan Nigeria dan Benin di sebelah selatan; Mali di barat; Aljazair dan Libya di utara; dan Chad di sebelah timur. Nama negara ini diambil dari Sungai Niger. Ibu kotanya ialah Niamey.
Kemiskinan Niger diperburuk oleh politik, kerentanan ketidakstabilan ekstrim terhadap guncangan eksogen dan ketidaksetaraan yang mempengaruhi anak perempuan, wanita dan anak-anak secara tidak proporsional. Pada bulan Januari 2000, pemerintah Niger yang baru terpilih mewarisi masalah keuangan dan ekonomi yang serius.
6. Republik Afrika Tengah
PDB Per Kapita: $ 768 (Pada 2011)

Republik Afrika Tengah ialah sebuah negara di pedalaman Afrika yang berbatasan dengan Chad, Sudan, Republik Demokratik Kongo, Republik Kongo dan Kamerun.
Dahulu negara ini merupakan koloni Perancis bernama Ubangi-Shari, yang mencapai kemerdekaan pada 1960. Selepas tiga dasawarsa bergolak akibat pemerintahan militer silih-berganti, akhirnya pemerintahan sipil berkuasa pada 1993. Namun demikian, pemerintahan ini bertahan selama satu dekade saja. Pada Maret 2003 suatu kudeta militer yang dipimpin oleh Jenderal Francois Bozize telah menjatuhkan pemerintahan sipil pimpinan Presiden Ange-Felix Patasse dan mendirikan pemerintahan peralihan di sana.
Meski memiliki sumber daya mineral yang signifikan, cadangan uranium di Bakouma, minyak mentah, emas, berlian, kayu, tenaga air dan lahan subur, negara ini tetap salah satu negara termiskin di dunia. Berlian merupakan ekspor yang paling penting dari Republik Afrika Tengah.
5. Eritrea
PDB Per Kapita: $ 735 (Pada 2011)

Eritrea adalah sebuah negara yang terletak di bagian timur laut Afrika. Eritrea berbatasan dengan Sudan di sebelah barat, Ethiopia di selatan, dan Djibouti di tenggara. Laut Merah di sebelah timur Eritrea memisahkan negara itu dengan kawasan Timur Tengah. Bagian timur dan timur laut negara ini mempunyai garis pinggir laut yang panjang yang menghadap Laut Merah, betul-betul berhadapan dengan Arab Saudi dan Yaman. Kepulauan Dahlak dan banyak pulau di Kepulauan Hanish merupakan sebagian Eritrea.
Kondisi ekonomi The Eritrea saat ini tidak membaik dan pertumbuhan produk domestik bruto riil rata-rata 1,2 persen antara tahun 2005 dan 2008, pada tahun 2009 pertumbuhan PDB diperkirakan 2,0 persen.
4. Burundi
PDB Per Kapita: $ 615 (Pada 2011)

Burundi adalah sebuah negara tanpa laut di daerah Danau Besar di tengah benua Afrika. Negara ini berbatasan dengan Rwanda di utara, Tanzania di selatan dan timur, dan Republik Demokratik Kongo di barat. Meskipun negara ini tidak mempunyai batas laut, banyak dari perbatasan baratnya bersebelahan dengan Danau Tanganyika.
Tanpa batas laut, menghadapi tekanan penduduk dan memiliki sumber daya alam yang sedikit, Burundi merupakan salah satu negara termiskin dan mempunyai paling banyak konflik di Afrika dan di dunia. Ukurannya yang kecil menutupi masalah besar yang dihadapinya dalam mencari penyelesaian klaim supremasi dari minoritas Tutsi yang berkuasa dengan permintaan partisipasi politik dari suku mayoritas Hutu.
3. Zimbabwe
PDB Per Kapita: $ 487 (Pada 2011)

Republik Zimbabwe adalah sebuah negara di Afrika bagian selatan. Negara yang terkurung daratan ini berbatasan dengan Afrika Selatan di sebelah selatan, Botswana di barat, Zambia di utara dan Mozambik di timur.
Perekonomian Zimbabwe terus mengalami kemorosotan selama beberapa waktu ini. Inflasi negeri ini terus meningkat hingga 2,2 juta persen, yang menjadi inflasi tertinggi di dunia. Akibat inflasi yang tinggi tersebut, bank sentral Zimbabwe sudah mengeluarkan 4 versi mata uang sampai sekarang. Terakhir kali bank sentral Zimbabwe mengeluarkan pecahan $ 100,000,000,000,000 (100 triliun dolar) yang menjadi uang dengan nominal terbesar didunia yang kemudian digantikan dengan dolar versi ke-4 dimana setiap $ 100,000,000,000,000 (100 triliun dolar) uang lama digantikan menjadi $1 uang baru. Dengan ekonomi yang terus memburuk sekarang bank sentral Zimbabwe memutuskan untuk membolehkan rakyatnya menggunakan mata uang dolar Amerika sebagai mata uang mereka untuk menstabilkan kembali ekonomi Zimbabwe.
2. Liberia -
PDB Per Kapita: $ 456 (Pada 2011)

Republik Liberia adalah sebuah negara di pesisir barat Afrika yang berbatasan dengan Sierra Leone, Guinea, dan Pantai Gading. Baru-baru ini Liberia dilanda dua perang saudara (1989–1996 dan 1999–2003) yang mengakibatkan ratusan ribu penduduknya mengungsi sekaligus menghancurkan ekonomi Liberia. Sekarang, Liberia sedang memulihkan diri dari efek tersisa dari perang saudara dan dislokasi ekonomi terkait, dengan sekitar 85% dari penduduk hidup di bawah $ 1 per hari.
1. Republik Demokratik Kongo
PDB Per Kapita: $ 348 (Pada 2011)

Republik Demokratik Kongo telah menjadi negara termiskin di dunia pada 2010.
Republik Demokratik Kongo, (sebelumnya bernama Zaire antara tahun 1971 dan 1997), adalah sebuah Negara di Afrika bagian Tengah. Negara ini berbatasan dengan Republik Afrika Tengah dan Sudan di sebelah utara; Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, dan Tanzania di timur; Zambia dan Angola di selatan; dan Republik Kongo di Barat.
Perang bersaudara berlangsung berkepanjangan di Kongo sejak 1998 yang menghancurkan serta menyeret seluruh wilayah tersebut dan negara-negara di sekitarnya. Aksi kekerasan tersebut telah menghancurkan infrastruktur dan perekonomian negara tersebut hingga akhirnya PBB mengambil alih permasalahan di negara itu dan memaksa Presiden Joseph Kabila menyelenggarakan Pemilihan Umum pada 30 Juli 2006.




          President Infantino and delegation in Djibouti        
Continuing his African visit, FIFA President Gianni Infantino and the FIFA delegation arrived in Djibouti on Thursday, where the programme included a meeting with Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed and a visit of the Djibouti FA Headquarters – another FIFA Goal project.
          Gharsalli: Djibouti have the desire        
A team with low expectations, we find out how the love of the beautiful game in the African country of Djibouti is acting as a source of encouragement to rise up the FIFA/Coca-Cola Ranking.
          Landmark progress in Djibouti as Licence Plus implemented        

The launch of the 'Licence Plus' the online system of registering players, has marked a new dawn of development in the growing football nation of Djibouti. 


          FIFA look to get cameras rolling in Djibouti        
Through FIFA's PERFORMANCE initiative, journalists in Djibouti have been given broadcast training to allow the country's top league to make it on to TV sets around the nation and beyond.
          Djibouti enjoys its first ever FIFA Grassroots course        

The Djibouti Football Federation has concluded a ten-day FIFA Grassroots coaching course, which was the first of its kind.


          Djibouti building from the bottom up        

After being elected to the position of President of the Djibouti Football Association in November, Souleiman Hassan Waberi visited the Home of FIFA to speak about his plans for the small African association.


          Somali refs follow coaches’ lead        

Five months on from a training course for Somalia’s coaches in Djibouti, FIFA welcomed their referees back for a course designed to hone their skills.


          Congo DR level with Egypt        

An easy 6-0 win over Djibouti on Friday left Congo DR level with Egypt at the top of Group 12 in the African Zone qualifiers for South Africa 2010.


          Egypt back on song        

Five days after scraping a 2-1 win over Congo DR, Egypt beat Djibouti 4-0 to signal their South Africa 2010 qualification intentions.


          Tight race in store        

Except for Malawi's romp against Djibouti, it was a day of close encounters in Africa as Round 2 of the South Africa 2010 qualifiers began.


          Malawi throw it all at Djibouti        
Malawi will be at full strength when they go up against Djibouti in their opening 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifier in Blantyre on Saturday.
          Hundreds of thousands received assistance in 2016 in Kenya, Tanzania, and Djibouti        
Article | The ICRC continued to help thousands of people in Kenya, Tanzania, and Djibouti.
          Interview With Peter Nealen        
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I had originally intended to share this interview on SOFREP's Hot Extract blog. But recently Hot Extract has been downsized and will now be exclusively for videogame reviews. The 2FB still covers books and movies, though, and so I offer this interview with former Recon Marine Peter Nealen, who has authored two paramilitary adventure novels, Task Force Desperate and Hunting In the Shadows, both of which I've reviewed right here. So let's get to it.

HANK: Both your novels, particularly HITS, occur with what seems like a very complex political backdrop. Tell a little about that. Obviously you learned a lot from being in Iraq, but then extrapolated from there into your near-future scenario.
PETE: The series as a whole actually got its start when I wrote down a backstory for a science fiction story (which I might get back to one of these years) in between missions in Iraq in ’07.  The background was based on a growing sense that all of the optimism about the 21st Century back in the late ‘90s, before 9/11, was tragically wrong, and the 21st is going to be far, far worse than the bloodletting of the 20th.  A good chunk of the chaos revolved around a global war with Islamism.
HANK: Wouldn't have guessed that. What was going to be science fiction about the story as originally conceived?
PETE: The original story I was working on was completely separate.  The roots of the American Praetorians series began as a way to map how we got from here to the future interstellar war I was gearing up to write about.  Maybe I'll get back to that someday.
 
Over time, I started thinking that I could tell stories set in that background.  My first attempt at getting into it was going to be an Anabasis-style tale about a Marine Special Operations Team trying to escape from Afghanistan with some Polish GROM guys when everything goes completely to hell.  It was ambitious as hell, and never really went anywhere.
After that, I started on a short about first Marines, then PMC guys defending the US Embassy in Baghdad as Iraq falls apart.  We might see elements of this later…
Finally, in 2011, I got the idea to start sort of a “history repeating itself” story, starting with Bin Laden being convinced the US was a paper tiger after we pulled out of Somalia following the Battle of the Black Sea in October of ’93.  So I went back to East Africa to kick things off.  I did as much research as I could, including picking the brain of an officer I was working with at the time, who had done six months at Camp Lemonier in Djibouti.  How accurate some of the details are, I still don’t know for absolute certain, because getting solid information out of Somalia these days is difficult.  Even those who have worked in intel there warn that a lot of what comes out of all sides is nothing but lies and propaganda.
When it came to Hunting in the Shadows, I drew on a lot of my own experience from being in Iraq, but since it takes place in areas I never got to, I still had to do a lot of research.  I never got to work with the Kurds, so I had to read up on the relationships between the Kurds and their neighbors.  I had to read up on Iranian operations, as well as drawing on some of the whispered information about things like EFPs (Explosively Formed Penetrators) coming from Iran for IEDs while I was there.  I’ve also been keeping some tabs on the place since I started writing for SOFREP, so I’ve been watching its disintegration into sectarian and tribal vendettas for a while now.
The Syrian angle actually came to me partway through writing Hunting.  What’s going on there is largely a contest between Salafi Sunnis and militant Shia, largely centered around AQI on the one side and Iran on the other.  While a great deal of the scenarios in my books are in fact “What if?” scenarios (TFD was “What if the Muslim Brotherhood really solidified their hold on Egypt, and started directly supporting Islamist groups on the Horn in order to seize the strategic position of the Horn of Africa?”), they are based on immediate happenings.  There has already been spillover from the Syrian Civil War into Iraq.  So I posited, “What if Assad fell, and the Salafis took over Syria?  What would Iran do?  What would a weakened, divided Iraqi government do?”  Then I threw my hardass PMC shooters into the mix and let them go at it.
HANK: It makes for a potent mixture, I'd say. While I'm not as up-to-date on the political minutia over there as you veterans of the occupation, it all rang true to me. How about your characters--based on real dudes? Amalgams?
PETE: Some are based on real guys.  Some are amalgams.  Most I won’t name; they’ll probably recognize themselves if they read the book, and that’s enough.  “Larry” is actually somewhat based on one of my favorite authors, Larry Correia.  During an early draft of TFD, I had a character show up who at least physically resembled Larry and shared his love of STI 2011 pistols, so I contacted him and asked him if it was all right with him.  He gave me his thumbs-up, and so now there is “Hardass, former SOF, Contractor Larry.”
HANK: Dontcha' love how some characters just show up? "Hey, where did you come from? Who's writing this thing, anyway?" You met Larry Correia in person, didn't you?

