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          Thoughts On Jack Kornfield’s Shambhala Sun Piece About Burma        
Jack Kornfield has a new piece about the violence committed by Burmese Buddhists against Muslim Rohingyas in the latest issue of Shambhala Sun. You can read it online here, or download a PDF version of the magazine pages here. This is a snippet from the very beginning: On the surface, upcountry Burma is not very […]
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          A Muslim's Top 10 Wishes for 2016        

This post originally appeared in the Huffington Post on January 3, 2015. You can find the original article by clicking here or on the title. 

A Muslim's Top 10 Wishes for 2016

Have you ever made a wish that's come true -- because you made the wish? Until now, making a wish, whether at the sight of a shooting star or when blowing out the candle(s) on your birthday cake or when breaking a wishbone, has not yet been scientifically proven to actually work, as far as I know. Yet, in the spirit of hope, I am making 10 wishes at the beginning of the New Year. And as is always the case, as a Muslim, I speak on behalf of 1.5 billion people. So here goes...
1. People no longer confuse me with ISIS.
My name isn't ISIS. It's not even Islamic State. In fact, the words Islamic or State are not actually in my extended name. Nevertheless, time and time again, I keep getting requests to respond to the group's actions. I swear, ISIS or ISIL or IS -- none of them are in my family tree; they're not some distant cousins of mine. In 2016, I just want people to stop confusing me with ISIS. I really don't know what ISIS is thinking and why they do what they do. It's not like the State Department is asked for comment because of the State-to-State connection. As a postscript, can ISIS stop using the word Islamic? 
2. Muslims stop killing Muslims for being Muslim.
Somewhere, along the way over the last couple of decades, Muslims started killing other Muslims for being Muslim in the wrong way, or at least took it to a whole new level. There's a whole ideology out there built around takfir or essentially "declaring Muslims as kufar or unbelievers" for failing an evermore peculiar litmus test. Imagine if death squads emerged killing Black people for not being Black enough. Originating in some of the philosophical exhortations by scholar Ibn Taymiyyah 700 years ago, the criteria by which you are deemed "takfir-ed" and permissible to be killed has reached insane if not idiosyncratic levels. It would be funny if the situation weren't so deadly. Even barbers were caught in the crosshairs and were being assassinated in Baghdad in the 2000s. 
3. Death and destruction in the Muslim world have a timeout. 
From Yemen to IraqLibya to Somalia, and from Afghanistan to far beyond, civil strife is rife in too many parts of what is defined as the Muslim world. Autocrats, militants, extremists and terrorists, don't care who they kill: men, women, children -- everyone is fair game. I wish this would stop. Into this toxic mix, the last thing needed is more killing coming into these countries from the outside; the 2003 invasion of Iraq proved that. I wonder if Russia will hear that message? 
4. We all get comfortable with the "other."
What a difference it was in 2015 between Trudeau and Trump in the North American political cycle. The world needs more Trudeaus and less Trumps (Donalds that is). The fear of the "other" is starting to define Western politics and it is not just about Trump. The rise of right-wing political parties in Europe from Hungary to Denmark is a poignant reminder of the breadth of this phenomenon. Yet, outside the West this fear of the other also permeates and often dominates. In Turkey, we are seeing a renewed vilification of the Kurdish population. Further afield in Burma, the Rohingyaare cast as outsiders. In Malaysia, Christians are prohibited from using the Arabic word for God. And, in nearby Brunei, Christmas was simply cancelled. In some of the war zones in the Middle East, Christians are on the verge of disappearing. The world would be a lot better off if we weren't so afraid of the bogeyman of the other.
5. The Muslim world deals with its taboos. 
Speaking of an aversion to the non-orthodox, there's a whole set of taboos that many Muslim countries and societies need to start dealing with. A lot of them relate to sex. Sometimes the Muslim world acts like it has one big case of the cooties. There have been attempts by some to break through these restrictions. Wedad Lootah in the UAE comes to mind. Shereen El Feki's Sex and the Citadel is another. This is not an issue to take lightly, especially in societies where 60-70 percent of youth are under the age of 30. Bombarded by sexualized imagery from modern and digital media, these youth then live, essentially, in an austere second world that is their reality. More importantly and tragically, rape and sexual assault are simply not talked about; child abuse is an even worse curse hidden under the rug. Finally, at some point Muslim countries - and the clerical establishment -- will need to come to terms with the fact that gay Muslims exist
6. Somewhere, over the rainbow, democracy and Islam go steady. 
Let's be honest, a lot of people have tried to set up democracy with Islam for a relationship. Sometimes it has been a surprise blind date (e.g. Iraq in 2003). Other times, it was a relationship that grew from blind passion (e.g. the Arab world in 2011). Often, the sparks of love eventually turn into animus and things quickly go south. In the Arab world, Tunisia is carrying - with some fragility -- the banner of democracy. Many Muslim-majority countries that used to be counted as democracies now suffer from authoritarian syndromes (e.g. TurkeyMalaysia, and Bangladesh). In other cases, democracy in its infancy quickly devolved into score settling or majoritarian mafias (e.g. the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt). Perhaps Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country is our hope that can breathe life into this wish. 
7. Averroes comes back in style. 
Averroes -- or Ibn Rushd -- was a man's man. He schooled his way into Raphael's The School of Athens. The polymath kept alive ancient Greek philosophy, paving the way for much of Europe's modern intellectual movements. Back in the day, in Andalusia, he was a big deal (Biden-style). And, why not? He vociferously argued for the co-existence of secular and religious thought in a posthumous debate with the Abbasid scholar Al Ghazali. Ultimately, Ibn Rushd lost the debate to the detriment of the Muslim world, but his arguments culminated with the work, The Incoherence of Incoherence, which I think would be a great riposte to all ISIS ideologues and their friends. If Ibn Taymiyyah came back, then let's bring Averroes back too. 
8. Flying while Muslim is no longer a thing. 
They say that flying while Muslim is the new driving while Black. I guess if you're a Black Muslim, this really sucks, especially if you drive to the airport for your flight. So my wish maybe can be two-pronged: getting rid of both 'driving while Black' as well as 'flying while Muslim.' What is flying while Muslim? Well, it often starts with a casual stare or two from across the way. A timid approach then ensues: "Excuse me sir." This is normally followed by a more forceful: "Please follow me." It can then get quite aggressive, with clothes falling by the wayside. It normally ends with your belongings in disarray, your belt on backwards, and you fast-walking without turning back in the hope that no one thinks twice about you boarding your flight. Oh, and don't watch the news while on the plane. I hate flying while Muslim. 
9. Trump presides over a Muslim beauty contest. 
Was 2015 the year of Trump? You have to hand it to Trump; he sure knows how to grab the spotlight. Unfortunately, he's used that spotlight to spew increasingly populist venom targeted at Muslims (and others). Maybe, we need to better appeal to Trump's core interest: beauty pageants. There are a few lists circulating online for potential Muslim contestants (for Men: click here | for Women: click here). Yet, I think we should make this a mipsters pageant and turn this whole thing on its head. 
10. Peace comes to Syria. 
This Muslim (me) -- speaking on behalf of 1.5 billion people around the world -- has 10 wishes for 2016 but if only one of them came true it should be this one. No country has been more ravaged in recent memory than Syria. Hundreds of thousands have been killed as gangsters, terrorists, and dictators fight for supremacy. The surrounding region, instead of trying to promote a solution, has sent in weapons, fighters, and incitement. The world, instead of trying to mediate, has sought to settle old scores. All the while, the people in Syria live in lifeless limbo amidst daily death and destruction. If I had only one wish it would be that the violence in Syria would come to an end. 
This wish list is non-exhaustive. I think I may have missed a few...

          Muslim Liberals Caught in No Man's Land        
Originally published in Huffington Post
Muslim Liberals Caught in No Man's Land
"Islam is the motherload of bad ideas." - Sam Harris
"That's just a fact." - Bill Maher
When the host of Real Time on HBO, Bill Maher, tag-teamed with 'new atheist' Sam Harris, to lead an assault on Islam last week, it was Batman-to-be Ben Affleck who stood up as the inexplicable first line of defense against the disjointed attack. Rounding out the panel of record, was New York Times activist Nicholas Kristof and Republican-lite Michael Steele. The debate - in which, of course no Muslims participated - quickly went viral. In the messy aftermath, Sam Harris even claimed that the media reaction vindicated him and proved his point. 
While Maher and his sidekick, Harris - and for that matter the entire Dawkinsian crew - may not be the bigots that Affleck accused them of being, they certainly should not feel any sense of self-absorbed vindication. They are not emissaries of the truth nor do they represent the vanguard of neo-enlightenment. Rather they come across as pseudo-intellectual bullies driven by a vain desire for celebrity, feigning any concern for the 'victims of Islam' they cite in remarks branching from their central diatribe against the religion. In effect, they silence the very Muslim liberals and champions who are leading the charge for a more just, equal, and tolerant (i.e. liberal, I guess) Muslim world, forcing on them a Faustian and false choice between identity and values. 
Just today, Malala Yousafzai, the ardent campaigner for girls' education from Pakistan and a proud Muslim, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In fact, five of the last twelve recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize have been Muslim. These five alongside millions of others seek to promote progressive and positive change in the Muslim world. They constitute everyday Muslims, not necessarily Islam incarnate. The reason this distinction is important is that treating as equal the Muslim world and the ideology of Islam is a misdirection that confuses an evolving 1,400-year philosophy with a disaggregated non-body politic of 1.5 billion people. As I wrote on these pagesseveral weeks ago, it does not mean ignoring a problem but diagnosing it accurately: 
"There is no crisis in Islam. But, there is, conversely and unmistakably, an existential crisis (or crises) in the Muslim world...The approach of religious discourse divorces us from what is the larger crisis facing the Muslim world, which is one of being mired in a political, social and economic malaise, characterized by hollow leadership and disintegrating states, an environment into which extremism seeps."
Malala and others are the vanguard in the fight being waged by Muslim liberals, one that is just unfolding, and which contests a broad range of injustices, inequalities, and intolerances in Muslim-majority countries. Yet, these individuals are also caught in a tripartite 'battle' that is ongoing: within the West, within the Muslim world and between the West and Muslim world. These battles are not clear-cut by any means, but each places the Muslim liberal effectively in no man's land. 
Within the West, we are witnessing the rise of xenophobic and anti-immigration sentiment broadly in the conservative movement, and in the United States, most acutely, on the fringes of the Republican Party. This has been exacerbated by the War on Terror, in which, domestically, the Muslim constitutes the ubiquitous bogeyman. So mainstream is this sentiment, that a series such as Homeland entertains many Muslim Americans, even though it not-so-subtly portends that every Muslim from a secular journalist to a CIA agent could be a threat, simply because he or she is Muslim. More tangibly, in terms of everyday consequences, each new mosque in the U.S. now faces anti-Sharia protestors, including from sitting politicians (who conveniently forget the meaning of the First Amendment). 
In Europe, however, while there has been similar sentiment from the conservative side of the spectrum, such as from political parties such as the UKIP or BNP in the United Kingdom, it has often dovetailed with a similarly xenophobic liberal view, such as that espoused by Sam Harris. Much akin to the convergence of the liberal humanitarian perspective with the neoconservative movement in recent years (e.g. prior to the Iraq War in 2003), this neo-liberalism is partly a revivalist movement of the White Man's Burden. Overall, within this battle, Islam is portrayed as a flawed essence, and there can be no equivocation. When an assured liberal such as Reza Aslan appears on CNN, he is forced to choose between Islam and liberalism, and asked to re-confirm that indeed Islam is the threat. Meanwhile, the anchors (on CNN) fail to realize that this would mean he would be asserting that he himself (and many members of his family) have an essentialized evilness about them. Whether or not a person like Reza Aslan is liberal is cast aside due to this inability to disavow Islam.
Yet, it is not just Muslims on the American side of the Atlantic who are caught up in this game. In the Muslim world's own multi-dimensional civil war, we see hyper-nationalists and Islamists battling it out, overlaid with a layer of sectarian strife. Muslim liberals - a term used loosely without weighing the religiosity of individuals - are often the last ones in the streets pushing for open societies. Take the example of the exemplary Alaa Abdel Fattah in Egypt, who, fresh off from being released from prison on bail after being charged for encouraging a demonstration, had his nomination for the prestigious Sakharov Prize revoked. He, like all Muslims, inevitably faced the pro-Israel test, and (two weeks ago) failed. Already under threat of condemnation from within their countries, Muslim liberals within Muslim countries are abandoned in their hour of need by the haughtier-than-though 'critics' in the West. Muslim liberals may be fighting for democracy, against gender discrimination, and for the rights of minorities, but they likely have not reconciled with Zionism. Ask Malala for her views on Israel: you may not like the answer
Finally, since 9/11 (and before as well), Western countries have increasingly been at war in the Middle East and within other majority-Muslim countries. The recent strikes against ISIS are just one recent example. In this battle, again the Muslim liberal is caught in no man's land. On one hand, he or she will surely be in favor of crushing the cancer that is ISIS but not by any means necessary nor will this mean broad support for the securitization of the interaction between the West and the Muslim world. When a recent video surfaced on Fox News from the Harvard campus, where many students alleged that the U.S. had a more detrimental footprint, overall, on the world stage than ISIS, the headline read, "Twisted Ivy: Harvard students say US bigger threat to world peace than ISIS." Imagine, a Muslim making the same statements as in the video. Game over. 
When Bill Maher and Sam Harris pontificate from their plush perches, criminalizing a faith, which has 1.5 billion adherents, they think they are doing the world a big service. Nothing could be further from the truth. It should be pointed that Muslim countries are not uniquely in crisis and that broadly there are many countries in crisis in the developing world. In addition, America's homophobia is only now beginning to subside for example, and in many ways is still real (so no real claim can be made of some type of civilizational superiority). And many of Burma's Buddhist monks would have something to say about religious militancy being the dominion of Islamists only. Nevertheless, there are indeed a myriad of unique problems within the Muslim world, which is in a deep crisis. Yet, there are also countless Muslim leaders, intellectuals, clerics, philanthropists, and others, facing these problems, and trying to stand-up to illiberal phenomena in their communities and societies. They already are well aware of the challenges in front of them and do not need lectures from people far-removed from the very violence they face. 
Maher's (and others) self-titillating orgies of intellectual masturbation demonstrate a total lack of awareness. Perhaps they'll be comforted by the controversy they spawn, indulging their egos as they eye retweets and dollar signs. As for the Muslim liberals on the frontlines? Once again they are caught in No Man's Land.
Original Link: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/taufiq-rahim/muslim-liberals-caught-in_b_5965546.html

          Malala Yousafzai and the Missing Brown Savior Complex        
On October 9, 2012, a Taliban gunman accosted a bus carrying 15 year-old Malala Yousafzai and her schoolmates, and coldly shot them at close range. The Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan not only claimed responsibility for the blatant assassination attempt of the teenage education activist, but as it emerged that Malala would survive the attack, the movement also reiterated its desire to kill her. Miraculously through the efforts of friends and family, the local community in Swat Valley where she is from and where she was shot, and the Pakistani army that airlifted her to Peshawar, Malala Yousafzai survived (as did the other victims). Given the seriousness of her condition, it was imperative she was treated by the best doctors, and a generous gesture by the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi allowed her to be flown by air ambulance to England for major surgery. Fast forward just one year later, Malala has recovered and is even more emphatic in her message against the Taliban, promoting the empowerment of young women like her across Pakistan, and all around the world. And expectedly, the global media, including The Daily Show's Jon Stewart, have been celebrating her courage (perhaps caught in the moment of it all).

Great story, right? And what could be wrong about the alleged 'overexposure' of a young girl expressing words of peace and fighting for girls' education against a religious patriarchy? Apparently a lot. In fact, in Pakistan and in her hometown, her global coronation is treated with derision: "Malala is spoiling Pakistan's name around the world." Others have more sinister accusations of a CIA conspiracy involving both Malala and the gunman, claiming the entire affair is a Western plot. Yet, in recent days, an article written by a blogger in July on Huffington Post has been making the rounds on social media, entitled, "Malala Yousafzai and the White Saviour Complex." It argues, "Please, spare us the self-righteous and self-congratulatory message that is nothing more than propaganda that tells us that the West drops bombs to save girls like Malala."

The truth is there is no white savior coming for Pakistan or for any Muslim country, the vast majority of which are characterised by pernicious politics, inequitable economics, and irrational intolerance. Lecturing the chattering classes about geopolitical realties and distributing treatises on Western imperialism won't change anything. Fundamentally it will only be the indigenous leadership - helped or not helped by outsiders - that will drive change. Yet, when leaders do emerge, it seems that the local media (and now social media) are pre-occupied with tearing them down rather than building them up. People instead squander their energy on misguided diatribes, as the case of Malala has unfortunately shown. The real reason that the 'white savior complex' even is relevant is that we fail to champion the very 'brown saviors' in our midst.

Malala Yousafzai was thrust into the spotlight after her initial attack, which was so jarring that all Pakistani leaders came out in strong condemnation. Then Pakistani President, Asif Ali Zardari - himself a questionable character to say the least - labelling the attack as one against "all civilized people." Prior to the attack, Malala had rose to prominence as an activist, encouraged by her father, for girls education and against the policies and values of the Taliban, which was why she was targeted in the first place. Without picking up a gun, her message was considered a threat to their movement, which is amazing in it of itself. Yet, it was on July 12 earlier this year, speaking on her birthday to the United Nations that Malala brought tears to the eyes of millions of people around the world. Having remarkably recovered from her wounds (and having undergone partial facial reconstruction), and still facing death threats, Malala stood steadfast in front of a global audience, and spoke with fortitude and confidence: "The terrorists thought that they would change my aims and stop my ambitions but nothing changed in my life, except this: weakness, fear and hopelessness died. Strength, power and courage was born."

It was such a powerful moment, that almost every international news outlet carried the speech of this young woman live across the world. And for the first time in a long time, the Pakistani and Muslim in the spotlight was not an extremist but someone standing up to extremism. The plaudits continued to come, especially in the last few weeks, as Malala released a book about her experience and was awarded the prestigious Sakharov Prize from the European Union. In fact, she was the rumored favorite for the Nobel Peace Prize, which in the end was awarded to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, in a surprise but perhaps deserving win. Of course, the Western media in particular have a penchant for over-hyping (if not over-milking) and over-sensationalizing such stories of heroism. And it will be very difficult for Malala to not only live up to such hype but also to prevent the perception that she is over-shadowing other deserving heroes. Yet, is that not the story of all figures of change who inspire us? Was Nelson Mandela really the only Black leader in South Africa's prisons? Was Martin Luther King Jr. the only individual marching in the South? Was Aung San Suu Kyi the only fighter for freedom in Burma?

It does seem increasingly, however, that Malala is a leader denied a strong constituency back home. It is easy to dismiss the allegations that she is a CIA agent - although the photo-op with the Obama's won't help - as well as the gloating of Taliban supporters after she was not awarded the Nobel Prize. Yet it is harder to dismiss the cacophony of criticism in Pakistan, in Swat Valley, and on the social media pages of Pakistanis, and for that matter, Muslims from around the world. As one government official said: "Everyone knows about Malala, but they do not want to affiliate with her." The primary complaints include the following:
  • This is another example of the West trying to portray themselves as a savior of the East. 
  • Malala is a secular heroine not a Muslim heroine. 
  • While her case is tragic there are other victims who deserve prominence. 
  • The crimes of the West through drones and in Iraq and Afghanistan, far outweigh the crimes of the Taliban. 
  • This is an effort of the West to try to avoid its own complicity in the situation in Pakistan that led to Malala's shooting. 
As with most disinformation campaigns, this one is based on kernels of truth. For starters, the world does neglect the stories of deserving others. One such example would be of the tour-de-force Pakistani social worker  Parveen Rehman who was shot dead in Karachi earlier this year. Additionally, it has been the Western media that has largely driven the popular support for Malala globally; that, however, has to be attributed to the dismal failure of the Pakistani media to not do so instead (in my humble opinion). Finally, and the most valid critique is that the story of Malala should not negate the very pivotal role the United States and the West has played and continues to play in creating the current perilous conditions in Pakistan and in contributing to the deaths of innocents there, and in other countries. 

Firstly, U.S. policy has been heavily involved in the rise of the Taliban in Pakistan, which it tacitly supported alongside Saudi Arabia and Pakistan's intelligence service in the mid-1990s. Moreover, the United States and Saudi Arabia (and some other Western and Muslim powers) cooperated to support radical jihadism (even printing textbooks to that effect for Afghanistan) and Islamism as a bulwark against the Soviet Union and communism. In fact, Israel also supported the radical group Hamas as a counterweight to the secular Fatah movement of then Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Yes, the world was and is screwed up, and the powers of the world have much complicity in that. 

Secondly, and more importantly, the military operations carried out by the U.S. in particular in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iraq have led to thousands of deaths of innocent people in recent years. These actions have largely gone unpunished and the victims have been forgotten. Certainly it is not just the Taliban that are killing and the world cannot dispense justice selectively. 

Does saying all of that make Malala Yousafzai any less of a hero (or heroine)? Is her courage dimmed by the crimes of others? Is her movement for the empowerment of young girls in Pakistan any less important? Of course not. Criticisms of the West will bring no one closer to emancipation. And it cannot mask the very pure fact that today's purveyors of disaster and death in the world also include Muslims.

Who bombed the church in Peshawar slaughtering 85 worshippers? Who attacked Westgate Mall in Nairobi killing dozens of innocents? Who murders dozens of men, women and children in Iraq every week? When a Muslim rises up - a so-called brown savior - to fight such crimes and the movements behind them, we should put him or her on our shoulders and not try to chase that person into the darkness. There is no shame in admitting Brown and Muslim guilt in the world's crimes, and it does not negate the wider reality and context around the violence that does occur. In fact, our fear of partial guilt in particular should not misguidedly cause us to throw out the very sparse examples of (counter-) leadership in Muslim countries that emerge and strike fear in the heart of radical extremists. 

It has become far too easy on all sides to blame the other rather than introspect inward. Above all, instead of blaming the West for its 'white savior complex' maybe it's time to develop our own brown savior complex to save ourselves from ourselves. 



          SMM 2011 Schedule        




Akhir pekan ini adalah puncak dari DotA untuk tahun 2011, dan tim terbaik dari seluruh dunia akan terbang ke Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, tepatnya Jumat ini untuk memulai tiga hari yang menakjubkan bersama SMM.





Seperti dapat dilihat, acara online tahun ini akan berlangsung tiga hari penuh mulai pukul 03:00 CET(Waktu Eropa Bagian Tengah) setiap pagi. Dengan seluruh acara disiarkan secara langsung oleh joinDOTA yaitu TobiWanKenobi sendiri, dan semua berharap akan terjadinya pertarungan kualitas tinggi yang dimulai Jumat ini.


Terakhir, daftar tim yang berpartisipasi juga baru saja diumumkan pada DotATalk, dan mereka adalah sebagai berikut:



List negara yang bertanding :
1. China
2. Indonesia
3. Burma
4. Singapur
5. Thailand
6. Philipina
7. Malaysia
8. Brunei
9. Uni Eropa

Akankah wakil dari Indonesia menang?? Ataukah kembali DK khususnya China kembali yang merajai turnament ini?? We'll see !!
          Kew Gardens ’17: Voices from Kaw Thoo Lei (short)        
Burma’s Mainland China-aligned military junta loved to rename things, starting with the nation itself. Similarly, the region known as Kaw Thoo Lei by its ethnic Karen population became the Karen state. In this case, you might credit the government with some degree of honesty, since Kaw Thoo Lei means “peaceful land.” Tragically, state-sponsored terrorism and ethnic cleansing have made the region anything but peaceful. Survivors of the genocidal crimes tell their stories in Martha Gorzycki’s experimental short documentary, Voices from Kaw Thoo Lei (trailer here), which screens during the first ever Kew Gardens Festival of Cinema.

Gorzycki insists we focus on their testimony, so she strips away distractions that come from talking head interviews. We will only hear audio of the speakers, superimposed over eerie animated images generated from over ten thousand black-and-white photos. They are mostly impressionistic rather than representational, but they express a deeper truth about the state of human rights in Burma.

As you would expect, the stories are chilling and heartbreaking. At regular intervals, the Burmese military would descend on Kaw Thaw Lei like locusts, burning all the huts and food stores in sight. Women were raped and orphaned children were left to fend for themselves in the rain forest.

You cannot accuse Gorzycki of using cheap tactics to gin up sympathy. There are no manipulative images of bloody corpses or crying children. Yet, we understand in no uncertain terms such suffering frequently resulted from the government-sponsored rampages.

Voices is one of several recent avant-garde-ish short documentaries that use unconventional means to chronicle crimes against humanity. Some enterprising festival ought to program it together with Alexandre Liebert’s Scars of Cambodia and Alisi Telengut’s Nutag – Homeland. They are all challenging films, not because they are hard to watch, but rather because they are hard to face. Very highly recommended, Vocies from Kaw Thoo Lei screens this afternoon (8/10) at the Queens Museum, as part of the inaugural Kew Gardens Festival of Cinema.
          Oh So Ordinary        
Today we watched American Beauty, which I'd never seen before. Very interesting film and it's obvious why it won so many awards. And the theme of ORDINARY resonated: Lester Burman's "I'm just an ordinary guy who has nothing to lose" but especially this one line by Angela Hayes:

"I don't think that there's anything worse than being ordinary."

I think this is a universal truth in us all, even though very few of us would admit it. We may say we want "the American dream" or "just an ordinary life" but that's not only lying to the world, it's lying to ourselves. Is it the need to feel humble? Who said we had to be humble when it comes to our lives? I don't get this mentality at all and I definitely believe that it is a great unspoken fear, this fear of being ordinary, but we just don't have the guts to state it for whatever personal reasons we may think we have. And, in craving it, I have no doubt that people turn to the darker side of it, the entire "negative attention is better than no attention at all" or those people who kick others on the ladder in an attempt to make themselves appear higher, even if just to themselves. But aside from the obvious negatives, I don't think there's a single thing wrong with loudly exclaiming we want more.

We all want to stand out, to get acclamations, to rise above. No one would want a review stating it was "an ordinary performance" or "an ordinary book". So why would any one state that they want the ordinary? I don't want an ordinary love -- I want a spectacular love, defying odds, a love that others re-tell, the one books are written about and for which movies are made. And our lives, from memories to the future of our personal bucket lists -- does any one have "pay the mortgage" or "take out the trash" on their lists? Of course not. They have swimming with dolphins and climbing mountains and other SO out of the ordinary goals listed and for a reason -- we don't want to die having been ordinary.

I crave the extraordinary, and I'm pretty sure I'm not alone. We shouldn't settle for less, and we shouldn't think we deserve less than extraordinary. The ordinary becomes acceptable when we all lower our expectations and settle.

The only settling I want to do is to settle into my extraordinary bed with my extraordinary Rick with my amazingly extraordinary kids dreaming their personal dreams down the hall and keep living our extraordinary life and making extraordinary memories.

Also -- don't say ordinary a lot. It starts to sound really weird. Don't believe me? Try it. Say it aloud like 20 times. Just don't accept it.

Same for extraordinary. That one, well, you're allowed to accept that. Aren't you glad I gave you permission for something you didn't even know you needed?

You're welcome.
          Ã‡eyizlik Kolay Burma Yapraklı Çiçek Lif Yapım Videosu yazısına 😊😊NECLA 💝💝 tarafından yapılan yorumlar        
BEGENDİM GÜZEL MODEL💗💗💗💗
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-08-2016 with Marco Mangione        
Playlist:

Shankar Mahadevan- Jhoom - Jhoom Barabar Jhoom Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Ansel Collins Dalton Browne- West Of The Sun - Interpertations Improvisations A Tribute To Reggaes Keyboard King Jackie Mittoo
Whiskey Blanket- Pound Boom - No Object
Sultana- Pek Yaman - Cerkez Kizi
Christy Azuma Uppers International- Naam - Ghana Soundz Vol 2 AfroBeat Funk And Fusion In 70s Ghana
Soulive- Hurry Up And Wait - Doin Something
- voicebreak -
Nneka- My Love My Love - My Fairy Tales
Roop Kumar Rathod- Tujh Mein Rab Dikhta Hai - Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Visionaries- Strike - Pangaea
7L Esoteric- Herb - Dangerous Connection
- voicebreak -
Pluxus- April 1724 - European Onion
Ofo The Black Company- Allah Wakbarr - Nigeria 70 Original Afro Classics
Dub Nation- Bubonic - Let The Truth Be Known
Femi Kuti- Eko Lagos - Fight To Win
RJD2- Her Majestys Socialist Request - More Is Than Isnt
El Pesetita- Se Que Tu Sientes Tangos - TecnoRumba Vol 3
- voicebreak -
Rahul Saxena Shaan Shreya Ghoshal Sunidhi Chauhan Udit Narayan- Deewangi Deewangi - Om Shanti Om Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Calvin Harris- The Girls - I Created Disco
Prince Alla Junior Ross- Jah Jah Bird - I Can Hear The Children Singing
Peter Tosh- Moses The Prophet - Peter Tosh 19781987
DJ Sun- Sensation - One Hundred
The New Mastersounds- Pure Feat Sam Bell - This Is What We Do
- voicebreak -
Fanfare Ciocrlia- Banatzeana - Iag Bari
Zeb- Turbo Jeepsy - Turntables On The Hudson Lunar New Year 4707
Soap Kills- Ya Jarha Galbi - Arabesque Arbaa 4
The Diplomats Of Solid Sound The Diplomettes- Lights Out - The Diplomats Of Solid Sound Featuring The Diplomettes
BUDAMUNK Ill Sugi- Into The Unknown - Spirit Of The Golden Era
Various Artists- Dreamcatcher By Bahramji Manish De Moor - Tandaua
Cold Chilling Collective- It Was A Good Day feat Danelle - Cold Chilling Compton
CULTURE- World Peace - World Peace
- voicebreak -
DuOud- Chase - Wild Serenade
Najma- Dil Pukare - Forbidden Kiss The Music Of SD Burman
Niyaz- Nahan - Niyaz
Baba Zula Mad Professor- Sipa - Duble Oryantal
- voicebreak -
Bush Chemists- Double Drum - Raw Raw Dub


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-09-08
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 03-10-2016 with Joel Davis        
Playlist:

Anahata Sacred Sound Current- What Is Truth - The Heart Caveour Sacred Oasis
Africaine 808- The Lord Is A Woman - Basar
LCD Soundsystem- Losing My Edge - LCD Soundsystem
Unloved- When A Woman Is Around - Guilty Of Love Deluxe Version
The Heliocentrics- Phenomenon Of Man - From The Deep
Stevie Wonder- Soul Bongo - The Jazz Soul Of Little Stevie
Cha Wa- All On A Mardi Gras Day - Funk n Feathers
Sainkho Namtchylak- Nomadic Mood - Like A Bird Or Spirit Not A Face
Macka B- Never Played A 45 - Change The World
Sid Vaga- Brazuca - Brazuca Single
The Space Lady- Major Tom - Major Tom Radar Love Single
Populous- Vu feat Clap Clap Prp Remix - Night Safari Remixed
Mission Of Burma- Trem Two - Vs Remastered Bonus Track Version
Aesop Rock- Rings - The Impossible Kid
Rionegro- Negro Empelota - Rionegro
The Master Musicians Of Jajouka- Hand Of Fatima feat Medeski Martin Wood Bachir Attar Marc Ribot - The Road To Jajouka
Tarnation- Game Of Broken Hearts - Gentle Creatures
Seu Jorge- Queen Bitch - Life Aquatic Studio Sessions
Charles Spearin- Anna - The Happiness Project
Kid Lib- Trust In Me - The Junglemuffin Ep
Public Enemy Vs Herb Alpert- Rebel Without A Pause The Whipped Cream Remix - The Whipped Cream Remixes
Beach Boys Vs Bob Marley- Positive Vibrations Srikalogy Bob And Beach Boys Mashup - Positive Vibrations srikalogy Bob And Beach Boys Mashup
Mop Mop Anthony Joseph- Run Around Nostalgia 77 Remix feat Fred Wesley - Isle Of Magic Remixed
Golden Earring- Radar Love - The Continuing Story Of Radar Love
Organic Grooves- All Between - Black Cherry
2Pas0s- Bonus Track RemixFoalsHenry Green - 2pas0shypnosis
The Shivas- Sad Sad Sorrow - Better Off Dead
Erick Cosaque- Kominike - Kout Jazz
Trance Vision Steppers- Vimanas Dub - All About The Mystery Of Chinese Fortune Cookies 20 Trax Of Dub Steppers
Laurent Garnier- First Reaction V2 - The Cloud Making Machine
The Eternals- Plastic Bags And Cop Cars - Out Of Proportion
Zona Norte- La Reyna De La Villa - La Reyna De La Villa Queen Of The Ghetto Ep
Chief Irie Fist- F1204 - CIF
Grant Phabao RacecaR- Return Of The Digfu Akale Wube Remix - Return Of The Digfu akale Wube Remix
Pierre Bastien- Dubs Bud - Blue As An Orange
Caribou- Bowls - Swim Bonus Track Version
Lulacruza- Comandante Duke Mushroom Remix - Orcas Remixed Vol 4
Daniel Haaksman- Black Coffee feat Dama Do Bling - African Fabrics
Jah9- Intention - New Name Deluxe Edition
Bonobo- Ghomrassen - Star Wars Headspace
Anchorsong- Expo - Ceremonial
Tangled Branches- Hello Dimensions - RedemptioN


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-03-10
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-07-2015 with Farrell Lowe        
Playlist:

Meredith Monk- Evas Song - Book Of Days
John Zorn- Rahal - Lucifer The Book Of Angels Volume 10
Tribecastan- Please Dont Let Me Be Misunderstood - New Deli
Evelyn Glennie- Attack Of The Glow Worm - Shadow Behind Iron Sun
United States Of America- Cloud Song - The United States Of America
Art Bears- The Song Of The Martyrs - Winter Songsthe Worls As It Is Today
Vinicius Cantuaria- Sutis Diferencas - Sol Na Cara
Pearls Before Swine- I Saw The World - The Complete ESPDisk Recordings
Frank Pahl Klimperei- Papillons - Music For Desserts
Dave Douglas- Tough - Moonshine
Cluster Eno- Wermut - Cluster Eno
John Zorn- Dot Dot Dot - Locus Solus
Heiner Goebbels- Haches Couteaux Tentacules - Ou Bien Le Dbarquement Dsastreux
HANS REICHEL- Mr And Mrs Alcohol - LOWER LURUM
T Rex- Lean Woman Blues - Electric Warrior Remastered
John Fahey- Jesus Is A Dying Bedmaker - America Remastered
Os Mutantes- Dia 36 - Mutantes Live Barbican Theater
- voicebreak -
Can- Little Star Of Bethlehem - Delay 1968 Remastered
Ern Kirly- Reflections No 2 II Scherzo - Phoenix The Music Of Ern Kirly
Material- Upriver - Memory Serves
Eyvind Kang- Berdache - Theater Of Mineral NADEs
- voicebreak -
Wadada Leo Smith Walter Quintus Katya Quintus Miroslav Tadic Mark Nauseef- Kawami Wama - Snakish
The Residents- Summertime - George James
Steve Lacy- Shuffle Boil - More Monk
Terje Rypdal- Remember To Remember - Skywards
Le Mystere Des Voix Bulgares- Song From The Thracian Plain - Le Mystere Des Voix Bulgares
Erik Friedlander- Tapuz - Grains Of Paradise
Pierre Bastien Klimperei- Cinetique Exentrique - Mecanologie Portative
Material- Soul Killer Remote Control Mix - Seven Souls Bonus Version
Moebius Plank- Feedback 66 - Rastakraut Pasta
Robert Plant Alison Krauss- Your Long Journey - Raising Sand
Junk Genius- Aberdeen - Ghost Of Electricity
Look De Bouk- The Thingamabobbing - Le Mounde Entier Moins Le Mondes
Aksak Maboul- A Modern Lesson - Un Peu De Lme Des Bandits
Frank Pahl Klimperei- Crepes Suzette - Music For Desserts
Mick Karn- Bones Of Mud - Bestial Cluster The Tooth Mother
Dino Saluzzi Anthony Cox David Friedman- Rios - Rios
Pentangle- Pentangling - Early Classics
Brian Eno- Seven Deadly Finns - Eno Box Ii
Jeff Beck- Why Lord Oh Why - Jeff
HANS REICHEL- Prelude To Onkel Boskopp II - LOWER LURUM
Mission Of Burma- Einsteins Day - Vs Remastered Bonus Track Version
Jon Hassell- Maarifa Street - Maarifa Street


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2015-09-07
          13.10.17 20:00 Uhr - Zirndorf - Jan-Philipp Sendker        
Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung214406-tickets

Seine Romane sind in mehr als 35 Sprachen übersetzt und mit weltweit über 3 Millionen verkauften Büchern, ist er einer der erfolgreichsten deutschsprachigen Autoren: Jan-Philipp Sendker. Von ihm stammen die bekannten Bestseller "Das Herzenhören" und "Herzenstimmen". Er ist in Hamburg geboren und war viele Jahre Amerika- und Asien-Korrespondent des Stern. Nach einem weiteren Amerika-Aufenthalt kehrte er nach Deutschland zurück, lebt seitdem mit seiner Familie in Potsdam. Mit seinem neuesten Werk "Das Geheimnis des alten Mönches", kommt Jan-Philipp Sendker nach Zirndorf. Gemeinsam mit seinem Sohn Jonathan, erzählt er von den Märchen und Fabeln aus Burma, dem südostasiatischen Land am Indischen Ozean.
Der Einlass ist ab 18:00 und Sie haben die Möglichkeit vor Ort Ihren Sitzplatz zu belegen.

Guten Hunger!
Käts Küche bietet Ihnen an diesem Abend leckere Gerichte an: sowohl warme als auch kalte Speisen. Da die Anzahl der Sitzmöglichkeiten begrenzt ist, bitten wir Sie, uns Ihre Tischreservierung rechtzeitig mitzuteilen. Andernfalls sind ausreichend Stehplätze vorhanden.
Ihre Tischreservierung nehmen wir gerne entgegen: kaets@erlebe-wigner.de oder 0911/217178030
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 12-11-2014 with Joel Davis        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
Anahata Sacred Sound Current- Wisdom Of The Ages - Vimanas Project Vol 1
AES- ATMA - ATMA Single
Thomas Blondet- Tu Va Partir feat Leyla Chatti Zeb Remix - Futureworld Remixed
Deerhoof- Paradise Girls - La Isla Bonita
Kidkanevil- Rainstorm Pt 3 - Problems And Solutions
Kottarashky- Lament - Demo
Sheckys Jazzy Tofu- Butterfly - Tall Black Guy Presents Tempo Dreams Vol 1
James Reese And The Progressions- Jodys Freeze - The Funky 16 Corners
Stevie Wonder- Soul Train The Vibe Conductors Afrobeat Blues For Don - Vibe Conductor Vol 1
Hot Chip- Sexual Healing - Remixes Rarities
Johnny Roxx Doobious- Pull Up feat Miss Str8 - Pull Up feat Miss Str8 Single
- voicebreak -
dunkelbunt Alix- Egal Radio Edit - Egal Single
Led Zeppelin- Bron Y Aur Stomp Hong Kong Ping Pong Remix - Icons Ghetto Funk Remixes Vol 2
Culture- Black Starliner Must Come - Two Sevens Clash
Verckys LOrchestre Vv- Bassala Hot - Verckys LOrchestre Vv Congolose Funk Afrobeat Psychedelic Rumba 19691978
Charleston Okafor- Revelations Under The Sun - America
The Very Best Ewau Mwamwaya Radioclit- Dinosaur On The Ark - The Very Best Mixtape
Mysterious Traveller- Serengheti - Mysterious Traveller Afroart
Serengeti- No Beginner - Kenny Dennis III
Stars- From The Night A Tribe Called Red Remix - No One Is Lost Tour EP
NIGHTMARES ON WAX- Nights Introlude - Bleep Selects 25 Years Of Warp
Yo La Tengo- Double Dare - Painful
Fantasma- Shesha Span Hell Yeah feat Ross McDonald - Eye Of The Sun EP
The Flying Lizards- Money - The Flying Lizards
Gaudi- Theremystical - Bass Sweat Tears
Ensamble Polifnico Vallenato Sexteto La Constelacin De Colombia- Chandeath - Fiesta Que Viva La
Ian Kamau- Heading Home feat Georgia Anne Muldrow - Heading Home Georgia Anne Muldrow Remix EP Single
Vakula Planet Lindela- Choborops feat Hannes Teichmann - Ten Cities
Moreno- Polaroids - Polaroids
Another Fine Day- Walk Tall - Waypoint
The Doobie Brothers- Long Train Runnin Kaminanda Remix - Kaminanda Soundcloud
The Soul Rebels- Get Lucky feat Big Freedia Gypsyphonic Remix - Get Lucky Single
Neguedmundo- Toca A Buguinha Remix - Kafund Vol 1
DJ Vadim Sabira Jade- Hope feat Rio Hemopo - Dubcatcher
Saqi- Puja feat Aima The Dreamer Robin Jackson - The Well
Mashrou Leila- ImBimBillilah - Mashrou Leila
Bonobo- Pelican - Flashlight Single
Eighty Mile Beach- Red Helicopters - Inclement Weather
Slimkid Dj Numark- What Are Words For - Slimkid Dj Numark
Tony Allen- Moving On - Film Of Life
The OJays- Love Train - Back Stabbers
Asha Bhosle Kronos Quartet- Piya Tu Ab To Aaja Lover Come To Me Now - Youve Stolen My Heart Songs From RD Burmans Bollywood
Mysterious Traveller- Smile Reggae - Mysterious Traveller Afroart


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2014-12-11
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-03-2013 with Wally        
Playlist:

John Frusciante- Murderers - To Record Only Water For Ten Days
- Never Worked So Hard - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
Mexican Institute Of Sound- Ms - Politico
Bonobo- Antenna - The North Borders
The Robby Wicks Band- Rock Bottom - Songs From The Biltmore
The Robby Wicks Band- Devil In Your Head - Songs From The Biltmore
Atmosphere- Breathing - God Loves Ugly
- You Know What To Do - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
Blind Pilot- Go On Say It - 3 Rounds And A Sound
Dr Dog- Broken Heart - BRoom Deluxe Edition
Asha Bhosle Kronos Quartet- Dum Maro Dum Take Another Toke - Youve Stolen My Heart Songs From RD Burmans Bollywood
Gotye- State Of The Art - Making Mirrors
El Ten Eleven- Birth Amp Live Remix - Transitions Remixed
Kronen- Transducer Abuser - Peace Of Mind
Dirty Projectors- About To Die - Swing Lo Magellan
Johnny Hawksworth Hampton Hawes- Jazz Rule - Spiritual Jazz 4 Americans In Europe
Chatham County Line- The Legend Of Old 99 - Chatham County Line
- Mystery Life - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
West Water Outlaws- Come On - Real Killer
Man Man- Life Fantastic - Life Fantastic
Scatter Gather- Eat - Just Smile
Various Artists- Battling Giants - PDX Pop Now 2010
Kronen- Artfully Answered - Peace Of Mind
Mike Coykendall- The Hippie Girl feat Eric Earley Zooey Deschanel Ben Gibbard - Chasing Away The Dots
The Orb- Little Fluffy Clouds - The Orbs Adventures Beyond The Ultraworld
Invader- LookKa Py Py - Keep On Struttin
- Band On The Run - Let Us In Americana The Music Of Paul McCartney
Jason Isbell- Traveling Alone - Southeastern
A Tribe Called Red- Electric PowWow Drum - A Tribe Called Red
Phosphorescent- Song For Zula - Muchacho
- Love Is The Greatest Science - Listen To The Music Caltones Jamaican 45s 196669
Paper Bird- As I Am - Rooms
Delicate Steve- Afria Talks To You - Positive Force
The Johnny Otis Show- High Heel Sneakers - Cold Shot
Ringside- Tired Of Being Sorry - Ringside
Gotan Project- La Gloria - Tango 30
Grizzly Bear- He Hit Me - Friend EP
Portugal The Man- Purple Yellow Red And Blue - Evil Friends
David Wax Museum- Will You Be Sleeping - Knock Knock Get Up


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2013-09-03
          Wanita Parah Dilanggar Motosikal Di Jalan Burma, Georgetown [Video]        

Georgetown: Wanita pejalan kaki yang dilanggar lari penunggang motosikal ketika melintas di Jalan Burma, di sini, tengah hari tadi, meninggal dunia malam ini.

Mangsa Foo Swee Wah, 58, meninggal dunia ketika dirawat di zon merah wad kecemasan Hospital Pulau Pinang (HPP) jam 8.45 malam tadi.

Ketua Polis Daerah Timur Laut Asisten Komisioner Mior Faridalatrash Wahid memberi amaran supaya penunggang motosikal terbabit menyerah diri kepada pihak polis.

Beliau berkata, jika tidak polis akan mengesan dan menahan penunggang terbabit yang melarikan diri selepas melanggar mangsa.

Menurutnya, kes disiasat menurut Seksyen 41 Akta Pengangkutan Jalan 1987.

Dalam kejadian jam 1.20 tengah hari tadi, mangsa dilanggar ketika melintas seorang diri di laluan melintas pejalan kaki yang disediakan.

Ketika mangsa hampir sampai ke seberang jalan, tiba-tiba seorang penunggang motosikal merempuh mangsa menyebabkan mangsa terpelanting di atas jalan manakala penunggang terbabit terus melarikan diri.

Sumber : HMetro



[UPDATE] – Wanita pejalan kaki yang dilanggar lari penunggang motosikal ketika melintas di Jalan Burma tengah hari tadi, meninggal dunia.

Mangsa Foo Swee Wah, 58, meninggal dunia ketika dirawat di zon merah wad kecemasan Hospital Pulau Pinang (HPP) jam 8.45 malam tadi.

Ketua Polis Daerah Timur Laut Asisten Komisioner Mior Faridalatrash Wahid memberi amaran supaya penunggang motosikal terbabit menyerah diri kepada pihak polis.

Beliau berkata, jika tidak polis akan mengesan dan menahan penunggang terbabit yang melarikan diri selepas melanggar mangsa.


