Lindsay's Review: A Great and Terrible Beauty (Gemma Doyle #1) by Libba Bray        
A Great and Terrible Beauty by Libba Bray
Book One in the Gemma Doyle Series
Published on December 9th, 2003 by Simon and Schuster
Young Adult | Fantasy | Historical Fiction
403 Pages
Goodreads | Amazon | B&N
A Victorian boarding school story, a Gothic mansion mystery, a gossipy romp about a clique of girlfriends, and a dark other-worldly fantasy--jumble them all together and you have this complicated and unusual first novel.

Sixteen-year-old Gemma has had an unconventional upbringing in India, until the day she foresees her mother's death in a black, swirling vision that turns out to be true. Sent back to England, she is enrolled at Spence, a girls' academy with a mysterious burned-out East Wing. There Gemma is snubbed by powerful Felicity, beautiful Pippa, and even her own dumpy roommate Ann, until she blackmails herself and Ann into the treacherous clique.

Gemma is distressed to find that she has been followed from India by Kartik, a beautiful young man who warns her to fight off the visions. Nevertheless, they continue, and one night she is led by a child-spirit to find a diary that reveals the secrets of a mystical Order. The clique soon finds a way to accompany Gemma to the other-world realms of her visions "for a bit of fun" and to taste the power they will never have as Victorian wives, but they discover that the delights of the realms are overwhelmed by a menace they cannot control. Gemma is left with the knowledge that her role as the link between worlds leaves her with a mission to seek out the "others" and rebuild the Order. A Great and Terrible Beauty is an impressive first book in what should prove to be a fascinating trilogy.
As much as I hate to admit it, I'm a sucker for cute, cheesy romance books without a whole lot of substance. I thought it would be hard to read this book because romance was not the main plot, but I was pleasantly surprised.

A long time ago I remember reading one of the books in the series that my older sister let me borrow. I'm not quite sure which one it was, but even though I don't remember much, I'm left with fond memories of the beautiful place where the girls go. Something about it kept drawing me to this book so I finally picked it up.

Gemma is a wonderful main character. In the times where she's meant to be a proper lady who never speaks her mind, she struggles with keeping her opinions to herself and acting the way she's supposed to. On top of that she's very cunning, making the exchanges with the other girls very interesting and exciting to read because of how the pages turn with her choices.

Her friends, who you dislike at the start of the novel, become very real when you get to know them as Gemma's friends later on. They have valid reasons for the things they do, and even though sometimes they say things that are blatantly uncalled for, you get where they're coming from because of the lives they lived.

Even though the characters were very realistic and relatable, I felt like parts of the world were missing. I couldn't imagine the clothes they wore in that time, what the places in London were like. Maybe it's just me, but I had trouble putting images around the characters because of so.

One problem I had, and I'll try to be vague to keep from spoiling, was what happened at the end. I felt like the chapter touching on it should have been longer and more in-depth for such a big twist, but instead it kind of rushed by. When something big happens you want to know the details, to read what's happening to other characters, but it was over in a few measly pages and then shortly after the book ended. It might be the writer in me overreacting, but I really wanted more.

A Great and Terrible Beauty sucked me right in, making it nearly impossible for me to put down. Even though there was a romance only as a minor sub plot, I hardly noticed it. The book kept me flipping pages to find out what happens after each twist and I honestly can't wait to get my hands on the next one.

          Wire 1 on FX-truly great episode        

After mildly slagging off the Wire (that’s British for insulting, I have decided to insert idiomatic translations) I am forced to bow before it. I had forgotten that it ebbs and flows in quality. From great to genius, The episode on Monday on FX was a true work of genius.

The programme focuses on Bodie, di Angelo and Chief Daniels, each of whom is at a pivotal moment. There are so many layers of meaning that it I can’t begin to do it justice. I would be outputting exhuberantly semiotic stuff until next year. And that would be just for one episode.

So, I’ll just pick out a few points in a shamefully lame way.

On third viewing, I realised that Bodie puts on the executioner’s cap before he shoots the other child, in an episode of true horror. After this, he wears it more or less consistently. It expresses Bodie’s having become a “soldier,” a disposable cheap executioner for the Darksdales.

At the moment of the shooting, Bodie’s lieutenant is sobbing. The about-to-be-victim pisses himself. Bodie is horrified at having to shoot a boy. But he is not going to stop what he is doing either. He gets the boy to affirm that he is a man not a boy. Earlier, the about-to-be-shot boy has told Bodie that he is “a man” rather than a boy. At which point he looks about fourteen. Even the killers, despatched by Stringer Bell to do the shooting, look older. And one of the them looks 16.

Bodie has made a sort of low-level Faustian deal with Stringer Bell, as Stringer has implied that he can rise in the business if he gets rid of Ritchie. So, Bodie has already prepared to kill for a slight chance of a small improvement in his circumstances.

The Wire writers are showing us that the soldiers are children, living in desperate poverty and shooting each other over crumbs, both victims and perpetrators of the social values that support the whole system.

The moral implications of this killing are played out for Bodie through later series, as Bodie begins to dissent more and more from his role and to pay a heavy price for becoming an ethical being.

One immediate moral implication is that diAngelo, who has been getting increasingly disenchanted with his part in the Barksdales and is coming to ask himself moral questions about his life, explodes with anger about the murder of the child. This sets in train a decision to betray the gang. Which will soon become an epic moral struggle for him.

Both diAngelo and Bodie find that the development of remorse and the stirring of an ethical conscience do not bring any rewards. I think the Wire breaks some ground here. There is no sense of virtue justly rewarded and villainy justly punished. It is not a simple morality tale. Characters are killed off or survive, partly as a result of their actions but mainly as a consequence of the actions of others. You can’t just step out of “the game” by repenting.

At the same that diAngelo is developing an ethical sense, Chief Daniels is doing the same. There is battle of wits, rather than guns, between Commissioner Burrell and Chief Daniels. Burrell tries to applythe blackmail leverage he’s been holding over Daniels. He is being ordered by the political machine to stop the investigation, because it had uncovered a money relationship between the Barksdale gang and some Senators.

Daniels stands up, literally and metaphorically. As does di Angelo when he challenges Stringer Bell.

Daniels reminds Burrell that others would lose more by exposing him than would Daniels. They would have already used their leverage but for the fact that the greatest fear of the political machine is publicity. They have no intention of using their information against Daniels. So he calls Burrell’s bluff.

This stuff was powerfully moving. The moral complexities are laid out brilliantly through the masterly acting.

(As well as the writing, – taken for granted as pure genius-, the direction, the costumes, the sets, the use of music and anything else you can think of. The HBO marketing is naff, but The Wire’s got to pull an audience to satisfy its paymasters. And for bringing the Sopranos and the Wire to the television, I will forgive HBO pretty well anything.


          Tied and Blackmailed        
From: myrevelations Bente anyos pa lang ako noon ng maganap ang isang pangyayati sa buhay ko na hanggang ngayon, makalipas ang limang taon ay hindi ko pa rin matakasan at nagsilbi ng trauma na pabalik-balik sa aking buhay. Graduating student ako noon sa UST sa kursong Architecture ng dapuan ng matinding sakit ang daddy ko at […]
          Top Ten Horror Directors Making Non-Horror Television        
Shock Till You Drop
Top Ten Horror Directors Making Non-Horror Television

GameMarshall

 

CSI2

SHOCK goes wild and reveals ten horror legends and their ventures into mainstream television.

It’s a sad fact that theatrical feature films are today suffering through a sort of creative dormancy, causing Hollywood’s top talents to migrate over to television’s artist-friendly climate. The horror genre has been especially affected by this trend, with beloved directors seeking work in TV not only for a paying gig, but also to stretch out with subject matter not usually brought their way. Many of these directors have actually been tacking television for years, as the examples below illustrate. Now, this list isn’t to showcase horror folks doing yet more scary stuff on the small screen, such as stints on TWILIGHT ZONE or HANNIBAL or THE WALKING DEAD, but are a look at familiar filmmakers using (or having used) the dominance of television programs for the chance to do something a little unexpected…

CASEBUSTERS (Wes Craven)

No filmmaker felt more ghettoized by the horror genre than the late Wes Craven, and he famously leveraged his SCREAM clout for the opportunity to direct Meryl Streep in the cloying biopic MUSIC FROM THE HEART. But in 1986, well before his Streep gambit, Craven was thinking of the kids—his film DEADLY FRIEND was something he hoped would connect with younger audiences, and it was instead hijacked by the studio and loaded up with ridiculous gore sequences. That same year, Craven would finally get to make a genuine kiddie flick, as he went into league with the House of Mouse to direct an installment of their stalwart WONDERFUL WORLD OF DISNEY program. Craven’s effort, feeling very much like an aborted series pilot, is called CASEBUSTERS, and it concerns a brother (Noah Hathaway of TROLL) and sister, the latter of which is obsessed with detective novels. The duo are helping out their kindly, podgy grandpa (character actor Pat Hingle), who happens to be a private investigator-slash-neighborhood watchman. Teaming up with local delinquent “Ski”, Grandpa and the youngsters take on a geeky Rick Moranis clone and a harridan in mom jeans who are out running a lame counterfeiting scheme. From hilariously awkward and misplaced narration by Hingle, to three (!) ineptly-staged car chases, to dumbed-down and preposterous plotting (the little sister blackmails a guy into chasing down the baddies by threatening him with a fine for dumping garbage?), CASEBUSTERS is juvenile, moronic fluff. Sorry, Wes.

GAME OF THRONES (Neil Marshall)

Fiendishly popular GAME OF THRONES has no shortage of epic set pieces and enormous battles, something Neil Marshall had previous experience in mounting through his swashbuckling 2010 film CENTURION. Marshall got the nod to direct two of GAMES’ heaviest episodes, and it’s difficult to discuss the particulars without spoiling any of the series’ intricate political machinations. Suffice it to say that when Marshall’s name flashes up on the credits of a particular episode, in-tune viewers know that they are primed for scope and scale—it was Marshall who marshalled the massive brawl between the sentries of the Night’s Watch and the feral tribe known as the Wildlings, and the results can be witnessed in the clip below:

NEW YORK UNDERCOVER (Mick Garris)

Having set or broken ratings records with his Stephen King miniseries, it makes sense that Mick Garris would be recruited over the years to hop aboard a number of successful programs. Garris has thus demonstrated his ability to work with the darker corners of teen-driven dramas like PRETTY LITTLE LIARS and RAVENSWOOD, and macabre grownup fare like THE WITCHES OF EAST END and HAPPY TOWN, but it was his helming an episode of Dick Wolf’s mid-nineties cop actioner NEW YORK UNDERCOVER that comes out of left field. UNDERCOVER was part of the then-upstart Fox network’s attempt to coax a younger demographic, and featured regular performances from hip-hop and R n’ B stars of the day. Garris’s episode has cool-guy detectives Williams and Torres backing a local reverend against an evil cigarette conglomerate’s attempts to discredit him, and boasts an appearance by controversial social critic Al Sharpton.

CSI: MIAMI (Rob Zombie)

For Rob Zombie’s many critics who would dearly love to see him direct a script that he didn’t write himself, look no further—in 2010, Zombie was behind the camera for an episode of CSI: MIAMI, conjuring that Bruckheimer beige glow around star David Caruso. There are traces of Zombie’s visual flair during an opening party sequence, and members of the Zombie zoo show up in the form of William Forsyth, Malcolm McDowell, and Sheri Moon Zombie (and there’s also a cameo by ZZ top’s Billy Gibbons!), but the episode hews closely to the standard CSI procedural outlay. The far more amusing result of Zombie’s network television dalliance is his interview anecdote regarding the notoriously crotchety Caruso, starting at 3:55:

DREAM ON (John Landis)

John Landis will the first person to tell you that he’s hardly a horror icon, having only ever made two features in the genre. He most definitely has a dozen blockbuster comedies to his name, so it was hardly an out of character move for Landis to concoct his own sitcom, bringing in FRIENDS’ Marta Kaufman and David Crane to assist in developing it. Alongside TALES FROM THE CRYPT, DREAM ON was a key component of HBO’s early wave of original programming, and Landis would direct many of the episodes himself. The show starred Brian Benben (with whom Landis would reunite in the awful MASTERS OF HORROR episode ‘Deer Woman’) as Martin Tupper, an NYC book editor fumbling through post-divorce dating life. The show’s gimmick is that Tupper spent so much time in front of the television as a child that footage from ancient programs would be spliced in to comment on the action, as Tupper’s brain presumably would do. While DREAM ON’s risqué humor, spicy language, and frequent instances of nudity broke ground for the TV sitcom format, the plots were repetitive and the clips themselves quickly become annoying. Still, Landis can take heart in knowing that his show was in on the ground floor of the towering program slate for which HBO has since become renowned. Here’s a trailer for the show, in German:

 HAWAII FIVE-0 (Joe Dante)

Joe Dante has made the odd venture into television throughout his career with a number of forgotten series, such as the excellent kid-oriented spookshow EERIE, INDIANA. And like Rob Zombie, Dante dipped his toe into the CSI world by directing an Amityville-themed 2009 episode of CSI: NY. It’s no big stunner to see that Dante can handle horror on large or small screens, but the surprise is how he became a staple of the HAWAII FIVE-0 revival, directing a total of nine episodes of what has proven to be a solid and consistently entertaining cop series. Of course, the assignment of shooting this year’s atmospheric Halloween-themed HAWAII episode went to Dante, and here’s a nasty, maggoty clip of that particular work:

SCALES OF JUSTICE (David Cronenberg)

As most die-hard fans are aware, David Cronenberg veered into television by directing an episode of FRIDAY THE 13TH: THE SERIES, a show that conveniently shot in Cronenberg’s hometown of Toronto. Less prominent on Cronenberg’s T.V. resume is his direction of two episodes of SCALES OF JUSTICE, a crime re-enactment program hosted by esteemed Canadian defence attorney Edward Greenspan. SCALES was adapted from a long-running radio program of the same name, and the screen version was, to be honest, a stiff and amateurish Northern answer to slicker U.S. fare like UNSOLVED MYSTERIES. Surviving episodes are almost impossible to find—though a brief, unremarkable clip from one of Cronenberg’s efforts can be viewed here:

THE WINNERS (George A. Romero)

Laurel Entertainment was the name of the Pittsburgh production company founded by George A. Romero and partner Richard Rubenstein. In addition to Laurel’s involvement with feature films, the company also produced a series of sports documentaries during the mid-seventies under the title THE WINNERS. Romero himself would cut several episodes of THE WINNERS together; besides a celebration of legendary Pittsburgh Pirates slugger Willie Stargell, there was also a 1974 ode to the gridiron accomplishments of one O.J. Simpson. In retrospect, this short doc is arguably the most horrific project of Romero’s career, but at the time Simpson was a spotless paragon of athletic prowess and adored for his affable, approachable public demeanor. The documentary itself amounts to standard sports-profile fawning, and fairly drips with hilarious seventies’ funky-flute music and graphics, but brush aside the now-odious subject matter and it stands as an excellent example of Romero’s tremendous editing skill, especially in the short pre-credits locker room sequence.

THE EQUALIZER (Tobe Hooper)

In between shooting his features TCM2 and SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION in the late eighties, Tobe Hooper also got sidetracked by several TV projects. There were the shows that one might expect, from Spielberg’s Garris-guided AMAZING STORIES to the pilot of FREDDY’S NIGHTMARES, and a real curveball among them—an episode of righteous action-drama THE EQUALIZER, a sort of upscale A-TEAM in which a retired British spy (played primly by THE WICKER MAN’s Edward Woodward) is contacted via personal ad by New York’s downtrodden, and then Woodward goes to work in their defense. Hooper’s episode has a family battling a slumlord, and features an uncharacteristically restrained performance by a young Michael (HENRY: PORTRAIT OF A SERIAL KILLER) Rooker, which balances a hilarious, over-the-top Michael (BARTON FINK) Lerner as the heartless slumlord. As with most EQUALIZER episodes, the two-dimensional melodrama is laid on thicker than mayonnaise, and Hooper can’t manage to impart enough of his personality to rescue a single minute of this soppy network slop.

RAKE (Sam Raimi)

Sam Raimi is no stranger to filling up T.V. schedules with Renaissance Pictures’ output in the capacity of producer, and he very recently directed the opening salvo of the Starz channel’s ASH VS. EVIL DEAD series. Less acknowledged is his participation in 2014’s Greg Kinnear vehicle RAKE. Any inch of film or byte of DV directed by Raimi is prized by film nerds for its visual inventiveness, but beyond the splatstick of the EVIL DEAD trilogy or the grandiose spectacle of his SPIDER-MAN and OZ films, Raimi is also an unheralded master of slow-burn drama (Sure, THE GIFT may be spotty, but A SIMPLE PLAN is an American crime classic). RAKE sits squarely in the comedic side of Raimi’s repertoire, and gives him another puffed-up protagonist to torture through karmic misfortunes; this one deftly played by Raimi’s GIFT star Kinnear. Kinnear’s character Keegan Dean isn’t quite in Ash’s delusory league, but roguish attorney Dean is a pretty flawed hero nonetheless. Raimi directed RAKE’s pilot, guest starring the great Peter (FARGO) Stormare as a serial killer, and returned for episode four. Entitled ‘Cannibal’, the episode has AMERICAN HORROR STORY’s Denis O’Hare playing a debonair flesheater that Kean is hired defend in court—before horror fans get too excited, know that this cannibal is handled mostly for laughs, and that the consumption turns out to be consensual. Overall, the short-lived RAKE was a witty, acerbic show gone too soon. (And yes, Raimi devotees, “The Classic” makes a split-second cameo at the end of ‘Cannibal’.)

The post Top Ten Horror Directors Making Non-Horror Television appeared first on Shock Till You Drop.


          Only now does it occur to me... STORYVILLE        
Only now does it occur to me... a few things about STORYVILLE.

STORYVILLE is the only feature film to be written and directed by Mark Frost, co-creator of TWIN PEAKS. I watched it because I am a TWIN PEAKS die-hard. Here's what I learned:

#1. It can't decide whether it wants to be a John Grisham-style courtroom drama or a Cannon Film. Think that sounds ridiculous? Then just let me lay the plot synopsis on you, and you can tell me the exact point where Grisham gives way to Golan-Globus:

Clay Fowler (James Spader) is a young Louisianan whippersnappuh and ace lawyer running for Congress.

There's all sorts of corruption and family history and bayous and rockin' chairs and microfiche––


Most films of this kind make you wait about an hour for the microfiche montage sequence, but STORYVILLE delivers it in the opening shots of the movie!

and there're backroom deals and suspenders and an irascible performance by Jason Robards,

and pathos exuded by Woody Strode in browline eyeglasses,

but then––ladies and gentlemen, just when you think you're watching THE CLIENT or THE PELICAN BRIEF, James Spader finds himself in hot water (literally) when he is blackmailed after being videotaped having sex with a martial arts instructor in her studio's (ninja) hot tub:

And this is after they've already 'sexy-sparred' like Grace Jones and Christopher Walken in A VIEW TO A KILL.


A VIEW TO A KILL meets A TIME TO KILL?

Allow me to reiterate two things. One: I am not making this up. Two: ninja hot tubs are a staple of 1980s cinema, and I don't know why. I call them "ninja" hot tubs and not "martial arts" hot tubs (or even "jiu jitsu jacuzzis"), because they first appear in the Cannon classic REVENGE OF THE NINJA, where three separate hot tubs involving ninjas are made integral to the plot. In Cannon's NINJA III: THE DOMINATION, a ninja hot tub makes a notable appearance as a site of possessed ninja murder. In BLIND FURY (not a Cannon film, but starring Cannon's Sho Kosugi), there is a climactic martial arts and swordfighting duel over a hot tub. Later on in STORYVILLE, Spader returns to the scene of the ninja hot tub and battles a martial arts assassin. What does all of this mean? I was hoping you could tell me.



#2. If you're looking for TWIN PEAKS, you found it... (kind of).

There's a small town, quirky characters, and a dead body floating in the water in the opening scenes.

He's dead... Wrapped in... the clothes he was already wearing, I guess. 

It shares with TWIN PEAKS its casting director (Johanna Ray), cinematographer (Ron Garcia), production designer (Richard Hoover), set decorator (Brian Kasch), second-assistant director (Randy Barbee), and co-producer (Robert D. Simon).  It features a small, weirdo role for Catherine Martell herself, Piper Laurie:

and a villainous turn (obviously) by Renault brother Michael Parks:
 
who is sort of playing the same corrupt cop he played in THE HITMAN, though in this role he is permitted both the Cannon flourish of beating up James Spader while wearing a terrifying mask:
as well as the Grisham flourish of testifying in a courtroom that the judge "will not allow to turn into a circus!"
Michael Parks was a national treasure, by the way.

In closing, this is a strange (and, I'll be honest, often mediocre) little movie that may find appreciative viewers among TWIN PEAKS enthusiasts, hot tub fans, Grisham die-hards, and, I daresay, aficionados of the Southern Fried Crawdad-Lickin' Sleaze-O-Rama genre.
          Neue Studie: Wie Männer vergewaltigt werden – News vom 31. Juli 2017        
1. Auch der Bonner "General-Anzeiger" berichtet jetzt über den grünen Online-Pranger Andreas Kempers, Henning von Bargens und Elisabeth Tuiders:

Der digitale Pranger, den die Böll-Stiftung im Internet aufgestellt hat, ist eine gruselige Konstruktion. Man kann die Emanzipation der Geschlechter, Gleichberechtigung, Antidiskriminierung und Anerkennung aller sexuellen Orientierungen und geschlechtlichen Identitäten als zentrale Elemente der Menschenrechte verstehen. Dafür darf man aber nicht leichthin das Recht auf freie Meinungsäußerung zur Disposition stellen. Die Böll-Stiftung hat böse Geister losgelassen. Wer fängt sie wieder ein?




2. Spiegel-Online beschäftigt sich grundsätzlicher mit "Sprechverboten und Sprachpolizei", also der "Debattenkultur der Linken". Ein Auszug:

So habe sich die Linke einen geschlossenen Raum geschaffen, in dem jeder über den anderen herfalle - in Fishers Worten: das Schloss der Vampire. "Theoretisch beansprucht es für sich, strukturelle Kritik zu betreiben. Praktisch befasst es sich aber nie mit etwas anderem als individuellem Verhalten."


Im englischsprachigen Raum habe sich zur Wiedereroberung der Redefreiheit eine sogenannte "Dirtbag Left" gebildet:

Wer sich zur Dirtbag Left zähle, so Christman im "New Yorker", habe keine Angst, "das Zartgefühl der 'linksgerichteten' Sprachpolizei zu verletzen, deren einziges Ziel es ist, gesellschaftliche Solidarität zu sabotieren, um ihre Marke als Gebieter über guten Geschmack und angemessenes Reden zu erhalten."


Derselbe Widerstandsgeist findet sich auch in Genderama, wobei dieses Blog allerdings auf den pöbelnden, vulgären Tonfall, der Spiegel-Online zufolge für die "Dirtbag Left" typisch ist, verzichtet. Bei allem Respekt beispielsweise vor Punk-Autorinnen wie Kathy Acker wäre mir das zu viel Posing. Als privates Blog benutzt Genderama gelegentlich nur dieselben Stilmittel, die ich auch sonst privat benutze, nämlich Ironie und Sarkasmus.



3. Die Frauenzeitschrift "Marie Claire" äußert sich auf typisch feministische Weise zu dem Weltkriegs-Epos "Dunkirk".



4. Der britische "Independent" berichtet über eine neue, diesmal britische Studie über vergewaltigte Männer. Ihr Augenmerk richtet sich diesmal auf die Methoden der Täterinnen:

A survey of men who say they have been forced to have sex by a woman claims blackmail and threats were the most common methods used.

A research project of 154 men who said they were “compelled to penetrate” a woman found more than a fifth of them were forced into it by threats and blackmail.

Telling lies, threats to end a relationship, warnings of rumour-spreading and verbal abuse were cited by 22 per cent of men in the survey.

The research project, led by Dr Siobhan Weare, from Lancaster University Law School, and supported by charity Survivors Manchester, also found the use of force, such as pinning down with bodyweight or having a weapon, was reported by 14 per cent of men who completed the survey.

The project aimed to explore one of the “last taboos” - sexual violence by women against men.

Dr Weare said: "Whilst the sample size of 154 may be smaller than typically expected, this must be considered in the context of an issue that is under-reported and under-discussed, and that this is the first and only survey of its kind to be conducted in the UK. The 'hidden' nature of this crime and the 'complex' gender dynamics involved means that huge numbers of survey participants were highly unlikely - not because this isn't happening to men, but because many are made to feel too ashamed or feel too distressed to report it."

          Comment on About Dr. Attorney Noel Guivani Ramiscal by Medevenx        
Good day Atty. Ramiscal! I am the webmaster of medevenx.blogspot.com, a video gaming-related website. The word "Medevenx" is my internet username used in all my social media, e-mails and any internet account. I have been using this name for years now and at this point it is a personal name now for me, as people who follow my work know that the word "Medevenx" is unique to me and there is only one Medevenx. Previously, in late January 2016, I signed up to avail Google Domains which allowed me to purchase medevenx.com from google for $12 a year. However, it was shown that I still needed to set up a bank account which I did not have at the time. While setting up my account, I missed the deadline for payment which was 2 weeks when there was supposed to be a grace period of 2 more weeks, giving me time to finish setting up my account. The next day after the deadline, medevenx.com was taken by afternic.com re-sellers / auctioners. There were no others interested in medevenx.com up to this point if I knew that there were bots lurking around, checking unrenewed or failed domain registrations to take it from under them, I would never had attempted to register the domain unprepared. The domain was registered by afternic.com resellers in February 2, 2016 and I waited until February 2, 2017 to take it back only to be disappointed that the domain was renewed by the re-seller. While I have not registered the trademark, I have already put the trademark symbol on the name and logo I use for the website. The website medevenx.com is also being used in bas faith as it holds no actual website and shows that the current owner has no actual interest in using the domain properly. The domain is being auctioned at $800 while filing a UDRP complain to ICANN costs a minimum of $1500. It is absurd to me how it is cheaper to pay a ransom/blackmail than to get help and process a complaint against this. I am here to ask for your help as I am desperate now. I want to make proper use of my username in a domain that I had long wanted to use. It's been over a year and I can see the same thing happening next year. I do not have the money to purchase the domain since my site only makes $100 to $200 a month. Please help, thank you for reading. God bless and more power!
          MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez        
MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez
Cast: Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez

The Sextorsion saga comes to a sizzling climax, as we finally get to see the complete video footage behind Steven Daigle«s blackmail plot. In a shocking twist, and despite his constant claims of innocence we see him clearly blackmailing a potential business contact Pablo Nunez and using his power and influence to take advantage of him sexually. «I always get what I want» claims the cunning business man, as he takes out his hard cock and pushes the not ready Pablo down to suck him off. But that»s just for starters as Steven only has one thing on in mind, and that's overpowering his business associates by fucking them hard and rough, especially when they are as young and innocent as Pablo. Unfortunately for Steven, but fortunately for us, his savvy butler captured everything on video and now we get to see every single second of this HOT meeting.