 PETE: Yes, briefly.  He was signing books at the STI booth at SHOT Show in 2011, and I happened to be there as a rep for Force Recon Company, I MEF.  I got him to sign Monster Hunter International and Monster Hunter Vendetta for my wife.  Great guy.
HANK:  I like that. And it just so happens I've recently finished his Monster Hunter International on Audible Audio. It was a fun read and got me to chuckle quite a few times. Sounds like there's at least a physical resemblance between him and his protagonist. And I loved that he was a gun nut. Where else do you find a firearms enthusiast character who's not evil and stupid?

As a writer, I've filed away little experiences from here and there, and drawn from them later on. Some of my scenes, or portions of scenes, were tweaked, adapted or just lifted from stuff I saw happen. I think all writers must do that. So can you point to some specific scenes, sequences or snippets in your two books that came about this way?
PETE: I can’t really point to any specific scene that was drawn directly from my experiences.  A lot of details, yes.  As I try to be quick to point out, the adventures of the Praetorian shooters are way, way more exciting than anything I did overseas.  Though there is an interrogation by one of the Iraqi militiamen in Hunting in the Shadows which was pretty well lifted from a similar interrogation by one of our terps in Iraq.  Some of those guys didn’t mess around.
HANK: I guess that's fairly universal. I know my life has been pretty dull compared to the lives of my characters.

I love that your main character uses an M1A, and from a previous exchange I understand you yourself have one. So talk about why you like this MBR and how you came to like it.
PETE: I’d read up on the SOCOM 16 for a while before I decided to get one, and immediately found I liked it.  I like the action, I like the fact that while it might be heavier than an M4, it packs way more of a wallop than any 5.56 rifle, in a package only slightly larger.  In fact, I’ve seen a few raised eyebrows at the use of full powered battle rifles in CQB in my books, but I have to point out that the SOCOM 16, as well as most of the other 7.62 NATO carbines I describe, are no larger than most M4s.
I also decided on 7.62x51 as the go-to rifle cartridge after seeing firsthand the lack of effectiveness of 5.56x45, as well as many conversations in Humvees and hide sites about what we’d do if we had control over weapon choices.
HANK: Even with the wooden stock, I've always thought the M14 was a better MBR. It's comparable in weight to the M-1 Garand (which its design is partly borrowed from). Are we so much wimpier now than the grunts in WWII and Korea? 

Ahem. 

So many of us are writing about good-guy PMCs these days. Have you had any experience with actual mercs or is Praetorian Security entirely from your imagination?
PETE: I’ve had some small experience with PMCs, and know a lot of good Recon Marines who went on to contracting after getting out.  I’ve found that for the most part the media stereotypes are mistaken; most of these guys aren’t really any different from the guys who are in.  They might have some more leeway in certain things, depending on the company, and might get paid more, but they’ve got a lot less support if something goes wrong.  Most of the ones I know are pretty professional.
That said, Praetorian is in many ways a product of my imagination, and, again, many hours of BSing in the desert about, “Wouldn’t it be awesome if…”  I originally turned to the idea of a PMC instead of actual military because of the increasing restrictions being placed on deployed troops in combat zones.  I wanted these guys to have some more leeway and self-determination.  I figured I could get that with mercs.  And Praetorian is closer to an actual mercenary company than what are today called PMCs.  These guys operate by the principle of, “Whatever gets the mission done,” and don’t give much thought to the kind of legalities that would get someone operating like them shut down pretty fast in today’s environment.  It helps that the future I’ve extrapolated is seeing a breakdown in the (in my opinion, artificial) niceties of international and economic order.  In many places you can already see that breakdown starting today, if you look past the miasma of distraction on TV.
HANK: I knew a guy who'd done merc work, but this was before OIF and the explosion of contract opportunities. My character Sam DeChalk in Hell and Gone is partly based on him. 

While it's impossible to find a real life military or paramilitary unit without flaws, it's nice being a writer because we can make them as altruistic and ethical as we want. Whatever flaws they exhibit have to be approved by us and ultimately we control how much the bad apples and jerkoffs get away with.

What's next up for you?

PETE: While I’ve started some work on the next volume in the American Praetorians series, “Alone and Unafraid,” for the moment I’m kind of taking a break from the series, letting my mind rest a little.  I’m working on a presently unnamed novel (much shorter than either TFD or HITS), in the horror/adventure genre.  I’m serializing it on www.wethearmed.com right now, and hope to finish it up in the next month or two, after which I’ll hit Alone and Unafraid hard and fast.

I’ve also got a nonfiction book in the works, though it is something of a long-term project.  Following an article on SOFREP, “The Cost of Limited War,” I decided to tackle “History, Moral Philosophy, and War.”  It’s a huge project, and is probably going to take several years to complete.

HANK: Thanks, Pete, for taking the time to converse.

Folks, it's gonna be hard to find novels in which the author puts such emphasis on realism and still winds up with an entertaining read, outside of Pete's books. And these are books for thinking men, not the lowest-common-denominator drivel writers in the genre are so often accused of. If you want to feel like you're there in the sandbox with bullets coming uprange, I highly recommend them.

As alluded to above, I will no longer be writing for Hot Extract. I was already reducing my cyber footprint, and the news about HE was an omen, divine confirmation, or however you choose to look at such things. For the immediate future I'll keep blogging right here, and posting Amazon reviews now and then. I may check Facebook every once in a while, or I may stop using it altogether--not sure. While I appreciate all the authors asking for reviews (in a way I guess it validates the existence of this blog?), I simply can't commit to much anymore. The list is pretty bleeding long already. If I can't get to your book, it's not necessarily because I think I won't like it, and certainly nothing personal against the author. 

Okay, bye.


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Pendahuluan
A.Latar belakang masalah
          Tafsir merupakan hal yang perlu di lakukan untuk memahami sesuatu,Al quran yang kita kenal dengan al furqon pembeda antara haq dan yang batil,perlu adanya kajian lebih lanjut untuk memahami isi atau maksud yang ada dalam Alquran.Ilmu yang di gunakan untuk memahami kandungan Al quran adalah ilmu tafsir,dan ilmu ini sudah ada dari zaman Rosullulloh dan dialah penafsir terbaik dari yang terbaik karena dia yang diberin wewenang oleh Allah untuk mengajarkannnya kepada seluruh manusia.Hanya saja dahulu penafsiran ini belum di kenal dengan ilmu tafsir.
          Kita sudah hidup dari zaman Rosululloh sudah 1400 tahun lamanya,dan ini sudah merubah peradaban manusia,semakin berkembangnya zaman maka berkembang pula penafsiran  Al quran,sehingga Al quran itu akan selalu harmonis dengan zaman yang sedang berlaku.Setelah rosululloh itu wafat,penafsiran al quran di lakukan oleh para sahabat,dan kemudian di lanjutkan oleh penerus - penerusnya sampai sekarang.
          Seorang mufassir adalah orang yang menafsirkan Al quran,sehingga ia harus tahu betul tentang tata bahasa ,ahli bahasa arab,dan zaman yang sedang di laluinya,dan masih banyak yang harus di kuasai olehnya.Indonesia itu memiliki mufassir yang tersohor yaitu prof.Dr.M.Quraisy syihab yang terkenal dengan karyanya al misbah,sebuah kitab tafsir Al quran lengkap 30 juz yang tidak asing lagi.

                         
A.Sekilas tentang pengarang
          Tafsir al misbah adalah hasil karya seorang ulama yaitu Prof.Dr.M.Quraisy Syihab,yang  sangat populer di indonesia.Ia lahir sulqwesi selatan tepatnya di rapang dari seorang ayah yang bernama Prof abdurrahman syihab seorang guru besar dan seorang yag ahli tafsir.Pantaslah jika quraisy syihab aka menuruni ayahnya kelak.Permulaan Quraisy mulai menintai Al  quran pada waktu umur 6 tahun,karena memang hal ini atas pedulinya ayahnya kepada anak – anaknya untuk mengajarkan Al uran.Umur enam tahun adalah permulaan yang baik untuk membentuk karakter anak ,k arena memang  pemikirannya masih bersih dan mudah mengingat tentang sesuatu.
          Pangajian yang di adakan ayahnya setiap setelah magrib untuk anak – anakya mendorong dan menjadikan modal yang sangat penting untuk perkembangan jiwa Quraisy.Memotifasinya untuk belajar Al quran .Latar belakang pendidikan yang ia tempuh adalah  sd dan smp di makasar,tetapi hanya sampai kelas 2 SMP.Tetapi setelahnya ia tidak berdiam diri,setelah itu ia melanjutkan stadinya pondok Darul Hadis Al Fikhiyah,tepatnya di daerah Malang ,karena jiwanya sudah terbentuk dan sudah menjadi tabiatnya untuk memperdalam Al quran ia sangt serius dalam menempuh studi di pondok tersebut sehingga setelah 2 tahun ia sudah mahir bahasa arab dan karena kemahirannya,ayahnya mengirimnya beserta adiknya ke kairo dengan beasiswa dari  profinsi pada tahun1958 ,tepatnya pada usia 14 tahun.
          Pembelajaran yang di tempuh olehnya adalah adalah kelas 2 i’dadiyah setingkat smp di indonesia.Jadi boleh di katakan ia mengulang kembali kelas 2,tetapi juga boleh di katakan ia tidak mengulangi pelajarannya pada waktu ia belajar kelas dua di indonesia,karena tidak bisa di samakan pelajaran Cairo dengan indonesia.Selah merampungkan studinya di tsanawiyah al azhar ,ia melanjutkan ke Universitas Al Azhar pada fakultas Ushuludin,jurusan tafsir dan   