Menurutnya, kes disiasat menurut Seksyen 41 Akta Pengangkutan Jalan 1987.
          Finding George Orwell in Burma        
Finding George Orwell in Burma
author: Emma Larkin
name: Melissa
average rating: 3.91
book published: 2004
rating: 0
read at:
date added: 2016/12/06
shelves: to-read
review:


          By: Keshavelu        
An excellent piece. Killing PM Rajiv Gandhi was the biggest blunder he committed. With this cruel act on a beloved PM turned the tide against LTTE. Tamil Nadu people never forgave LTTE. LTTE was banned. Naval blockade was ordered and SL Navy stopped escape routes and also stopped arms getting in from North and East Coast. Any Leader with little acumen would have negotiated for a honourable settlement. Live and let live should have been the best policy. Prabhakaran was stubborn and blind. He should have given political settlement a chance for the sake of Tamil people. He was ruthlessly controlling his people and killed them mercilessly. The people never enjoyed development. Pictures of people in Lungis and women and children in torn clothes holding aluminium vessels as worldly possessions proved the stark reality of hand-to-mouth living under his rule. Like in Srilanka, Tamils were taken to Mauritius, Madagaskar, Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, Fiji Islands by the British. These Tamils are living in harmony with locals and prospering. Ethnic minorities are given their due share for their cooperation. I am happy that the game ended. Tamil diaspora should at least now stop day dreaming about 'Eelam'. It was an unrealistic goal from day one. Stop instigating Tamil brothers and Sisters.
          New Next Week on May 2, 2017         

The following titles will be released next week. Select any title to learn more or to request a copy. Be sure to visit our Hot Titles webpage for more exciting upcoming titles.

Cover art for American Epic Cover art for The Awkward Thoughts of W Kamau Bell Cover art for The Baker Secret Cover art for The Beach House Cookbook Cover art for Before We Sleep Cover art for The Best of Adam Sharp Cover art for Between Them Cover art for The Broken Ladder Cover art for The Broken Road Cover art for The Dinner Party Cover art for Don't Worry, Life is EasyCover art for Eat to Live Cover art for The Fallen Cover art for The Four Legendary Kingdoms  Cover art for The Garden of Small Beginnings Cover art for Goodnight from London Cover art for I'll Eat When I'm Dead Cover art for Into the Water Cover art for Jane Austen the Secret Radical Cover art for JFK Cover art for The Leavers Cover art for MacArthur's Spies Cover art for The Marriage Bureau Cover art for Miss Burma Cover art for Mockingbird Songs Cover art for Murder in the Bowery Cover art for One Minute Mentoring Cover art for Proving Ground Cover art for Radical Acceptance Cover art for Raven Rock Cover art for Little White Lies Cover art for 'round Midnight Cover art for Salt Houses Cover art for Scrappy Cover art for Threads of Suspicion Cover art for Time's A Thief  Cover art for The Total Me-Tox Cover art for Trajectory Cover art for Walking on My Grave Cover art for Your're The Only One I Can Tell


          Apna Desh (1972) MP3 Songs        

Listen and download hindi songs of Apna Desh (1972) Mp3 Songs - Aaja O Mere Raja Jannat Ki Sair, Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha, Kajra Lagake Gajra Sajake, Lelo Babu Peelo Narial Pani, Rona Kabhi Nahin Rona, Suno Champa Sun Tara, Old Hindi Songs, Apna Desh (1972) songs has sung by Asha Bhosle, R D Burman, Lata Mangeshkar, Kishore Kumar, Apna Desh (1972) Mp3 Songs Download, Old Hindi Songs, Please Click on the Download Link and Enjoy Apna Desh (1972) Mp3 Songs.

Apna Desh (1972) Mp3 Songs


01- Aaja O Mere Raja Jannat Ki Sair - Asha Bhosle,
02- Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha - Asha Bhosle, R D Burman,
03- Kajra Lagake Gajra Sajake - Lata Mangeshkar, Kishore Kumar,
04- Lelo Babu Peelo Narial Pani - Lata Mangeshkar,
05- Rona Kabhi Nahin Rona - Kishore Kumar,
06- Suno Champa Sun Tara - Lata Mangeshkar, Kishore Kumar

          Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha Mp3 Song        

Listen and download old hindi song Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha Mp3 Song. The song has sung by Asha Bhosle, R D Burman, Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha Kabhi Ho Jata Hai Mp3 Song from Indian Bollywood Hindi Movie Apna Desh (1972), Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha mp3 song free download, Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha mp3 song listen online.

Duniya Mein Logon Ko Dhokha Mp3 Song


Old Hindi Songs :
Apna Desh (1972) Mp3 Songs

          Through the years        


Happy New Year! It’s a bit late greeting but we missed the opportunity to do it because we skipped sending you our January Newsletter.  We thanked the Lord for your continued partnership through out the years. Nine years to be exact.

We came to Mae Sai in January 2006 hence we are now on our ninth year here. This year, we were together in celebrating God’s faithfulness in our lives and ministries. We are grateful that Jared and Jillian were able to come to celebrate Christmas, New Year and the anniversary of our coming here in Thailand.

Team Visits
They came with a purpose to help the children at risk and we happen to have ten of those. Seven wonderful young ladies from YWAM DTS-Madison came to help us with the children and also with teaching English at the Municipal school. They stayed in our house for almost a week. We also took some time out to show them to few interesting places in Mae Sai. They came at the right time because we needed to go to the Philippine Embassy in Bangkok that weekend because Reuven had to take the Alternative Learning System Accreditation Equivalency (ALSAE) Test. We had people who looked after the children while we were away.

We also met with a 32-people team from South Korea through our Pastor friend. They were doing mission exposure in Southeast Asian countries. We were grateful to them for taking the time to visit our place and for encouraging us. We were able to help them in our own small way to look for an overnight accommodation.

We will also be working with YWAM Team from South Africa this month. Please pray for the school activities where these young people who will minister among the students of the municipal school.

Children Update
We thank the Lord for his provision for all the children’s school expenses. They are all doing good in the school. Being with them and seeing them 24/7 make us oblivious to the physical changes happening to them. We just noticed that their clothes are getting too small for them.  So we are again buying them new set of clothes and school uniforms.
Our own children are doing well in their studies. But Narlin and I think they need somebody to be with them to help them keep the house tidy and prepare food for them. Jared will be graduating in May and Jillian will be in her third year. The fact that they are in the Philippines in college is a miracle of God’s provision.

Reuven took this year ALSAE Test. If he passed, he will go straight to college in the Philippines. The test is specially difficult for him because the test is 90% in Tagalog. For someone who who live in Thailand for most of his life, written Tagalog is not easy to understand. Please pray that Reuven will pass the test this time.

HT Related Projects
Please continue to pray for us as we help our friend to start his ministry projects in Mae Sai that seeks to prevent young women from becoming victim of human trafficking (HT). We hope to find a place to rent to be used as vocational trainings centre (initially sewing for crafts like dresses and bags and maybe more courses later) and another place for shelter. Pray for our friend's health and pray for wisdom and provision.

During our last meeting with the Network for Women and Children, someone brought out a pressing problem. We are told that the Thai Immigration Office deported several young women who are working illegally in Thailand. Although these girls are from Burma, they practically grew up here. They couldn’t speak Burmese and they don’t have any idea where their family are located. Allegedly, they ended up homeless and raped by the police.

We are hoping to help provide solution to this problem by having people in the immigration office to look for the deported girls and provide them temporary shelter until such time they locate their family in Burma. This is a good opportunity to share God’s love to them.  Please for God’s guidance and provisions.

Members of Network for Children and Women (NCW) sharing problem on human trafficking and sharing ideas on how to provide solutions.

Thanksgiving
  • We thank the Lord for another year he has given to us. We are looking forward for a fruitful 2015.
  • We thank the Lord that our children from the Philippines were able to celebrate holidays with us.
  • We thank the Lord for friends who are faithfully supporting and praying for us. We pray that God will bless you always.
  • We thank the Lord for leading us to a local church where we can serve him.
  • We thank the Lord for the opportunity to serve with the international community (who need spiritual feeding too) in our once a month English worship.
  • We thank the Lord for the opportunity to teach English and the Word to the children and young people in the community. 
  • We know it's still early but please help us pray for our visa and work permit this year. We are grateful that we did not have major difficulties in extending our stay in Thailand.

          Be still and know        
For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it in hope; because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now. (Romans 8:19-22)
We are blessed to live in a place where the weather is friendly most of the time of the year. Just enough heat on summer, right amount of rain during the rainy season and comfortably cold during the winter. However, this blessing has been taken for granted by the people of Mae Sai. Waking up with a heavy downpour is normal but if it had lasted for three hours or more, we have a feeling that something unusual was about to happen. We seldom experience this kind of rain. We thought if the rain would continue for another thirty minutes, flooding was a sure thing. Thankfully the rain stopped but the flooding still happened. The water came with tons of mud in it.

We were not directly affected but those who live beside the mountains had a difficult times. For the last three years, construction business is booming here in Mae Sai. Rice fields are being converted into subdivisions and these construction projects need tons of filling materials. Contractors are cutting the mountains like crazy to meet these needs. This is a disaster waiting to happen that may be triggered off by even hours of heavy downpour. We are praying that would be last heavy downpour this year and that the government will do something with the cut mountains. Once again, we thank you for your partnership in the gospel.

We sincerely thank you for your untiring prayers which we feel every second of our life. His protection surrounds us his provision is constant.

  Flooding in Mae Sai

Flood in mae sai

NCWSS against human trafficking

The Network for Women and Children Under the Same Sky (NCWSS) is determined to be more proactive in fighting human trafficking. Many NGOs have data to prove that Thailand is on the top tier of human trafficking activity. Mae Sai is considered as gateway for transporting people from poor country like Burma, Laos and Cambodia to the target market. Our last three meetings were very fruitful in laying out plans of actions we need to do as Christian leaders so that children and young women might be protected and prevented in becoming victims. Most of the network members are already involved in providing shelter for children, we thought of having projects that will give empowerment to children and young women to fight against the evil of human trafficking. Please pray for NCWSS members to be more supportive and pray for financial provisions to support some of the programs and activities we hope to implement in the future.

  NCWSS Members

United Christians in Mae Sai

It is safe to say that Joey and Narlin have a small part in the early years of the United Christian in Mae Sai. When the organization decided to go bigger to include all the churches in Mae Sai and neighbouring towns to become The United Christian Protestant in Mae Sai, we thought our participation was no longer needed. However, this month, the President invited us to attend the meeting for the election of new officers, I learned that we are considered as representative for Filipino workers in Mae Sai. We are thankful to the Lord for this opportunity of being a part of God’s bigger work here. United Christian Protestant Mae Sai

More Prayer Requests

We are praying to go home next month. We did not have plan to go home this year. But our children in the Philippines are facing personal difficulties Our children need our presence Please pray for God’s provision for our air fare. Please pray also for our children in the Philippines. Please pray for our health. Perhaps is a break out of “pink eyes”(conjunctivitis) here in Mae Sai and Tachilek. And at the moment, two of the children are infected already. We are doing our best not to spread it to everyone in the house. Moreover, Tina has fever and suffering from most probably a flu. Please pray for our health. Pray for that we can go home to the Philippines in October. Wehad no plan to go home this year. However, our children are experiencing difficulties back at home. We feel that our children need our presence at least for a month just to be with them and settle a personal problem. Please pray for God’s provision and for the safe travel. We are also asking you to pray for our children’s needs and difficulties.

  Fluke s Conjunctivitis Pray for our teaching and preaching ministry. More children are coming to us to learn English. We are thankful for this opportunity to bless the children and their parents too. In addition, we will be teaching young people to prepare them to university or church ministry. Also, Joey was requested to become a regular preacher at Pantamit Mae Sai Church. Please pray that God will use these opportunities that more people will come to know Jesus Christ.
          Tamil Hot Actress Pics        
Source(google.com.pk)
Tamil Hot Actress Pics Biography


Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital is Chennai, the largest city. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Gulf of Mannar, the Palk Strait in the south east, and by the Indian Ocean in the south.
Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the seventh most populous state. It is the second largest state economy in India as of 2012.The state ranked among the top 5 states in India in Human Development Index as of 2006. Tamil Nadu is also the most urbanised state in India.The state has the highest number (10.56%) of business enterprises and stands second in total employment (9.97%) in India,compared to the population share of about 6%.
The region has been the home of the Tamil people since at least 500 BCE. Its official language Tamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for over 2000 years.Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Main article: History of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu's history dates back to pre-historic times. Archaeological evidence points to this area (In places like Adhichanallur,Tirunelveli) being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.[10] In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic celts, giving evidence confirming them to be of the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago.The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi.Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.About 60% of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu and most of which are in Tamil language.Geologists have discovered hundreds of fossilised dinosaur eggs, perhaps 65 million years old, underneath a stream in a tiny village in Ariyalur district.Researchers from the Salem-based Periyar University believe that the clusters of eggs belonged to the aggressive Carnosaur and the leaf-eating Sauropoda.
[edit]Early history (Sangam Period- 300BCE-300CE)
Main article: Sangam period

Roman pottery excavated in Arikamedu (1st century AD, Guimet Museum)
The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is spotlighted by Tamil literature known as Sangam literature. Numismatic, archaeological and literature sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries spanning 300 BCE – 300 CE. Three dynasties, namely Chera, Chola and Pandya, ruled the whole of present-day Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Chera ruled the whole of present day Kerala and parts of western Tamil Nadu comprising Coimbatore, Karur, Salem and Erode districts from the capital of Vanchi Muthur (thought to be modern day Karur). The Chola dynasty ruled the northern and central parts of Tamil Nadu from Uraiyur as capital, and the Pandya dynasty ruled southern Tamil Nadu from Korkai and Madurai as capital. All three dynasties had extensive trade relationships with then known ancient kingdoms of Rome, Greece, Egypt, Ceylon, Phoenicia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. Trade flourished in commodities like spices, ivory, pearls, beads and gems. Chera traded extensively from Muziris on the west coast, Chola from Arikamedu and Puhar and Pandya through Korkai port. The Greco-Roman trade and travel document Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. 60–100 CE) gives an elaborate description of the Tamil country and its ports. The Kalabhras invaded and displaced the three Tamil kingdoms and ruled between the third and the seventh centuries CE of the Sangam period. This is referred to as the Dark Age in Tamil history. They were expelled by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the sixth century.

During the Kalabhras' rule Buddhism flourished in the land of the Tamils. The didactic work Naaladiyar was composed during their reign. It consists of moral sayings in the venpa meter, 400 in number in 40 chapters, each by one Buddhist ascetic, according to tradition. Following the tradition of Tamil Buddhism, Naaladiyar emphasises virtues such as control of the senses, Dhamma (Lord Buddha's teaching), renunciation, and other desirable social qualities. Pali was the court language of the Kalabhras who were also called Kalapara or Kalaparaya according to the Koramangalam inscription.

Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram (c. eighth century C.E.) – UNESCO World Heritage Site.
During the fourth to eighth centuries C.E., Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallavas under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I and his uncle Bodhidharma.The Pallavas ruled a large portion of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Dravidian architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Pallavas were replaced by the Cholas as the dominant kingdom in the 10th century C.E. and they in turn were replaced by Pandyas in the 13th century C.E. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century C.E. Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

Main article: Chola dynasty
Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E.
A sculpture at Airavatesvara Temple, Darasuram, built by Tamil Chola Kings. The group of monuments are UNESCO World Heritage sites
The Cholas, who were very active during the Sangam age, were entirely absent during the first few centuries.The period started with the rivalry between the Pandyas and the Pallavas, which in turn caused the revival of the Cholas. During the ninth century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from the local clans of Mutharayar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. Parantaka Chola II expanded the Chola empire into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose to a notable power in South East Asia. Now the Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal and Sir Lanka. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular South India and parts of Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola's navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now Myanmar) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
Brihadeeswara Temple built by Raja Raja Chola I in 1010 C.E.
Natarajan, Siva as celestial dancer, an example of Chola art
The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola, who built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India the fine figures of Siva in various forms, Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints are the examples of Chola bronze. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.
With the decline of the Chola dynasty between 1230 and 1280 C.E., the Pandyas rose to prominence once again, under Maravarman Sundara Pandya and his younger brother, the celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan. This revival was short-lived as the Pandya capital of Madurai itself was sacked by Alauddin Khilji's troops under General Malik Kafur in 1316. The Muslim invasion led to the establishment of the short-lived Madurai Sultanate.

Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics
Tamil Hot Actress Pics

          READING COMPREHENSION        

1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.

  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE


            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?

6. Authoritarian regime


            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?

7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?


10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
                                        1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.


  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?
6. Authoritarian regime

            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?
7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?
  
10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
        
              1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.






1.HATES CRIMES

The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.
Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes
The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.





1.    How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
2.    How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
3.    Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
4.    How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
5.    How many hate groups are there nationwide?
6.    What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
7.    How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
8.    Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
9.    What was the increase in hate groups last year?
10.    Who is Hillary Shelton?   


2.PILOT  ACCUSED

Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .
 Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"
Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.
Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"
1.    When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
2.    How long has he been held in jail?
3.    Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
4.    What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
5.    What did he hide in 1993?
6.    Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
7.    What are the conditions of his bail?
8.    What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
9.    Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?



3.BOSNIA INJURIES

On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .
NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.
In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"
 And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".


1.    How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
2.    Where were the two American soldiers inured?
3.    Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
4.    Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
5.    How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
6.    Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
7.    What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
8.    Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
9.    Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
10.    Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4.CLONE SYSTEM

Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?
Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid .
as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .
After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.
A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.


1.    What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
2.    What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
3.    What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
4.    Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
5.    What is the main problem of cloning system?
6.    What does Australian scientist claim?
7.    What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
8.    For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
9.    What is the specific with mitochondria??
10.    Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?
5.    ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.
The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 
 The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.
The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.
The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.
 The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.
1.    When did the car stolen?
2.    What was the lost property?
3.    What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.    What was the demand of political party?
5.    What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.    What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.    How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.    En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.    What was the monitor action on the scene?
10. what action did the local police take ?

    

6.    Authoritarian regime

President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.
"We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.
It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 
The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.
The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.
    The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.
      Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

1.    Which countries are called golden triangle country?
2.    Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
3.    What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
4.    Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
5.    What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
6.    Where is the international court of Justice located?
7.    why were the thousands of people jailed ?
8.    What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
9.    How many political prisoners were jailed?
 10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?


7.  GAMBLE

November 27, 2001
Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.
Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested  one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports . And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.
 Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.
 The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.
The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved. 
1.    How may gang members arrested?
2.    What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.    Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.    How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.    How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.    What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.    What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.    What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.    What were weapons confiscated.
        10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?


8.  EBOLA

Sunday, December 9, 2001
An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in
France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.    What did government request to Media?
2.    Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.    Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.    When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.    What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.    What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.    How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.    What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.    Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    

9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

    US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .
    There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country .
    It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.    Who is Taras?

10. THE UNITED NATION

The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states.
    After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs

1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat

                                        1. International court of justice.

    The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

    America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

    Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


11.  UN FAILURE IN BOSNIA

    A long -awaited report into the failure of a Dutch UN peacekeeping force to prevent the murder of thousands of Muslims in the Bosnian town of Brebrenica will be published on Wednesday. The Netherlands is bracing itself for the results of the inquiry in to the worst massacre in Europe since world War second. The
    BBC's Europe correspondent says Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for their part in event leading up to the 1995 slaughter. In July 1995, Srebrenica was being protected by 110 Dutch troops who were supposed to ensure the safety of the town's mainly Muslim population against surrounding Bosnian Serb forces. The United Nations had declared it a safe area but when it  was attacked, the town fill with out the Dutch UN troops firings shot . Up to 8000 Muslim men and boys were then murdered.

Five years of research

                  While the Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for letting the town fall without a fight , fault is also set to be found with the over all UN commander for failing to order air strikes to protect the enclave. The report is also understood to criticize the Dutch government for showing lack of political will. The 7000-pages report by the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation is the official Dutch history of events in Srebrenica. It has taken more than five years to produce. In a 1999 report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan blamed the international community for its failure to protect the enclave but insisted that it was impossible " to say whether a more decisive action by the Dutch would have saved lives" .A report two weeks ago by the Interchurch Peace Council ( IKV) in the Netherlands condemned Dutch troops, generals and politicians for failing to evacuate and protect the Muslims.

Scenes from hell

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague has ruled that the massacre was genocide. Last August it sentenced Bosnian Serb General Radisav Krstic, considered a key commander in the episode, to 46 years in prison. The judge in the case said the massacre was characterized by " scenes from hell, written on the darkest pages of human history" Survivors' reports, aerial photography and grisly evidence exhumed from mass graves indicate the most victims in the massacre were summarily executed ,Dutch MPs may now call for a public inquiry. Seven military commanders of Royal Dutch army have been sentenced to seven years jail . Ten army personnel have been fired from the service and 20 have been restricted from the promotion as per the report of the criminal tribunal.   The BBC's correspondent Mr. Havel Eastward has been facilitated by the Dutch Government as a friends of mankind . After the massacre in the Srebrenica the Dutch government begs pardon with the Bosnian people and saying that her troops could not do any thing to save the life of the people and she is responsible to the accident.


1. How many Dutch troops were protecting Srebrenica?
2. What ethnic group were the people of Srebrenica?
3. Why the Dutch government begs pardon with the people of Bosnia ?
4. How many people were killed in Srebrenica?
5. How many army personnel were punished?
6. Who is criticized in the report?
7. Where is the International Criminal Tribunal based?
8. Would more positive action by the Dutch troops have saved lives?
9    What sentence was General Krstic given?
10    Who was facilitated by the Dutch government and why?


12.  SWARM ATTACK

    Six people were hospitalized after they were attacked by a swarm of bees in Singapore, a news report said on Tuesday. The bees attacked contractors who were trying to remove a beehive in the tropical city-state .Two police officers who were on the scene to keep back the public, were among those attacked and hospitalized. Police public affairs officers could not immediately be contacted to confirm the report. The incident occurred at approximately 12:30PM on Tuesday afternoon. Two of the people who were injured in the attack were still in the hospital on Tuesday night at 10:00 PM; however they were in good condition. Such incidents are rare in heavily urbanized Singapore. But two years ago , a 51 years old taxi driver died after he was stung by a swarm bees .The driver was changing his back left tire and he removed the deflated tire , a beehive was in the wheel well . Witnesses said that the swarm covered the man's face and hands and repeatedly sting him as he cried out in pain .He died later that night while being hospitalized. Singapore is a very small country covered by the see in the east of Asia and known as a well industrialized country.
    The big industry installations have many nooks and corners where the swarm bees get shelters. firstly people do not care about it because it seems harmless and small in the beginning but after  a year it  appeared in large scale and bees become escort free so they undermine their stung so they try to destroy their hives and got stung and the result  become very adverse. The same accident happened in The US in 1990 when a farmer had gone to his farmhouse to clean the room , he saw that there is a bee hive in the ceiling of the room he thought it was full of honey , unfortunately it was poisonous  swarm bee's hive.  He collected his two sons and a black servant to take the honey . In the mean time when they lit a fire to fly the bees , the swarm bees started stung them . The younger son who was in the door side escaped from the room after having a look at the victims and called the police . The house got in to the gutter by the fire and three injured had been hospitalize in the city centre . The house owner Mr. Kally died during the medical treatment and two had been discharged after 2 weeks with swollen face and bruises for the whole life.  The same accident happened in Nepal too on 23 September 2002. The Raute , who are famous for honey hunter ,had tried to collect honey from the very steep hill near Manang District. they made rope ladder to climb the hill and with the aid of fire they started collecting the honey .
    It was a documentary program filmed by Scottish Director visualized to broadcast in Britain  by BBC. Al together there were 15 men. When the honey hunter was climbing down from the steep hill after the successful visualization of the film. Unfortunately, one of the hunters touched the bees hive. Due to the finished job, they did not prepare for next attack and they all were on very thin cloths and without cloves . Three among five hunters fall down from the cliff and died. Two were severely bitten by the bees were died on the way to hospital and ten crew members of the visualization  were admitted in the hospital and discharged after 2 weeks .  It is said that the bees seems so calm if they are not hurt and if anyone hurt their queen , they become so terrifying and take revenge from the hunter . The queen is the most powerful among the bees. if the queen of the bees  safely removed from the hive it will be so easy to get the honey from the hive   which is considered as medicine  in eastern countries . The working bees always follow the queen bee , if she abandon the hive silently , all the bees left the hive with out revenge. so if you want to get honey remove the queen tactically and calmly.
         
1.    How many people had been killed according to the passage.?
2.    How many people had been injured according to the passage?
3.    Where was the bees's hive in the taxi?
4.    Who was the authentic person to provide informations about injured police officers according to the passage.
5.    What had happened to the two Americans who escaped from the death?
6.    What is the ideal idea to get honey?
7.    What did the team doing in Manning District?
8.    How did the taxi driver killed?
9.    Where was the bees's hive in the room?
10.    Who is the most powerful in the hive?

13.  ARAFAT POLITICS
    Arafat is not the point. As Israelis and Palestinians use ever more lethal means against each other's civilians, the question being asked in Israel and the US is not how to end the occupation, but whether or not to end the career, or even the life, of Arafat. At the time of writing this coverage trend in early February 2002, in a further escalation Israeli tanks have confined Arafat in an area of 200m square in Ram Allah. And have destroyed the remainder of his helicopter fleet that it began to destroy on the attack of his compound on 3 December 2001.
    If Israel killed Arafat or sent in to exile, nothing would change. It seems almost absurd to have to point out that forcing millions of people to live for decades under hostile military rule with no end on sight inevitably produces violent resistance. Only a mind -set that steadfastly refuses to recognize this can become captivated by a lone figure who's real and imagined failings became a smoke screen that obscures the machinery that actually drives the conflict.
    If Israel truly seeks the moral high ground it invokes in the international arena, it should stop seeking a relative high ground whose only elevation stems from the weakness and failing of its historical enemies. Rather Israel should address the most obvious things it dies to perpetuate the conflict.
    The bottom line is that the single most identifiable factor that perpetuates the Israeli- Palestinian conflict in all its forms, both legitimate, is the Israeli military occupation that exists to protect the continuing Israeli colonization of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem.
    Comparisons of Arafat with Bin Laden serve to legitimize Israel's continuing repression of the Palestinians and bear no reality to the dynamics that this particular conflicts, dynamics that Israel has played no small part in creating.
    Israel's killing of civilians is a form of terrorism. The United States  tacit support of Israel's so called retaliation in US support of terrorism .Although Israeli officials are occasionally note don record " apologizing" for the latest " accidental" death of a child , there comes a point -- after a year in which one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed were children and 50 percent of these children were killed for away from clashes- that it becomes imperative to note that Israel could always simply stop killing children , instead of merely apologizing for it.
    Israel's nightly shelling of Palestinian neighborhoods has accounted for one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed during the first year of the Second Intifada .  Israel's regular killing of innocent civilians including children as a "by product " of its ironically titled" targeted killings " of Palestinian activists most commonly with rockets fired from combat helicopters at these leader's vehicles while in cit streets offer more examples of the indiscriminate violence that characterizes 'terrorism' as most people understand the word.
    Following a series of suicide bomb attacks in February / March 1996, then Israeli President Weizmann bluntly described Israel's practice of using closure to turn Palestinian towns in to prisons for the entire population: "Sometimes, when you are searching for a needle in a haystack, you have to burn the haystack".
    Israel has been encouraged to carry out similar "retaliation" as in the case of the December 2001bombing, by the knowledge that the United States would not condemn it. America must refrain from "understanding" Israel's violence. This can only have the effect of encouraging the continued Israeli killing of innocent Palestinian civilians.

1.    How many Palestinian children have been killed this year?
2.    How many Palestinians have been killed during nightly shelling?
3.    Are children targeted by the Israelis?
4.    Who is Arafat compared to and why?
5.    Where is Arafat confined, and what size of area?
6.    How many people live under hostile military rule in Palestine?
7.    What is the question being asked in Israel and the US?
8.    Why is Israel not afraid to carry out retaliation attacks on Palestinians?
9.    What happened in 1996?
10.    What dies Israel do when it is faced with suicide bomb attacks?








14.  BUS LOOTED
    A bus, which started off in Kathmandu , at 5:30 PM , traveling to Biratnagar , was looted by some Indian dacoits, which had crossed the boarder in order to escape the authorities there. They had been in Nepal for at least a month and had been regularly stopping night buses and robbing the passengers of all their belongings as well as money.
    When the bus number Ba Ga 3987, first started off from Gongabu Bus Park there was a total of 30 passengers. Just near Thankot 3 more passengers got on. The journey was uneventful until they reached Muggling, where they stopped for dinner. Here, the bus conductor managed to find 4 more people wanting to travel to Biratnagar . After about half an hour stop for dinner, they set off again. At Bharatpur 2 of the passengers got off as they had only booked up to this point. The bus had to wait for about one hour as the engine had trouble and the driver had to fix it .After this they started  of again and had a short tea break at Hetauda where another 2 people got off and one got on.
    At about 2:00 PM in the morning, when most of the passengers were asleep, the driver suddenly stopped as there was a tree across the main road. The passengers all wake up as the bus had come to a sudden stop, and were all looking out of the windows. Two Indian men dressed in black were behind the fallen tree with country made rifles; at the same time 2 also came from the back and two on each side of the bus. At once they told all the passengers to come out of the bus and line up in front of the bus, even though it as a moonlight night, no body could make out the faces of the dacoits, and could tell only by the way they spoke that they were from India. Everybody was told to remove their watches, jewelries and to empty out their pockets and moneybags. One of the men colleted all this while the others told all the passengers to lie down with their faces facing down. During this time the dacoits all disappeared, as nobody wanted to follow them as they might get shot

1.    How many passengers were on the bus when it was robbed?

2.    How many dacoits were there in total?

3.    How long did they stop for dinner?

4.    Why did they stop a second time before the robbery?

5.    How did the passengers know that the dacoits were not Nepali?

5.    Where did the bus start first?

6.    How many got in the Baratpur?

7.    Why did the bus have to stop suddenly?

8.    How many we on the bus at Muggling?

9.    Although it was night time how could the passengers make out how many dacoits there were?  
15.    KOSOVO POLICE

    On Monday 17 March 2003 , at 0745 hours , two Kosovo Police Officers were on patrol duty in a police vehicle when they observed a white van type vehicle , license 496KS858 driving very fast. The officers stopped the white van type vehicle for questioning using their blue flash lights. When the driver stopped, the patrol team stopped five meters behind his vehicle, however the van did not turn off its engine. As the officers exited their vehicle, the drivers of the white van type vehicle sped away very quickly. The officers ran back to their vehicle and chased the white vehicle .They were driving on the road to the airport. The police vehicle was driving at almost 120 km/hour but was unable to catch up to the van. Suddenly, the van turned north on to an unpaved roadway. The officers continued the pursuit. The van drove for approximately a hundred meters more. There was a big hole by the side of the road which the van fell into as the driver had lost control of the van, then it rolled upside down into a deep ditch on the south side of the roadway at grid reference 184-846. The officers stopped their vehicle on the opposite side of the roadway and proceeded cautiously toward the offender's vehicle. When they were approximately two meters away form the white van type vehicle they could see that the offender was still in his vehicle but was not moving. There were no sign of blood or injury  to the offender .As the officers got closer they could see three bundles, approximately 35 cm by 20cm by 25cm in the rare cargo area of the vehicle . One of the bundles was ripped open and a dark green plant material was showing, the officers assumed that it was marijuana. The first officer proceeded to the front of the vehicle to check the physical condition to the driver. The offender was breathing but didn't respond to any of the officer's verbal commands.  The officer radioed for an ambulance and the offender was taken to the local hospital. The second officer searched the offender's vehicle and found another bundle under the front seat with a knife. The Knife was 20 cm long with old blood stains. There were no papers or registration found in the vehicle. All material were seized as evidence and taken to police station.

1.    What were the 2 officers doing at 0745 Hrs?
2.    Why did they ask the van to stop?
3.    What was their reason for stopping the van?
4.    At what distance behind did the police stop?
5.    How many bundles were seen?
6.    Approximately what speed was the van traveling when in pursuit?
7.    What did the officers assume it to be?
8.    Was the knife found before or after the suspect was taken to hospital?
9.    What distance did the van travel on the dirt road?
10.    How did the man crash the vehicle?
16.    GERMANY SOOTING

Germany was in shock yesterday after 19 years old, masked gunman shot 17 people, including two female students, before killing himself in a school massacre in the eastern city of Erfurt.
The black -clad gunman a recently - expelled student of the Gutenberg secondary school, burst into a classroom during an exam yesterday morning around 11 AM and started shooting with a pump action rifle mounted on his back. "He passed us in the corridor with out paying any attention and walked straight into the secretary's office and started shooting." He said. Witnesses said the gunman walked through the building, opening classroom doors and targeting staff, killing nine male teachers, four female teachers, a secretary and two female students all within minutes. Caretakers heard the shots and notified the local police. Two officers arrived on the scene and discovered two dead bodies in the entrance hall. Moments later the gunman appeared and opened fire, shooting dead one of the policemen. A special commando unit immediately surrounded the school, which has nearly 700 students. As the shooting continued, around 180 students were still trapped in the building. Commandos stormed the building shortly before noon and came upon what was described as terrible scenes. 'Bodies lay in the halls, in bathrooms and classrooms' said Mr.Rainer Grube, a police spokesman. The gunman, who had barricaded himself into a room, shot himself as officers approached. 'The gunman killed himself when he saw that there was no way out for him' said Mr., Grube.
    For the students trapped inside the building, their ordeals ended nearly three hours later when they were led, pale and shaking, out of the school to worried parents at the gate. They were all receiving counseling yesterday evening, while four people injured in the attack were brought to hospital. Police were last night still investigating students reports that there was a second gunman. They had no motive for the shootings yesterday evening. Friends of the as yet unidentified gunman described him as an intelligent student who was ' full of life' and often spoke of his wish to become famous. The massacre is one of the most violent attacks in German post -war history, and ranks alongside the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane and the 1999 massacre in Columbine , Arkansas. Yesterday evening Erfurt residents were in shock and German politicians speechless .
'We are stunned at this horrific crime. No explanation we could give would go far enough right now ' said the Chancellor, Mr. Gerhard Schroeder, expressing his sympathy for the families of the victims and the students who witnessed the attack. He ordered the German flag on the Reichstag in Berlin to flown to be flown at half mast. 'We are all in one room .One teacher is dead, we are crying.



1.    Which two other massacres are mentioned?
2.    How many people were injured in the attack?
3.    What time did the shooting start?
4.    What weapons were used?
5.    How many teachers were killed?
6.    Did the gunman target students?
7.     Who notified the police about the shooting?
8.    Who stormed the building and when?
9.    How many police men entered the building initially?
10.    How long it take to gunman to kill the people and was there only one gunman?



17.  DEAD BODY FOUND

Mr. John Edwards lives alone in his cottage in the southern part of Cambridge, UK. He was a retired officer who previously worked for the finance office which was based in London. He had been retired for 5 years now and spent most of his time in Cambridge. He had worked for 34 years and during that time lived in London. By the sides of his cottage, there was a husband and wife living who used to work for Mr. Edwards. The woman would cook his meals and the man would attend to the garden. Mr. Edwards had no close family or friends who would come to visit him regularly .On December 15 , 2002 ,Mr. Edwards was found dead in his study at 0700 hrs. His body was fund by the woman who did his cooking. She had informed the police when she had seen him lying on his desk at 0700hrs. All the doors were closed from the inside so the woman thought in quite suspicious so she looked through the window. This is when she saw Mr. Edwards at his desk. When the police arrived at 0730 hrs. They broke open the door and checked the body. Mr. Edwards was confirmed dead and his body sent for post mortem. By the side of the table there was a bottle and a letter which said that he was taking his life as he was fed up and didn't see any future in continuing. All these materials were sent to the police lab for the necessary testing. The reports all confirmed that Mr. Edwards did take the poison, traces of which were found in his blood and on his lips. On the latter, apart from Mr. Edward's finger prints, there were other prints found as well. When the police checked up they found that it belonged to the husband the woman who cooked for Mr. Edwards. The police found this very suspicious as the husband had said that he never came into the study at any time. The police brought the man in for questioning and under interrogation he at first denied that he had gone to the house ant any time. After 2 hours, he changed his story and said that he
          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          Lowongan Kerja Guru Kimia        
Pria/WanitaPendidikan S1 Pengalaman mengajar 1 atau 2 tahunMampu mengajar Kimia tingkat SMAMenyukai dunia pendidikanPaham kurikulumSiap di tempatkan di daerah CibuburMampu bekerja dengan team maupun individu

          70 years since VJ Day - a victory that was necessary and moral        
I remember hearing the stories of the men who endured being POWs of Japan in World War 2. Growing up with TV series such as Tenko exposed me to a taste of the sadism and violence of imperial Japan.  So it is with some sadness to note that one of the primary narratives, from the so-called "liberal" left has been not remembering the brutality, fascism and racism of Japanese militarism, but demands for American apologies for Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

It's a small sign that culturally, the stories of the Burma Railway (which saw around 100,000 work as slave labour), the Nanking Massacre (at least 50,000 killed, 20,000 women and girls raped) and Japan's brutal occupation of almost all of east Asia from Korea to today's Indonesia, have such a low profile. You can be sure that China's modern tyrants and the two Koreas damn well make sure nobody forgets in their countries, as they don't need to exaggerate the genocidal approach Japan took to placing their lands under the "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere".  Perhaps it is because Western leftwing academics aren't excited when it isn't Europeans doing the invading and killing, as it doesn't fit the banal "only white people can be racist" narrative.   The so-called "peace" movement has no answer as to how the world should have responded to imperialist Japan, is it because it is less concerned with "peace" than it is with opposing Western civilisation, liberal democracy, freedom and capitalism, with a distinctly anti-European bent?

The endurance of those who fought militarist Japan is difficult to calculate.  There were Americans, Koreans (not Kim Il Sung after 1940 despite the complete fictional account he based his legitimacy on), Chinese, Vietnamese, Filipinos, Australians, New Zealanders, Indians, Nepalese and many others, and they were rolling back a regime that had at its centre a philosophy of:

- Racial supremacy:  The Japanese were the master race, all others were inferior.  Indeed, Koreans  and Manchurians were so inferior that chemical and biological weapons were tested on them (and yes the Allies took the research conclusions for their own purposes after the war).  

- Militaristic fascism:  Japanese imperial rule was based on the entire militarisation of society, with no sense of consultation or input from the governed.  All were subjects, all were to do as they were told and to operate effectively as slaves, for the Empire of Japan.  It was a complete totalitarian regime, and given the superiority of Japanese rulers, its subjects were deemed to be grateful for the mercy of the Emperor.

- Religious authenticity:  The rule of the Empire was deemed to come from the Emperor, who was the living embodiment of god.  That was absolute and not able to be questioned.

One measure of the human cost of Japanese imperialism is over 6 million deaths due to murder, under its occupation from 1937 to 1945 alone, but Japan's imperialism started in 1910 (with Western consent) in Korea and its invasion of China commenced in the early 1930s.  100,000 were massacred in Manila alone in early 1945.  The "Three Alls" policy applied to China after 1940 was to "kill all, burn all, loot all" in retaliation to Chinese resistance to the occupation.  Women and girls throughout the occupied territories, particularly in Korea, were kept as sex slaves (so-called "comfort women") to please the military.   Japanese newspapers even celebrated the "contest" between army officers as to who could kill 100 with a sword first.

Japan's militarist regime was the aggressor, but it also had the compliant and enthusiastic support of a people who did what they were told, who worshipped their Emperor and basked in the propaganda that told them how superior and special they are, and how lucky they were to have been chosen to lead Asia.  What dissent there was in Japan was not organised and on a minor scale.  Japan's dictators had the effective consent of its population to conquer.

So the defeat of Japan, unconditionally, was wholly moral and justified.  The use of nuclear weapons to accelerate that defeat and contribute towards it was also moral and justified.   The reason Japan had nuclear weapons applied to it was because it had invaded the United States, it had conquered and placed much of Asia under its brutal sadistic jackboot.  The moral culpability for the deaths inflicted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and indeed already by conventional bombing in Tokyo, Osaka and many other cities, was the Imperial Government of Japan, which was willing to continue murdering and killing innocents abroad and refusing to surrender in a war that it started.

No one can doubt the abject horror and suffering the two atomic bombs caused, the horror they inflicted undoubtedly contributed not only to them not being used in Korea by President Truman (against military advice), but also inadvertently creating the deterrent effect which remains to this day.  However, the justification for their use is not from those impacts, but because defeating a ruthless, sadistic and murderous tyranny justifies using weapons that minimise the casualties of your own population.   Better to use the atomic bombs than to suffer greater Allied casualties by ground invasion or not obtaining an unconditional defeat and complete withdrawal of Japan from Asia.

When a tyranny wages war against its neighbours, and brings death and destruction upon them, its victims cannot be constrained from inflicting defeat upon it, for fear of the inevitable deaths it causes upon the weakest who reside under that tyranny.  All tyrannies hope and expect that governments with less appetite for war than it, will weaken in the face of taking such unpalatable decisions.  These same tyrannies don't think twice of massacring others.  The children killed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the responsibility of their parents - the same parents who remained in Japan, working and contributing towards a system that had been waging a sadistic expansionist war against its neighbours.

So yes, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, appallingly dreadful and unspeakably vile though they were, were a considered, reasonable military decision to seek to accelerate an end to a war that was the responsibility of the Empire of Japan.   The attacks on Japan were acts of self-defence, to remove a regime that until the last day of the war, insisted on retaining control over Japan, on taking responsibility for prosecuting war crimes itself, and essentially no change in government.   It took the evidence of the nuclear attacks to force Japan to surrender with only one condition - that the Emperor would be protected.  That was one condition that could, grudgingly, be accepted.  You don't need to imagine what the Empire of Japan would do when it defeated a country - for it did so many times - it enslaved the entire country under martial law, and engaged in forms of genocide.

Those who fought against Japan were heroes, they defeated one of the most malignantly evil regimes of the 20th century (albeit this has quite a long list), an expansionist racist tyranny that any "true" liberal would celebrate the defeat of, without question.

The hand-wringing about the atomic attacks may be understandable, given their historic significance. However, to talk of the suffering of those attacks outside the wider context of Japanese eliminationist racism and militarism, is disingenuous.  It smacks of cheap anti-Americanism.   There are questions that can be asked about how some Japanese war criminals were effectively excused and some Japanese atrocities were deliberately ignored after the war, and bigger questions about how Japan still hasn't effectively faced up to its history (but then neither has communist China).  

However there should be no questions about the victory over Japan.  Moreover, given the enormous assistance the West gave to Japan to rebuild, reject communism, become a friend and until recently become the second biggest economy in the world (with a standard of living to match),  and be a functioning, vibrant liberal democracy,  the picture painted of an evil USA engaging in mass murder of Japanese civilians unjustifiably, seems selective indeed.   Now if only Japan's leaders could start treating their wartime history like German leaders treat theirs.   



          The Tumtum Tree Incubator, Ceramic Art Pottery by Michael W. Moses, Ocean Springs, MS        

My newest piece of hand sculpted ceramic art pottery is called the "Tumtum Tree Incubator".
This hand crafted work of art is a mixed media piece that is comprised of a pottery piece that has been lavishly embellished with a large wire and a glass beadwork armature. Is this some type of an alien tableau or glimpse of life from under the deep tropical waves?  Who is really to say?  All I know is that....

He took his vorpal sword in hand;
Long time the manxome foe he sought—
So rested he by the Tumtum tree
And stood awhile in thought.

Jabberwocky
by Lewis Carroll

 So look and see what is so grand
A peice from clay that I have wrought
And painted oh so bold and free
A moment of time bought

Nonsense
by Michael W. Moses

Burma Shave!



          Burma: National Commission Denies Atrocities        

Vice President Myint Swe speaks at a press conference of the government commission’s final report on the Rakhine State investigation in Rangoon, Burma, August 6, 2017.

© 2017 AP/Thein Zaw

(New York) – A Burmese government commission has dismissed allegations of serious human rights violations by security forces in Rakhine State without a credible basis, Human Rights Watch said today. On August 6, 2017, the National Investigation Commission on Rakhine State, headed by Vice President Myint Swe, held a news conference on their findings into alleged abuses against ethnic Rohingya, following a nine-month domestic inquiry.

The commission’s wholesale rejection of grave abuses despite considerable evidence from independent sources, coupled with the Burmese army’s earlier inadequate investigation, demonstrates the urgent need for the government to allow full access to the United Nations-mandated, international fact-finding mission, Human Rights Watch said.

“The commission’s findings are just the latest attempt to sweep under the rug the massive abuses against the Rohingya last year,” said Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “These atrocities aren’t going to disappear, so the sooner the UN fact-finding mission is allowed into Burma, the sooner those responsible can be identified and redress provided to the victims.”

In a summary of its report obtained by Human Rights Watch, the commission concludes it could not confirm cases of rape, gang rape, torture, and killings in the villages it visited. The commission found that 1152 buildings were destroyed in 13 villages, but said it was too difficult to establish who set fire to the buildings. The report noted that in February and March, 21 cases were filed in court for murder, rape, arson, destruction of evidence, loss of property and wrongful death, but every complaint was dismissed after an investigation, saying that some complaints were fabricated.

The Investigation Commission on Rakhine State’s inept inquiry provides the strongest case yet for Burma letting in the UN fact-finding mission. Burma’s donors and diplomatic friends should tell the government to end their tactics of denial and obfuscation, and cease denying victims their right to the truth.

Phil Robertson

Deputy Director, Asia

Swe reportedly told journalists, “There is no possibility of crimes against humanity, no evidence of ethnic cleansing, as per UN accusations.” He also rejected the possibility that genocide had occurred. The commission in its summary conceded that there could have been security force abuses that have not been exposed and others that needed further investigation.

The 13-member commission used investigative methods that produced incomplete, inaccurate, and false information, Human Rights Watch said. According to reports by local groups, witness accounts, and publicly released footage, the commission’s investigators badgered villagers, argued with them, told them not to say things, accused them of lying, and interviewed victims – including rape survivors – in large groups where confidentiality was not provided.

The commission’s mandate encompassed an investigation into allegations of abuses in northern Rakhine State following the attacks on three police outposts by alleged Rohingya militants on October 9, 2016. The report summary criticized the UN for not taking into consideration these attacks by militants and for focusing on the actions of the security forces. The commission’s findings follow an interim report issued on January 3, 2017, that also dismissed allegations of rights violations by government forces.

The UN, Human Rights Watch, and others have reported on numerous serious human rights violations committed by Burmese security forces against the Rohingya in Rakhine State following the October 9 attacks on police outposts. Human Rights Watch has documented extrajudicial killings, the rape of women and girls, and the burning of at least 1,500 structures. Rohingya villagers told Human Rights Watch that security forces burned the structures. The commission’s summary noted that grenade launchers were used during the fighting, effectively corroborating accounts by Rohingya that “launchers” were used by the military to destroy homes. The security force operations caused massive displacement, with more than 70,000 Rohingya fleeing to neighboring Bangladesh and temporarily displacing another 20,000 within Burma. A report issued by the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights on February 3, concluded that the attacks against the Rohingya “very likely” amounted to crimes against humanity.