Format: Windows Media
Duration: 18:58
Video: 928x522, Windows Media Video 9, 1953kbps
Audio: 125kbps

MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez
MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez

MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez
File size: 290.3 MB

MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez

MenAtPlay Sextortion Part 3 - Evidence — Steven Daigle & Pablo Nunez
http://svalka.ws/
          Blackmailing Boy        
Blackmailing Boy
Cast: Alyssa Lynn
Genres: All Sex, Milf, Big tits

A gorgeous adult lady likes to fuck and the guys who are ready to share the evening with this guy know about it. Download and enjoy!

Format: mp4
Duration: 30:17
Video: 1920x1080, AVC (H.264), 6070kbps
Audio: 124kbps

Blackmailing Boy Blackmailing Boy
Blackmailing Boy Blackmailing Boy

Blackmailing Boy
File size: 1.3 GB

Blackmailing Boy

Blackmailing Boy
http://svalka.ws/
          Tech at Night: Are Bitcoiners ready to pay taxes like any other currency users? FTC blames the victim on Cybersecurity.        
I talk about anarchists often in this space, but I mean it. These people are a threat. Here’s one cell making threats and demanding $3 billion from Google in blackmail. And that’s why it’s so incredibly insane that the US Government keeps playing blame the victim with these guys, as in the Wyndham case. It’s […]
          How to Use Spy Pro Extreme Wireless Camera in Offices & Home        

Nowadays, we often hear that in public places people use to install hidden cameras to blackmail people and such cases have came up in many occasions when hidden cameras are found in the trial rooms of malls and showrooms, in public toilets, girls accommodation etc. So, these days one has to be very careful out there in such places because you never know who is watching you from where. 

But, as we know that, science and technology when used by mankind can develop only two results wither positive or negative means it can be used for a good reason or to ruin something. Likewise, these hidden cameras are also a boon to reporters, journalists, secret and undercover agents etc and at the same time it can also create havoc when used by notorious people to capture other people’s private life by using the covert cameras.

We know that there are pros and cons in every scientific creation and to overcome these things there are also devices which can protect us from these hideous crimes that are constantly growing in our society. These notorious uses of the hidden cameras are mainly relevant in big metro cities and urban centers of our country. So, the innovators of the spy devices have come up with an extremely new device which can detect hidden cameras so that you can be alert in places where you visit. The Spy Pro Extreme Wireless Camera in India is available because of the constant increase in these crimes. This can be easily carried with you in shopping malls wherever you travel be it family vacation or honeymoon you will remain safe because it will alert you with alarm and it also has a 2.5 inch screen which shows you the video footage where there is a probability of a covert camera. It is a very useful device to use when you are out on a vacation because nowadays hotel rooms and bathrooms also are installed with these cameras.

Apart from these devices one should also use other devices like mobile jammers, GPS trackers to lead a life filled with security. Spy Camera in Mumbai are hugely available because of the increasing crimes and it provides a great security and surveillance in huge areas and in a city like Mumbai security is required immensely after what we saw in 2008 terror attacks.

A few kilometers away from Mumbai another city is developing and enlarging into under urban hub in the state of Maharashtra. So, security and surveillance has to be tightened in these areas. Spy Camera in Pune are also becoming very much popular and are extensively used in malls and showrooms for their surveillance.
So, use these technologically advanced devices and protect your family and your valuables from the crimes that occur every now and then in the developing countries of the world.

          Berlin-Ankara Rift Deepens        
In a deepening rift, Turkey has told Germany that their relations cannot be based on blackmail and threats. The Turkish foreign ministry accused the German foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, of having a one-sided and distorted approach to their relations. Mr Gabriel earlier announced measures against Turkey in an escalating row over recent arrests of German nationals by the Turkish authorities. And later in the programme: OJ Simpson - the disgraced former American footballer and actor - gets parole. And an assessment of US President Donald Trump's first six months in office. (Photo: Visitors at a Turkish stand at the International Tourism Trade Fair in Berlin. Credit: STEFFI LOOS/AFP/Getty Images)
          Watch Iron Man 3 Movie Online Free        
Watch Iron Man 3 Movie Online Free - Tony Stark recalls a New Years Eve affair in 1999 with scientist Maya Hansen, artist of Extremis—an beginning adorning analysis advised to acquiesce accretion from crippling injuries. Disabled scientist Aldrich Killian offers them a abode in his company, Advanced Idea Mechanics, but Stark rejects the offer, base Killian.
Watch Full Movie Here | Watch Movie Online | Direct Download | Torrent Download
Years later, Stark's adventures during the conflicting aggression of New York are giving him agitation attacks. Restless, he has congenital several dozen Iron Man suits, creating abrasion with his adherent Pepper Potts. A cord of bombings by agitator the Mandarin has larboard intelligence agencies addled by a abridgement of argumentative evidence. When Stark Industries aegis arch Happy Hogan is abominably afflicted in one such attack, Stark overcomes his amazement and issues a televised blackmail to the Mandarin, who responds by antibacterial Stark's home with helicopter gunships. Hansen, who came to acquaint Stark, survives the advance forth with Potts.

          PHP Annotated Monthly – October 2015        
As the leaves start to drop from the trees, and bunches of poorly dressed-up kids blackmail unsuspecting pensioners into giving them sweets, October’s PHP Annotated Monthly has been compiled and released right to your door. Once again, this month has … Continue reading
          Indian Pictures Actress        
Source(google.com.pk)
Indian Pictures Actress Biography


Priyanka Chopra (pronounced [prɪˈjəŋkaː ˈtʃoːpɽaː]; born 18 July 1982)is an Indian actress. She was born to parents who were both army physicians. Due to their frequent reassignments, she grew up in many different cities in India, as well as spending a few years in the United States. Before starting her acting career, she gained fame after winning the Miss India and Miss World titles in 2000.During her career, Chopra has received one National Film Award and four Filmfare Awards.
Making her acting debut with the 2002 Tamil film Thamizhan, Chopra then made her Bollywood debut with The Hero in 2003. She followed that with the hit Andaaz, for which she won a Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut. She subsequently earned critical acclaim for her performance in Aitraaz (2004), and appeared in the commercially successful projects Mujhse Shaadi Karogi (2004), Krrish (2006) and Don (2006). The year 2008 marked the beginning of a new phase in Chopra's career, as her portrayal of a troubled model in the film Fashion earned her the National Film Award for Best Actress and the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. She was later noted for her performances in Kaminey (2009), What's Your Raashee? (2009), 7 Khoon Maaf (2011), which garnered her the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress, and for Barfi! (2012). Having done so, Chopra established herself as one of the leading contemporary actresses in Bollywood.
In addition to film acting, Chopra has performed on television and in stage shows. She has written columns in national Indian newspapers, and is active in charity work. She is regarded as one of most popular and attractive celebrities in India, and has many endorsement deals. In 2011, she signed an agreement with Universal Music Group and DesiHits to record and release her first music album. The first single, "In My City" was released in September 2012, and the full album is expected in December 2012.

Priyanka Chopra was born on 18 July 1982, in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India to Capt. Dr. Ashok Chopra and Dr. Madhu Chopra, both physicians by profession in the Indian Army. She has a brother, Siddharth, who is seven years younger than her.[8] Actress Parineeti Chopra is her cousin.Since her father was in the Army, her family frequently moved from one city to another during her schooling days. In an interview with Daily News and Analysis, Chopra said that she didn't mind moving around and shifting schools. She welcomed it as a new experience and a way to discover the multicultural Indian society.Places where she lived as a child include Jamshedpur, Delhi, Pune, Lucknow, Bareilly, Ladakh, Chandigarh and Ambala.
Chopra studied at La Martiniere Girls' School in Lucknow and St. Maria Goretti College in Bareilly as a young girl. She subsequently re-located to the U.S. where she attended Newton North High School in Newton, Massachusetts, and then John F. Kennedy High School in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.She later recalled, "It was a huge culture shock for me when I went to study for three years in Boston at the age of 13."[14] However, she was selected at state level for the National Opus Honour Choir.While in Boston, she participated in several theatre productions, and studied Western classical, chorus and choir singing, as well as Kathak dance.Having completed the tenth class, Chopra returned to India and finished her high school education at Army Public School in Bareilly; during this period she won a local beauty pageant called "May Queen".She registered for her college studies at Jai Hind College in Mumbai to study either Software engineering or Criminal psychology, but left after winning the Miss World pageant.
Chopra's mother enrolled her for the Femina Miss India contest,in which she came second at the Femina Miss India 2000 competition, behind Lara Dutta, winning the Femina Miss India World title.She was subsequently sent to the Miss World pageant, where she was crowned Miss World 2000, along with Miss World Continental Queen of Beauty − Asia & Oceania.In the same year, her Miss India co-winners Lara Dutta and Dia Mirza, won the Miss Universe and Miss Asia Pacific crowns respectively, in a rare triple victory for one country. When Chopra won the Miss World crown, she became the fifth Indian woman to win the title, and the fourth Indian woman to do so in a span of seven years.She stated that the Miss World title brought her recognition and fame, and then she started getting offers for film roles.

Priyanka Chopra made her debut in the 2002 Tamil film Thamizhan playing the role of Priya, the love interest of the protagonist in the film played by Vijay. The film was praised for its wit and dialogues, although the depth of Chopra's character was seen as lacking.In 2003, she appeared in her first Bollywood film, opposite Sunny Deol and Preity Zinta in the Anil Sharma film The Hero: Love Story of a Spy. She played a supporting role as a doctor named Shaheen in the film. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of that year,it received mixed reviews from critics.Though Chopra played the second female lead, her acting performance did get her noticed.Later that year she appeared in Raj Kanwar's Andaaz, playing the character of Jiya who falls in love with Raj Malhotra, played by Akshay Kumar. The film was a success at the box office,earning her a Filmfare Best Female Debut Award and a nomination for Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award.Ashish Magotra writing for Rediff.com said of her role, "Priyanka Chopra alone clicks with the audience, thanks to her skimpy outfits."

Her next films which released in 2004, Plan, Kismat, and Asambhav performed poorly at the box office. Later that year she appeared in David Dhawan's romantic comedy Mujhse Shaadi Karogi playing the role of a young fashion designer Rani along with Salman Khan and Akshay Kumar. The film turned out to be the third-highest grossing film of that year.She next starred in Abbas-Mustan's thriller Aitraaz alongside Kumar and Kareena Kapoor. It was her first negative role and her performance was critically acclaimed.Film critic Subhash K. Jha noted, "A star is born! As the predatory social-climbing seductress who can go to any length to satiate her lust for life, Priyanka Chopra rocks the scene like never before. The film is undoubtedly a triumph for Priyanka Chopra. With half a smile, a twitch of her lip and a movement of her eyebrow she seems to slip into her man-eater's role with captivating ease".She earned a Filmfare Award for Best Performance in a Negative Role (also known as the Best Villain Award), becoming the second and last female actor to win the award after Kajol (the category has been retired since 2008). She also received a second nomination for Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award for the role.
In 2005, she starred in six films. Four of them, Blackmail, Karam, Yakeen and Barsaat failed to do well.However, her performance in Yakeen garnered good reviews from critics. Her other two 2005 releases, Waqt: The Race Against Time and Bluffmaster! were moderately successful at the box office.Subhash K Jha wrote about her performance in Bluffmaster!, "Chopra has little to do. But she does it with eye-catching aplomb."In 2006, Chopra starred in Rakesh Roshan's Krrish which was a sequel to the 2004 sci-fi film Koi... Mil Gaya. She shared the screen with Hrithik Roshan and Rekha. The film was declared a blockbuster and was one of the highest grossing films of the year.She also appeared in Aap Ki Khatir opposite Akshaye Khanna and Dino Morea. Her last release was Farhan Akhtar's Don, alongside Shahrukh Khan which was a remake of the 1978 film of the same name. She was cast to play Roma, a role which was played by Zeenat Aman in the original movie. Chopra and Khan underwent special martial arts training for their roles in the movie and both performed their own stunts.Upon release, the film was generally well received both in India and abroad. A week after its theatrical run, Box Office India declared the film a hit in India, and a "blockbuster" overseas.Aside from that, she made special appearances in three other films that year.
In 2007, she appeared in Nikhil Advani's ensemble piece Salaam-e-Ishq: A Tribute to Love. Despite a promising opening, the movie was a financial failure.Chopra was criticized for her performance in the film, with Lidia Ostepeev of Planet Bollywood calling it "forced" and "overly exaggerated".Her next release, the much-delayed Big Brother, also failed at the box-office.In 2008, Chopra acted in six films. Her first four films, Love Story 2050, God Tussi Great Ho, Chamku and Drona, were critical and commercial failures. During this time, Chopra received mixed reviews for her performances, with some critics pondering why she chose to do these films.

"I will give full credit to Madhur Bhandarkar and the crew. I am really honoured. National Award is the biggest honour of our country and I am really honoured to have received one."
—Chopra on winning the National Film Award for Best Actress for her performance in Fashion (2008)
After a series of flops, Chopra was cast in Madhur Bhandarkar's Fashion (2008), for the lead role of Meghna Mathur. Revolving around the fashion world through Chopra's role of an ambitious model, the film was a critical success. Her performance in the film was appreciated and earned her several awards for Best Actress including the National Film Award for Best Actress,as well as the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. Subhash K Jha predicted that this would be Priyanka’s coming-of-age film, and Rajeev Masand wrote, "Chopra turns in a respectable performance, one that will inevitably go down as her best." The film became a major turning point in her career.Chopra's final release of the year was Tarun Mansukhani's romantic comedy Dostana alongside Abhishek Bachchan and John Abraham. The film explores the story of two men who pretend to be gay, so that they can rent an apartment from an older lady. Both the men fall in love with the same girl, their roommate, but are unable to express their feelings because she is related to the old landlady. The film was a financial success and went on to become the eight-highest grossing film at the Indian box office in 2008.Chopra received positive reviews for her performance and her look in the film.
In 2009, she appeared in Vishal Bhardwaj's caper thriller Kaminey alongside Shahid Kapoor, playing the role of a feisty Marathi girl named Sweety. The film was a critical and commercial success. Her performance received positive reviews.Her work in the film brought her several awards and nominations including a second Filmfare Award for Best Actress nomination and a second consecutive Apsara Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role after Fashion.She subsequently appeared in Ashutosh Gowariker's romantic comedy What's Your Raashee?, a film which made Chopra the first actress in cinema history to portray 12 distinct characters in one film, and for which she was reportedly being cosidered for inclusion in the Guinness World Records book.The film itself was a financial and critical failure,but Chopra's performance was appreciated by the critics.Rediff wrote, "Priyanka Chopra transforms into 12 new skins with astonishing distinction, voice and spirit. The actress reinvents herself into this unique individual every single time ranging from batty, bashful and boisterous. This is simply her show."
In 2010, Chopra appeared in Jugal Hansraj's Pyaar Impossible! opposite Uday Chopra, where she portrayed the role of a beautiful college girl who eventually falls in love with a nerdy boy. The film was a commercial and critical failure.Her next release, Siddharth Anand's Anjaana Anjaani alongside Ranbir Kapoor, got a good initial response at the box office,but was not well received by the critics. She received positive to mixed comments from critics for her performance.

Chopra at the audio release of 7 Khoon Maaf (2011). Her performance in the film received critical acclaim and among other wins, fetched her a Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress.
Chopra's first release of 2011 was Vishal Bhardwaj's black comedy 7 Khoon Maaf, in which she portrayed the role of Susanna Anna-Marie Johannes, an Anglo-Indian woman who murders her seven husbands in an unending quest for love. The film was a commercial failure and received mixed response from the critics, however her performance received good reviews.and Nikhat Kazmi from The Times of India noted, "7 Khoon Maaf would undoubtedly end up as a milestone in Priyanka Chopra's career graph. The actor displays exquisite command over a complex character that is definitely a first in Indian cinema."Chopra eventually earned the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress and a third Filmfare Award for Best Actress nomination along with a few other awards at other ceremonies.
Her next release was Farhan Akhtar's Don 2 alongside Shahrukh Khan, in which she reprised her role of Roma. The film was a sequel to the 2006 action thriller Don. Upon release, while Indian critics gave positive to mixed reviews, overseas film critics praised it.Chopra's performance received positive feedback from foreign critics, with the reviewer from The Express Tribune writing, "Chopra pulls of her role with aplomb and seems to be the perfect choice for an action heroine. As you watch her effortlessly beat up some thugs in the movie, you come to the realisation that she may be the first proper female action hero in Bollywood."A review carried by Divanee South Asian News mentioned that Chopra surprises with a demeanor like that of Tomb Raider's Lara Croft.The film was a major success in India and a blockbuster overseas. It went on to break multiple box-office records in India and overseas, including the highest grossing Bollywood movie overseas in 2011.

In early 2012, Chopra became the first Bollywood actor to be signed by Creative Artists Agency (CAA), a prominent entertainment and sports agency headquartered in Los Angeles. The agency will handle her acting career in Hollywood.Her first release of the year was Karan Johar's Agneepath alongside Hrithik Roshan, Sanjay Dutt and Rishi Kapoor. The film was a remake of the 1990 classic of the same name. Upon release, the film broke the highest opening day collections record and became a critical and commercial success.[80] Her performance in the film was appreciated by most critics, such as Mayank Shekhar, who noted that she stood out in a male-centric movie.Her next release was Kunal Kohli's Teri Meri Kahaani, a love story set in three different eras. The film opened to mixed reactions from critics, however Chopra's performance, and her on-screen chemistry with co-star Shahid Kapoor received good reviews. Sonia Chopra of Sify wrote, "Priyanka delivers a superb performance easily slipping in-and-out of the layered characters with dexterity."Taran Adarsh commented, "As the spirited Aradhana of 1910, the dazzling movie star Rukhsar of 1960, or the joyful Radha of 2012, Priyanka is a complete livewire in each of the acts."However, despite the positive critical acclaim, the film failed to do well at the Indian box office, although was a moderate success in the overseas markets.

Chopra with co-star Ranbir Kapoor promoting Barfi! in 2012
In September 2012, Chopra featured in Anurag Basu's Barfi! alongside Ranbir Kapoor and Ileana D'Cruz. She was cast as Jhilmil Chatterjee; an autistic girl who falls in love with a deaf and mute boy. While preparing for her role, Chopra visited mental institutions and spent time with autistic people. She said, "I had to research a little for the role because in India awareness about a condition such as autism is very low."The film opened to major critical acclaim and Chopra received unanimous praise for her portrayal, which several reviewers regarded as her best performance to date.IANS observed, "Priyanka Chopra as the autistic Jhilmil steals the show from Ranbir, if that's possible. Her inherent glamorous personality simply disappears into her character. We don't see the actress on screen at all! We see only Jhilmil who reminds us in a very pleasant way of Sridevi in Sadma. This is one of the most flawless interpretations of a physical-psychological disability seen on celluloid."The film was chosen as India’s official entry to the Oscars for the 85th Academy Awards to be held in February 2013.
Chopra's next release will be Deewana Main Deewana, which was actually filmed four years ago.She is currently filming Krrish 3 alongside Hrithik Roshan, Vivek Oberoi and Kangna Ranaut in which she is respring her role of Priya. The film is a sequel to the 2006 superhero film Krrish.She has signed Apoorva Lakhia's Zanjeer opposite Ram Charan Teja, who is making his Bollywood debut. It is a remake of the 1973 film of the same name.She has also signed on for Ekta Kapoor's next production Milan Talkies,and Ali Abbas Zafar's next Gunday, which is set to start shooting in December 2012.

Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress
Indian Pictures Actress

          South Indian Hot Actress Pics        
Source(google.com.pk)
South Indian Hot Actress Pics Biography


Priyanka Chopra (pronounced [prɪˈjəŋkaː ˈtʃoːpɽaː]; born 18 July 1982)is an Indian actress. She was born to parents who were both army physicians. Due to their frequent reassignments, she grew up in many different cities in India, as well as spending a few years in the United States. Before starting her acting career, she gained fame after winning the Miss India and Miss World titles in 2000.During her career, Chopra has received one National Film Award and four Filmfare Awards.
Making her acting debut with the 2002 Tamil film Thamizhan, Chopra then made her Bollywood debut with The Hero in 2003. She followed that with the hit Andaaz, for which she won a Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut. She subsequently earned critical acclaim for her performance in Aitraaz (2004), and appeared in the commercially successful projects Mujhse Shaadi Karogi (2004), Krrish (2006) and Don (2006). The year 2008 marked the beginning of a new phase in Chopra's career, as her portrayal of a troubled model in the film Fashion earned her the National Film Award for Best Actress and the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. She was later noted for her performances in Kaminey (2009), What's Your Raashee? (2009), 7 Khoon Maaf (2011), which garnered her the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress, and for Barfi! (2012). Having done so, Chopra established herself as one of the leading contemporary actresses in Bollywood.
In addition to film acting, Chopra has performed on television and in stage shows. She has written columns in national Indian newspapers, and is active in charity work. She is regarded as one of most popular and attractive celebrities in India, and has many endorsement deals. In 2011, she signed an agreement with Universal Music Group and DesiHits to record and release her first music album. The first single, "In My City" was released in September 2012, and the full album is expected in December 2012.

Priyanka Chopra was born on 18 July 1982, in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India to Capt. Dr. Ashok Chopra and Dr. Madhu Chopra, both physicians by profession in the Indian Army.She has a brother, Siddharth, who is seven years younger than her.Actress Parineeti Chopra is her cousin.Since her father was in the Army, her family frequently moved from one city to another during her schooling days. In an interview with Daily News and Analysis, Chopra said that she didn't mind moving around and shifting schools. She welcomed it as a new experience and a way to discover the multicultural Indian society.Places where she lived as a child include Jamshedpur, Delhi, Pune, Lucknow, Bareilly, Ladakh, Chandigarh and Ambala.
Chopra studied at La Martiniere Girls' School in Lucknow and St. Maria Goretti College in Bareilly as a young girl. She subsequently re-located to the U.S. where she attended Newton North High School in Newton, Massachusetts, and then John F. Kennedy High School in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.She later recalled, "It was a huge culture shock for me when I went to study for three years in Boston at the age of 13."However, she was selected at state level for the National Opus Honour Choir.While in Boston, she participated in several theatre productions, and studied Western classical, chorus and choir singing, as well as Kathak dance.Having completed the tenth class, Chopra returned to India and finished her high school education at Army Public School in Bareilly; during this period she won a local beauty pageant called "May Queen".She registered for her college studies at Jai Hind College in Mumbai to study either Software engineering or Criminal psychology, but left after winning the Miss World pageant.
Chopra's mother enrolled her for the Femina Miss India contest,in which she came second at the Femina Miss India 2000 competition, behind Lara Dutta, winning the Femina Miss India World title.She was subsequently sent to the Miss World pageant, where she was crowned Miss World 2000, along with Miss World Continental Queen of Beauty − Asia & Oceania.In the same year, her Miss India co-winners Lara Dutta and Dia Mirza, won the Miss Universe and Miss Asia Pacific crowns respectively, in a rare triple victory for one country.When Chopra won the Miss World crown, she became the fifth Indian woman to win the title, and the fourth Indian woman to do so in a span of seven years.She stated that the Miss World title brought her recognition and fame, and then she started getting offers for film roles.

Priyanka Chopra made her debut in the 2002 Tamil film Thamizhan playing the role of Priya, the love interest of the protagonist in the film played by Vijay. The film was praised for its wit and dialogues, although the depth of Chopra's character was seen as lacking.In 2003, she appeared in her first Bollywood film, opposite Sunny Deol and Preity Zinta in the Anil Sharma film The Hero: Love Story of a Spy. She played a supporting role as a doctor named Shaheen in the film. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of that year,it received mixed reviews from critics.Though Chopra played the second female lead, her acting performance did get her noticed.Later that year she appeared in Raj Kanwar's Andaaz, playing the character of Jiya who falls in love with Raj Malhotra, played by Akshay Kumar. The film was a success at the box office,earning her a Filmfare Best Female Debut Award and a nomination for Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award.Ashish Magotra writing for Rediff.com said of her role, "Priyanka Chopra alone clicks with the audience, thanks to her skimpy outfits.
Her next films which released in 2004, Plan, Kismat, and Asambhav performed poorly at the box office.Later that year she appeared in David Dhawan's romantic comedy Mujhse Shaadi Karogi playing the role of a young fashion designer Rani along with Salman Khan and Akshay Kumar. The film turned out to be the third-highest grossing film of that year.She next starred in Abbas-Mustan's thriller Aitraaz alongside Kumar and Kareena Kapoor. It was her first negative role and her performance was critically acclaimed.Film critic Subhash K. Jha noted, "A star is born! As the predatory social-climbing seductress who can go to any length to satiate her lust for life, Priyanka Chopra rocks the scene like never before. The film is undoubtedly a triumph for Priyanka Chopra. With half a smile, a twitch of her lip and a movement of her eyebrow she seems to slip into her man-eater's role with captivating ease".She earned a Filmfare Award for Best Performance in a Negative Role (also known as the Best Villain Award),becoming the second and last female actor to win the award after Kajol (the category has been retired since 2008). She also received a second nomination for Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award for the role.
In 2005, she starred in six films. Four of them, Blackmail, Karam, Yakeen and Barsaat failed to do well.However, her performance in Yakeen garnered good reviews from critics. Her other two 2005 releases, Waqt: The Race Against Time and Bluffmaster! were moderately successful at the box office.Subhash K Jha wrote about her performance in Bluffmaster!, "Chopra has little to do. But she does it with eye-catching aplomb."In 2006, Chopra starred in Rakesh Roshan's Krrish which was a sequel to the 2004 sci-fi film Koi... Mil Gaya. She shared the screen with Hrithik Roshan and Rekha. The film was declared a blockbuster and was one of the highest grossing films of the year.She also appeared in Aap Ki Khatir opposite Akshaye Khanna and Dino Morea. Her last release was Farhan Akhtar's Don, alongside Shahrukh Khan which was a remake of the 1978 film of the same name. She was cast to play Roma, a role which was played by Zeenat Aman in the original movie. Chopra and Khan underwent special martial arts training for their roles in the movie and both performed their own stunts.[40] Upon release, the film was generally well received both in India and abroad. A week after its theatrical run, Box Office India declared the film a hit in India, and a "blockbuster" overseas.Aside from that, she made special appearances in three other films that year.
In 2007, she appeared in Nikhil Advani's ensemble piece Salaam-e-Ishq: A Tribute to Love. Despite a promising opening, the movie was a financial failure.Chopra was criticized for her performance in the film, with Lidia Ostepeev of Planet Bollywood calling it "forced" and "overly exaggerated".Her next release, the much-delayed Big Brother, also failed at the box-office.In 2008, Chopra acted in six films. Her first four films, Love Story 2050, God Tussi Great Ho, Chamku and Drona, were critical and commercial failures.During this time, Chopra received mixed reviews for her performances, with some critics pondering why she chose to do these
"I will give full credit to Madhur Bhandarkar and the crew. I am really honoured. National Award is the biggest honour of our country and I am really honoured to have received one."
—Chopra on winning the National Film Award for Best Actress for her performance in Fashion (2008)
After a series of flops, Chopra was cast in Madhur Bhandarkar's Fashion (2008), for the lead role of Meghna Mathur. Revolving around the fashion world through Chopra's role of an ambitious model, the film was a critical success. Her performance in the film was appreciated and earned her several awards for Best Actress including the National Film Award for Best Actress,as well as the Filmfare Award for Best Actress.Subhash K Jha predicted that this would be Priyanka’s coming-of-age film, and Rajeev Masand wrote, "Chopra turns in a respectable performance, one that will inevitably go down as her best." The film became a major turning point in her career.Chopra's final release of the year was Tarun Mansukhani's romantic comedy Dostana alongside Abhishek Bachchan and John Abraham. The film explores the story of two men who pretend to be gay, so that they can rent an apartment from an older lady. Both the men fall in love with the same girl, their roommate, but are unable to express their feelings because she is related to the old landlady. The film was a financial success and went on to become the eight-highest grossing film at the Indian box office in 2008.Chopra received positive reviews for her performance and her look in the film.
In 2009, she appeared in Vishal Bhardwaj's caper thriller Kaminey alongside Shahid Kapoor, playing the role of a feisty Marathi girl named Sweety. The film was a critical and commercial success. Her performance received positive reviews.Her work in the film brought her several awards and nominations including a second Filmfare Award for Best Actress nomination and a second consecutive Apsara Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role after Fashion.She subsequently appeared in Ashutosh Gowariker's romantic comedy What's Your Raashee?, a film which made Chopra the first actress in cinema history to portray 12 distinct characters in one film, and for which she was reportedly being considered for inclusion in the Guinness World Records book.The film itself was a financial and critical failure,but Chopra's performance was appreciated by the critics. Rediff wrote, "Priyanka Chopra transforms into 12 new skins with astonishing distinction, voice and spirit. The actress reinvents herself into this unique individual every single time ranging from batty, bashful and boisterous. This is simply her show."
In 2010, Chopra appeared in Jugal Hansraj's Pyaar Impossible! opposite Uday Chopra, where she portrayed the role of a beautiful college girl who eventually falls in love with a nerdy boy. The film was a commercial and critical failure. Her next release, Siddharth Anand's Anjaana Anjaani alongside Ranbir Kapoor, got a good initial response at the box office,but was not well received by the critics. She received positive to mixed comments from critics for her performance.