hadis.Pada tahun 1967 ia lulus dan di lanjutkan ke S2 dan mengambil jurusan yang sama.Hanya 2 tahun ia meraih gelar MA,
          Pada tahun 1973 ia dipanggil pulang ke Makassar oleh ayahnya yang ketika itu menjabat rektor, untuk membantu mengelola pendidikan di IAIN Alauddin. Ia menjadi wakil rektor bidang akademis dan kemahasiswaan sampai tahun 1980. Untuk mewujudkan cita-citanya, ia mendalami studi tafsir, pada 1980 Quraish Shihab kembali menuntut ilmu ke almamaternya, al-Azhar Cairo, mengambil spesialisasi dalam studi tafsir al-Qur’an. Ia hanya memerlukan waktu dua tahun untuk meraih gelar doktor dalam bidang ini.
          Tahun 1984 adalah babak baru tahap kedua bagi Quraish Shihab untuk melanjutkan kariernya. Untuk itu ia pindah tugas dari IAIN Makassar ke Fakultas Ushuluddin di IAIN Jakarta. Di sini ia aktif mengajar bidang Tafsir dan Ulum Al-Quran di Program S1, S2 dan S3 sampai tahun 1998. Di samping melaksanakan tugas pokoknya sebagai dosen, ia juga dipercaya menduduki jabatan sebagai Rektor IAIN Jakarta selama dua periode (1992-1996 dan 1997-1998). Setelah itu ia dipercaya menduduki jabatan sebagai Menteri Agama selama kurang lebih dua bulan di awal tahun 1998, hingga kemudian dia diangkat sebagai Duta Besar Luar Biasa dan Berkuasa Penuh Republik Indonesia untuk negara Republik Arab Mesir merangkap negara Republik Djibouti berkedudukan di Kairo. Kehadirannya di jakarta di sambut baik oleh mayarakat dan sering mengisi di masjid masjid besar dan khususnya di bulan romadlon di siaran televisi RCTI.
B.Isi al misbah
          Al misbah merupakan karya momumental yang di terbikan oleh Lentera Hati dan merupakan tafsir yang berisikan lengkap 30 juz.Untuk menjelaskan karyanya seoarang musafir memang harus bisa di sesuaikan dengan para pendengar,atau pembaca tafsir.Baik di kalangan majlis.Masyarakat ,atupun suatu negara.
          Dalam al misbah quraisy syihab menjelaskan terlebih dahulu tentang maksud firman – firman Allah yang terkandung dalam Al quran.Karena memang inilah inti sari dari pada kajian tafsir itu.Penjelasan yang  singkat tetapi jelas dan dalam itulah yag penulis dengar saat Quraish menyampaikan ceramah di televisi.Penjelasan itulah yang akan dapat di terima lapisan masyarakat dan inilah yang di harapkan dalam penyampaian tafsir.Sehingga masyarakat mampu mengaplikasikan  pesan Al quran ke dalam kehidupan yang di hadapi.seorang ahli tafsir juga harus mampu menghilangkan kesalah pahaman tentang  pesan pesan yang terkandung di dalamnya.
           Quraisy juga memasukan tentang kaum orientalis yang mengkritik tajam tentang sistematika urutan  ayat Al quran sambil melemparkan kesalahan kesalahan kepada para penulis wahyu.Kaum orintalis juga berpendapat bahwa ada sebagian ayat – ayat Al quran yang di tulis pada masa awal awal karier nai Muhammad SAW.
           Pemasukan ini oleh Qurasy bertujuan untuk membantah tudingan tudingan orientalis yang di lontarkan kepada islam melalui penikirannnya.untuk membantah tudingan ini quraisy syihab mengambil tokoh tokoh ulama tafsir tokoh-tokohnya seperti: Fakhruddin ar-Razi (606 H/1210 M). Abu Ishaq asy-Syathibi (w.790 H/1388 M), Ibrahim Ibn Umar al-Biqa’I (809-885 H/1406-1480 M), Badruddin Muhammad ibn Abdullah Az-Zarkasyi (w.794 H) dan lain-lain yang menekuni ilmu Munasabat al-Quran/keserasian hubungan bagian-bagian al-Quran.Sehingga umat islam menjadi yakin bahwa orientali itu hanyalah pemecah belah islam dari dalam.
            Ada beberapa prinsip yang dipegangi oleh M. Quraish Shihab dalam karya tafsirnya, baik tahlîlî maupun mawdhû‘î, di antaranya bahwa al-Qur’an merupakan satu kesatuan yang tak terpisahkan. Dalam al-Mishbâh, beliau tidak pernah luput dari pembahasan ilmu al-munâsabât yang tercermin dalam enam hal:
• keserasian kata demi kata dalam satu surah;
• keserasian kandungan ayat dengan penutup ayat (fawâshil);
• keserasian hubungan ayat dengan ayat berikutnya;
• keserasian uraian awal/mukadimah satu surah dengan penutupnya;
• keserasian penutup surah dengan uraian awal/mukadimah surah sesudahnya;
• Keserasian tema surah dengan nama surah.

            Tafsir Al misbah tidak hanya sebagai kitab tafsir 30 jus saja ,Tetapi juga merupakan pengurai penjelas tentang sejumlah tafsir ternama.Maka jadilah Al misbah sebagai kitab tafsir sebagai referensi yang argumentatif dan informatif.Gaya bahasa yang mudah di cerna segenap kalangan semakin menerik hati untuk menelaahnya.
           Meneurut Howard M.Federspiel merekomendasikan bahwa karya tafsir M.Quraish inipantas dan wajib menjadi bacaan setiap muslim di indonesia.Kenapa Howard mengatakan demikian ?karena  mungkin ia memandang bahwa
          4.AL MISBAH        
Pendahuluan
A.Latar belakang masalah
          Tafsir merupakan hal yang perlu di lakukan untuk memahami sesuatu,Al quran yang kita kenal dengan al furqon pembeda antara haq dan yang batil,perlu adanya kajian lebih lanjut untuk memahami isi atau maksud yang ada dalam Alquran.Ilmu yang di gunakan untuk memahami kandungan Al quran adalah ilmu tafsir,dan ilmu ini sudah ada dari zaman Rosullulloh dan dialah penafsir terbaik dari yang terbaik karena dia yang diberin wewenang oleh Allah untuk mengajarkannnya kepada seluruh manusia.Hanya saja dahulu penafsiran ini belum di kenal dengan ilmu tafsir.
          Kita sudah hidup dari zaman Rosululloh sudah 1400 tahun lamanya,dan ini sudah merubah peradaban manusia,semakin berkembangnya zaman maka berkembang pula penafsiran  Al quran,sehingga Al quran itu akan selalu harmonis dengan zaman yang sedang berlaku.Setelah rosululloh itu wafat,penafsiran al quran di lakukan oleh para sahabat,dan kemudian di lanjutkan oleh penerus - penerusnya sampai sekarang.
          Seorang mufassir adalah orang yang menafsirkan Al quran,sehingga ia harus tahu betul tentang tata bahasa ,ahli bahasa arab,dan zaman yang sedang di laluinya,dan masih banyak yang harus di kuasai olehnya.Indonesia itu memiliki mufassir yang tersohor yaitu prof.Dr.M.Quraisy syihab yang terkenal dengan karyanya al misbah,sebuah kitab tafsir Al quran lengkap 30 juz yang tidak asing lagi.

                         
A.Sekilas tentang pengarang
          Tafsir al misbah adalah hasil karya seorang ulama yaitu Prof.Dr.M.Quraisy Syihab,yang  sangat populer di indonesia.Ia lahir sulqwesi selatan tepatnya di rapang dari seorang ayah yang bernama Prof abdurrahman syihab seorang guru besar dan seorang yag ahli tafsir.Pantaslah jika quraisy syihab aka menuruni ayahnya kelak.Permulaan Quraisy mulai menintai Al  quran pada waktu umur 6 tahun,karena memang hal ini atas pedulinya ayahnya kepada anak – anaknya untuk mengajarkan Al uran.Umur enam tahun adalah permulaan yang baik untuk membentuk karakter anak ,k arena memang  pemikirannya masih bersih dan mudah mengingat tentang sesuatu.
          Pangajian yang di adakan ayahnya setiap setelah magrib untuk anak – anakya mendorong dan menjadikan modal yang sangat penting untuk perkembangan jiwa Quraisy.Memotifasinya untuk belajar Al quran .Latar belakang pendidikan yang ia tempuh adalah  sd dan smp di makasar,tetapi hanya sampai kelas 2 SMP.Tetapi setelahnya ia tidak berdiam diri,setelah itu ia melanjutkan stadinya pondok Darul Hadis Al Fikhiyah,tepatnya di daerah Malang ,karena jiwanya sudah terbentuk dan sudah menjadi tabiatnya untuk memperdalam Al quran ia sangt serius dalam menempuh studi di pondok tersebut sehingga setelah 2 tahun ia sudah mahir bahasa arab dan karena kemahirannya,ayahnya mengirimnya beserta adiknya ke kairo dengan beasiswa dari  profinsi pada tahun1958 ,tepatnya pada usia 14 tahun.
          Pembelajaran yang di tempuh olehnya adalah adalah kelas 2 i’dadiyah setingkat smp di indonesia.Jadi boleh di katakan ia mengulang kembali kelas 2,tetapi juga boleh di katakan ia tidak mengulangi pelajarannya pada waktu ia belajar kelas dua di indonesia,karena tidak bisa di samakan pelajaran Cairo dengan indonesia.Selah merampungkan studinya di tsanawiyah al azhar ,ia melanjutkan ke Universitas Al Azhar pada fakultas Ushuludin,jurusan tafsir dan   

hadis.Pada tahun 1967 ia lulus dan di lanjutkan ke S2 dan mengambil jurusan yang sama.Hanya 2 tahun ia meraih gelar MA,
          Pada tahun 1973 ia dipanggil pulang ke Makassar oleh ayahnya yang ketika itu menjabat rektor, untuk membantu mengelola pendidikan di IAIN Alauddin. Ia menjadi wakil rektor bidang akademis dan kemahasiswaan sampai tahun 1980. Untuk mewujudkan cita-citanya, ia mendalami studi tafsir, pada 1980 Quraish Shihab kembali menuntut ilmu ke almamaternya, al-Azhar Cairo, mengambil spesialisasi dalam studi tafsir al-Qur’an. Ia hanya memerlukan waktu dua tahun untuk meraih gelar doktor dalam bidang ini.
          Tahun 1984 adalah babak baru tahap kedua bagi Quraish Shihab untuk melanjutkan kariernya. Untuk itu ia pindah tugas dari IAIN Makassar ke Fakultas Ushuluddin di IAIN Jakarta. Di sini ia aktif mengajar bidang Tafsir dan Ulum Al-Quran di Program S1, S2 dan S3 sampai tahun 1998. Di samping melaksanakan tugas pokoknya sebagai dosen, ia juga dipercaya menduduki jabatan sebagai Rektor IAIN Jakarta selama dua periode (1992-1996 dan 1997-1998). Setelah itu ia dipercaya menduduki jabatan sebagai Menteri Agama selama kurang lebih dua bulan di awal tahun 1998, hingga kemudian dia diangkat sebagai Duta Besar Luar Biasa dan Berkuasa Penuh Republik Indonesia untuk negara Republik Arab Mesir merangkap negara Republik Djibouti berkedudukan di Kairo. Kehadirannya di jakarta di sambut baik oleh mayarakat dan sering mengisi di masjid masjid besar dan khususnya di bulan romadlon di siaran televisi RCTI.
B.Isi al misbah
          Al misbah merupakan karya momumental yang di terbikan oleh Lentera Hati dan merupakan tafsir yang berisikan lengkap 30 juz.Untuk menjelaskan karyanya seoarang musafir memang harus bisa di sesuaikan dengan para pendengar,atau pembaca tafsir.Baik di kalangan majlis.Masyarakat ,atupun suatu negara.
          Dalam al misbah quraisy syihab menjelaskan terlebih dahulu tentang maksud firman – firman Allah yang terkandung dalam Al quran.Karena memang inilah inti sari dari pada kajian tafsir itu.Penjelasan yang  singkat tetapi jelas dan dalam itulah yag penulis dengar saat Quraish menyampaikan ceramah di televisi.Penjelasan itulah yang akan dapat di terima lapisan masyarakat dan inilah yang di harapkan dalam penyampaian tafsir.Sehingga masyarakat mampu mengaplikasikan  pesan Al quran ke dalam kehidupan yang di hadapi.seorang ahli tafsir juga harus mampu menghilangkan kesalah pahaman tentang  pesan pesan yang terkandung di dalamnya.
           Quraisy juga memasukan tentang kaum orientalis yang mengkritik tajam tentang sistematika urutan  ayat Al quran sambil melemparkan kesalahan kesalahan kepada para penulis wahyu.Kaum orintalis juga berpendapat bahwa ada sebagian ayat – ayat Al quran yang di tulis pada masa awal awal karier nai Muhammad SAW.
           Pemasukan ini oleh Qurasy bertujuan untuk membantah tudingan tudingan orientalis yang di lontarkan kepada islam melalui penikirannnya.untuk membantah tudingan ini quraisy syihab mengambil tokoh tokoh ulama tafsir tokoh-tokohnya seperti: Fakhruddin ar-Razi (606 H/1210 M). Abu Ishaq asy-Syathibi (w.790 H/1388 M), Ibrahim Ibn Umar al-Biqa’I (809-885 H/1406-1480 M), Badruddin Muhammad ibn Abdullah Az-Zarkasyi (w.794 H) dan lain-lain yang menekuni ilmu Munasabat al-Quran/keserasian hubungan bagian-bagian al-Quran.Sehingga umat islam menjadi yakin bahwa orientali itu hanyalah pemecah belah islam dari dalam.
            Ada beberapa prinsip yang dipegangi oleh M. Quraish Shihab dalam karya tafsirnya, baik tahlîlî maupun mawdhû‘î, di antaranya bahwa al-Qur’an merupakan satu kesatuan yang tak terpisahkan. Dalam al-Mishbâh, beliau tidak pernah luput dari pembahasan ilmu al-munâsabât yang tercermin dalam enam hal:
• keserasian kata demi kata dalam satu surah;
• keserasian kandungan ayat dengan penutup ayat (fawâshil);
• keserasian hubungan ayat dengan ayat berikutnya;
• keserasian uraian awal/mukadimah satu surah dengan penutupnya;
• keserasian penutup surah dengan uraian awal/mukadimah surah sesudahnya;
• Keserasian tema surah dengan nama surah.