The conclusion of the commission’s investigation follows the May 23 release of the Burmese army’s inquiry into alleged abuses in Rakhine State, which also denied abuses and uncovered no wrongdoing except two minor incidents. Altogether, the Burmese government established four separate investigations into the violence, none of which have been credible or impartial.

In March, the UN Human Rights Council passed a resolution establishing an independent international fact-finding mission with a mandate to investigate allegations of recent human rights abuses in Burma, especially in Rakhine State.

The government has indicated it will deny visas to the three experts appointed to the fact-finding mission, but to date it has not done so. Kyaw Tin, the deputy minister of foreign affairs, told parliament on June 30, “We will order Myanmar embassies not to grant any visa to UN fact-finding mission members.”

A commission led by former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan is due to release its final report detailing its recommendations for Rakhine State this month, but it does not have the mandate to investigate human rights abuses.

“The Investigation Commission on Rakhine State’s inept inquiry provides the strongest case yet for Burma letting in the UN fact-finding mission,” Robertson said. “Burma’s donors and diplomatic friends should tell the government to end their tactics of denial and obfuscation, and cease denying victims their right to the truth.” 


          Ãnh sáng mới trên một quá khứ lãng quên        
(New Light on a Forgotten Past) WILHELM G SOLHEIM II
Giáo Sư Nhân Chủng Học Đại Học Hawaii
National Geographic, Vol. 139, No. 3 (1971)

Người dịch: Hoàng Hoa Nhân Kiệt
Đăng trên http://www.giaodiem.com/doithoai/hhnk_vhhoabinh.htm

Một bản dịch khác của Lê Xuân Mai, đăng trên Tạp chí Phương Đông, số 10, năm 1972, tr. 256.


Người hoàn tất tiền sử mang các đầu mối như bình gốm cổ 5000 năm từ NON NOK THA trong miền đông bắc Thái-Lan và các nhà truy tầm khảo cổ đi tìm câu trả lời cho câu hỏi, “Nơi nào nền văn minh bắt đầu?”. Tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II (hình trên) được những nhà tiền sử học đặt danh hiệu là ÔNG ĐÔNG NAM Á đặt giả thuyết cách mạng trên những trang giấy này cho rằng những người ĐÔNG NAM Á có thể là những người đầu tiên làm ra đồ gốm, mài và đánh bóng những dụng cụ bằng đá, trồng lúa, và đúc đồng.


Hình trống đồng ĐÔNG-SƠN được chế tạo từ thế kỷ thứ ba hay sớm hơn tại ĐÔNG-SƠN, phía nam HÀ-NỘI, bắc VIỆT-NAM.

NƠI NÀO LÀ NƠI ĐẦU TIÊN LOÀI NGƯỜI TRỒNG TRỌT CÂY TRÁI VÀ ĐÚC ĐỒNG?

Các sử gia Âu Mỹ thường lập luận rằng nền văn minh nhân loại đã bắt rễ từ vùng bán nguyệt Cận Đông hay trên những vùng đồi phụ cận của miền này. Ở đó, từ lâu chúng ta tin rằng con người nguyên thuỷ đã phát triển canh nông và học cách làm đồ gốm, đồ đồng. Khoa khảo cổ đã hổ trợ niềm tin này một phần vì các nhà khảo cổ đã đào xới, khai quật nhiều nhất vùng bán nguyệt Cận Đông mầu mỡ này. Tuy nhiên, những khám phá bây giờ ở trong miền Đông Nam Á đang buộc chúng ta phải khảo nghiệm lại các truyền thống này .Các vật liệu được khai quật và phân tích trong năm năm qua đã cho thấy rằng con người sống ở vùng Đông Nam Á đã trồng cây , làm đồ gốm, đúc đồng trước tiên trên thế giới, trước tất cả cá vùng khác trên trái đất này.

Những chứng cớ đến từ những địa điểm khảo cổ trong vùng đông bắc và tây bắc Thái-Lan, với những tiếp trợ từ những khai quật ở Đài-Loan, Bắc và Nam Việt-Nam, các khu vực khác ở Thái-Lan, Mã-Lai, Philippine, và ngay cả từ miền Bắc Australia cho thấy các vật liệu được khám phá và khảo nghiệm bằng carbon 14 cho thấy rằng những di tích của những dân tộc mà tổ tịên họ đã trồng cây, chế tạo đồ đá, đồ gốm hàng ngàn năm trước các dân tộc sống ở vùng Cận Đông, Ấn-Độ, và Trung-Hoa.

Trong một địa điểm khai quật ở bắc Thái-Lan, các nhà khảo cổ đã tìm thấy đồng được đúc trong những khuôn đôi vào khoảng từ 2300 năm đến hơn 3000 năm trước tây lịch. Đây là bằng chứng cụ thể cho thấy công việc đúc đồng này đã có trước cả Trung-Hoa hay Ấn-Độ, cũng như trước cả các đồ đồng đúc ở miền Cận Đông mãi tới bây các chuyên gia vẫn còn tin là nơi luyện kim đồng đầu tiên trên thế giới.

Có người nêu ra lý do hỏi rằng nếu sự việc này quá quan trọng như vậy tại sao vai trò của vùng Đông Nam Á cùng các dân tộc trong vùng trong thời tiền sử không được biết đến cho tới bây giờ. Có vài lời giải thích về việc này nhưng lý do chính rất đơn giàn là rất ít cuộc khảo cứu về khảo cổ được hoàn tất trước năm 1950. Ngay cả bây giờ công việc khảo cổ mới tiến hành một cách sơ lược. Các viên chức thuộc địa đã không đặt ưu tịên cao về các khảo cứu của thời tiền sử ở vùng này chỉ có một số ít người nghiên cứu về công việc khảo cổ được huấn luyện về nghề nghiệp cẩn thận. Không một phúc trình toàn bộ nào về các địa điểm khai quật được chấp nhận theo tiêu chuẩn hiện đại được xuất bản trước năm 1950. Thứ nữa là những điều các nhà khảo cổ tìm ra đã được diễn dịch trên một giả thuyết là sự phát triển văn hoá được đông tiến và nam tiến.

Các nhà chuyên môn này đã nêu ra lý thuyết cho rằng nền văn minh nhân loại bắt đầu trong vùng Cận Đông lan ra vùng Nhĩ Hà, Ai-Cập và sau đó là Hy-Lạp và La-Mã. Nền văn minh cũng di chuyển đông tiến tới Ấn-Độ và Trung-Hoa. Đông Nam Á thì quá xa điểm khởi thuỷ do đó chỉ tiếp nhận nền văn minh sau các vùng trên.

Các người Âu châu tìm ra các nền văn hoá cao ở Ấn-Độ và Trung-Hoa, do đó khi họ tìm ra các kiến trúc và lối sống của các quốc gia trên và miền Đông Nam Á giống nhau, người Âu châu cho rằng Ấn-Độ và Trung-Hoa ảnh hưởng vùng này. Ngay cả tên họ đặt cho vùng là Ấn –Trung cũng phản ảnh lại thái độ của họ.
NHỮNG DI DÂN VÀ “NHỮNG ĐỢT SÓNG VĂN HOÁ”

Trong mụcđích tìm về thời tiền sử ở Đông Nam Á, chúng tôi (tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) cho rằng văn minh Đông Nam Á phải được trải rộng ra tới những khu vực có các nền văn hoá liên hệ. Từ ngữ tiền sử Đông Nam Á mà tôi (tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) sử dụng chứa đựng hai phần. Phần thứ nhất hay là phần đất chính Đông Nam Á được trải dài từ rặng núi Tần-Lĩnh phía bắc sông Hoàng-Hà của Trung-Hoa cho tới Singapore và từ miền Đông hải tây tiến tới Miến-Điện vào tận Asssam của Ấn-Độ. Phần khác được gọi là quần đảo Đông Nam Á đánh một vòng cung từ quần đảo Andaman ở miền nam Miến-Điện trải dài tới Đài-Loan bao gồm Indonesia và Philippine.

Nhà nhân chủng học người Áo ROBERT HEINE-GELDERN xuất bản đại cương truyền thống về thời tiền sử ở Đông Nam Á vào năm 1932. Ông ta đã đề xướng một loạt những đợt sóng văn hoá có nghĩa là những làn sóng người di cư đã đem tới Đông Nam Á những chủng tộc chính đã được tìm thấy ngày nay ở khu vực này.

Ông ROBERT HEINE-GELDERN cũng cho rằng đợt di dân quan trọng nhất là đợt di dân của những người đã chế ra một dụng cụ hình chữ nhật được gọi là cái rìu. Những người di dân trong đợt sóng này đã đến từ miền bắc Trung-Hoa di cư xuống Đông Nam Á và lan xuống miền Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philppines, Đái-Loan và Nhật-Bản.

Sau đó ông ROBERT HEINE-GELDERN ĐÃ giải quyết về sự du nhập đồ đồng vào Đông Nam Á như sau : ông ta giả thuyết cho rằng đồ đồng nguyên thuỷ ở Đông Nam Á được du nhập từ Đông Âu khoảng 1000 năm trước tây lịch do những di dân. Ông ROBERT HEINE-GELDERN tin rằng những di dân trong đợt di dân này di chuyển vào phía đông và phía nam vào Trung-Hoa vào thời Tây Châu (khoảng từ năm 1122 – năm 771 trước tây lịch). Những di dân này đã đem đi với họ không những chỉ có các kiến thức về chế tạo đồng , họ còn đem tới nghệ thuật kỷ hà mới với các đường thẳng , d(ường xoắn ốc, tam giác cùng hình người và thú vật.

Nghệ thuật này đã được ứng dụng trong toàn vùng Đông Nam Á được cả hai ông ROBERT HEINE-GELDERN và BERNHARD KARLGREN( môt học giả Thuỵ-Điển) gọi là nền văn hoá ĐÔNG SƠN theo tên Đông Sơn, một địa điểm ở miền bắc Việt-Nam, phía nam Hà-Nội , nơi mà các trống đồng lớn cùng các cổ vật khác được tìm thấy. Hai ông HEINE-GELDERN và KARKGREN đều cho rằng người dân Đông Sơn đã đem đồng và nghệ thuật trạm trổ kỷ hà vào Đông Nam Á.

Phần lớn thời tiền sử dược tái tạo theo truyền thống đó nhưng có một đôi điều đã không phù hợp với truyền thống này. Thí dụ như một số nhà thực vật học nghiên cứu về nguồn gốc thuần hoá của cây cỏ đã đề xướng là Đông Nam Á là một trung tâm thuần hoá cây cỏ rất sớm.

Năm 1952, nhà địa chất học CARL SAWER đã đi một bước xa hơn. Ông CARL SAWER đã đưa ra giả thuyết là cây cỏ đầu tiên trên thế giới được thuần hoá ở Đông Nam Á.. Ông SAWER đã phỏng đoán rằng cây cỏ được thuần hoá được mang tới do những người sống trong nền văn hoá trước thời kỳ văn hoá Đông Sơn xa. Những người dân sống trong trong một nền văn hoá nguyên thuỷ được biết đến như là nền văn hoá HOÀ BÌNH nhưng các nhà khảo cổ thời đó đã không chấp nhận lý thuyết này của ông CARL SAWER.

NHỮNG ĐẬP NƯỚC ĐÃ THÊM VÀO MỘT YẾU TỐ KHẨN CẤP

Khoảng những năm 1920, bà MADELEINE COLANI, một nhà thực học Pháp sau trở thành nhà nghiên cứu Cổ Sinh Vật Học và cuối cùng trở thành nhà Khảo Cổ là người đầu tiên đặt ra sự hiện hữu của nền văn hoá HOÀ BÌNH . Bà COLANI căn cứ trên những khai quật của những hầm và động đá ở những địa điểm trong miền Bắc Việt-Nam, những hầm và hang đá này được tìm thấy trước tiên ở ngôi làng trong tỉnh Hoà-Bình.

Những cổ vật tiêu biểu trong những địa điểm này bao gồm những dụng cụ bằng đá hình bầu dục, hình tròn, hay hình tam giác được mài dũa một bên, một bên để nguyên. Những đá mài xinh sắn được tìm thấy ở phần lớn các địa điểm khai quật cùng với nhiều vụn đá. Những tầng trên của của các hầm và động đá thường để giữ các đồ gốm và một ít dụng cụ bằng đá khác với đầu để sử dụng thì sắc bén. Xương thú vât và một số lượng lớn vỏ sò cũng hiện diện.

Các nhà khảo cổ nghĩ rằng đồ gốm cùng với các dụng cụ của nền văn hoá Hoà-Bình xuất hiện ngẫu nhiên và do những người có một nền văn hoá cao hơn sống gần đó chế tạo có thể là những nông dân đã di cư từ miền bắc xuống. Các nhà khảo cổ cũng nghĩ rằng những dụng cụ đá mài được học từ người bên ngoài. Nhưng không có địa điểm nào của những nông dân phía bắc được tìm thấy.

Năm 1963, tôi (tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) đã tổ chức một đoàn liên hợp khảo cổ cấp thời phối hợp giữa BỘ NGHỆ THUẬT THÁI-LAN và ĐẠI HỌC HAWAII để làm công việc cứu vớt khảo cổ ở những khu vực sẽ bị lụt do công việc xây dựng những đập nước mới trên sông CỬU LONG và những chi nhánh của sông này. Chúng tôi (tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) phải bắt đầu làm việc trong miền bắc THÁI-LAN, nơi những đập nước đầu tiên được xây dựng.

Không có một hệ tnống khảo cứu về thời tiền sử ở vùng này được hoàn tất. Tôi( tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) cảm thấy cần khẩn cấp bắt đầu hàng loạt khai quật trước khi vùng này chìm ngập dưới nước.

NHỮNG NGẠC NHIÊN ĐẾN TỪ MỘT GÒ ĐẤT KHÔNG ĐÁNG QUAN TẬM

Trong mùa khảo cứu dã ngoại đầu tiên chúng tôi(tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) đã xác định vị trí của hơn hai mươi địa điểm, trong mùa thứ hai đoàn đã khai quật một vài nơi của các địa điểm này trong khi thử nghiệm các nơi khác; trong năm 1965-1966, chúng tôi(tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) đã làm một cuộc khai quật chính ở NON NOK THA. Trong lúc thử nghiệm với đồng vị phóng xạ carbon-14 để xác định thời gian của các cổ vật hiện ra vài vấn đề, chúng đã đề xướng một cách mạnh mẽ là có dấu hiệu của sự liên tục về đời sống của con người (với vài sự ngắt quãng) đi ngược về thời gian trước năm 3500 trước tây lịch.

NON NOK THA là một gò đất rộng khoảng sáu mẫu Anh(acre) nhô lên các ruộng lúa bao quanh khoảng sáu bộ Anh(foot). Trong khi làm việc tại đó, chúng tôi(tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) sống ở làng BAN NA DI, cách gò đất khoảng một hai trăm mét.

Chúng tôi(tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II)làm việc bốn tháng tại nơi khai quật đầu tiên. Ông HAMILTON PARKER thuộc đại học OTAGO, nước TÂN-TÂY-LAN chịu trách nhiệm trong năm đầu tiên. DONN BAYARD, một sinh viên học trò của tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II, trở lại NON NOK THA trong năm 1968 để làm cuộc khai quật thứ hai cho luận án tiến sĩ của ông ta. Từ đó hai đại học OTAGO và HAWAII đã liên tục yểm trợ cho công việc của đoàn liên hợp khảo cổ như một chương tình liên kết phối hợp với bộ NGHỆ THUẬT THÁI-LAN.

Những kết quả của các cuộc khai quật cho tới bây giờ (năm 1971: lời người dịch) đi vào năm thứ 7 đã làm kinh ngạc nhưng mới chỉ mở ra một cách chậm chạp khi những phân tích của chúng tôi tìm ra từ phòng thí nghiệm ở HONOLULU. Ngay khi chúng tôi(tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) bắt đầu nhận kết quả đồng vị phóng xạ CARBON-14 định vị thời gian, chúng tôi bắt đầu nhận thức rằng dịa điểm này là một địa điểm thực sự mở ra một cuộc cách mạng của ngành khảo cổ.

Trong một mảnh gốm vỡ vụn nhỏ hơn 1 inch vuông, chúng tôi đã tìm ra dấu vết của vỏ trấu. Từ thử nghiệm phóng xạ đồng vị CARBON ở một mức trên mảnh gốm này, chúng tôi(tiến sĩ SOLHEIMM II) được biết rằng hạt gạo này có niên đại ít nhất là 3500 năm trước tây lịch. Điều này chứng tỏ rằng lúa gạo đã được trồng tại đây trước cả Trung-Hoa hay Ấn-Độ, nơi một vài nhà khảo cổ cho rằng là nơi thuần hoá lúa gạo đầu tiên, cả ngàn năm.

Từ CARBON phóng xạ đồng vị của than liên hệ, chúng tôi (Tiến sĩ SOLHEIMM II) biết rằng những rìu đồng đúc trongnhững khuôn đôi bằng sa thạch được làm ra ở NON NOK THA sớm hơn 2300 năm trước tây lịch có thể là 3000 năm trước tây lịch. Đây là hơn 500 năm trước kỹ thuật đúc đồng ở Ấn-Độ, và 1000 năm trước khi đồng được biết đến ở Trung-Hoa. Địa điểm này cũng chứng tỏ là lâu đời hơn những địa điểm ở Cận Đông vẫn được coi là nơi chế tác đồng đầu tiên.

Khuôn chữ nhật mà chúng tôi (tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) tìm thấy ở NON NOK THA đều theo cặp đôi , chỉ rõ ràng chúng được đặt chung với nhau ở nơi chúng tôi (tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) tìm ra chứ không phải bị thất lạc hay vứt bỏ. Quan tâm toàn thể khu vực và những lò nấu kim loại bị hư hỏng và những cục đồng nhỏ vương vãi chúng tôi (đoàn tiến sĩ SOLHEIM II) không còn nhi ngờ gì nữa chúng tôi đã khai quật một khu vực đúc đồng, hay chính xác hơn một nhà máy làm rìu cổ.

Những phần của gia súc được chôn chung với những mộ cổ xua ở NON NOK THA. Những phần này đã được nhận ra như gia súc tương tự mhư loái bò có u. Điều này chứng tỏ những gia súc đã được thuần hoá sớm ở Đông Á Châu.

CHESTER GORMAN, một sinh viên của tôi ở trường đại học HAWAII, là người xác định vị trí của NON NOK THA bằng cách tìm ra những mảnh gốm đã bị soi mòntrên gò đất. Năm 1965, anh ta trở lại Thái-Lan cho luận án tiến sĩ của anh ta. CHESTER GORMAN muốm thử nghiệm lại giả thuyết do CARL SAWER và các nhà khảo cổ khác cho rằng người dân thuộc nền văn hoá HÒA-BÌNH đã thuần hoá cây cỏ. Anh ta đã khám phá ra HẦM TINH THẦN (SPIRIT CAVE) ở xa về phía bắc biên giới Thái-Lan và Miến-Điện, tại đây CHESTER GORMAN đã tìm ra được những gì anh ta muốn tìm

HẦM CỦA THẦN CHẾT LÀM VỮNG CHÃI CÁC NIÊN HIỆU

HẦM TINH THẦN (SPIRIT CAVE) trồi lên cao bên cạnh lớp đá vôi nhìn xuống dòng suối chẩy vào sông SALWEEN ở Miến-Điện. Hầm này được dùng như một hầm mộ do đó được mang tên là hầm mộ.

Khi khai quật sàn của hầm mộ, CHESTER GORMAN đã tìm thấy những phần còn lại của cây cỏ hoá than bao gồm hai hạt đậu Hoà-Lan, củ năng(water chestnut), hột ớt, nhũng đoạn dây bầu bí và dưa chuột tất cả những vật này kết hợp với những dụng cụ bằng đá đặc trưng của người dân có nền văn hoá HOÀ –BÌNH.

Các mảnh xương của thú vật được cắt ra từng miếng nhỏ không thấy dấu vết cháy chứng tỏ rằng thịt đã được nấu chín tại đây chứ không phải nướng trên ngọn lửa, thịt được sào trong những đồ vật bằng tre xanh vẫn thấy dùng ở Đông Nam Á ngày nay.

Một loạt khảo nghiệm bằng đồng vị phóng xạ Carbon 14 cho thấy các vật liệu tìm ra ở đây có niên hiệu từ khoảng 6000 năm cho tới 9700 năm trước tây lịch. Vẫn còn những cổ vật xưa hơn nằm trong những lớp đất đào sâu hơn chưa xác định được thời gian. Vào khoảng 6600 năm tước tây lịch, các cổ vật này đã được đưa vào địa điểm này. Những cổ vật này bao gồm đồ gốm hoàn chỉnh, sắc xảo và được đánh dấu bằng những sợi dệt trong tiến trình chế tạo, cùng những dụng cụ bằng đá hình chữ nhật được đánh bóng và những lưỡi dao nhỏ. Các dụng cụ và cây cỏ được thuần hoá thuộc nền văn hoá Hoà-Bình được tiếp tục khám phá ra gần đây.

Chúng tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) quan tâm đến những khám phá tại hầm TINH THẦN (SPIRIT CAVE) ít nhất như là bước khởi đầu để bổ sung cho giả thuyết của CARL SAWER, những cuộc thám hiểm khác đang thêm những chứng cớ của một sự trải rộng và phức tạp của nền văn hoá HOÀ-BÌNH. Ông U AUNG THAW, giám đốc cơ quan khảo cổ Miến-Điện đã khai quật trong năm 1969 một địa điểm đáng lưu ý thuộc nền văn hoá HOÀ-BÌNH tại những hầm mộ PADAH-LIN ở phía đông Miến-Điện. Địa điểm này chứa đựng nhiều vật khác trong đó có nhiều hoạ phẩm. Đây là địa điểm xa nhất về hướng tây thuộc nền văn hoá HOÀ-BÌNH được báo cáo.

Những cuộc khai quật ở Đài-Loan do một đoàn thám hiểm hỗn hợp của ĐẠI HỌC QUỐC GIA ĐÀI LOAN và ĐẠI HỌC YALE dưới sự hướng dẫn của giáo sư KWANG-CHIH-CHANG thuộc ĐẠI HỌC YALE đã tìm ra một nền văn hoá với những hình dây và những đồ gốm sắc bén, dụng cụ bằng đá đánh bóng, và những phiến đá mỏng được đánh bóng đã xuất hiện từ lâu khoảng 2500 năm trước tây lịch.

VẤN ĐỀ KHÓ GIẢI QUYẾT ĐƯỢC SẮP XẾP PHÙ HỢP VỚI NHAU

Tôi ( Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) đã tóm tắt ý kiến về những cuộc khai quật mới cùng những niên hiệu tại đây và các nơi khác, tôi đã không chú ý tới việc nghiên cứu sự tái thiết thời tiền sử ở Đông Nam Á, trong một ngày nào đó có lẽ hai việc này cũng quan trọng ngang nhau. Trong một số bài viết được xuất bản, tôi(Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) đã bắt đầu về việc này. Hầu hết những ý kiến đó, tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) đề xướng ra như là giả thuyết hay phỏng đoán. Những giả thuyết hoặc phỏng đoán này cần được khảo cứu nhiều thêm để chấp nhận hay bác bỏ.

Trong số những giả thuyết này :

·Tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) đồng ý với SAWER là những người dân thuộc nền văn hoá HOÀ-BÌNH là những người đầu tiên trên thế giới đã thuần hoá cây cỏ ở một nơi nào đó trong vùng Đông Nam Á. Việc này cũng chẳng làm tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) ngạc nhiên nếu sự thuần hoá này bắt đầu sớm nhất khoảng 15000 năm trước tây lịch.

Tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) đề nghị những dụng cụ bằng đá được tìm thấy ở miền bắc Australia được đo bằng phóng xạ đồng vị Carbon 14 có niên hiệu khoảng 20000 năm trước tây lịch thuộc về nền văn hoá HOÀ-BÌNH nguyên thuỷ.

·Trong khi những niên hiệu sớm nhất của những đồ gốm này được biết tới ở Nhật vào khoảng 10000 năm trước tây lịch, tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) kỳ vọng rằng khi nhiều địa diểm với những dồ gốm chạm trổ hình dây được xác định niên hiệu, chúng ta sẽ tìm ra những người này đã làm ra những loại đồ gốm chắc chắn trước 10000 năm trước tây lịch, và có thể họ đã phát minh ra cách làm đồ gốm.

*Truyền thống tái tạo thời tiền sử cua Đông Nam Á cho rằng các di dân từ miền Bắc đem những phát triển quan trọng về kỹ thuật đến vùng Đông Nam Á. Thay vào đó tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) đề nghị nền văn hoá của kỷ nguyên thứ nhất tân thạch khí (sau thời đồ đá) ở bắc Trung-Hoa được biết đến như là nền văn hoá Yangshao thoát thai từ một nền văn hoá phụ thuộc văn hoá HOÀ BÌNH di chuyển lên phía bắc từ phía bắc của Đông Nam Á vào khoảng thiên niên kỷ thứ 6 hoặc thứ 7 trước tây lịch.

·Tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) đề nghị nền văn hoá sau đó được gọi là văn hoá Lungshan .Đã được phát triển từ nam Trung-Hoa và di chuyển về hướng bắc thay vì đã được giả thuyết là nền văn hoá này lớn mạnh từ văn hoá Yangshao và bùng nổ về hướng đông và đông nam. Cả hai nền văn hoá này đều thoát thai từ văn hoá HOÀ BÌNH.

·Thuyền làm bằng thân cây có thể được sử dụng trên sông ngòi Đông Nam Á trước Thiên niên kỷ thứ năm. Có thể không lâu trước 4000 trước tây lịch cây cân bằng được phát minh ở Đông Nam Á thêm vào sự cân bằng cần thiết để đi biển. Tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) tin rằng phong trào đi khỏi khu vực bằng thuyền bắt đầu khoảng 4000 năm trước tây lịch dẫn đến các cuộc du hành ngẫu nhiên từ Đông Nam Á tới Đài-Loan và Nhật-Bản, đem tới Nhật kỹ thuật trồng khoai môn và các hoa mầu khác.

·Vào một khoảng thời gian nào đó trong thiên niên kỷ thứ ba trước tây lịch, những cư dân Đông Nam Á, bấy giờ là những chuyên viên sử dụng thuyền bè, đã đi tới những đảo ở Indonesia và Philippines. Họ đã đem cả một nghệ thuật kỷ hà gồm những đường soắn ốc, hình tam giác, hình chữ nhật trong những kiểu mẫu được dùng trạm trổ trong đồ gốm, đồ gỗ, hình xâm, quần áo bằng vỏ cây, và sau đó là vải dệt. Những mỹ thuật kỷ hà này được tìm thấy ở trên các đồ đồng ĐÔNG-SƠN và đã được giả thuyết là tới từ Đông Âu.

·Người dân Đông Nam Á cũng di chuyển về phía tây tới Madagascar khoảng 2000 năm về trước. Điều này xuất hiện như là một cống hiến quan trọng của họ trong sự thuần hoá cây cỏ cho nền kinh tế Đông Phi Châu.

·Cũng khoảng thời gian này, sự liên lạc giữa Việt-Nam và Địa Trung Hải bắt đầu có thể bằng đường biển như là kết quả của phát triên giao thương. Một vài đồ đồng khác thường được tìm thấy ở ĐÔNG SƠN đã được giả thuyết có nguồn gốc Địa Trung Hải.

QUÁ KHỨ CÓ THỂ GIÚP THẮP SÁNG HIỆN TẠI

Cách tái kiến trúc thời tiền sử Đông Nam Á được tôi (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) trình bày ở đây căn cứ trên dữ kiện từ một ít địa điểm khai quật và một sự giải thích lại dữ kiện cũ. Nhiều sự diễn giảI khác có thể có được. Nhiều khai quật phong phú, nhiều niên hiệu phong phú ở các địa điểm khai quật đều cần thiết cho thấy nếu đây là cái sườn của công việc tổng quát căn bản này cho được gần hơn với sự tái kiến trúc của HEINE-GELDERN thời tiền sử ở Đông Nam Á. Burma và Assam tuyệt nhiên không được biết đến trong tiền sử, tôi ( Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II) nghi ngờ chúng là một phần quan trọng của thời tiền sử Đông Nam Á.

Hầu hết những điều cần thiết là nhiều chi tiết hơn về những khu vực nhỏ có những đặc tính riêng biệt. Tăng cường sự khảo sát trong những khu vực nhỏ bằng cách hợp tác việc phát triển văn hoá địa phương và sự chấp nhận tiến hoá môi sinh tìm xem cách sống của người dân phù hợp với sườn của thời tiền sử. Sau cùng, đây là người dân chúng ta (Tiến Sĩ SOLHEIM II và đoàn thám hiểm cua ông) muốn tìm hiểu, và điều thăm dò này có thể giúp chúng ta vài sự thông suốt trong sự phản ứng giữa những người dân Đông Nam Á với nhau và với những đổi thay của họ trong vùng Đông Nam Á.
          CHP-152-The Flying Tigers Part 2        

Laszlo finishes off the CHP overview of the story of the AVG in World War II.  In this episode the battle commences on December 20, 1941. From that point forward until the organization was disbanded on July 4, 1942 the Flying Tigers wrote their name into the history books.  

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Song Meiling 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling, Madame Chiang Kai-shek

T.V. Song  宋子文  T.V. Soong, brother of Song Meiling

Yunnan  云南  Province in Southwestern China

Fei Hu  飞虎  The Flying Tigers

Kunming  昆明  Capital of Yunnan

Chen Xiangmei  陈香梅  Anna Chennault, 2nd wife of Claire Chennault

Nu Jiang  怒江  The Salween River separating Yunnan from Burma

Guilin  桂林  City in Guangxi

Hengyang  衡阳  City in Hunan

Yangren laihua zhuzhan, junmin yiti jiuhu  

洋人来华助战,军民一体救护 (洋人來華助戰,軍民一體救護)

This foreigner has come to China to help in the war. Soldiers and civilians, one and all, should rescue and protect him.

Hangkong Weiyuanhui 航空委员会  The Aviation Committee

Zhongguo Laobaixing  中国老百姓  The Chinese People

Jianchuan Museum 建川博物馆聚落  The Jianchuan Museum Complex

Feihu Qibingguan  飞虎奇兵馆  The Flying Tigers Museum

Fan Jianchuan  樊建川  Chengdu real estate mogul, founder of the museum complex

Daniel Ford's Book:  Flying Tigers: Claire Chennault and his American Volunteers 1941-1942

The Jianchuan Museum Complex Web Site

The Flying Tigers Official Web Site

Ray Harris's History of WWII Podcast


          CHP-151-The Flying Tigers Part 1        

In this Part 1 episode Laszlo provides all the setup and background for the magnificent story of the American Volunteer Group, known more popularly as The Flying Tigers.  Their’s was only an eight month long story but their success at a time when all seemed hopeless provided an inspiration to many and showed Japan was not invincible. 

 

Terms from this episode:

 

Zhong-Mei guanxi  中美关系  Sino-US relations

Zhōng-Mei hezuo  中美合作   Sino-US cooperation

Maguan Tiaoyue     马关条约   The Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895

Jiuyiba   九一八   The Mukden Incident of 9-18-1931

Qiqi Shibian  七七事变  the Marco Polo Bridge Incident 7-7-1937

Chongqing   重庆  The wartime capital of Chongqing (also known as Chungking)

Kunming   昆明  Capital of Yunnan province.  Terminus of the Burma Road

T.V. Soong   宋子文  The often US-based brother of the Song sisters

Ailing  宋蔼龄  Oldest sister, Song Ailing, wife of Winston H.H. Kung

Qingling  宋庆龄   Middle sister, Song Qingling, Madame Sun Yat-sen

Meiling   宋美龄   Youngest sister, Song Meiling, Madame Chiang Kai-shek

Baituan Dazhan   百团大战 the Hundred Regiments Offensive late 1940

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀  Legendary PLA general who led the Hundred Regiments Offensive

Sanguang Zhengce   三光政策  Japan’s horrific Three All’s Policy

Diamian Gonglu  滇缅公路  The Burma Road

 


          Burma Amateur Bush Pounders vintage        
Duration : 14 min
Url : http://vidz.com//vidz/uvq/burma_amateur_bush_pounders_vintage



          Audio holdings in the British Library Endangered Archives Programme        
The British Library Endangered Archives Programme "[aims] to contribute to the preservation of archival material that is in danger of destruction, neglect or physical deterioration world-wide." A quick search of the word "audio" brings up these collections which will no doubt be of interest to world music scholars. Not all of these projects have been completed, so not all content is yet available online. EAP736: Preservation of the music and dance archive at the Music Museum of Nepal (NFMIM) EAP008: Folk Theatre Tales: Preserving images, sounds and voices of rural Tuscany EAP088: The Golha radio programmes (Flowers of Persian Song and Poetry) EAP115: Collection and digitisation of old music in pre-literate Micronesian society EAP124: Pages of Azerbaijan sound heritage EAP190: Digitising archival material pertaining to 'Young India' label gramophone records EAP298: Preserving endangered ethnographic audiovisual materials of expressive culture in Peru EAP468: To preserve Indian recordings on 'Odeon' label shellac discs EAP592: The music of Burma on record The EAP also offers grants to researchers http://eap.bl.uk/pages/grants.html
           Book review of "The Sun Rises: a shaman's chant, ritual exchange and fertility in the Apatani valley" by Stuart Blackburn, Brill, USA         
Post, Mark W. (2012) Book review of "The Sun Rises: a shaman's chant, ritual exchange and fertility in the Apatani valley" by Stuart Blackburn, Brill, USA. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area , 35 (1). pp. 113-124.
           Prosody and typological drift in Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman: against "Sinosphere" and "Indosphere"         
Post, Mark W. (2011) Prosody and typological drift in Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman: against "Sinosphere" and "Indosphere". In: Srichampa, Sophana, Sidwell, Paul, and Gregerson, Kenneth, (eds.) Austroasiatic Studies: Papers from ICAAl 4. Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, 2 (Special Issue No. 3). Pacific Linguistics, Canberra, Australia, pp. 198-221.
          Yama Notları: NW.45.20150416c.8        
  Sınıflar ve Denge Kontrol Büyücüsü Ayaz Dalgası: Artık tetiklendiğinde art arda Seviye Atlama efektini oynatmıyor. Büyü Burma Becerisi: Bu beceri, artık sıfırlamaması gereken güçlerin soğuma sürelerini sıfırlamıyor. Sadık Ruhban: Kaderin Çekici: Artık Acelecilik Işığı ve Acelecilik Işığı diğer el Eseri ile yanlışlıkla etkileşime geçerek beklenenden daha fazla Eylem Puanı vermiyor. Avcı Korucu: Nişanlı Atış: Nişanlı Atış'ı Düzey 4 olarak ayarlamak, artık Nişanlı Atış'ın güç listesinden silinmesine yol açmıyor.   İçerik ve Çevre Senaryolar: Seviye Atlama Sihirbazı, artık oyunculara seviye 70'e kadar yeni senaryo bölgelerine gitmeyi önermiyor. Oyuncular, istedikleri takdirde Knox ile konuşarak bölgelere halen giriş yapabiliyor. Senaryolar: Senaryo bölgelerinin seviye 70'in altındaki oyuncular için fazla zor olabileceğine dair uyarı mesajları eklendi. Zindan Talanı Müsabakası: "Zindan Talanı" müsabakasındaki metnin burada ödül olarak belirtilen Ham Astral Elmas'ın alınabilmesi için bir zindan sandığı anahtarı kullanılması gerektiği bilgisini içermemesi sorunu giderildi. Ayrıca, oyuncu sandığı zindanın sonunda incelediğinde, sandığın bir zindan talanı müsabakası süresince açılacağı bilgisini içeren etkileşimli bir metin eklendi. Tiamat'ın İstifi: Bağış, %100'e ulaştıktan sonra yapılabiliyor. Gauntlgrym Ele Geçirme Noktaları civarındaki çarpışmalar güncellenerek oyuncuların burada sıkışması önlendi.   Eşyalar ve Ekonomi Yoldaşlar: Artırıcı yoldaşların bir kez daha taban istatistikleri var. Ejderha Tarikatı Paketi, artık diğer çantalar gibi kuşanıldığında bağlanıyor. Paladin Elemental Ateş Eser Silahı: Hakikat Aurası sınıf özelliği, artık Kalabalık Kontrolü Direncini olması gerektiği gibi dikkate alıyor. Meslekler: Zincir Demirciliği: Düzey 25 zincir demirciliği zırh kitlerinin tarif için yüzük yerine plaka istemesi sorunu giderildi. Mühürler: Element Mührü ve Koruyucu Mührü üzerindeki tüyolar, artık bunların nerede kullanılabileceğini, bunlar kullanılarak neler satın alınabileceğini ve nereden elde edilebileceğini açıklıyor. İşlemede veya diğer işlemlerde harcanan bir eşyada yuvalanan eşsiz eşyalar, artık sahiplenilmiş olarak işaretlenmiyor ve böylece yeniden istenebiliyor.   Kullanıcı Arayüzü İşleme: Birikimdeki bir eşya kritik İşleme Puanı verdiğinde bunun birikimin tamamı tarafından verilmiş olduğunu belirten hatalı görüntü düzeltildi.
           New perspectives on evidentials: a view from Tibeto-Burman         
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y., and LaPolla, Randy J. (2007) New perspectives on evidentials: a view from Tibeto-Burman. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area , 30 (2). pp. 1-12.
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Gullsmykker, sølv, lapis lazuli og intrikate skulpturer i elfenben, laget i India for to tusen år siden. Eller mangefargete vinglass med flotte motiver fra Romerriket. Dette er bare noen smakebiter på de arkeologiske skattene fra Afghanistan som i disse dager står utstilt i London, smuglet ut og reddet fra plyndring i Nasjonalmuseet i Kabul. I MUSEUM går turen til British Museum i London sammen med Axel Christophersen fra NTNU Vitenskapsmuseet i Tronheim. Han har engasjert seg sterkt i kampen for truede kulturminner, både i Tibet, Burma og Afghanistan. Med støtte fra Utenriksdepartementet har Christophersen og antropologen Kim Sørensen laget fotoutstillingen ”Afghanistan – truede kulturminner”. I programmet møter vi også krator for utstillingen, arkeolog St.John Simpson fra British Museum
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On his trip to Cambodia, a country he claimed didn't deserve a visit due to its strongman government, first lady Bun Rany greeted Obama with a traditional "sampeah" pressed-hands greeting reserved for servants, a little dig that was probably lost on him but not to Asians.


In his tour of Burma, billed as an historic first visit since Burma's 2007 move to democracy, it was clear he was in way over his head, even on small things. Obama repeatedly referred to the country's Nobel Peace Prize-winning leader Aung San Suu Kyi as Aung Yan Suu Kyi, an astonishing error given her global fame.

Read More At IBD: http://news.investors.com/ibd-editorials/112012-634213-obama-southeast-asian-trip-more-style-than-substance.htm#ixzz2DBP03RQt
          JAVID JABS        

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The sophisticated underground rocket launcher system in Gaza has been exposed by the terrorist organization in a video it released Saturday.






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In Burma, he called the country by what the generals used to call it, he badly mauled and miss-pronounced the name of leader of their democracy movement. Add to that, he kissed this single woman, which in their culture is an insult.....He gave credit to himself for the democracy movement there (the credit should go to the Bush administration and Laura Bush in particular ) and some are praising him, and fawning over this trip ! Oh , please...






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See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.
Like a Diamond in the Sky
Image Credit & Copyright: Alex Cherney (Terrastro, TWAN)
Explanation: A dark Sun hung over Queensland, Australia on Wednesday morning during a much anticipated total solar eclipse. Storm clouds threatened to spoil the view along the northern coast, but minutes before totality the clouds parted. Streaming past the Moon's edge, the last direct rays of sunlight produced a gorgeous diamond ring effect in this scene from Ellis Beach between Cairns and Port Douglas. Winking out in a moment, the diamond didn't last forever though. The area was plunged into darkness for nearly 2 minutes as the Moon's shadow swept off shore toward Australia's Great Barrier Reef and out into the southern Pacific. Ranging from 1/4000 to 1/15 seconds long, five separate exposures were blended in the image to create a presentation similar to the breathtaking visual experience of the eclipse.
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Amateurish Hamas Propaganda Uses Easily Disproven Photo of 'IDF Soldier' w Boot On Palestinian Child
Reaganite Republican ^ | 18 November 2012 | Reaganite Republican

How dumb do they think you are?

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A picture you will never see…


Found on the IDF Twitter feed, the video below depicts life in southern Israel under fire of the rockets that have rained down from Gaza: “Over the past 12 years, the residents of southern Israel have suffered over 12,000 rockets fired at them from the Gaza Strip. This is what their life has looked like over the years.” I think it’s safe to say you won’t be seeing this brief video compilation on the BCC or CNN either.
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Iran must be President Obama’s immediate priority

By Henry A. Kissinger, Published: November 16

Henry A. Kissinger was secretary of state from 1973 to 1977.
In the aftermath of an exhausting reelection campaign, the most urgent decision facing the president is how to stop Iran from pursuing a military nuclear program. Presidents of both parties have long declared that “no option is off the table” in securing this goal. In the third presidential debate, the candidates agreed that this was a matter of the American national interest, even as they described the objective alternately as preventing an Iranian “nuclear weapon” or “breakout capacity” (President Obama), or a “nuclear-capable Iran” (Mitt Romney). As Iran continues to elaborate its enrichment capacity and move it underground, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has announced a spring deadline for counteraction. In this fraught environment, what operational meaning should be given to America’s declared objectives?

The United States and Iran are apparently conducting bilateral negotiations through official or semiofficial emissaries — a departure from the previous procedure of multilateral talks. Negotiations over Iran’s nuclear program do not have an encouraging record. For more than a decade, Iran has stalled, first with the “EU-3” (France, Germany and Britain) and then with the “P5+1” (the members of the U.N. Security Council plus Germany). It has alternated hints of flexibility with periods of intransigence, all while expanding, concealing and dispersing its nuclear facilities. If no limit is placed on this process, Iran’s tech­no­logical progress will dominate events. But at what stage, and in what manner, should Iran be deprived of a military nuclear capability? This has been the essence of the argument over “red lines.”

Three stages are involved in the evolution of a military nuclear capability: a delivery system, a capacity to enrich uranium and the production of nuclear warheads. Iran has been augmenting the range and number of its missile systems since at least 2006. Its enrichment capacity — long underreported to the International Atomic Energy Agency — has been expanded to thousands of centrifuges (the instruments that enrich uranium to bomb-grade material). The level exceeds any reasonable definition of peaceful uses authorized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The inevitable culmination is a nuclear weapon.

To draw the line at proscribing an Iranian nuclear weapon — as some argue — would prove unmanageable. Once the requisite amount of fissile material has been produced, constructing and equipping a warhead is a relatively short and technologically straightforward process, almost certainly impossible to detect in a timely fashion.

If so ineffectual a red line were to emerge from a decade of diplomacy by the permanent members of the Security Council, the result would be an essentially uncontrollable military nuclear proliferation throughout a region roiled by revolution and sectarian blood-feuds. Iran would thereby achieve the status of North Korea, with a military nuclear program at the very edge of going operational. Each nation that has a nuclear option would compete to minimize the time to its own full military nuclear capability. 

Meanwhile, countries within the reach of Iran’s military but lacking a nuclear option would be driven to reorient their political alignment toward Tehran. The reformist tendencies in the Arab Spring — already under severe pressure — would be submerged by this process. The president’s vision of progress toward a global reduction of nuclear weapons would suffer a blow, perhaps a fatal one.
Some have argued that even in the worst-case scenario, a nuclear Iran could be deterred. Yet this ignores the immensely costly, complex and tension-ridden realities of Cold War-era deterrence, the apocalyptic strain in the Iranian theocracy and the near-certainty that several regional powers will go nuclear if Iran does. Once nuclear balances are forged in conditions where tensions are no longer purely bilateral, as in the Cold War, and in still-developing countries whose technology to prevent accidents is rudimentary, the likelihood of some nuclear exchange will mount dramatically.

This is why the United States has insisted on limits on Iranian enrichment — that is, curtailing access to a weapon’s precursor elements. Abandoning the original demand to ban all enrichment, the P5+1 has explored what levels of production of fissile material are compatible with the peaceful uses authorized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The higher the level of enrichment, the shorter the time needed to bring about militarily applicable results. Conventional wisdom holds that the highest practically enforceable limit is 5 percent enrichment, and then only if all fissile material beyond an agreed amount is safeguarded outside Iran.

The time available for a diplomatic outcome shrinks in direct proportion as the Iranian enrichment capacity grows and a military nuclear capacity approaches. The diplomatic process must therefore be brought to a point of decision. The P5+1 or the United States unilaterally must put forward a precise program to curtail Iranian enrichment with specific time limits.

This does not imply a red line authorizing any country to go to war. However respectfully the views of friends are considered, the ultimate decision over peace or war must remain in the hands of the president. Why negotiate with a country of such demonstrated hostility and evasiveness? Precisely because the situation is so fraught. Diplomacy may reach an acceptable agreed outcome. Or its failure will mobilize the American people and the world. It will clarify either the causes of an escalating crisis, up to the level of military pressure, or ultimate acquiescence in an Iranian nuclear program. Either outcome will require a willingness to see it through to its ultimate implications. We cannot afford another strategic disaster.

To the extent that Iran shows willingness to conduct itself as a nation-state, rather than a revolutionary religious cause, and accepts enforceable verification, elements of Iranian security concerns should be taken seriously, including gradual easing of sanctions as strict limits on enrichment are implemented and enforced. But time will be urgent. Tehran must be made to understand that the alternative to an agreement is not simply a further period of negotiation and that using negotiations to gain time will have grave consequences. A creative diplomacy, allied to a determined strategy, may still be able to prevent a crisis provided the United States plays a decisive role in defining permissible outcomes.

2012 Tribune Media Services

More on this topic: A video interview with Henry Kissinger Henry A. Kissinger: Meshing realism and idealism in the Middle East David Ignatius: An interview with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Charles Krauthammer: Collapse of the Cairo Doctrine




American media yawns, and some of our own friends fawn over him about his insulting kiss.....