South Indian Hot Actress Pics
South Indian Hot Actress Pics
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South Indian Hot Actress Pics
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          COMEY BLACKMAILED TRUMP USING FUSION GPS RUSSIA DOSSIER: Russian Bankers Suing Buzzfeed Over Dossier        

          Old Father in Law Blackmailed Sons Busty Wife Into Fucking        
Watch Old Father in Law Blackmailed Sons Busty Wife Into Fucking on rnoPo.com - free hardcore porn videos and amateur sex tapes.
          Nasty Stepbrother Blackmail Hangover Stepsister To Tell Their Parents About Her Wild Night        
Watch Nasty Stepbrother Blackmail Hangover Stepsister To Tell Their Parents About Her Wild Night on rnoPo.com - free hardcore porn videos and amateur sex tapes.
          Two Bums Caught Stealing Got Blackmailed and Properly Punished        
Watch Two Bums Caught Stealing Got Blackmailed and Properly Punished on rnoPo.com - free hardcore porn videos and amateur sex tapes.
          Some Examples of Crimes        
* Arson
* Assault             
* Blackmail                   
* Burglary   
* Child abuse      
* Domestic violence  
* Drug possession        
* Weapon possession
* Embezzlement/ cheating/ misuse          
* Espionage / surveillance/ spying            
* forgery / fake/ falsification                   
* Genocide
* Hacking/ cut/ chop             
* Identity theft 
* Illegal gambling
* Kidnapping
*Looting              
* Manslaughter            
* Murder            
* Perjury   
* Prostitution              
* Rape                           
*Robbery             
* Slander  
* Smuggling                  
* Stalking            
*Tax evasion/ tax dodging/ tax avoidance  
* Theft 
* Treason/ disloyalty/ duplicity                
* Trespass/ break in/ violate                    
* vandalism         


              Categories of Vocabularies        
    1.    Title of incident/type of incident
    Assault/Assassination/Attack/Vandalize/Murder/Property / persecution / Damage/Kidnapping/Demonstration/Slanghter/Homicide/Persection/Harrashment/Intimidation/
    Threat/Stalking/Mugging/Extortion/Blackmail/Torture/Mob Justice/Beating/Domestic Violation(HRV)/Robbery/Suicide/Burglary / break in/Theft/Road Accident/Genocide/Massacre Arson/Assault/Blackmail/Fraud/Hijacking/Hooliganism /Mugging
    2.    Body structure/looks of suspects.
    Heavily built/slim/lean/medium built /muscular built/(slender- willowy- meager) (robust/ /stout/strapping /chunky / stocky /  burly /bold / brawny/ sturdy) ( lanky – leggy - tall and thin) (cocky / overconfident ) shaved head/curly hair/skinny/bony/bald head
    3.    Dress of suspects
    Camouflage/sneaker/bandana/Turban/ emblem/Denim jean/ Trainer/sleeve-less shirt/ belt/scarf
    Boots/cap/coat/dress/gloves/hat/jacket/jeans/pants/raincoat/scarf/shirt/shoes/skirt
    Slacks/slippers/socks/stockings/suit/sweater/sweatshirt/t-shirt/tie/trousers/underclothes
    Underpants/undershirt/ hooded sweat shirt / black track pants/ track suit/
    4.    Kind of fire arms and non fire arms
    Machetes /AK-47/mouser rifle/Glock17 /revolver/club/ base ball bat/Browning pistol/knife/Astra pistol/Assault rifle/Smith & Wesson-semi automatic pistol / Compact Assault Rifle /
    Automatic Shotgun - 12 gauge / Semi-Auto Carbine / Walther pistol/Beretta pistol/Chinese pistol/


    5.    Color types
    ( Tan/ brown) - Gray - Blue/ navy – Purple – (green/ emerald/ jade/ olive/ lime/ sea green/ bottle green) – (White/ colorless/ pallid/ sallow/ ashen) – Black (Yellow/ fair-haired/ blond /pale/ golden-haired/ blonde / flaxen
    (Maroon/ burgundy/ reddish purple/ claret /dark red/ wine-colored)

    6.    Action words
    Swerve/plant/grab/clutch/punch /stab /strangulate/apprehend – detain / stun /disperse – scatter / dispatch/veer/fell/drown/beat/tie/bind/struck/point/assault/torture/vandalize/abduct/apprehand/arrest/offend/attack/charge/accuse/convict/ arrest/ban/break in/break into/ break the law/burgle/charge/commit a crime/escape/get away/hold up/investigate/rob/steal/veer-turn/
    7.    Types of vehicles
    Volkswagen/Mercedes/sedan/lada/ land rover/Tata jeep/mini bus/truck/( TL/SD/TB/TY)/Honda civic/Honda Crv/Honda City/Honda Pilot/Honda Hrv/Honda Accord/Honda Fit/Land Rover/
    Mercedes-Benz/Mitsubishi/Nissan/Suzuki /Toyota Corolla /Toyota Hilux/ Alfa Romeo / FIAT/ BMW /Hyundai/Ford/
    8.    Type of ethnicity
    Muslim/Serbian/Albanian/Croat/Bosnian/Kosovar Albanians /Kosovar Serbs/Gorani/Turks/Macedonian/Romanian/orthodox Serb/Timorese/  Morle

    9.    Complexion
    Caucasian/black/white/fair/dark/ mulattos and whites
    10.    Mark/scar/tattoo
      Scar/ blemish/ disfigurement/ wound/ scratch /mark/ pockmark/ stain /spot /blotch/ nick/notch
    11.    Position of human/objects
    supine/prawn/upside town/downside up/inside out/outside in/squatting - hunkering down/crouching-stoop/kneeling/lying/hanging/
    12.    Criminals
    Mugger/murderer/robber/shoplifter/smuggler/terrorist/thi
    ef/vandal/ offender / assailant/ perpetrator/assailant/miscreant / thugs /intruder/suspect/accused/convict/maniac/
    13.    fugitive- renegade-escapee/ deserter-escapee/bandit/ fraudster/
    14.    part of body
    temple/ abdomen/chin/chick/waist /Ankle/foot/skull/tibia /tummy- stomach //wrist/forehead/
    15.    injuries
    Wound/ hurt/ lesion / abrasion/ cut/ wound/ gash/ sore/ laceration/ scratch/ Abrasion/Bruising/Burns
    Cluster Headaches/Concussions/Congestive Heart Failure/Coronary Artery Disease/Dislocation
    Flail Chest/Fracture/ Crush Injury/ Dislocation/Flail Chest/Fracture/Head Trauma/Hypothermia/Lacerations/Pinched Nerve/ Rib Fracture/ Spinal Cord Injury/ Traumatic Brain / massive Trauma / hemorrhage / Injury

    16.    kinds of drugs
    cannabis/marijuana/beverage/narcotic/Amphetamines
    Marijuana / Cannabis/Cocaine/Heroin/Ecstasy/Ketamine/LSD Index/Mushrooms/Drug Types
    Marijuana/Antidepressants/Barbiturates/Depressants/Hallucinogens/Inhalants/Narcotics/Steroids
    Opium

    17.    Justice System
    Appeal – request /barrister/caution/Cell/Community service/Court/court case/death penalty/defense/fine/goal-jail/guilty/imprisonment/innocent/judge/jury/justice/lawyer/offence/
    Sentence/prison/probation-trial/prosecution/punishment/capital punishment – death penalty/corporal punishment – long term prison/remand home/solicitor/trial/verdict/witness

    18.    Extra
    Compensation/ ransom/bail/parole/ escape/at large/ abscond/flee/ Hostile/aggressive/
    ( fugitive-escapee)

              The Case for Emotional Whaling        


    This is one of the other things I wanted to write about today.  Japan states that people need to take "the emotion out of whaling." 

    Does anyone else see the blatant hypocrisy of everything the Japan government is stating in this article? Maybe it's just me, but here I go stepping back on my personal opinionated soapbox: 

    (1)  "Mr Nakano said only through accepting that Japan is conducting scientific research on whales in the Southern Ocean can the debate move forward."

    Scientific research?  Please explain to me why you need to cull thousands of whales annually just to do research?  For what?  Are your scientists so inept that after years of killing thousands upon thousands you still don't know what you're researching?  Where are the peer to peer review articles?  What epiphanies have blown your mind thus far that would also blow the rest of humanity's mind that we are supposedly in the dark about?  Please educate us poor ignorant souls. 

    (2)  "But Mr Nakano said Japanese people were not emotional about the debate and most were not even aware of the details of the issue."

    I'm just taking a wild wild WILD guess here.  But is it possible that your citizens are unaware of these issues because there is censorship in your country's media on this matter?  Perhaps I'm blind, but I'm not seeing much transparency on your part here.  It seems that much information is withheld from the population and the only way they seem to find out anything is via outside media and organizations.  Examples:  The movie The Cove.  Many were unaware of what goes on in Taiji until this movie.  Organizations such as Sea Shepherd and Save Japan Dolphins have certainly worked their asses off to bring world wide attention to these matters.  They deserve credit for this.  If you want to tell your side of the story, then do so and back it up with full transparency.

    (3)  'We have to try to understand what are the differences and what is the problem,'' he said.

    ''And we have to try to find a way based on a calm environment and based on the scientific."

    You guys KNOW what the differences are and what the problems are.  Many people are anti whaling and anti cetacean captivity because of several reasons.  Among them are that cetaceans are becoming endangered and in some species are now extinct due to you hunting them to this point.  Another is that you guys blame the whales and dolphins for the fish depletion in the seas without taking any responsibility for the fact that you guys are the problem with the overfishing.  Blaming the cetaceans is a cop out and speaks glaringly of your own character, ego, and greed.

    Calm environment based on the scientific?  Ok.  Since you love the scientific so much, why don't your scientists peruse all the scientific evidence that has been out there for quite some time now and is becoming so commonly well known now that more and more people are currently on board to protect the whales and dolphins and to give them rights.  There is strong irrefutable scientific evidence that cetaceans are of a higher intelligence, with strong social and cultural associations, and are self aware.  Various scientists from various countries back up these claims and research studies.  Are the Japanese scientists so special as to believe that their research is the correct one and no one else's studies are worthy of your attention and acknowledgement?

    (4) "Mr Nakano insisted that vigorous anti-whaling campaigner Sea Shepherd must be treated as separate from the wider whaling debate.    He said the environment group's tactics are violent and unacceptable.  Diplomacy will not work with the group."

    Violent and unacceptable?  So killing whales and dolphins violently and inhumanely or capturing them in violent ways to sell off to the highest aquarium bidder is acceptable?  How is this not hypocritical on your part?   You can't say that the SSCS is violent when you guys are violent as well.  Does the Ady Gil boat come to mind?  How about the fact that in last year's Southern Ocean trip and again in this year's trip, there were at least two incidents that I'm aware of where none of your ships offered to help any of the SSCS crew that were endangered out in the waters.  
    And lest we forget, allegations have been coming out for years that representatives from Japan that attend the IWC meetings are forking out millions of dollars to blackmail and bribe certain countries and/or people to vote their way.  And we're supposed to be calm, unemotional, and diplomatic with you?

    Diplomacy goes both ways bucko. 

    You're not in this for your pride or culture.  You're in it for the money.  You seem to not care that the increasingly higher levels of mercury found in cetacean meat that you are feeding to your citizens is either making many people violently ill or killing them.  Where's your scientific research on that?  Why does it take outside scientists to present this evidence to you as proof and you still ignore it?

    You can't pick and choose certain scientific evidence to suit your agenda to kill off more whales and dolphins.  To do so shouldn't surprise you in knowing your government has earned the well deserved reputation as cetacean killers and as a country that appears to only care about themselves without any regard to the rest of the world that shares this planet and her oceans with you.

    Fewer and fewer people are buying into your lies.  Either change with the times and accept all the scientific evidence out there supporting the movement that cetaceans deserve rights and deserve to be a protected species, or start proving your own scientific evidence for all the killing and selling to the highest bidders you do.


              Martha Nussbaum on Alexander Hamilton        

    Hercules.jpg Martha Nussbaum, Professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about Alexander Hamilton. Nussbaum talks about the tension between acquiring power and living a life of virtue. Topics discussed include Hamilton's relationship with Aaron Burr, Burr's complicated historical legacy, and the role of the humanities in our lives.

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    0:33

    Intro. [Recording date: June 20, 2017.]

    Russ Roberts: Our topic for today is Alexander Hamilton--the man, and especially the musical and the ideas in that musical based on an essay that Martha Nussbaum wrote, "Hamilton's Choice," that appeared in the Boston Review.... Before we begin, I want to remind listeners that there may be some spoilers ahead about the musical, Hamilton's life. If you don't know what happens to him at the end of his life, you might want to miss this one until you've seen the show or read the Chernow biography. But, most of you probably have an idea what's happening.
    [Econlib Editor's Note: Throughout these typed Highlights below, I will try to indicate references to Hamilton-the-musical, by Lin-Manuel Miranda, with italics. References to Hamilton-the-person will be in ordinary text and unitalicized. Occasional other references such as to Ron Chernow's biography, Alexander Hamilton, or writings attributed to Hamilton in The Federalist will be clarified as they arise. Feel free to email errors or suggested corrections to me at webmaster@econlib.org.]

    1:25

    Russ Roberts: Now, Martha, you frame your essay around what you call Hamilton's choice--tying Hamilton to a classic story that the Stoics would tell about Hercules. Explain.

    Martha Nussbaum: Okay. So, in the ancient philosophical world, they had to appeal to young people and tell them why they should go in for thinking hard, studying hard, doing philosophy. And so they told this myth that the great hero, Hercules, is faced with a choice. And there are two goddesses who appear to him. And one of them is called Virtue; and she says, 'Do good deeds and pursue justice, and that will be a great life.' And the other one, in the original myth, was called Pleasure, and it just says, 'Wow, drink and have sex and be merry,' and so on. And so, that one, the Stoics rewrote a little bit, because obviously that version is and obvious loser. And so it turned into the life of fame, the life of positional pre-eminence--like, 'Try to be the person that everyone is talking about; try to be the one who is on the inside of whatever is going on.' And so, then, the young person is supposed to make a choice between those two paths. And in the end, of course, you are supposed to see that the life of virtue and creation is the better life.

    Russ Roberts: I couldn't help but think of our mutual friend, Adam Smith, who, in The Theory of Moral Sentiments--and Smith, of course, was influenced by the Stoics--he says--this is a quote:

    Two different roads are presented to us, equally leading to the attainment of this so much desired object [meaning to be loved and people paying attention to you--RR]; the one, by the study of wisdom and the practice of virtue; the other, by the acquisition of wealth and greatness. Two different characters are presented to our emulation; the one, of proud ambition and ostentatious avidity, the other, of humble modesty and equitable justice. Two different models, two different pictures, are held out to us, according to which we may fashion our own character and behaviour; the one more gaudy and glittering in its colouring; the other more correct and more exquisitely beautiful in its outline.
    And that really is the same choice, right.

    Martha Nussbaum: Yeah; I had forgotten that passage. That's wonderful. And of course when you think about Smith himself, it becomes even more interesting, because he was a very severe professor of philosophical; then he went into politics and he actually didn't have much of a capacity for politics. He worked for the customs office. But, because he was a hypochondriac and he was always sick, and he lived with his mother all his life and was kind of a weakling and mama's boy, he really didn't do very well in the life of politics. So, I think he always envied all those very dashing, strong figures. So, he really did have--he was a little bit torn himself about which life was better--the dashing life or the studious and serious life.

    Russ Roberts: I think you are being a little tough on him. I think he's--in The Theory of Moral Sentiments he's extremely disdainful of the rich and powerful. And in particular, I think calling him a pol--living in the world of policy because he held a bureaucratic job, I think might be a bit of a stretch. What I do think is right and where I do agree with you is that he held himself out: He took the less-glittering path. He was quiet, and a philosopher, as you say; and an author, a teacher and a tutor. And yet he became world-famous, and his wealth in terms of fame and greatness is quite large. So, he got the best of both worlds.

    Martha Nussbaum: Well--yes. I mean, but I think I'm not talking about worship of the rich, which of course he didn't have. But he does love, and really describes in loving detail, certain heroic, dashing figures, such as the Native Americans, who he forms a strange fascination with and he likes to imagine how they lived and how they died, being tortured--

    Russ Roberts: Yes, that's true--

    Martha Nussbaum: but nonetheless, they are very courageous--

    Russ Roberts: have a stoic nature.

    Martha Nussbaum: So, that was what I was thinking about. And of course he doesn't like the rich. But he does like another kind of obvious bodily kind of heroism.

    Russ Roberts: That's for sure. That's his stoic side--the ability of native people, I think he uses more than one example, to endure pain and to do it with grace. But I don't think--my only point was he really did not care for the aristocracy--

    Martha Nussbaum: No, certainly not--

    Russ Roberts: or for powerfulness necessarily.

    6:00

    Russ Roberts: So, what is this choice, that we all face, between fame and money on one side, and virtue and wisdom on the other? To some extent we all face it. What does that have to do with Hamilton?

    Martha Nussbaum: Okay. So, there are lots of careers that people can go into where this choice comes up, because you have to choose, as a scholar whether you just focus on doing what you think the truth is and pursuing truth, or whether you have to do politics in the scholarly world--trying to get ahead of other people or get a job when 10 people are applying for it. And, you know, even in the world of scholarship, which is relatively pure of that kind of bad competition, you've got to compete. Or else you don't get the job. And so you have to learn how to compete. I train my graduate students how to go on the job market, how to do a good job interview, and all that stuff. Now, if you are, maybe, a poet, you have to do less of that. Like, in an era where women could never compete, because no one wanted to have them around, Emily Dickenson could write the wonderful poetry she did just sitting in her room. And lots of other cases of that same thing. Once you get the paper and the pencil, then nothing stops you, so long as you have enough to eat and place to write. But there are some careers where this choice is much more complicated--and I think politics is perhaps the most complicated--where, yeah, you go into politics wanting to serve humanity, wanting to create something that's lasting, wanting to do what's right and just. But, given that it's politics--and especially democratic politics, right? Because if you are in a monarchy you might just get to do it by being born in the right family. But in democracy you have to compete. And you have to please people; and you have to seek votes; and so on. So, I think Hamilton is all about these two aspects of a political career, and how they are in a very difficult kind of tension with each other. Now, Hamilton's main interest, as the musical presents him but I think it's true in real life, is to create--he says, "I want to build something that's going to outlive me." And the musical presents that, I think, very, very well. But, in order to do that, he has to get powerful friends. So, he has to befriend George Washington, who becomes his kind of surrogate father. He has to later try to win some elections. And so, he can't avoid playing that game. And, on the other side is Aaron Burr. Who, in real life, as in the musical, didn't really stand for anything; didn't have anything that he particularly wanted to create. But, he was a consummate insider, always trying to position himself. And, the great song in the musical that defines him is "The Room Where It Happens." He just wants to be an insider, to be in the room where it happens.

    Russ Roberts: to be a player--

    Martha Nussbaum: To be a player. And, of course, if that's what you want, then it's better, perhaps, not to have any firm convictions. So, Burr says to Hamilton, 'Don't let them know what you are against or what you are for.' To which, Hamilton replies, 'You can't be serious!' Right. So, that's the choice. So, the difficult thing about the choice is that in this society, where American society was full of honor-culture, a lot of ranking of people as to their honor, you have to play the game of competition and honor in order to get to the position. Where you can really create. And so, here we get to the topic of dueling. Which is a motif that runs all the way through the musical, just as it ran through everyone's life. So, people fought duels to establish that they were honorable people. And there was this elaborate culture, where if you were assaulted, your honor was called into question, then you had to challenge the person to a duel. You couldn't get an apology; then you had to fight the duel. And maybe sometimes you tried not to shoot to kill, but sometimes you did. In any case, Hamilton, by the time we get to actual challenge of Burr, he does not want to fight duels. He's been convinced that, on religious grounds and on human grounds, it's immoral. His son was killed in a duel, and that's probably a main reason why he comes to that conclusion. But, he also knows that if he doesn't accept the challenge to a duel, that's an ungentlemanly thing to do. And it would force it--his public role in American politics. And so he has a very profound dilemma, in real life. That is absolutely the way he saw it. And so he thinks that Burr is actually correct. He--Burr says Hamilton has insulted him. And Hamilton sort of says, he says,

    Hey, I've not been shy.
    I'm just a guy in the public eye,
    trying to do the best for our Republic.
    I don't want to fight,
    but I won't apologize for doing what's right.
    [lyrics from the Broadway show Hamilton in song "Your Obedient Servant"--Econlib Ed.]
    So, that's what he says to Burr. He says
    Burr, your grievance is legitimate
    I stand by what I said, every bit of it.
    You stand only for yourself.
    It's what you do.
    I can't apologize because it's true.
    [lyrics from the Broadway show Hamilton--Econlib Ed.]
    So, then, the question is: What to do? And the effect is that Hamilton in real life wrote a very poignant letter--it was a kind of a public statement describing his reasons for accepting Burr's challenge despite the fact that he didn't agree with dueling. So, let me just read you a bit of this letter, because I think it's very moving.
    ... all the considerations, which constitute what men of the world denominate honor, impressed on me as I thought a peculiar necessity not to decline the call. The ability to be in future useful, whether in resisting mischief or affecting good in those crises of our public affairs which seem likely to happen, would probably be inseparable from a conformity with public prejudice in this particular.
    So, that's a quote from the historical letter. It's not exactly that way in the musical, but the sentiments are the same. So, he's realized--he doesn't want to play this game of one-upsmanship and being in the room and so on. But he's got to play it, or else no one will listen to him when he tries to do something important and good. So, then he goes out to New Jersey--which was the land of lawlessness, where everyone fought the duels thinking they wouldn't be arrested. And, of course, Burr shoots to kill. And he is killed. So, that's the tragedy of Hamilton's ambitions.

    12:59

    Russ Roberts: There are really two moments in the musical--they mirror what happened in real life--where Hamilton has a choice to respond to a crisis: The one you just mentioned--and he clearly refuses to reduce the tension or lower the flame with Burr. He could have said, 'Yahh, I was just kidding.' That seems like a personal, a piece of personal integrity. The letter, you are writing, suggests he wanted to be a player. Like you said--he wanted to be useful; he wanted to create; he wanted to have an impact on the world. And he knew he'd reduce his ability to do that if he didn't abide by the norms, even though those norms were illegal--as you alluded to. The other moment is when he is accused of infidelity. And, it looks like his infidelity is a form of corruption. It looks like he's been funneling money off to himself--which he'd really been doing--he's paying blackmail to the woman he was unfaithful with and her husband. And, it's an interesting thing there, as well, the way it's at least portrayed in the musical: That, he's not going to lie; he's not going to spin. He comes across with a lot of dignity. He's made a terrible mistake. He's betrayed his wife--which, of course, is a huge theme of the second act of the musical. He's betrayed his wife; he's betrayed his own principles. Here, again, with the duel--he doesn't want to do it. He thinks it's wrong. But he feels he has to--he's wearing a straitjacket of honor and virtue, as you allude to. And he gets punished terribly for both of those pieces of virtue. He is, by admitting his infidelity, he really has a huge negative impact on his political career. And, of course, the duel kills him.

    Martha Nussbaum: Yeah. That's very well put. And I think the motif of the sexual infidelity is also a very interesting thickening of the polarity between Hamilton and Burr. Because, Hamilton is a creep toward his wife. He was called by Martha Washington, a tomcat--or she named her favorite tomcat 'Hamilton' to indicate that he was just a very--he was a real womanizer, and after he got married, maybe for a while he settled down, but not for too long. And he had this affair. And, even though the musical does portray the relationship with his wife as quite a deep one--I don't how accurate that actually is.

    Russ Roberts: Sure.

    Martha Nussbaum: So, he was a creep in that realm. Whereas, Burr is pretty interesting, in that respect. He marries a woman that's 15 years older than he is, Theodosia. He does appear to love her. And indeed the musical creates a song about love:

    Love doesn't discriminate between the sinners and the saints
    It takes and it takes and it takes
    [lyrics, Hamilton]
    is assigned to Burr in [?] Hamilton. Then, Theodosia dies very quickly. But they have a daughter, first, who is also named Theodosia. And that Theodosia was the apple of Burr's eye. He made her the hostess of all her dinner parties. He taught her Latin and Greek. He taught her how to hunt and shoot. He really was a feminist. And not just by accident. Because he kept a portrait of the feminist philosopher Mary Wollstonecraft on the wall in the study in his room. That's not in the musical, but it was true in real life. And also, in real life, he introduced the first Bill for women to have the vote in the New York State Legislature; and it's like the first we know about anywhere. Because it wasn't until, like 150 years later, that women really started getting the vote. And we know that in England, John Stuart Mill introduced a motion for women to have the vote in 1872. But here, we're talking 1790. And Burr is already in favor of women having the vote. So, he was, in that area, he was complicated and deep and somewhat heroic. He adored Theodosia, the daughter, who unfortunately died at sea: the ship capsized at sea. And then the rest of his life was kind of aimless, with women, and so on. But he really did love that daughter. And so, the musical is great because it doesn't make the choice easy. And so, in this other area, you are quite right: that Hamilton is truthful; he has a lot of integrity; but, before that, he was a real creep. I mean, this woman--he was a player, and she was just a--lured him into a casual liaison and then blackmailed him--so it wasn't like it was a deep love of any kind. And he was just--

    Russ Roberts: Flawed--

    Martha Nussbaum: interested in womanizing. Yeah. So, it was very interesting. And there's also the possibility that he just liked the sound of his own voice too much. That's mentioned in the musical, as in real life: That Hamilton always said twice as much on any issue as any other person. So, like, any speech he made in the Assembly was a couple of hours long. And anything he wrote was just--he kind a kind of verbal flow that was excessive. And some people did think that that pamphlet he wrote confessing his own adultery was an example of that--that he just loved to dramatize his own life. It's almost like the days of the Internet were anticipated, where people love to sensationalize their own lives by publicizing everything they do sexually. And there was a little bit of that in Hamilton.