            Tafsir Al misbah tidak hanya sebagai kitab tafsir 30 jus saja ,Tetapi juga merupakan pengurai penjelas tentang sejumlah tafsir ternama.Maka jadilah Al misbah sebagai kitab tafsir sebagai referensi yang argumentatif dan informatif.Gaya bahasa yang mudah di cerna segenap kalangan semakin menerik hati untuk menelaahnya.
           Meneurut Howard M.Federspiel merekomendasikan bahwa karya tafsir M.Quraish inipantas dan wajib menjadi bacaan setiap muslim di indonesia.Kenapa Howard mengatakan demikian ?karena  mungkin ia memandang bahwa bahwa penjelasan Al misbah ini sangat menarik,bersifat sosial dan  mudah di pahami.
           Dalam menafsirkan Al quran quraish lebih cenderung menggunakan metode maudhu’i atau metode tematik.Di bawah ini akan di terangkan  apakah metode tematik itu?.Perlu di ingat bahwa setiap metode itu memiliki kekurangan dan kelebihan masing -  masing.Metode ini muncul di era modern ,karena perkembangan masyarakat yang selalu dinamis melahirkan metode yang baru untuk menafsirkan Al quran sehingga AL quran itu mudah untukk di pahami dan di aplikasikan.

C.Metide maudhu’i
            Metode maudhu’i  adalah metode  yang membahas Al quran dengan tema yang telah di tetapkan  atu dengan kata lain menghimpun per bab dalam Al quran,seperti bab sholat misalnya,kemudian di cari tentang bab sholat yang ada di Alquran semua di jadikan satu.Di teruskan dengan pengkajian yang  mendalam dan tuntas dari berbagai aspek yang terkait dengannya.Semua itu di   Jelaskan secara rinci,serta di dukung oleh dalil – dalil  dan fakta – fakta yang dapat di pertanggung jawabkan.Baik argumen itu berasal dari Al quran dari AL hadis maupun pemikiran rasional.
            Telah di tulis di atas bahwa setiap metode memiliki kekurangan dan kelebihan.Kelebihan  metode maudhu’i yaitu?
1.Untuk menjawab tantangan zaman yang selalu tumbuh dan berkembang.Metode ini sebagai upaya untuk menjawab tantangan tersebut.
2.praktis dan sistematis
           Karena bentuknya yang sistematis maka di harapkan permasalahan  yang timbul dengan mudah di jawab oleh metode ini.karena memang semua bab dalam Al quran telah di kelompokan sedemikian rupa.
3.dinamis
           Metode ini membuat tafsir Al quran  selalu sesuai dengan perkembangan zamannya.Sehingga menimbulkan image bagi setiap pembaca dan pendengar bahwa Al quran itu adlah petunjuk sampai akhir zaman.
4.Membuat pemahaman tentang Al quran menjadi utuh karena telah di susun secara sistematis sesuai tema.Sehingga sehingga pemahaman tentang satu bab pernikahan misalnya ,akan dengan mudah mendapat pemahaman yang
utuh.Oleh sebab itu metode ini dapat di andalkan untuk pemecahan  permasalahan  secara lebih baik dizaman modern ini.
 Dan kekurangan metode maudhu’i yaitu:
 [1] Memenggal ayat al-Qur’an: Yang dimaksud memenggal ayat al-Qur’an ialah suatu kasus yang terdapat di dalam suatu ayat atau lebih mengandung banyak permasalahan yang berbeda. Misalnya, petunjuk tentang shalat dan zakat. Biasanya kedua ibadah itu diungkapkan bersama dalam satu ayat. Apabila ingin membahas kajian tentang zakat misalnya, maka mau tidak mau ayat tentang shalat harus di tinggalkan ketika menukilkannya dari mushaf agar tidak mengganggu pada waktu melakukan analisis.  

[2] Membatasi pemahaman ayat: Dengan diterapkannya judul penafsiran, maka pemahaman suatu ayat menjadi terbatas pada permasalahan yang dibahas ayat itu dapat ditinjau dari berbagai aspek, karena dinyatakan Darraz bahwa, ayat al-Qur’an itu bagaikan permata yang setiap sudutnya memantulkan cahaya. Jadi, dengan diterapkannya judul pembahasan, berarti yang akan dikaji hanya satu sudut dari permata tersebut43.Kesimpulan.
          AL misbah merupakan karya yang fenomenal yang tidak asing bagi masyarakat indonesia khususnya mahasiswa ,yana di karang oleh Prof Dr.M.Quraisy Syihab,lengkap  30 juz.Metode yang di gunakan tafsir ini adalah metode maudhu’i atau methode tematik di mana metode ini mengumpukan perbab dari Al quran dan di jadikan satu.kelebihan methode ini adalah untuk menjawab tantangan zaman,dinamis,dan menjadika pemahaman setiap bab dalam Al quran menjadi utuh.kekurangannya adalah sebagian ayat  ayat Al quran harus di penggal karena untuk memisahkan pemasalahan satu dengan yang lain.Dan pemahaman ayat menjadi terbatas.


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Virginians name their boys William. Vermonters like Phish. Louisiana has gonorrhea.

If you have an Internet connection, you’ve likely seen one of these maps of America, in which each state’s character is boiled down to a single predilection or predicament. The maps are undeniably entertaining: You check out the state you live in, the state your cousin lives in, the state you dislike for whatever reason, and then send it to a friend so she can do the same. Thanks to their shareability, the maps have quickly become a fixture of Facebook, Twitter, and websites (Slate among them) eager to profit from our fascination with federalism. 

There’s nothing wrong with reading and sharing maps like this, of course—they’re fun and might even teach you some trivia. But the maps are often misleading. Crucial information can be left out, and patterns can emerge where there are none. The underlying data is usually noisier than it appears, and a small change in methodology can result in drastically different maps. If you understand the sensitivity of the data and the process used to create the map, this isn’t much of an issue. But when someone shares an amusing U.S. map on Facebook, how long do you usually spend reading the fine print about methodology? You might be surprised at what you’re missing.

Many different kinds of U.S. maps have gone viral in recent months. My focus here is on maps of the United States in which each state is given a single, non-numeric label, as these tend to be among the most widely shared. For instance, you may have seen the maps of popular baby names by year created by Reuben Fischer-Baum. In many instances, a single name surges in popularity in a given year, appears to take over the United States like a virus, and then fades away. The name Ashley, for example, appears to go from limited popularity in the 1980s to near ubiquity by the early ’90s.

Watch the maps in GIF form, and it’s impossible not to come away with the conclusion that American parents were in the grip of an Ashley-naming epidemic in the final years of George H. W. Bush’s presidency:

In 1984, only 13 states are labeled Ashley; by 1992, 30 states are. But it turns out that in 1984, a female baby born in the United States was actually 8 percent more likely to be named Ashley than in 1992.

Ashley was still the most popular girls’ name in 1991 and 1992. But its newfound dominance of the map is not the result of its growing popularity. Ashley was on the decline by the early ’90s—but other names were declining even faster. The original maps don’t actually say that Ashley was increasing in popularity in the early ’90s, but the way the information is presented, that misunderstanding is almost unavoidable.    

Even within each individual name map, the results are not always as straightforward as they seem. In the 1992 map, Missouri is marked Jessica, while Iowa, its neighbor to the north, is marked Ashley. Glancing at the map quickly, you would likely assume that Ashley was therefore more popular in Iowa than in Missouri. But in 1992, 2.7 percent of all babies born in Missouri were named Ashley. This is a higher rate than in Iowa (2.3 percent) and indeed higher than the national average (2.4 percent). It just so happens that Jessica was even more popular in Missouri than Ashley.

Again, this doesn’t mean the baby-name maps are wrong. They don’t purport to show anything except the most commonly given name in each state. In fact, these particular maps are well-designed and informative, if you have time to wade through the implications of the data. But it’s easy to see false trends here. Behind each map is data for hundreds of names across 50 states that would need to be examined closely to find the real trends. Unfortunately, there is no such thing as a viral Excel sheet.

Even a carefully researched and explicated map can be lifted in JPEG form and distributed without proper context. A perfect example of this is the map below, created by Music Machinery blogger Paul Lamere. The map shows each state’s “Most Distinctive Band”:

Lamere’s concept was well thought out, and his original post took care to explain his process and to offer the appropriate caveats to his readers. The map was meant to illustrate something very specific: which band is more popular in a given state than in any other state. But when the map was republished, on sites including BuzzFeed, Time, and Slate, his notes disappeared, and, even worse, the map was given a new, misleading title. Now the map was being described as showing each state’s favorite band, period. Naturally, “Your State’s Favorite Band” is a more attractive and easier to understand headline than “Your State’s Most Distinctive Band.” If it wasn’t for Mother Jones taking other sites to task for this mislabeling, the error may have gone unnoticed. (Slate’s post on the map has since been corrected.)

I talked to Kirk Goldsberry, who teaches cartography at Harvard, about the rise of viral maps. He noted that people tend to be very trusting of maps. Information a reader might be inclined to question if presented as text might be more blithely accepted if presented in the form of a map. This certainly seems to be the case when it comes to the distinctive songs map. If a music critic asserted in a review that Sufjan Stevens is the most listened to act in Illinois, you would be skeptical of that claim. More listened to than Jay Z? Than Katy Perry? Than the Beatles? When incorrectly labeled as “Each State’s Favorite Band,” the map was making such a claim. But in the context of a map, readers were slower to realize the mistake, if they noticed it at all.

Even knowing that the map is showing the most distinct, not the most popular, band for each state, the map can still be misleading if you don’t pay attention to the methodology. For example, Lamere made the decision to only include bands among the 50 most listened to in each state for his sample, so that the map would feature acts with a reasonable level of popularity. Without such a cutoff, the most distinctive band in many states would be a local act many readers would never have heard of. In Virginia, for example, if the cutoff had been the top 1,000 most listened to artists, as opposed to the top 50, the commonwealth’s most distinctive artist would have been HardHittaz—a group that is not in the top 10,000 most listened to groups in the United States.