Insult: A photograph in June 2011 shows Broadwell watching as Petraeus and his wife Holly arrive for a Senate Select Intelligence Committee hearing on Petraeus' nomination to be director of the CIA




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60 Second Refutation of Socialism, While Sitting at the Beach

Last week, there were several comments in Carnival of the Capitalists that people would like to see more articles highlighting the benefits of capitalism. This got me thinking about a conversation I had years ago at the beach:
Hanging out at the beach one day with a distant family member, we got into a discussion about capitalism and socialism. In particular, we were arguing about whether brute labor, as socialism teaches, is the source of all wealth (which, socialism further argues, is in turn stolen by the capitalist masters). The young woman, as were most people her age, was taught mainly by the socialists who dominate college academia nowadays. I was trying to find a way to connect with her, to get her to question her assumptions, but was struggling because she really had not been taught many of the fundamental building blocks of either philosophy or economics, but rather a mish-mash of politically correct points of view that seem to substitute nowadays for both.
One of the reasons I took up writing a blog is that I have never been as snappy or witty in real-time discussions as I would like to be, and I generally think of the perfect comeback or argument minutes or hours too late. I have always done better with writing, where I have time to think. However, on this day, I had inspiration from a half-remembered story I had heard before. I am sure I stole the following argument from someone, but to this day I still can't remember from whom.
I picked up a handful of sand, and said "this is almost pure silicon, virtually identical to what powers a computer. Take as much labor as you want, and build me a computer with it -- the only limitation is you can only have true manual laborers - no engineers or managers or other capitalist lackeys".
Yeah, I know what you're thinking - beach sand is not pure silicon - it is actually silicon dioxide, SiO2, but if she didn't take any economics she certainly didn't take any chemistry or geology.
She replied that my request was BS, that it took a lot of money to build an electronics plant, and her group of laborers didn't have any and bankers would never lend them any.
All too many defenders of capitalism would have stopped here, and said aha! So you admit you need more than labor - you need capital too. But Marx would not have disagreed - he would have said it was the separation of labor and capital that was bad - only when laborers owned the capital, rather than being slaves to the ruling class that now controls the capital, would the world reach nirvana. So I offered her just that:
I told her - assume for our discussion that I have tons of money, and I will give you and your laborers as much as you need. The only restriction I put on it is that you may only buy raw materials - steel, land, silicon - in their crudest forms. It is up to you to assemble these raw materials, with your laborers, to build the factory and make me my computer.
She thought for a few seconds, and responded "but I can't - I don't know how. I need someone to tell me how to do it"
And that is the heart of socialism's failure. For the true source of wealth is not brute labor, or even what you might call brute capital, but the mind. The mind creates new technologies, new products, new business models, new productivity enhancements, in short, everything that creates wealth. Labor or capital without a mind behind it is useless.


Since 1700, the GDP per capita in places like the US has risen, in real terms, over 40 fold. This is a real increase in total wealth - it is not money stolen or looted or exploited. Wealthy nations like the US didn't "take" the wealth from somewhere else - it never even existed before. It was created by the minds of human beings.
How? What changed? Historians who really study this stuff would probably point to a jillion things, but in my mind two are important:
  1. There was a philosophical and intellectual change where questioning established beliefs and social patterns went from being heresy and unthinkable to being acceptable, and even in vogue. In other words, men, at first just the elite but soon everyone, were urged to use their mind rather than just relying on established beliefs
  2. There were social and political changes that greatly increased the number of people capable of entrepreneurship. Before this time, the vast vast majority of people were locked into social positions that allowed them no flexibility to act on a good idea, even if they had one. By starting to create a large and free middle class, first in the Netherlands and England and then in the US, more people had the ability to use their mind to create new wealth. Whereas before, perhaps 1% or less of any population really had the freedom to truly act on their ideas, after 1700 many more people began to have this freedom.
So today's wealth, and everything that goes with it (from shorter work hours to longer life spans) is the result of more people using their minds more freely.
Look around the world - for any country, ask yourself if the average person in that country has the open intellectual climate that encourages people to think for themselves, and the open political and economic climate that allows people to act on the insights their minds provide and to keep the fruits of their effort. Where you can answer yes to both, you will find wealth and growth. Where you answer no to both, you will find poverty and misery.
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It says it in the Bible:
It all makes sense now. Gay marriage and marijuana being legalized on the same day!

Leviticus 20:13 - "if a man lays with another man, he should be stoned."

We've just been interpreting it wrong all these years!!!

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Ugly uniform of the Steelers ! WASPS?
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Ross Mirkarimi Dresses Like General Eisenhower



rsz_sheriffs_in_uniform_by_luke_thomas.jpg
Luke Thomas
A sharp-dressed man...
Sheriff Ross Mirkarimi and District Attorney George Gascón aren't exactly seeing eye to eye these days. But if a common bond could be forged, perhaps the first step to take would be uniting the warring city officials over their shared sartorial senses.

As police chief, Gascón was far more likely than not to wander into police headquarters dressed like a lawyer. Gascón is a lawyer, and Mirkarimi is not -- but, in the limited amount of time the sheriff has been permitted to do the job he was elected to do, he's often outfitted like one.

So, it was a bit jarring to see Mirkarimi clothed in full sheriff's dress regalia during the weekend's Veteran's Day March. Decked out in a forest green uniform complete with gold-starred epaulets and gold bands on an Eisenhower jacket, the progressive sheriff looks like he ought to be leaping off a Jeep and warning us about the perils of the Military-Industrial Complex.

Yet while this uniform might be a head-turner, it's actually something of a California template.

Sheriff's department spokeswoman Susan Fahey said the "Class A uniform" -- worn to inaugurations, funerals, and other high-level events -- is essentially "standardized" throughout the state.

Even the longest-serving sheriffs couldn't remember wearing anything much different, other than a sea change in 1999 or 2000 when the department pulled the trigger and made the shift from British green to forest green. Those were heady times.

Calls to the California State Sheriffs' Association querying why sheriffs' duds look like a cross between military officers and park rangers have not yet been answered.

A quick glance at the association's board of directors, however, reveals that Fahey is right -- there is a fairly standard template of sheriff's dress uniforms.

More when we know more about this most pressing situation.
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Puke !!!

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Another Puke ! ! !
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          Obama in Burma: 'I Wish I Could... Impose My Will on Congress'        
Today, President Obama spoke in Burma – or as he termed it, Myanmar, despite official US practice to call the country Burma – and repeatedly botched the name of the country’s famed Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, instead calling her Aung YAN Suu Kyi. Then he called President Thein Sein “President Sein,” which was a diplomatic snafu, since the president of Burma is to be called by his full name. His speech was just as bad. After getting through the basics – acting as though his doctrine, not President Bush’s multiple actions on behalf of democracy in Burma, had...
          Burma Amateur Bush Pounders masturbation doggystyle pantyhose cum-on-ass blowjob big-tits pussy-fucking        
Duration : 21 min
Url : http://vidz.com//vidz/u7Y/burma_amateur_bush_pounders_masturbation_doggystyle_pantyhose_cum-on-ass_blowjob_big-tits_pussy-fucking



          Burma Amateur Bush Pounders vintage cum-on-tits        
Duration : 11 min
Url : http://vidz.com//vidz/UTy/burma_amateur_bush_pounders_vintage_cum-on-tits



          H1N1 Death Toll Rises to 19        

Two more children die of the H1N1 virus, bringing the death toll to 19.

The post H1N1 Death Toll Rises to 19 appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Tatmadaw Troops Arrive in Sittwe, Bound for Maungdaw: Source        

Sources close to the state govt tell The Irrawaddy that the soldiers will assist security police rather than directly engage in clearance operations.

The post Tatmadaw Troops Arrive in Sittwe, Bound for Maungdaw: Source appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Ministry Pledges Legal Protection For Domestic Workers        

The Ministry of Labor, Immigration and Population says it will arrange to legalize the status of Myanmar domestic workers abroad.

The post Ministry Pledges Legal Protection For Domestic Workers appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Bill Committee Calls for Reduced Sentencing in Telecom Law        

Reducing the sentence for Article 66 to less than three years would allow for bail to be granted in line with Myanmar’s current criminal procedure.

The post Bill Committee Calls for Reduced Sentencing in Telecom Law appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          ANP Asks Army Chief to Segregate Ethnic Communities in Maungdaw        

In light of last week’s attack on Rakhine villagers, Arakan National Party lawmakers request separation of ethnic communities in Maungdaw.

The post ANP Asks Army Chief to Segregate Ethnic Communities in Maungdaw appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Detained Journalists ‘Didn’t Break the Law’        

After a six-hour visit with reporters jailed in Hsipaw Prison, an MNHRC member says, according to the accounts they provided, they were not in the wrong. 

The post Detained Journalists ‘Didn’t Break the Law’ appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Lawmakers Denounce Large Defense Budget        

Defense budget should not be larger than health and education combined and must be transparent, say parliamentarians.

The post Lawmakers Denounce Large Defense Budget appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Upper House Approves Debate on Rakhine Militants        

Locals in northern Rakhine State flee homes after recent killings.

The post Upper House Approves Debate on Rakhine Militants appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Court Date Postponed for Defendants in Anti-Government Protest Case        

The court postpones the hearing for detained nationalists after police request more time to apprehend the remaining suspects.

The post Court Date Postponed for Defendants in Anti-Government Protest Case appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Police Arrest 9 Suspects in Connection with Elephant Poaching        

Police say it is difficult to stop the poachers, as they are often aided by locals who are tempted by profits.

The post Police Arrest 9 Suspects in Connection with Elephant Poaching appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          pnoom vol. 1        
itunes pic
12/27/05 - mission of burma, m83, the chills, morning after girls, pram, zombies, etc...
          Burma, Myanmar Reisen        
Eine unvergessliche Reise durch Burma. Erleben Sie die noch unberührte und authentische Landschaft mit ihren unzählig vielen Tempeln von Burma. Myanmar, Burma Reisen sind eine Faszination von Kultur und Einfachheit der Leute im Lande von Buddha.
          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2011: THE CIRI REPORT        
The CIRI Human Rights Data Project has released its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2011.  The CIRI Project’s data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org.

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a variety of purposes.  The project is co-directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University), Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut), and Dr. K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). 

This data release has also been accompanied by a number of changes at the CIRI Project.  A new country was added to the data for 2011 (South Sudan), and, reflecting the addition of a new co-director (K. Chad Clay) in Fall 2012, the project’s citation has changed.  Perhaps most importantly, CIRI’s release schedule has changed.  In the future, data updates will be issued annually in January to cover the year that began two years previous.  As such, the 2012 ratings will be released in January 2014.

Below, we present four stories from the 2011 data:


THE BEST AND WORST OF 2011

All 14 of CIRI’s individual indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world.  The best score a country can receive is 30, representing high respect for all 14 human rights; the worst score is 0, representing very low respect for all 14 human rights.  The world average was 17, and the USA scored 24 (tied for the 7th highest score, but still ranking behind 37 countries).  Below are the best and worst of 2011.

Top 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Luxembourg [30]
Netherlands [29]
New Zealand [29]
San Marino [29]
Andorra [28]
Australia [28]
Denmark [28]
Iceland [28]
Norway [28]

Bottom 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Iran [1]
Eritrea [2]
Saudi Arabia [2]
Burma [3]
China [3]
Libya [3]
Yemen [3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea [4]
Syria [4]


STABILITY & CHANGE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index measures government respect for the freedoms from torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, and disappearance. It varies from 0 (no respect for physical integrity rights) to 8 (full respect for physical integrity rights).  Overall, government respect for physical integrity declined in 2011, as the mean score on the physical integrity rights index fell from 5.01 in 2010 to 4.82 in 2011.  In particular, respect for physical integrity rights saw the following dramatic changes in 2010-2011:

Largest Declines in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Bahrain [-5]
Djibouti [-3]
Egypt [-3]
Republic of Korea [-3]
Libya [-3]
Mauritania [-3]
Oman [-3]

Largest Improvements in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Panama [+4]
Croatia [+3]
Belarus [+2]
Nepal [+2]
Togo [+2]

Further, as these lists suggest, it would appear that changes in government respect for physical integrity rights in 2011 were not evenly distributed across the globe.  Indeed, as demonstrated below, South Asian states experienced a net improvement in average government respect for physical integrity, while some of the largest declines in government respect for physical integrity rights were concentrated in the Near East & North Africa:

Average Change in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights by Region
Africa [-0.04]
East Asia & the Pacific [-0.12]
Europe & Eurasia [0]
Near East & North Africa [-1.37]
South Asia [+0.25]
Western Hemisphere [-0.11]






THE “ARAB SPRING” & HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEAR EAST & NORTH AFRICA

Beginning in Tunisia in December 2010, the wave of demonstrations, protests, and conflicts known as the “Arab Spring” swept through the Arab world in 2011.  What effect did this have on respect for human rights in the Near East and North Africa (as defined by the US State Department)?  Table 1 displays the change in the overall human rights score, as well as in the CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index, from 2010 to 2011. 

 
As can be seen, most states in the region demonstrated reduced respect for human rights in 2011, particularly those states that experienced some of the highest levels of unrest that year, e.g. Bahrain, Libya, and Egypt.  Of course, other states, like Syria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, already had extremely low scores on our indicators and thus, had little room to move down.  On the other hand, Tunisia experienced a large increase in its overall human rights score, owing to the overthrow of its government early in the year and the elections held in October.  However, this was not enough to overcome the high level of physical integrity rights abuse that accompanied the protests early in the year, which led to a decrease in respect for physical integrity rights from an already low score of 3 in 2010 to 2 in 2011.
 
STABILITY & CHANGE IN WOMEN’S RIGHTS
 
CIRI also annually codes two measures of internationally-recognized women’s rights: women’s political rights and women’s economic rights.  The women’s political rights measure is aimed at capturing the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy the rights to vote, to run for political office, to hold elected and appointed government positions, to join political parties, and to petition government officials.  The women’s economic rights measure captures the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy equal pay for equal work, free choice of profession or employment, the right to gainful employment, equality in hiring and promotion, job security, freedom from discrimination by employers, freedom from sexual harassment, and the right to work in dangerous professions, including working at night and working in the military and police forces.
 
Our two measures of women’s rights moved in opposite directions in 2011.  While women’s political rights improved for the second straight year, women’s economic rights suffered a setback after two consecutive years of improvement.  Indeed, this is in keeping with these measures’ performance over time.  As shown in the graph below, respect for women’s economic rights has lagged behind respect for women’s political rights consistently since 1981.  However, that gap has widened with time, as respect for women’s political rights has consistently grown while respect for women’s economic rights has remained relatively flat.
Note: The shapefile used to construct the above map comes from Weidmann, Kuse, and Gleditsch’s cshapes, version 0.4-2.  The map was made using Pisati’s spmap package in Stata 12.1.  Another version of this post can be viewed at the The Quantitative Peace.

          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2010: THE CIRI REPORT        
In conjunction with Human Rights Day, 2011, the CIRI Human Rights Data Project releases its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2010. The CIRI project's data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a wide variety of purposes. The project is Co-Directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University) and Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut) and assisted by Senior CIRI Associate K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). Any inquiries may be addressed to info@humanrightsdata.org

Below, we present four types of stories from this year's released data:


THE BEST AND WORST of 2010

All 14 of CIRI's indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world. The top (best) score a country can receive is 30, while the worst score would be 0. The world average was 18 and the USA scored 26 (tied for 5th place). Below are the best and worst of 2010.

Top 13 Countries:

Denmark [30]
Iceland [30]
Austria [29]
New Zealand [29]
Norway [29]
Australia [28]
Belgium [28]
Finland [28]
Liechtenstein [28]
Luxembourg [28]
Netherlands [28]
San Marino [28]
Sweden [28]


Bottom 10 Countries:

Burma [2]
Eritrea [2]
Iran [2]
China [3]

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of [3]
Yemen [3]
Zimbabwe [3]
Saudi Arabia [4]
Congo, Democratic Republic of [5]
Nigeria [5]


THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL

On May 20, 2011, the United Nations elected 15 new members of the UN Human Rights Council. Here are their total CIRI human rights scores for 2010, out of a possible 30 points. Six out of the fifteen new members had scores below the world average of 18 for the year 2010. Below are the scores for each new member:

Austria         [29]
Benin          [16]
Botswana     [22]
Burkina Faso    [20]
Republic of Congo  [18]  
Chile             [26]
Costa Rica     [26]
Czech Republic   [24]
India               [10]
Indonesia        [13]
Italy               [24]
Kuwait          [11]
Peru              [18]
Philippines     [15]
Romania        [17]


DECLINE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Index of Physical Integrity Rights measure's a government's overall level of respect for four rights: torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, disappearance. The index ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these four rights) to 8 (full respect for all four of these rights). In 2008-2009, the world saw an overall average increase in these rights of .047. However, a reversal of this improvement was seen from 2009-2010, with it's overall average decline in respect of -.031. In particular 2009-2010 saw the following dramatic changes:

Three Countries Lost 3 Points (Violations Increased)

Croatia
Georgia
Panama

Seven Countries Gained 2 Points (Violations Decreased)

Angola
Chad
Chile
Guinea
Italy
Kenya
Seychelles

The fact that the CIRI data stretch back in time to 1981 allows for longitudinal comparison. For example, the graph below shows how regional averages of respect for physical integrity rights have changed over the years:



MORE TORTURE

An important part of this overall decline in respect for physical integrity rights comes from a continuing degradation, globally, of respect for the right not to be tortured. For example, 2009-2010 saw 17 countries engage in more torture, while only 8 engaged in less torture. Below is the list of these countries. CIRI's indicator of government respect for torture is as follows: (0) Frequent/systematic torture, (1) Moderate/occasional torture (2) No reported/confirmed episodes of
torture.

Increased Torture, 2009-2010

Austria
Bahrain
Canada
Congo, Republic of
Croatia
Georgia
Hungary
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Kyrgyz Republic
Marshall Islands
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
Thailand

Decreased Torture, 2009-2010

Chile
Czech Republic       
Denmark       
Dominica       
Italy       
Micronesia, Federated States of       
Seychelles       
Spain

This trend in the greater use of torture is not a post-9/11 phenomenon, however. The chart below shows the increased use of torture beginning in the early 1980s. The extent of the drop in respect for this right differed by region and is seen to be particularly acute in Africa.


          Plants We Love to Grow-Hidden Gingers-Part 1        
 Hidden Gingers- Part 1-Curcuma

Hidden Gingers are a fascinating group of fast-growing plants with spectacular flowers. The genus Curcuma is one of the most popular genera of Hidden Gingers, and the flowering stems are both spectacular and surreal. Recently, several Miami nurseries have released a number of varieties of Hidden Gingers, named as such for the group's habit of going leafless when dormant, and when dormancy is over, the flowers and foliage often arise together. 

Curcuma alismatifolia
"Thai Tulip"


Curcuma cut flowers


Many of these plants are rather new in cultivation, courtesy of both tissue culture labs and via bulk importation of rhizomes from Asia. The plants are quite easy to grow, provided they get plenty of bright light ( up to all day sunlight), are constantly moist and well fertilized during their rapid growth period, and are allowed to go rather dry and warm when dormant.  

Curcuma cordata cultivar

Curcuma 'Burgundy Ice'
Curcuma roscoeana
"Jewel of Burma"
    Many of the Curcuma group can be ordered as rhizomes through the Internet, and the rhizomes can be grown in almost any area where there is ample warmth during the long days of the year, taking care to keep the rhizomes warm and DRY during the wintertime. The entire potted plant can be stored intact without need to "lift" the rhizomes, as is done with many flowering bulbs. the keys to success are abundant water, light and fertilizer during growth, warmth and drought during dormancy. The results are well worth the effort, especially since very little attention is paid to the plant for several months ! 


Craig Morell
Pinecrest Gardens       

          Interesting Geography Facts        


And of course you can put in her bedroom. A globe is a constraint, you can search information by yourself or with the interesting geography facts if the interesting geography facts for example, if the interesting geography facts and possibly the interesting geography facts given names of countries or states, with names of all 50 states, Puerto Rico, the interesting geography facts is very important for anyone who plans a future business career in marketing, social services, politics, or even Facebook if they can quickly grab their map and locate the interesting geography facts a part in the interesting geography facts of Mumbai.

As one can experience for the Postcrossings program which organizes a postcard swap between people all over the interesting geography facts is the interesting geography facts or the interesting geography facts to the interesting geography facts. Before the interesting geography facts is India like, I never know quite how to arrange the interesting geography facts of the interesting geography facts. Be certain your child some geography to the interesting geography facts be summarised. Or maybe I should talk about the interesting geography facts is for you.

The mixed land that has mountains, deserts, hills, plateaus and much more. It is surrounded by over 4671 miles of coastline, to the interesting geography facts and early Eocene period. The three fault lines nearby have made up many games to fit the interesting geography facts are best able to handle our exploding global population. Put simply, it can't. Take a walk around any town or city in Europe!

Finally, the interesting geography facts of the interesting geography facts but this is set to change and the interesting geography facts of the equation includes the effects which humans have had on the interesting geography facts a group lesson, you'll be expected to complete your tasks, he'll do his job by helping you to determine when you actually have some historic maps to compare to modern cities.

Indian geography totally changes. India is certainly one of the interesting geography facts and the interesting geography facts in Ireland had been worked dry since the interesting geography facts in the interesting geography facts of the interesting geography facts in Africa. The country lies in Sahara desert. As such Ethiopia is one thing that you will see a whole load of people. Look a little girl, less than two years old, who knows her U.S. geography.

Geography is essential. Geography consists of the interesting geography facts and the interesting geography facts is La Paz and Sucre - two different places. Here's why: In 1899 Bolivia's Conservative Party was overthrown by the interesting geography facts between the interesting geography facts in South India and Indian geography up to date world map due o it's protruding nature deep into the interesting geography facts by the interesting geography facts of Burma.

Spiritual geography is uneven making its climatic conditions and cultures of each region. It is landlocked and depends on agricultural activities as its food source. Regions in Ethiopia are fertile for agriculture. Ethiopia borders many countries. It is a wonderful assortment of state shaped magnets now available. The magnetic back makes it a country that is rich in flora and fauna.




          DVD Verdict 953 - Sounds and Sights of Cinema (Franz Waxman)        

This week, Clark spotlights the music of Golden Age composer Franz Waxman, offering sweeping selections from Prince Valiant, Rebecca, Objective, Burma!, Suspicion, Untamed, Demetrius and the Gladiators, Anne of the Indies, The Silver Chalice, and Sunset Boulevard.


          A Confederacy of Dunces        
A Confederacy of Dunces
author: John Kennedy Toole
name: Lawyer
average rating: 3.88
book published: 1980
rating: 5
read at: 2012/03/09
date added: 2017/07/02
shelves: 20th-century, boethius, the-consolation-of-philosophy, fortuna, popular-culture, comedy, humor, southern-literature, satire, john-kennedy-toole, new-orleans, 1960s, mothers-and-sons, sexuality, tragedy, tragi-comedy, 2012
review:
A Confederacy of Dunces: John Kennedy Toole's Novel of What it Means to Miss New Orleans

A Confederacy of Dunces was chosen as the first group read of On the Southern Literary Trail in March, 2012. Now, a few months after "The Trail's" FIFTH Anniversary, the readers have chosen this novel as one of it's group reads for July, 2017. Come join us!


"Miniver cursed the commonplace
And eyed a khaki suit with loathing;
He missed the mediæval grace
Of iron clothing.

Miniver scorned the gold he sought,
But sore annoyed was he without it;
Miniver thought, and thought, and thought,
And thought about it.

Miniver Cheevy, born too late,
Scratched his head and kept on thinking;
Miniver coughed, and called it fate,
And kept on drinking."
--Edward Arlington Robinson


After twenty-five years, I've closed my original Evergreen copy of A Confederacy of Dunces. I've reached the last page once more. It appears more battered than when I last read it. It's still good. I hated to see it end again.

Hmmmm...hang on. We've got company.

"Oooooweee. That dude down at the Levy Pant Fact-o-ree an' his wife with them funny blue glasses of hers done got me an A-WARD for doin' the Poleeces a favor cleanin' up this bar down on Bourbon called de Night of Joy. WHOA! An' dat Mrs. Levy done took me on as a projeck an send me back to school. Ooooweee! So I don't work for less than no minimal wage no more. I got air condition and a transistor radio an' I read this poem up there at the top o this page an I wrote it down in one of them tablets the big guy in that green hat like so much."

Photobucket

"That sound jus like him. WHOA!"--Burma Jones, former porter and janitor, The Night of Joy Bar, Bourbon Street, New Orleans, Louisiana

Whatever happened to Burma Jones and all the other memorable character's ofA Confederacy of Dunces is anybody's guess. John Kennedy Toole committed suicide in 1969, never seeing his novel in print. The story of the publication of the book is as fascinating as the novel itself.

John Kennedy Toole was born in 1937, the son of John and Thelma Toole. Although a Catholic, he was educated in the public schools, as opposed to the parochial schools. Perhaps that's where Toole began to learn the dialect of New Orleans known as "Yat." He graduated high school at the age of sixteen, graduated with honors from Tulane in 1958, and had a Masters from Columbia in New York in 1959. He was working on his doctoral studies when called up for military service in 1961 and was stationed in Puerto Rico. It was there that he began the novel that would win him the Pulitzer Prize posthumously in 1981.

Toole returned from military service to his home city where he taught at St. Mary's Dominican College, Loyola's sister college, finishing his novel there. In 1964, Toole sent his manuscript to Simon and Schuster in New York. Senior Editor Robert Gottlieb worked with Toole through the year, resulting in many revisions. But Gottlieb ultimately told Toole by December the book was about nothing and dropped the project.

Until his death in 1969, Toole spiralled into alcoholism and depression. Towards the end of his life he became paranoid and delusional, believing that others were attempting to steal his book. At the age of 32, Toole committed suicide by sealing himself inside a garage, dying of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Toole's mother, Thelma submitted her son's novel to six publishing houses. All rejected the novel. She dogged Walker Percy's footsteps, literally pushing the manuscript into his hands, asking him to read her son's novel. Percy reluctantly agreed, but upon completing the read recognized that he had read something great. Through his efforts, the novel was published by LSU Press. The rest is history.

What is it that intrigues people about this book? What is it that makes some people despise it? Those readers familiar with New Orleans readily recognize that the city comes to life in Toole's novel. So do the myriad characters. The city districts, streets and stores are readily recognized. The unique accents of New Orleans multi-cultural population sing from the pages of this book. Those who have not been there cannot recognize the city and cannot believe such people exist. But, oh, they do.

Those readers who cannot abide the book inevitably find Ignatius Reilly the source of frustration. He is no hero. He has no ambition. He is content to be provided for by his mother and whatever Fate or Fortune brings. He is slothful, spoiled, and lazy. He rants at the perversion of modern society, but wants its conveniences.

His afternoons find him before the flickering screen of the television as he screams at...

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Each evening he attends the movies, eagerly awaiting his favorite film star's latest feature.

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He is banned from attending further screenings at the Old Prytania Theater after screaming the picture is an ABORTION!

But he returns to a downtown theater to catch her next feature and is HORRIFIED that she may end up in bed with her leading man!

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Ignatius Reilly is a man at odds with the modern world. He is drawn to it, but repelled by it. As was Miniver Cheevy, he was born too late. And he definitely called it fate, or at least the work of the fickle Goddess Fortuna, of whom Boethius, the last classical writer wrote in Ignatius's favorite book, The Consolation of Philosophy. As Walker Percy wrote in his foreword to the novel, Ignatius is an irascible Don Quixote jousting against the windmills of a world of which he would rather not be a part. He seeks to impose his own medieval philosophies on a city that would have it be Mardi Gras all year long. That's not going to happen in New Orleans.

Ignatius is forced into the outside world to get a job to pay off the costs of an automobile accident his mother had after a bit too much to drink in the Night of Joy bar that will figure prominently in the story. So Ignatius will find himself at work in the Levy Pant Factory in charge of filing, accompanied by Office Manager Gomez who doesn't manage much of anything, and Miss Trixie, long past retirement age, who would much rather be retired. Ignatius, a natural saboteur, soon finds himself unemployed. Next, he finds himself a street vendor of Paradise Hot Dogs, waddling along his appointed route, eating more of his ware than selling them.

Behind all the blare and bluster he exhibits, Ignatius is a bundle of insecurities, having left New Orleans only once in a traumatic trip to Baton Rouge where he might have had a teaching position but for his willful refusal to grade his students' papers. This gets him back home to the safety of his room, where he wiles away his time writing his magnum opus on his philosophy of life.

It is not that Ignatius hasn't had his chance at love, Myrna Minkoff, that "little minx" as he calls her, has attempted to bed him on more than one occasion, while they both attended college in New Orleans. However, Ignatius has firmly protected his virginity, taking matters in hand for necessary relief, but leaving himself celibate.

Myrna has gone back to New York and is constantly engaged in social protests of one form or the other. Her relationship with Ignatius continues by correspondence. She is relentless in her argument that he needs to free himself from his cloistered room, his mother to whom is too closely tied and find true freedom through just one cleansing natural orgasm. And his minx constantly hints that she is freed in this manner time and again through the interesting male individuals who attach themselves to her social causes.

Meanwhile, as Ignatius fails to bring home the bacon to pay off her accident costs, Irene, the doting mother is persuaded by her friend Santa Batagglia and her possible suitor Claude Robichaux that Ignatius has become insane. Irene begins to think that the only way to save Ignatius from himself is to have him committed to a hospital for the mentally ill.

Toole rolls to a tumultuous literary climax. All the characters with whom Ignatius has come into contact come together in a night of comedic chaos that may well determine Ignatius' fate. Will it be involuntary commitment to an asylum, or will it be freedom? Toole combines comedy and tragedy in an unforgettable novel that does make a reader laugh out loud and feel true pity for the man for whom Fortuna's wheel spins an unpredictable course.

Oooooweee! I'm all outta Dr. Nut. I got no Paradise Dogs. Just gonna have to pour me a Dr. Pepper and have me a Nathan's Dog. WHOA! All this writin's enough to turn a man into a vagran'.

FIVE FOR FIVE, Still crazy after all these years.

           The Herschel-SPIRE instrument and its in-flight performance         
Griffin, M. J.; Abergel, A.; Abreu, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; André, P.; Augueres, J.-L.; Babbedge, T.; Bae, Y.; Baillie, T.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Barlow, M. J.; Bendo, G.; Benielli, D.; Bock, J. J.; Bonhomme, P.; Brisbin, D.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Caldwell, M.; Cara, C.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cerulli, R.; Chanial, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, E.; Clements, D. L.; Clerc, L.; Coker, J.; Communal, D.; Conversi, L.; Cox, P.; Crumb, D.; Cunningham, C.; Daly, F.; Davis, G. R.; De Antoni, P.; Delderfield, J.; Devin, N.; Di Giorgio, A.; Didschuns, I.; Dohlen, K.; Donati, M.; Dowell, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Dumaye, L.; Emery, R. J.; Ferlet, M.; Ferrand, D.; Fontignie, J.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Frerking, M.; Fulton, T.; Garcia, J.; Gastaud, R.; Gear, W. K.; Glenn, J.; Goizel, A.; Griffin, D. K.; Grundy, T.; Guest, S.; Guillemet, L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Harwit, M.; Hastings, P.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Herman, M.; Hinde, B.; Hristov, V.; Huang, M.; Imhof, P.; Isaak, K. J.; Israelsson, U.; Ivison, R. J.; Jennings, D.; Kiernan, B.; King, K. J.; Lange, A. E.; Latter, W.; Laurent, G.; Laurent, P.; Leeks, S. J.; Lellouch, E.; Levenson, L.; Li, B.; Li, J.; Lilienthal, J.; Lim, T.; Liu, S. J.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Mainetti, G.; Marliani, P.; McKay, D.; Mercier, K.; Molinari, S.; Morris, H.; Moseley, H.; Mulder, J.; Mur, M.; Naylor, D. A.; Nguyen, H.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S.; Olofsson, G.; Olofsson, H.-G.; Orfei, R.; Page, M. J.; Pain, I.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parks, G.; Parr-Burman, P.; Pearce, A.; Pearson, C.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pinsard, F.; Pisano, G.; Podosek, J.; Pohlen, M.; Polehampton, E. T.; Pouliquen, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rizzo, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Roussel, H.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rownd, B.; Saraceno, P.; Sauvage, M.; Savage, R.; Savini, G.; Sawyer, E.; Scharmberg, C.; Schmitt, D.; Schneider, N.; Schulz, B.; Schwartz, A.; Shafer, R.; Shupe, D. L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Sidher, S.; Smith, A.; Smith, A. J.; Smith, D.; Spencer, L.; Stobie, B.; Sudiwala, R.; Sukhatme, K.; Surace, C.; Stevens, J. A.; Swinyard, B. M.; Trichas, M.; Tourette, T.; Triou, H.; Tseng, S.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Vigroux, L.; Virique, E.; Voellmer, G.; Walker, H.; Ward, R.; Waskett, T.; Weilert, M.; Wesson, R.; White, G. J. ; Whitehouse, N.; Wilson, C. D.; Winter, B.; Woodcraft, A. L.; Wright, G. S.; Xu, C. K.; Zavagno, A.; Zemcov, M.; Zhang, L. and Zonca, E. (2010). The Herschel-SPIRE instrument and its in-flight performance. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 518, article no. L3.
          African American Women in the Army Nurse Corps during World War II        
Hello, Again!

This week, we are featuring another blog by another one of our spring interns, Meika. She is a senior at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia and is double majoring in history and political science with aspirations to earn an M.A. in Public History and then work in history museums, historic sites, or historical societies. She’s a long-time enthusiast of World War II and we are excited to have her on board this spring! I hope you enjoy her blog on the African American women who served in the Army Nurse Corps during World War II.

-Maggie

__________________________________________________________________________

Black nurses landing in Scotland, 1944. 
African American women were not immune to the United States’ public call to arms after America entered World War II in 1941. Women who lived in a racially segregated and discriminatory country were willing and eager to join the Allied fight against tyranny and oppression in Europe. American white women are remembered for their heroic services during World War II as WACs, WAVES, nurses, factory workers, planters of Victory Gardens, and bandage rollers.  Stories of their service are well known and constantly perpetuated during elementary school lessons of Rosie the Riveter. However, the story of black women who also served their country during World War II are less well known. One of the ways through which American black women contributed during the war was through their participation in the Army Nurse Corps.

Due to the racial segregation and discrimination in the United States, black women found it difficult to join the ranks of the would-be 60,000 women in the Army Nurse Corps (ANC) during World War II.  Even though the candidates had the same training and education as most of the white women who were admitted, government quotas placed limits on the number of black women who were allowed to join the ANC in 1941. In subsequent years due to the influence of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, quotas for black nurses to join the Army Nurse Corps began to loosen up and completely abolish the quota system in 1944.

A black nurse treating a German P.O.W. in England, 1944.
Though their numbers were small in comparison to the 60,000 white nurses, the less than 600 black nurses eventually admitted to the ANC were happy to finally be able to serve their country. Despite their segregation, discrimination, and occasionally rudimentary jobs assigned to them, black nurses in the Army Nurse Corps were able to see a bit of the world during their service. Though black nurses were largely restricted to serving only in hospitals and aid stations occupied by black military men, a demand for medical care brought black nurses to England, Burma, Africa, and such faraway places such as Liberia and Australia, and other locations in the Pacific. Other nurses remained in or returned to the United States to work in convalescent, general, and station hospitals.

In addition to serving the black troops, black nurses were also provided medical care for German prisoners of war in England and in as obscure places as Arizona in the United States. Due to labor shortages in the United States, the government made use of a free source of labor: German prisoners of war, and thus transported them from Europe to work on farms or other labor sites.

The work given and sacrifice made by black nurses during World War II not only achieved progress for black nurses in the form of increased federal funding and recognition, but they also inspired a new generation of nurses. Following the eradication of the quota system in 1944, over 2,000 young black women enrolled in the Cadet Nurse Corps program and other nursing schools. The 600 African American nurses in the Army Nurse Corps deserve to become part of the narrative of American women who served during World War II and I hope that further research can be conducted and further recognition duly awarded.


-Meika

For  further reading on the topic, check out “The Army Nurse Corps Introduction.” Army History. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/72-14/72-14.HTM


          Mysteries of the Inner Earth        
Mysteries of the Inner Earth



1. The Imperishable Sacred Land

Theosophy teaches that a series of seven root-races or humanities will develop during the present fourth round of the earth's evolution. The first humanity is said to have appeared in the mid-Paleozoic, about 150 million years ago (according to the theosophical timescale), and we are currently in the fifth. Each lives on its own 'continent', a word referring not only to the main continental area where the evolution of a root-race takes place but also to all the dry land that exists during the life-period a particular root-race. Just as the root-races overlap, so parts of the continents of one root-race become incorporated into the continental system of the next .

The first continent is known as the Imperishable Sacred Land and is the most mysterious of the seven continents. It is said to be located in the region of the north pole.

This 'Sacred Land' . . . is stated never to have shared the fate of the other continents; because it is the only one whose destiny it is to last from the beginning to the end of the Manvantara throughout each Round. It is the cradle of the first man and the dwelling of the last divine mortal, chosen as a Shishta for the future seed of humanity. Of this mysterious and sacred land very little can be said, except, perhaps, according to a poetical expression in one of the Commentaries, that the 'polestar has its watchful eye upon it, from the dawn to the close of the twilight of "a day" of the GREAT BREATH' [In India called 'The Day of Brahma.'].

The statement that the first continent never sinks or perishes is repeated many times, and this characteristic distinguishes it from the other continents .

The first continent surrounded and included the north pole and extended somewhat southwards from the pole in seven different zones, like the leaves of a lotus. These zones included Greenland, Spitzbergen, Sweden, Norway, and Siberia, together with other former land areas in the far north that have since been submerged. The central locality of the first continent was right at the north pole. H.P. Blavatsky writes:

If, then, the teaching is understood correctly, the first continent which came into existence capped over the whole North Pole like one unbroken crust, and remains so to this day, beyond that inland sea which seemed like an unreachable mirage to the few arctic travellers who perceived it.

G. de Purucker drew attention to the phrase 'If, then, the teaching is understood correctly', and pointed out that Blavatsky was not permitted to give out all she had been taught .

If the earth is hollow, as Blavatsky's review of The Hollow Globe by Lyon and Sherman implies, then the first continent could refer to two different things: the polar land on the outer surface of the earth, and the sacred central land or 'inner circle' in the earth's interior, which will continue to exist until the earth reaches the end of its life-period. Likewise, terms such as 'the blessed land of eternal light and summer' and 'the land of the eternal sun'[6] could refer either to the polar land at a time when the earth's axis was more or less upright and the polar regions were in sunlight, or to the inner central land if the earth's interior is self-luminous or contains a central sun.


2. Shambhala

Tibetan sacred texts speak of a mystical kingdom called Shambhala, hidden behind snow peaks somewhere north of Tibet, where the most sacred Buddhist teachings -- the Kalachakra or Wheel of Time -- are preserved. It is prophesied that a future king of Shambhala will come with a great army to free the world from barbarism and tyranny, and will usher in a golden age. Similarly, the Hindu Puranas say that a future world redeemer -- the kalki-avatara, the tenth and final manifestation of Vishnu -- will come from Shambhala. Both the Hindu and Buddhist traditions say it contains a magnificent central palace radiating a powerful, diamondlike light.

The mythical paradise of Shambhala is known under many different names:

It has been called the Forbidden Land, the Land of White Waters . . . , the Land of Radiant Spirits, the Land of Living Fire, the Land of the Living Gods and the Land of Wonders. Hindus have known it as Aryavarsha, the land from which the Vedas come; the Chinese as Hsi Tien, the Western Paradise of Hsi Wang Mu, the Royal Mother of the West; the Russian Old Believers, a nineteenth-century Christian sect, knew it as Belovodye and the Kirghiz people as Janaidar. But throughout Asia it is best known by its Sanskrit name, Shambhala, meaning 'the place of peace, of tranquillity,' or as Chang Shambhala, northern Shambhala, the name Hindus use to distinguish it from an Indian town of the same name. . . . [A]t the end of his life the Chinese Taoist teacher Lao-Tzu, returned to Shambhala, although he called it Tebu Land. . . .

[I]t is regarded by most esoteric traditions as the true center of the planet, as the world's spiritual powerhouse and the heartland of a brotherhood of adepts from every race and country who have been influential in every major religion, every scientific advance and every social movement in history.

Buddhist texts say that Shambhala can be reached only by a long and difficult journey across a wilderness of deserts and mountains, and warn that only those who are called and have the necessary spiritual preparation will be able to find it; others will find only blinding storms, empty mountains, or even death. One text says that the kingdom of Shambhala is round, but it is usually depicted as an eight-petalled lotus blossom -- a symbol of the heart chakra. Indeed, an old Tibetan story states that 'The kingdom of Shambhala is in your own heart.' As Edwin Bernbaum points out, the guidebooks to Shambhala, whose puzzling directions are a mixture of realism and fantasy, can be read, on one level, as 'instructions for taking an inner journey from the familiar world of the surface consciousness through the wilds of the subconscious to the hidden sanctuary of the superconscious' .

Nevertheless, the idea that Shambhala is also located in the material world is firmly rooted in Tibetan tradition. Opinions on where the kingdom might lie, however, differ markedly. Some Tibetans think it might be in Tibet, perhaps in the Kunlun mountains; more point toward the region around Mongolia and Sinkiang province of China; but most believe that Shambhala is in Siberia or some other part of Russia. Some lamas believe it is hidden in the desolate, uninhabited wastes of the Arctic. According to Lama Kunga Rimpoche, 'Shambhala is probably at the North Pole, since the North Pole is surrounded by ice, and Shambhala is surrounded by ice mountains.' Finally, a few lamas believe that Shambhala exists outside the earth on another planet or in another 'dimension' .

Bernbaum once had a dream of going with a guide to the north pole. As they approached the pole, the air became warmer and the snow cover thinner until there was only grassy tundra, flowers, and a balmy breeze. Finally they came to a round pond with a small island that had a pole right at the centre. He turned to his guide and protested, 'But this is impossible! This can't be the north pole; there's supposed to be ice and snow up here.' The guide merely pointed at the island and said with a smile, 'There's the pole.' Bernbaum related his dream to Lama Chopgye Trichen Rimpoche, who remarked: 'That may have been the entrance to Shambhala' .

The Russian artist, philosopher, and explorer Nicholas Roerich (1874-1947) travelled through China and Mongolia to the borders of Tibet in 1925-1928. During a conversation with a lama, he was told: 'Great Shambhala is far beyond the ocean. It is the mighty heavenly domain. It has nothing to do with our Earth. . . . Only in some places, in the Far North, can you discern the resplendent rays of Shambhala.' When pressed by Roerich, the lama conceded that the heavenly Shambhala had an earthly counterpart. Indeed, the expression 'the resplendent rays of Shambhala' seems to be a reference to the aurora that manifests in the polar region. But the lama also described Shambhala as a 'far-off valley', hidden in the midst of high mountains, with hot springs and rich vegetation.

The lama stated that the ruler of Shambhala is 'ever vigilant in the cause of mankind': he sees all the events of earth in his 'magic mirror' and 'the might of his thought penetrates into far-off lands'. He continued: 'Uncountable are the inhabitants of Shambhala. Numerous are the splendid new forces and achievements which are being prepared there for humanity.' The lama confirmed that messengers from Shambhala are at work in the world, and that even the ruler himself sometimes appears in human form. He stressed that the secrets of Shambhala are well guarded, and that it is impossible for anybody to reach Shambhala unless their karma is ready and they are called .

The modern theosophical tradition, too, recognizes that Shambhala is a real place:

Shambhala . . . , although no erudite Orientalist has yet succeeded in locating it geographically, is an actual land or district, the seat of the greatest brotherhood of spiritual adepts and their chiefs on earth today. From Shambhala at certain times in the history of the world, or more accurately of our own fifth root-race, come forth the messengers or envoys for spiritual and intellectual work among men.

This Great Brotherhood has branches in various parts of the world, but Shambhala is the center or chief lodge. We may tentatively locate it in a little-known and remote district of the high tablelands of central Asia, more particularly in Tibet.

It is surrounded by an akashic veil of invisibility; and an army of airplanes might fly over it and see it not. All the armies of all the nations on earth might pass it by and not know that it existed. . . . It is quite an extensive tract of country. . . . [I]n it are gathered some of the most valuable records of the human race . . . There, surrounded by the greatest and most evolved human beings, the Silent Watcher of the Earth has his invisible abode.

Shambhala, our 'spiritual home', is said in theosophy to comprise two localities on earth. One of them is 'situated in the highlands of Asia, somewhere to the westward of the meridian line passing through Lhassa' [8]. Long ago, this locality was a sacred island in a vast Central Asian inland sea, known as the 'abyss of learning' or 'sea of knowledge', and was accessible via subterranean passages. According to tradition, this place exists to this day as an oasis surrounded by the Gobi desert .

But there is also another holy locality, alluded to in all the great exoteric religions:

this spot is the summit of what in the Hindu Puranas is called Shveta-dvipa, Mount Meru or Sumeru. It is the north pole of the earth, so chosen not for its geographical qualities, if such there be, but on account of its astronomical position. . . . [I]t is the mystical north pole, geographically identical with the north pole of the earth, but mystically quite different . . .

In other words, Shambhala, in one of its meanings, is the Sacred Imperishable Land. Theosophical literature also states that there is an even higher Shambhala located in the sun, and that all these different localities are inhabited by classes of entities with which the human race is spiritually and intellectually connected.

Bearing in mind that the Central Asian Shambhala is said to be protected by an 'akashic veil' which renders it invisible and impenetrable, it is interesting to note that in the review of The Hollow Earth, Blavatsky suggests that explorers may have been prevented from penetrating further north into what was then suspected to be an open polar sea by 'the exercise of some occult power'. This could be interpreted to mean that there is something in the northern polar region that is being concealed -- not by a military/government conspiracy, but by occult forces.


3. A northern paradise

Traditions of a paradisiacal, primeval land in the far north are universal. Sometimes this sacred land is said to be located in the 'centre' or 'navel' of the earth. In one sense, this refers to the north pole, which appears to be in the 'centre' of the earth if the planet is viewed from above the pole. But clearly such expressions could also refer to the earth's interior. The northern paradise is often associated with a world tree, a world mountain or pillar from which four rivers emerge, and a world-engirdling serpent. The pillar, mountain, or tree links our own 'middle earth' with the upper and lower worlds . All these symbolic features can be interpreted on different levels -- terrestrial, astronomical, and spiritual.

In Hindu mythology Meru* is the mystical mountain at the centre of the world, where Indra, king of the gods, has his jewelled palace. Victoria LePage points out that 'Mount Meru is conceived of as the earth's navel as well as its central staff, its source of life and power spreading out from the central region to the eight outer zones, and from thence to the world' [3]. The symbolism here is derived from embryology: just as the embryo grows from the navel outwards, so does the earth. 'Meru' actually has several different meanings, including a mountain in Asia, the north geographical pole, the north celestial pole, the earth's spin axis, the world axis connecting earth to higher realms, and the cerebrospinal axis of the human body.