    Russ Roberts: Yeah. Human nature hasn't changed since the 18th century. I always like to remind myself of that. It's very important.

    18:44

    Russ Roberts: As you point out, Burr's character is complex and rich. And he has many admirable things about him. Which makes the musical and real-life story more powerful, because he's not just a cardboard villain who kills Hamilton in a fit, or in anger. He feels his honor has been harmed. And he has many redeeming moments throughout the show. Without going to the ones that you just mentioned. Of course, what's interesting is his shot kills two people, really. It kills Hamilton, and it kills himself. And I think there's--I can't remember the line, but there's a moment of awareness there that--you know, Burr, after that, after martyring Hamilton, essentially, he becomes a cardboard character. He's irredeemable by history. And then, Miranda is really--

    Martha Nussbaum: I don't really agree[?]. I mean, if you read Gore Vidal's novel, Burr, he doesn't like that one event does him in. It's rather that he goes on, for of course, another long time. He doesn't die until almost the age of 90. And he leads this strange rebellion in some of the Western Territories trying to establish a separate republic. But it's like the same thing is in his character that made him behave badly with Hamilton, make him a traitor to his country in that other incident. And so it's not so much that that incident did him in, but it was part of a--I think, a lifelong pattern: That he didn't have a sense of honor, true honor. That he didn't have a sense of integrity. And he was willing to do things that aggrandized himself. But, not totally dumb things. Like, this rebellion, if it had succeeded, then there would have been another country and Burr would have been likely King of that country. So, it was a fantasy that wasn't totally ridiculous, that he got taken in by.

    Russ Roberts: I'm just suggesting it didn't turn out so well for him.

    Martha Nussbaum: Well, it did not. Sure enough. I mean--but, but, in the meantime, he was received by everyone, after the brouhaha about the duel [?], he was received in American society and in European society. He met all kinds of fancy people in England. He talked to the founder of utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham, and they formed quite a friendship.

    Russ Roberts: Interesting.

    Martha Nussbaum: So, he had a pretty complicated and interesting life after that. And I think Gore Vidal's novel, Burr, is very good, because it's told mostly from the point of view of Burr. And so what's so interesting is to see how the personality of Burr is sort of like a yellow stain spreading over everything. This enviousness changes the way the recounts all the episodes that we know about from history. So, Washington comes off as a real dummy, and dupe of Hamilton. Of course, Hamilton comes off very badly. So, I really do think that novel is a great example of what in literary discourse is called the 'unreliable narrator'--where you [?] see how different the world looks from Burr's eyes. But he--you know, if you think about whether a Burr could ever succeed, and how far could a Burr succeed, it's an interesting question. I think, you know, when we think about people who have had spectacular falls from grace, someone like Richard Nixon, for example--I don't think that he is a Burr, actually. I think he had a lot more of Hamilton in him. And really had grand ideas about the opening to China. And, so it's not surprising that John Adam's great opera, Nixon in China shows us a Hamiltonian Nixon, if you will--like a Nixon with big ideas and true love of what he was doing. I think that part was real. And then the other part was there, too. So, Nixon is the example of where the, kind of the envy/honor part ended up doing in the good part. And maybe Burr just didn't have the honor part at all. But he certainly got pretty far.

    23:03

    Russ Roberts: I want to come back to the envy--and we'll go into that in some detail. But I want to digress for a second on something you said a few minutes ago that's haunting me. Listeners to this program know that I'm not a big fan--there are a lot of politicians I don't like, and my general attitude toward politics is: A pox on both their houses. But it's interesting that you made the point that, to be a player--certainly in the United States, democracy, you have to do some things: you have to break a few eggs to make an omelet, to get into power, to do things. Even if your intentions are good. Which is where you started--that the people who go into politics to try to make the world a better place--you conceded that people, of course, to get there often have to do things that are not so virtuous. And certainly Adam Smith was very aware of this and talked about it a lot. And he also saw that the case in business as well--I think that was more true in his time, perhaps than ours, but maybe not. But my point is that--I never thought about this--you said, unless you get to be a monarch, in which case you don't have to do those things to get into power because you've already got it already through heredity, or whatever. And yet, I think most monarchs are remarkably more despicable than most democratic leaders, because of that competition. So, I keep thinking back to one of my favorite EconTalk episodes of all time with Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, where he mentioned that King Leopold was revered in Belgium and despised in the Congo. In the Congo he was an absolute emperor: he could do whatever he wanted. In Belgium, he was constrained by Parliament. And, he did some progressive things in Belgium that a lot of people liked. In the Congo, he was a murderer, and a thief. And a looter. So, it's interesting. We can bemoan the half-empty glass of democracy and its political ugliness; but, compared to the alternatives it's not so bad.

    Martha Nussbaum: Well, I think that's a great point. Of course, with monarchs, they also just--there's this lottery aspect that people of absolutely no ability at all end up being monarchs because they [?] were the first, the oldest son. And you see this in Shakespeare's history plays where people like Richard II and Henry VI are perfectly fine people, but they should never have been running anything. And they couldn't really run anything. And Henry VI probably should have gone and become a priest, or whatever he thinks he wants to be. So, there's that aspect. But I do think you are right, that democracy constrains people in certain ways. Absolutely right. But it also means that you've got to be willing to really play the game of getting people on your side, if you are going to do anything fine in democracy. But let's take the contrast between Lyndon Johnson and Jimmy Carter, okay?

    Russ Roberts: Ohhh, I was just thinking about Lyndon Johnson. I love Lyndon Johnson's portrait in the--

    Martha Nussbaum: He was an honorable person, but he couldn't get anything done. He had no ability to play that game of compromise and putting together a group of people, etc. With Johnson--I've been through all the volumes of Robert Caro's wonderful biography--

    Russ Roberts: Incredible book--

    Martha Nussbaum: and he certainly in some ways a very despicable person, with very little marital honor, little personal honor. But, when he wanted to get the Civil Rights Act passed, he knew how to wheel and deal; he knew how to use whatever he had on people to get them to vote for it and to make some package that they could support. So, you know, I'm glad that we had Johnson at that time in our nation's history. I think if we had had Jimmy Carter at that time, we'd never have gotten the Civil Rights Act.

    Russ Roberts: You're glad we had him because you weren't married to him. Although, you know, there were a lot of people who he crushed ruthlessly on his way, to be able to do that. And I will never forget--I encourage somebody out there listening to find the page--it's in the 2nd volume if I remember correctly of the Caro biography--where LBJ (Lyndon Baines Johnson) needs the endorsement of a racist. I think the guy's got a music show. I can't remember the exact details. And Johnson doesn't want this guy's endorsement because--he's a wicked man. And, within the span of about 15 minutes or so in the book--it's a page--he talks himself into why it's a good thing to get it. Because, he's going to do all this good once he gets into the Senate and into power. It's a very slippery slope, and a lot of people, of course, unconstrained by democracy climb over a lot of bodies to get into that power and then just use it mainly to help themselves.

    Martha Nussbaum: Yeahhh. But when I think about which big political leaders I really like and I would love to meet and be friends with, and so on, it turns out that they are usually people who didn't come up through the rough-and-tumble of democracy. I'm thinking particularly of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Now, Nehru was elevated because he was already a Kashmiri Brahmin; he was aristocratic to the core. If you listen to recordings of his speeches on Indian independence, he sounds like he's from the most upper-crust British school. I mean, he's just not an Indian democrat. Gandhi was much more a man of the people. But, Nehru was a very introspective person, of beautiful character, I think, who loved his family--his wife, his daughter--loved his friends; and was very, very honorable. But he never could have been elevated in today's India, which is a pure, much more a pure democracy. Because then he would have had to have had traits of pure competitiveness and party politics that he just didn't have. So, you know, it's very complicated, I think. Maybe what it teaches us is we might want something that combines the rough-and-tumble of democratic politics with the respect for ideas, with the respect for the leadership of--I don't know--thoughtful people. Which, right now, I think we don't have so much in our country.

    29:32

    Russ Roberts: Let's go back to envy. You say--this is a quote:

    A society that rejects fixed orders and destinies in favor of mobility and competition opens the door wide to envy the positional achievements of others. If envy is sufficiently widespread, it can eventually threaten political order, particularly when a society has committed itself to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
    How does envy play out in Hamilton, and how do you see it playing out in America today?

    Martha Nussbaum: Okay. Well, let me just talk a little about the emotion itself, because there is a lot of stuff written about envy. John Rawls, the great political philosopher, devoted a long discussion to envy in The Theory of Justice. So what is it, what is it like, and how is it different from jealousy? So, envy is a painful emotion that focuses on the fact that other people are enjoying good things and you are not. So, the difference from jealousy that people usually identify is that jealousy is all about competition for a preferred rival; and it's about insecurity that the person feels he's a very particular person, or particular rival. And jealousy can be satisfied, because you might just come to the conclusion that your spouse really loves you; your spouse is not unfaithful. And unless you are a rather pathological character like Othello or like the character in Proust's novel where jealousy is never satisfied, then jealousy is not going to destroy you, in most human situations. But, thinking about envy, it's really Iago, not Othello, who is the envy person. Because, what he wants is position. He wants the good things of life. And when he sees a person enjoying it and he doesn't, there's a kind of bottomless pit that opens up, this feeling of hopelessness towards the good things in life: that you see someone else as being on top, and you're not. So, what John Rawls does is to then ask, 'Okay, clearly that could destabilize democracy. So, what can we say about under what conditions would envy not be such a destabilizing factor in democracy?' And what he says, I think, is really, really interesting. Namely, what we first of all have to do is arrange to show people that their efforts can bear fruit. There is some good thing they can achieve, just by being the people they are. They are not going to be cut out entirely. And, while we can do this by having good employment opportunities, having a good social safety net, and things of this sort, we can also do it by kind of narrowing the gap between the top and the bottom. Because, what is happening with Iago is, the general is very different from his aide-de-camp. And he just knows he's not going to get to be the general. So, if we have a society like that, where there's a few people who are on top and everyone else is kind of in the outer darkness, that's not so good. Because then there could be a real rebellion of envy. And so what we have to do is to kind of narrow the gap between the bottom and the top. And show that there are lots of things that you can do to get yourself into a good position. And then, what I would add to this--and I guess I do it in the piece by thinking about a high school, which I think is a veritable cauldron of envy--well, I think I don't do it actually in the published version of the piece--

    Russ Roberts: Yeah, I don't think it's in there. But yeah. It certainly is a culture of envy. That's for sure.

    Martha Nussbaum: It's a good way of thinking about it. What can a high school do, to not be a culture of envy? Well. So, one thing is to focus on lots of different things that people can do to achieve. So, if you can have sports stars, fine. And they are going to be the popular kids, fine. You could also encourage achievement in the arts. You can encourage achievement in--heaven help us--even scholarship. And, you know, my daughter went to a school where they had an Arts Olympics alongside the Sports Olympics. And that was really good for her, because she hated sports and wasn't very good in sports. So, you know, these are the things that you can do: just a number of different paths to a kind of positional achievement. And so, these are thoughts that I think we have to have in American society, be they probably--there are several paths to pre-eminence, but not enough, because there's the cult of celebrity; there's the cult of sports stars; and then there's politics. All of these revolving around fame. And all of those things create a lot of envy. But, I think it would be a good thing for our society to do much more to honor school teaching, to honor people who serve in various ways--you know, various service jobs--nursing, taking care of aging people. If the society could recognize those achievements and give them pre-eminence, that would be an extremely good thing to do. But also, I think we need to narrow the gap and have more of a social safety net, because then people, whatever their feeling they lack, at least they have basic wherewithal of security and a basically flourishing life. And I think in Europe, you often achieve that kind of sense of security.

    Russ Roberts: Well, we could devote an entire show to that issue, to this issue. And I don't want to talk too long in response. I just want to say two things, trying to be brief. One is: It's such a corrosive emotion. I can think of few things I wish more for my children than to not feel envy at the success of others and to rejoice in the success of others instead. And, I wonder if our politics in catering to it is making two mistakes: First of all, for all you know, in the last 8 years, we really changed the incomes at the top. And in fact, the gap has gotten smaller. But you only know that--and you can perceive it in a high school, the gap. But you can't perceive it in a country. The only way you perceive it in a country is through data. The data are often flawed. But if the data were different, the idea that somehow that would be compensation or make you feel better or less envious, if you were told that the top CEO (Chief Executive Officer) only made x times instead of 2x times or 10x times more than the average person--it feels like a really bad political strategy to cater to that emotion, and to then allow people to market it. Which is what we have now, on both sides of the political fence. And I think it's incredibly destructive. So, I don't see that as the way to solve the problem. I do think we should create capabilities. You and I agree on that: that we can give people a chance to transform themselves personally. But to always be worrying about the gap between me and someone else--I think it is the road to unhappiness at the individual level; and it's the road to tyranny at the national level.

    Martha Nussbaum: Well. I think, you know, there are a lot of things to say. I think we need ultimately to talk about the nature of media today, because, on the one hand, the Internet creates many openings. You would think it helps us get rid of envy, because now anyone can be famous. If you write your blog and put it out there, you don't have to, like, go through the usual channels of getting a publisher to publish your works. So, it's done some good things for envy. But, unfortunately, I think what's happened more often is it's ratcheted up the focus on celebrity. How many people are citing you? How many Likes does a post have? And, you know, all that stuff. Now, I'm not expert on this because I don't actually belong to Facebook and I don't actually belong to Twitter. I like the old style of just writing an email to my friends. But, in any case, I think people are preoccupied by citations, by others. So, even before that, there were citation indexes--

    Russ Roberts: Yep--

    Martha Nussbaum: and the whole idea that you promote somebody because their work is cited always seemed to me pretty silly, because it might be cited as bad, or as an example of some error. And no one even bothers to ask that. But, in any case, that was still not as bad as this social media thing, where it's just the--the [?] and celebrity of some brief remark that you make that gives you your title to status. And so I think: What can we do about that? Well, I guess I don't know how to use social media for those ends. So, what I personally would focus on is more like, let's reinforce in the classroom and in our local community discussion groups and in fora like our local public libraries, which are wonderful centers now of adult education and public discussion--let's reinforce this discussion. Let's re-discover the joy of coming together and actually talking together about an issue, where we are not worried about who is famous, but what we are worried about is what's true. And we can encourage that. And I do feel, people are hungry for real discussion. People flock to book stores, public libraries, and so on, whenever they can. This is more of an urban phenomenon right now because that's where it's possible. But, you know, it should, we should do much more to encourage that. To have discussions surrounding museums, galleries, musical events of all kinds. And, of course, popular media--like the musical, Hamilton. So, I guess to encourage real discussion is what I think would help counteract this cult of evanescent celebrity. What do you think about that?

    39:49

    Russ Roberts: Well, I think it's really a--you know, it's a part of life that we've lost a handle on, which is character development; the role that religion used to play. It still does, but it's a much smaller role. For all that public education used to play. But it's a much smaller role, trying to help us cope with our own shortcomings, our own weaknesses. You know, my kids want to spend less time on Facebook. But it's hard for them. I want to spend less time on Twitter. But it's hard for me. So, how do we control our urges, impulses, etc., and lead a dignified life, is--well, that's part of what we're doing, I hope. It's part of what you do, teaching philosophy. I want to come back to that. It's part of what I try to do a little bit of here at EconTalk. But, your point about public conversation, certainly and I [hold/hope?] at EconTalk in public--a lot of people just want to see human beings. Listening is wonderful. You can't be face-to-face with many people in your life at any one time. But now and then you want a human being. You want to interact with a human being. You want to look in their eyes. You want to smile at them. It's a human thing that we're losing a little bit of. I wonder if there would be some sort of backlash. We'll see.

    Martha Nussbaum: Well, let's see. I do feel like what we do know--and I did just finish a book on aging, coming out shortly, coming out with a colleague. So, one of the things we talk about is the search for meaning, as people are aging; and the fact that increasingly people are seeking out this forum for discussion. Seeking out humanities courses in adult education. All kinds of places where you can really search for virtue, in terms of the old myth. And, you know, that's partly because they've lived a life of competitive me-first-ism. And then suddenly that doesn't seem to be about, what would you give your life its meaning. And then you start thinking more like Hamilton: What shall I create that's going to outlive me? So, the search for meaning, I think that's bringing people back, if they live long enough. And if they have some leisure--to the real discussion and real reading, real pursuit of important, good things. And I think that's great. I think it would be good if people have that started when they are undergraduates. And one reason I'm such a big defender of humanities courses for all undergraduates is that I think then, when they are much younger, they learn what it is to search for truth and to search for meaning. Of course, they should learn it also in the sciences, because science, really deep science, not just applied money-oriented science but deep, theoretical science, that's also search for truth and meaning. So, as undergraduates, they learn to search for meaning. Then they have to go out and do a job that may not seem to be very meaningful to them. But if they can keep that love going, outside their work, or come back to it after they retire, or in place of retiring have a second career or something--that, I think is very, very important. I also think--and this isn't for everyone's taste--I think religion is very important as a way of keeping the search for truth and the search for meaning going, all the way through human life. When I go to synagogue, I do feel that we are all coming together to talk about real things. And, you know, sometimes, maybe people are as envious in the synagogue--one thing to be the president of the Board or whatever, as they would be anyplace else. But, on the whole, you know, life is focused on meaning. And that's why I keep [?] come there--come there for the meaning, and the music, and so on. And so these are areas in life in America. Is it the arts, and humanities? And then religion? Which, seem to me, less prone to turn people envious and more prone to turning them kind of in the direction of virtues. So, if we can just remember that and encourage that, I think that's helpful.

    Russ Roberts: I want to say something on behalf of religion which I think is often misunderstood by people who don't have a role for religion in their life. I'm religious, as my listeners know. I'm a religious Jew. So, I also sit in synagogue, as you do, and I think people who are not religious assume that religious people thereby know all the answers: everything is taken care of; there are no doubts any more and you don't have to worry about anything. And it's all taken care of. When, in fact for me, religion is really the way that I process and consume and think about the mystery of life and the puzzle of suffering and the tragedy and bittersweetness of a finite existence, in such a crazy place called 'our lives.' So, I want to echo that.

    Martha Nussbaum: That's very nicely put. And I would add, the Jewish tradition anyway is all about continuing the argument and taking responsibility for your choices. And, as a Reform Jew, I think, well, the text tradition in history is something you should know about; but we should really be committed to is following the moral law and making it real in your life and in other people's lives. So, it's about that kind of search. And so, it's not that different--on a smaller and more local scale from Hamilton's search for political virtue.

    45:15

    Russ Roberts: A good segue. But I want to say one more thing about the Humanities; and then I want to ask you a question about philosophy in the Humanities. I've been reading Leisure, by Josef Pieper, which is a very strange and interesting book--a book of philosophy written, I think, in 1952--where he complains about our emphasis on work and that leisure is only to recharge your batteries to do more work. And he tries to make the case for a different kind of leisure. It happens to be in a religious context, but that's not necessary--I don't think. He claims it is. I don't think it is. But let's put that to the side. Certainly he makes the claim that there should be leisure that is devoid of usefulness. Not, idleness, but rather exploring philosophy, exploring the meaning of life, exploring the transcendent. And, that's a remarkably unpopular view in 2017. And it's been unpopular in America, even among young people, now, for, it seems, a while. The Humanities are taking a pounding. So, I'd like to hear you say something in defense of them. In particular, my middle son is thinking of being a philosophy major. And, I think that's a great idea. I think most people would say, 'What a waste that is!' So, I disagree. And I'd like to hear your view.

    Martha Nussbaum: Well, of course, I disagree. I wanted to stop, though, for a minute, with this word 'transcendent.' Now, sometimes that means the focus should be the other world. As a Reform Jew, I--

    Russ Roberts: Not what I mean--that's not what I mean--

    Martha Nussbaum: --don't believe that. [?] It could just mean going further, going deeper, going better. And that's what I think it means. For me, in general transcending our laziness, our selfishness, and trying, particularly, to do something good for other people. Okay. So, the Humanities--I actually am not as much of a pessimist as you seem to be, because I've just done a new edition of my book, Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities. And, for that, I looked at a lot of data. And, in fact, in our country, where in fact crucial, that we have a liberal arts system, so people study humanities sometimes as Humanities majors, but even if not, they'll study it in their required general education courses. There's actually a pretty robust increase in Humanities enrollments: particularly in community colleges enrollments in the Humanities are way up. And, as I mentioned, in adult continuing education, huge upward surge. So, I am not such a pessimist. I think people need--they feel a thirst for meaning. And it's a very important thing that you don't have to make that your whole life. You could say, 'I'm going to major in computer science because that's where I think the jobs are.' Although, not entirely true: I think there are actually more unemployed computer science majors than unemployed English majors. But anyway, you can do what you want to do. And, still prepare yourself for the whole of life by taking Humanities courses. And we are so lucky that we have this system. Our country, Scotland, Canada, South Korea--those are the only countries that have that liberal arts system. In most countries of the world, like all of Europe, basically, except for Scotland; and in all of Asia, you have to choose, when you enter university, one subject. And then you do only that. So, it's either all Philosophy, or no philosophy; all Literature, or no literature. And so, in that context, it's not surprising that parents and kids are scared. And they think: 'Well, what am I going to do, if I do 3 years of nothing but Philosophy? What am I equipped for?' Well, I don't think they should have to make that choice. Now, there are pockets to resistance to that in the rest of the world. So, for example, all the Jesuit universities in Latin America and elsewhere are basically on the Liberal Arts model. But I really think that's the right way for all universities to be. Because, university education has a two-fold purpose. It prepares you for a career; but it also prepares you for being a good citizen and having a complete, meaningful life. And those are both important purposes. But, we are lucky, anyway, that our university system does preserve that sense. And I believe that this is something that, although there are some politicians who like to beat up on the Humanities, by and large, when I actually go to places and interact with the community, people from the community love to turn out to Humanities lectures. They support the Humanities. And often, they support it with their money as well as their presence.

    Russ Roberts: Do you think majoring in Philosophy makes you a better person?

    Martha Nussbaum: I think it makes you a person who is better at detecting inconsistences and flaws in your own reasoning and the reasoning of other people. And I think that is one part of being a good person, because often, there's a lot of hypocrisy in society. And so, people can kind of mask some bad program by making a specious argument for it. So, learning to detect this kind of falsity and unmask it--that's part of being a good person. But, of course, I mean, look at the Socratic Dialogues of Plato. Socrates did think that he was doing something valuable and morally good. But that assumed that people had basically good intentions. So, what they lacked was the ability to put that all together into a coherent program. And then they got led astray by people who said, 'Oh, we'll go in this direction. That direction' because they really weren't fully clear about what they were doing. But, if they didn't--if they were vicious people to begin with, then, you know, it isn't going to help them. So, you've got to hope that before people get into Philosophy, they've learned a lot of other things, first: I mean, that they've had a good upbringing in their family, and in their community. That their parents have told them about respect and love for other people. That their schools have taught them about bigotry and bullying and so on. And I think, you know, by and large we do know how to do that. We don't always do that. But, a friend of mine is an actress in a children's' theater, and she acts in front of hundreds of children every week. And the teachers bring the kids in. And right now they've got a new play about--it's based on the "Ugly Duckling," but interestingly, they don't want to make it like beauty is the be-all and end-all, so they turned it into the duckling who is different. Right? It's kind of--

    Russ Roberts: Let's water it down. It's--

    Martha Nussbaum: Well, I mean, it's not the original. Most fairy tales are morally bad. So, anyhow, this duckling with his blue cuffs[?] rather than green is bullied and made fun of. And then they sing a song--be an upstander, not a bystander. Which apparently is a very common slogan now in elementary schools: about, you see something bad going on, say something; don't just let it happen. So, these kids are learning, through theater and through their teachers and so on, the rudiments of being a good person. And then, at some point, when they are older and more sophisticated, they can do Philosophy over that basis. And I think that would supply something important. But it's not--of course, it's not sufficient by itself.

    Russ Roberts: I'm just going to add one thing, I think I hadn't really thought of before. I'm not a big fan of majoring in Psychology. I'm biased against it. My father has a Master's in Psychology, and he told me never to study it. And so, I never studied it in college. But I've become a fan of many psychologists through this program, as listeners know. And it seems to me that there's a piece of psychology--an important piece, and it's part of philosophy as well--you can kind of stretch and say it's part of economics, certainly the moral philosophy part of economics that comes from Adam Smith. And that's self-awareness. I think--I think none of these things make you a good person. But they give you the potential to be a good person. And I would argue that without self-awareness it's going to be extremely difficult to do anything good. It also could help you be--if you want to be a wicked person, being self-aware is probably effective, too. But, for those of us who like to think of ourselves as wanting to be good, being self-aware--which is, to me, a lifetime challenge--is something we don't really teach very well. And it would be a good thing if we did. I think--we do a little bit of it here at EconTalk. We talk about confirmation bias, which is a huge thing. But I think it's a big part of life that we don't think about very systematically.

    Martha Nussbaum: Yeah. I agree entirely. And I do agree that Socrates didn't get the whole thing right. I have a very strong interest in psychoanalysis. And I had a wonderful discussion recently with my colleague and friend Jonathan Lear, a propos of his new book, Wisdom Won From Illness. But we had a kind of public forum together in Hyde Park, where we talked about how philosophy needs to learn from psychoanalysis. And how psychoanalysis needs to learn from philosophy. I think they both have things to learn from each other. But certainly, philosophy that doesn't care about the unconscious, about the deep inner life of the person's emotions and so on--that's not going to be enough. And so we need[?] more than one type of understanding. And then, the question is, of course, how do you do that? And I ended up asking Jonathan--who does in fact see psychoanalytic citations[?] on a regular basis as well as writing and teaching--'You know, what else can we do if we are interested in that kind of understanding but we are not actually practicing analysts? What do we do to make it real?' And I struggle with that. And I try to do it by writing about the emotions, and writing in a way that shows that kind of understanding. But, I'm aware that the nature of the communication that I have with my own students and my own readers is in some ways only skin deep. I mean, I'm not an analyst. And so, then, that other part, that goes beneath their skin, someone like Jonathan, has to do that part.

    55:50

    Russ Roberts: Yeah. That's--um--a complicated thing, the human psyche, consciousness, what we really want. All those things are part of leading a good life and understanding them, and understanding yourself. I want to finish with a point that was made by one of the critics of your essay, Boston Review, for people to respond to--we'll put up links to the whole forum--had an interesting approach. She said, and I'm [not?] quoting[?] her, 'The focus on being in the room where it happens, the focus on being--' I'm now, belatedly bringing us back to Hamilton: that the focus on being an insider, to be at the levers of power, is not the only way that we can make the world a better place. And of course, we do that in many, many ways in the sm

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              Putin - Billionaire & Gangster?        
    putin-hidden-treasure.jpg


    A French documentary film claims Putin is richest man in Europe.