Lamere’s choice of 50 as a cutoff was therefore reasonable—it produced a map where the majority of the acts are recognizable to most readers—but it was also arbitrary. Below are two maps created using the same methodology and same data that Lamere used, only in these maps, the cutoff is 35 and 100 instead of 50.

As you can see, the choice of cutoff drastically affects the results. Let’s look at Illinois again. When the cutoff is 50, Sufjan Stevens wins out. At 35, the state’s most distinctive artist is the Rolling Stones; at 100, it’s Wilco. Likewise, New York’s most distinctive artist shifts from Bob Dylan to James Blake to Grimes based on whether the cutoff is 35, 50, or 100, respectively. These alternate maps show how fickle data can be.

This is not to say that just because a map goes viral that it is shoddy or misleading cartography. Consider this viral map created by Reddit user Phaenti on the subreddit MapPorn that compares each state to a country with roughly the same GDP. The map was republished widely, including on Slate.

This map may seem purely wacky at first, but it does a great job of illustrating the size of the American economy. You knew Texas’ economy was huge, but you might not have realized it was the same size as a large industrial country like Mexico. Even many small states like Wyoming and Idaho measure up to countries whose population exceeds 50 million. This element of surprise is likely what made the map a viral hit, and rightfully so.

That said, if you really want to know the size of each state’s economy (and their sizes relative to one another), this map isn’t of much use, unless you’re already familiar with the GDPs of nations around the world. (Do you know how Nigeria’s GDP compares with that of the Philippines? Probably not.) But you also probably wouldn’t bother sharing this map on Facebook:

Given the inherent limits of most viral maps, you might expect professional cartographers to dislike them. But people who love maps love maps. Harvard’s Goldsberry sees viral maps as merely the latest chapter in a long, fruitful history of amateur mapmaking. I also asked Ian Muehlenhaus, a professor of cartography at University of Wisconsin–La Crosse, what he thought of these simple state maps. “Are these maps useful tools for learning? Most of the time, no,” he said. “Does that mean these maps are bad? No. They are damn entertaining!”

I’d been wary of making my own state maps, but the enthusiasm of these cartographers made me think that maybe they aren’t so problematic after all, especially if the mapmaker is as clear as possible about his methodology. So I built some maps of my own. Do they fall into the same pitfalls that other simple U.S. maps do? Probably. Do New Yorkers never name their daughters Brooklyn, or do they just love Brianna more? Do people from Massachusetts dislike Gladiator or are they just really obsessed with The Departed? Is it fair to say Colorado’s “most distinct” vice is marijuana, when more people in the state still smoke tobacco? These maps don’t answer these questions. But hopefully they’ll entertain you! Just don’t forget to read the fine print.

Correction, May 1, 2014: The countries of Jamaica and Djibouti were originally misspelled in the maps interactive.

See more of Slate’s maps.


          Cadets and midshipmen team up to conquer French nautical course        
U.S. Army cadets and U.S. Navy midshipmen joined together to complete the French Foreign Legion's Nautical Obstacle Course as part of a teambuilding exercise in Djibouti, May 27, 2010.
          Studio Ett 20131001        
Nya uppgifter om Djiboutisvenskarna. Några dagar efter upplösningen av terrordramat i Nairobi - hur har dramat påverkat Kenya? Sverige är världens bästa land att åldras i. USA och den dramatiska budgetstriden, kongressen misslyckades att nå en kompromiss. Regeringsbildning i Norge. Gyllene Gryning inför rätta i Grekland. Vinter OS 2022 i Stockholm och Åre utan statlig finansiering.
          Studio Ett 20130603        
Demonstrationerna i Turkiet, Kroatiens inträde i EU, barnhemmen i Kambodja, mänskliga rättigheter i Iran. I 17-timmen integrationspolitiken, Manningrättegång och Djiboutisvenskarna.
          Chinese Troops are now Based in Djibouti        
China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) has despatched its first troop contingent to Djibouti ahead of the official establishment of the East Asian country’s first military support base in a foreign country.

link.

photos.

          á‹¨á‰³áŒáˆ«-አሳይታ-መቀለ የባቡር መስመር ግንባታ        

(ጌትነት ምህረቴ) ባቡር ከየብስ የትራንስፖርት በዋጋ ርካሽ እንደሆነ ይነገራል። ፍጥነቱም ከተሽከርካሪ ይበልጣል። በአንድ ጊዜ ብዙ ሰዎችን ሆነ ሸቀጦችን በመጫን የማጓጓዝ አቅም አለው። በተለይ የባቡር ትራንስፖርት ለታዳጊ ሀገሮች የመገንቢያው ወጪ ከፍተኛ ቢሆንም ተመራጭ የትራንስፖርት ዘርፍ እንደሆነ የሚታወቅ ነው። የሀገሪቱን ኢኮኖሚ ዕድገት ተከትሎ ከሀገር ውስጥም ሆነ ከውጭ የሚገቡ ሸቀጦች በእጅጉ እየጨመሩ ይገኛሉ። የማዕድን ምርቶችን በተሽከርካሪዎች ብቻ ማጓጓዝ […]

Read more የታጁራ-አሳይታ-መቀለ የባቡር መስመር ግንባታ at Horn Affairs - Amharic


          Ratifikasi Perjanjian Internasional Keputusan Presiden Nomor 61 Tahun 1998        
Ratifikasi Perjanjian Internasional Keputusan Presiden Nomor 61 Tahun 1998 Tentang : PENGESAHAN PERSETUJUAN ANTARA PEMERINTAH REPUBLIK INDONESIA DAN PEMERINTAH REPUBLIK DJIBOUTI MENGENAI KERJASAMA EKONOMI DAN TEKNIK
          Djibouti's President Guelleh re-elected for fourth term        

Djibouti President Ismail Omar Guelleh was re-elected for the fourth time after winning a landslide victory in the first round of voting in the east African country, according to preliminary counts reported by French media on Saturday.


          Union Nationale des Femmes de Djibouti        

Comité national de lutte contre les pratiques Traditionnelles néfastes (CNLPTN)

Address: c/o UNFD,BP 127, Djibouti

Tel: (+253)-35 04 21/35 19 81

Fax: (+253)-35 20 85

Contact: Mme Degna Mohamed Issack


          Djibouti: Communiqué de Femmes solidaires        
Source: 
Femmes solidaires
Femmes Solidaires condamne fermement, les agressions inadmissibles de l’Armée Djiboutienne contre les civils Afars, et plus particulièrement contre les femmes de cette communauté.

en lire plus


          Djibouti: Women fight mutilation        
Source: 
WUNRN
The UNDF's Fatuma Abdi says circumcision is primarily cultural, not religious: "It is not just the Muslims who are practicing infibulation. It is the Catholics as well."

en lire plus


          Wim Wenders´ 'Submergence' to open 65th San Sebastian Festival        

                                               

 

The latest film by Wim Wenders, Submergence, will open the 65th edition of the San Sebastian Festival on September 22. This will be the European premiere of the co-production between Germany, France, Spain and the USA, after its screening in Toronto. The cast of the film, which will compete for the Golden Shell, is headed by James McAvoy and Alicia Vikander.

The story, shot in Berlin, Madrid, Toledo, different locations in France and Djibouti, was penned by Erin Dignam (The Yellow Handkerchief, The Last Face) based on the famous novel of the same name by The Economist correspondent J.M. Ledgard (Giraffe). James McAvoy and Alicia Vikander embody a hydraulic engineer and a bio-mathematician who meet in a hotel on the French coast, where both are preparing their missions. While she works on a project of immersion in the Greenland Sea, he is taken hostage in Somalia.

The soundtrack is written by Fernando Velázquez (A Monster Calls, The Impossible), once again featuring the Basque National Symphony Orchestra. Wenders himself came to San Sebastian in March to attend the recording.

Submergence is a German, French and Spanish production. An Atresmedia Cine’s presentation produced by Lila 9th (USA) in coproduction with Neue Road Movies, BacKup Media Studios, Morena Films, Submergence A.I.E and UMedia, with the collaboration of Atresmedia and Movistar+’s participation. It will be internationally distributed by Embankment Films and in Spain by Entertainment One Films Spain (eOne Films Spain).

SUBMERGENCE
Wim Wenders  (Germany - France - Spain)
Opening Film (In competition)

Submergence is a love story that takes us into the extremely different worlds of our two protagonists, Danielle Flinders (Alicia Vikander) and James More (James McAvoy). They meet by chance in a remote hotel in Normandy where they both prepare for a dangerous mission. They fall in love almost against their will, but soon recognize in each other the love of their lives. When they have to separate, we find out that James works for the British Secret Service. He’s involved in a mission in Somalia to track down a source for suicide bombers infiltrating Europe. Danielle ‘Danny’ Flinders is a bio-mathematician working on a deep sea diving project to support her theory about the origin of life on our planet. Soon, they are worlds apart. James is taken hostage by Jihadist fighters and has no way of contacting Danny, and she has to go down to the bottom of the ocean in her submersible, not even knowing if James is still alive…

 


          Troops Head to China’s First Overseas Military Base        
Beijing this week began dispatching personnel to the Horn of Africa to populate China’s first overseas military base, a naval outpost in Djibouti. The base, which was agreed
          Une zone fertile de l’Ethiopie spoliée par des planteurs occidentaux        
La famine historique en raison de la sècheresse, qui touche la Somalie, l’Ethiopie, le Kenya et Djibouti fait la Une de l’actualité. Simultanément, on apprend que des terres cultivables d’Ethiopie sont vendues à des entreprises occidentales ! Située dans la corne de l’Afrique, l’Éthiopie, peu connue, n’est pas un désert : le pays dispose d’un environnement très […]
          Whistleblower Suit Accuses Northrop Grumman of Faking GPS Drone Systems Testing        

“… ‘Air Force investigators blamed the LN-100 for a crash of a Predator drone carrying a Hellfire missile in the North African Republic of Djibouti.’ In that event, ‘the device recorded the drone’s altitude to be 400 feet higher than it actually was.’ …” A manager says the company was lax in making sure its […]

The post Whistleblower Suit Accuses Northrop Grumman of Faking GPS Drone Systems Testing appeared first on The Constantine Report.


          Pakistan may be Home to Future Chinese Military Base        

A report released by Pentagon on Tuesday suggested that Pakistan is the most likely location for future Chinese military base. Pentagon believes that a Chinese military base oversees is a likely scenario after China established a facility in the African nation of Djibouti. The prediction came in a 97-page report to Congress. The report also […]

The post Pakistan may be Home to Future Chinese Military Base appeared first on Today in Pakistan.


          Ethiopia inks fuel pipeline deal with Djibouti        

The post Ethiopia inks fuel pipeline deal with Djibouti appeared first on MOGS.


          East Africa: Ethiopia, Djibouti Sign U.S.$1.11 Billion Deal to Construct Pipeline        

The post East Africa: Ethiopia, Djibouti Sign U.S.$1.11 Billion Deal to Construct Pipeline appeared first on MOGS.