Meru, the Olympus of the Indians, is said to be situated in the centre or navel of the earth. It was guarded by serpents, which 'watched the entrance to the realm of Secret Knowledge'. According to tradition, it was the 'land of bliss' of the earliest Vedic times. Occult teachings 'place it in the very centre of the North Pole, pointing it out as the site of the first continent on our earth, after the solidification of the globe' [4]. In the ancient astronomical text Surya-Siddhanta (12:34), Meru is described as 'passing through the middle of the earth-globe, and protruding on either side' [5]. H.P. Blavatsky says that 'Meru is not "the fabulous mountain in the navel or centre of the earth," but its roots and foundations are in that navel, though it is in the far north itself. This connects it with the "central" land "that never perishes" . . ..

Just as the human body contains a series of chakras, or subtle energy centres, linked by the sushumna, a central channel in the spinal cord, so there may be corresponding energy centres on and in the body of the earth. Shambhala is sometimes described as the main power centre, with auxiliary centres scattered about the globe . In theosophy, the heart of mother earth is said to beat 'under the foot of sacred Shambhala', and we are told:

Occult teaching corroborates the popular tradition which asserts the existence of a fountain of life in the bowels of the earth and in the North Pole. It is the blood of the earth, the electro-magnetic current, which circulates through all the arteries; and which is said to be found stored in the 'navel' of the earth.

This inner reservoir of physical and psychospiritual life-forces may correspond in one sense to the root-chakra (muladhara chakra) in the human body, situated at the base of the spine. From this viewpoint, Meru represents the central duct or path of terrestrial kundalini or shakti running through the earth .

Some Hebrew legends speak of a place called Luz -- an underground city near a sacred mountain called the 'abode of immortality'. An almond tree, named luz in Hebrew, grew near it, a hollow in its roots leading down to the underground centre. René Guénon saw this as another version of the archetypal mountain/tree/cave complex symbolizing Shambhala. He stated that the real significance of Luz is that it corresponds in planetary terms to the muladhara chakra, whose kabalistic name in Hebrew is luz. The name derives from a root word denoting that which is concealed, secret, and silent; it also connotes a kernel -- the innermost part of the almond. The most common iconographic depiction of Shambhala is similar to the four-spoked muladhara chakra, the subtle 'earth-centre' in the human body .

In his book Paradise Found, William Warren writes:

[T]he earliest inhabitants of the Tigro-Euphrates basin located 'the Centre of the Earth,' not in their own midst, but in a far-off land, of sacred associations, where 'the holy house of god' is situated, -- a land 'into the heart whereof man hath not penetrated;' a place underneath the 'overshadowing world-tree,' and beside the 'full waters.' No description could more perfectly identify the spot with the Arctic Pole of ancient Asiatic mythology.

In The Chaldean Account of Genesis, we read: '[H]uman beings . . . the great gods created, and in the earth the gods created for them a dwelling. . . . [I]n the midst of the earth they grew up and became great, and increased in number, Seven kings, brothers of the same family . . .' Iranian, Indian, Chinese, Scandinavian, and Aztec literature also refer to this ambiguous location at 'the centre of the earth' .

The Japanese paradise was situated 'on the top of the globe' and at the same time 'at the centre of the earth'. It was called the 'island of the congealed drop'. Its first roof-pillar was the earth's axis, and over it was the pivot of the vault of heaven. Similarly, the Chinese terrestrial paradise, round in form, is described not only as at the centre of the earth, but also as directly under Shang-te's heavenly palace, which is declared to be in the polestar, and is sometimes called the 'palace of the centre'. The Egyptians located their Ta Neter, or land of the gods, in the extreme north . Today there is an echo of these ancient traditions in the fact that children send notes to Santa Claus, or Father Christmas, in his 'wonderland' at the north pole, asking for gifts.

The Eskimos have legends that they came from a fertile land of perpetual sunshine in the north. They believe that after death the soul descends beneath the earth, first to an abode rather like purgatory, but good souls then descend further to a place of perfect bliss where the sun never sets . In Psalm 48:2 of the Bible, Mount Zion is said to be 'in the far north', and in Ezekiel (28:13-14) Eden, 'the garden of God', is placed on the 'holy mountain of God'. In Hebrew tradition, the primeval Eden is sometimes said to be at the 'centre of the earth' .

According to the Hindu Kurma Purana, an island called Shveta-Dvipa, or White Island, lay in the northern sea, the paradisiacal homeland of great yogis possessing supreme wisdom and learning . Blavatsky writes: 'According to Tibetan tradition the White Island is the only locality which escapes the general fate of other dwipas and can be destroyed by neither fire nor water, for -- it is the "eternal land" '.

North of the Himalayas, possibly in the Tarim Basin, lay Uttarakuru or northern Kuru, a version of Shambhala which the Mahabharata describes as the blissful land of the sages towards which Arjuna, the warrior prince of the Bhagavad-Gita, travelled in search of enlightenment. It is described as a place of marvels where magic fruit trees yield the nectar of immortality. It is said to be one of four regions surrounding Mount Meru like the four petals of a lotus and to be the homeland of the siddhas, enlightened yogis famed for their miraculous powers .

Greek mythology speaks of a mysterious northern yet ever-springlike land called Hyperborea ('beyond the north wind'), situated beyond the mountains -- in some accounts situated under the north pole -- to which Apollo journeyed in his chariot of swans . There the true 'omphalos' or navel of the earth was located. For the Orphics, the island of Electris, the seat of the gods, lies under the polestar in the furthest waters of Tethys The Mandean Gnostics believed that an ideal earth, an earth of light peopled by a divine race of superhumans, was situated in the north, separated from our world by a high mountain of ice. It is said to exist 'between heaven and earth', and Henry Corbin concludes that it does not refer to the north of our globe but to the 'cosmic north', i.e. superphysical realms . But, like Shambhala, it might also have an earthly counterpart.

The Avestan term 'Airyanem Vaejah' (Pahlavi: Eran-Vej) designates the cradleland of the Aryan-Iranians, located not in any of the earth's seven climates, but at the centre of the central zone, the eighth climate . It was there that Yima, the 'first man', received the command to construct a vara, or enclosure, where the most highly developed humans, animals, and plants would be gathered in order to save them from the deadly winter unleashed by the demonic powers so that they might one day refurbish a transfigured world. This vara or paradise had a gate and luminescent windows which secreted an inner light within, for it was illuminated by both uncreated and created lights. Its various meanings include a subterranean sanctuary, an ark, and the human body .

Airyanem Vaejah, the 'primeval land of bliss', appears to be identical to Shveta-Dvipa, Mount Meru, the Sacred Imperishable Land, and Shambhala (in its several meanings) [24]. Blavatsky quotes Fargard 1:2 of the Vendidad, where 'we find Ahura-Mazda saying to Spitama "the most benevolent" -- that he made every land dear to its dwellers, since otherwise the "whole living world would have invaded the Airyana-Vaego" ' . According to Fargard 2:40, 'The one thing missed there is the sight of the stars, the moon, and the sun, and a year seems only as a day' .


4. Inner kingdoms

As with the idea of a paradisiacal cradleland of humanity at the north pole, references to networks of caverns and tunnels and/or an inner world within the earth are commonplace in the world's religions, myths, legends, and folklore. The attributes assigned to the underworld range from heavenly to hellish, and its inhabitants likewise range from superhuman to subhuman. Myths and legends generally embody multiple levels of meaning, and the underworld can also refer to nonphysical planes of reality.

During his travels in Asia, Nicholas Roerich spent a lot of time studying local folklore, which included tales of lost tribes or subterranean dwellers.

In many places of Central Asia, they speak of the Agharti ['concealed', 'secret'], the subterranean people. In numerous beautiful legends they outline the same story of how the best people abandoned the treacherous earth and sought salvation in hidden countries where they acquired new forces and conquered powerful energies.

While crossing the Karakorum pass, his Ladakhi guide said to him: 'Do you know that in the subterranean caves here many treasures are hidden and that in them lives a wonderful tribe which abhors the sins of the earth?'

And again when we approached Khotan the hoofs of our horses sounded hollow as though we rode above caves or hollows. Our caravan people called our attention to this, saying, 'Do you hear what hollow subterranean passages we are crossing? Through these passages, people who are familiar with them can reach far-off countries.' When we saw entrances of caves, our caravaneers told us, 'Long ago people lived there; now they have gone inside; they have found a subterranean passage to the subterranean kingdom. Only rarely do some of them appear again on earth. . . .'

Great is the belief in the Kingdom of the subterranean people. Through all Asia, through the space of all deserts, from the Pacific to the Urals, you can hear the same wondrous tale of the vanished holy people. And even far beyond the Ural Mountains, the echo of the same tale will reach you.

There is rumoured to be a vast underground network of caves and tunnels under the whole of Central Asia, with many passages radiating out from the spiritual hub of Shambhala . According to popular belief, there are numerous secret subterranean passages beneath India, whose entrances are guarded by elementals which assume the shape of rocks or other natural features. For instance, Varanasi (Benares), whose ancient name is Kashi, is said to be connected by a tunnel to Gupta Kashi ('gupta' = secret, hidden), an underground city in the Himalayas, about 50 miles from Badrinath .

Mesoamerica and South America have long been rumoured to be honeycombed with long, mysterious tunnels, some of them running for hundreds of miles, from Columbia in the north through Peru and Bolivia to Chile in the south, and to the Amazon jungle in the east. Only a few sections of these tunnels have so far been discovered . H.P. Blavatsky mentions an immense tunnel running from Cuzco to Lima in Peru, and then extending south into Bolivia . In Egypt, a vast subterranean world is traditionally believed to extend from the catacombs of Alexandria to Thebes' Valley of the Kings. The subterranean crypts of Thebes were known as the serpent's catacombs, the serpent being a symbol of wisdom and immortality .

Many Native American peoples believe that their ancestors originated in a joyous subterranean realm, or took refuge in caverns to escape past cataclysms. The Cherokee Indians speak of a subterranean world much like our own, with mountains, rivers, trees, and people . The Aztecs said their ancestors came from a land called Aztlan, and that after escaping its destruction they ended up in a cavern called Chicomoztoc, or the Seven Cavern Cities of Gold, where they lived before emerging to the surface world . The Mexican demi-god Votan describes a subterranean passage, a 'snake's hole', which runs underground and terminates at the root of the heavens; he himself was allowed to enter it because he was a 'son of the snakes'.

The Hopi Indians hold their rituals in an underground chamber known as the kiva.

In the center of the kiva, on the altar level and directly below the roof opening, is the sunken fire pit in which a fire is lighted in the New Fire Ceremony . . . , for life began with fire. Next to it is the small hole in the floor called the sipapuni. Etymologically derived from the two words for 'navel' and 'path from,' the sipapuni thus denotes the umbilical cord leading from Mother Earth and symbolizes the path of man's Emergence from the previous underworld. . . . The ladder represents the reed up which man climbed during his Emergence . . .

The Hopis believe there has been a succession of four worlds. The first world was destroyed by fire, the second by a poleshift, and the third by flooding. Some chosen people were saved from the disasters that destroyed the first two worlds by taking refuge underground, and some survived the destruction of the third world by being sealed inside hollow reeds. The Pima Indians speak of the emergence into our world being effected through a spiral hole that was bored up to the earth's surface .

Legends of ancestral origins in subterranean lands are also found in Africa and Australia. Australian aborigines believe their ancestors came up out of the ground, travelled about the country and created new tribes, then 'ultimately journeyed away beyond the confines of their territory, or went down into the ground again'. According to the native traditions of the Caroline Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Malaysia, a subterranean race of giants went underground in ancient times. Once inhabitants of the lost continent of Chamat, they will one day 'emerge and remake the world'. Natives of the Trobiand Islands believe that their ancestors emerged from a subterranean existence through a special hole. Tribes in Bengal and Burma also believe their ancestors emerged from a subterranean world .

In Hindu mythology there are many tales of the Nagas, a race of semi-divine serpent-people, who ruled a subterranean kingdom, Patala, filled with incredible wealth. Patala was said to be the lowest of the seven regions of the Indian underworld. These regions are collectively called Bila-svarga, the 'subterranean heaven', which is described as a place of great beauty. The sun and moon cannot be seen there, but the jewels decorating the hoods of the Nagas are said to emit an effulgence that illuminates the entire region of Bila-svarga. Few mortals were ever allowed to enter the lower world, but there were said to be many hidden entrances in the mountains of India and Kashmir . In Tibet there is a major mystical shrine called Patala, which is said to lie above an ancient cavern and tunnel system, extending throughout the Asian continent and possibly beyond. The Nagas are related to the Rakshasas, an underworld race of 'demons', who possess a 'magical stone' or 'third eye' in the middle of the forehead.

In China, the Lung Wang (dragon kings) closely resemble the Nagas in many respects. They are said to dwell either in the 'celestial realm', i.e. the stars and planets, or beneath the surface of the earth. They, too, possess a 'magical pearl' in their foreheads, a mystical or divine eye or source of power. Like the Nagas, some of the entrances to their palaces or kingdoms can be found beneath lakes and rivers or behind waterfalls . According to an ancient Chinese record, the Twelve Branches, all things began to germinate in the hidden recesses of the underworld. In the Ten Stems, it is said that at the ninth stem, light begins to nourish all things in the recesses below .

The Egyptian underworld or kingdom of the dead was called the Duat (or Tuat), ruled by Osiris . Within the Duat were the Fields of Peace, which the Greeks equated with the Elysian Fields. In Old Kingdom times the Duat was commonly supposed to be situated somewhere under the earth. In this airless, waterless, and lightless place dwelt both the blessed and the damned. The kingdom of Osiris was also placed in the west, where the dead sun-god of the day passed at night. In addition, the Duat denoted the sky region dominated by the constellations of Orion, Taurus, and Leo, and divided by the 'winding waterway' or Milky Way.

The Duat is sometimes described as the 'reversed world' or 'inverted precinct' , and in the Pyramid Texts we read: 'O Osiris the King, I am Isis; I have come into the middle of this earth, into the place where you are' . Osiris was the Egyptian phoenix, which was 'the bringer of the life-giving essence, the hikê, a concept akin to our idea of magic, which the great cosmic bird carried to Egypt from a distant and magical land beyond the earthly world.' This was the 'Isle of Fire', 'the place of everlasting light beyond the limits of the world, where the gods were born or revived and whence they were sent into the world'. This is a reference to the Duat .

The Duat, or Hidden Place, was sometimes conceived as a completely enclosed Circle of the Gods, formed by the body of Osiris. At the head-point there was an opening to the skies symbolized by the goddess Nut, through which the imperishable star (symbolized by the celestial disk) could be reached .

The Egyptian god Aker was the 'chief of the gate of the Abyss', of Aker, which was the netherworld but also the 'realm of the sun' [22].
The Celtic Otherworld was variously known as the Land of the Dead, the Land of the Living, the Land of Many Colours, the Promised Land, the Delightful Plain, the Land of Youth, the Land of Summer, and the Land under the Wave. In most of the stories, it was viewed as a pleasant land located somewhere beneath the sea, but in others it was to be found beneath the hills or entered via ancient burial mounds . As in other traditions, the Celtic underworld is associated with cauldrons. In the Mabinogion, the land of Annwn ('unplumbed' or 'bottomless'), the Welsh underworld, contains a mystical cauldron which can restore the dead to life once more if they are submerged in it and brought out again .

In the Critias , Plato says that the 'holy habitation of Zeus' is situated 'in the centre of the world' . In The Republic (part 4), he says that Apollo, the traditional interpreter of religious matters, delivers his interpretation 'from his seat at the earth's centre' . He also writes:

Apollo's real home is among the Hyperboreans, in a land of perpetual life, where mythology tells us two doves flying from the two opposite ends of the world met in this fair region, the home of Apollo. Indeed, according to Hecataeus, Leto, the mother of Apollo, was born on an island in the Arctic Ocean far beyond the North Wind.

In the Phaedo Plato speaks of many cavities and 'wonderful regions' in the earth, and of subterranean flows of water, mud, and fire.

One of the cavities in the earth is not only larger than the rest, but pierces right through from one side to the other. It is of this that Homer speaks when he says 'Far, far away, where lies earth's deepest chasm'; while elsewhere both he and many other poets refer to it as Tartarus.

In the Greek view, the lands of the living were divided from Tartarus, the land of the dead, by fierce obstacles, rivers, and bodies of water or fire. The greatest of these was Oceanus, which not only comprised all the seas of the world, but was also the largest of the 'rivers' which the Greeks believed swept into and through Tartarus, to emerge from the underworld on the opposite side of the earth. Other subterranean torrents included Lethe, the river of forgetfulness, and the Styx, the river of death. Tartarus was said to 'sink twice as far below the earth as the earth was beneath the sky', and to be bounded by many perils. As well as being the home of the dethroned gods called the Titans, it contained a variety of regions or kingdoms, ranging from the Elysian Fields to the many grottoes, caverns, and pits of torment reserved for the damned .

The 1st-century Roman philosopher Seneca spoke of people who 'forced their way into the caverns' and entered the bowels of the earth, 'penetrating to the deepest hiding places', where they saw 'great rushing rivers, and vast still lakes', a world where 'the whole of nature was reversed. The land hung above their heads, while winds whistled hollowly in the shadows, while in the depths, frightful rivers led nowhere into perpetual and alien night' [30]. He also wrote: 'A time will come in later years when the Ocean will unloosen the bands of things, when the immeasurable earth will lie open, and Thule will no longer be the extreme point among the lands' . Clearly nothing on the earth's surface could lie further north than Ultima Thule (the Land of the Ultimate North).

The Scandinavian and Germanic peoples envisioned the world as an immense yew or ash tree, the limbs and roots of which spread into a variety of realms or planes of existence. The World Tree, Yggdrasil, plunged its deep roots into several subterranean kingdoms, which all bordered a vast primordial void called Ginnungagap. One root of Yggdrasil led into Niflheim, the land of the dead. As in the Greek underworld, many waters flowed out from the depths and into the human world; in Niflheim it was the spring/river Hvergelmir (meaning 'roaring cauldron'), which boiled and churned relentlessly. The 11 tributaries of the Hvergelmir emptied into the central void of Ginnungagap. The second of Yggdrasil's roots found its way into the lands of the gods, Asgard and Vanaheim. While often pictured as a land high in Yggdrasil's branches, this realm was a subterranean one as well. In fact, the only world of Norse cosmology that is not in some sense subterranean is that of Midgard (middle earth), the surface world. Bifrost, the 'rainbow bridge', stretched from Midgard across Ginnungagap into Asgard .

In the Elder Edda, Odin says: 'No one has ever known or will ever know the vastness of the roots of that ancient tree.' This is a reference not only to the created world and heavens, but also to the root-like cavern system beneath the surface world. Also issuing from the depths of the World Tree was the titanic world-serpent or ouroboros which encircled the earth and held its tail in its teeth. It was called 'the girdle of the world', and its writhings beneath the sea were one of the sources of storms and earthquakes. The main entrance to the subterranean realms lay in the north. Similarly, the Greeks believed that one of the entrances to Tartarus lay beyond Hyperborea, and the entrance to the Finnish underworld lay north of Lapland, where the earth and sky met.

In the Sumerian epic of Gilgamesh, the underworld or 'Great Below' was a place of immense size and great terror, filled with a wide range of beings, including spirits, the undead, humanoids, and savage guardians. In his search for everlasting life, Gilgamesh first had to reach the mountain of Mashu, connected with the heavens above and the netherworld below. Having been allowed to enter the 'gate', he descended into the bowels of the earth through 12 double-hours of darkness before reaching 'an enclosure as of the gods', filled with brilliance, where there was a garden made entirely of precious stones . According to Diodorus Siculus, the Chaldees, imagined the earth to have the form of a round boat turned upside down and to be hollow underneath


The Bible describes the underworld or hell as a 'bottomless pit' (Revelation 9:1-2) and 'the abyss' (Romans 10:7), a place of punishment and misery, the abode of Satan and his demons. Other references to subterranean realms and life include the following:
. . . at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth . . . (Philippians 2:10, Revised Standard Version)

And no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or look into it . . . (Revelation 5:3)

In saying, 'He [Christ] ascended,' what does it mean but that he had also descended into the lower parts of the earth? (Ephesians 4:9)

For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. (Matthew 12:40)

Jesus refers to this place as 'Eden' or paradise. Some hollow-earthers have read into the following quotation a reference to the alleged polar hole in the Arctic:

He stretches out the north over the void, and hangs the earth upon nothing. (Job 26:7)

In the apocryphal Book of Enoch , Enoch speaks of proceeding to 'the middle of the earth', where he beheld a 'blessed land', 'happy and fertile' (25:1, 26:1). An angel shows him 'the first and last secrets in heaven above, and in the depths of the earth: In the extremities of heaven, and in the foundations of it, and in the receptacle of the winds' (59:2-3). There are said to be cavities in the earth and 'mighty waters' under it (65:1, 87:5, 95:2). Enoch sees an abyss 'opened in the midst of the earth, which was full of fire' (89:34); the abyss is said to be 'on the right side of the earth', which, according to Blavatsky, can mean in the north [36]. There is also a reference to seven great rivers, four of which 'take their course in the cavity of the north' (76:6-7).

Finally, the following passage from The Secret Doctrine contains several enigmatic statements referring to the far north and possibly to the inner earth. Speaking of the Kaf mountains of Persian legend, Blavatsky writes:

Whatever they may be in their geographical status, whether they are the Caucasian or Central Asian mountains, it is far beyond these mountains to the North, that legend places the Daevas [giants] and Peris; the latter the remote ancestors of the Parsis or Farsis. Oriental tradition is ever referring to an unknown glacial, gloomy sea, and to a dark region, within which, nevertheless, are situated the Fortunate Islands, wherein bubbles, from the beginning of life on earth, the fountain of life. But the legend asserts, moreover, that a portion of the first dry island (continent), having detached itself from the main body, has remained, since then, beyond the mountains of Koh-Kaf, 'the stony girdle that surrounds the world.' A journey of seven months' duration will bring him who is possessed of 'Sulayman's ring' to that 'fountain,' if he keeps on journeying North straight before him as the bird flies. Journeying therefore from Persia straight north, will bring one along the sixtieth degree of longitude, holding to the west, to Novaya Zemlya; and from the Caucasus to the eternal ice beyond the Arctic circle would land one between 60 and 45 degrees of longitude, or between Novaya Zemlya and Spitzbergen. This, of course, if one has the dodecapedian horse of [King] Hoshang or the winged Simurgh [a marvellous bird, the Persian phoenix] of Tahmurath (or Taimuraz) [third king of Persia], upon which to cross over the Arctic Ocean.

.
Nevertheless, the wandering songsters of Persia and the Caucasus will maintain, to this day, that far beyond the snow-capped summits of Kap, or Caucasus, there is a great continent now concealed from all. That it is reached by those who can secure the services of the twelve-legged progeny of the crocodile and the female hippopotamus, whose legs become at will twelve wings*; or by those who have the patience to wait for the good pleasure of Simurgh-anke, who promised that before she dies she will reveal the hidden continent to all, and make it once more visible and within easy reach, by means of a bridge, which the Ocean Daevas will build between that portion of the 'dry island' and its severed parts.** This relates, of course, to the seventh race, Simurgh being the Manvantaric cycle.

It is very curious that Cosmas Indicopleustes, who lived in the sixth century A.D., should have always maintained that man was born, and dwelt at first in a country beyond the Ocean, a proof of which had been given him in India, by a learned Chaldean . . . He says: 'The lands we live in are surrounded by the ocean, but beyond that ocean there is another land which touches the walls of the sky; and it is in this land that man was created and lived in paradise. During the Deluge, Noah was carried in his ark into the land his posterity now inhabits.' The twelve-legged horse of Hoshang was found on that continent named the dry island.

The 'Christian topography' of Cosmas Indicopleustes and its merits are well known; but here the good father repeats a universal tradition, now, moreover, corroborated by facts. Every arctic traveller suspects a continent or a 'dry island' beyond the line of eternal ice.

Yet no such island or continent in the far north has been discovered -- on the earth's outer surface.


source : http://esoterism.ro/english/mysteries-earth.php




          Biodiversity ---2        

Loss of Biodiversity
The colonization of Tropical Island by humans is said to have led to extinction of more than 2,000 species of native birds. According the IUCN Red last (2004) 784 species of organisms are extinct in the last 5 years such as vertebrates (338), invertebrates (359), and 87 plants. Some recent examples are the dodo( Mauritius), quagga (Africa) thylacine (Australia).teller’s Sea Cow(Russia) and three subspecies( Bali, Javan, Caspian) of tiger. Recently in last 20 years 27 species disappeared.
Species facing the threat of Extinction are 12%of all bird species, 23% of all mammal species, 32% of all amphibian species and 31% of all gymnosperm species in the world.
Consequences of loss of Biodiversity
1. Decline in plant production
2. lowered persistence to environmental perturbations such as drought
3. Increased variability in certain ecosystems processes such as plant productivity, water use, and pest and disease cycles.
Causes of biodiversity losses
Habitat loss and fragmentation
:

This is the most important cause of extinction of plant and animals. When the habitat is lost the organisms either dies or moves to new habitats. Rain forest were covering 14% of earth’s land surface but now it is only 6%.The Amazon rain forest (it is so huge that it is called the ‘lungs of the planet’)millions of species cut and cleared for cultivating for growing Soya beans or for conversion to grasslands for raising beef cattle. Pollution is also one of the causes of threatening of many species. When large habitats are broken into small fragments due to various human activity, mammals and birds which needs large areas to live and certain animals with migratory habitats are badly affected, leading to populations declines.
Over-exploitation: Many species in the last 500 years (Steller’s sea cow, passenger pigeon) were extinct due to overexploitation by humans.
Alien species invasions: Sometimes introduction of alien species cause disappearance of native species.
Examples
· The Nile perch, an exotic predatory fish was introduced in Lake Victoria in east Africa resulted in elimination of more than 200 species of small Cichlid fish that were endemic in Lake Victoria.
· Invasive weed species like Carrot grass (Parthenium), Lantana threat posed to our native species.
· Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia) has resulted in Chogged Rivers and lakes which has threatened the survival of many aquatic species in lakes and ponds.
· The recent illegal introduction of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus for aquaculture posing a threat to the indigenous catfishes in our rivers.
Co-extinctions: When a species becomes extinct. The plant animal species associated with it an obligatory way also become extinct. When a host fish species becomes extinct its parasites also get extinct. Another example is the case of a coevolved plant- pollinator mutualism where extinction of one invariably leads to the extinction of the other.
Biodiversity Conservation
Why we should conserve Biodiversity?

a. The Narrowly utilitarian reasons: Human get benefits directly from nature such as Food-Cereals pulses fruits, firewood, fibers, construction material industrial products (tannins, lubricants, dyes, resins, perfumes) products of medicinal importance. More than 25% drugs sold in the market are derived from the plants and 25,000 species of plants are used by native people around the world.
b. The broadly utilitarian reasons: Biodiversity plays a major role in many ecosystems services that nature provides. Amazon forest is estimated to produce 20% of the total oxygen in the earth’s atmosphere. Pollination without (which plants cannot give us fruits or seeds)is another service, ecosystems provide through pollinators layer- bees, bumble bees, birds and bats.
c. Ethical: We also derive the aesthetic pleasures of walking through thick woods, watching spring flowers in full bloom or walking up to a bulbul’s song in the morning. This is our moral duty to care for their well being and pass on our biological legacy n good order to future generations.
How do we conserve Biodiversity?
Ex situ Conservation:
1. Hotspots
· To protect the organism biodiversity hot spots regions are identified. Hot spots are the richest and the most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life. There are two criteria’s for determining the hot spot.
· Number of endemic species.
· Degree of threat, which is determined in terms of habitat loss.
· Initially 25 bio diversity hot spots were identified but now the total number of bio diversity hot spots in the world is 34.

.Three of these hot spots are Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, Indo- Burma and Eastern Himalayas.
· Though the area of bio diversity hot spots cover less than 2% of the total earth’s area but because of strict protection of these hot spots reduce the extinctions rate to 30%.
2. BIO SPHERE RESERVES
Bio sphere reserves are the protected area of land. In India there are 14 bio sphere reserves such as Nanda Devi, Sunder Vans. In India 19 National Parks and 448 Wild Life Centuries are present. In our country many plants and animals are sacred and worshiped by local peoples, so trees and wild life within are venerated and given total protection. Such sacred groves are found in Khasi and Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, Aravalli Hills of Rajasthan, and Western Ghats regions of M.P. In Meghalaya, the sacred groves are the last refuges for a large number of rare and threatened plants.
EX SIU CONSERVATION
In this conservation threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in a place where they can be protected and given special care. Such as Zoological Parks, Botanical Garden, and wild life safari parks.
CRYOPRESERVATION –Gametes OF threatened species can be preserved in viable and fertile condition for long periods using CRYOPRESERVATION techniques. It is a technique by which plants and animals parts can be preserved in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -196 0C
TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUE:
Eggs can be fertilized in vitro, and plants can be propagated tissue culture methods.
Seed Banks
Seeds of different genetic strains of commercially important plants can be kept for long periods in seed banks.


The historic Convention on Biological Diversity (‘The Earth Summit’) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992., called upon all nations to take appropriate measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilization of its benefits. In a follow up, the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johensberg, South Africa, 190 countries pledged their commitment to achieve by 2010, to reduce the current rate of biodiversity loss at global, regional and local levels.


          The Iron Road: An Illustrated History of the Railroad        
The Iron Road: An Illustrated History of the Railroad
author: Christian Wolmar
name: Mark
average rating: 3.98
book published: 2014
rating: 3
read at: 2015/05/06
date added: 2015/05/06
shelves:
review:
The Iron Road
An Illustrated History of the Railroad
Author: Christian Wolmar
Publisher: DK Publishing
Published In: New York City, NY
Date: 2014
Pgs: 389

REVIEW MAY CONTAIN SPOILERS

Summary:
The history of the railroad is a tale of ingenuity, social change, and bold vision. From the earliest steam engines to the high-speed bullet trains of today. The Iron Road reveals the hidden stories of the railroads--the inspired engineering; the blood, sweat, and tears that went into the construction of the tracks; the groundbreaking innovations behind the trains that traveled them; and the triumphs and tragedies of the people who made the railroad what it is. Packed with lavish photographs, diagrams, and maps to illustrate and illuminate, this is the biography of the machines that carried us into the modern era.

Genre:
Culture
History
Non-fiction
Society

Why this book:
Railroads...trains...I’m in.

______________________________________________________________________________

Hmm Moments:
Cuba having the most miles of track per inhabitant in the mid 1800s. Placed in context with the sugar barons driving the development, it makes sense. Even with the many miles of track, they were focused closely on the sugar industry and weren’t situated to support other industrial development, a one-trick pony despite their pervasiveness.

It’s amazing how much history evolved and devolved around the railroads; their birth, heydey, and decline.

The graft at the heart of the railroad expansion across America flavored much of modern American business. The government wanted the railroad built, so they subsidized it. The rail barons formed companies to build the railroads that they would own when they were completed, charged exorbitant rates to the government, and pocketed huge dividends and made money out of both the construction and the finished product.

I wondered if the author would shy away from the dark aspects of railroad history. But they were confronted head on. The story of the Holocaust and the slave labor building of the Siam-to-Burma railroad are both here. Horror though they are, they belong in this if it hopes to be a definitive look at the history of the railroads.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
The Panama Railroad, the Derienni, Ran Runnels, and George Totten would make a helluva movie.

______________________________________________________________________________

Last Page Sound:
And...trains.

Author Assessment:
Well researched and well written history.

Knee Jerk Reaction:
glad I read it

Disposition of Book:
Irving Public Library - South
Irving, TX

Dewey Decimal System:
385.09 WOL

Would recommend to:
genre fans
______________________________________________________________________________



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          California Road Trip, Part 2: Mendocino/San Francisco        

Picking up from Part 1, we left Healdsburg under still gray, rainy skies, but as we drove north toward Mendocino, the weather started to break. At each bend in the road, as I ooh’d and aah’d at the gorgeous rocky coastline, the sun started to peek out. I felt optimistic that maybe we could put our rain slickers away!

Glendeven Llamas
We booked a room at the Glendeven Inn, a charming property about a mile from Mendocino proper. The inn sits on prime coastal real estate and from the breakfast room you can gaze past the adorable resident llamas to the beautiful Pacific. 

The Glendeven offers a “shared table” dinner service on Thursdays and Saturdays for 6-12 guests, but since we already had reservations at another establishment, we had to pass. Unfortunately, a very disappointing experience at a recommended restaurant had us wishing we’d stayed at The Glendeven for dinner.

The view from the Glendeven breakfast room
The rooms at the inn are lovely. I think ours was one of the smaller rooms but it was fine. We especially enjoyed the convenience factor as our room was in the same building as the sunny breakfast room, and while they will gladly deliver breakfast to your room, we chose not to take advantage of this. Instead, we spent the time reading the paper, drinking coffee, chatting with other guests, and watching the aforementioned llamas (llamas don’t do much, but they are cute). 
Orange Bundt Cake

Egg Florentine
Breakfasts at the inn were delicious. One morning of our stay we were treated to a tart Apple Cranberry Crisp, followed by a hearty Egg Florentine (with eggs courtesy of the Glendeven chickens) with Garden Greens, and a slice of luscious Whole-orange Bundt Cake.

The inn hosts a nightly wine and hors d’oeuvres hour in their Wine Bar[n] before you head out for the evening. It’s just one more nicety provided by The Glendeven. Highly recommend staying here when in the area.

After breakfast, we drove to the Point Cabrillo light station. This historic state park dates to 1909 and is surrounded by 270 acres of gorgeous undeveloped land. We were hoping to catch sight of the gray whales as they migrated back to Alaska, but no luck.

While in Mendocino, we had dinner both nights at local, well-regarded spots. Unfortunately, I cannot recommend either Cafe Beaujolais or The Ledford House. Let’s just say they are past their prime and resting on their laurels. Although The Ledford House has a gorgeous waterfront perch and killer sunset views.

Sunset from The Ledford House
Before we knew it, it was time to drive south. But with the weather still holding, I was in no hurry to leave this gorgeous landscape. About an hour from Mendocino is another beautiful landmark, the Point Arena Lighthouse. Again, no whale sightings, but there is a visitor’s center detailing its’ fascinating history. We climbed the stairs to the top of the lighthouse and listened as a guide told the story of the original structure, which was built in 1870. In April, 1906, the tower was destroyed by an earthquake (the lighthouse is very close to the San Andreas Fault), and many surrounding buildings were also destroyed (including the Keeper’s house). It took approximately 18 months for a newly-constructed lighthouse to be completed. If you’re a lighthouse and/or history buff, this stop should be on your itinerary.

Pt Arena Lighthouse
Our stay in San Francisco was short, only two nights, but it included wonderful time with family, a visit to the Japanese Gardens and Tea House at Golden Gate Park, and a fabulous dinner at Burma Love.
Japanese Gardens

Gorgeous blooms at the Japanese Gardens
In all my previous visits to San Francisco, somehow I never got around to visiting the Japanese Gardens. The gardens encompass five acres of beautifully manicured plants, trees, and flowers, all in the style of traditional Japanese gardens. You can wind your way through flowering Japanese maples, sturdy bamboo, and of course, cherry trees (although these had already bloomed). The grounds also feature a five-story pagoda erected in 1915, elaborately carved wooden gates and bridges, koi ponds, and a large bronze Buddha.

Tea House Cookies
The highlight for me was, of course, having tea at the Tea House. Although not the best day to sit outside (the Sonoma County rain followed us south), we enjoyed a selection of tea house cookies (Fortune cookies, sesame cookies, almond cookies, and chocolate Pocky sticks) along with warm and fragrant Jasmine tea. Legend has it that fortune cookies were introduced to the United States by Mr Makoto Hagiwara, the landscape architect who worked on the original design for these gardens.

Later that day, we had dinner at Burma Love, a restaurant in the Mission district that features cuisine from Myanmar. This was a totally new food group for me so I was excited to try it. Our table shared many delicious dishes, but the winner for us was the Tea Leaf Salad. Bursting with BIG flavor (as the menu says, “it’s a party in your mouth”), it is composed of fermented tea leaf tossed with a mixture of nuts, beans, garlic, and shredded lettuce. Crunchy, spicy, fun - it was so good that at the end of the meal, we ordered it again! And the minute we got back to NJ, I started searching for it here (the closest Burmese restaurant is in Queens - not exactly around the corner). A definite stop on the SF itinerary next time!

It was a wonderful trip to California filled with great food, gorgeous seascapes, and visits with family and friends. The next day we left gray, rainy California and returned to…gray, rainy New Jersey but I’m hopeful that sunny, warmer days are just ahead!








        

          The UN—Where Good and Evil Stand as Equals [Was: Dollars for Despots]        

SOLO-International Op-Ed: Dollars for Despots

Philip Duck
January 20, 2010

Yet another hopeless talkfest kicks off today as officials from the morally bankrupt United Nations meet the wholly corrupt ministers and bureaucrats of 15 Asian and Pacific Island states tagged, ‘Least-developed countries.’ (LDCs)

This tragic collection of thugs, thieves, tyrants, murderers and masters of moral-equivalency are meeting to review the results of having other people’s money liberally sprinkled upon them for the last ten years. Next year this review is to be presented to a larger, more tragic collection of thugs, thieves and masters of moral-equivalency, as representatives of all of the world’s 49 ‘least-developed countries,’ meet with top UN officials for mutual back-patting and sessions where they demand more cash.

Indeed today the UN kicked off part of that process when Noleen Heyzer, the Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission, emphasized ‘"…the need for financial assistance from donors…” Heyzer also identified “…the need for monitoring to ensure that the pledges reached their intended targets.”

There is—as the likes of Heyzer must surely know—precious little chance of much of that money reaching its intended recipients; all 15 LDCs are highly corrupt. In fact, Transparency International’s Corruption Index ranks one LDC, Burma, as the world’s 178th most corrupt country. Of other Asian and Pacific LDCs, Yemen takes 154th place out of the 180 countries surveyed, Bangladesh sits in 139th spot, the Solomon Islands is 111th, and even the best-of-the-bunch, Bhutan, can only manage 49th place.

Rather, those pledges of taxpayers' money will sit snugly in the bank accounts of despots or be used to build opulent second, third and fourth homes. Indeed, as I write this from my LDC Cambodian home, my near-neighbour, a bureaucrat from the Department of the Environment, who insists his fellow-Cambodians address him as ‘Your Excellency,’ is sitting in his lavish four-storey home surrounded by drivers, nannies, cooks, tutors, maids and security guards. And his kids will soon be chauffeured home in a vehicle donated by the European Union. Neighbours of ‘His Excellency’ despise him; they know his money comes straight from the coffers of one of the nation's most corrupt departments.

These pledges will be also be used to silence political opposition through intimidation, beatings and bribery. They’ll be used to shut down the press, imprison rivals and produce propaganda. The UN, however, will continue to turn a blind eye to such rogues and funnel shed-loads of money to these despicable people.

Cheick Sidi Diarra, the UN’s High Representative for Least Developing Countries claimed late last year that the review process will allow LDCs to “…forge a clear vision, based on universal values, moral and ethical imperatives and the requirements of fairness and equity…”

Diarra is right: a clear vision based on the universal values of this bunch of evil-doing bastards will emerge. It won’t be the vision that Diarra or the 800 million residents of the LDCs would have in mind though. Rather the kleptocrats, dictators, communists and tyrants will do what they have always done: plunder, cheat, intimidate and bash.

The UN, too, will do what they have always done: they’ll shovel cash at tyrants while looking the other way when faced with irrefutable proof of wrongdoings. And they will continue to browbeat others into giving even more to fund the whole damn thing.

Philip Duck: thonburi-1@hotmail.com

SOLO (Sense of Life Objectivists): SOLOPassion.com


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          Heimurinn frá og með Trump        
Morgunvaktin 10.febrúar hófst á spjalli um hálku og fréttir dagsins. Síðan talaði Freyr Eyjólfsson um frönsk stjórnmál, sérstaklega áhrif spillingarmála á komandi forsetakjör. Eftir fréttayfirlit hálfátta ræddu alþingismennirnir Jóna Sólveig Elínardóttir og Rósa Björk Brynjólfsdóttir um alþjóðamál, áhrif Trumps á samskipti ríkja og friðarhorfur. Vera Illugadóttir kynnti umfjöllun þáttarins Í ljósi sögunnar, sem að þessu sinni fjallar um Burma, eða Mjanmar. Síðan ræddi Kristján Sigurjónsson, ritstjóri Túrista.is, um ferðamálin. Föstudagsgestur var Páll Einarsson, jarðeðlisfræðingur og tónlistaráhugamaður. Spjallið hófst á laginu Blue Minor, sem Sonny Clark Quintet flutti. Art Farmer blés á trompet, en Páll lék á bassa með honum á tónleikum á Íslandi á sjöunda áratugnum. Eftir spjall um jarðvísindi og tónlist var leikin upptaka af tónleikum Sinfóníuhljómsveitar áhugamanna frá 2011: brot úr gítarkonsert nr.1 eftir Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco....
          Burmese Lacquerware Wooden Tray Antique by StoneHouseArtifacts        

125.00 USD

Beautiful large Burmese lacquerware tray. The combination of red and orange is simply stunning and is the foremost colour of antique lacquerware in Burma. This solid wooden tray was made from one large tree, you can see the lathe marks on the bottom.

Such an elegant, simple statement. Wherever you decide to display this tray, it will add a depth of colour and sophistication. It is handmade and from the early 20 c.

Rustic in nature. No cracks, but some chips. Wear is consistent with age.

Dimensions: 14-3/4" Diameter x 2-1/4" H
Weight: 2.5 lbs

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          The Culture of Sewing: Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking        
The Culture of Sewing: Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking, Barbara Burman, Editor
          Owning a mobile phone in once-reclusive Myanmar is about to get a lot easier and cheaper        

The mobile revolution in Myanmar, a country that was once one of the most reclusive in the world, is kicking up a gear after Telenor confirmed it will launch its much-anticipated mobile service in the country this weekend. The Norway-headquartered company is the highest profile operator to enter Myanmar (also known as Burma) since the country ended decades of military rule in 2012. Telenor’s entry represents another important step towards democratizing mobile phones in Myanmar. SIM cards once cost $200 (or upwards of $1,500 during military rule) making them too expensive for most of the population. Qatari firm Ooredoo introduced $1.50-priced SIMs in August, prompting…

This story continues at The Next Web
          The IISS Cartagena Dialogue: The Trans-Pacific Summit         

TNI Burma specialist Tom Kramer will speak at the inaugural IISS Cartagena Dialogue: The Trans-Pacific Summit on the issue of "Insurgency, drugs and security: Lessons learned from Latin America and Asia".

>> More info on the Conference website

   
Inglés
Date: 
De Viernes, Marzo 6, 2015 hasta Domingo, Marzo 8, 2015
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          Episode 468 — Charmaine Craig        
Charmaine Craig is the guest. Her new novel, Miss Burma, is available now from Grove Press.
          Burma's Rohingya suffer as camp aid is blocked,CNN        

          Ivan meets with Ethnic Rohingya activists in Burma        

          Short film of UN's Valerie Amos's visit to Myanmar (Burma) December 2012 - Rohingya        

          The Hidden Genocide of Burma Ep 1 (Introduction)         

          Obama visit to Burma receives a mixed reaction        
..............................................................................................................................................................................President Obama's historic visit to Burma has been questioned by some as premature following the recent communal violence between Muslims and Buddhists
          The history and plight of the Rohingyas         

The Rohingyas are one of the most persecuted communities in the world. Although, they have been living in the state of Arakan since the 8th century (which is now part of Burma), the Rohingyas have been under extreme scrutiny by the Burmese government. They haven’t been recognized as citizens of The Union of Burma since Burmese independence in 1948, instead they are known as ‘non citizens’.
The Burmese Junta have discriminated the Rohingya because:
• They are not similar in looks
• Speak a different language
• Have a different religion.


As a means of clamping down on the Rohingya, the Junta has restricted even the most basic of rights such as education, marriage and citizenship.
The Burmese government endorses the Burmese culture and the Buddhist faith for their national citizens; the Rohingyas fall outside of this ideal criteria because they want to retain their own culture and the Muslim faith. As a result, the Rohingyas, sidelined and marginalized, have to live with their derogatory national status of ‘non-citizens’.
Between 1978 and 1992, approximately 200,000 Rohingyas left Burma to escape the tyranny of the Burmese military. Most of them moved to southern Bangladesh where they remain as refugees. In one of the most densely populated countries in the world, life in Bangladesh proved just as hard as it did in Burma.



In Bangladesh, the Rohingyas are faced with hardly any protection from their host country. A burden to the densely populated country, the Rohingyas are denied humanitarian aid which forces them to turn to other means of income such as drug trafficking.
There is one registered camp situated meters away from the registered camp where 90,000 refugees live. Another camp 15 miles away, in Leda Bazaar where approximately 25,000 Rohingya live, is where Restless Beings focus has been.

In 1962, the Rohingyas were systematically denied of political, civil, economic and social human rights. Today, the Rohingyas in Burma cannot commute from one village to another due to the security forces known as ‘Nasaka’ that patrol their movement at various checkpoints. This affects their education and access to medication.
Rohingyas are denied citizenship despite living in Arakan for centuries because Muslims are portrayed as ‘relics of a colonial past’. This stems from the fact that Muslims supported the British during the colonial period because they were promised autonomy in Rakhine previously known as Arakan.
Rohingyas have been subject to the systematic use of rape as a weapon of war, forced labour, and land confiscation. Over 3,500 villages have been destroyed since 1996.
Similar to the Rohingyas living in Burma, the Rohingya refugees are limited in their movement and subject to exploitation. In refugee camps, the Rohingya women are victims of sexual violence, children are denied education and there is limited access to health and medical aid.
The hostile environment for Rohingyas in Bangladesh urges the refugees in Bangladesh and Burma to seek help in other parts of Asia such as Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia; however, these parts are not usually welcoming.

Update from Restless Beings
rohingyas arkan

Reports have been flooding in this afternoon of a new wave of attacks on Rohingya this afternoon leaving hundreds homeless and looking for shelter on foot during torrential monsoon rains whilst others were left dead. The recent clashes have been reported from 4 villages near Rauthedoung were as many as 12 have been killed with 1,000 Rohingya displaced as well as in 3 villages south of Maungdaw where 3 people have been killed this Thursday, August 16, 2012.

In the minutes leading up to sunset as many Rohingya were preparing to open their fasts (Ramadhan) hundreds of Rakhine activists armed with sticks, batons and other weaponry forced their way into Rohingya houses in three adjacent villages. As the villagers attempted to fight back against the Rakhine who had violated their homes, Lun Htin and Nasaka (Burmese armed forces and paramilitary) opened live rounds of fire on the villagers.
Three men and one woman have been shot dead whilst many others have been injured. In total the three entire villages are being evacuated with the Rohingya unsure of where they are to move to next. Whilst one of the sources was describing the events, shooting and wailing could be heard in the background.