    Another name for the Illuminati
    is the "Jewish Mafia." 



    "What we think of as geopolitics are really gang wars
    Putin's enlightened foreign policy may really be resistance 
    to competing gangsters from the West invading his lucrative turf."








    by Henry Makow Ph.D. 

    Many of us have conferred sainthood on Vladimir Putin for saving Syria from the clutches of the Zionist-CIA proxy ISIS and for espousing an enlightened foreign policy in the face of insane belligerence from the Zionist-controlled west.  

    Yung-Arkady-Rotenberg-Vadimir-Putin.jpg
    (Putin with Jewish boyhood buddy and billionaire, Arkady Rotenburg) 

    Thus, we are not happy to hear about a 27-minute French documentary called "Putin's Hidden Treasure" made by Nicolas Tonev which claims that Putin's enlightened leadership is far from altruistic. Indeed, the film makes a credible case that Putin may be the richest man in Europe -- worth as much as $40 billion--thanks to kickbacks and embezzlement of state property. The documentary is available on Netflix.

    The film traces Putin's career back to St. Petersburg where, as assistant to the Mayor, he engaged in the preferred Russia form of corruption- kickbacks on public works. He moved to Moscow and was a close associate of Jewish oligarch frontman Boris Yeltsin who resigned under a cloud of corruption and virtually ceded his position to Putin. 

    The documentary shows how Putin and his associates profited from the privatization of state-owned oil giant Rosneft which had revenue of $64 billion in 2016. They also profited from huge kickbacks on a tollroad from Moscow to St Petersburg and from the Sochi Olympics. It appears that Putin's Jewish boyhood pal, Arkady Rotenburg (see pic) is his financial "beard." 

    PUTIN'S PALACE

    aerial-pictures-allegedly-showing-putins-black-sea.jpg
    The documentary reveals that Putin has built a Versailles-like mansion complex (left) worth a billion dollars on the Black Sea. It interviews activists who have sought to stop this pattern of corruption. Many have been beaten or murdered. 

    We may need to modify our image of the Illuminati and see it as a worldwide criminal network like the Mafia. It probably conflates with the Mafia. It engages in a vast range of criminal activities including human and organ trafficking, drug trafficking, as well as depraved rituals like pedophilia and child sacrifice. The point is that everyone in power is part of it including the Clintons, Trump and Putin. What we think of as politics are really gang wars. Putin's enlightened foreign policy might in fact be resistance to the Western gangsters invading his lucrative turf. 

    They are all criminals, equally reprehensible. But they fight each other by focusing media attention on the other's crimes and ignoring their own. Thus we have the Trump "Russian" investigations while the Clinton Foundation crimes which is far more egregious gets no attention. 

    TRUMP

    Like Putin, we love Trump but he is probably a gangster too. When I posted an item about a possible Trump connection with sex trafficking in underage girls, I got a sour reception on Twitter. But given his connections to Miss Universe Contest, Trump Modelling and to Jeffrey Epstein, it is possible there is something to it. We may need to prepare ourself for return to the status quo under President Mike Pence.

    Screen Shot 2016-10-12 at 7.18.26 AM.png
    Trump wasn't always President. He was a  rich developer in the depraved sexual cesspool that is NYC. He may have dirty laundry which his enemies will use to remove him. We need to be prepared for that. If Trump wasn't being blackmailed, why did he sign the sanctions bill against Russia which tied his hands forever? 

    It is just possible that the plan all along was to impeach Trump for his past sins and thereby discredit him, his "America First" program and his supporters. That would explain why an Obama loyalist like Robert Mueller would be appointed to investigate a "Russia connection." It might explain why Soros widget H.R. McMaster was appointed National Security Adviser.  Why Jeff Sessions is suspected of being a mole. Why scary Freemason Mike Pence was chosen for VP. 

    Trump used Steve Bannon and Kellyanne Conway to appeal to the average American. At the same time, Hillary Clinton was appealing to minorities and virtually ignoring white working class majority who Obama was disossessing. It was a brilliant stratagem but if the shit hits the fan, Trump needs to confess to past crimes, repent and say he will not let "them" use blackmail to stop him from saving America. His supporters would forgive his past sins. They would have no choice. 

    As for Putin-lovers, we must consider that we have fallen for a carefully crafted false-narrative that portrays the Russian leader as defender of Christian values. Leopards don't change their spots.
    ----
    Note- Before writing to defend Putin, please watch the documentary. It's free on Netflix if you sign up for a trial.

    -------
    Related- Alan Lichtman - Why Trump will be Impeached 




    First Comment from Z:

    In his official autobiography "First Person: An Astonishingly Frank Self-portrait by Russia's President Vladimir Putin" Putin lists his mother's name is SHELOMOVA. Despite being Jewish by birth, she was an Orthodox believer and so was Putin. So he is a crypto-Jew like so many top politicians and celebrities.

    His granddad was cook for both Lenin and Stalin. To employ someone as your cook, you have to be sure he won't poison you. His family was connected. I believe Putin is a made up surname.


    Tina writes:

    I agree 100% with your article on Putin and although he talks a good talk about Christianity, so does the mafia bosses in Italy who go to confession every Sunday.  

    Insofar as Trump is concerned, the type of business he owns, involves organize crime (legal and illegal mafia), directly or indirectly. I don't know why such facts are hard for Trump's supporter to swallow and while I still like him better than Hilary Clinton or any democrats, it appears that he has no control over any decisions. Trump cannot save the USA unless he gets rid of all the neocons in his office, including his son-in-law and pulls a trump card.  



              Danger! Women with Borderline Personality Disorder         

    marykennedy.jpeg.size.custom.crop.615x650.jpg(left.  RFK Jr. & his late wife Mary.He has since married Cheryl Hines who played Larry David's wife on Curb Your Enthusiasm)


    10% US Women Have Borderline Personality Disorder 

     85% of people suffering from BPD are women and account for about 5% of the US population. 

    The author, Zach's wife suffers from BPD: 
    "Having lived through it, I can tell you that the end result is a battered, beaten shadow of a man who, at his lowest, believes every harsh thing she says about him, has lost complete control over his own possessions and even his own life, and feels isolated and trapped." 

    I decided to repost this 2012 article after receiving this email Wednesday from Barry: "I've just read your brief article about dangerous people with BPD. My wife is this kind of dangerous person. It's taken me many years to understand who she is. Since we separated four years ago she's caused me more grief than I can describe here. I could write a book. She is the narcissistic powerful personality type who won't stop torturing me. Is there any resources I can access to deal with her. I'm chained to her during a very prolonged divorce because she and her lawyer find ways to block the divorce/property settlement that keeps my life in limbo. Thanks for your help and understanding of this kind of dangerous person."



    by Zach
    (henrymakow.com)
         
    "Sometimes in the middle of the night, Bobby [Kennedy Jr.] would awake to find Mary standing over his bed, beating him, according to the affidavit. Bobby tried to protect himself from her punches and even once jumped out a second-story window to escape."
    - The Last Days of Mary Kennedy, 2012-07-10.
     
    On 16 May 2012, Mary Richardson Kennedy, the estranged wife of Robert Kennedy, Jr., was found dead, hanging in the family barn,  in what the police have ruled a definite suicide. The mass media and feminists immediately started attacking Robert Kennedy, Jr., saying that he had given her a "devastating blow" when he filed for divorce 2 years ago.

    As the days went on, the character assassination campaign grew to such a pitch that Mr. Kennedy publicized a court affidavit from their divorce proceedings that described Mary as an out-of-control woman who frequently physically and emotionally abused her loving husband and four children.
     
    MARYK.jpegAccording to his affidavit:
     
    "Mary, in a sudden rage about my continued friendship with [my ex-wife] Emily, hit me in the face with her fist. She was a trained boxer and I got a shiner. Her engagement ring crushed my tear duct causing permanent damage ... Mary asked me to lie to her family about the cause of my shiner."
     
    According to the affidavit and various psychologists, Mary Kennedy was afflicted with Borderline Personality Disorder.  She appears to have had what the clinicians call a "high functioning" form, meaning that from the outside everything seemed normal, even optimal, but for those intimate with her, she took on the Dr. Jekyll / Mr. Hyde personas that is so typical of BPD. 
     
    "When people are driving themselves crazy, they have neuroses or psychoses. When they drive other people crazy, they have personality disorders."
     
     
    Personality disorders, in general,  are deeply ingrained, learned behaviors and mindsets formed during childhood that result in the individual ceasing to mature emotionally. 

    The sufferer has an extremely narrow black-and-white worldview that causes them to be unduly agitated and aggressive.

    Personality disorders are contrasted against the more commonly known Affective Disorders (e.g., Bipolar and Depression) in that PDs are mostly learned behaviors and mindsets, whereas Affective Disorders stem more from biological malfunctions and shortages of hormones.
     
    Bobby couldn't understand what was happening to this beautiful woman he adored. She would be fine during the day, but he came to dread the evenings. "She would go into a kind of altered state which we came to call her 'episodes,'?" Bobby said in his affidavit. "Her features would change with her jaw set forward, her face paled, her eyes notably darkened, her voice alternatively breathy or hard. Mary's mood vacillated between rage and self-pity. Her behavior often became violent and destructive."
     
     
    MK.jpegPeople afflicted with BPD typically have an emotional maturity level somewhere between that of a 3- and 6- year-old. They tend to
    • not be able to settle conflicts (instead raging),
    • cannot emotionally handle  information conflicting to their beliefs of reality (instead growing immediately and intensely angry), 
    • have a weak handle on reality at times (forgetting past abuse, having warped views of situations, etc.),
    • and have the inability to hold two opposing views and finding a synthetic balance.  Someone or something is either all good, or, in the words of Mary Kennedy, "the Devil incarnate". This is the psychological process called Splitting
    If you find yourself frequently thinking, Gosh! They're acting just like a spoiled brat!, there may be some very real truth to that statement. But imagine a mentally unstable Tom Hanks in the movie Big and you will quickly realize this is no laughing matter.
     
    On her last day, Mary Kennedy "split" her own self black, as they say, but this can easily (and does) go the other way. Everyone from husbands to children to the beloved family pet can be split black by the borderline, sometimes with disastrous results:  Just over a year ago, in May 2011, Mrs. Kennedy ran over the family dog with her car when her 11 year-old son said he wanted to go to his Dad's house.
     
    HUSBANDS

    One of the saddest aspects of the BPD pattern is that most husbands of BPD's are honest, God-fearing, highly empathetic and otherwise powerful men.

    Frankly, no one else could or would put up with their abuse or have faith that they'd get better. Because highly functional BPD's can control themselves in front of outsiders, many go months, even years, without showing symptoms. By that point, the unsuspecting man frequently finds himself married and with several children (There is a pattern where Borderline women desire numerous children, as a sort of Narcissistic Supply and enmeshment of husbands [see the movie on Joan Crawford, Mommie Dearest (1981)]) .

    AAEAAQAAAAAAAAKzAAAAJGFmMzQzZjU2LTNjMjktNDJmZC1iNTYxLTM1YjFhN2NiYmIyYQ.pngThese men then feel like they committed to the relationship for better or for worse, and doggedly stick to their convictions, even while it destroys their manhood and their children. Then a series of systematic abuse, isolation from friends and family, and an invasion of their personal boundaries occurs that leaves the partner in a state of psychological shock and blackmail termed "enmeshment"
     
    Having lived through it, I can tell you that the end result is a battered, beaten shadow of a man who, at his lowest, believes every harsh thing she says about him, has lost complete control over his own possessions and even his own life, and feels isolated and trapped. In this climate, the rage episodes of the BP increase in both frequency, duration and severity, since she subconsciously knows her source of identity (her man) is not going anywhere soon.
     
    SOCIAL ENGINEERING?

    Now doesn't all of this sound like those beaten down, eggshell-walking men mocked in the commercials? It is my contention that BPD may be part of a larger sociological engineering campaign, manufactured in tandem and exacerbated by the Feminist movement. One casually overlooked (and occluded) fact is that BPD is a purely Western phenomenon.
     
    [BPD] is rarely diagnosed in India and in other developing countries and it is a sort of "culture bound syndrome" prevalent in western cultures.
     
    [Some nights,] she would threaten suicide, but the next morning she would be calm and gentle. She would say she was sorry and didn't know why she was acting this way. For a time she would be her old wonderful self at night as well as during the day, and Bobby had renewed hope, the affidavit said.

     
    ADVICE
     
    Far from "driving his wife to suicide", it appears that Robert Kennedy, Jr., was just doing what he could to keep his family intact, rushing to rescue his wife whenever she fell, putting up with loads of abuse, and covering up for her. 

    He was (and probably still is), in short, a misguided man suffering from White Knight SyndromeHis kids had to watch this and --- years later --- confided in him that they, too, were being abused. That he didn't know shows the extent of his denial.
     
    If you believe you may be in a relationship with someone afflicted with Borderline Personality Disorder, it is imperative that you stop believing any negative accusation your partner makes about you, immediately. From this day forward, s/he must be treated as an unreliable, if not hostile, witness.
     
    Your next step is to join a support group so that you can share your story, talk with others who have been through it and will accept you with calm understanding and even give you advice. This is called validation and it is the number one thing partners of Borderlines lack. One very good support group I've found is the Yahoo Group WelcomeToOz.
     
    To learn more about BPD, I'd recommend the following books in the following order:

    1. One Way Ticket To Kansas: Caring About Someone With BPD And Finding A Healthy You,
    2. The Essential Family Guide to Borderline Personality Disorder
    3. Stop Walking on Eggshells: Taking Your Life Back When Someone You Care About Has BPD
     Borderline Personality Disorder has one of the highest incidents of domestic abuse and one of the lowest incidents of recovery. If your partner frequently shows remorse after one of their episodic rages, then there is a degree of hope for recovery after years of psychotherapy (research Dialectical Behavioral Therapy).

    However, if you hardly ever get an, "I'm sorry", but get yelled at more, then the prognosis is very grim. In that case, you should analyze your life situation. Ask, is this my proper path in life? What am I getting out of this?
     
    Don't believe in miracles, or you will be hoovered back in, just like Mr. Kennedy, whenever your partner reverts to the Dr. Jekyll personality that you fell in love with. 
     
    If, after careful reflection, you've decided you want out, tread very carefully. The mere threat of breakups always exacerbates the mental instability and psychosis of the Borderline to the point that if you do not carefully plan, you could be putting yourself and your family in harm's way.

    Go Away! I Need You! is one of the best how-to guides on everything you must do for weeks up until your escape.
     
    Finally, realize that you ended up with a person afflicted with BPD because of self-esteem issues that you must address before seeking out new partners. Otherwise the chances of getting involved with another BP are greatly increased.
     
    As a society, we simply must face this pandemic head on, educating as many people as we can. We must teach the young how to spot the signs and symptoms, and hopefully stop the oppression of so many good men and women while helping as best we can those afflicted.
     

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              Kenya's Reelected Leader Must End Horrifying Anal Exams        
    Commentary

    Will President Uhuru Kenyatta nudge his nation toward the future or keep it in the past?

    WorldKenya's Reelected Leader Must End Horrifying Anal ExamsEric Gitari

    Kenya, the economic and political powerhouse of Eastern and Central Africa, held an election this week to choose the fifth president of the country since independence. While the vote is still being contested by opposition leader Raila Odinga, it appears that incumbent President Uhuru Kenyatta just won a second and final term. When it comes to defending the human rights of Kenya’s LGBTIQ citizens, Kenyatta’s record is critically important to our emerging democracy.

    During President Obama’s visit to Kenya in 2015, Kenyatta said, “We share a lot of things, but gay issues are not among them. ... There are some things that we must admit we don't share. It's very difficult for us to impose on people that which they themselves do not accept. This is why I say for Kenyans today the issue of gay rights is really a nonissue." Kenyatta was responding to Obama, who emphasized the need for Kenya to stop discriminating against gays and lesbians, saying, “I've been consistent all across Africa on this. When you start treating people differently because they're different, that's the path whereby freedoms begin to erode. And bad things happen.”

    During an interview with CNN in October 2015, Kenyatta underlined that what he meant when responding to Obama was not that gays have no rights. "I will not allow people to persecute any individuals, or beat and torture them," he said, adding that "we have to understand that these are processes and they take time ... and this is where I am saying we have to get synergies. You are not going to create the U.S., Great Britain, or Netherlands in Kenya, or in Nigeria or Senegal overnight."

    President Kenyatta’s lack of leadership on LGBTIQ issues is of great concern. The unsupportive public statements have offered license to state officers who continue to harass and arrest gays and lesbians; political cover to those who deny LGBTIQ citizens access to medical, educational, and other social services; and a justification for hate crimes committed by the general public. The use of forced anal exams to “prove” homosexual activity stands out as a particularly brutal form of torture in this larger context.

    From 2015 to March 2017, senior state officers in Kenya have been encouraging police to use forced anal examinations on suspected gay men and trans women to prove the crime of private consensual homosexual adult sex, which is punishable with 14 years imprisonment. The outdated practice, which has so far been perfomed on two of our clients and has been used as a threat on others, involves a doctor inserting fingers or objects inside the rectum of a detainee, measuring the anus to assess indications of penetration, or even simply spotlighting the anus to check for bruises or tears. This practice, which has been upheld as valid by the High Court of Kenya, only serves to degrade and humiliate suspected gay men, since no further medical analysis is performed to prove the penetration was the result of consensual sexual activity by another man. These tests serve no evidentiary value in proving the crime of private consensual homosexual adult sex, and they have been denounced by medical and forensic athorities around the world.

    In Africa, forced anal examinations on suspected gay men and trans women have been reported in Tanzania, Egypt, Tunisia, Uganda, and Cameroon. The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights noted in 2016 that forced anal examination constitutes torture. It has asked African states to respect Resolution 275 of the commission, which forbids violence and discrimination on the basis of real or imputed sexual orientation and gender identity. It also should be noted that Kenya has robust antitorture legislation, which defines torture to include the insertion of objects into sexual organs, including the anus. Unfortunately, there is little political will to extend the equal protection and equal benefits of such laws to gay men and trans women, who are now at risk of these forced anal examinations.

    In this context, where there is no political will to enforce the law equally and where court appeals against the use of forced anal examinations languish in Kenyan courts, and with cases of blackmail, extortion, and detention of gay men and trans women on the rise, the National Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission of Kenya and the Council for Global Equality have asked the U.S. government to sanction those who are responsible for this barbaric practice. Together, we have lodged an application with the U.S. State Department under the Global Magnitsky Act to sanction senior Kenyan officers and medical professionals who are encouraging or performing forced anal examinations on suspected gay men and trans women, arguing that these practices amount to torture or cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment. We hope the public discourse that the Global Magnitsky application brings will shine a spotlight on the cruelty of this procedure, highlighting the pointless and irreversible injury it causes to the dignity of the victim. 

    This is just one human rights issue that will determine Kenya’s commitment to democracy and the rule of law. President Kenyatta will have to show leadership in ending this act of torture and many other forms of violence and discrimination against LGBTIQ citizens. He must also engage diplomatically to avoid sanctions against senior individual state officers and to uphold the international reputation of Kenya as a regional leader when it comes to democracy and equality.

    ERIC GITARI is the executive director of the NGLHRC-Kenya and an LL.M. student at Harvard Law School.

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              Beweg deinen Arsch zu mir!        
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              Looking for a Better Boyfriend Vol 01 Ch 002        
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              English expressions with Spanish translations        
    There are so many incredible idiomatic expressions in English that are used everyday. I have chosen just a few but there are many, many more. So, have a look at these to increase your vocabulary range.

    Do you know anymore?
      1. Better the devil you know than the devil you don’t - Más vale malo conocido que bueno por conocer.
      2. Don't pull my leg - No me tomes el pelo
      3. In for a penny in for a pound - De perdidos al río (UK)
      4. In for a dime in for a dollar - De perdidos al río (US)
      5. Indeed - Ya lo creo
      6. Inside out - Del revés
      7. It gives me goosebumps/It gives me the creeps - Me pone la piel de gallina
      8. It sounds Greek to me - Me suena a chino
      9. It turns out that - Resulta que…
      10. It’s a rip off - Es una estafa
      11. It’s bullshit - Es una mierda
      12. It’s finger licking good - Está para chuparse los dedos
      13. It’s high time/about time - Ya es hora / Ya va siendo hora
      14. It’s in the hands of the Gods - Que sea lo que Dios quiera
      15. It’s my treat / It’s on me - Invito yo
      16. It’s not a big deal / It’s not that much of a big deal - No es para tanto
      17. It’s on the house - Invita la casa/por cuenta de la casa
      18. It’s raining cats and dogs - Llueve a cántaros
      19. It’s up to you - Como tú quieras / Depende de ti (en tono amable)
      20. It’s worthless - No vale nada
      21. I’ve got enough on my plate - No puedo más (en la vida)
      22. Just in case - Por si acaso / Por si las moscas
      23. Keep an eye on… - Vigila a…/Echa un ojo a…
      24. Keep dreaming - Sigue soñando
      25. Keep it up - Sigue así
      26. Keep you hair on! - ¡Cálmate!
      27. Kind of/Give or take - Más o menos
      28. Kiss and make up - Borrón y cuenta nueva
      29. Knock something in the head / Nip something in the bud - Cortar algo de raíz (algún problema)
      30. Last but one - Penúltimo
      31. Last night - Anoche
      32. Lest you forget - Para que no (te) olvides
      33. Like father, like son - De tal palo, tal astilla
      34. Like water off a duck’s back - Palabras necias, oídos sordos – British
      35. To cut a long story short…- Resumiendo…
      36. Long time no see! - ¡Cuánto tiempo!
      37. Look out!- ¡Cuidado!
      38. Make my day - Alégrame el día
      39. Make up your mind - Decídete / Decide tú
      40. Make yourself at home - Estás en tu casa (expresión de cortesía)
      41. Maybe - Tal vez/A lo mejor
      42. Me neither - Yo tampoco (informal)
      43. Meanwhile/In the meantime - Mientras tanto
      44. Mind the gap - Cuidado con el hueco
      45. Moreover - Además
      46. Much to my dismay - Para mi desgracia
      47. My bad - Culpa mía (USA)
      48. My goodness! - ¡Madre mía!
      49. Never again - Nunca más
      50. Never mind - No importa (tono amable)
      51. No bother - No te preocupes / no es molestia
      52. No brainer - Sin duda
      53. No way - Ni hablar / De ninguna manera
      54. No wonder - No me extraña
      55. No worries - Sin problema / no te preocupes
      56. Nor/neither do I - Yo tampoco
      57. Not a chance / No way in hell - Ninguna posibilidad / Ni de coña
      58. Not at all/You’re welcome/It’s Ok - De nada (tras agradecimiento)
      59. Not Bad - No está mal
      60. Not for nothing - No es por nada
      61. Not half! - ¡Ya lo creo! / ¡Por supuesto! (Do you fancy a beer? not half – ¿te apetece una cerveza?, ya lo creo)
      62. Not my business - No es asunto mío
      63. Not my cup of tea - No es lo mío – British
      64. Not worth a penny/red cent - No vale un duro
      65. Not worth a shit - No vale una mierda
      66. Off the top of my head - Así, de cabeza…
      67. Oh dear! - ¡Oh Dios! / ¡Dios mio!
      68. Oh my Gosh - Forma políticamente correcta de decir “Oh my God”
      69. On one hand… on the other hand - Por un lado … por otro lado
      70. On the face of it - Según las apariencias
      71. On your bike! - Vete por ahí  /no me cuentes milongas/no me cuentes historias
      72. Once in a lifetime - Una vez en la vida
      73. Once in a while/from time to time - De vez en cuando
      74. Out of the blue - Como caído del cielo
      75. Over and over again - Una y otra vez
      76. Paint from the same brush - Distinto perro, mismo collar – British
      77. Pardon my French - Perdón por lo que voy a decir/acabo de decir (palabras malsonantes)
      78. Peanut bladder - (Vejiga del tamaño de un cacahuete)… para los que  no paran de ir al baño
      79. Phony baloney - Cuento chino
      80. Piece of cake! - ¡Está chupado!
      81. Piss off - Mandar a la mierda a alguien o cabrear alguien
      82. Pleasure/Bless you - Jesús (para cuando alguien estornuda)
      83. Point taken - Te entiendo (el punto de vista)
      84. Pull your socks up - Mueve el culo!
      85. Really? - ¿En serio?
      86. Rings a bell - Me suena
      87. Safe and sound - sano y salvo
      88. Say when - Cuando sirves algo dices “say when” para que te digan cuando parar
      89. See you anon - Te veo luego
      90. Seen - Ya/’aham’ (forma de asentir en UK)
      91. Shake/show a leg! - ¡Espabila! / ¡levántate! / ¡muévete!
      92. Shame on you! - Vergüenza debería darte
      93. She turns me on - Me pone (cachondo, a tono…)
      94. Shoot the breeze - Darle a la lengua
      95. Shut the fuck up! - ¡Cállate de una puta vez!
      96. Shut up! - ¡Cállate!
      97. So bad/badly - Mucho / Un montón (I love you so bad)
      98. So do I - Como yo / Yo también
      99. So long - Hasta la vista
      100. Some other time - Otra vez será
      101. Speaking of which - Hablando de lo cual…
      102. Start froom scratch - Empezar de cero
      103. Stick someone’s nose up at someone - Mirar por encima del hombro – British
      104. Stop Messing around - Deja de hacer el tonto
      105. Such is life/That’s life/Life’s like that - Así es la vida
      106. Suck it up - Te aguantas / Te jodes
      107. Take it easy - Tómatelo con calma
      108. Talking of the devil - Hablando del rey de Roma
      109. Thanks in advance - Gracias por adelantado
      110. That’s quite dodgy - Eso es muy cutre
      111. That’s the straw that brokes the camel’s back - Esta es la gota que colma el vaso
      112. That’s what I mean - A eso me refiero
      113. That’s what matters/That’s all that matters - Eso es lo que cuenta
      114. The more the merrier - Cuanto más, mejor
      115. The seal is broken - Me estoy meando. Lo usan sobre todo las chicas
      116. The sooner the better - Cuanto antes, mejor
      117. Think twice - Piénsalo dos veces
      118. This is my bread and butter - Con esto me gano la vida
      119. This is not rocket science - No es tan difícil (si alguien está intentando hacer algo fácil y no sabe cómo)
      120. To be water under the bridge - Es agua pasada (cuando se hacen las paces por ejemplo)
      121. To ask for the moon - Pedir peras al olmo
      122. To bang/screw [alguien] - Tirarse a alguien
      123. To be a bellend - Ser un capullo
      124. To be between the devil and the deep - Estar entre la espada y la pared
      125. To be caught between a rock and a hard place - Entre la espada y la pared – British
      126. To be a cunt - Ser un capullo/gilipollas – British
      127. To be cutting edge - Es el último grito/moda
      128. To be a dickhead - Ser un capullo/gilipollas (se pronuncia dicked)
      129. To be down to fuck all - Querer un polvo
      130. To be giving him hell - Le hace la vida imposible
      131. To be high/stoned - Estar colocado/ciego/borracho
      132. To be on the ball- Estar en la onda/al día
      133. To be/sit on the fence - Dudar
      134. To be over the moon - Estar feliz, contento
      135. To be spaced/spacing out - Tener la cabeza en las nubes/ Estar en Babia
      136. To be such a [adjective] - Ser un auténtico [adjetivo]
      137. To be wasted/blackedout/legless - Estar bastante borracho
      138. To be/feel under the weather - Sentirse mal/enfermo
      139. To blackmail - Chantajear
      140. To call it a day - Dar algo por terminado
      141. To cheat on - Poner los cuernos
      142. To chew the carpet - Tragarse el orgullo
      143. To clutch at straws - Agarrarse a un clavo ardiendo
      144. To cut the cheese - Tirarse un pedo
      145. To do [alguien] - Liarse (con alguien, plan folleteo)
      146. To do (someone) a solid - hacer un favor (a alguien)
      147. To feel blue - Estar deprimido, de capa caída…
      148. To get along - Llevarse bien
      149. To get by - Para ir tirando/Para arreglárselas
      150. To get frisky - Ponerse juguetón (en sentido sexual)
      151. To get laid - Acostarse, tener sexo con alguien, echar un polvo
      152. To get rid of [algo/alguien - Librarse de [algo/alguien]
      153. To get the hang of it - Pillarle el truco
      154. To give somebody a lift - Llevar a alguien (en coche, en moto…)
      155. To go all out - Hacer todo lo posible / Darlo todo
      156. To hang around - Andar por ahí
      157. To hang up - Colgar (teléfono)
      158. To have a blast - Pasarlo bien / divertirse / pasarlo pipa
      159. To have a bone to pick (with someone) - Tener cuentas que ajustar (con alguien)
      160. To have a finger in every pie - Estar en misa y repicando / Intentar estar en todo a la vez
      161. To have a thing about [something] - Estar loco, obsesionado por algo
      162. To have an argument - Tener una discusión
      163. To have forty winks - Dar una cabezadita
      164. To have the face… - Estar de morros
      165. To keep at bay - Mantener a raya
      166. To make a point - Querer dejar clara una cosa
      167. To make do - Conformarse
      168. To make out - Enrollarse (pareja)
      169. To make something out - Entender
      170. To murder something - Modo informal de decir que te apetece comer o beber algo
      171. To run an errand - Hacer un recado
      172. To see eye to eye with somebody - Tener el mismo punto de vista / Ver de la misma manera
      173. To set the (whole) world on fire - Comerse el mundo
      174. To shag - Follar â€“ British
      175. To snog - Morrearse
      176. To sow your wild oats - Ir de flor en flor
      177. To spoil [somebody] rotten - Malcriar/mimar/consentir a alguien
      178. To sum up… - En resumen…
      179. To take [something] with a pinch of salt - Coger algo con pinzas (sobre algo que te han dicho)
      180. To tan somebody’s hide - Darle una paliza a alguien
      181. Toff/Posh - Pijo
      182. Train bound for - Tren con destino a..
      183. Upside down - Boca abajo / patas arriba / del revés / invertido (dado la vuelta)
      184. Watch out! - ¡Cuidado!
      185. We’re even - Estamos en paz
      186. What a drag! - Vaya coñazo
      187. What a horse’s ass - ¡Vaya imbécil!
      188. What a palaver! - ¡Menudo follón!
      189. What a pity - Qué pena
      190. What a rip off! - Â¡Vaya/menuda estafa!
      191. What a shame! - ¡Qué vergüenza!
      192. What the fuck? - ¿Qué cojones…?
      193. What does it have to do with… - Qué tiene que ver esto con…
      194. What were you up to? - ¿Qué estabas haciendo?
      195. Whatever - Lo que sea (resignado)
      196. Who is this? - ¿Quién es? (al responder una llamada de teléfono)
      197. Who on earth….? - ¿Quién coño…?
      198. Without any doubt - Sin ninguna duda
      199. You and whose army? - ¿Tú y cuantos más?
      200. You are on your own - Estás solo en esto
      201. You never know - Nunca se sabe
      202. You rock! - ¡Tú molas!
      203. You’ve got another thing coming - Lo tienes claro (connotación irónica)
      204. You’re fit - Estás en forma / Estás bueno â€“ British
      205. You’re hot - Estás bueno/a
      206. You’re on thin ice - Te la estás jugando
      207. You run the show - Eres el jefe (sentido coloquial)