          10 Facts about Djibouti        
Let me show you the useful information about a country in the Horn of Africa on Facts about Djibouti. The countries, which share border with Djibouti, include Somalia, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. The official name of this country is Republic of Djibouti. At east side of Djibouti, you can spot the Gulf of Aden and Red […]
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          Flights from Toronto to Djibouti        
Find cheap flights and airlines tickets to flight from Toronto to Djibouti
          Régimen Político de los países miembros de la ONU        
Afganistán
Régimen Político: República islámica/presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente
Himno nacional: Sououd-e-Melí

Albania
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Hymni i Flamurit (Himno a la Bandera)

Alemania
Régimen político: República federal parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, canciller federal, vicecanciller
Himno: Tercera estrofa del verso Das Lied der Deutschen (también llamado "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit")

Andorra
Régimen político: Principado parlamentario
Mandos de autoridad: Copríncipes y jefe de gobierno
Himno: El Gran Carlemany

Angola
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, vicepresidente
Himno: Angola Avante

Antigua y barbuda
Régimen político: Monarquía constitucional
Mandos de autoridad: Jefe de estado, gobernador general, primer ministro
Himno: Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee

Arabia Saudita
Régimen político: Monarquía absoluta/teocracia
Mandos de autoridad: Rey
Himno: Aash Al Maleek (Larga Vida Al Rey)

Argelia
Régimen político: República popular
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Kassaman

Argentina
Régimen político: República federal democrática
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, vicepresidente
Himno: Himno Nacional Argentino

Armenia
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Mer Hayrenik
Australia
Régimen político: Monarquía parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Monarca, gobernadora general, primera ministra
Himno: Advance Australia Fair

Austria:
Régimen político: República federal parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, canciller federal, vicecanciller

Azerbaiyán
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro

Bahamas
Régimen político: Monarquía parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Reina, gobernador general, primer ministro
Himno: March On, Bahamaland

Bahréin
Régimen político: Monarquía constitucional
Mandos de autoridad: Rey, príncipe heredero, primer ministro
Himno: Bahrainona (Nuestro Bahréin)
                                         
Bangladesh
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Amar Sonar Bangla Bengalí (Mi Bengala Dorada)

Barbados
Régimen político: Monarquía constitucional
Mandos de autoridad: Jefe de estado, gobernador general, primer ministro
Himno: In Plenty And In Time Of Need

Bielorrusia (Belarús)
Régimen político: República semipresidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Nosotros Bielorrusos

Bélgica
Régimen político: Monarquía parlamentaria y federal
Mandos de autoridad: Rey, primer ministro
Himno: La Brabanzona

Belice
Régimen político: Democracia parlamentaria y monarquía constitucional
Mandos de autoridad: Jefe de estado, gobernador general, primer ministro
Himno: Sub Umbra Floreo (Bajo La Sombra Yo Florezco)

Benin
Régimen político: República democrática presidencial
Mando de autoridad: Presidente
Himno: L’Aube Nouvelle

Bután
Régimen político: Monarquía parlamentaria
Mando de autoridad: Rey, primer ministro
Himno: Druk tsendthen

Bolivia
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mando de autoridad: Presidente, vicepresidente
Himno: Himno Nacional de Bolivia

Bosnia y Herzegovina
Régimen político: República federal
Mandos de autoridad: Jefes de estado (son tres, un bosníaco, un croata y un serbio), primer ministro
Himno: Sin Nombre (conocido como Intermeco)

Botswana
Régimen de autoridad: República parlamentaria
Mando de autoridad: Presidente
Himno: Fatshe Leno La Rona

Brasil
Régimen político: República federal presidencial
Mandos de autoridad: Presidenta, vicepresidente
Himno: Himno Nacional Brasileño

Brunei Darussalam
Régimen político: Monarquía absoluta
Mando de autoridad: Sultán
Himno: Allah Peliharakan  Sultan

Bulgaria
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno. Mila Rodino

Burkina faso
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Une Seule Nuit

Burundi
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mando de autoridad: Presidente
Himno: Burundi Bwaco
Cabo verde
Régimen político: Democracia parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Càntico Da Liberdade

Camboya
Régimen político: Monarquía constitucional
Mandos de autoridad: Rey, primer ministro
Himno: Nokoreach

Camerún
Régimen político: República
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Chant De Ralliement

Chad
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: La Tchadienne

Chipre
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores

Comoras
Régimen político: República presidencial
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente
Himno: Udzima Wa Ya Masiwa

Congo
Régimen político: República
Mando de autoridad: Presidente
Himno: La Congolaise

Costa Rica
Régimen político: Democracia presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidenta, vicepresidente
Himno: Himno Nacional de Costa Rica

Còte d’lvoire (Costa de Marfil)
Régimen político: República
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: L’Abidjanaise

Croacia
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro

Dominica
Régimen político: República
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Isle Of Beauty, Isle Of Splendour

Djibouti
Régimen político: República semipresidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Flag Song

Ecuador
Régimen político: República unitaria democrática
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, vicepresidente
Himno: Salve, Oh Patria

Egipto
Régimen político: República
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady

El salvador
Régimen político: República
Mando de autoridad: Presidente
Himno: Himno Nacional de El Salvador

Emiratos árabes unidos
Régimen político: Monarquía federal
Mandos de autoridad: Monarca, primer ministro

Eritrea
Régimen político: República unipartidista bajo un gobierno de transición
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente
Himno: Ertra, Ertra, Ertra

Eslovaquia
Régimen político: Democrática parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Nad Tatrou Sa Blýska («Se Relampaguea En Tatras»)

Eslovenia
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro, presidente del parlamento
Himno: Zdravljica

España
Régimen político: Monarquía parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Rey, presidente del gobierno
Himno: Marcha Real o Granadera

Estados Unidos de América
Régimen político: República federal presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, vicepresidente
Himno: The Star-Spangled Banner

Estonia
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro

Etiopía
Régimen político: República federal democrática
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro

Ex-república Yugoslava de Macedonia
Régimen político: República parlamentaria
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Hoy Sobre Macedonia

Federación rusa
Régimen político: República federal democrática semipresidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro
Himno: Himno de la Federación Rusa

Fiji
Régimen político: República gobernada por una junta militar
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, primer ministro, jefe del gran consejo de jefes, jefe supremo
Himno: God Bless Fiji

Filipinas
Régimen político: República presidencialista
Mandos de autoridad: Presidente, vicepresidente
Himno: Lupang Hinirang
                                                                                                     
Canadá
Régimen político: Monarquía parlamentaria federal
Mandos de gobierno: Monarca, gobernador, primer ministro
Himno Nacional: O Canada
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) Bear in mind when reading this article narrative, I attended school a very long time ago; now, the curriculums may look somewhat different due to evolution of the profession since back inside the day. Pay for Pharmacy School while using Help of Federal Student Aid. Experience helps increase salaries for pharmacists whether or not they stay with the same employer or not.

In order to qualify for federal loans a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) has to be completed and aid is granted in relation to student need, tuition rates on the college, along with other factors. The pharmacist technician will need to have the prepared prescription, reviewed with a pharmacist, before dispensing or submitting the completed order with a patient or customer. Cocci are sphere-shaped bacteria and will include streptococci, that are chains of cocci bacteria, and staphylococci, which are clusters of cocci bacteria1.

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The patch is one you keep on to have an entire day and you change every day. Upside - whether it works for you I guess that's everything matters. NRTs should reduce your cravings and a higher level smoking after a while.

What stop smoking products may help someone to give up. Pregnant women who usually do not change despite the dangers of smoking take their lives as well as their children's lives in danger. Other unwanted unwanted effects are nausea, insomnia, nervousness, irritability and nervousness and dry mouth only to title a variety of.

The typical effort of a person that finally succeeds is the seventh to fifteenth try. One of the most popular choices nicotine replacement therapy products. Greasy fast food, calorie filled cheesecakes, syrupy soft drinks, salty casino chips, well as over indulging on processed foods in general. This shows that the success of the vaccine to generate abstinence from smoking is dependent for the immune response to the vaccine.

A friend of mine was recently given a Thai brand similar to Tavist, and she said it did a great job. There is definitely good science to suggest that whenever you cut down to five cigarettes per day, you are going to then be in a position to quit at whenever. However, as time passes and the young is constantly on the smoke, he (or she) must always smoke with greater frequency to alleviate tobacco withdrawal symptoms.

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I was clinically determined to have generalized anxiety, and started visiting a psychiatrist to assist me manage the problem. At various support groups in Baltimore, the participants have brought up the high cost of psychotropic drugs. Cures for GAD at the moment involve azapirones, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines.

Some prescription medications used for stress include anxiolytics (anti anxiety), anti depressants, sedatives and beta-blockers. Well, similar to the issue of which treatment for depression could be the most effective, there is actually no definitive answer to the question. Specifically, SSRIs are a safe and extremely effective treatment for the people with GAD.

Antidepressants are common treatment for stress, anxiety, mood disorders and depression. Bu - Spar is often well tolerated by patients, simply have mild negative effects, whether they have any in any respect. Never hesitate to ask individuals you live with to assist you to accomplish your goals even though it's just something simple like reading good sleep and keeping your own home clean.

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Daniele Sepe- Asi Como Matan Los Negros - Anime Candide
Bireli Lagrene- After Youve Gone - Gipsy Project
Susana Baca- Caras Lindas - Susana Baca
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playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/40/playlistDate/2013-11-13
          Refugee claimants face dangerously cold conditions crossing Manitoba border        
(February 7) Over last weekend almost two dozen refugees walked over the border from the U.S. into Canada. Officials in the municipality of Emerson-Franklin directly south of Winnipeg worry about dealing with the rising numbers as they seem to be increasing.
 

 1 of 3 
Doug Johnston a councilor for the municipality said:"This is right off the scale for us." The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) confirmed that 22 people had crossed the border from Noyes, Minnesota into the Emerson area in Manitoba Canada. Johnston said that this is more than he has ever seen within such a short period. Rita Chahai, director of the Manitoba Interfaith Immigration Council said that last week another 10 refugee claimant files had been opened. Chahai said: "What we notice when they are in our office is that they are just extremely grateful and happy they have a chance at a fair hearing.To us, that's what is really important; that they are out of harm's way."

Most of the refugees come north to Manitoba through Minneapolis Minnesota. They are originally from such places as Somalia, Ghana and Djibouti. Four who arrived this weekend were from Somalia. Many of the refugees have no clue about weather conditions in Manitoba at this time of year and are not properly dressed. Johnston said he fears that some refugee is going to die if the number trying to get in increases while it is dead winter still.
Christmas eve, two Ghanians came by bus and then taxi to a large field that straddles the border. After wading through deep snow they finally reached the main highway to Winnipeg HIghway 75. It took some time to flag down a truck who phoned 911 when he realized how badly frozen the two were. They went by ambulance to Morris and then to Winnipeg as they were so badly frozen. The weather was quite cold even without considering the effect of the wind: "Environment Canada records show the temperature in the Emerson, Man., area on the morning of Dec. 24 was hovering around the –18 C mark before the windchill. CBC meteorologist John Sauder said skin can freeze within 30 minutes in that temperature." The two will suffer serious consequences but both are fortunate to be alive: "A Ghanaian refugee who almost died during a trek to cross the U.S.-Canada border into Manitoba on Christmas Eve will lose all of his fingers, a toe and possibly his arms." It appears from the appended video that neither will lose an arm.
Johnston thinks that when the weather warms up the influx could even be greater and he along with other officials and the local MLA want to meet with the federal and provincial government to devise a plan to deal with the situation. The Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) reports that 410 asylum seekers entered Canada near Emerson in just nine months last year. That is up from 340 in the year 2015-16 and only 68 in 2013-2014. Reeve of the municipality Greg Janzen said: "They are coming at all hours of the night, in the dark. We don't know if they're really bad criminals … if they're into drugs or into crime, and that's a scary thing."
Border staff were under pressure over the weekend but were able to get emergency officials in Emerson to house refugees in a local community hall. Sometimes the hall is opened for drivers stranded in snowstorms but volunteers said they had never had to deal with so many refugees.
Emerson is about 100 kilometers directly south of Winnipeg the capital. Refugees are usually picked up by fire crews or the RCMP and taken to the CBSA where they are processed. Volunteers provided the refugees blankets and warm clothes. They stayed at the hall about 12 hours. Usually refugees are not provided food but the group were hungry and were given bread with Nutella.
The Safe Third Country Agreement with the U.S. requires asylum seekers to claim refugee status in the "first safe country they arrive in" Any claimant trying to enter Canada from the U.S. via customs at U.S. land borders will be turned away. The deal was signed in 2004. However, there is a loophole that enables those who cross the border outside of official crossing points to be able to claim refugee status.
Janzen said: "I personally don't think they should be considered refugees. The United States is a safe country, and yet we're giving them refugee status." However, a growing number of critics including Amnesty International have called for scrapping the deal. Trump's recebt executive order is thought to have contributed to the recent influx into Manitoba. Ahmed Hussen, Federal Minister of Immigration defended the agreement claiming it allows Canada to "better handle the asylum system":"It's supported by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees to prevent asylum shopping."
A CBC article interviews a number of refugees in Winnipeg about the refugee situation. One, Abdikheir Ahmed, who came to Winnipeg as a refugee in 2003 from Kenya, said Trump's ban is scary for Muslims like himself."We might avoid the U.S. forever. The U.S. is not a safe country for refugees anymore."