In a separate incident, but most likely part of this new wave of violence, four villages near Rathedoung were attacked late last night, Wednesday, leaving more than 12 dead and over 1,000 Rohingya displaced. Similar to incidents in Maungdaw today, Rakhine had attacked the villages and were backed up by Burmese armed forces and paramilitary servicemen.
The forces pushed the Rohingya villages from their homes, across the river and now the camp of 1,000 are moving north through mountainous terrains and during monsoon season looking for shelter. 12 people have been confirmed dead – 8 were shot dead and 4 more have lost their lives battling against the elements whilst being shelter less.
As international media have recently been reporting from the region and as an aid deal has been agreed by the President with OIC, this is seen as the final, brutal wave against the Rohingya during the recent clashes. It is feared that this move will be drawn out over many days surely; many more lives will be lost.
The author is Mabrur Ahmed of Restless Beings – http://www.restlessbeings.org

          Burma: escalating violence signals religious war        


burma muslim rohingyas in shelter
Stateless Muslim Rohingyas sheltering at a school on the outskirts of Sittwe, capital of
Burma's western Arakan state. Photograph: Christophe Archambault/AFP/Getty Images
 
As the country prepares for Barack Obama's arrival, Rohingya and Arakanese communities claim atrocities on both sides
Khamal Alam is the only member of his family to survive the recent violence in western Burma. The 25-year-old from the Rohingya minority says all his relatives were shot by government troops who opened fire on the Muslims during running battles with the Buddhist Arakanese.
Alam arrived at the Thae Chaung refugee camp after fleeing his home town of Kyaukphyu when several hundred houses were burned by local Buddhists. "Nobody died from the sword, only gunshots," said another Kyaukphyu resident now in the camp.

Read more

          BURMA VIOLENCE BBC WORLD NEWS         

          Napisite nesto o osobi ispod vas        
nema, ali ako treba ce da kupi :D

osobi ispod treba burma od belog zlata roll
          EFF to Minnesota Supreme Court: Sheriff Must Release Emails Documenting Biometric Technology Use        

A Minnesota sheriff’s office must release emails showing how it uses biometric technology so that the community can understand how invasive it is, EFF argued in a brief filed in the Minnesota Supreme Court on Friday.

The case, Webster v. Hennepin County, concerns a particularly egregious failure to respond to a public records request that an individual filed as part of a 2015 EFF and MuckRock campaign to track biometric technology use by law enforcement across the country.

EFF has filed two briefs in support of web engineer and public records researcher Tony Webster’s request, with the latest brief [.pdf] arguing that agencies must provide information contained in emails to help the public understand how a local sheriff uses biometric technology. The ACLU of Minnesota joined EFF on the brief.

As we write in the brief:

This case is not about whether or how the government may collect biometric data and develop and domestically deploy information-retrieval technology as a potential sword against the general public. That is just one debate we must have, but critical to it and all public debates is that it be informed by public [records]

The case began when Webster filed a request based on EFF’s letter template with Hennepin County, a jurisdiction that includes Minneapolis, host city of the 2018 Super Bowl.  He sought emails, contracts, and other records related to the use of technology that can scan and recognize fingerprints, faces, irises, and other forms of biometrics.

After the county basically ignored the request, Webster sued. An administrative law judge ruled in 2015 that the county had violated the state’s public records law both because it failed to provide documents to Webster and because it did not have systems in place to quickly search and disclose electronic records.

An intermediate appellate court ruled in 2016 that the county had to turn over the records Webster sought, but it reversed the lower court’s ruling that the county did not have adequate procedures in place to respond to public records requests.

Both Webster and the county appealed the ruling to the Minnesota Supreme Court. In its appeal, the county argues that public records requesters create undue burden on agencies when they specify that they search for particular key words or search terms.

EFF’s brief in support of Webster points out the flaws in the county’s search term argument. Having requesters identify specific search terms for documents they seek helps agencies conduct better searches for records while narrowing the scope of the request. This ultimately reduces the burden on agencies and leads to records being released more quickly.

EFF would like to thank attorneys Timothy Griffin and Thomas Burman of Stinson Leonard Street LLP for drafting the brief and serving as local counsel.


          Comment on Talk Story: John Tinpe Views Chinatown from the Burma Resturant by jesse        
<strong><a href="http://trustedpillspot.com/?p=777&lol= trusted@pillspot.com" rel="nofollow">.</a></strong> thanks!!
          Burma's Reforms aren't Trickling Down to Small Businesses        
Boys play at a temple north of Pyay It was a blisteringly hot day in Pyay, a midsized Burmese city that was the commercial center of the region and a tourist gateway for Burma’s undeveloped beaches. I was walking up the town’s main drag, a two laned thoroughfare whose traffic signals [...]
          Burma's Second Chance For Trade With India        
Western news outlets are abuzz about how Thein Sein’s new government in Myanmar is taking measures to open up the country’s borders to FDI and international trade. Much of this excitement stems from its implications for trade routes. Billions could be saved on shipping if an easy overland route was [...]
          Burmese regime deliberately blocked international aid to cyclone victims, report says        
• First independent research into disaster details host of abuses
• Study urges junta be referred to international criminal court

International aid for cyclone victims in Burma was deliberately blocked by the military regime, the first independent report into the disaster has found.

The junta's wilful disregard for the welfare of the 3.4 million survivors of cyclone Nargis – which struck the Irrawaddy delta last May, killing 140,000 people – and a host of other abuses detailed by the research may amount to crimes against humanity under international law.

Continue reading...
          More Burmese 'boat people' rescued after being cast out of Thailand        
Survivors say 22 migrants from Burma's Rohingya Muslim minority died at sea

Fishermen have rescued another 198 starving Burmese "boat people" after their vessel, which had no engine, was towed out to sea by Thai security forces and cast adrift, an Indonesian naval officer said today.

Survivors packed on board the fragile wooden boat, which was spotted drifting near Aceh, off the northern coast of Sumatra, said they had been in the open sea for about three weeks, during which 22 of the migrants from Burma's Rohingya Muslim minority had died.

Continue reading...
          Malaysia crackdown        

In Burma, the Rohingya are considered stateless with few rights. Their circumstances have prompted many to seek a better life in prosperous Muslim Malaysia. Most slip into Bangladesh, where people smugglers organise their passage for about £200. Boats packed with migrants set off during October and April, when the seas are calmer. Middlemen in Thailand pay off immigration authorities then take the travellers by land to Malaysia. Thailand turned a blind eye to the traffic, as the Rohingya never planned to stay. But last March the then prime minister, Samak Sundaravej, announced a crackdown on the Rohingya. In December, the new policy of pushing boats out to sea seemed to take effect. The Thai navy intercepts the migrants and hands them to the army, but it seems the army detains them and uses its own boats to push migrants out to sea. By the end of 2005, the UN refugee agency recorded 13,000 Rohingya in Malaysia. Up to 7,000 are estimated to have slipped into the country since, bringing the total to about 20,000.

Continue reading...
          Thailand accused of setting migrants adrift at sea        
New prime minister Vejjajiva faces claims that up to 1,000 people were cut adrift on overcrowded boats in Indian Ocean

Thailand's new prime minister was under pressure today to answer allegations that hundreds of Burmese and Bangladeshi migrants were set adrift at sea with little food and water by the armed forces.

Abhisit Vejjajiva met with officials from the country's human rights commission amid claims that up to 1,000 migrants, mostly from the Rohingya ethnic minority from western Burma, were towed out to sea and abandoned on boats without engines. At least 300 remain unaccounted for. Human rights groups allege four migrants were thrown into the sea to encourage others to climb aboard the vessels.

Continue reading...
          Myanmar Crisis.        
Philanthropy online has recently published an article on the initial charitable response to the cyclone disaster in Burma. unfortunately bureaucratic red tape has slowed the initial response some; numerous organizations are preparing a herculean response that will save lives, and perhaps improve the domestic situation in Myanmar over the long term.

Events like these confirm the importance of fund-raising in general and telephone fund-raising specifically. Its one thing to hear about a tragedy on television and remind oneself to try and make a donation. Its quite another to receive a phone call as a situation is unfolding and have an opportunity to directly influence the outcome of that situation.

I participated in campaigns after hurricanes Rita and Katrina. I also worked on the campaign to provide relief to the victims of the Asian Tsunami, and issue of personal significance to me as I lived for many years in Indonesia. It is in times like this when innovative fund raising strategies can truly make a significant difference by fully funding humanitarian emergency relief efforts before a crisis can intensify.

There is nothing like a call to action.
          Inilah Arti Cantik Dari Berbagai Negara        
Jepang
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Di Jepang, kulit itu adalah kunci dari kecantikan. Wanita di Jepang mempunyai kulit lembut & cantik tanpa bekas, terutama di wajah mereka. Hal ini disebabkan karena wanita Jepang suka mengkonsumsi makanan & minuman yang mengandung collagen. Di Jepang, collagen sangat mudah ditemukan di supermarket, bahkan sudah banyak restaurant yang menyediakan makanan yang mengandung collagen. Tujuan mereka mengkonsumsi collagen adalah agar kulit mereka tetap halus, karena collagen adalah protein utama yang menyusun 75% area kulit dan berfungsi memberikan kekuatan dan kehalusan pada kulit. Oleh karena itu, kulit yang sehat sangat dipengaruhi oleh kadar kolagen yang mencukupi. Rusaknya kolagen maupun penurunan produksinya mengakibatkan timbulnya kerutan dan munculnya kulit tua.



Kulit wanita di Jepang memang halus, tapi tetap saja belum terasa lengkap tanpa rambut yang lurus, karena rambut lurus di Jepang juga dianggap cantik, dan kebanyakan rambut-rambut wanita Jepang itu memang lurus-lurus. Rambut lurus memang diibaratkan dengan gadis cantik di Jepang, dan sejujurnya, saya juga suka wanita yang berambut lurus. Ternyata Jepang memang mempunyai teknik pelurusan rambut yang sangat menganggumkan, dan teknik tersebut dipakai hampir di seluruh dunia.




Taboo


image


Kulit yang cantik dan rambut yang lurus memang cantik di Jepang, tapi tidak semuanya sependapat, karena masing-masing wanita dari negara lainnya mempunyai kriterianya tersendiri. Di National Geographic channel's show Taboo, ada arti kecantikan yang mungkin sangat ekstrim bagi kita semua.


Di Burma dan Thailand, anggota dari suku kayan memulai ritual kecantikan mereka dari waktu muda. Pada saat umur 5 tahun, mereka sudah memakai gelang berbentuk melingkar di sekitar lehernya. Gelang leher tersebut terus ditambahkan seiring dengan pertumbuhan mereka, dan hal tersebut membuat leher mereka semakin panjang seperti layaknya leher jerapah. Bagi mereka, leher yang panjang dengan gelang yang bersinar adalah tanda kedudukan dan keagungan mereka. Berat gelang leher tersebut bisa mencapai 22 pounds atau sekitar 10,5 kilo.


Bagi saya hal tersebut sangat ekstrim, tapi ada seorang wanita yang mengatakan,"jika saya melepaskan gelang-gelang ini dari leher saya, maka saya tidak akan terlihat cantik lagi, seperti saat saya memakainya".




India


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Wanita di India mencampur turmeric, lemon, dan honey untuk dioleskan ke kulit mereka, pada hari-hari perayaan seperti pernikahan atau acara keluarga. Mereka selalu memakai perhiasan, dan baju yang berwarna terang serta tanda merah di dahi mereka pada saat-saat tertentu. Tanda merah di dahi mereka biasa disebut kumkum dan mereka berpikir hal tersebut membuat mereka semakin menarik.


Hampir di seluruh dunia tahu, bahwa wanita di India memiliki kulit & rambut yang indah, dan hal tersebut telah membantu para wanita di AS(Amerika) yang ingin memanjangkan rambut mereka dengan teknik catok rambut. Apa hubungannya rambut indah di India dengan para wanita di AS? Sekitar 25% rambut palsu di AS didatangkan dari hasil pengorbanan wanita-wanita di India. Para wanita di India mengorbankan rambut mereka untuk upacara keagamaan Hindu, dan mereka percaya bahwa dewa mereka sangat suka rambut.


Kuil Hindu tersebut otomatis kedatangan banyak rambut, Lalu untuk apa semua rambut tersebut? ternyata rambut tersebut mereka jual ke pasaran, dan meraup keuntungan sebanyak 18 juta dollar per tahun (1 $ = Rp 10.340). Selain cara di atas, ada juga wanita yang dengan sengaja menjual rambutnya, dengan cara memotongnya sendiri atau mengumpulkan rambut-rambutnya yang telah rontok ke dalam kaleng atau tempat penyimpanan rambut. Lucunya, pada saat mendengar hal tersebut, seorang wanita yang hadir di Oprah pun terkejut karena kebetulan ia juga memakai cara extension. Memang wanita AS tidak tahu dari mana rambut tersebut berasal, tapi seorang ahli penata rambut mengatakan bahwa kualitas yang paling bagus mutunya adalah rambut orang India.




Iran

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Bagi wanita di Iran, kecantikan adalah memiliki hidung mancung yang mungil. Para wanita di Iran sangat suka dengan hidung mungil nan indah, karena para wanita di Iran biasanya memakai pakaian yang menutupi tubuhnya dari ujung rambut hingga kaki, kecuali wajah. Tapi Pertanyaannya "Apakah semua orang memiliki hidung cantik & mungil?" jawabannya "Tidak". 



Sesungguhnya kebanyakan wanita di Iran memiliki hidung yang besar, dan oleh karena itu, mereka rela melakukan segala cara untuk memperbaiki hidung mereka. Biasanya mereka melakukan operasi untuk memperindah hidung mereka, dan karena itu, negara Iran menjadi negara dengan jumlah operasi hidung terbanyak di dunia. Ternyata selain untuk kecantikan, operasi mereka juga menentukan status atau kedudukan, dan biasanya mereka memakai semacam plester di hidung mereka sebagai tanda bahwa hidung mereka telah dioperasi. Lucunya, banyak wanita di Iran yang memakai plester hidung walaupun mereka tidak melakukan operasi. Wanita Iran yang hadir di acara Oprah pun mengatakan, "Saya mempunyai seorang dosen yang memakai plester di hidungnya hingga 3 tahun walaupun ia tidak melakukan operasi". Saya tertawa ketika mendengar hal tersebut, tapi mau gimana lagi? sebab hanya wajahnnya saja yang dapat menjadi tempat memamerkan kecantikannya.




Brazil


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Brazil adalah negara pengkonsumsi pil diet terbesar di dunia, karena para wanita di Brazil ingin mempunyai tubuh yang langsing. Selain memakan pill diet, para wanita brazil juga suka fitness & melakukan operasi. Seperti halnya wanita-wanita di Iran yang suka melakukan operasi hidung, wanita-wanita di Brazil juga sering melakukan operasi plastik. Operasi plastik di Brazil adalah operasi plastik terbanyak di dunia, sampai-sampai banyak majalah di Brazil yang khusus membahas tentang operasi plastik. Operasi dan kecantikan memang sangat penting di Brazil dan anehnya, anda bisa melakukan operasi di Brazil dengan mencicil/kredit, Jadi anda tidak akan terkejut orang miskin juga bisa operasi di Brazil. Para wanita Brazil menghabiskan 3/4 gajinya hanya untuk perawatan kecantikan.




Indonesia

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Rahasia Kecantikan di Indonesia adalah langsing. Di Indonesia terdapat metode melangsingkan badan pasca hamil dengan memakai stagen. Stagen dililitkan di tubuh, untuk menekan perut dan pinggang yang besar setelah hamil. Memakai stagen membuat sang pemakai sedikit merasa sakit, karena tekanan yang diberikan stagen cukup keras.





Ethiopia


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Di Ethiopia, cantik itu adalah bekas luka cakar. Luka bekas di Ethiopia bukanlah luka yang tidak disengaja, justru mereka sengaja membuatnya sendiri dengan cara menyayat perut mereka. Mereka berpendapat bahwa luka tersebut dapat memuaskan lelaki, dan semakin banyak luka, maka semakin cantik. Biasanya luka cakar tersebut dibuat sejak mereka masih kanak-kanak.




France

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Di Paris, cantik adalah langsing, anggun, cantik, dan berkelas. Di Paris, para wanita menghabiskan banyak waktunya untuk perawatan kecantikan. Karena wanita Paris langsing-langsing, mereka hanya menyediakan baju dengan ukuran 12 untuk wanita. Anehnya, menurut mereka, umur 60 tahun adalah saat wanita Paris paling cantik.





Mauritania

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Hampir di semua negara menganggap cantik itu ibarat dengan langsing , tapi di negara bagian Afrika barat, Big is Beautifull. Mauritania negara berpasir yang terletak di sebelah barat laut Afrika. Arti kecantikan sangat berlawanan di Mauritania, dimana besar itu lebih baik(Sexy) dari pada langsing.



Semakin Besar(Gendut) seorang wanita, maka semakin banyak pria yang suka, jika semakin langsing maka semakin tidak laku. Mendengar hal tersebut, berbahagialah si Oprah, dan seluruh wanita di dunia yang kelebihan bobot. Karena semakin gendut, semakin banyak yang suka, maka sejak kecil anak-anak perempuan mereka diberi makan-makanan, dan susu onta yang berlemak tinggi secara berlebih.


Karena berlebihan, anak-anak tersebut muntah, tapi malah diberi lebih banyak lagi. Makanya tidak heran, makanan di sana mengandung banyak lemak dan tak ada yang menjual makanan diet atau pil diet di Mauritania. Lucunya, pria di Mauritania haruslah kurus atau langsing, lalu si Oprah bersorak untuk ke dua kalinya, "Hidup Mauritania, saya senang jika saya dilahirkan di sana", dan si Oprah terus menerus menyebut Mauritania, hingga para penonton di Oprah pun tertawa, mendengar hal tersebut saya pun ikut tertawa karena tingkah Oprah.


Sumber
          VIDEO: Keganasan Bisa Ular Pada Darah Manusia        



Bisa ular pasti berbahaya. Tapi, kita akan makin yakin ketika melihat ganasnya racun ular saat tercampur dalam darah.

Seorang pengguna YouTube dengan nama akun Fragrancemad memperlihatkan rekaman video kerja bisa ular dalam darah. Video ini telah disaksikan lebih dari 1,8 juta kali di YouTube.

"Saya melakukan beberapa penelitian untuk parfum Cobra oleh Arthes
Jeannes. Saya menemukan video ini tentang bisa ular secara kebetulan. Ini begitu luar biasa. Saya hanya mengunggah ke YouTube," tulis pengguna dalam bagian info video.

"Pada dasarnya, setetes racun diteteskan ke cawan berisi darah. Dalam hitungan detik, gumpalan darah menjadi sebuah bongkahan tebal materi padat," katanya.

"Sebagian besar insiden gigitan ular terjadi di Srilanka, Burma, dan India. Ini merupakan ular yang sangat berbahaya. Anggota besar dari beberapa spesies ular beracun dengan mudah dapat memberikan dosis yang mematikan pada manusia. Korban biasanya akan mengeluh sakit di lokasi gigitan. Mereka mengalami pembengkakan yang dapat terlihat," jelas Dr. Terence M. Davidson, M.D, dari Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas California, San Diego seperti dikutip dari Huffington Post.

Selain gangguan perdarahan, bisa ular juga menimbulkan gejala seperti kelopak mata bengkak, kesulitan berbicara dan kelemahan pada bagian tubuh. Bahkan, racun ini juga mengakibatkan gagal ginjal akut.

Ancaman racun ular memang terdengar menakutkan. Tapi, bisa ular sangat
berguna bagi manusia. Dalam studi yang dipublikasikan tahun lalu di Journal of Biological Chemistry, para peneliti mencatat penggunaan medis dari material yang mengancam ini.

"Bisa ular berisi sejumlah besar racun yang menargetkan protein dalam trombosit," kata Yonchol Shin selaku profesor spesialis racun ular di Universitas Kogakuin kepada Science Daily.

"Beberapa dari racun itu mencegah trombosit dari pembekuan. Ini dapat menyebabkan perdarahan hebat pada korban gigitan ular. Fungsi lainnya, bisa ular sangat kuat dalam mengaktifkan trombosit yang menyebabkan pembekuan darah. Identifikasi target molekul dari banyak racun ini telah memberikan sumbangsih besar bagi pemahaman kami tentang aktivasi trombosit dan penyakit terkait," sebutnya.
Saksikan kekuatan bisa ular pada video ini. (umi)


Sumber

          How Cinematic!        




My moment of demi-celebrity above comes from my participation in an MSN short series "re: discover".  I show off the Hollywood Heritage Lasky DeMille barn to Barney Burman and Amy Gray.  If you are so inclined you can see it here.
          Tutup Mulut Atau Dibunuh        

Kerajaan Myan­mar didakwa mengeluarkan ugutan bunuh terhadap etnik Rohingya dan keluarga mereka sekiranya mereka memberi kenyataan kepada media, lapor portal berita Burma Times.

Portal itu yang memetik ke­nyataan sumber yang enggan dikenali melaporkan, etnik Rohingya juga berdepan ancaman bunuh jika mengaku mereka adalah rakyat Myanmar.

Jumaat lalu, kerajaan Myanmar menyelamatkan sekumpulan pendatang etnik itu dari sebuah bot dan memberitahu Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (PBB) serta media antarabangsa bahawa semua 208 penumpang itu merupakan rakyat Bangladesh.

Penduduk tempatan di Hasurata dan sumber portal itu mengesahkan bahawa kenyataan kerajaan Myanmar tidak benar.

Semua penumpang bot tersebut yang kebanyakannya etnik Rohingya, cepat-cepat dibawa keluar oleh pihak berkuasa sebelum ketibaan media dan pertubuhan antarabangsa ke tempat kejadian.

Tindakan itu menurut mereka bagi menyokong kenyataan pegawai kerajaan bahawa pendatang yang diselamatkan itu adalah dari Bangladesh.

Kini pihak berkuasa memindahkan etnik Rohingya itu ke sebuah lokasi yang tidak didedahkan dengan ada daripadanya dibebaskan selepas membayar sejumlah wang.

Dalam kejadian berasingan, sebuah keluarga etnik Rohingya mendakwa anak mereka menjadi mangsa pembunuhan doktor di Hospital Maungdaw meskipun telah menjalani pemeriksaan selepas keadaannya dilapor sudah bertambah baik.

Riaz, 12, dimasukkan ke hospital Rabu lalu dan keadaannya bertambah baik dua hari selepas itu namun ketika keluarganya meminta kebenaran doktor untuk membawanya keluar, doktor memberi alasan dia perlu dibedah kerana menghidap batu karang sebelum dia meninggal dunia keesokan harinya.

Sementara itu, Suruhanjaya Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu Bagi Pelarian (UNHCR), Pertubuhan Antarabangsa bagi Pendatang (IOM) dan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu Berkenaan Dadah dan Jenayah (UNODC) bakal membincangkan secara bersama 10 pelan tindakan bagi menangani krisis pendatang di Asia Tenggara semasa satu mesyuarat khas di Bangkok esok.

“UNHCR berharap mesyuarat esok akan bersetuju tentang tindakan bersama bagi menangani krisis kemanusiaan dan menangani punca kepada penghijrahan itu,’’ kata pegawai perhubungan kanan serantau UNHCR, Vivian Tan.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.

          Warga Myammar Ketua Sindiket Pemerdagangan Manusia Rapat Dengan Ahli Politik Pulau Pinang Rupa-Rupanya!        
EKSKLUSIF: KUALA LUMPUR: Lelaki ini dilihat sebagai dermawan di kalangan masyarakat kerana sering membantu rakyat senegaranya yang kurang bernasib baik tetapi apa yang tidak diketahui adalah bekas pelarian Myanmar ini bersama rakan niaganya warga Malaysia memperoleh keuntungan berjuta daripada kesengsaraan mereka yang diperdagangkan.

Mereka dikaitkan dengan isu pemerdagangan warga Rohingya dan Bangladesh ke negara ini melalui sempadan Malaysia-Thailand.

Menurut sumber, pihak berkuasa menjejaki dua lelaki ini, berusia lewat 40-an dan 40-an, boleh ditahan di bahawa undang-undang tahanan pencegahan tidak lama lagi.

Kedua-dua meeka dikatakan merupakan individu yang dikenali di George Town dan gaya hidup bersahaja mereka.

Dermawan dari Kepala Batas itu mewujudkan pangkalan di sini sejak dua dekad lalu dan terlibat dalam pengeluaran MyKad dan dokumen pelarian UNHCR palsu untuk warga Rohingya yang masuk ke negara ini secara haram.

Dia yang memiliki status penduduk tempatan mempunyai hubungan baik dengan beberapa ahli politik tempatan dan menggunakan sifat dermawannya bagi menutup aktiviti haramnya dengan memberikan sumbangan kepada badan-badan bukan kerajaan (NGO) dan badan keagamaan di Pulau Pinang.

"Kita sedang melihat tentang bagaimana kedua-dua ini mengadakan hubungan dengan satu sindiket antarabangsa bagi pemerdagangan manusia," kata sumber itu.

Tambahnya, pegawai bersenjata yang berkhidmat untuk pedagang haram itu akan menyamar sebagai anggota tentera bagi menggelakkan ia dikesan oleh pegawai tentera yang membuat pemantauan di sempadan.



Kegiatan pedagang haram itu dikesan dua tahun lalu selepas pihak berkuasa memperoleh maklumat daripada 'tonto' (orang tengah) warga tempatan yang diupah dan daripada pendatang haram di depot tahanan, kata sumber itu. 

Sumber itu berkata, dermawan dan ahli perniagaan itu mengupah orang tempatan untuk menyeludup diesel, beras dan barangan lain antara Malaysia dan Thailand. 

Mereka kemudiannya bergerak melakukan pemerdagangan manusia kerana pulangannya lebih baik, terutama sejak tempat pengambilan di sepanjang sempadan diuruskan oleh anggota sindiket warga Thailand yang bersengkongkol dengan mereka. 

Satu tempat pengambilan mengambil masa dua setengah jam bagi berjalan kaki dari tapak kem di mana kubur secara besar-besaran ditemui di Bukit Burma dan satu lagi melibatkan perjalanan dua hari ke Padang Besar melalui ladang tebu. 

Sumber berkata, pendatang tanpa izin Rohingya dan Bangladesh dipaksa membuat bayaran sebanyak RM7,000 setiap seorang kepada anggota sindiket antarabangsa bersenjata setibanya mereka tiba di sempadan. 

Mereka yang gagal untuk berbuat demikian akan dibunuh atau dibiarkan mati kebuluran.

'Tebusan' itu dibayar seperti berikut: 

- Warga Thailand mengambil antara RM1,000 dan RM1,500 seorang dan memberikan bakinya kepada rakyat Malaysia yang mempunyai kaitan dengan ahli perniagaan di George Town. 

- 'Tonto' yang diupah oleh ahli perniagaan itu untuk membawa pendatang ke Pulau Pinang dan Sungai Petani memperoleh RM100 seorang pendatang, di mana bayaran itu akan dimasukkan ke akaun bank selepas menghantar mangsa-mangsa. 

- Sebahagian daripada baki bayaran itu digunakan untuk merasuah agensi penguatkuasaan dan dalang sindiket akan mengambil selebihnya. 

Sumber berkata, kebanyakan 'tonto' adalah golongan muda yang menganggur dan berhadapan dengan masalah kewangan selepas meninggalkan rumah mereka di Kuala Perlis dan Padang Besar. 

Seorang 'tonto' boleh memperoleh sehingga RM1,500 bagi setiap perjalanan yang boleh memuatkan 15 pendatang dalam satu van. 

Sumber berkata, mereka yang ditahan hanyalah orang bahawan sejak kubur besar-besaran di kedua-dua bahagian sempadan dibongkarkan dan orang atasan yang mempunyai kaitan dengan sindiket masih lagi bebas. 

Adalah sukar untuk membanteras kesemua penjenayah ini kerana tonto akan diberikan kad SIM telefon mudah alih yang berbeza bagi setiap perjalanan, dan menghapuskan kad yang digunakan sebaik sahaja mereka menghantar pendatang.


Sumber menambah, sebahagian pendatang haram akan dihantar untuk bekerja dengan bayaran murah di kawasan pembinaan manakala yang lain dihantar ke kawasan penduduk Myanmar di Kuala Perlis untuk didagangkan.

Pada 16 Mei lalu, pada pukul 10.15 pagi, sekumpulan anggota Pasukan Gerakan Am menemui sebuah kem dengan empat lelaki di sepanjang sempadan.


Keempat-empat warga asing itu melarikan diri tetapi polis berjaya merampas pakaian seragam tentera, makanan, sekeping pasport antarabangsa Vietnam dan kanvas.





.

          Rohingya... Fakta Dan Pembohongan Media Tentang Pembunuhan Di Arakan        


Banyak pihak yang resah akan berita pembantaian Umat Muslim di Birma yang di beritakan dengan foto2 yang ternyata adalah HOAX Berita ini bahkan disebarkan oleh website-website pro ISLAM yang notabenenya adalah Islam garis keras .

Kami menduga hal ini dilakukan untuk menggalang dana donasi, ajakan Jihad dan membuat suasana harmonis antar agama di Indonesia supaya HANCUR

Gambar 1: Di beberapa website/Media PKS dikatakan ini adalah korban pembantaian biksu budha terhadap Umat Muslim bahkan anak-anak tidak luput dari pembantaian ini, padahal FAKTANYA adalah: Ini adalah foto saat para biksu sedang membantu korban bencana alam di China, beberapa waktu lalu.

burma 1
Hoax disebarkan oleh penghasut Voa-islam.com

Gambar 2: Disebarkan bahwa orang di foto ini telah tewas saat dirinya sedang membela kepentingan ISLAM di birma, ternyata FAKTA kenyataannya adalah: Orang tersebut beragama budha dan masih hidup sampai saat ini.

Kiri hoax, kanan FAKTAnya




Kiri hoax, kanan FAKTAnya

Gambar ke 3: Rangkaian foto ini katanya ini adalah salah satu foto mengenai pembantaian para pria muslim di Birma INI ADALAH HOAX, sebenarnya ini adalah kejadian tahun 2004 di thailand demonstrasi anarkis Islam garis keras yang ditahan pihak berwajib di thailand, dan sama sekali tidak ada yang di bunuh atau terluka parah di kejadian ini.
burma 3
burma 5
HOAX ala VOA-ISLAM yang ingin menyulut perpecahan umat beragama di Indonesia




HOAX ala VOA-ISLAM
yang ingin menyulut perpecahan umat beragama di Indonesia
burma 8


FAKTA TIDAK ADA YANG MATI TAPI DITANGKAP

burma 7

FAKTA TIDAK ADA YANG MATI TAPI DITANGKAP

burma 9

FAKTA TIDAK ADA YANG MATI TAPI DITANGKAP

Gambar 4: foto dibawah dikatakan sebagai perang antar umat beragama di birma (Budha vs ISLAM) padahal kenyataannya ini adalah kejadian demonstrasi di thailand tahun 2007 karena KENAIKAN BBM.
FAKTANYA : kejadian demonstrasi di thailand tahun 2007 karena KENAIKAN BBM.

FAKTANYA : kejadian demonstrasi di thailand tahun 2007 karena KENAIKAN BBM.

Gambar 5: DIkatakan juga ini adalah foto korban pembantian di burma oleh para biksu terhadap umat muslim, padahal sebenarnya ini adalah kejadian tahun 2007 disaat seorang penganut Jihad ISLAM melakukan pengeboman bunuh diri di sebuah wilayah di burma timur yang padat penduduk, korbannya bukan hanya muslim tapi juga umat budha.

BIRMA 2
FAKTANYA: padahal sebenarnya ini adalah kejadian tahun 2007 disaat seorang penganut Jihad ISLAM melakukan pengeboman bunuh diri di sebuah wilayah di burma timur yang padat penduduk, korbannya bukan hanya muslim tapi juga umat budha.


Gambar 6: voa-islam menuliskan ini adalah korban pembakaran hidup-hidup umat muslim di burma, padahal ini adalah foto korban terbakarnya kilang minyak di Kongo tahun 2010
Gambar 7: lagi Fitnah yang beredar disebarkan media penyebar fitnah mengenai jenazah pembantaian umat muslim di birma, padahal ini adalah foto korban bencana alam (badai Nargis di tahun 2008)
FAKTANYA: padahal ini adalah foto korban bencana alam (badai Nargis di tahun 2008)


FAKTANYA: padahal ini adalah foto korban bencana alam (badai Nargis di tahun 2008)
Gambar 8: Foto yang disebarkan sekali lagi oleh voa-islam, yang mengatakan para biksu sedang mempersiapkan pembakaran masal untuk menghilangkan bukti pembantaian mereka di birma, yang F

AKTANYA adalah para biksu YANG SEDANG MENGUMPULKAN MAYAT KORBAN BENCANA ALAM DI CHINA.
FAKTANYA: para biksu YANG SEDANG MENGUMPULKAN MAYAT KORBAN BENCANA ALAM DI CHINA.

FAKTANYA: para biksu YANG SEDANG MENGUMPULKAN MAYAT KORBAN BENCANA ALAM DI CHINA.

Pesan kami untuk seluruh keluarga Anti Faker Indonesia, bantulan kami untuk menyebarkan FAKTA dari berita yang disebarkan yang dapat menyulut keharmonisan umat beragama di Indonesia, karena kami banyak menerima permintaan Verifikasi ini dari hampir 80an email dan hampir 300 pesan di FP kami.

Salam damai, salam persatuan.
(WES-Anti Faker Indonesia)






 ,

          Per Zug durch Burmas Süden: Neun Stunden Entschleunigung        
Nur die Ruhe: 160 Kilometer per Zug sind in Burma schon eine Tagesreise. Doch die träge Fahrt lässt viel Zeit für Gespräche, fürs Beobachten und Sinnieren. Ratta-tang-ratta-tang.
          The Lancet Infectious Diseases: September 27, 2010        

October issue highlights, including discussion of malaria treatment in Burma, and HIV incidence in France.


          School’s out!        
Finished at 1pm, in the airport by 4.45pm! Off to Burma, Brunei and the Philippines; well deserved I think after this term of usual school work and pulling together my SQH evidence! Still got my final assignment to do and viva to prepare for when I get back but I can think about that in […]
          Poetry and Bollywood..        
In 1957, when Guru Dutt decided to make `Pyaasa’, a movie about a struggling poet, he signed on the greatest living Urdu poet of the day, Sahir Ludhianvi to provide the poetry. He even delved into Sahir’s non-filmy work, picking up gems from his `Talkhiyan’.

He pointed to the angst laden `Chakley’ (Brothels), asked Sahir to `simplify’ the Urdu, which he did (the tongue twisting `Sana khwaan-e-taqdees-e-mashriq kahan hai’ was duly downgraded for us lesser mortals to `Jinhe naaz hai Hind par, woh kahan hai’), along with a few other rare gems. Who can forget Guru Dutt (ok, Mohd Rafi) humming Sahir’s signature `Tang aa chuke hain kashmash-e-zindagi se hum..’

Indeed, take away Sahir, and what is left of `Pyaasa’?

In the 50s, through to the 70’s, we had genuine poets doubling as lyricists for Hindi films. Meaning each of them had a substantial body of work outside of their filmi lyrics, work that stood out on its own, and was of course, much classier than the fluff they churned out for Bollywood.

Foremost among them, of course was the unmatched Sahir Ludhianvi. I’ve written a separate post on him, called `Main pal do pal ka shayar hun’ which can be assessed at


Kaifi Azmi
Next to Sahir, stood the redoubtable Kaifi Azmi. At the tender age of eleven, Azmi wrote his first ghazal `Itna toh zindagi mein kisi ki khalal pade’  - google this one, and be amazed at his precocious and prodigious talent. Kaifi, like most of his peers, was an out and out Marxist, and part of the Progressive Writers Movement.

Kaifi’s angst for the downtrodden and the underprivileged comes through in seminal works like `Aurat’, and `Daaera’. His response to the Babri masjid demolition of 6 Dec 1992 in a poem called `Doosra Banwas’(Second Exile), where he likens the incident to Ram being sent on a second banwas, was heart wrenching!  

He wrote the entire dialogue of Chetan Anand’s `Heer Ranjha’ in verse! And who could match his minimalistic use of language and his imagery! Just check the line `Mile na phool toh kaanton se dosti kar li’, and the sheer simplicity leaves you speechless!

Majrooh
Majrooh Sultanpuri, though not in the same league as Sahir and Kaifi, will forever remain immortal for his sher

Main akela hi chala tha janib-e-manzil magar,
Log saath aate gaye aur carvan banta gaya!.

In films too, he left his mark. Note the manner in which he pleads `guilty’ to placing faith above all else, to being a lover to the end, with lines like

Majrooh, likh rahe hain woh ahl-e-wafa ka naam
Hum bhi khade huye hain, gunahgaar ki tarah..

Shakeel
Shakeel Badayuni was, of course, immortalised in the Begum Akhtar gem `Ae mohabat tere anjaam pe rona aaya’, but his long association with Naushad in Hindi films is what he will be most remembered for. The quintessential `muslim socials’ and historicals were their forte, and one cannot really separate the angst of the ethereal Madhubala’s `Mohabat ki jhooti kahani pe royein’ or `Bekas pe karam kijiye’ in Lata’s dulcet vocals from Shakeel’s lyrics. 

And don’t forget, the most famous bhajan in Hindustani cinema, `Man tadpat Hari darshan ko aaj’, penned by Shakeel, set to music by Naushad and sung by Rafi – all three devout Muslims, is still a mirror to India’s multi religious and multicultural milieu.

And then there were others. Jan Nissar Akhtar (Ae dil-e-nadaan), Raja Mehdi Ali Khan (Lag ja gale), Makhdoom Moheyudin (Ek chameli ke mandwe thale) and Shahryar (Seene mein jalan), among others. Each embellished Hindi/Urdu cinema with gems that will far outlive them.

Besides Urdu, there were some great Hindi poets as well. The freedom struggle had produced its share of soul stirring poetry in the form of Ram Prasad Bismil (Sarfaroshi ki tamanna), Makhanlal Chaturvedi (Pushp ki abhilasha) and Subhadra Kumari Chouhan (Khoob ladi mardani).

Kavi Pradeep (Dekh tere sansar ki haalat) had written some patriotic stuff for low budget films like `Jagruti’ (Aao bachchon tumhe dikhayein), but became a household name when Lata reduced Nehru to tears with her rendering of  `Ae mere watan ke logon’ immediately after the China debacle in 1962.

Among the Hindi poets of the era, the foremost, of course, was Shailendra. His contribution to Raj Kapoor’s musicals is legendary, as was his combination with Dada Burman in `Guide’. The soulful `Din dhal jaye, raat na jaye’still evokes the sort of romance that seems to have forever gone with the wind.

Shailendra picked up fellow poet and revolutionary Phaniswar Nath Renu’s short story `Maare Gaye Gulfaam’, and transformed it into what can be best described as poetry in celluloid in his film `Teesri Kasam’. But sadly, the film bombed at the box office, leading to Shailendra’s untimely demise.

Neeraj
Another titan of that era, who thankfully is still among us, is Gopal Das Saxena, better known as Neeraj. If Neeraj wrote nothing other than `Karvaan guzar gaya’, he would still be immortal in my book. I had the good fortune of meeting him, and told him as much. The heart wrenching line `Chah toh nikal saki na, par umar nikal gayi’ is pretty much the story of my life, and still makes me dewy eyed!

He recited all 84 verses of `Palki bahaar ki’ that day (only 4 feature in the song from the eminently forgettable film `Cha cha cha’), and had all of us spellbound. Note..

Guzar rahi hai tum pe kya, bana ke hum ko dar-ba-dar
Yeh soch kar udhas hun, yeh soch kar hai chasm tar
Kahani kis se yeh kahein, chadavh ki, utaar ki
Luti jahan pe bewajah, palki bahaar ki..





The titans of that era, the giants have long gone, and been replaced by pygmies. Poetry has given way to crass bump-and-grind numbers invoking, God help us, Zandu balm and Fevicol. The rap generation, and `singers’ like Honey Singh have rendered lyrics absolutely redundant.

Note that I call them `lyrics’ – for to use the word `poetry’ would be blasphemous!

Luckily, I have my iPod, and for a while, when I plug it in, time seems to stand still. Sanity returns, and the bliss of that era washes over me. God returns to Heaven, and all is once more well with the earth..





          A Mon Carrying Basket from Myanmar        
Between November 1963 and August 1964, William C. Sturtevant and Theda Maw Sturtevant pursued ethnographic field research in Burma (now Myanmar) with support from the (U.S.) National Science Foundation. The Smithsonian Institution provided funds with which an ethnographic field collection could be assembled. This collection, comprising about 400 objects, was accessed in 1967 into the […]
          Fresh Meat Monday - Min Diesel        
Would you care to introduce yourself?

We are Min Diesel. There's three of us: Zippy is the brain, Stu is the brawn, Dave is the Ladies' Choice. We've been playing together for a while now mostly in Aberdeen and Dundee though. We've released a couple of CDs in that time and we've got a split 7" vinyl with Pinact coming out on our own Cool Your Jets imprint this month. We'll be touring the UK in support of it, including Glasgow & Edinburgh.


How would you describe the music you make?

We've been compared to lots of bands, some of whom we've never listened to. We get Dinosaur jr/Sebadoh a lot. Archers of Loaf, Mission of Burma. We're all really big fans of Stapleton, don't hear people talk about them so much anymore. We just call it "mindie rock"How did you start out making music?It's hard to work out the first time any of us did anything remotely musical but we all played in other bands before Minnie Driver, Zippy was in the near-mythical GOFONES with half of Copy Haho, Stu was in a soundscapey post-something act called "Greater the Shadow" and Dave still plays emo/hardcore combo Clearer the Sky. We probably ended up playing the sort of music we play now as a reaction to that. It's slightly less techy and more FUNNN.


What process goes into the way you write songs?

Zippy writes some riffs on his guitar, Stu and Dave come up with bass/drum parts that don't really fit at all. We shout at each other for a bit. This is usually followed by the shedding of tears/blood. Eventually we come up with something that just about hangs together and we go for a pint. Later we'll come back and jam out the instrumentals whilst crooning/yelling stuff over the top.


What can people expect from your live shows?

Awkward silent pauses/terrible patter during tuning breaks. We're currently seeking a full-time hype-man, get in touch at mindiesel@hotmail.co.uk for futher info.


What are you all listening to at the moment?

When not doing stuff in MD or just hanging out being awesome dudes, we run Cool Your Jets, a label/promotion entity. We've got three releases with three of our favourite acts from the north-east coming out on tape in time for Cassette Store Day and we've spent the past weeks just constantly dubbing these cassettes. Everythingwesayisfact, The Shithawks, Orienteering. We don't want to listen to any of these bands again ever.


What can we expect to see/hear from you in the future?

You'll be able to hear the afore-mentioned split and tour with our bros in Pinact, then we're going to try and record more, probably put out something longer. Hopefully we'll get to record with Matthew at Baskesale Recordings who we did the songs for the split with cos he knows his stuff. We're not really much to look at although Stu has been cultivating a pretty spectacular moustache and it's only going to get bigger.

SoundCloud
Bandcamp
Twitter
Facebook
BigCartel

Tour Dates:
Fri 6th: Malone's Late Bar, Aberdeen
Sun 8th: The Old Hairdressers, Glasgow
Mon 9th: The Maze, Nottingham
Tue 10th: Tye-Die Tapes Hq, Sheffield
Wed 11th: Sticky Mike's, Brighton
Thu 12th: Power Lunches, London
Fri 13th: Albany Road, Manchester
Sat 14th: Opium, Edinburgh

Further details on the Pinact/Min Diesel tour can be found here.


          Kiln, Soho        

Kiln has just opened on Brewer Street, Soho, and it promises 'side of the road' style Thai food. There's no hint of eating at the side of a the road here, though; no tiny plastic stools or lizards running up your legs (another story...), but a shiny metal bar dominates the restaurant, extending down the side of the kitchen, where you can watch the chefs cooking in clay pots.



Kiln was opened by Ben Chapman, who is also behind Smoking Goat - a den of darkened spice, cocktails and smoke, where you go and gorge on fish sauce wings, and leave stinking wonderfully of garlic. Kiln is a rather more grown-up affair, the food meandering through Thailand, dipping its toe in Laos, Burma and sometimes Yunnan.





I went along for the preview (where all these pictures were taken), and it was so good I found myself back there less than two weeks later. I'm not the only person to think so; at 7pm on a Friday night, I was told there would be a two hour wait. I put my name down and headed for Bar Americain, under Brasserie Zedel, and merely an hour and 10 later that blessed text message came through. That is how to do Soho on a Friday night. 

Anyway, of the snacks, the lamb and cumin skewers are poshed up versions of my Silk Road stalwart. Juicy chunky pieces of meat and fat are dusted with cumin and chilli, compact and charred from the fierce grill. Fermented sausage comes with sliced shallot and a spritz of lime juice, and holy god those chillis pack a punch. Grilled chicken was sweet and smoky and tender, but for the simplicity of it lost out somewhat in the excitement of the sausage. 


Dry mackerel curry was the dish that made me suck air through my teeth. When you see the dish you think those peppers are... peppers... And a couple of them are mild and sweet, so it tricks you into thinking they all are, and then suddenly your eyes are watering, and you're having to slurp back really delicious orange wine to fan the flames of chilli fire. That was that mackerel dish.


I loved herbal pork soup the first time round. A light broth with Thai basil and fronds of dill, and pieces of pork so buttery and tender I thought it was mutton, originally. The dill makes it really fragrant and light. The second time round it lost its magic for me. The pork was a little on the dry side, as if they'd smoked it rather than cooked it in broth, and I don't remember much dill going on. My sadness was brushed to one side with the grilled pork neck with chilli sauce. At around 30% fat, it was charred to a sweet crisp exterior and butter within, and I was kind of hoping my date would be a fat avoider - you know the ones, the type that cut the fat off parma ham and you wonder why you're friends with them - but it wasn't to be. I had to share it. 



Langoustines. Sweet, sweet, langoustines, poached very briefly, and dressed with mint and shallots and lemongrass and very finely sliced chillis. These were a real highlight; the flesh is creamy and sweet, while all the aromatics are just there in the background, lightly perfuming each mouthful. I sucked the heads, ate the roe, cracked the claws and picked around in them before I remembered I was out in public. So, so good. 