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              These Eternal Epilogues…        

    50thAnniversary-ClintHill-Conspiracy-Dallas-DealeyPlaza-JFK-JohnFKennedy-LoneNut-November221963 1

    Posted by MsBurbSo much is being said right now on this oft discussed topic - online, on TV, in newsprint and in magazines, all the world over - that my meagre addition seems as if adding to the already over-loaded burden. I doubt that unless you live under a rock and inside a cave (you’re welcome to visit me in my cave anytime, turn left at the entrance, you’ll see my rock) you could avoid the re-run onslaught of the slaughter of JFK in this month of November.

    No wonder Caroline has legged it early to Tokyo and if I were in her well-healed shoes, I’d do the same thing, for I can well imagine the phone call cacophony and the photographer pandemonium at her NYC and Martha’s Vineyard residences. Maybe to be half way around the world offers some form of respite but one wonders just how much, for there is no place to hide in the world for anyone close to this historical Ground Zero.

    Whether you were born then or not, if you’re an adult now, there would be no way to live on this planet and not have this event emblazoned on your mind as a lynchpin historical reference point. Parents, then as now - well educated or not, political junkies or despising of politics, well married to any historical event or avoiding all like the plague - would still have told to their children the Sad Story of Camelot, of Jack & Jackie, of her bright pink dress, of his swarthy tan and genuine smile, of the limousine turning Right off Main to Houston, then Left on Elm…and if they neglected their parental duty, TV would surely take up the mantel.

    If the Guinness Book of World Records is keeping track of such things, that motorcade footage must hold the record for the most re-run piece of celluloid in the history of mankind.

    And yet, the idiot in me, every darn time I see it, the urge to yell out,

    “Jack, RUN! Take Jackie’s hand, shove John & Nellie out of the way and get out of that damn car and RUN!”,

    An urge as passionate in me today as it’s ever been.

    There is very little that has not been said on this topic and quite a darn bit that should have NEVER been said but for what it’s worth, here is my take on what I consider Eternal Epilogues to this sad tale, questions born on that awful day that may haunt some of Us, unanswered, forevermore…

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~

     

    The End Game for John Fitzgerald and for Us All

    There could not be a living soul who has cared about the man or his ideology or his brief time in Office who has not at some point or another asked himself the question: What would have happened if Jack had lived?

    Of course, that eternal question must be qualified.

    • IF he had still been struck with those two bullets but somehow had survived, what had been left of him may have been catastrophic to say the least, and really, who would have ever wanted that for Jack?
    • Even IF Jack had only been hit in the throat, he may have still lost his voice and/or may have had to breathe with the help of a trachea tube.

    To see JFK yet no longer hear his wonderful voice would have been a tragedy in and of itself for I cannot and would not want to separate the man from that readily recognisable Bostonian accent. And to heap on him yet another health issue would have also seemed so cruel and unjust.

    • And worse still, IF by some miracle Jack had survived the head shot then We would have been left with another severely brain-damaged Kennedy sibling, Jack then following in the sorrowful footsteps of his eldest sister, Rosemary, who had been born with rather severe cognitive difficulties and then forever brain-damaged by the frontal lobotomy Joe Kennedy Sr. authorized all those many decades ago.

    Two Kennedy children, alive, but just barely. I truly doubt any of us would have wanted to see the intellectual and innovative Jack reduced to cerebral dust.

    But let’s assume for Hope’s Sake that he escaped those bullets or any grave bodily harm that day in Dallas, what would the future have held for JFK and for Us All?

    Maybe Jack would have never had the votes to pass the Civil Rights Bill (for many agree that LBJ’s ability to get Jack’s Bill passed so swiftly through Congress after the assassination was out of sheer sympathy for the slain President) BUT he may have finally seen the futility of the Vietnam “police action” and pulled out his “advisors” well before thousands of troops ever hit the ground running, fighting an unwinnable war.

    The math, had Jack pulled out of Vietnam: 50,000+ American soldiers saved and millions of Vietnamese saved as well, a country not ravaged by Napalm and Agent Orange. Maybe, unlike his predecessors, Jack would have had the courage to publicly admit the error of his ways to help the French with their own Colony and to call Quit to a bad decision. We darn well know that LBJ, Nixon, Bush Senior & Junior were not born with the “I was wrong and I am sorry” gene…maybe Kennedy was.

    And, of course, like fateful dominoes do, the “Vietnam-No-More” swan-song that was never sung by the 60’s Hippie Generation would have laid way to sing and obsess about something else, the war never becoming their “Cause Celeb”. But what Cause would have taken its place among the Daisy-Chain-Making, Peace & Love, Cumbaya crowd? One wonders if these kids would have ever coalesced as a societal group at all without Vietnam but then again maybe the majority of these spoiled brats would have stopped being militant, started acting mature and began heading back to school, being a far more productive sect of society than they ever were, merely because of that slight shift in Fate. The parents of the Flower-Power Generation would have been freed from a decade’s worth of familial dysfunction and angst, and as their parents, received the respect and gratitude from those kiddies that they most assuredly deserved, being without a doubt the Greatest Generation of our time.

    Oh, the domino affect of Fate can change its trajectory in a heart beat…just like the wobble of two full metal jacket missiles going over 2000 feet per second.

    What most likely can be assured is the End Game of JFK even if Our Destiny will always be in doubt, for even if he had won the ‘64 election and gained a second term as President, Jack had a target on his chest that included severe ailing health and a likely eventual “outing” of his highly risky womanizing. As the mid ‘60s approached, we cannot be sure that the Media would have continued to turn a blind eye and ear to his philandering, especially if any continued Mob association (it has been documented that JFK had a lasting affair with Mafia Leader Sam Giancana’s moll, Judith Campbell) or blackmail attempts (by his former mistresses looking for fame/money) had come further to the foreground . It may have simply boiled down to the fact that the “Story” finally had to became King to reporters, the reputation of the man or skeletons in his closet be damned.

    As for Jack’s health, Time was ebbing away even without Lee Oswald pushing the sand faster through the hour-glass.

    Due to his long suffering stint with Addison’s Disease whereby vertebrae in his back were disintegrating, Jack, during his short stint in the White House, was on a potent line-up of drugs, ones we now know can be very debilitating in and of themselves and very addicting. The line-up given to Jack by “Doctor Feelgood”, aka Dr. Max Jacobson (said to have “treated” various celebs to include Elvis and Marilyn Monroe), has been said by various documentarians to at least include the following;

    • 7 injections in the back per day of Novocaine
    • Codeine, Demerol and Methadone for pain
    • Cortical Steroid for Addison’s Disease
    • Paregoric for bad digestion
    • Nembutal to sleep

    And yet, with all that, Jack still couldn’t tie his own shoes nor raise Caroline or John Jr. in his arms, often needing assistance of some sort to get in and out of chairs or to walk up and down stairs.

    We will never know how such a dangerous cocktail of drugs would have eventually affected his state of mind or his decision-making capabilities, possibly a question we may not want to have answered, given that as President of the U.S. and Leader of the Free World, it was his finger on the Red Button and not Ours. Knowing what we know now, the success of the Cuban Missile Crisis and of Humanity’s continued existence seems all the more a miracle.

    Jack, despite his failings and weaknesses, was a enthusiastic liver of Life and although his End was horrible beyond comprehension, the thought of a lingering and torturous or embarrassing End for that man seems infinitely worse. He had seen his Father linger and wither after his stroke, I sincerely doubt he had ever wanted that for himself. Jack was a fighter and if the fight to live well had truly been taken away by merely living longer, merely existing, the young, swarthy forty-six year old would have probably chosen a bullet.  Sad but True, this is my sober take on the late, great John Fitzgerald.

     

    The Haunting of Clint Hill

    Of the seven Secret Service Agents in the Follow-Up car in Dallas that day, it was only Clint Hill (whose special duty it was to protect the First Lady) who managed to reach the Presidential limousine at all during those eight seconds of terror in Dealey. Yet, for many years, by his own admission, Clint agonized that he had not done enough to save John Kennedy. All the Agents who were on duty that day were made to testify before the Warren Commission and all did state at one time or another that the team, that day, had failed in executing their one and only duty: to protect Jack from harm.

    Often reason will get drowned out by emotion, the head being silenced by the heart, and in this case and for many years I think that is exactly what happened to Clint Hill. In the subsequent documentary, “The Kennedy Detail”, Clint admits to suffering for many years with depression and having a problem with alcohol and ultimately had to retire after seventeen years with the Secret Service due to neurological problems stemming directly from the trauma he lived through in Dallas that day. Today, I’m sure, Clint would be diagnosed with PTSD but in 1975 understanding of such mental trauma was like walking on the dark side of the moon. The interview he gave with Mike Wallace on 60 Minutes following his retirement shows a broken man, mental exhaustion and utter torment plastered on his face, worry and concern for the man staining the face of his wife, Gwen. Ultimately Clint and Gwen become divorced and one wonders if their marriage wasn’t just another casualty from November 22nd.

    Being ultimately promoted to Assistant Director of the Secret Service, Clint, in interviews today, some 38 years after his retirement, looks like a new man. Elderly now he is, of course (aged 82), but with a healthy demeanour, what I would describe as an intact, mature awareness of what was done and what could only have been done on that fateful Friday. You still see the sadness and the regret but now those emotions are kept in check. The drinking and depression are definitely albatrosses of the Past and Clint now talks with pride in a job well done. And let Us not forget that the job Clint did that day and all the days of his tenure was well done. In the many film clips taken of him protecting the Kennedys, the seriousness and passion he held for his work was more than evident, that to take a bullet for Jack or Jackie any day would have been welcomed if it meant “Lancer” & “Lace” could survive and thrive.

    Clint Hill is a hero in my eyes, a combat warrior-of-sorts who faced horror, was slain by it for a time but who ultimately won the emotional war even if the battle was beyond fierce.

    The Public is always focused on the loss on November 22nd, 1963 but we must also remember the gains. Men like Clint Hill were forged that day in Dallas with indestructible mettle and with that rough-gained experience they have gone on to give birth to a new, more knowledgeable generation of Protection Agents. Without men like Clint, Standard Operating Procedures in Protection today would be far less effective. The Secret Service motto, “Worthy of Trust and Confidence” describes Mr. Hill to a T.

    Clint Hill does not know I exist and he may never read this post but I want my words to him to exist in the “Etherspere”…regardless;

    Mr. Hill, you were the one bright shining light of Camelot that day, not Jack as Sir Lancelot, but you. King Arthur could never have held court as long as he did without the loyal devotion and protection of his most formidable knight, Lancelot, and you, my Good Man, were the reason Our White House Camelot lived in vigour as long as it did. You were there, maybe unseen by Us but there nonetheless, in difficult times, yes, but in joyful times too, and Mr. & Mrs. Kennedy knew that all too well. LBJ expressly chose you to cover him when he had an assassination premonition about attending the MLK memorial - you and no one else, Mr. Hill. You were their protector and you were Our protector too that awful day at Dealey, for without your efforts, without any Agent at least trying, We would have given up all hope, Our Trust in Agents like you, Then as Now, lost to the winds.

    Jack, from his celestial sailboat would say that Success is in the Trying, a Life lesson well learned on him. And you, Mr. Hill, exceeded all of Jack’s expectations. You are the living embodiment of Professionalism and Integrity in the Secret Service and if time could be reversed and you were 31 again, there is no doubt in my mind you would still be chosen as the primary Protector of our modern-day Presidents.

    Live well, Mr. Hill, and be so very proud of all your achievements because We certainly are for you. You are the essence of Success in every way and Jack would be the first one to nod and give you that toothy smile of approval…you know that.


    Lone Nut…Naturally…

    Much has been said (too much really unless you like verbal and prosaic refuse) of the Spector of Conspiracy which surrounds this assassination, with reason and logic being assassinated along with Jack that day in Dallas. That to believe the murder was carried out by a Lone Nut as assessed by the Warren Commission is to put oneself on the side of denial, so say the Conspiracy Theorists, verging on insanity, they would jibe, that any reasonable, God-fearing, patriotic American believing Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone is almost tantamount to Treason.

    Oh, and to not go the way of the daft and dense Populous makes you an automatic Outsider.

    God forbid that school yard antics actually pervade mature Society.

    To date, some 62% of Americans when polled (November 2013 Gallup poll) believe that Oswald did not act alone. That is a terrifying percentage, for that forces me to believe that only 38% of Americans are the least bit open to intelligent assessment. But, then again, these numbers probably correlate nicely with the percentage of Americans who think that “Must See TV” is American Idol and People of Note are the Kardashians and Paris Hilton.

    Americans fear most a terrorist attack from abroad when an attack of ignorance invaded and well damaged their Homeland decades ago.

    But then again, in defence of those same Americans, all humans have a need to control their environment and to do so demands a natural balance. And at its core, the Lone Nut doing in the Great Lancer is as unbalanced as you can get. And if you allow yourself to think such imbalances can occur in Life then one must admit that we really have very little control over our own lives, that if great and powerful men can be so easily slain by such lowly creatures with even lowlier weapons, where then can there be hope for any of Us?

    But as so many very astute lawyers have stated, this crime at its core is as simple as they get, that if Oswald had shot at Joe Nobody, the police investigation would have been most likely closed within days, the trial would have been swift and sure and the charge of Guilty would have easily been on offer from the Jury, Oswald ultimately put behind bars and quickly forgotten.

    But the victim wasn’t Joe Nobody, it was John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, a man who had spent his 1000 days in Office expounding on the virtues of Peace, attempting to show that the world is not comprised of Them & Us but of all mankind born with the desire to live in harmony and to seek happiness - virtues not solely the property of Americans. JFK’s views were foreign to Us who had suffered long under the post WWII Cold War but Jack knew geo-political reconciliation had to occur if a third World War, possibly one of apocalyptic form, was to be prevented.

    Yet, historically the Lone Nut Assassin scenario should be well accepted by the American Populous for their political history is rife with examples, some successful, some thankfully not;

    • John Wilkes Booth with Lincoln in 1865
    • Leon Czolgosz with William McKinley in 1901
    • Richard Paul Pavlick with JFK in 1960 (the first attempt at assassination after Kennedy became President-Elect)
    • Sirhan Sirhan with Robert Kennedy (Presidential Candidate) in 1968 and
    • Arthur Bremer with Presidential Candidate George Wallace (although Bremer’s main target had always been President Nixon) in 1972.

    Presidential leaders are never the sole targets of such madmen as any Person of Note will do if it supports their extreme delusions of grandeur and satiates their narcissism, affording them the historical greatness they desire. Most notable is;

    James Earl Ray with Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968

    with most recent attacks including;

    • Jared Lee Loughner with U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords in 2011
    • James Eagan Holmes with Aurora, Colorado movie theatre goers in 2012 and
    • Adam Lanza with the Sandy Hook Elementary children in 2013.

    Some of these assassination attempts have suffered for a time the inference of Conspiracy but as the years go by or the facts are just too clear and present to refute, that inference soon ebbs away and is replaced with the realization that people of worth can and are gunned down by human waste, a very sad but true fact.

    50 years have gone by now and with the hordes of CTers within those five decades expounding on a plethora of scenarios and supposed involved bad guys, no credible evidence has ever been on offer to suggest anyone other than the lone Oswald or any other faction was responsible for the murder of America’s 35th President. It is now time to face facts and put this case to rest, once and for all.

    In 1964, most Americans when polled believed the findings of the Warren Commission and we need as rational people to get back to that rational percentage, possibly by actually READING COVER TO COVER  the Warren Commission 26 Volumes and not merely Tell-All books. Hey, there’s an idea, Folks!. Thankfully, this year, more 50th anniversary documentaries have been produced to expertly present the evidence of what truly happened in Dealey Plaza that day, well drowning out the usually baseline list of Shock & Awe Conspiracy Tell-All shows that have previously assaulted our senses. One can never completely silence the nut-jobs who will marry themselves to one conspiracy theory or another until the day they die but it is my hope that well-reasoned American citizens rightfully reclaim their history and finally see in the light of day what had always been there to see.

    Lone Nut assassins are real and are a fact of Life - a sad and horrific yet an all too natural occurrence in our Human Experience.

    Rest well, Mr. President and may the rest of Us finally breathe in the clear, crisp air of Truth, however painful it may be.

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~

    These Eternal Epilogues, maybe at least in my mind today, finally written.

    Title Photo: Timer – blocs.mesvilaweb.cat; X –twincities.com; Flame – newsday.com; Funeral Bunting – independence-bunting.com

    50th Anniversary, Clint Hill, Conspiracy, Dallas, Dealey Plaza, JFK, John F Kennedy, Lone Nut, November 22 1963


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              Politics - USA        
     sebster wrote:


    Automatically Appended Next Post:


    Is is game over?

    I mean I know you're convinced the email thing is the most awful scandal ever, and you know what, I'm not even going to bother debating that. You believe what you want to believe.

    My question is on your conviction that this actually has some kind of electoral impact. For it to matter it needs to be a matter of interest to people who weren't already committed Clinton haters. So just ask yourself, how many people do you know who like Clinton, but are passing around stories like this? How many times in political conversation does the email scandal come up, among people who don't already hate Clinton?


    Yes, it's a big deal... especially when the FBI recommends indictments. It's not something that'll be ignored and for sure, the GOP will hammer it.


    Automatically Appended Next Post:
     Gordon Shumway wrote:
    And to put in the daily parlance (trump speak) whatabouit? Without an actual indictment (notice the soft spoken language of legalese of the actual report), and until an actual FBI indictment happens, nothing will come of it (I'm not saying it it shouldn't). I just don't see the legs of it in our political climate, it's too minutiae. (Have you seen the legs on trumps wife) Too beltway. (Have you seen the legs on trumps daughter) Too boring (sad, but true). Chelsey might be a nice girl...what do her legs look like? Did you see that a deaf person won some sort of dancing competition? My brain hurts with the mundanity of life right now. Time to paint space marines! And vote! Vote! VOTE, what are those Property Brothers building?

    whatabouit?

    Seriously?!?!?

    Just think about this... information were compromised by her. Those information provide cover and/or blackmail materials for our adversaries.

    You'd want a compromised politician as President?
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              Maps, Hiccups & Hope        
    If you ask me what has been the major breakthrough in the last decade, then in addition to the upcoming fast food joints I would say GOOGLE MAP has been a revelation. It’s like the miser’s perfect tool to get set for traveling & I was not going to change anything in this aspect.

    Once we had zeroed in on our targets, all we had to do was key in the names & voila our rough map was also set!!!! And after spending 5 years in an engineering services company, to make something ordinary look like extraordinary was like nothing new. Add in a few glosses here, colors there & the final output ends up appeasing. Another of those signs of your job’s influence on your life, but hey I am not going to start a complaint box here & digress from the main theme.

    Another hiccup that given a slight jolt for us was the ongoing Indo-China tensions, that had sparked off rumors of the Inner Line Permit (these are required to go into certain areas in Sikkim) not being granted anymore. If these rumors had been true then our Sikkim part of the trip would have very well been quite dull, since many areas including the Yumthang Valley & Lake Chhanggu were supposed to be accessible with these Inner Line Permits.

    But once again Baichung, had put to rest these rumors, and had taken the responsibility of getting these permits for us. He had even volunteered to get our return tickets from NJP to Kolkata booked. One thing was definitely sure, Baichung sure picking up impression points amongst us. But yeah we were also worried on whether the currency value was going to hit the ceiling or what.

    To aggravate things, there was a possible casualty of Suzy not able to make it for the trip. The bugger was dumped with some major work that was supposed to get into production & all those blah. Well half of them sounded gibberish to me. But some emotional blackmail, few death threats on Panda's part & I guess a couple of strong beers did wear off the little resistance that was there in him. For crying out loud, we slog out all year & work out our butts, but when we decide to take like one tiny week to just chill, that is the only time people want to offload work. And I definitely don’t want to give this blog a PG-13 rating by writing down here what sentiments I have at this time.
    So there I was, 2 days away from getting on a plane with 4 of my friends, & all I was hoping were for things to go at least 75 percent close to the way I had planned it to go (though secretly I was harboring a cent percent result). Coffee was going to flow & cigarettes were going to get burned in abundance over these 48 hours - that I was bloody sure of!!!
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              Re:Politics - USA        
    Well just saw this and thought it looks like a good read, until it took a very hard turn into the twilight zone:

    Spoiler:
    Phil Alba
    March 9 · Amityville, NY ·
    Although I have some reservations about Donald Trump, this article below by Bill Bennett articulates unimpeachable realities and deserves a few of your minutes to read and consider....


    BE CAREFUL OUT THERE

    Written by the distinguished Bill Bennett about Donald Trump.
    I think you will find it very interesting and alarming.
    You might want to take the time to read it.

    [cid:3D8E143E5278495885E4EE1F1D6DC3E8@LaptopHP]
    PHD - Secretary of Education under Ronald Reagan
    Cultural studies at the distinguished and renowned Heritage Foundation

    Interesting take on Trump.
    William J. Bennett, Host of Bill Bennett's Morning in America Show, is one of America's most important, influential, and respected voices on cultural, political, and education issues.He has one of the strongest Christian worldviews of any writer in modern times.

    What I See Happening In a Trump Presidency
    By Bill Bennett

    They will try to kill him before they let him be president.
    It could be a Republican or a Democrat that instigates the shutting up of Trump.
    Don’t be surprised if Trump has an accident. Some people are getting very nervous: Barack Obama, Valerie Jarrett, Eric Holder, Hillary Clinton and Jon Corzine, to name just a few.

    It's about the unholy dynamics between big government, big business, and big media. They all benefit by the billions of dollars from this partnership, and it's in all of their interests to protect one another. It's one for all and all for one.

    It’s a heck of a filthy relationship that makes everyone filthy rich, everyone except the American people. We get ripped off. We’re the patsies. But for once, the powerful socialist cabal and the corrupt crony capitalists are scared. The over-the-top reaction to Trump by politicians of both parties, the media, and the biggest corporations of America has been so swift and insanely angry that it suggests they are all threatened and frightened.

    Donald Trump can self-fund. No matter how much they say to the contrary, the media, business, and political elite understand that Trump is no joke. He could actually win and upset their nice cozy apple cart.

    It's no coincidence that everyone has gotten together to destroy The Donald. It's because most of the other politicians are part of the a good old boys club. They talk big, but they won’t change a thing. They are all beholden to big-money donors.

    They are all owned by lobbyists, unions, lawyers, gigantic environmental organizations, and multinational corporations – like Big Pharmacy or Big Oil. Or they are owned lock, stock, and barrel by foreigners like George Soros owns Obama or foreign governments own Hillary and their Clinton Foundation donations.

    These run-of-the-mill establishment politicians are all puppets owned by big money. But there's one man who isn't beholden to anyone.

    There's one man who doesn't need foreigners, or foreign governments, or George Soros, or the United Auto Workers, or the teacher's union, or the Service Employees International Union, or the Bar Association to fund his campaign.