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          U.S. DOD health research clinic ruggedizes with TabletKiosk’s Sahara Slate PC i500 tablets        

Keeping U.S. armed forces on their feet requires that military leaders monitor health trends in personnel to prevent diseases from spreading and sidelining the troops abroad. The DOD’s Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) is one division that is helping keep tabs on the health of service people.  

This network of clinics and research centers is conducting ongoing trials at military bases located in Afghanistan, Kenya and Djibouti. Researchers are experimenting with a single-dose antibiotic treatment that may better treat acute infectious diarrhea than by using multiple doses.

The study consists of five scheduled clinical visits over a one-month period and personal interviews as well as multiple follow-up surveys conducted via e-mail. Originally, data gathering and surveys were done by hand on multiple printed forms and then transported from the field medical centers to a central office. There the forms were scanned and emailed to the IDCRP’s main office in Bethesda, Maryland, and finally re-keyed by hand into a computer database.

Nearly 20,000 forms were required in order to record the responses from all stages of the study, making it a slow and inefficient process. While PCs and laptops provided one way to gather and send data, it was necessary that the IDCRP collect and transmit the results in some adverse conditions such as when Internet connectivity was available.

“We couldn’t highlight blank fields or ask [the regional clinics] to confirm suspect data on traditional paper forms, but we can in a computerized system like the one we have built around the tablet PCs.” said Joshua Kumpf, a Data Configuration Specialist with IDCRP.

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The IDCRP ultimately decided on TabletKiosk’s Sahara Slate PC i500 tablets. The 12.1-inch tablet includes an Intel Core i7 processor and runs various desktop Windows operating systems. The Sahara features both a touchscreen and a pen panel for handwriting input and recognition. In addition to Wi-Fi, the tablet also features a wired Gigabit Ethernet port. The Sahara Slate also includes Mi-Co’s Mi-Forms software for data collection and transmission.

“Our clinicians love Mi-Forms. We taught them to change the orientation of the tablet so they could fill the screen with the full height of the CRFs and now it’s basically a perfect EDC system for research docs who are used to filling out paper forms on a clipboard,” says Kumpf. “We don’t have to spend hours training and retraining because of that simple intuitive feature.”

With the Sahara Slate, the IDCRP said it cut in half the time it took to develop new report forms by using Mi-Forms as compared to their previous data collection system. In addition, 80% of IDCRP’s clinical research coordinators reported that the tablet-led program is more efficient and saved valuable time over the traditional paper forms.

The post U.S. DOD health research clinic ruggedizes with TabletKiosk’s Sahara Slate PC i500 tablets appeared first on TabTimes.


          Les agences des Nations Unies s’associent avec le Gouvernement de Djibouti pour atteindre les Objectifs de Développement Durable        
DJIBOUTI, 23 juillet 2017 - Le Directeur général de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, le Directeur exécutif du Programme alimentaire mondial, David Beasley et le Directeur exécutif de l'UNICEF, Anthony Lake, ont rencontré aujourd’hui  le Président de la République, SEM Ismail Omar Guelleh et ont discuté de la coopération des Nations Unies avec la République de Djibouti.
          Chết bởi con rồng đỏ Trung cộng         

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Trong một cuộc di dân vĩ đại nhất trong lịch sử nhân loại, Tàu đang biến cải toàn thể Phi Châu thành một thuộc địa mới. Tương tự như tây Phương đã làm trong thế kỷ 18 và 19—nhưng quyết liệt và với tầm cỡ lớn hơn nhiều—các lãnh đạo Tàu muốn Phi Châu là “chư hầu” ở xa, để vừa giải quyết vấn nạn dân số quá đông, và vừa lấy được tài nguyên.
Daily Mail Online.

Trong khi các hãng xưởng của Mỹ tiếp tục đóng bụi, trong khi các chính khách Mỹ và các nhà lãnh đạo quân sự chỉ chăm chú vào Trung Đông, và trong khi các chính trị gia ở Washington mê ngủ, Tàu cứ tiến tới. Một triệu quân Tàu di chuyển không ngừng ngang dọc Phi Châu và Nam Mỹ để chiếm các nguyên liệu chiến lược, và chiếm các thị trường mới nổi, không cho Mỹ, Âu Châu, Nhật, và các xứ khác vào. Đây là một cái đinh nữa đóng vào nắp quan tài của ngành sản xuất của Mỹ và của thế giới. Thế giới cần phải coi chừng cái đế quốc đang vươn lên này.
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Con Rồng Đế Quốc Tàu là đứa con hoang của Con Rồng Sản Xuất vô độ—tiêu thụ nửa số lượng xi măng và gần nửa số thép của thế giới, một phần ba đồng của Tàu, một phần tư aluminum, và những số lượng vĩ đại các thứ khác như antimony, chromium, cobalt, lithium, zinc, và gỗ. Chính những tài nguyên này và các thứ khác từ nhiều nơi trên thế giới góp phần cho sự tăng trưởng kinh tế và mức sống của mọi quốc gia.
Bauxite và sắt từ những nước như Guinea và Tanzania được dùng để chế biến thành aluminum và thép mà chúng ta cần để sản xuất máy bay ở Seattle , Wahington và để đóng tàu ở Bath , Maine . Đồng từ Chile để làm dây điện, cobalt từ Congo dùng trong các xưởng cơ khí ở Michigan , và niobium từ Brazil dùng trong nhiều thứ từ máy hỏa tiễn cho quốc phòng đến lò điện nguyên tử dân sự.

Lithium từ Bolivia và Nambia dùng trong bình điện xe hơi lai (hybrid), manganese từ Gabon dùng để sản xuất bình nước uống bằng nhựa, và titanium từ những nơi như Mozambique , Madagascar , và Paraguay để sản xuất thép tốt dùng trong việc chế tạo máy bay tuyệt vời Boeing 787 Dreamliner hoặc đầu gối và hông nhân tạo của Johnson & Johnson.

Nhưng Tàu muốn tất cả những tài nguyên thiên nhiên ở tất cả các nước này là của Tàu, dành riêng cho ngành sản xuất của Tàu và để tạo việc làm trong nước Tàu. Nếu chúng ta thụ động đứng nhìn để Tàu tự tung tự tác, thì chúng nên tự đào hố chôn nền kinh tế của chúng ta bằng cái xẻng mạ vàng làm ở Thượng Hải. Nhưng nếu muốn trực diện đế quốc đang lên này để bảo vệ nền kinh tế và an ninh quốc gia, chúng ta cần hiểu rõ trò “nhử mồi” của Bắc Kinh.

Trò Nhử Mồi của Đế Quốc Rồng

Dân của lục địa đẹp mê hồn này cần sự tiến bộ. Nhưng Tàu đến đây không phải để giúp, mà là để cướp. -Daily Mail Online
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Kế hoạch nhử mồi của Tàu luôn luôn bắt đầu bằng cùng một cách: Chủ tịch nước, hoặc thủ tướng, hoặc bộ trưởng thương mại đến thủ đô của một xứ xa xôi như Djibouti hay Niger hay Somalia , mà nhiều người Mỹ chẳng biết mấy chỗ này ở đâu trên bản đồ thế giới. Ông ta giơ cao vẫy vẫy một tấm chi phiếu to và hứa hẹn cho vay rộng rãi với lãi suất thấp để xây dựng hạ tầng cơ sở như đường xá, cầu cống, hải cảng, xa lộ; hoặc phí phạm như dinh tổng thống tráng lệ, hoặc AK47 để các lãnh tụ độc tài chà đạp người dân.
Đổi lại, thuộc địa mới chỉ cần chấp nhận hai điều kiện:
Đầu tiên, muốn nhận tiền thì phải giao nộp các tài nguyên thiên nhiên—như vậy Tàu có thể chiếm trọn cho riêng mình tài nguyên thiên nhiên của thuộc địa.
Thứ nhì, phải mở cửa cho hàng đã thành phẩm từ các xưởng sản xuất của Tàu tràn vào thị trường thuộc địa—như vậy Tàu chiếm luôn thị trường mới nổi này.

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Phương pháp để có tài nguyên của Tàu khác rất xa phương pháp của hầu hết các quốc gia khác trên thế giới, trong đó mọi người dựa vào thị trường toàn cầu để điều phối năng lượng và nguyên vật liêu qua hệ thống giá cả. Phương pháp phân phối tài nguyên bằng thị trường tự do là cốt lõi của nền kinh tế thế giới để mọi người cùng có lợi. Nhưng thay vì hợp tác kiểu tư bản, đế quốc tư bản Bắc Kinh lại chỉ muốn làm đế quốc.

Cái kiểu nhử mồi của con Rồng đang được áp dụng ở Phi Châu, Nam Mỹ, và phần lớn Trung Á, là định nghĩa chính xác cho chủ nghĩa đế quốc: Cướp tài nguyên thiên nhiên của thuộc địa mà những tài nguyên này là tài sản duy nhất của thuộc địa. Mang những tài nguyên này về Tàu thay vì sử dụng tại chỗ để giúp phát triển thuộc địa. Rồi sau đó chuyển ngược những tài nguyên này lại thuộc địa dưới dạng hàng đã thành phẩm.

Phương pháp này tạo việc làm nơi đế quốc, giúp các công ty đế quốc kiếm tiền, và dĩ nhiên khiến số người thất nghiệp ở thuộc địa càng nhiềuthêm. Phần thuộc địa được hưởng là những việc khai thác nguy hiểm lương thấp, trong khi các việc sản xuất được đưa về Quảng Châu hay Thành Đô ( Chengdu ) hay Thượng Hải. Tốt Tàu hưởng, xấu thuộc địa chịu.

Ngoại Giao Bằng Tiền Kiểu Tàu

Khi quan sát thực tế tại chỗ, chúng tôi tưởng như Tàu đã chiếm Phi Châu.—Ngoại Trưởng Musa Kusa của Libya.
Thực ra trò nhử mồi của Tàu đang xảy ra khắp nơi trên địa cầu.

Angola đã trả nợ cho Tàu số lượng dầu trị giá 10 tỉ đô la và vẫn còn tiếp tục.
Cộng Hòa Dân Chủ Congo đến nay đã trả cho Tàu số lượng tài nguyên tương đương nhiều tỉ đô la.
Ghana đang trả bằng hạt ca cao,
Nigeria trả bằng khí đốt
Sudan lấy vũ khí và trả Tàu bằng dầu. Không một nước nào có lợi trong cuộc trao đổi với Tàu.
Trong khi đó ở Peru , Tàu đang làm chủ cả một ngọn núi đồng; và để mua núi Toromacho của Peru.
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Tàu đã học từ một câu nói nổi tiếng của W. C.Field, “Không bao giờ cho kẻ khờ một cơ hội.” Thực tế là Tàu đã mua được kho đồng quý giá này chỉ với 3 tỉ đô la, kể cả tiền hối lộ, và giờ đang lời tới mức 2,000 %. Trong khi đó các vấn nạn đói khát, mù chữ, nghèo khó, tai nạn lao động, và môi trường ô nhiễm thì dân Peru lãnh đủ.