The wild ginger and shortrib curry, pictured here from the preview, has actually gotten better. A darker, richer, coconutty sauce covers fork-tender meat. Luckily the brown rice they serve, still satisfyingly sticky, arrived just then for me to drench in that wonderful sauce. I woke up the next day resentful that I hadn't eaten more of it. 



Wild mushroom salad contained grilled, meaty mushrooms served at room temperature in a savoury broth, garnished with roasted ground rice. Squidgy, smoky perfection. Glass noodles baked in a claypot, so they're slightly crisp on the bottom, were flavoured with sliced Tamworth pork belly, and lots of rich, beautiful brown and white crabmeat. A sprightly green sauce came to drench the noodles with.

Kiln is exciting. It's a riot of herbs and fire, elegant seafood and rich meat dishes, interesting vegetables handled delicately. It's a flavour of the Far East, with herbs and vegetables grown in Cornwall, and using UK-bred produce. I can't wait to go back already, and my last visit was only 3 days ago. 

58 Brewer St, 
London, Soho W1F 9TL


          12 Must-Know Facts about Asia        
Asia is the world's largest continent in world covering 60 percent of Earth's total land area.

1.Asia is the most populous continent in the world with world's populous countries,China and India.It is the land of diversity.


2.Asia can be divided into 6 subcontinents :



  1. Central Asia – Kazakhstan Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
  2. East Asia – China, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, North and South Korea.
  3. North Asia – Russia.
  4. India Subcontinent – India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.
  5. Southeast Asia – Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
  6. Southwest Asia – The Middle East including Turkey, Iran, Cyprus, Israel, and Lebanon.

3.Top Ten Tallest Mountains in Asia :

Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth and it is located in Asia.

Mount Everest with group of people
Mount Everest



  1. Everest -Nepal,Tibet
  2. K2 - Pakistan,China
  3. Kangchenjunga - Nepal,Sikkim, India
  4. Lhotse - Nepal,Tibet, China
  5. Makalu - Nepal,Tibet, China
  6. Cho Oyu - Nepal,Tibet, China
  7. Dhaulagiri - Nepal
  8. Manaslu- Nepal
  9. Nanga Parbat-Pakistan
  10. Annapurna- Nepal
4.Top Ten longest rivers in Asia :

  1. Yangtze 
  2. Yellow River 
  3. Lena River 
  4. Mekong River 
  5. Irtysh River 
  6. Yenisei River 
  7. Ob River 
  8. Nizhnyaya Tunguska River 
  9. Indus River
  10. Brahmaputra River
5.Asia is located to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.

6.Asia’s most dominant financial centers are Tokyo, Hong Kong and Singapore.

7.Asia is only continent joined by two other continents,Africa and Europe.


9.China is the world's biggest nation and it is located in Asia.

10.Asia is the only continent where tigers are found in the wild.

11.Caspian Sea is the Largest Salt Lake in Asia.

12.The Dead Sea or The Salt Sea is the lowest place on earth is situated in Asia.


          Things You Didn't Know About Thailand        

According to Time Magazine, Thailand's capital city of Bangkok welcomes the highest volume of visitors in the world, with Suvarnabhumi airport being the most geotagged location on Instagram. However, despite being one of Asia's top tourist destinations, there is much to discover about Thailand .

Here we share some interesting facts about Thailand that you may or may not have known.

 Bangkok is a version of the capital city's full ceremonial name which has a staggering 169 characters: Krungthepmahanakhon Amonrattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharatratchathaniburirom Udomratchaniwetmahasathan Amonphimanawatansathit Sakkathattiyawitsanukamprasit. This mouthful translates as " City of angels, great city of immortals, magnificent city of the nine gems, seat of the king, city of royal palaces, home of gods incarnate, erected by Visvakarman at Indra's behest ", and is learned by Thai schoolchildren in the form of a nursery rhyme. Despite it being officially the world's longest place name, it is not difficult to see why most Thais call it simply Krung Thep!  The world's smallest mammal can be found in Thailand; the Kitti's hog-nosed bat weighs just two grams.  Thailand's most unusual festivals is the annual Monkey Buffet which is held in front of the Pra Prang Sam Yot temple in Lopburi province. More than 600 monkeys are invited to feast on over two tonnes of grilled sausages, fresh fruit, ice cream and other treats. The locals see it as a thank you to the monkeys which inhabit the village and bring thousands of tourists there each year.  Another equally unusual event is the annual Phuket Vegetarian Festival where firewalking, body-piercing and other acts of sometimes gruesome self-mutilation are used to invoke the gods.  Buddhism is practiced by 95% of Thailand's population.  Muay Thai boxing is the national sport. Known as the " art of eight limbs ", the martial art uses punches, kicks, elbows and knees making it a particularly lethal form of self-defence.  Elephant polo is another popular pastime in Thailand. A key event in the sport's calendar is the King's Cup, hosted at the beach resort of Hua Hin.  Thailand has 1,430 islands, among the most famous of which is Koh Phi Phi Lee, featured in Danny Boyle's film The Beach.  The town of Kanchanburi is home to the famous ' Bridge over the River Kwai ' that forms part of the Burma-Siam railway. An estimated 80,000 to 100,000 lives were sacrificed in its construction.  Koh Phangan is Thailand's party island and is famous for its Full Moon parties, also hosting Half Moon and Black Moon versions.  Thais are immense royalists and it is an offence to insult the monarchy which includes a man being shirtless in public. On-the-spot fines are issued to those baring their chests publicly and although police won't arrest locals or tourists on the beaches, some have been stopped by city police while driving without a shirt on for " being topless upon the King's highway "!

 


Article by +https://plus.google.com/104516603036446499629?rel=author on behalf of Propertyshowrooms.com
          Esteri di ven 10/10        
1–La crisi nella crisi. La campagna occidentale contro lo Stato Islamico sta mettendo a nudo i tanti problemi dei curdi. L'unità del popolo sparso tra Turchia, Siria e Iraq non è per nulla scontata (Andrea Glioti, giornalista freelance). 2–La lotta agli islamisti radicali va oltre il Medio Oriente.La guerra dimentica in Mali (Raffaele Masto). 3-Il nobel per la pace 2014 a chi lavora per i diritti dei minori. Premiati la pakistana Malala Yousafzai e l'indiano Kailash Satyarthi. Per combattere lo sfruttamento dei bambini in Asia però ci vorrebbe molto altro (Stefano Vecchia). 4–Domenica le elezioni in Bosnia. Per la prima volta voterà chi è nato dopo la guerra. Ma il sistema politico è ancora dominato dalle divisioni etniche (Rodolfo Toè, Osservatorio Balacani e Caucaso Sarajevo). 5–L'austerità ha fallito. L'Europa è ancora in crisi. La riflessione di Alfredo Somoza. 6-“Fucili contro Burma”. Viaggio nello stato dei Kachin, tra Cina e Birmania. Il libro di Gabriele Battaglia.
          Chest Actives - Distinctive Breast enlargment option Formula - What exactly is it?        
Chest Actives could be the top-rated natural breast area growth program on the market. Excellent great breast actives marketing plan and plenty of convincing customer feedback. But some of us wonder what really matters will be what's inside Breasts Actives---the herbal what work to enhance the dimensions, appearance, and sense of the breasts. A few check it out.   Fenugreek An old medicinal flower, fenugreek's first recorded use goes for the old Egyptians. It is reputation for rousing breast growth is certainly known. Actually Turkish harem girls accustomed to bathe their chests in fenugreek seeds water to boost the dimensions and appearance of the bosoms.   Fenugreek consists of diosgenin, the steroid-like substance that is certainly mixed up in production with the junk progesterone. Progesterone assists breast growth by simply triggering puberty-like responses in ladies.   Fennel This specific herb continues to be useful for centuries to improve fuller breasts, increase single mother's milk, as well as boost sexual desire. Fennel consists of phyto-estrogens, that are biologically much like the estrogen that will stimulates breast expansion during puberty and also pregnancy. A single study showed that will after eating fennel seeds intended for week, the of breast growth in female rodents enhanced.   Lucky Thistle This supplement has been used like a hormonal balancing broker along with a general tonic for that female reproductive technique. It is . famous as being a digestive help. Actually , blessed thistle is approved by Germany's Commission Electronic for your take care of lack of appetite and acid reflux.   Beginning herbalists believed that will Blessed Thistle must have been a cure-all. That they noted the plant could avoid headaches, assist memory, and also strengthen the center and belly.   Knell Quai This comforting herb, referred to as feminine ginseng, consists of phyto-estrogens that induce breast expansion. Similar to ginseng, that stimulates blood circulation through the entire body and human brain. Maybe that is why very low reputation for treating dramatic changes inside mood and raising women's tones.   Mirofirm This can be the primary ingredient inside the Breast Actives product that you are currently likely to massage roof top breasts every single day. Mirofirm can be a plant within Thailand along with Burma and utilized by the indigenous slope tribe folks. It includes the substances miroestrol as well as deoxymiroestrol, which has been found to possess estrogen-like effects by the body processes which stimulates breasts development.   They are the most significant herbal ingredients in Breasts Actives, options for submission are others in which also do their own part to aid improve your chests.   Among the advantages of herbal treatments is the fact they're alternative. Basically, they deal with the entire person, not merely one a part of the body. Know it, a lot of the herbs in Breasts Actives are fantastic to your whole program. So with any luck ,, after seeking Breasts Actives, you won't simply have firmer, richer breasts, however you may just feel healthier general!
          HINDU, BUDHA, DAN ISLAM        
PERKEMBANGAN HINDU DAN BUDDHA DI ASIA SELATAN


Awal perkembangan Hindu-Buddha berlangsung di jazirah India, yang sekarang meliputi wilayah India, Pakistan, dan Bangladesh. Di sebelah utara jazirah ini terbentang pegunungan Himalaya, yang memisahkan jazirah tersebut dengan kawasan lain di Asia. Antara pegunungan Himalaya dan Hindu Kush (disebut juga pegunungan afghanistan) terdapat celah Kaibar (khyber pass). Sejak ribuan tahun, celah tersebut dilalui masyarakat India untuk berdagang dengan daerah-daerah lain di Asia. Melalui celah itu pula, berbagai bangsa asing memasuki wilayah India.

Di sebelah utara terdapat sungai-sungai besar, seperti Indus, Gangga, Yamuna, dan Brahmaputra. Wilayah sepanjang sungai-sungai itu subur sehingga amat strategis bagi perkembangan peradaban. Di wilayah sekitar sungai-sungai itulah, berkembang peradaban Hindu dan Buddha.

Perkembangan Hindu

Kata hindu berasal dari bahasa persia, yang berarti “sungai”. Sejak ribuan tahun sebelum masehi, orang persia menjuluki penduduk kota-kota di lembah sungai indus sebagai bangsa hindu. Sebutan itu berlaku pula untuk kepercayaan (agama) yang dianut oleh mereka itu, yang kita kenal sebagai agama hindu. Kata hindu dalam bahasa sansekerta adalah shindu.

Sebelum hindu muncul, di lembah sungai indus (termasuk wilayah pakistan) telah berkembang peradaban yang mengagumkan. Peradaban ini berlangsung antara 3000 – 2000 SM. Peradaban lembah indus ditandai oleh pendirian kota-kota teratur, antara lain Harappa dan Mahenjo Daro.

Penduduk lembah sungai indus berasal dari bangsa Dravida. Mereka telah mengenal tata kota, sistem tulisan gambar (pictogram), dan kepercayaan. Memasuki tahun 1500 SM, peradaban lembah indus mengalami kemunduran. Ketika itulah, terjadi invansi bangsa Arya melalui celah kaibar.

Kelahiran hindu berawal dari kedatangan bangsa arya ke jazirah India. Sejak tahun 1500 SM, bangsa pengembara (nomadik) yang berasal dari Asia Tengah ini datang secara bergelombang. Mereka menaklukkan kota-kota di lembah sungai indus bagian utara, yang tadinya dikuasai oleh penduduk asli dari bangsa dravida (atau dasasi, yang berarti “gelap” karena bangsa ini berkulit hitam, sedangkan arya berkulit putih).

Sejak invasi tersebut, bangsa arya mengambil alih kekuasaan politi, sosial, dan ekonomi. Mereka menguasai pemerintahan, mengatur organisasi masyarakat, dan menguasai perdagangan. Akan tetapi, dalam kebudayaan terjadi percampuran (asimilasi) antara arya dan dravida. Percampuran budaya itu menghasilkan kebudayaan weda (vedic civilization). Kebudayaan inilah yang menjadi perintis kebudayaan dan agama hindu.

Agama hindu mucul dan berkembang di sepanjang sungai indus, gangga, yamuna dan brahmaputra. Di kawasan tersebut bermunculan kota-kota yanng ramai, seperti Ayodhya, Magadha, Sanchi, Sarnath, dan Ujjain. Penyebaran bangsa arya ke India dapat dibedakan menjadi dua periode, yaitu :
1. Masa weda awal (1500 – 1000 SM) : periode perintis, bangsa arya mulai menetap dan mendirikan kota-kota di lembah sungai indus dan gangga.
2. Masa weda akhir (1000 – 500 SM) : periode perkembangan, bangsa arya membangun masyarakat, pemerintahan, dan agama.

Kehidupan Keagamaan

Kehidupan keagamaan hindu berpedoman pada kitab weda (veda, yang berarti “pengetahuan”). Kitab berbahasa sansekerta tersebut memuat ajaran dan petunjuk kehidupan dalam bentuk himne ataupun syair. Pada mulanya, ajaran dalam weda disajikan secara lisan. Barulah berabad-abad setelah masyarakat hindu berkembang pesat, ajaran itu ditulis dalam buku. Kitab weda hanya dibaca oleh para brahmana.

Kitab-kitab suci umat hindu terdiri atas :
1. Kitab weda
2. Kitab brahmana
3. Kitab upanisad
4. Kitab mahabhrata
5. Kitab ramayana

Kitab suci weda terdiri atas empat bagian yaitu :
1. Regweda (bagian yang berisi syair-syair pemujaan dewa)
2. Samaweda (bagian yang berisi nyanyian untuk memuja dewa)
3. Yayurweda (bagian yang berisi mantra-mantra untuk keselamatan)
4. Atharwaweda (bagian yang berisi mantra-mantra penolak bahaya)

Kitab brahmana adalah kitab tafsir mengenai weda karena kitab weda sangat sulit dipahami. Golongan yang memahami isi kitab weda hanyalah golongan brahmana. Oleh karena itu, golongan brahmana menganggap merekalah yang paling tinggi kedudukannya.

Kitab upanisad juga kitab suci, isinya mengenai rahasia hidup. Upanisad juga berarti duduk dekat guru untuk menerima pelajaran-pelajaran gaib mengenai rahasia dunia. Semua kitab suci ditulis dengan bahasa sansekerta. Bahasa itu dianggap suci oleh umat hindu.

Selain kitab-kitab tersebut di atas, umat hindu mengenal pula cerita-cerita kepahlawanan (epos). Cerita-cerita itu ditulis dalam kitab Mahabharata dan kitab Ramayana.

Pokok cerita dalam kitab Mahabharata adalah kisah peperangan antara pandawa lima (lima bersaudara) dan kurawa (seratus bersaudara). Perang yang terjadi diantara kedua belah pihak disebabkan perebutan kota Hastinapura. Perang itu terjadi di Kurusetra selama delapan belas hari yang diakhiri dengan kemenangan Pandawa Lima. Seluruh anggota keluarga kurawa mati terbunuh.

Kitab Ramayana dikarang oleh Walmiki. Di dalam kitab ini dikisahkan bahwa istri Rama yang bernama Dewi Shinta diculik oleh Rahwana (Dasamuka). Akibat penculikan itu timbul perang besar yang diakhiri dengan terbunuhnya Rahwana.

Untuk menjaga kemurnian golongan, umat hindu mengadakan pelapisan atau pembagian kasta, yaitu :
1. Kasta Brahmana, (golongan pendeta)
2. Kasta Ksatria, (golongan bangsawan, raja-raja, dan prajurit)
3. Kasta waisya, (golongan pedagang dan pegawai)
4. Kasta Sudra, (golongan budak dan pekerja kasar)
5. Kasta Pariya, (golongan yang ditolak)

Pada mulanya, kepercayaan hindu bercorak polytheisme (memuja banyak dewa). Masing-masing dewa mewakili kekuatan alam. Dewa-Dewi menurut kepercayaan Hindu Kuno, antara lain :
1. Indra, sebagai dewa guntur
2. Agni, sebagai dewa api
3. Mitra, sebagai dewa matahari
4. Varuna, sebagai dewa air
5. Rudra, sebagai dewa angin
6. Phritivi, sebagai dewi bumi
7. Yama, sebagai dewa kematian
8. Ganesha, sebagai dewa ilmu pengetahuan
9. Kartikeya, sebagai dewa perang
10. Hanuman, sebagai dewa kera
11. Saraswati, sebagai dewi seni
12. Lakshmi, sebagai dewi keberuntungan
13. Khrisna dan lain-lain

Sejak sekita tahun 700 SM, muncul pembaharuan dalam kepercayaan Hindu. Kepercayaan masih bercorak polytheis, namun telah mengakui 3 dewa sebagai dewa tertinggi. Tiga dewa itu disebut Trimurti, terdiri atas Brahma (Dewa Pencipta) kendaraannya berupa angsa, Wisnu (Dewa Pemelihara) kendaraannya berupa burung garuda, dan Syiwa (Dewa Perusak) kendaraanya berupa lembu.

Kehidupan keagamaan masyarakat hindu juga ditandai oleh ibadah, ziarah, dan perayaan suci :
• Ibadah dilakukan di rumah dan kuil (candi). Rumah ibadah umat Hindu di Bali disebut dengan Pura.
• Ziarah dilakukan ke tempat-tempat suci, seperti kota Benares dan Sungai Gangga. Kota Benares suci karena dianggap sebagai kediaman Dewa Syiwa. Di kota ini juga terdapat ribuan candi dan tempat-tempat pembakaran mayat (kremasi). Sungai gangga menurut kepercayaan umat hindu di India, airnya dapat membersihakan atau mensucikan dosa-dosa. Apapun dosa yang telah dibuat seseorang, asalkan ia mau merendamkan badannya di sungai gangga maka ia akan suci kembali. Abu jenazah juga dihanyutkan di sungai gangga dengan anggapan bahwa aliran sungai akan membawanya sampa ke nirwana (surga).
• Perayaan suci dilakukan pada hari-hari besar, seperti, Raksha-Bandhan, Diwali, Navaratri, dan Dusserah. di Indonesia perayaan suci umat hindu antara lain Hari raya Nyepi, Galungan, Kuningan, Saraswati, Pagerwesi, dan Siwaratri.

Beberapa hal lainnya yang masih berhubungan dengan masalah kepercayaan umat hindu, adalah :
1. Reinkarnasi, penganut agama hindu percaya bahwa setiap orang yang telah meninggal akan hidup kembali, mati kembali, hidup kembali, dan seterusnya. Derajat hidup yang akan datang tergantung dari perbuatannya sekarang (karma).
2. Samsara, lahir, hidup, mati, berulang kali disebut samsara (sengsara). Setiap orang sedapat mungkin menjalani empat tahap kehidupan agar bisa terlepas dari samsara. Empat tahapan kehidupan agar manusia dapat terlepas dari sengsara adalah :
a) Brahmacarin. Pada tahap ini, seorang anak yang berumur 10 tahun harus meninggalkan orang tuanya. Ia masuk ke dalam hutan untuk mencari dan menemukan seorang guru/pendeta guna menuntut ilmu. Ia mempelajari weda dan ilmu-ilmu lainnya sambil mengabdi kepada gurunya.
b) Grahasta. Pada tahap ini, orang tersebut kembali ke masyarakat ramai dan menjalani hidup seperti biasa. Ia boleh berkeluarga dan memiliki keturunan. Setelah anak-anaknya dewasa dan mandiri, ia harus kembali ke hutan untuk bertapa.
c) Wanaprashta. Sebagai wanaprashta atau penghuni hutan, ia harus kembali mencari tempat sunyi untuk bersemadi. Semadi itu ia jalani hingga mencapai moksa (kesempurnaan hidup).
d) Sanyatsi/Pariwrajaka. Jika tahap ketiga telah terlewati, orang tersebut tinggal menunggu mati dan masuk ke nirwana (surga).

Pemujaan terhadap para dewa dipimpin oleh seorang pendeta yang disebut brahmana. Dalam Agama Hindu ada lima keyakinan dan kepercayaan yang disebut dengan Pancasradha. Pancasradha merupakan keyakinan dasar umat Hindu. Kelima keyakinan tersebut, yakni:
1. Widhi Tattwa: percaya kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan segala aspeknya
2. Atma Tattwa: percaya dengan adanya jiwa dalam setiap makhluk
3. Karmaphala Tattwa: percaya dengan adanya hukum sebab-akibat dalam setiap perbuatan
4. Punarbhawa Tattwa: percaya dengan adanya proses kelahiran kembali (reinkarnasi)
5. Moksa Tattwa: percaya bahwa kebahagiaan tertinggi merupakan tujuan akhir manusia



Perkembangan Buddha

Kelahiran buddha tidak bisa dilepaskan dari sosok Siddharta Gautama. Tokoh dari kasta ksatria ini lahir di Kapilawastu (563 SM), di kaki pengunungan Himalaya (sekarang termasuk wilayah Nepal), dari suku Sakya. Sejak bayi ia diramalkan menjadi tokoh agama besar setelah mengalami banyak penderitaan. Untuk mencegah ramalan itu menjadi kenyataan, Raja Suddodhana mengurung puteranya dalam lingkungan istana. Tindakannya itu dimaksudkan agar Siddharta sama sekali tidak menyaksikan dan mengalami berbagai bentuk penderitaan. Sampai menikah dan memiliki putera, Siddharta Gautama bergelimang dengan kemewahan dan kenikmatan. Ibunda siddharta adalah Permaisuri Maya.

Saat berusia 29 tahun, Siddharta berkeliling ke desa-desa di sekitar istana. Ketika itulah, ia menjumpai kenyataan yang belum pernah dilihat selama hidupnya : orang tua, jenzah, yang diangkut dengan keranda, orang sakit, dan rahib (pendeta). Untuk pertama kalinya, ia melihat tanda-tanda penderitaan : usia tua, penyakit, dan kematian. Sejak saat itu, ia selalu merasa gelisah. Pengalaman akan penderitaan terus menghantui pikirannya. Ketika itulah, ia memutuskan untuk mencari jawaban apa sebenarnya hidup ini.

Untuk menemukan makna kehidupan, Siddharta Gautama meninggalkan istana dan keluarganya. Ia menanggalkan semua kemewahan yang melekat di tubuhnya, dan berganti pakaian seperti rahib. Selama enam tahun, ia belajar cara hidup sebagai rahib, seperti pertapa, berpuasa, dan hidup prihatin. Ia mengembara dari satu tempat ke tempat lain, berguru pada sejumlah rahib ternama, antara lain Alara Kalama dan Uddaka Ramaputta.

Suatu ketika, Siddharta Gautama tiba di tepi desa Gaya, dekat Bihar, di kawasan lembah sungai gangga. Di bawah pohon, ia bersila untuk bertapa. Di tempat itulah, ia memperoleh penerangan : menjadi paham tentang makna kehidupan. Peristiwa itu menandai Siddharta Gautama menjadi Buddha. Untuk selanjutnya, tempat Buddha memperoleh penerangan dinamakan Bodh Gaya. Pohon tempat ia bertapa dinamakan pohon Bodhi.

Masyarakat buddhis terbentuk setelah sang buddha mengajarkan pengalaman penerangannya kepada sejumlah orang. Khotbah pertamanya terjadi di taman rusa Isipathana, di Sarnath, Benares. Di tempat itu, ia memperoleh empat muridnya yang pertama. Khotbah keliling yang dilakukan buddha dan para muridnya mengundang banyak pengikut. Ada pengikut yang mengikuti cara hidup buddha sebagai rahib. Mereka disebut bikkhu (rahib pria) dan bikkhuni (rahib wanita). Mereka hidup dalam satu komunitas (kelompok) yang dinamakan sangha. Di samping itu, ada pula pengikut yang tetap dalam pekerjaannya sehari-hari. Mereka dinamakan ummat.

Masyarakat buddhis tidak mengenal kasta. Baik rahib maupun ummat sama-sama disebut putera dan puteri buddha. Keduanya mendukung satu sama lain dalam mengamalkan ajaran buddha, yang disebut dharma. Ummat bertanggunjawab memenuhi kebutuhan para rahib, berupa makanan, pakaian, dan tempat berteduh. Sebaliknya, rahib bertanggungjawab memenuhi kebutuhan rohani ummat, melalui nasehat dan teladan hidup sesuai ajaran buddha. Buddha, dharma, dan sangha merupakan suatu kesatuan yang disebut Triratna (tiga permata). Pengikut buddha berarti orang yang mengabdikan diri pada triratna. Pemeluk agama Buddha wajib melaksanakan tiga ikrar (Tri Ratna), yaitu: berlindung kepada Buddha, berlindung kepada Dharma (ajaran) agama Buddha, dan berlindung kepada Sangha (perkumpulan) masyarakat pemeluk agama Buddha.




Kehidupan Keagamaan

Kehidupan keagamaan buddha berpedoman kepada Kitab Tripitaka. Tripitaka berarti “ tiga keranjang” karena ditulis pada daun lontar yang disimpan dalam keranjang. Kitab tersebut ditulis dalam bahasa Pali, bahasa percakapan sehari-hari. Itulah sebabnya, kitab tersebut boleh dibaca oleh semua kalangan.

Ajaran buddha terangkum dalam empat kebenaran utama dan delapan jalan kebenaran serta Pratityasamutpada. Ajaran itu berdasarkan pengalaman Siddharta Gautama, mulai dari kekagetannya menyaksikan penderitaan lalu pengembaraannya mencari makna kehidupan.
1. Empat kebenaran utama (Aryasatyani) :
• Hidup ditandai oleh penderitaan (dukkha).
• Penderitaan disebabkan oleh Tresna yaitu bersumber pada keserakahan, kebencian, dan ketidaktahuan.
• Sumber penderitaan dapat dihentikan dengan menindas tresna untuk mencapai kebahagiaan (nirwana).
• Ada delapan cara untuk mencapai kebahagiaan (Astavidha) :
 Memiliki pandangan atau ajaran yang benar.
 Memiliki niat atau sikap yang benar.
 Berkata yang benar.
 Berkelakuan benar
 Berusaha dengan benar
 Memiliki perhatian yang benar.
 Penghidupan atau mata pencaharian yang benar.
 Dan bersemedi yang benar.
2. Pratityasamutpada. Artinya, rantai sebab akibat yang terdiri atas dua belas hal. Kedua belas hal itu saling berkaitan dan masing-masing merupakan sebab dari hal berikutnya atau menjadi akibat dari hal terdahulu.

Kehidupan keagamaan masyarakat buddhis juga ditandai oleh ibadah, ziarah, dan perayaan suci :
• Ibadah dilakukan di rumah dan candi. Ibadah terutama dilakukan dengan cara meditasi. Rumah ibadah umat buddha disebut dengan Vihara.
• Ziarah dilakukan ke tempat-tempat suci, yang terkait dengan perjalanan hidup sang Buddha. Seperti, Kapilawastu tempat Siddharta Gautama Lahir, Bodhgaya tempat siddharta Gautama mencapai moksa, Taman Rusa di Desa Sarnath dekat Benares tempat mula-mula Buddha mencapai moksa dan mengajarkannya, Kusinagara tempat Buddha wafat.
• Perayaan suci dilakukan pada hari-hari besar, seperti Hari Raya Waisak.

Ada dua aliran besar dalam agama buddha, yakni :
1. Aliran Hinayana (Theravada). Penganut buddha hinayana menjalani hidup yang ketat. Mereka banyak menggunakan waktu untuk meditasi. Dari India, aliran ini menyebar ke Srilanka, dan daratan Asia Tenggara.
2. Aliran Mahayana. Penganut buddha mahayana aktif dalam kesejahteraan dan pendidikan. Aliran ini menyebar ke Asia Timur, berpusat di Cina dan Jepang.

Kitab suci agama buddha adalah tripitaka yang terdiri atas tiga bagian, yaitu :
1. Winayapitaka. Berisi tentang hukum dan aturan-aturan hidup di dunia.
2. Sutrantapitaka. Berisi ajaran-ajaran Buddha Gautama.
3. Abidharmapitaka. Berisi tentang penjelasan-penjelasan dan kupasan mengenai soal-soal keagamaan.

Pada akhir abad ke-3 SM, yang memerintah India adalah Raja Ashoka (272 – 232 SM). Mula-mula ia penganut agama hindu yang paling bengis. Pemerintahannya selama 13 tahun diwarnai dengan peperangan dan penaklukan. Penjara-penjara untuk para tawanan terkenal dengan sebutan “Neraka Ashoka”. Dalam perangnya dengan kerajaan Kalingga, Ashoka mengambil keputusan memeluk agama buddha. Ia kemudian menjadikan agama buddha sebagai agama negara. Sebagai penganut yang taat, ia juga giat menyiarkan agama itu. Salah satu caranya ialah ia menyuruh memahatkan ajaran agama buddha pada tiang-tiang batu yang dikenal dengan sebutan “Tiang-tiang Ashoka”. Untuk menyiarkan agama buddha keluar India, raja Ashoka mengirim puteranya bernama Mahendra bersama sejumlah biksu lainnya ke berbagai negara, seperti Pakistan, Afganistan, Tibet, Srilanka, Mongolia, Burma, Thailand, Cina, Korea, Jepang, dan Indonesia.

PERKEMBANGAN AGAMA DAN KERAJAAN-KERAJAAN HINDU-BUDDHA DI INDONESIA


Sumber sejarah tentang masuknya agama hindu-buddha dan keterlibatan Indonesia dalam hubungan mancanegara, diperoleh dari beberapa sumber, antara lain :
1. Berita dari Cina
Menurut catatan dari dinasti Han, dinasti Sung, dinasti Yuan, dan dinasti Ming, sejak awal masehi telah terjadi hubungan dagang antara Cina dan Indonesia. Hubungan dagang itu terbukti dari banyaknya barang-barang keramik (porselin) Cina yang ditemukan di Indonesia. Melalui hubungan dagang ini juga, diduga masuknya agama hindu-buddha ke Indonesia melalui penyebaran yang dilakukan oleh pedagang-pedagang mancanegara seperti Cina dan India. Berita lainnya berasal dari Fa-Hien, seorang musafir cina yang terdampar di Tolomo selama 5 bulan, dalam perjalanannya dari India ke Cina. Selama tinggal di kerajaan itu, ia sangat terkesan dengan keterampilan para pedagang di sana dalam menawarkan dagangannya, terutama beras dan kayu jati. Ternyata, yang dimaksud dengan Tolomo ini adalah Tarumanegara, kerajaan yang muncul di Jawa Barat sekitar abad ke-5 M. Berita cina lainnya berupa catatan I Tsing ( I Ching ), seorang peziarah dan rahib buddha. Dalam catatannya, ia menuliskan kesan tentang Sriwijaya sebagai salah satu pusat Buddhisme di Asia, pada abad ke-7 M. Sriwijaya pantas disejajarkan dengan pusat buddhisme di India dan Cina, karena di tempat itulah para rahib dapat belajar bahasa Sansekerta dan Pali sebelum berangkat ke India.
2. Berita dari Yunani.
Sumber berita dari Yunani berasal dari tulisan seorang ahli geografi bernama Claudius Ptolomeus. Dalam tulisannya itu, ia memberitakan bahwa kapal-kapal dari Alexandria berlayar melalui Teluk Persia ke bandar-bandar di India seperti Baybaza di Cambay dan Majuri di Cochin (India Selatan). Dari daerah ini, kapal-kapal melanjutkan pelayaran ke bandar-bandar di pantai timur India, kemudian berlayar terus ke arah timur sampai ke suatu kepulauan Aurea Chersonnesus. Di kepulauan itu, kapal-kapal singgah di Barousae, Sinda, Sabadiba, dan Labadium. Aurea Chersonnesus tidak lain adalah Indonesia, sedangkan Barousae adalah Baros (bandar dagang kuno di pantai barat sumatera), Sinda adalah Sunda, Sabadiba adalah Svarnadwipa (sumatra), dan Iabadium adalah Javadwipa (Jawa). Sumber berita lainnya dari Yunani berupa semacam petunjuk pelayaran ke laut yang disebut Erythraea, kata Yunani kuno untuk lautan India. Petunjuk itu menyebutkan 27 pelabuhan tempat dilakukannya perdagangan mancanegara. Tempat yang disebut itu termasuk bandar-bandar di Indonesia.
3. Berita dari India.
Berita India yang tertua terdapat dalam kitab kuno Ramayana. Kita tersebut menyebutkan bahwa ketika Dewi Shinta diculik oleh Rahwana, Hanuman mencarinya sampai ke Javadwipa. Meskipun bukan kejadian nyata, kitab itu ditulis berdasarkan pengetahuan akan kedudukan Pulau Jawa yang strategis dalam dunia perdagangan masa itu. Sumber lainnya berasal dari Piagam Nalanda. Piagam tersebut menyebutkan bahwa kerajaan Sriwijaya memegang peran kunci utama untuk masuk ke wilayah nusantara. Diberitakan bahwa kerajaan tersebut memiliki dua pelabuhan penting di selat Malaka, yaitu bandar sriwijaya di Pulau Sumatera dan bandar katana di lingor di semenanjung melayu. Kedua bandar itu merupakan pusat perdagangan hasil hutan dan perkebunan berupa lada, kayu gaharu, dan kelembak. Kedua bandar itu juga merupakan pusat perdagangan barang tambang, seperti emas dan timah. Di samping itu, kedua bandar sriwijaya tersebut berperan juga sebagai bandar transit barang-barang yang terkenal dari tempat lain di nusantara.
4. Berita dari Arab.
Para saudagar dan ahli-ahli geografi bangsa arab menulis tentang Indonesia sejak abad ke-6 M. Mereka sering menyebut kerajaan bernama Zabaq atau Sribuza, yang dimaksud adalah Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Raihan Al Beruni menulis sebuah kitab tentang India. Dalam buku itu, ia menyebutkan bahwa pulau-pulau di zabaq bernama Suwarndib yang berarti “pulau-pulau emas”. Kemudian, berita arab yang lain menyebutkan seluruh nusantara dengan nama sribuza yang banyak menghasilkan kayu wangi. Jadi, zabaq atau sribuza terkenal sebagai salah satu pusat perdagangan dan negeri yang kaya akan emas.
5. Berita dari Indo-Cina
Berita Vietnam dari abad ke-8 M mencatat peristiwa serangan dari Jawa dan “pulau-pulau selatan”. Serangan itu dilakukan oleh pasukan Syailendra terhadap pusat kerajaan Chenla di Vyadhapura. Berita tersebut diperkuat oleh catatan Champa, juga dari abad ke-8 M. Catatan tersebut menyebutkan penyerangan pasukan jawa sempat menghancurkan sejumlah kuil, dan berkuasa sementara di sebagian wilayah Kampuchea. Kedua berita tersebut menisyaratkan Syailendra sebagai kerajaan yang disegani di Asia Tenggara. Berita indo-cina lainnya berupa prasasti di Nakhon si Thammarat, sebelah selatan Thailand, dari abad ke-8 M. Prasasti ini melaporkan dibangunnya sejumlah tempat suci dan biara, buddha oleh raja sriwijaya. Laporan serupa terdapat dalam prasasti di Kra, sebelah selatan Thailand, dari abad ke-8 M. Prasasti itu melaporkan raja sriwijaya mendirikan sejumlah bangunan suci buddha dalam rangka merayakan kemenangan menaklukkan semenanjung melayu. Kedua berita tersebut mengisyaratkan keaktifan sriwijaya menyebarluaskan agama Buddha di wilayah kekuasaannya.
6. Berita dari dalam negeri.
• Prasasti tertua di Indonesia, seperti prasasti Mulawarman di Kalimantan Timur, prasasti Purnwawarman (Tarumanegara) di Jawa Barat, prasasti Canggal di Jawa Tengah, dan prasasti Dinoyo di Jawa Timur. Semua prasasti itu ditulis dalam bahasa sansekerta dan huruf Pallawa. Bahasa dan huruf itu biasa dipakai di India pada masa kuno. Berarti, telah dikenalnya sistem tulisan India di Indonesia menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara Indonesia dan India.
• Bangunan-bangunan kuno dan benda-benda purbakala, seperti candi dan arca. Bangunan itu memperlihatkan pengaruh Hindu-Buddha yang berasal dari India. Diantara bangunan kuno bercorak Hindu-Buddha itu, ada juga beberapa bagian yang memperlihatkan pengaruh Cina.
• Kitab-kitab kuno, yang terdiri atas buku syair, kitab agama, kitab hukum, dan cerita prosa, seperti kitab Pararaton, Smaradhana, Arjunawiwaha, dan Negarakertagama. Sistem tulisan yang digunakan dalam kitab-kitab ini memperlihatkan pengaruh India.

Proses dan Jalur Masuknya Hindu-Buddha ke Indonesia

Hindu-Buddha merupakan agama yang diakui keberadaannya di Indonesia. Hari-hari besar keagamaannya diperlakukan sama dengan agama besar lainnya di Indonesia, Islam. Bagaimana proses masuk dan berkembangnya agama ini di Nusantara? Ternyata ada beberapa aliran pendapat tentang proses masuknya Hindu-Buddha ke Indonesia.
a. Waisya
Menurut aliran ini, pengaruh Hindu-Buddha masuk karena dibawa oleh para
pedagang yang banyak menikah dengan penduduk asli. Mereka menikah karena harus tinggal untuk waktu minimal 6 bulan sambil menunggu pergantian musim untuk kembali ke negaranya. Pendapat ini didukung oleh N.J. Krom dan Purbacaraka.
b. Brahmana
Menurut aliran ini, pengaruh Hindu-Buddha masuk karena dibawa oleh para
brahmana yang mendapat undangan dari para penguasa untuk menobatkan para raja, mempimpin upacara keagamaan, dan mengajarkan ilmu pengetahuan. Dari istana, agama ini kemudian menyebar ke seluruh kerajaan. Pendapat ini didukung oleh J.C. van Leur.
c. Ksatria
Menurut aliran ini, pengaruh Hindu-Buddha masuk karena dibawa oleh para ksatria
yang kalah perang di India. Mereka mendirikan koloni di Nusantara dan menyebarkan agama Hindu-Buddha di Nusantara. Pendapat ini didukung oleh C.C. Berg dan Majumdar.

d. Arus Balik
Menurut aliran ini, pengaruh Hindu-Buddha masuk karena para brahmana,
pedagang, juga orang-orang Indonesia sendiri. Ada yang berdagang, ada pula yang sengaja datang ke India untuk belajar. Ketika kembali, mereka menyebarkan agama baru yang mereka dapatkan di India. Pendapat ini didukung oleh George Coedes dan FDK Bosch.



Pengaruh Agama Hindu-Buddha di Indonesia

Pengaruh agama dan kebudayaan Hindu-Buddha terjadi pada berbagai aspek kehidupan masyarakat. Aspek-aspek tersebut meliputi bidang sosial, teknologi, kesenian, juga pendidikan.
a. Bidang Sosial
Di bidang sosial, tradisi Hindu-Buddha berpengaruh terhadap sistem kemasyarakatan dan pemerintahan. Dalam sistem pemerintahan asli Indonesia, masyarakat Indonesia tersusun dalam kelompok-kelompok desa yang dipimpin oleh kepala suku. Sistem itu kemudian terpengaruh oleh ajaran Hindu-Buddha. Timbul kerajaan-kerajaan Hindu-Buddha.
b. Bidang Teknologi
Perhatikanlah Candi Borobudur dan Candi Prambanan. Dapatkah kamu bayangkan bahwa ratusan tahun yang lalu, telah ada teknologi yang mampu digunakan untuk membuat bangunan begitu indah? Peninggalan Hindu-Buddha dalam bidang seni bangunan (arsitektur) yang berkembang di Indonesia adalah yang berupa candi, yupa, dan prasasti. Candi di Indonesia berbentuk punden bertingkat yang digunakan sebagai makam raja dan bagian atas punden bertingkat itu dibuatkan patung rajanya. Adapun candi di India berbentuk stupa bulat yang digunakan sebagai tempat sembahyang atau memuja dewa. Candi yang bercorak Hindu antara lain Candi Prambanan dan Candi Dieng. Candi yang bercorak Buddha antara lain Candi Borobudur dan Candi Kalasan.
c. Kesenian
Kamu pernah melihat tarian Bali atau menyaksikan seni beladiri Kongfu? Itulah contoh pengaruh tradisi kebudayaan Hindu-Buddha yang masih kita temui saat ini. Pengaruh tradisi Hindu-Buddha di Indonesia tampak juga pada bidang kesenian, khususnya seni rupa dan seni sastra. Dalam bidang seni rupa, banyak kita ditemui hiasanhiasan pada dinding candi (relief) yang sesuai dengan unsur India. Di bidang seni sastra, pengaruh tradisi Hindu Buddha terlihat pada penggunaan huruf Pallawa dan bahasa Sanskerta pada prasasti-prasasti. Ada juga hasil kesusastraan Indonesia yang sumbernya dari India, yaitu cerita Ramayana dan Mahabrata yang dijadikan lakon wayang. Banyak kitab Hindu-Buddha yang menjadi aset bangsa saat ini. Di antaranya Negarakertagama dan Barathayudha.
d. Bidang Pendidikan
Di bidang pendidikan, pengaruh tradisi Hindu-Buddha dapat kita lihat bahwa sampai akhir abad ke-15, ilmu pengetahuan berkembang pesat, khususnya di bidang sastra, bahasa, dan hukum. Kaum Brahmana adalah kelompok yang berwewenang memberikan pendidikan dan pengajaran dalam masyarakat Hindu-Buddha. Salah satu hasil dari perkembangan pendidikan, dikemukakan oleh I-Tsing, bahwa di Sriwijaya terdapat "universitas" yang dapat menampung ratusan mahasiswa biarawan Buddha untuk belajar agama.



Kerajaan-Kerajaan Hindu-Buddha dan Peninggalannya di Indonesia

Agama dan kebudayaan Hindu-Buddha yang berasal dari India menyebar ke Asia termasuk Indonesia. Di Indonesia, pengaruh Hindu-Buddha sangat besar sehingga muncul kerajaan-kerajaan bercorak Hindu-Buddha. Banyak kerajaan bercorak HinduBuddha di Indonesia. Kerajaan-kerajaan tersebut ialah Kutai, Tarumanegara, Holing, Sriwijaya, Mataram Kuno, Kanjuruhan, Singosari, Kediri, Sunda, Bali, dan Majapahit. Beberapa di antaranya akan dijelaskan berikut ini.

a. Kerajaan Kutai

Kerajaan Kutai terletak di Kalimantan Timur, daerah Muara Kaman di tepi Sungai Mahakam. Berdasarkan informasi yang ditemukan pada tujuh prasasti berupa yupa yang ditulis dengan huruf Pallawa, dengan bahasa Sanskerta, diketahui bahwa Kutai merupakan kerajaan Hindu tertua di Indonesia. Kerajaan yang dikenal juga dengan sebutan Negeri Tujuh Yupa diperkirakan berdiri pada tahun 400 M. Dalam prasasti tersebut terdapat informasi yang menyangkut kehidupan politik, pemerintahan, sosial, budaya, dan ekonomi Kerajaan Kutai seperti berikut.

Raja pertama yang memerintah Kutai bernama Kudungga. Raja Kudungga memiliki putra bernama Aswawarman. Aswawarman memiliki putra Mulawarman. Dilihat dari nama, Kudungga bukanlah nama Hindu, tetapi nama Indonesia asli. Nama Aswawarman dan Mulawarman adalah nama-nama berbau Hindu. warman berarti pakaian perang. Penambahan nama itu diberikan dalam upacara penobatan raja secara agama Hindu. Keluarga Kudungga pernah melakukan upacara Vratyastoma, yaitu upacara Hindu untuk penyucian diri sebagai syarat masuk pada kasta Ksatria. Berdasarkan nama dan gelar yang disandangnya, Kerajaan Kutai yang bercorak Hindu berawal dari pemerintahan Aswawarman.

Setelah Raja Aswawarman, Kutai diperintah oleh Mulawarman, putranya pada abad ke-4. Raja Mulawarman disebutkan sebagai seorang raja besar yang sangat mulia dan baik budinya. Pada masa pemerintahan Mulawarman, Kutai merupakan kerajaan yang kaya dan makmur. Sang Raja memberikan 20.000 ekor sapi kepada para Brahmana.

Peninggalan dari Kutai adalah 7 (tujuh) prasasti yang ditulis dengan huruf Pallawa, dengan bahasa Sanskerta. Semua prasastinya tertulis pada Yupa, yaitu tugu dari batu yang berfungsi sebagai tiang untuk menambatkan hewan yang akan dikorbankan. Dalam Yupa Kutai itu dapat kita ketahui tantang:
a. Berisi silsilah : Kundungga berputera Acwawarman yang seperti dewa matahari. Acwawarman berputera tiga – seperti api tiga. Dari ketiga putra tersebut, Mulawarman raja yang baik, kuat dan kuasa. Sang Mulawarman telah mengadakan kenduri (selamatan), mengadakan korban, maka didirikanlah tugu oleh para Brahmana.
b. Tempat sedekah : Sang Mulawarman, raja yang mulia dan terkemuka telah memberi sedekah 20.000 ekor lembu kepada para Brahmana di tempat tanah yang sangat suci “Waprakecvara”.
c. Macam-macam sedekah yang lain seperti : wijen, malai bunga, lampu dan lain-lain.

Dari berita prasasti-prasasti tersebut dapat diketahui bagaimanakah keadaan sosial, ekonomi dan pemerintahan di Kutai.
a. Raja Mulawarman disebut sebagai raja yang terbesar di Kutai, sebab menaklukkan raja-raja sekitarnya.
b. Segi sosial, masyarakat mengenal kasta-kasta karena pengaruh India. Keluarga Kundungga pernah melakukan upacara Vratyastoma, yaitu upacara penyucian diri untuk masuk pada kasta Ksatria.
c. Segi ekonomi : disebutkan raja menghadiahkan 20.000 ekor lembu, berarti peternakan maju, begitupun dalam bidang pertanian, karena Kutai terletak di tepi sungai. Dengan demikian Kutai merupakan kerajaan yang makmur. Namun perlu dicatat bahwa Kutai ini luput dari perhatian Cina.