    Billionaire tycoon and maverick Donald Trump doesn’t need anyone’s help. That means he doesn’t care what the media says. He doesn’t care what the corporate elites think. That makes him very dangerous to the entrenched interests. That makes Trump a huge threat to those people. Trump can ruin everything for the bribed politicians and their spoiled slave masters.

    Don’t you ever wonder why the GOP has never tried to impeach Obama? Don’t you wonder why John Boehner and Mitch McConnell talk a big game, but never actually try to stop Obama?

    Don’t you wonder why Congress holds the purse strings, yet has never tried to defund Obamacare or Obama’s clearly illegal executive action on amnesty for illegal aliens? Bizarre, right? It defies logic, right?

    First, I'd guess many key Republicans are being bribed. Secondly, I believe many key Republicans are being blackmailed. Whether they are having affairs, or secretly gay, or stealing taxpayer money, the National Security Agency knows everything.

    Ask former House Speaker Dennis Hastert about that. The government even knew he was withdrawing large sums of his own money from his own bank account. The NSA, the SEC, the IRS, and all the other three-letter government agencies are watching every Republican political leader. They surveil everything.

    Thirdly, many Republicans are petrified of being called racists, so they are scared to ever criticize Obama or call out his crimes, let alone demand his impeachment.

    Fourth , why rock the boat? After defeat or retirement, if you’re a good old boy, you’ve got a $5 million-per-year lobbying job waiting. The big-money interests have the system gamed. Win or lose, they win.

    But Trump doesn’t play by any of these rules. Trump breaks up this nice, cozy relationship between big government, big media, and big business. All the rules are out the window if Trump wins the Presidency. The other politicians will protect Obama and his aides but not Trump.

    Remember: Trump is the guy who publicly questioned Obama's birth certificate. He questioned Obama's college records and how a mediocre student got into an Ivy League university. Now, he's doing something no Republican has the chutzpah to do. He's questioning our relationship with Mexico; he's questioning why the border is wide open; he's questioning why no wall has been built across the border; he's questioning if allowing millions of illegal aliens into America is in our best interests; he's questioning why so many illegal aliens commit violent crimes, yet are not deported; and he's questioning why our trade deals with Mexico, Russia and China are so bad.

    Trump has the audacity to ask out loud why American workers always get the short end of the stick. Good question!

    I'm certain Trump will question what happened to the almost billion dollars given in a rigged no-bid contract to college friends of Michelle Obama at foreign companies to build the defective Obamacare website. By the way, that tab is now up to $5 billion.

    Trump will ask if Obamacare's architects can be charged with fraud for selling it by lying. Trump will investigate Obama's widespread IRS conspiracy, not to mention Obama's college records. Trump will prosecute Clinton and Obama for fraud committed to cover up Benghazi before the election. How about the fraud committed by employees of the Labor Department when they made up dramatic job numbers in the last jobs report before the 2012 election?

    Obama, the multinational corporations and the media need to stop Trump. They recognize this could get out of control. If left unchecked, telling the raw truth and asking questions everyone else is afraid to ask, Trump could wake a sleeping giant.

    Trump's election would be a nightmare. Obama has committed many crimes. No one else but Trump would dare to prosecute. He will not hesitate. Once Trump gets in and gets a look at the cooked books and Obama's records, the game is over.

    The jig is up. The goose is cooked. Holder could wind up in prison. Jarrett could wind up in prison. Obama bundler Corzine could wind up in prison for losing $1.5 billion of customer money.

    Clinton could wind up in jail for deleting 32,000 emails or for accepting bribes from foreign governments while Secretary of State, or for misplacing $6 billion as the head of the State Department, or for lying about Benghazi. The entire upper level management of the IRS could wind up in prison.

    Obamacare will be de-funded and dismantled. Obama himself could wind up ruined, his legacy in tatters. Trump will investigate. Trump will prosecute. Trump will go after everyone involved. That’s why the dogs of hell have been unleashed on Donald Trump.

    Yes, it's become open season on Donald Trump.

    The left and the right are determined to attack his policies, harm his businesses and if possible, even keep him out of the coming debates. But they can't silence him. And they sure can't intimidate him.

    The more they try, the more the public will realize that he's the one telling the truth.

              Re:Politics - USA        
    Asterios wrote:
    Well just saw this and thought it looks like a good read, until it took a very hard turn into the twilight zone:

    Spoiler:
    Phil Alba
    March 9 · Amityville, NY ·
    Although I have some reservations about Donald Trump, this article below by Bill Bennett articulates unimpeachable realities and deserves a few of your minutes to read and consider....


    BE CAREFUL OUT THERE

    Written by the distinguished Bill Bennett about Donald Trump.
    I think you will find it very interesting and alarming.
    You might want to take the time to read it.

    [cid:3D8E143E5278495885E4EE1F1D6DC3E8@LaptopHP]
    PHD - Secretary of Education under Ronald Reagan
    Cultural studies at the distinguished and renowned Heritage Foundation

    Interesting take on Trump.
    William J. Bennett, Host of Bill Bennett's Morning in America Show, is one of America's most important, influential, and respected voices on cultural, political, and education issues.He has one of the strongest Christian worldviews of any writer in modern times.

    What I See Happening In a Trump Presidency
    By Bill Bennett

    They will try to kill him before they let him be president.
    It could be a Republican or a Democrat that instigates the shutting up of Trump.
    Don’t be surprised if Trump has an accident. Some people are getting very nervous: Barack Obama, Valerie Jarrett, Eric Holder, Hillary Clinton and Jon Corzine, to name just a few.

    It's about the unholy dynamics between big government, big business, and big media. They all benefit by the billions of dollars from this partnership, and it's in all of their interests to protect one another. It's one for all and all for one.

    It’s a heck of a filthy relationship that makes everyone filthy rich, everyone except the American people. We get ripped off. We’re the patsies. But for once, the powerful socialist cabal and the corrupt crony capitalists are scared. The over-the-top reaction to Trump by politicians of both parties, the media, and the biggest corporations of America has been so swift and insanely angry that it suggests they are all threatened and frightened.

    Donald Trump can self-fund. No matter how much they say to the contrary, the media, business, and political elite understand that Trump is no joke. He could actually win and upset their nice cozy apple cart.

    It's no coincidence that everyone has gotten together to destroy The Donald. It's because most of the other politicians are part of the a good old boys club. They talk big, but they won’t change a thing. They are all beholden to big-money donors.

    They are all owned by lobbyists, unions, lawyers, gigantic environmental organizations, and multinational corporations – like Big Pharmacy or Big Oil. Or they are owned lock, stock, and barrel by foreigners like George Soros owns Obama or foreign governments own Hillary and their Clinton Foundation donations.

    These run-of-the-mill establishment politicians are all puppets owned by big money. But there's one man who isn't beholden to anyone.

    There's one man who doesn't need foreigners, or foreign governments, or George Soros, or the United Auto Workers, or the teacher's union, or the Service Employees International Union, or the Bar Association to fund his campaign.

    Billionaire tycoon and maverick Donald Trump doesn’t need anyone’s help. That means he doesn’t care what the media says. He doesn’t care what the corporate elites think. That makes him very dangerous to the entrenched interests. That makes Trump a huge threat to those people. Trump can ruin everything for the bribed politicians and their spoiled slave masters.

    Don’t you ever wonder why the GOP has never tried to impeach Obama? Don’t you wonder why John Boehner and Mitch McConnell talk a big game, but never actually try to stop Obama?

    Don’t you wonder why Congress holds the purse strings, yet has never tried to defund Obamacare or Obama’s clearly illegal executive action on amnesty for illegal aliens? Bizarre, right? It defies logic, right?

    First, I'd guess many key Republicans are being bribed. Secondly, I believe many key Republicans are being blackmailed. Whether they are having affairs, or secretly gay, or stealing taxpayer money, the National Security Agency knows everything.

    Ask former House Speaker Dennis Hastert about that. The government even knew he was withdrawing large sums of his own money from his own bank account. The NSA, the SEC, the IRS, and all the other three-letter government agencies are watching every Republican political leader. They surveil everything.

    Thirdly, many Republicans are petrified of being called racists, so they are scared to ever criticize Obama or call out his crimes, let alone demand his impeachment.

    Fourth , why rock the boat? After defeat or retirement, if you’re a good old boy, you’ve got a $5 million-per-year lobbying job waiting. The big-money interests have the system gamed. Win or lose, they win.

    But Trump doesn’t play by any of these rules. Trump breaks up this nice, cozy relationship between big government, big media, and big business. All the rules are out the window if Trump wins the Presidency. The other politicians will protect Obama and his aides but not Trump.

    Remember: Trump is the guy who publicly questioned Obama's birth certificate. He questioned Obama's college records and how a mediocre student got into an Ivy League university. Now, he's doing something no Republican has the chutzpah to do. He's questioning our relationship with Mexico; he's questioning why the border is wide open; he's questioning why no wall has been built across the border; he's questioning if allowing millions of illegal aliens into America is in our best interests; he's questioning why so many illegal aliens commit violent crimes, yet are not deported; and he's questioning why our trade deals with Mexico, Russia and China are so bad.

    Trump has the audacity to ask out loud why American workers always get the short end of the stick. Good question!

    I'm certain Trump will question what happened to the almost billion dollars given in a rigged no-bid contract to college friends of Michelle Obama at foreign companies to build the defective Obamacare website. By the way, that tab is now up to $5 billion.

    Trump will ask if Obamacare's architects can be charged with fraud for selling it by lying. Trump will investigate Obama's widespread IRS conspiracy, not to mention Obama's college records. Trump will prosecute Clinton and Obama for fraud committed to cover up Benghazi before the election. How about the fraud committed by employees of the Labor Department when they made up dramatic job numbers in the last jobs report before the 2012 election?

    Obama, the multinational corporations and the media need to stop Trump. They recognize this could get out of control. If left unchecked, telling the raw truth and asking questions everyone else is afraid to ask, Trump could wake a sleeping giant.

    Trump's election would be a nightmare. Obama has committed many crimes. No one else but Trump would dare to prosecute. He will not hesitate. Once Trump gets in and gets a look at the cooked books and Obama's records, the game is over.

    The jig is up. The goose is cooked. Holder could wind up in prison. Jarrett could wind up in prison. Obama bundler Corzine could wind up in prison for losing $1.5 billion of customer money.

    Clinton could wind up in jail for deleting 32,000 emails or for accepting bribes from foreign governments while Secretary of State, or for misplacing $6 billion as the head of the State Department, or for lying about Benghazi. The entire upper level management of the IRS could wind up in prison.

    Obamacare will be de-funded and dismantled. Obama himself could wind up ruined, his legacy in tatters. Trump will investigate. Trump will prosecute. Trump will go after everyone involved. That’s why the dogs of hell have been unleashed on Donald Trump.

    Yes, it's become open season on Donald Trump.

    The left and the right are determined to attack his policies, harm his businesses and if possible, even keep him out of the coming debates. But they can't silence him. And they sure can't intimidate him.

    The more they try, the more the public will realize that he's the one telling the truth.


    So...immediately, then?

    :p
              Re:Politics - USA        
     Spinner wrote:
    Asterios wrote:
    Well just saw this and thought it looks like a good read, until it took a very hard turn into the twilight zone:

    Spoiler:
    Phil Alba
    March 9 · Amityville, NY ·
    Although I have some reservations about Donald Trump, this article below by Bill Bennett articulates unimpeachable realities and deserves a few of your minutes to read and consider....


    BE CAREFUL OUT THERE

    Written by the distinguished Bill Bennett about Donald Trump.
    I think you will find it very interesting and alarming.
    You might want to take the time to read it.

    [cid:3D8E143E5278495885E4EE1F1D6DC3E8@LaptopHP]
    PHD - Secretary of Education under Ronald Reagan
    Cultural studies at the distinguished and renowned Heritage Foundation

    Interesting take on Trump.
    William J. Bennett, Host of Bill Bennett's Morning in America Show, is one of America's most important, influential, and respected voices on cultural, political, and education issues.He has one of the strongest Christian worldviews of any writer in modern times.

    What I See Happening In a Trump Presidency
    By Bill Bennett

    They will try to kill him before they let him be president.
    It could be a Republican or a Democrat that instigates the shutting up of Trump.
    Don’t be surprised if Trump has an accident. Some people are getting very nervous: Barack Obama, Valerie Jarrett, Eric Holder, Hillary Clinton and Jon Corzine, to name just a few.

    It's about the unholy dynamics between big government, big business, and big media. They all benefit by the billions of dollars from this partnership, and it's in all of their interests to protect one another. It's one for all and all for one.

    It’s a heck of a filthy relationship that makes everyone filthy rich, everyone except the American people. We get ripped off. We’re the patsies. But for once, the powerful socialist cabal and the corrupt crony capitalists are scared. The over-the-top reaction to Trump by politicians of both parties, the media, and the biggest corporations of America has been so swift and insanely angry that it suggests they are all threatened and frightened.

    Donald Trump can self-fund. No matter how much they say to the contrary, the media, business, and political elite understand that Trump is no joke. He could actually win and upset their nice cozy apple cart.

    It's no coincidence that everyone has gotten together to destroy The Donald. It's because most of the other politicians are part of the a good old boys club. They talk big, but they won’t change a thing. They are all beholden to big-money donors.

    They are all owned by lobbyists, unions, lawyers, gigantic environmental organizations, and multinational corporations – like Big Pharmacy or Big Oil. Or they are owned lock, stock, and barrel by foreigners like George Soros owns Obama or foreign governments own Hillary and their Clinton Foundation donations.

    These run-of-the-mill establishment politicians are all puppets owned by big money. But there's one man who isn't beholden to anyone.

    There's one man who doesn't need foreigners, or foreign governments, or George Soros, or the United Auto Workers, or the teacher's union, or the Service Employees International Union, or the Bar Association to fund his campaign.

    Billionaire tycoon and maverick Donald Trump doesn’t need anyone’s help. That means he doesn’t care what the media says. He doesn’t care what the corporate elites think. That makes him very dangerous to the entrenched interests. That makes Trump a huge threat to those people. Trump can ruin everything for the bribed politicians and their spoiled slave masters.

    Don’t you ever wonder why the GOP has never tried to impeach Obama? Don’t you wonder why John Boehner and Mitch McConnell talk a big game, but never actually try to stop Obama?

    Don’t you wonder why Congress holds the purse strings, yet has never tried to defund Obamacare or Obama’s clearly illegal executive action on amnesty for illegal aliens? Bizarre, right? It defies logic, right?

    First, I'd guess many key Republicans are being bribed. Secondly, I believe many key Republicans are being blackmailed. Whether they are having affairs, or secretly gay, or stealing taxpayer money, the National Security Agency knows everything.

    Ask former House Speaker Dennis Hastert about that. The government even knew he was withdrawing large sums of his own money from his own bank account. The NSA, the SEC, the IRS, and all the other three-letter government agencies are watching every Republican political leader. They surveil everything.

    Thirdly, many Republicans are petrified of being called racists, so they are scared to ever criticize Obama or call out his crimes, let alone demand his impeachment.

    Fourth , why rock the boat? After defeat or retirement, if you’re a good old boy, you’ve got a $5 million-per-year lobbying job waiting. The big-money interests have the system gamed. Win or lose, they win.

    But Trump doesn’t play by any of these rules. Trump breaks up this nice, cozy relationship between big government, big media, and big business. All the rules are out the window if Trump wins the Presidency. The other politicians will protect Obama and his aides but not Trump.

    Remember: Trump is the guy who publicly questioned Obama's birth certificate. He questioned Obama's college records and how a mediocre student got into an Ivy League university. Now, he's doing something no Republican has the chutzpah to do. He's questioning our relationship with Mexico; he's questioning why the border is wide open; he's questioning why no wall has been built across the border; he's questioning if allowing millions of illegal aliens into America is in our best interests; he's questioning why so many illegal aliens commit violent crimes, yet are not deported; and he's questioning why our trade deals with Mexico, Russia and China are so bad.

    Trump has the audacity to ask out loud why American workers always get the short end of the stick. Good question!

    I'm certain Trump will question what happened to the almost billion dollars given in a rigged no-bid contract to college friends of Michelle Obama at foreign companies to build the defective Obamacare website. By the way, that tab is now up to $5 billion.

    Trump will ask if Obamacare's architects can be charged with fraud for selling it by lying. Trump will investigate Obama's widespread IRS conspiracy, not to mention Obama's college records. Trump will prosecute Clinton and Obama for fraud committed to cover up Benghazi before the election. How about the fraud committed by employees of the Labor Department when they made up dramatic job numbers in the last jobs report before the 2012 election?

    Obama, the multinational corporations and the media need to stop Trump. They recognize this could get out of control. If left unchecked, telling the raw truth and asking questions everyone else is afraid to ask, Trump could wake a sleeping giant.

    Trump's election would be a nightmare. Obama has committed many crimes. No one else but Trump would dare to prosecute. He will not hesitate. Once Trump gets in and gets a look at the cooked books and Obama's records, the game is over.

    The jig is up. The goose is cooked. Holder could wind up in prison. Jarrett could wind up in prison. Obama bundler Corzine could wind up in prison for losing $1.5 billion of customer money.

    Clinton could wind up in jail for deleting 32,000 emails or for accepting bribes from foreign governments while Secretary of State, or for misplacing $6 billion as the head of the State Department, or for lying about Benghazi. The entire upper level management of the IRS could wind up in prison.

    Obamacare will be de-funded and dismantled. Obama himself could wind up ruined, his legacy in tatters. Trump will investigate. Trump will prosecute. Trump will go after everyone involved. That’s why the dogs of hell have been unleashed on Donald Trump.

    Yes, it's become open season on Donald Trump.

    The left and the right are determined to attack his policies, harm his businesses and if possible, even keep him out of the coming debates. But they can't silence him. And they sure can't intimidate him.

    The more they try, the more the public will realize that he's the one telling the truth.


    So...immediately, then?

    :p


    well he was right about both parties and most big businesses not liking Trump, then things got lost in translation. but the first part is why I like trump fro the Win, the politicians don't want him too, and if they hate him he must be someone to take note of.
              Re:Politics - USA        
    Asterios wrote:
     Spinner wrote:
    Asterios wrote:
    Well just saw this and thought it looks like a good read, until it took a very hard turn into the twilight zone:

    Spoiler:
    Phil Alba
    March 9 · Amityville, NY ·
    Although I have some reservations about Donald Trump, this article below by Bill Bennett articulates unimpeachable realities and deserves a few of your minutes to read and consider....


    BE CAREFUL OUT THERE

    Written by the distinguished Bill Bennett about Donald Trump.
    I think you will find it very interesting and alarming.
    You might want to take the time to read it.

    [cid:3D8E143E5278495885E4EE1F1D6DC3E8@LaptopHP]
    PHD - Secretary of Education under Ronald Reagan
    Cultural studies at the distinguished and renowned Heritage Foundation

    Interesting take on Trump.
    William J. Bennett, Host of Bill Bennett's Morning in America Show, is one of America's most important, influential, and respected voices on cultural, political, and education issues.He has one of the strongest Christian worldviews of any writer in modern times.

    What I See Happening In a Trump Presidency
    By Bill Bennett

    They will try to kill him before they let him be president.
    It could be a Republican or a Democrat that instigates the shutting up of Trump.
    Don’t be surprised if Trump has an accident. Some people are getting very nervous: Barack Obama, Valerie Jarrett, Eric Holder, Hillary Clinton and Jon Corzine, to name just a few.

    It's about the unholy dynamics between big government, big business, and big media. They all benefit by the billions of dollars from this partnership, and it's in all of their interests to protect one another. It's one for all and all for one.

    It’s a heck of a filthy relationship that makes everyone filthy rich, everyone except the American people. We get ripped off. We’re the patsies. But for once, the powerful socialist cabal and the corrupt crony capitalists are scared. The over-the-top reaction to Trump by politicians of both parties, the media, and the biggest corporations of America has been so swift and insanely angry that it suggests they are all threatened and frightened.

    Donald Trump can self-fund. No matter how much they say to the contrary, the media, business, and political elite understand that Trump is no joke. He could actually win and upset their nice cozy apple cart.

    It's no coincidence that everyone has gotten together to destroy The Donald. It's because most of the other politicians are part of the a good old boys club. They talk big, but they won’t change a thing. They are all beholden to big-money donors.

    They are all owned by lobbyists, unions, lawyers, gigantic environmental organizations, and multinational corporations – like Big Pharmacy or Big Oil. Or they are owned lock, stock, and barrel by foreigners like George Soros owns Obama or foreign governments own Hillary and their Clinton Foundation donations.

    These run-of-the-mill establishment politicians are all puppets owned by big money. But there's one man who isn't beholden to anyone.

    There's one man who doesn't need foreigners, or foreign governments, or George Soros, or the United Auto Workers, or the teacher's union, or the Service Employees International Union, or the Bar Association to fund his campaign.

    Billionaire tycoon and maverick Donald Trump doesn’t need anyone’s help. That means he doesn’t care what the media says. He doesn’t care what the corporate elites think. That makes him very dangerous to the entrenched interests. That makes Trump a huge threat to those people. Trump can ruin everything for the bribed politicians and their spoiled slave masters.

    Don’t you ever wonder why the GOP has never tried to impeach Obama? Don’t you wonder why John Boehner and Mitch McConnell talk a big game, but never actually try to stop Obama?

    Don’t you wonder why Congress holds the purse strings, yet has never tried to defund Obamacare or Obama’s clearly illegal executive action on amnesty for illegal aliens? Bizarre, right? It defies logic, right?

    First, I'd guess many key Republicans are being bribed. Secondly, I believe many key Republicans are being blackmailed. Whether they are having affairs, or secretly gay, or stealing taxpayer money, the National Security Agency knows everything.

    Ask former House Speaker Dennis Hastert about that. The government even knew he was withdrawing large sums of his own money from his own bank account. The NSA, the SEC, the IRS, and all the other three-letter government agencies are watching every Republican political leader. They surveil everything.

    Thirdly, many Republicans are petrified of being called racists, so they are scared to ever criticize Obama or call out his crimes, let alone demand his impeachment.

    Fourth , why rock the boat? After defeat or retirement, if you’re a good old boy, you’ve got a $5 million-per-year lobbying job waiting. The big-money interests have the system gamed. Win or lose, they win.

    But Trump doesn’t play by any of these rules. Trump breaks up this nice, cozy relationship between big government, big media, and big business. All the rules are out the window if Trump wins the Presidency. The other politicians will protect Obama and his aides but not Trump.

    Remember: Trump is the guy who publicly questioned Obama's birth certificate. He questioned Obama's college records and how a mediocre student got into an Ivy League university. Now, he's doing something no Republican has the chutzpah to do. He's questioning our relationship with Mexico; he's questioning why the border is wide open; he's questioning why no wall has been built across the border; he's questioning if allowing millions of illegal aliens into America is in our best interests; he's questioning why so many illegal aliens commit violent crimes, yet are not deported; and he's questioning why our trade deals with Mexico, Russia and China are so bad.

    Trump has the audacity to ask out loud why American workers always get the short end of the stick. Good question!

    I'm certain Trump will question what happened to the almost billion dollars given in a rigged no-bid contract to college friends of Michelle Obama at foreign companies to build the defective Obamacare website. By the way, that tab is now up to $5 billion.

    Trump will ask if Obamacare's architects can be charged with fraud for selling it by lying. Trump will investigate Obama's widespread IRS conspiracy, not to mention Obama's college records. Trump will prosecute Clinton and Obama for fraud committed to cover up Benghazi before the election. How about the fraud committed by employees of the Labor Department when they made up dramatic job numbers in the last jobs report before the 2012 election?

    Obama, the multinational corporations and the media need to stop Trump. They recognize this could get out of control. If left unchecked, telling the raw truth and asking questions everyone else is afraid to ask, Trump could wake a sleeping giant.

    Trump's election would be a nightmare. Obama has committed many crimes. No one else but Trump would dare to prosecute. He will not hesitate. Once Trump gets in and gets a look at the cooked books and Obama's records, the game is over.

    The jig is up. The goose is cooked. Holder could wind up in prison. Jarrett could wind up in prison. Obama bundler Corzine could wind up in prison for losing $1.5 billion of customer money.

    Clinton could wind up in jail for deleting 32,000 emails or for accepting bribes from foreign governments while Secretary of State, or for misplacing $6 billion as the head of the State Department, or for lying about Benghazi. The entire upper level management of the IRS could wind up in prison.

    Obamacare will be de-funded and dismantled. Obama himself could wind up ruined, his legacy in tatters. Trump will investigate. Trump will prosecute. Trump will go after everyone involved. That’s why the dogs of hell have been unleashed on Donald Trump.

    Yes, it's become open season on Donald Trump.

    The left and the right are determined to attack his policies, harm his businesses and if possible, even keep him out of the coming debates. But they can't silence him. And they sure can't intimidate him.

    The more they try, the more the public will realize that he's the one telling the truth.


    So...immediately, then?

    :p


    well he was right about both parties and most big businesses not liking Trump, then things got lost in translation. but the first part is why I like trump fro the Win, the politicians don't want him too, and if they hate him he must be someone to take note of.


    Lost in translation, buried beneath crazy rhetoric and wild accusations...potato, potahto, right?

    It's not just 'politicians and big businesses' that don't like him, and they don't dislike him just because he's shaking things up in the political arena. He's a bully. He's a loudmouth. He's a bigot, or at the very least he's riding a wave of bigoted sentiment. He's a thin-skinned narcissist. He calls names and talks about the size of his genitals during debates (at least Lyndon Johnson would whip it out and back up what he was saying). And, maybe most importantly, he has no desire to fact-check or take a firm position. Whatever he says at that moment becomes the Official Trump Platform, until he changes his mind, is told he just called for a war crime, or wants to appeal to a different crowd.

    He's a weathervane. He's the worst sort of career politician, but without the career and the small saving grace of experience that would bring. Why does ANYONE who claims to be looking for honesty or sending a message to the political establishment want to give him their support? The only message it sends is "We like mudslinging and pandering. More of that, please."
              Re:Politics - USA        
     Spinner wrote:
    Asterios wrote:
     Spinner wrote:
    Asterios wrote:
    Well just saw this and thought it looks like a good read, until it took a very hard turn into the twilight zone:

    Spoiler:
    Phil Alba
    March 9 · Amityville, NY ·
    Although I have some reservations about Donald Trump, this article below by Bill Bennett articulates unimpeachable realities and deserves a few of your minutes to read and consider....


    BE CAREFUL OUT THERE

    Written by the distinguished Bill Bennett about Donald Trump.
    I think you will find it very interesting and alarming.
    You might want to take the time to read it.

    [cid:3D8E143E5278495885E4EE1F1D6DC3E8@LaptopHP]
    PHD - Secretary of Education under Ronald Reagan
    Cultural studies at the distinguished and renowned Heritage Foundation

    Interesting take on Trump.
    William J. Bennett, Host of Bill Bennett's Morning in America Show, is one of America's most important, influential, and respected voices on cultural, political, and education issues.He has one of the strongest Christian worldviews of any writer in modern times.

    What I See Happening In a Trump Presidency
    By Bill Bennett

    They will try to kill him before they let him be president.
    It could be a Republican or a Democrat that instigates the shutting up of Trump.
    Don’t be surprised if Trump has an accident. Some people are getting very nervous: Barack Obama, Valerie Jarrett, Eric Holder, Hillary Clinton and Jon Corzine, to name just a few.