Trường hợp Peru đã tệ, việc Bắc Kinh trao đổi với lãnh tụ giết người Robert Mugabecủa xứ Zimbabwe còn tệ hơn.
Bạo chúa già nua run rẩy này đang cai trị một trong các xứ nhiều tài nguyên thiên nhất và cũng có ít việc làm nhất của thế giới, đã bán số lượng dự trữ platinum của Zimbabwe trị giá 40 tỉ đô la cho Tàu với giá chỉ 5 tỉ, rồi hắn dùng tiền này để xây lâu đài mới, sắm trực thăng vũ trang, hiến đâu cơ phản lực, và súng ống để đè đầu cưỡi cổ dân Zimbabwe .

Chỉ có Tàu mới có khả năng làm vụ kỳ thị và đàn áp người da đen (Apartheid) trước kia trở nên chuyện nhỏ khi so sánh với tình trạng hiện nay.

“Rồi sao?” Có thể bạn hỏi vậy. Tàu cÅ©ng phải được hưởng tài nguyên nhÆ° Mỹ hay Âu Châu hay Nhật chứ! Và tại sao người Mỹ cần phải để ý khi Tàu bóc lột mấy xứ Phi Châu tham nhÅ©ng thối nát, hoặc mấy xứ nghèo mạt ở Nam Mỹ? Nếu lãnh đạo của mấy cái xứ tồi tệ này ngu quá hay tham quá để Tàu lừa gạt, thì kệ họ chứ! 
Làm sao mà chuyện này ảnh hưởng được đến mấy người làm cho các hãng cơ khí sản xuất đồ bằng graphite ở Bensenville, Illinois, kính màu cho nhà thờ ở Kokomo, Indiana , hoặc bàn ghế gỗ ở Asheboro , North Carolina ? Và làm sao trò nhử tiền của Tàu lại ảnh hưởng được đến hy vọng tìm việc của những người trẻ tốt nghiệp đại học UC Berkeley với bằng hóa học, hoặc tốt nghiệp Georgia Tech với bằng kỹ sư?… Rồi, ít ra sau đây là một câu trả lời.

Bằng cách thiết lập các thuộc địa ở Phi Châu, Á Châu, và sân sau của Hoa Kỳ là Nam Mỹ, Tàu càng ngày thâu tóm càng nhiều tài nguyên của thế giới. Kế hoạch này cho Tàu ở vị thế độc quyền về tài nguyên với giá thấp nhất—và như vậy Tàu có lợi thế cạnh tranh với Mỹ và với cả thế giới.

Thực ra kế hoạch thâu tóm tài nguyên thế giới của Tàu cũng tương đương với việc cấm vận tài nguyên đối với các quốc gia khác trên thế giới.
Vì khi Tàu kiểm soát bauxite ở Brazil , Equatorial Guinea , và Malawi ; đồng ở Congo , Kazakhstan , và Nambia; sắt ở Liberia và Somalia ; manganese ở Burkina Fasco, Cam Bốt, và Gabon ; chì ở Cuba và Tanzania ; zinc ở Algeria , Kennya , Nigeria , và Zambia , thì đâu còn gì cho các xưởng ở Cincinnati và Memphis và Pittsburgh —và Munich và Yokohama và Seoul .

Chuyện Tàu “cấm vận” khiến xe hơi tương lai sẽ được sản xuất ở Lan Châu ( Lanzhou ) và Vu Hồ ( Wuhu ) thay vì ở Detroit và Huntsville ; máy bay tương lai sẽ được sản xuất ở Binzhou và Thẩm Dương ( Shenyang ) thay vì ở Seattle và Wichita ; chíp máy vi tính tương lai sẽ được làm tại Đại Liên ( Dalian ) và Thiên Tân (Tianjin) thay vì tại Silicon Valley; và thép của thế kỷ 21 sẽ được sản xuất ngày càng nhiều hơn ở Đường Sơn (Tangshan) và Vũ Hán (Wuhan) thay vì ở Birmingham, Alabama, và Granite City, Illinois .

Đây chắc chắn không phải là cách thị trường tự do và sự hợp tác thương mại quốc tế hoạt động. Và tất cả chúng ta đáng lẽ phải nổi nóng với chuyện đang xảy ra này. Nhưng trong các phòng họp chính trị ở Berlin, Tokyo, và Washington, thái độ của các chính khách có vẻ ngày càng giống như Rhett Butler trong phim Cuốn Theo Chiều Gió: “Anh nói thiệ tcưng nghe, anh chẳng thèm để ý.”

Dân Con Rồng Tràn Ngập Đại Lục Đen

Không cần biết Tàu nói gì, thực tế rõ ràng là không phải chỉ có kỹ sư và khoa học gia Tàu đến Phi Châu. Nông dân cũng đến luôn. Đúng là thực dân kiểu mới. Hoàn toàn không có đạo đức, không có giá trị gì cả.—Mustafa al-Gindi, Thành viên Nghị Viện Ai Cập

Trong khi Tàu phát triển và các nước sản xuất khác có nguy cơ xuống dốc, các thuộc địa mới của Tàu như Angola và Zimbabwe vẫn trong tình trạng đói nghèo, và thường bị nội chiến. Mặc dù các thuộc địa này có nhiều tài nguyên thiên nhiên, sự đói nghèo và xung đột ở Phi Châu là kết quả trực tiếp do sự tráo trở của Tàu. Lúc đầu Tàu hứa hẹn cho vay tiền để xây dựng hạ tầng cơ sở, tạo công ăn việc làm cho nhiều người dân địa phương. Nhưng khi khởi công thì Tàu lại xuất cảng đội quân cả triệu công nhân qua để làm. Thay vì thuê kiến trúc sư, kỹ sư, công nhân, xe tải, tại địa phương, Tàu đưa dân Tàu qua tối đa, chỉ thuê dân địa phương ở mức tối thiểu.

Tác giả của quyển sách Safari Của Tàu (China Safari) mô tả tình trạng ở Sudan như sau:
Người Tàu khoan dầu và bÆ¡m dầu vào ống dẫn của Tàu đưa lên tàu của Tàu để chở về Tàu dưới sá»± bảo vệ của nhân viên Tàu. Công nhân Tàu làm đường làm cầu và xây đập nước khổng lồ khiến nhiều chục ngàn dân địa phÆ°Æ¡ng và nhiều ngàn điền chủ phải di tản. Nông dân Tàu tá»± sản xuất thá»±c phẩm cung cấp cho đội quân lao động Tàu, hoặc nhập cảng các thá»±c phẩm khác từ Tàu. Tàu cÅ©ng trang bị vÅ© khí cho các lãnh tụ tồi tệ địa phÆ°Æ¡ng để phạm tội ác với con người, và bảo vệ cái chế độ đó trong Hội Đồng Bảo 
An Liên Hiệp Quốc.

Và đây là âm mưu của Tàu mà ít ai để ý. Ngoài mục đích thâu tóm tài nguyên và chiếm lĩnh thị trường mới, Bắc Kinh còn có kế hoạch xuất cảng nhiều triệu dân Tàu qua các xứ thuộc địa ở Phi Châu và Nam Mỹ để giảm sức ép do dân số quá đông ở Tàu. Trong quyển China Safari, một khoa học gia Tàu đã giải thích kế hoạch đổ bộ dân Tàu như sau:

Chúng tôi có 600 con sông ở Tàu mà hết 400 sông kể như chết vì ô nhiễm trầm trọng… Chúng tôi phải dời ít nhất 300 triệu dân qua Phi Châu thì may ra mới giải quyết được tình trạng.

Và đây là một thí dụ nhỏ về việc Tàu chơi ép để xuất cảng dân qua Đại Lục Đen: Khi Nambia không thể trả nợ, mấy tay cho vay cắt cổ ở Bắc Kinh ép Nambia phải nhận nhiều ngàn gia đình Tàu qua định cư. Bí mật này được tiết lộ bởi WikiLeaks; và không cần nói cũng biết là khi tin này xì ra, dân Nambia vô cùng phẫn nộ.

Có thể bạn cũng nổi điên nếu Tàu cũng ép Mỹ phải nhận di dân như vậy. Thử nghĩ xem, nếu vài tỉ đô la có thể khiến Tàu đưa được vài ngàn gia đình qua định cư ở Nambia, thì nước Mỹ phải nhận bao nhiêu trăm ngàn dân Tàu để trừ số nợ hai ngàn tỉ? Các tiểu bang như Montana và Wyoming còn rộng lắm mà phải không?

Sau đây là sự mô tả của nhà báo có tiếng Andrew Malone về kế hoạch biến Phi Châu thành của Tàu:
Một cách âm thầm, bẩy trăm năm chục ngàn dân Tàu đã định cư ở Phi Châu trong một thập niên qua. Và vẫn còn tiếp tục. Kế hoạch này đã được các giới chức Tàu tính toán cẩn thận. Một chuyên gia ước tính là Tàu cần phải đưa ba trăm triệu dân qua Phi Châu để giải quyết nạn nhân mãn và ô nhiễm.
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Kế hoạch có vẻ như đang tiến hành tốt đẹp. Cờ Tàu đang bay khắp nơi ở Phi Châu. Những hợp đồng béo bở đang được ký kết để mua các thương phẩm như dầu, platinum, vàng, và khoáng chất. Các tòa đại sứ mới đang được xây và các đường bay đang được thành lập. Thành phần thượng lưu Tàu ở Phi Châu hiện diện khắp nơi, đi mua sắm ở những cửa hàng đắt tiền, lái xe Mercedes và BMW, cho con học trường tư riêng biệt…

Ở khắp nơi trên đại lục đẹp đẽ này, dân Tàu đang tràn vào như cơn nước lũ… Các khu đô thị biệt lập có hàng rào bao bọc đang mọc lên khắp nơi. Người da đen không được bén mảng. Ngay cả những quần áo đặc thù Phi Châu bày ở tiệm cũng được nhập cảng từ Tàu, mang nhãn “Made in China .”

Từ lời nhận xét gay gắt trên của Malone, bạn có thể thấy được phần nào rằng Tàu không chỉ xuất cảng công nhân xây dựng qua Phi Châu, Á Châu, và Nam Mỹ, mà Tàu còn đưa qua nông dân, thương nhân, và cả gái điếm!

Để dễ cảm nhận được sự xâm chiếm đất đai của Tàu, ta hãy giả sử rằng chính phủ Mỹ tịch thu vài triệu mẫu đất canh tác tốt ở Iowa và Nebraska đem cho Tàu, đuổi nông dân ở đó đi chỗ khác chơi, rồi phân chia vùng cho Tàu ở riêng, ăn uống riêng. Bạn thử nghĩ xem dân Mỹ sẽ phẫn nộ lên tới mức nào? Đó chính là điều đang xảy ra ở Phi Châu, nơi đã có hơn một triệu nông dân Tàu. Đúng vậy, hơn một triệu nông dân Tàu đang cày đất Phi Châu sản xuất thực phẩm để xuất cảng ngược về Tàu nuôi dân Tàu—ngay trong khi dân địa phương đang đói nghèo.

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Đây là một sự thực cay đắng trong việc chiếm đất Phi Châu của Tàu: Theo tuần báo The Economist, Tàu đã chiếm hơn 7 triệu mẫu dầu cọ (palm oil) tốt của Congo để làm xăng hữu cơ.

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Ở Zambia các nông trại Tàu đã sản xuất một phần tư số trứng được tiêu thụ ở thủ đô Lusaka . Ở Zimbabwe , theo báo Weekly Standard thì chế độ của Mugabe đã cho không Tàu những trang trại trước kia của người da trắng. Trong khi đó Con Ngựa Thành Troy mang cái tên mai mỉa “N