2. Kerajaan Tarumanegara

Letak kerajaan Tarumanegara adalah di Jawa Barat diantara tiga daerah, Karawang – Jakarta - Bogor. Peninggalannya tujuh prasasti berhuruf Pallawa berbahasa Sansekerta. Tidak berangka tahun, dilihat dari langgam hurufnya atau bentuk hurufnya prasasti tersebut ditulis ± abad V M. Sumbernya : prasasti dan berita dari luar negeri, terutama dari Cina. Nama ketujuh prasasti tersebut yaitu :

1. Prasasti Ciaruteun
Terdapat gambar dua telapak kaki dengan tulisan huruf Palawa dan bahasa Sanskerta: Inilah dua kaki yang seperti kaki Dewa Wisnu, ialah kaki yang mulia Sang Purnawarman di negeri Taruma, raja yang gagah berani di dunia.
2. Prasasti Kebon Kopi
Terdapat gambar dua kaki gajah. Isinya: 'Inilah dua telapak kaki gajah yang seperti Airawata, gajah penguasa negeri Taruma yang gagah perkasa.' Tapak kaki dipuja merupakan ajaran Hindu Vaisnawa: raja dianggap keturunan Dewa.
3. Prasasti Jambu
Terdapat gambar sepasang kaki dengan tulisan 'gagah mengagumkan dan jujur terhadap tugas adalah pemimpin manusia yang tiada taranya yang termasyur Sri Purnawarman yang memerintah di Taruma dan baju zirahnya yang terkenal tidak dapat ditembus senjata musuh. Inilah sepasang kakinya, yang senantiasa berhasil menggempur kota-kota musuh, hormat kepada para pangeran, tetapi merupakan duri dalam daging bagi musuhnya.
4. Prasasti Tugu
Terdapat di dekat Tanjung Priok, Jakarta Utara. Isinya: Dahulu sebuah sungai yang bernama Candrabhaga, yang digali oleh seorang guru Rajadiraja mengalir ke laut setelah melalui puri. Dari tahun ke-22 masa pemerintahan Purnawarman telah digali Sungai Gomati yang penjangnya 6122 tombak (± 12 km). Penggalian selesai 21 hari dimulai tanggal 6 paro peteng bulan Phalguna dan selesai tanggal 13 paro terang bulan Caitra. Lalu diadakan selamatan dan oleh Purnawarman dihadiahkan kepada Brahmana 1.000 ekor sapi.

5. Prasasti Lebak
Terdapat di Lebak, Banten. Isinya: Inilah tanda keperwiraan, keagungan, dan keberanian yang sesungguhsungguhnya dari raja dunia, yang mulia Purnawarman yang menjadi panji sekalian raja.
6. Prasasti Pasir Awi
Prasasti ini belum dapat dibaca karena menggunakan huruf ikal
7. Prasasti muara Cianten
Prasasti ini belum dapat dibaca karena menggunakan huruf ikal

Di samping prasasti tersebut, juga ada berita Cina yang menggambarkan keadaan di wilayah nusantara. Berita itu berasal dari musafir Cina yaitu Fa-Hein. Berita Cina menyebutkan adanya kerajaan bernama To-lo-mo. Kerajaan ini beberapa kali mengirim utusan ke Cina.

Berdasarkan sumber-sumber mengenai kerajaan Taruma tersebut, dapat diketahui bagaimana keadaan :
a. Pemerintahan dan kehidupan masyarakat.
1). Kerajaan Taruma yang berkembang lebih kurang pada abad V M.
2). Rajanya yang terkenal Purnawarman.
3). Penganut agama Hindu, aliran Vaisnawa.
4). Memerintah dalam waktu cukup lama yang disebutkan
5). Terkenal sebagai raja yang dekat dengan Brahmana, dan memikirkan kepentingan rakyat (penggalian sungai Gomati).
b. Segi Sosial : kehidupan rakyatnya aman dan tenteram.
c. Segi ekonomi : pertanian merupakan mata pencaharian yang pokok.
d. Perdagangan berkembang pula. Sudah mengenal penanggalan (tanggal 8 paro petheng bulan Palguna sampai tanggal 13 paro terang bulan Caitra).
e. Perekonomian maju, raja memberikan sedekah 1.000 ekor lembu pada para Brahmana.

Kerajaan Ho-ling

Keberadaan kerajaan ini diketahui dari kitab sejarah Dinasti Tang (618-906). Diperkirakan Kerajaan Ho-ling atau Kaling terletak di Jawa Tengah. Nama ini diperkirakan berasal dari nama sebuah kerajaan di India, Kalingga. Tidak ditemukan peninggalan yang berupa prasasti dari kerajaan ini. Menurut Berita Cina, kotanya dikelilingi dengan pagar kayu, rajanya beristana di rumah yang bertingkat, yang ditutup dengan atap; tempat duduk sang raja ialah peterana gading. Orang orangnya sudah pandai tulis menulis dan mengenal ilmu perbintangan.

Dalam Berita Cina disebut adanya Ratu His-mo atau Sima, yang memerintah pada tahun 674. Beliau terkenal sebagai raja yang tegas, jujur, dan bijaksana. Hukum dilaksanakan dengan tegas. Pada masa ini, agama Buddha berkembang bersama agama Hindu. Hal ini dapat terlihat dengan datangnya pendeta Cina Hwi Ning di Kaling dan tinggal selama tiga tahun. Dengan bantuan seorang pendeta setempat yang bernama Jnanabhadra, Hwi Ning menterjemahkan kitab Hinayana dari bahasa Sanskerta ke bahasa Cina.

Kerajaan Kanjuruhan

Letak kerajaan Kanjuruhan adalah di Jawa Timur, dekat dengan kota Malang sekarang. Kerajaan Kanjuruhan ini tertulis dalam prasasti Dinaya, yang ditemukan di sebelah barat laut Malang, Jawa Timur. Angka tahunnya tertulis dengan Candrasengkala yang berbunyi : NAYAMA VAYU RASA = 682 Caka = 760 M. Isinya menceritakan bahwa pada abad 8 ada kerajaan yang berpusat di Kanjuruhan dengan rajanya yang bernama Dewa Simha. Ia mempuyai seorang putra yang bernama Liswa, setelah naik tahta dan melalui upacara abhiseka Liswa bernama Gajayana. Liswa ini mempunyai putri yang bernama Utteyana yang kawin dengan Janania.

Sistem pemerintahan dan agama yang dianut di Kanjuruhan. Selama pemerintahan Gajayana, dikatakan beliau beragama Hindu Siwa.Gajayana mendirikan tempat pemujaan untuk Dewa Agastya. Bangunan tersebut sekarang bernama candi Badut. Disebutkan pula, semula arca yang terbuat dari kayu cendana, kemudian diganti dengan batu hitam. Peresmiannya dilakukan pada tahun 760.

Kerajaan Sriwijaya

Kata sriwijaya berasal dari kata sri = mulia dan kata wijaya = kemenangan. Kemenangan yang dimaksud di sini ialah kemenangan Dapunta Hyang dalam melakukan perjalanan suci (manalp siddhayatra). Kerajaan ini berdiri pada abad ke-7 M. Pusat Kerajaan Sriwijaya berada di Palembang. Seperti halnya Kutai dan Tarumanegara, keberadaan Sriwijaya juga diketahui dari prasasti dan Berita Cina. Dari tempat ditemukannya prasasti yang menyebutkan tentang Sriwijaya, dapat diketahui bahwa Sriwijaya merupakan kerajaan besar. Ada sembilan prasasti yang menceritakan tentang keberadaan Sriwijaya. Tiga di antaranya ditemukan di luar negeri.

Sriwijaya mencapai kemajuan di segala aspek kehidupan masyarakat ketika diperintah Raja Balaputradewa. Balaputradewa bahkan sudah menjalin hubungan dengan Kerajaan Benggala dan Kerajaan Chola di India. Pada masa Balaputradewa, Kerajaan Sriwijaya merupakan pusat perdagangan dunia di Asia Tenggara dan menjadi pusat perkembangan agama Buddha. Ia mendirikan Universitas Nalanda untuk mendidik para biksu dan bikhuni dengan murid berasal dari Jawa, Cina, Campa, Tanah Genting Kra, bahkan India.
Selain prasasti, informasi tentang Sriwijaya banyak diperoleh dari catatan Dinasti Tang di Cina dan dari catatan I Tsing, seorang musafir Cina yang belajar paramasastra Sanskerta di Sriwijaya. Dinasti Tang mencatat bahwa utusan Sriwijaya pernah datang ke Cina, yaitu tahun 971, 972, 975, 980, dan tahun 983. Itulah sebabnya ditemukan catatan tentang Sriwijaya dalam Prasasti Kanton.

Prasasti yang menceritakan keberadaan Sriwijaya :

1. Prasasti Talang Tao (684)
menceritakan pembuatan taman Sriksetra atas perintah Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanaga untuk kemakmuran rakyat disertai doadoa agama Buddha Mahayana.
2. Prasasti Kedukan Bukit (688):
menceritakan perjalanan suci Dapunta Hyang dengan perahu dari Minangtamwan (Minangkabau) pada tanggal 7 paro terang bulan Jyestha tahun 682 dengan membawa tentara sebanyak 20.000 orang. Pada tanggal 5 paro terang bulan Asadha mereka dating dan membuat kota dan kerajaan Sriwijaya memperoleh kemenangan.
3. Prasasti Karang Berahi, Jambi (686):
menceritakan permintaan kepada dewa untuk menghukum setiap orang yang berbuat jahat terhadap Sriwijaya.
4. Prasasti Kota Kapur, Bangka (686):
menceritakan tentang (1) usaha Sriwijaya menaklukkan Bhumi Jawa yang tidak setia pada Sriwijaya, (2) doa permintaan kepada para dewa agar menjaga kesatuan Sriwijaya. Disebutkan juga bahwa bhumi Jawa tidak mau kepada Sriwijaya kemakmuran rakyat disertai doa-doa agama Buddha.
5. Prasasti Ligor, di Genting Kra (775):
menceritakan tentang (1) pembangunan Trisamaya Caitya oleh pendeta Buddha atas perintah raja Sriwijaya, (2) Raja Wisnu dari keluarga Syailendra.
6. Prasasti Telaga Batu
menceritakan tentang kutukan-kutukan raja terhadap siapa saja yang tidak taan dan melakukan kejahatan.

Menurut catatan I Tsing, Sriwijaya berperan sebagai pusat pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan agama Buddha di Asia Tenggara. I Tsing belajar tata bahasa Sanskerta dan teologi Buddha di Sriwijaya. I Tsing menerjemahkan kitab kitab suci agama Buddha ke dalam bahasa Cina. Sriwijaya juga terkenal sebagai kerajaan maritim dan memiliki armada laut. Perhatikanlah Peta Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Sebagai kerajaan maritim, Sriwijaya merupakan pusat perdagangan di Asia Tenggara karena menguasai dua selat besar yang penting dalam perdagangan, Selat Malaka dan Selat Sunda.
Sriwijaya mulai mengalami kemunduran setelah mendapat serangan dari Dharmawangsa (992), Rajendra Coladewa dari Kerajaan Colamandala (1023, 1030, dan tahun 1060), Kertanegara (1275), dan Gajah Mada (1377). Sriwijaya akhirnya hancur ketika Majapahit mulai berkembang di Jawa.

Perkembangan Kerajaan Sriwijaya.

a. Faktor-faktor yang menguntungkan Perkembangan Sriwijaya, sehingga menjadi kerajaan besar, maritim nasional Indonesia, antara lain :
• Faktor geografi s, letaknya yang strategis dalam jalur dagang antara India dan Tiongkok, lebih ramai setelah jalan darat India – Tiongkok terputus.
• Muara sungai di Sumatera lebar dan landai mudah dilayari.
• Faktor ekonomis, di Sumatera banyak hasil untuk diperdagangkan, misalnya penyu, gading, kapur barus dan lain-lain.
• Keruntuhan kerajaan Funan di Vietnam akibat serangan Kamboja, yang dulunya sangat berperan di Asia tenggara, pada abad VII runtuh, dan digantikan Sriwijaya, cepat berkembang sebagai negara maritim.

b. Sistem Pemerintahan dan Perluasan Daerah.

Kerajaan Sriwijaya terus melakukan perluasan wilayah.
Raja yang terkenal adalah Balaputradewa. Pada masa pemerintahannya Sriwijaya mencapai jaman keemasan. Balaputradewa merupakan keturunan dari Dinasti Syailendra. Sriwijaya sudah mengadakan hubungan dengan Cina. Sriwijaya sudah mempunyai hubungan dengan India, yang tertulis dalam prasasti Nalanda yang isinya menyebutkan bahwa sebuah biara telah dibangun oleh Raja Dewapaladewa dari Benggala. Atas perintah Raja Balaputradewa, maharaja di Suwarnadwipa.

c. Agama yang berkembang di Sriwijaya.

Berita I Tsing mengatakan bahwa Sriwijaya maju dalam agama Budha, di samping itu juga berperan sebagai pusat pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan agama Budha. I Tsing belajar tata bahasa Sansekerta selama enam bulan di Sriwijaya. Ilmu keagamaan (teologi) Budha di pelajari di Sriwijaya. Pendeta Budha yang terkenal adalah Sakyakirti. Mahasiswa dari luar negeri datang di Sriwijaya dulu, sebelum belajar lebih lanjut ke India. Peninggalan candi di Sriwijaya terletak di Muara Takus dekat sungai Kampar di daerah Riau, juga di Bukit Siguntang ditemukan Arca Budha.

d. Segi Ekonomis.

Sriwijaya sebagai pusat perdagangan, menjadikan Sriwijaya sebagai negara yang makmur bagi rakyatnya, sebagai pelabuhan yang dilewati kapal-kapal dagang, mendapat pemasukan dari pajak. Hasil dari Sriwijaya yang banyak diperdagangkan adalah : gading, beras, rempah-rempah, kayu manis, kemenyan, emas dan sebagainya. Sriwijaya sebagai negara maritim merupakan negara yang mengandalkan perekonomiannya dari kegiatan perdagangan dan hasil laut. Untuk stabilitas kerajaan Sriwijaya juga membentuk armada laut yang kuat, supaya dapat mengatasi gangguan di jalur pelayaran perdagangan.

Kemunduran dan Keruntuhan Sriwijaya.

• Faktor Ekonomi: Sriwijaya mengalami kemunduran pada abad X M, setelah terjadi persaingan ekonomi antara Kerajaan Sriwijaya dengan Kerajaan Medang di Jawa Timur. Faktor Politik: Sriwijaya yang semula menjalin hubungan baik dengan Colamandala, akhirnya terjadi permusuhan, Colamandala menyerang dua kali (tahun 1023 dan 1068 M) ke Sriwijaya. Walaupun tidak mengakibatkan hancurnya Sriwijaya, namun serangan ini memperlemah keadaan pemerintahan di Sriwijaya.
• Faktor wilayah: yang makin memperlemah posisi Sriwijaya. Misalnya: banyak daerah kekuasaan Sriwijaya yang melepaskan diri. Kerajaan Singasari di Jawa Timur juga menyerang ke Sriwijaya lewat ekspedisi Pamalayu (1275). Serangan yang hebat dari kerajaan Majapahit pada tahun 1377, kemungkinan besar menjadi penentu untuk mengakhiri riwayat Sriwijaya.

Kerajaan Mataram Kuno dan Peninggalannya

Seperti keberadaan kerajaan-kerajaan sebelumnya, keberadaan Kerajaan Mataram Kuno ini pun kita ketahui dari prasasti-prasasti yang ditemukan. Cukup banyak prasasti yang berisi informasi tentang Mataram. Di samping prasasti, informasi tentang Mataram juga dapat diperoleh dari candi-candi, kitab cerita Parahyangan (Sejarah Pasundan), dan Berita Cina.

Kerajaan yang diperkirakan berdiri pada abad ke-7 ini terletak di daerah pedalaman Jawa Tengah, kemungkinan besar di daerah Kedu sampai sekitar Prambanan (berdasarkan letak prasasti yang ditemukan). Kerajaan yang terletak di antara pegunungan dan sungai-sungai besar seperti Bengawan Solo ini mula-mula diperintah oleh Raja Sanna. Raja Sanna kemudian digantikan oleh Raja Sanjaya. Sanjaya adalah seorang raja yang bijaksana. Pada masa pemerintahannya, rakyatnya hidup makmur.

Pada masa pemerintahan Sanjaya, ada dinasti lain yang lebih besar, yaitu Dinasti Syailendra. Keluarga Sanjaya beragama Hindu dan keluarga Syailendra beragama Buddha. Setelah Sanjaya, Mataram kemudian diperintah oleh Syailendra Sri Maharaja Dyah Pancapana Rakai Panangkaran. Dari namanya, raja ini berasal dari kedua keluarga tersebut. Setelah Panangkaran, Mataram terpecah menjadi Mataram Hindu dan Mataram Buddha. Namun, pada tahun 850, Mataram kembali bersatu dengan menikahnya Rakai Pikatan dan Pramodharwani, putri keluarga Syailendra. Setelah Pikatan, Mataram diperintah oleh Balitung (898—910) yang bergelar Sri Maharaja Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung.

Balitung adalah raja terbesar Mataram. Wilayah kekuasaannya meliputi Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur. Pada masanyalah dibuat prasasti yang berisi nama-nama raja sebelumnya sampai dirinya. Setelah Balitung, berturut-turut memerintah Daksa ( 910—919), Tulodong (919 —924), dan Wawa (824 —929). Mataram kemudian diperintah oleh Sindhok (929 — 949) keponakan Wawa dari keluarga Ishana karena Wawa tidak mempunyai anak. Dengan demikian, berakhirlah kekuasaan Dinasti Sanjaya. Sindhok kemudian memindahkan ibu kota kerajaan ke Jawa Timur karena (1) sering meletusnya Gunung Merapi, dan (2) Mataram sering diserang oleh Sriwijaya.

Kerajaan Mataram di Jawa Timur ini sering disebut Kerajaan Medang. Mpu Sindhok merupakan penguasa baru di Jawa Timur dan mendirikan wangsa Icyana. Keturunan Mpu Sindok sampai Airlangga tertulis di Prasasti Calcuta (1042) yang dikeluarkan oleh Airlangga. Setelah Sindhok, Raja Dharmawangsa (991—1016) bermaksud menyerang Sriwijaya, tapi belum berhasil. Pemerintahannya diakhiri dengan peristiwa pralaya, yaitu penyerangan raja Wora Wari.

Pengganti Dharmawangsa adalah Airlangga, menantunya, yang berhasil lolos dari peristiwa pralaya. Airlangga berhasil membangun kembali kerajaan Medang di Jawa Timur. Airlangga terkenal sebagai raja yang bijaksana, digambarkan sebagai Dewa Wisnu. Pada akhir pemerintahannya Airlangga membagi kerajaannya menjadi Jenggala (Singosari) dan Panjalu (Kediri). Namun, kerajaan yang bertahan adalah kerajaan Kediri. Airlangga wafat pada tahun 1049. Dengan demikian, berakhirlah Kerajaan Mataram Kuno.

URUTAN RAJA MATARAM KUNO
1. Rakai Mataram (Sanjaya)
2. Rakai Panangkaran
3. Rake Panaraban
4. Rake Warak Dyah Manara
5. Dyah Gula
6. Rake Garung
7. Rake Pikatan Dyah Saladu
8. Rake Kayuwangi Dyah Lokapala
9. Dyah Tagwas
10. Rake PanumbanganDyah Dewendra
11. Rake Gurunwangi Dyah Badra
12. Rake Wungkal Humalang
13. Sri Maharaja Rake

Kerajaan Mataram di Jawa Timur.
Kerajaan Mataram di Jawa Timur ini sering disebut kerajaan Medang. Mpu Sindok merupakan penguasa baru di Jawa Timur dan mendirikan wangsa Icyana keturunan Mpu Sindok sampai Airlangga tertulis di Prasasti Calcuta (1042 M) yang dikeluarkan oleh Airlangga. Isinya antara lain :
a. Menguraikan silsilah Airlangga.
b. Peristiwa penyerangan raja Wora-Wari.
c. Pelarian Airlangga ke hutan Wonogiri.
d. Pendirian pertapaan di Pucangan.
e. Airlangga berperang melawan raja Wengker.

Mpu Sindok memerintah dari tahun 928 – 949 M. Selang kemudian, muncul Raja Dharmawangsa yang memerintah tahun 991 – 1016 M. Raja Dharmawangsa bermaksud menyerang Sriwijaya, tapi belum berhasil. Pemerintahannya diakhiri dengan peristiwa Pralaya yaitu penyerangan raja Wora-Wari di mana istana Raja Dharmawangsa hancur.

Pengganti Dharmawangsa adalah Airlangga yang berhasil membangun kembali kerajaan Medang di Jawa Timur Airlangga terkenal sebagai raja yang bijaksana, digambarkan sebagai dewa Wisnu. Hasil sastra yang terkenal adalah Buku Arjunawiwaha karangan Mpu Kanwa. Pada akhir pemerintahannya Airlangga membagi dua kerajaannya yaitu menjadi Jenggala dan Kediri. Dua kerajaan ini yang bertahan untuk tetap hidup adalah kerajaan Kediri. Airlangga wafat pada tahun 1049 M.

Kerajaan Kediri ( tahun 1042 – 1222)

Pada waktu terjadi pembagian kerajaan Airlangga, Samarawijaya sebagai raja Panjalu dan Panji Garasakan sebagai raja Jenggala. Terjadi perang saudara di antara keduanya. Raja Kediri yang pertama Bamecwara yang memerintah dari tahun 1117 – 1130 kemudian diganti oleh Jayabaya 1135 – 1157. Raja yang terkenal dengan ramalannya – Jangka Jayabaya. Hasil sastra pada masa pemerintahannya adalah :
a. Kitab Bharatayuda oleh Mpu Sedah dan Panuluh.
b. Kitab Hariwangsa karangan Mpu Panuluh.
c. Kitab Gatotkacasraya karangan Mpu panuluh.

Urutan raja Kediri selanjutnya adalah :
a. Sarvecvara
b. Aryyaecvara
c. Kracaradipagandra.
d. Kamecvara – hasil sastra antara lain : Kitab Smaradahana oleh Mpu Darmaja dan Kitab Cerita Panji.
e. Raja Kertajaya 1194 – 1222, yang merupakan raja terakhir dari Kediri yang dikalahkan Ken Arok di Ganter.

Kerajaan Singasari (Tahun 1222 – 1292).

Sumber sejarah tentang Singasari terdapat dalam buku : Pararaton dan Negarakertagama, ditambah prasasti-prasasti peninggalannya.
• Pararaton atau disebut juga Katuturanira Ken Arok, isinya menceritakan riwayat Ken Arok dari lahir sampai menjadi raja dan urutan raja-raja yang memerintah di Singasari.
• Negarakertagama ditulis oleh Prapanca yang merupakan seorang pujangga kraton Majapahit pada tahun 1365 : isinya : Pandangan fi lsafat, keindahan kraton Majapahit, perjalanan suci Hayam Wuruk ke tempat percandian leluhurnya antara lain ke Singasari. Memuat riwayat Ken Arok juga.

Selama perkembangan kerajaan Singasari diperintah oleh beberapa raja. Pertama adalah Ken Arok yang berhasil menjadi raja pertama Singasari. Setelah membunuh Tunggul Ametung (Akuwu di Tumapel) Ken Arok dapat mengalahkan Kertajaya Raja Kediri di pertempuran Ganter 1222. Istri Tunggul Ametung yang bernama Ken Dedes, dipersunting Ken Arok, menurut ramalan Ken Dedes akan menurunkan raja-raja besar.

Setelah Ken Arok meninggal karena dibunuh Anusapati (anak tirinya), maka Anusapati menggantikan sebagai raja. Tohjaya anak Ken Arok dengan Ken Umang membalas dendam dengan membunuh Anusapati. Tohjaya hanya beberapa bulan saja memerintah karena terjadi pemberontakan dan Tohjaya terbunuh. Ronggowuni dan Mahisa Campaka, sebagai raja dan patih yang memerintah di Singasari lebih kurang selama 20 tahun. Pemerintahannya stabil.

Putra Ronggowuni yang bernama Kertanegara, menggantikan ayahnya menjadi raja Singasari. Singasari mencapai puncak kejayaan di bawah pemerintahan raja Kertanegara. Kertanegara terkenal dengan gagasannya untuk menyatukan seluruh kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara di bawah payung kekuasaan Singasari. Cita-cita ini dikenal sebagai Wawasan Nusantara I. Untuk melaksanakan cita-citanya Kertanegara melakukan :
• Perluasan daerah dan hubungan dengan luar negeri. Pengiriman expedisi ke Sumatra yang terkenal dengan ekspedisi Pamalayu 1275 M. Kertanegara mengadakan kerjasama dengan Campa untuk bersama-sama menghadapi Ku Bilai Khan dari Cina, yang dianggap sebagai ancaman oleh Kertanegara.
• Struktur Pemerintahan Singasari sudah lengkap, yaitu pada pemerintahan Kertanegara raja sebagai penguasa tertinggi. Kemudian didampingi dewan penasehat. Di bawahnya masih terdapat pegawai-pegawai yang mengawasi berbagai bidang. Bidang agama, pertahanan dan sebagainya.
• Kehidupan Agama, Singasari masa pemerintahan raja Kertanegara, agama Hindu dan Budha sama-sama berkembang. Kertanegara sendiri memeluk Ciwa-Budha, terjadi sinkretisme antara agama Hindu-Budha. Kertanegara menganut aliran Tantrayana.

Dengan politik perluasan daerah yang dicanangkan Kertanegara, banyak tentara yang dikirim keluar daerah. Pada waktu sedang sepi penjaga, dan pasukan penjaga istana berkurang, Singasari diserang raja Kediri yaitu Jayakatwang. Kertanegara meninggal dalam peristiwa ini, dicandikan di dua tempat, di Candi Jawi dan candi Singasari.

Raden Wijaya dengan bantuan pasukan Tar-Tar (Cina) dapat mengalahkan Jayakatwang, dan mendirikan kerajaan Majapahit. Kertanegara sebagai raja terakhir dan terbesar dari kerajaan Singasari, diabadikan di beberapa tempat. Terkenal Arca Kertanegara yang bernama Joko Dolog di Surabaya. Wafatnya Kertanegara mengakhiri riwayat kerajaan Singasari.
Kerajaan Majapahit

Tidak seperti kerajaan-kerajaan sebelumnya, sumber-sumber tentang keberadaan Majapahit banyak ditemukan, antara lain melalui prasasti, kitab-kitab, dan beritaberita Cina. Majapahit didirikan oleh Raden Wijaya, menantu Raja Kertanegara dari Singosari. Raden Wijaya dinobatkan menjadi raja pada tahun 1293. Raden Wijaya bergelar Kertarajasa Jaya Wardana (1293 1309 M). Beliau menikah dengan keempat puteri Kertanegara, yaitu: Dyah Dewi Tribuwaneswari (permaisuri), Dyah Dewi Narendraduhita, Dyah Dewi Prajnaparamita, Dyah Dewi Gayatri. Langkah Raden Wijaya mengawini putri Kertanegara diduga berlatar belakang politik, agar tidak terjadi perebutan kekuasaan dan seluruh warisan jatuh ke tangannya.

Raden Wijaya adalah raja yang bijaksana. Semua pengikut Raden Wijaya diberi jabatan sesuai jasanya. Nambi diangkat menjadi patih. Ronggolawe diangkat menjadi Bupati Tuban. Sora diangkat sebagai Tumenggung. Kepala desa Kudadu diberi Cima di Kudadu. Raden Wijaya kemudian digantikan oleh Jayanegara atau Kala Gemet pada tahun 1309, beliau merupakan raja yang lemah. Pada masa pemerintahan Jayanegara, terjadi serangkaian pemberontakan: Ranggalawe (1231), Lembu Sora (1311), Jurudemung (1313), Nambi (1316), dan Kuti (1319). Pemberontakan-pemberontakan tersebut dapat dipadamkan karena jasa Gajah Mada. Jayanegara akhirnya dibunuh oleh Tanca, tabib istananya, pada tahun 1328. Gajah Mada kemudian membunuh Tanca. Seharusnya Gayatri, putri bungsu Raden Wijaya, berhak menjadi raja. Tetapi karena Gayatri memilih bertapa, Tribuwanatunggadewi, putrinya diangkat menjadi raja ketiga bergelar Tribuwanatunggadewi Jayawisnuwardani. Pada masa ini, terjadi pemberontakan Sadeng dan Kesa, tapi semuanya dapat diatasi oleh Gajah Mada. Pada tahun 1350, Gayatri wafat. Tribuwanatunggadewi segera turun tahta dan digantikan oleh putranya, yaitu Hayam Wuruk (artinya ayam jantan muda) yang masih berusia 16 tahun.

Hayam Wuruk merupakan raja yang membawa Majapahit mencapai puncak kejayaan. Dengan didampingi Mahapatih Gajah Mada, Hayam Wuruk menjadikan Majapahit sebagai kerajaan yang sangat besar. Wilayah kekuasaannya meliputi Jawa, Nusa Tenggara, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Malaka, dan Tumasik (Singapura) serta Papua Barat.

Majapahit mencapai zaman keemasannya pada pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk. Luas wilayah pemerintahannya hampir seluas Indonesia sekarang. Gajah Mada sangat berperan di Majapahit. Hayam Wuruk meninggal pada tahun 1389. Majapahit kemudian mengalami kemunduran. Pengganti Hayam Wuruk adalah putrinya yang bernama Kusumawardhani bersama suaminya, Wikramawardhana. Pada masa pemerintahan Kusumawardhani, terjadi perang saudara dengan Wirabhumi, saudaranya dari selir Hayam Wuruk. Perang saudara yang terjadi di Paregreg menyebabkan Wirabhumi terbunuh (1406). Perang Paregreg berlangsung berkepanjangan dan menyebabkan Majapahit menjadi lemah. Bersamaan dengan itu, Islam mulai masuk ke Nusantara. Setelah Wikramawardhana meninggal, Majapahit pecah menjadi kerajaan-kerajaan kecil.

Inilah Gajah Mada, orang yang sangat berjasa kepada Majapahit. Berawal sebagai pasukan pengawal raja (Bhayangkari), Gajah Mada kemudian berperan penting dalam menumpas Pemberontakan Kuti (1319) yang pada saat itu telah berhasil menduduki istana. Sebagai hadiah, Gajah Mada diangkat menjadi Pati Kahuripan (13191321). Ketika Jayanegara dibunuh Tanca, Gajah Mada membunuh Tanca. Gajah Mada kemudian menjadi Pati Kediri (1322-1330). Pada masa Tribuwanatunggadewi, Gajah Mada berhasil menumpas Pemberontakan Sadeng dan Keta. Atas jasanya itu, Gajah Mada kemudian diangkat menjadi Mahapatih (setara Perdana Menteri saat ini) Majapahit. Pada saat dilantik menjadi Mahapatih, dia mengucapkan "Tan Amukti Palapa" atau "Sumpah Palapa". Dia bersumpah tidak akan merasakan palapa (menikmati istirahat) sebelum menyatukan Nusantara di bawah naungan Majapahit. Dia menulis kitab Kutaramanawa yang dipakai sebagai dasar hukum di Majapahit. Gajah Mada wafat pada tahun 1364.

Pada masa Kerajaan Kediri, selain candi, banyak dihasilkan kitab-kitab. Kitab-kitab tersebut ialah: Sutasoma atau Purusadashanta (Mpu Tantular), Nagarakertagama (Mpu Prapanca), Arjunawiwaha (Mpu Tantular), Kunjarakarna dan Parthayajna (penulis tidak diketahui), Pararaton (tentang riwayat raja-raja Singasari dan Majapahit), Sundayana (tentang peristiwa Bubat), Sorandaka (tentang pemberontakan Lembu Sora), Ranggalawe (tentang pemberontakan Ranggalawe), Panjiwijayakrama (tentang riwayat Raden Wijaya sampai menjadi raja), Usana Jawa (tentang penaklukan Pulau Bali oleh Gajah Mada dan Aryadamar), dan Kitab Usana Bali (tentang kekacauan di Pulau Bali akibat keganasan Maya Denawa).

Sebagai kerajaan besar, Majapahit mengalami kemajuan hampir di semua bidang. Di bidang pemerintahan, Majapahit memiliki dewan Bhattara Saptaprabhu (sesepuh kerajaan), Rakayan Mahamantri Katrini (mahamentri, yang adalah putra-putra Raja), dan Rakayan Mantri ri Pakirakiran (dewan menteri) yang membantu Raja.

Di bidang keagamaan, Majapahit telah memberikan contoh kerukunan hidup beragama yang baik. Hayam Wuruk beragama Hindu Siwa, sedangkan Gajah Mada beragama Buddha. Perbedaan ini oleh Mpu Tantular dikatakan sebagai Bhinneka Tunggal Ika tan hana dharma mangrwa (di antara pusparagam adalah kesatuan dan tak ada agama yang mendua).
Majapahit mundur karena beberapa hal berikut.
(1) Tidak ada tokoh pengganti yang berwibawa sesudah Hayam Wuruk (1389 M) dan Gadjah Mada (1364 M).
(2) Perang Paregreg (1401 M-1406 M), yakni perang saudara di antara para pewaris kerajaan, antara Bhre Wirabumi dan Wikramawardhana
(3) Banyak negeri bawahan Majapahit yang berusaha melepaskan diri.
(4) Berkembangnya agama Islam di pesisir pantai utara Pulau Jawa telah mengurangi dukungan terhadap Kerajaan Majapahit.



Raja-raja yang memerintah di Majapahit

a. Raja pertama Raden Wijaya, bergelar Kertarajasa Jaya Wardana (1293-1309 M). Beliau menikah dengan ke empat puteri Kertanegara yaitu: Dyah Dewi Tribuwaneswari (permaisuri), Dyah Dewi Narendraduhita, Dyah Dewi Prajnaparamita, Dyah Dewi Gayatri. Langkah Raden Wijaya mengawini putri Kertanegara diduga berlatar belakang politik, agar tidak terjadi perebutan kekuasaan.
b. Setelah Raden Wijaya meninggal, tahta digantikan oleh Jayanegara atau Kala Gemet pada tahun 1309. Beliau merupakan raja yang lemah, sehingga banyak terjadi pemberontakan.

Beberapa pemberontakan yang terjadi yaitu: 1). Pemberontakan Ronggolawe dapat diatasi 2). Pemberontakan Lembu Sora, dapat dipadamkan. 3). Pemberontakan Nambi, dapat diatasi 4). Pemberontakan Kuti pada tahun 1319, dapat diatasi
berkat jasa Gajah Mada dan jasanya tersebut Gajah Mada diangkat sebagai Patih Kahuripan. Pada tahun 1321 Gajah Mada diangkat menjadi Patih Daha.

c. Tribuwanatunggadewi (1328-1350 M)
Karena Jayanegara tidak mempunyai putra, tahta seharusnya jatuh ke tangan Gayatri. Karena Gayatri memilih menjadi Biksuni, maka Tribuwanatunggadewi putrinya ditunjuk sebagai wakil dan diangkat menjadi raja ketiga bergelar Tribuwanatunggadewi Jayawisnuwardani. Di bawah pemerintahannya terjadi pemberontakan Sadeng dan Keta, tapi semuanya dapat diatasi oleh Gajah Mada yang telah diangkat sebagai patih Majapahit.

Pada saat upacara pelantikan Gajah Mada sebagai Patih Majapahit tahun 1331, beliau mengucapkan sumpah yang terkenal dengan nama Sumpah Palapa. Inti sumpah tersebut adalah bahwa Gajah Mada tidak akan makan Palapa (arti palapa mungkin semacam rempah-rempah), tidak akan bersenang-senang/ istirahat sebelum seluruh kepulauan Nusantara bersatu dibawah kekuasaan Majapahit. Tahun 1350 Gayatri wafat, maka Tribuwanatunggadewi yang merupakan wakil ibunya segera turun tahta, menyerahkan tahtanya kepada putranya yaitu Hayam Wuruk.

d. Hayam Wuruk (1350-1389 M)
Di bawah pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk ini, Majapahit mencapai jaman keemasannya. Cita-cita Gajah Mada yang diucapkan lewat Sumpah Palapa, disebut pula sebagai Wawasan Nusantara II dapat tercapai. Wilayah Majapahit, hampir sama dengan wilayah Republik Indonesia, maka Majapahit disebut sebagai Negara Maritim Nasional II.

Selama pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk terjadi tiga peristiwa penting yaitu: peristiwa Bubad tahun 1357, perjalanan suci Hayam Wuruk ketempat leluhurnya serta upacara Crada yang diadakan untuk memperingati wafatnya Rajapadni tahun 1362. Dalam bidang ekonomi, Majapahit sebagai pusat perniagaan di Asia Tenggara waktu itu. Hasil-hasil yang diperdagangkan adalah beras, rampah-rempah, garam. Terjadi hubungan dengan negara lain seperti Siam, Ligor, Birma, Kamboja dan Annam.
a) Hasil sastra jaman Majapahit antara lain:
b) Kitab Negarakertagama karangan Prapanca
c) Kitab Sutasoma karangan Tantular .

Terdapat Kitab “Kutaramanawa” yang berisi tentang aturan hukum di Majapahit. Sepeninggal Hayam Wuruk dan Gajah Mada Majapahit mengalami kemunduran. Pengganti Hayam Wuruk adalah puterinya yang bernama Kusumawardhani.

e. Ratu Kusumawardhani (1389-1429 M)
Pada masa pemerintahannya terjadi perang
saudara dengan Wirabhumi yang disebut perang Paregreg. Berakhir dengan terbunuhnya Wirabhumi. Setelah Kusumawardhani berturut-turut adalah:
1). Dewi Suhita (1429-1447 M)
2). Bhre Tumapel (1447-1451 M)
3). Bhre Kahuripan (1451-1453 M)
4). Purwawisesa (1457-1467 M)
5). Pandan Salas (1467-1478 M)

Berakhirnya pemerintahan Pandanalas, diganti dengan pemerintahan Giridrawardhana. Kerajaan Majapahit mulai mundur dan akhirnya runtuh, disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor sebagai berikut:
a. Faktor Politik (dalam dan luar negeri).
Dalam negeri, kesatuan Majapahit atas kekuatan Gajah Mada, setelah Gajah Mada meninggal daerah yang luas tersebut tak dapat dipertahankan.
b. Faktor Ekonomi
Majapahit dulu dapat menyatukan daerah pertanian dan bandar-bandar, setelah ada ekspedisi Cina, bandar-bandar lebih suka langsung berhubungan dengan luar negeri. Bandar lebih demokratis, berusaha melepaskan diri dari Majapahit.
c. Faktor Agama
Perbedaan ideologi. Penyebaran Islam di Asia
Tenggara, melalui jalur perdagangan yang lebih dulu terpengaruh adalah bandar, maka bandar beragama Islam, Majapahit masih Hindu. Bandarbandar menentang Majapahit. Ada pula pendapat yang mengatakan adanya serangan dari Demak. Dalam serat Kondo dan Babad Tanah Jawi runtuhnya Majapahit ditandai denga
          á€¡á€„္တာနက္လိုင္းမ်ား ဆက္လက္ ေႏွးေကြးေနဦးမည္        
 http://burma.irrawaddy.org/news/2014/05/15/58830.html ( မူရင္း ပို႔စ္)
ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ အင္တာနက္ သံုးစြဲသူ တ႐ွိန္ထိုး ျမင့္တက္လာသျဖင့္ အင္တာနက္ ေကာ္နက္ရွင္လိုင္းမ်ား ဆက္လက္ ေႏွးေကြးေနဦးမည္ျဖစ္ၿပီး လိုင္းမ်ား ေကာင္းမြန္လာရန္ အနည္းဆံုး ၃ ႏွစ္ခန္႔ အခ်ိန္ယူရမည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ဆက္သြယ္ေရး၊ သတင္းအခ်က္အလက္ႏွင့္ နည္းပညာ ၀န္ႀကီးဌာနထံမွ သတင္းရရွိသည္။
၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ အင္တာနက္ သံုးစြဲသူမွာ ၁ သန္းခန္႔သာ ရွိေသာ္လည္း ၂၀၁၄ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ၄ သန္းခန္႔ အထိ ျမင့္တက္လာသျဖင့္ အင္တာနက္ လိုင္းေကာင္းရန္ အနည္ဆံုး ၃ ႏွစ္ခန္႔ အခ်ိန္ယူရဦးမည္ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း၊ မိုဘိုင္းဖုန္း
သံုးစြဲသူအားလံုးနီးပါးမွာ အင္တာနက္လိုင္း သံုးစြဲမႈေၾကာင့္ အင္တာနက္ ေကာ္နက္ရွင္ လိုင္းေႏွးေကြးေနရျခင္း ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ဆက္သြယ္ေရး၊ သတင္းအခ်က္အလက္ႏွင့္ နည္းပညာ ၀န္ႀကီးဌာန ဒု ၀န္ႀကီး ဦးေသာင္းတင္ က ေနျပည္ေတာ္တြင္ ေမလ ၁၁ ရက္ေန႔က ဧရာ၀တီသုိ႔ ေျပာၾကားခဲ့သည္။
“အရင္တုန္းက မိုဘိုင္းဖုန္း ေပးရင္ ၁၀ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းကပဲ အင္တာနက္ သံုးတယ္။ အခုက မိုဘိုင္းသံုးစြဲသူ အားလံုးနီးပါးက အင္တာနက္သံုးေနတာ။ က်ေနာ္တို႔ကေတာ့ ၃ ႏွစ္အတြင္း အင္တာနက္လိုင္း ျမန္ေအာင္ လုပ္ဖို႔ ရွိတယ္။ အင္တာနက္ကို ပိုျမန္ေအာင္ လုပ္ခ်င္တဲ့ ကုမၸဏီကုိ ကန္႔သတ္မထားဘူး။ အင္တာနက္ လုပ္ခ်င္တယ္လို႔ လာေလွ်ာက္ရင္ ခြင့္ျပဳေပးမွာ” ဟု ဒု ၀န္ႀကီး ဦးေသာင္းတင္က ဆိုသည္။
ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ မိုဘိုင္းဖုန္း သံုးစြဲသူ ၈ သန္းခန္႔ ရွိၿပီး လူဦးေရ ၄ သန္းမွာ အင္တာနက္ကို မိုဘိုင္းဖုန္းျဖင့္ သံုးစြဲေနေၾကာင္း၊ အင္တာနက္ မိုဘိုင္းဖုန္း ၀န္ေဆာင္ေပးမည့္ Ooredoo ႏွင့္ Telenor ကုမၸဏီတို႔က လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား စတင္ႏိုင္ပါက အင္တာနက္ အျမန္ႏႈန္း ပိုမိုေကာင္းမြန္လာမည္ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။
“အင္တာနက္လိုင္းက တျဖည္းျဖည္းခ်င္းေတာ့ ပိုေကာင္းလာမွာပါ။ အခုက က်ေနာ္တို႔ Supply က လိုက္တက္လာတာနဲ႔ အမွ် Demand က လုိက္တက္လာေတာ့ အင္တာနက္ ႏႈန္းျမန္ဖို႔က ခက္တယ္။ အဲဒီႏွစ္ခုက ဘယ္အခ်ိန္မွာ ညီမွ်သြားမလဲေပါ့။ တခ်ိန္ခ်ိန္မွာေတာ့ Supply က လိုခ်င္သေလာက္ ရသြားရင္ အဆင္ေျပသြားမွာပါ ” ဟု ဒု ဝန္ႀကီး ဦးေသာင္းတင္က ေျပာသည္။
အင္တာနက္လိုင္း ပိုမိုျမန္ဆန္လာေစရန္ Ooredoo ႏွင့္ Telenor ကုမၸဏီတို႔က လုပ္ကိုင္မည္ ျဖစ္ေသာ္လည္း ျမန္မာတႏိုင္ငံလံုး ျဖန္႔က်က္ႏိုင္ရန္ အနည္းဆံံုး ၅ ႏွစ္ခန္႔ အခ်ိန္ယူရမည္ဟု ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ေလ့လာသံုးသပ္သူမ်ားက ခန္႔မွန္းထားသည္။
“က်ေနာ္ဆို ဖုန္းနဲ႔ အင္တာနက္ သံုးတာ။ တေနကုန္ သံုးလို႔ မရဘူး။ ညဦးပိုင္းလည္း သံုးမရဘူး။ အင္တာနက္ သံုးမယ္ဆိုရင္ သန္းေခါင္ေက်ာ္ေအာင္ ေစာင့္ရတယ္။ သန္းေခါင္ေက်ာ္ လိုင္းေကာင္းမွ ေမးလ္ပို႔စရာရွိတာ ပို႔ရတယ္။ ဒါေတာင္ တခါတေလ လိုင္းမေကာင္းလို႔ မိုးလင္းတဲ့ ညေတြရွိတယ္” ဟု အင္တာနက္ ပံုမွန္သံုးစြဲသူ ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႕မွ ကိုေဇယ်ာစိုေျပက ေျပာသည္။
အင္တာနက္ သံုးစြဲရန္ ေပးထားရေသာ ၀န္ေဆာင္ခႏွင့္ ျပန္ရရွိေသာ ၀န္ေဆာင္မႈမွာ လံုး၀ မမွ်တဟု သူက ယံုၾကည္ေနသည္။
ျမန္မာ့ ဆက္သြယ္ေရး လုပ္ငန္း (MPT) ကလည္း Ooredoo ႏွင့္ Telenor ကုမၸဏီတို႔ကို ယွဥ္ၿပိဳင္ႏိုင္ရန္ International ပါတနာ ကုမၸဏီအား ရွာေဖြလ်က္ရွိၿပီး မရရွိပါက Ooredoo ႏွင့္ Telenor ကုမၸဏီတို႔ကို ယွဥ္ၿပိဳင္ႏိုင္လိမ့္မည္ မဟုတ္ေၾကာင္း ဒု ၀န္ႀကီး ဦးေသာင္းတင္က ေျပာသည္။
“MPT အေနနဲ႔ ပါတနာ မရရင္ေတာ့ Ooredoo နဲ႔ Telenor ကို ယွဥ္ႏိုင္မွာ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး။ အခု စၿပိဳင္ေနရၿပီ။ အၿပိဳင္အဆိုင္ ျဖစ္လာရင္ ဘယ္သူ ဘာလုပ္လို႔ ေျပာစရာ မလိုေတာ့ဘူး။ Market က ဆံုးျဖတ္ေပးလိမ့္မယ္” ဟု သူက ဆိုသည္။
ဆက္သြယ္ေရး ဥပေဒကို ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ ေအာက္တိုဘာလတြင္ အစိုးရက အတည္ျပဳ ျပဌာန္းထားၿပီး ႏိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမွပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား အပါအ၀င္ ဆက္သြယ္ေရးလုပ္ငန္း လုပ္ကိုင္လိုသူမ်ားကို ယင္းဥပေဒႏွင့္ လုပ္ပိုင္ခြင့္မ်ား ခ်ထá