    It's about the unholy dynamics between big government, big business, and big media. They all benefit by the billions of dollars from this partnership, and it's in all of their interests to protect one another. It's one for all and all for one.

    It’s a heck of a filthy relationship that makes everyone filthy rich, everyone except the American people. We get ripped off. We’re the patsies. But for once, the powerful socialist cabal and the corrupt crony capitalists are scared. The over-the-top reaction to Trump by politicians of both parties, the media, and the biggest corporations of America has been so swift and insanely angry that it suggests they are all threatened and frightened.

    Donald Trump can self-fund. No matter how much they say to the contrary, the media, business, and political elite understand that Trump is no joke. He could actually win and upset their nice cozy apple cart.

    It's no coincidence that everyone has gotten together to destroy The Donald. It's because most of the other politicians are part of the a good old boys club. They talk big, but they won’t change a thing. They are all beholden to big-money donors.

    They are all owned by lobbyists, unions, lawyers, gigantic environmental organizations, and multinational corporations – like Big Pharmacy or Big Oil. Or they are owned lock, stock, and barrel by foreigners like George Soros owns Obama or foreign governments own Hillary and their Clinton Foundation donations.

    These run-of-the-mill establishment politicians are all puppets owned by big money. But there's one man who isn't beholden to anyone.

    There's one man who doesn't need foreigners, or foreign governments, or George Soros, or the United Auto Workers, or the teacher's union, or the Service Employees International Union, or the Bar Association to fund his campaign.

    Billionaire tycoon and maverick Donald Trump doesn’t need anyone’s help. That means he doesn’t care what the media says. He doesn’t care what the corporate elites think. That makes him very dangerous to the entrenched interests. That makes Trump a huge threat to those people. Trump can ruin everything for the bribed politicians and their spoiled slave masters.

    Don’t you ever wonder why the GOP has never tried to impeach Obama? Don’t you wonder why John Boehner and Mitch McConnell talk a big game, but never actually try to stop Obama?

    Don’t you wonder why Congress holds the purse strings, yet has never tried to defund Obamacare or Obama’s clearly illegal executive action on amnesty for illegal aliens? Bizarre, right? It defies logic, right?

    First, I'd guess many key Republicans are being bribed. Secondly, I believe many key Republicans are being blackmailed. Whether they are having affairs, or secretly gay, or stealing taxpayer money, the National Security Agency knows everything.

    Ask former House Speaker Dennis Hastert about that. The government even knew he was withdrawing large sums of his own money from his own bank account. The NSA, the SEC, the IRS, and all the other three-letter government agencies are watching every Republican political leader. They surveil everything.

    Thirdly, many Republicans are petrified of being called racists, so they are scared to ever criticize Obama or call out his crimes, let alone demand his impeachment.

    Fourth , why rock the boat? After defeat or retirement, if you’re a good old boy, you’ve got a $5 million-per-year lobbying job waiting. The big-money interests have the system gamed. Win or lose, they win.

    But Trump doesn’t play by any of these rules. Trump breaks up this nice, cozy relationship between big government, big media, and big business. All the rules are out the window if Trump wins the Presidency. The other politicians will protect Obama and his aides but not Trump.

    Remember: Trump is the guy who publicly questioned Obama's birth certificate. He questioned Obama's college records and how a mediocre student got into an Ivy League university. Now, he's doing something no Republican has the chutzpah to do. He's questioning our relationship with Mexico; he's questioning why the border is wide open; he's questioning why no wall has been built across the border; he's questioning if allowing millions of illegal aliens into America is in our best interests; he's questioning why so many illegal aliens commit violent crimes, yet are not deported; and he's questioning why our trade deals with Mexico, Russia and China are so bad.

    Trump has the audacity to ask out loud why American workers always get the short end of the stick. Good question!

    I'm certain Trump will question what happened to the almost billion dollars given in a rigged no-bid contract to college friends of Michelle Obama at foreign companies to build the defective Obamacare website. By the way, that tab is now up to $5 billion.

    Trump will ask if Obamacare's architects can be charged with fraud for selling it by lying. Trump will investigate Obama's widespread IRS conspiracy, not to mention Obama's college records. Trump will prosecute Clinton and Obama for fraud committed to cover up Benghazi before the election. How about the fraud committed by employees of the Labor Department when they made up dramatic job numbers in the last jobs report before the 2012 election?

    Obama, the multinational corporations and the media need to stop Trump. They recognize this could get out of control. If left unchecked, telling the raw truth and asking questions everyone else is afraid to ask, Trump could wake a sleeping giant.

    Trump's election would be a nightmare. Obama has committed many crimes. No one else but Trump would dare to prosecute. He will not hesitate. Once Trump gets in and gets a look at the cooked books and Obama's records, the game is over.

    The jig is up. The goose is cooked. Holder could wind up in prison. Jarrett could wind up in prison. Obama bundler Corzine could wind up in prison for losing $1.5 billion of customer money.

    Clinton could wind up in jail for deleting 32,000 emails or for accepting bribes from foreign governments while Secretary of State, or for misplacing $6 billion as the head of the State Department, or for lying about Benghazi. The entire upper level management of the IRS could wind up in prison.

    Obamacare will be de-funded and dismantled. Obama himself could wind up ruined, his legacy in tatters. Trump will investigate. Trump will prosecute. Trump will go after everyone involved. That’s why the dogs of hell have been unleashed on Donald Trump.

    Yes, it's become open season on Donald Trump.

    The left and the right are determined to attack his policies, harm his businesses and if possible, even keep him out of the coming debates. But they can't silence him. And they sure can't intimidate him.

    The more they try, the more the public will realize that he's the one telling the truth.


    So...immediately, then?

    :p


    well he was right about both parties and most big businesses not liking Trump, then things got lost in translation. but the first part is why I like trump fro the Win, the politicians don't want him too, and if they hate him he must be someone to take note of.


    Lost in translation, buried beneath crazy rhetoric and wild accusations...potato, potahto, right?

    It's not just 'politicians and big businesses' that don't like him, and they don't dislike him just because he's shaking things up in the political arena. He's a bully. He's a loudmouth. He's a bigot, or at the very least he's riding a wave of bigoted sentiment. He's a thin-skinned narcissist. He calls names and talks about the size of his genitals during debates (at least Lyndon Johnson would whip it out and back up what he was saying). And, maybe most importantly, he has no desire to fact-check or take a firm position. Whatever he says at that moment becomes the Official Trump Platform, until he changes his mind, is told he just called for a war crime, or wants to appeal to a different crowd.

    He's a weathervane. He's the worst sort of career politician, but without the career and the small saving grace of experience that would bring. Why does ANYONE who claims to be looking for honesty or sending a message to the political establishment want to give him their support? The only message it sends is "We like mudslinging and pandering. More of that, please."


    no it means for all his faults, its not as bad as being a politician.
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              Chambording it with our bff HWTM!        

    We are excited...
    Hostess with the Mostess + Chambord + SLS hotel = A whole lotta f-u-n!

    We've attended the Hip Hostess Series in San Diego and can't wait to glam it up in fabulous Los Angeles (actually Beverly Hills to be exact) at the gorgeous SLS Hotel with our best buds, Hostess with the Mostess and Chambord.

    We'll let you know how to get ready for award season with a swanky drink in hand. Stay tuned for cool design ideas, yummy Chambord receipes and tons of photos of hotties and blackmail photos. of others, (not us. hopefully.)

    ;)

    Check out our past post covering the SD partay.
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              Politics - USA        
    Asterios wrote:
    problem is the first time the rape civil case was brought against Trump red flags went flying because there was no physical address tied to it


    And? Obviously the person filing the case wanted to protect their identity, and the fact that the case was dismissed over a technicality involving the address listed has nothing to do with the merits of the case.

    then how it was dropped from several million to $75K, thats a lawyers trick make the settlement cheap enough that it is cheaper to settle then fight it


    I'm sure if the accuser had been asking for more money you'd be talking about how greedy she is and how she's obviously just trying to get rich by blackmailing Trump with a fake accusation. And let's be realistic here, Trump is never going to admit defeat in a case where he's accused of raping a child, no matter how low the financial cost is. Doing anything other than insisting that he is completely innocent would be political suicide even if it only cost $1 to settle it.

    the fact you think that there is anything to the case is laughable at best


    Did you even read the article about the reasons why the accusation seems believable?

    but then again you seem to think I think there is something to the Clinton e-mail gaf, I don't, and for nobody caring about the scandal it sure is front page news all over the place, I can't go a day without hearing something about it on most news agencies, and thats what will kill her, this corruption case will be foremost and in the front of the election.


    If you don't think there's anything to the email "scandal" then why do you keep posting about it?
              Politics - USA        
     Peregrine wrote:
    Asterios wrote:
    problem is the first time the rape civil case was brought against Trump red flags went flying because there was no physical address tied to it


    And? Obviously the person filing the case wanted to protect their identity, and the fact that the case was dismissed over a technicality involving the address listed has nothing to do with the merits of the case.

    then how it was dropped from several million to $75K, thats a lawyers trick make the settlement cheap enough that it is cheaper to settle then fight it


    I'm sure if the accuser had been asking for more money you'd be talking about how greedy she is and how she's obviously just trying to get rich by blackmailing Trump with a fake accusation. And let's be realistic here, Trump is never going to admit defeat in a case where he's accused of raping a child, no matter how low the financial cost is. Doing anything other than insisting that he is completely innocent would be political suicide even if it only cost $1 to settle it.

    the fact you think that there is anything to the case is laughable at best


    Did you even read the article about the reasons why the accusation seems believable?

    but then again you seem to think I think there is something to the Clinton e-mail gaf, I don't, and for nobody caring about the scandal it sure is front page news all over the place, I can't go a day without hearing something about it on most news agencies, and thats what will kill her, this corruption case will be foremost and in the front of the election.


    If you don't think there's anything to the email "scandal" then why do you keep posting about it?


    because people like you like to post every little thing about trump so I thought I would even the playing field, and like I said I will go by the lawyers groups which says the case will go nowhere because it is fake. not Trumps cronies but people who deal with the law day in and day out, even Snopes think the case will fail. so protecting their identity by not giving a credible location to the court? furthermore if Trump did it like you seem to think he did, don't you think he would know who it is? seriously your arguments are lacking in basic knowledge even. also why did they not file again in the same state? instead opened a new case across the country? also the case was dropped in California because she did not have an attorney nor the fees to pay one, and let me tell you this if she even had a 5% chance of winning the case attorney's would have been lining up in this state to represent her.

    furthermore unlike Clinton's email deal which is featured in national news agencies, not a single one has picked up the trump rape case, so thats saying they don't believe it either.
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              18 ‘Spider-Man: Homecoming’ Main Characters Ranked (Photos)        

    Here we are, with “Spider-Man: Homecoming,” the first “Spider-Man” movie in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Let’s celebrate with a deep dive into the characters, and figuring out who’s the best in this new world of the Webslinger.

    18. Other Shocker (Logan Marshall Green)

    Rule of thumb for being part of a criminal gang that sells comical alien tech: don’t threaten to blackmail the guy in charge.

    17. Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.)

    Just as bad of a dad as his own dad was. But probably funnier, I guess.

    16. Mr. Harrington (Martin Starr)

    Maybe the guy who doesn’t know the Washington Monument was built by slaves shouldn’t be in charge of the academic team.

    15. Happy (Jon Favreau)

    The absolute worst nanny ever.

    14. Liz Allan (Laura Harrier)

    Liz is just not enough of a nerd for Peter.

    13. Aunt May (Marisa Tomei)

    Aunt May may be hot now, but she’s still a total mom at heart. See: her joke about larb.

    12. Coach Wilson (Hannibal Buress)

    Everyone needed a Coach Wilson in high school — the kind of teacher who’s just like “hey don’t do that, that’s bad” but then doesn’t really pay attention to whether you listened.

    11. Flash Thompson (Tony Rivelori)

    The best kind of bully: one who has a thoroughly great time being mean.

    10. The Tinkerer (Michael Chernus)

    We should all approach our work with the sort of excitement that the Tinkerer feels while he’s soldering weird alien stuff together.

    9. Betty Brant (Angourie Rice)

    Betty is hilarious — but there’s not nearly enough of her. Remember, last year Angourie Rice was stealing scenes left and right from Ryan Gosling and Russell Crowe in “The Nice Guys.”

    8. Karen (Jennifer Connelly)

    Easily the best disembodied voice in the entire MCU.

    7. The Shocker (Bokeem Woodbine)

    Tough not to relate to the absolute glee he expresses while using outlandish alien weapons.

    6. Ned (Jacob Batalon)

    Spidey’s best friends does a lot of normal best friend things, like being extremely excited that Peter has spider powers and knows rich people like Tony Stark. Also they built a LEGO Death Star together.

    5. Captain America (Chris Evans)

    Look, if you have to watch dopey educational videos at school, you could not possibly do better than the ones Captain America does as an outstanding running gag in “Homecoming.”

    4. Aaron Davis (Donald Glover)

    Just wanting a gun to stick people up with rather than some crazy alien thing that would send them back in time gives Davis a weird sort of mundane nobility in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Also we like him because Donald Glover is good.

    3. Peter Parker/Spider-Man (Tom Holland)

    Not quite the wise-cracking Spidey we know best, but maybe this screen incarnation of Peter Parker is even better: wide-eyed, clever, and happy to be able to help wherever he can.

    2. Vulture (Michael Keaton)

    One of the best and most human villains in the MCU, pitting the bitterness of a Trump voter against the optimistic liberal ideals of Spider-Man. Keaton is an absolute marvel (no pun intended), managing to switch between charisma and an intense amount of menace at ease.

    1. Michelle (Zendaya)

    The totally chill, deadpan, inscrutable Michelle is just the best, especially in contrast to all the other kids being super talkative and neurotic.


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    Commenting on the recent reports that the Trump administration "appears to be granting Chinese banks dealing with North Korea a temporary reprieve from threatened US sanctions" after Beijing backed UN Security Council sanctions against Pyongyang, Russian political analyst Alexander Vorontsov told Sputnik that it is an obvious example of blackmail.
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              Sherlock Holmes and the Emotional Apocalypse        


    This post will contain spoilers for Sherlock s4e01, The Six Thatchers, straight out the gate. Read on at your own peril.


    At this point, I'm inured to the fact that a Moffat show killed/depowered/threw aside a female character as gristle on the angst-mill of a cishet white male lead. I might as well be waving placards at a Michael Bay premiere, rallying against glistening bronzed butts. I knew what I was in for, after half a decade of Moffat shit.

    Well no, that's not entirely true. After five years of fans critiquing these very tendencies, the Doctor Who and Sherlock showrunner still pulling that old shit does grate.

    But if you insist on revisiting such backward patriarchal bullshit, you better do your job properly to make me forgive it. Shane Black reminding me his ex-wife's a bittcchhhhh is at least countermanded by Ryan Gosling and Russell Crowe doing funny pratfalls.

    What is death for a mystery?

    Disappointment.

    The mystery tale dangles clues in front of you, shows you paths through a maze that the attentive viewer/reader/listener might choose, hoping to get at the center of it at the same time as the characters do.

    Personally, I don't even mind solving a mystery before the characters do (although, even here, there are limits, of course). No, what a mystery can truly never recover from is the viewer coming up with a path through the maze that leads to the center and is more interesting than the path it actually turns out to be.

    Episode writer Mark Gatiss -- a lovely actor, competent writer -- spends the start of Sherlock's return retconning Sherlock's exile and murder of a lecherous blackmailing media magnate at the end of last season. This is stuff that honestly could have been done at the end of that particular season, and a good example of stuff not as cool as something the viewer came up with.

    Instead of sending Sherlock into exile for 5 minutes, then immediately retrieving him because Poorly Photoshopped Moriarty Frames were threatening London, Mycroft could have just collected Sherlock and John, expressed disappointment at his little brother, and made the bad press go away in a few lines.

    Dark ending? Sherlock knew that he had been outfoxed by a sweaty pervert and forced to resort to common, plebeian murder he knew he could get away with being Mycroft Holmes' younger brother; invoking privilege he tried going through life never having to call upon. Now he had, and Mycroft and John both knew it.

    That's all stuff that could have happened last season, freeing up some time for this season's case.

    Ah yes, this season's case.

    What drew me to Sherlock in the first place were the twists on old tales, where they started with a concept vaguely similar to the old short stories concept, but soon twisted it into modern updates with wholly different outcomes, with the occasional amusing easter egg for Doyle fans (my favorite being the spooky flashlight signals on the moors in the Baskerville episode actually being used by enthusiastic doggers rather than shadowy conspirators).

    Last season, however, the focus strongly shifted from detective stories to melodrama and family comedy. At first, I found this rather amusing. From its inception, the show had more than its fair share of fans who didn't much care about the mystery side of things, as much as the possibility of Sherlock and Watson (or Sherlock and Moriarty, or Mycroft and Lestrade, ...) hooking up and being catty gay roomies. It was the emotional interplay that was finding strong fan resonance, with Sherlock's emotionally distant "high-functioning sociopath" gently opened up (haha) by gentle everyman John Watson.

    This fan-imagined relationship took place in a non-canonical alternate universe and was dubbed "Johnlock". Moffat even acknowledged the shipping fandom in the first episode of season 3, with a shaking fangirl expressing what she thought happened on that roof between Sherlock and Moriarty during the season 2 finale, culminating in a near-kiss.

    The fact that it was a near-kiss is important.

    Proving beyond a doubt that the creative team was aware of what the Sherlock fandom craved then, were these two things:

    1) moving away from a case-based narrative towards one where main character emotional catharsis was crucial;

    2) the "crazy fangirl" gag, seeing homosexual relationships where none existed.

    Sure, Moffat and co said. We'll start chasing the feelz if that's what they respond to. But hahaha come now chaps... none of that homo shit... this IS a high profile BBC show...

    The introduction of Mary Morstan, Watson's wife from the books, and the updating of her character as a special forces operative didn't especially bother me. Nor did the devotion of an entire episode to "Sherlock being cute and awkward at John and Mary's wedding" -- especially rich since a season is only three episodes.

    The characters and melodrama coming to the forefront were essentially fair game in my eyes, since Sherlock, like Batman or Zorro or Dracula, is such a cultural archetype at this point that if your particular spin is "silly sitcom Sherlock", so be it.

    The Six Thatchers depleted all my patience reserves.

    Constant dramatic declarations, preposterously self-involved speechifying, grimly determined walking away from the camera as symbolic effects are overlaid around a character's face... Unlike Doctor Who, that other Moffat show, however, the fate of the universe is never in the balance. Because it works for Who, though, Moffat & co seem to want to employ it here. What such grandiosity turns a show about two characters into, is self-importance. And it would be hilarious... if it weren't in service of a show that has time and again shown its contempt for an acknowledged queer and female fandom.

    We will turn it into a soap opera, as that's what you like, but let us remind you that these two men are what's truly important in it.

    Sherlock's characterization as an aspie Mary Sue who may not understand all these human emotions but gosh dangit he will protect his loved ones at all costs... would be ridiculously entertaining if it weren't in the service of such heteronormative pap.

    John Watson suffers most of all, as at one point during the episode I wondered "Wait, has Watson actually done anything likeable or funny at all so far?" Mind you, this was before we get to know he has a totally non-suspicious affair. Watson cheating on his wife! Because she lied to him about being a hard ops woman! The affair is not with a man, obviously.

    Again, melodrama over detective work doesn't phase me in the least. In fact, it could make for a highly amusing show with the right anything-goes attitude. Unfortunately, only one thing goes: the emotional lives of the two cishet white boyz at the center, and anything else must go.

    My most cynical self looks at the status quo at the end of The Six Thatchers and sees another middle finger at the fandom: single parent John and guardian Sherlock in an antagonistic, emotionally fraught relationship, calling to mind the more angsty parts of "Parentlock", an alternate universe conjured by fans in which Sherlock and Watson are, indeed, parents. The son, Hamish, is even sort-of canonically agreed upon to be played by actor Asa Butterfield.

    You got all that now, sorta! But none of that homo shit tho. Be reasonable.
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              UK Phone-hacking scandal: Freemason set up network of corrupt police, customs officials, taxmen and bank staff to gain valuable information        

    Guardian.co.uk Phone-hacking scandal: Jonathan Rees obtained information using dark arts

    Freemason set up network of corrupt police, customs officials, taxmen and bank staff to gain valuable information

    8 June 2011 Nick Davies

    Years ago, Jonathan Rees became a freemason. According to journalists and investigators who worked with him, he then exploited his link with the lodges to meet masonic police officers who illegally sold him information which he peddled to Fleet Street.

    As one of Britain’s most prolific merchants of secrets, Rees expanded his network of sources by recruiting as his business partner Sid Fillery, a detective sergeant from the Metropolitan Police. Fillery added more officers to their network. Rees also boasted of recruiting corrupt Customs officers, a corrupt VAT inspector and two corrupt bank employees.

    Other police contacts are said to have been blackmailed into providing confidential information. One of Rees’s former associates claims that Rees had compromising photographs of serving officers, including one who was caught in a drunken state with a couple of prostitutes and with a toilet seat around his neck.

    It is this network of corruption which lies at the heart of yesterday’s claim in the House of Commons by Labour [...]

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              Sextortion in the Utah News, again!!        
    Dave and Bill were interviewed by Dan Rascon a few months ago about this growing problem that our children are facing everyday... "Sexting" Could Lead To Blackmail" CYBERBULLYING is very real and comes in many disguises, that include online bullying or harrasment, sexting and exploitation of (Sextortion) victiums, cyber-stalking, etc... Read more

     

    Utah Teen Falls Victim To Sextortion On The Internet
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              Feeling blue        
    I just got finished reading a bit of another blog. It made me a little sad. It's a young woman living with her BF. Apparently the 'rents are pressuring them to get married.

    All I can say is, "Don't do it!". Never EVER let anyone pressure you to do something so life changing. It is one of the easiest things to do and one of the hardest to UNdo.

    In many ways I'll always regret getting married when I was 23. It wasn't so much my age, but I was pretty naive and immature. I just wasn't ready for it, but I did it because that is what a young woman in the south DOES, isn't it? Hrmph I say. I WASTED 12 years of my life because of that one single mistake.

    Oh sure, I did love my ex...until he changed. When did he change you might ask. I knew within 24 hours (on our honeymoon) that I had made the biggest mistake of my life. He had me where he wanted me and as far as he, and many other people, was concerned I was stuck. For life. I was screwed.

    Oh yeah, he actually told me that the reason he married me was because I was a fantastic cook, he wanted a maid (and live in cook), and someone he could get pussy off any time he wanted it. Yeah, those were his exact words. Charming.


    Ok, I learned many things from being married. The biggest lesson I learned, though is to never, ever allow any adult (meaning parents or relatives or friends) to pressure you. Emotional Blackmail is probably the fastest way they can get you to go along with them. It isn't worth it. What if you are with the right person. But what if this just isn't the right time for either of you. You get married, you get unhappy, you get divorced OR you stay miserable for the rest of your life. Marriage should be for life. You must be certain. This is your life not theirs. They've no right to tell you what to do or try in any way to influence your decisions. They cannot live vicariously THROUGH you, either. Tell 'em to get a life and let you get on with living yours. Be free. Just be. Revel in being yourself with only yourself to answer to.

    My situation is probably nothing like this woman's but the end result could be the same. Years of heartache. Oh, and once the parents figure out that their little weapon works like a charm, they'll use it anytime they want you to do something, say something, or act a certain way. Been there done that with rellies on BOTH sides, plus the ex, Mr. Not So Charming. The trifecta of guilt.

    Ain't I lucky to have gotten out?
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              Helping a Loved One On The Path To Recovery        
    Hi Neighbors,

    A beautiful home shows the world an image of success and domestic bliss. It invites passers-by to take a sneak peak into our lives and share in our happiness. This broadcasting of happiness and success goes beyond our beautifully appointed rockeries or inviting porches. In the age of social media, each of us is broadcasting a stage managed version of their lives, inviting others to comment on the unceasing parade of perfection that it is to be us.

    These pretty affectations can be an insight into who we are but they can also be pretty lies that hide ugly truths. None of us know the tribulations our neighbors endure behind closed doors, whether it’s the heart rending tyranny of spousal abuse, the silent shame of infidelity or the muted catastrophe that is living with addiction.

    Loneliness_addict_alcoholic_men.jpg

    Facing the truth

    While it’s a subject nobody wants to talk about openly, addiction is an issue that ruins families and relationships yet our very unwillingness to discuss it often compounds the problem. Addiction to alcohol and narcotics affects roughly one in every ten Americans over the age of twelve to say nothing of the little understood addictions like those to food, gambling, shopping or even exercise that can become extremely unhealthy and socially damaging.

    Society’s crime?

    As a society we have an unhealthy tendency to blame the victim when it comes to addiction when the evidence suggests that addicts tend not to be fully in control of their behavior. When we think about it, though, our society is extremely conducive to addiction. We have a culture of instant gratification where our senses are continuously overwhelmed with sexually charged glossy images that clamor for our attention and promise a world of pleasure and and success that’s only a purchase away. Many of the products that we’re aggressively advertised such as fast food, sugary drinks, coffee and alcohol are precision engineered to ignite the pleasure centres in our brains, giving us a quick fix that we’re more likely to crave when we’re constantly reminded of it by everything from billboards to online pop up ads.

    Help is out there

    While there’s no doubt that some addictions are more aggressive and potentially damaging than others, if a loved one falls victim to any sort of addiction it can be difficult to know how to support them. Fortunately there is help out there for them and for you, if you know where to look. Alcoholics Anonymous helps over 2 million people worldwide deal with their struggle against alcohol addiction while clinics like the Orlando Recovery Center use a combination of medical, cognitive and social therapies to help individuals break the habitual behaviors that lead to addiction and relapse. When it comes to your own role in helping an addict through their problems there are a variety of small things you can do to help the person you love and yourself.

    Loving someone with an addiction

    Addiction can seriously alter people’s behavior. It makes people devious, manipulative and in some cases aggressive. If you love someone with an addiction they will likely lie to your face, get irate and personal when confronted, resort to emotional blackmail or even become physically threatening. In the face of this it can be extremely difficult to look past these traits and see the person that you used to love. Here are some tools to help you help them while retaining your own psychological well being.

    Confront the problem

    Denial is a common reaction when faced with the unfaceable, we kid ourselves that the person we love will change their behavior if we just give them time and space. The unfortunate truth is that just isn’t going to happen. In order to deal with the situation effectively you have to confront the fact that through this person, part of your life is out of control. You may be confronted by the signs of addiction, like constantly asking for money or regularly retreating into private spaces for long periods of time but you refuse to connect the dots.  Remember that you gain nothing by trying to save face and maintain the status quo. Learning to say “no” and confronting the issue may be the hardest and most important step in the process.

    Realize that you cannot ‘fix’ someone with an addiction

    As hard as we might try and as much as we might wish it were true, you can’t make someone stop being addicted. Recovery is a very individual and personal thing and you can’t do all the work for them, as much as you might want to (especially if the loved one in question is your son or daughter). They have to forge their own path to recovery and your role is to assist and support that. If you try and do anything else it’s just going to lead to anger, frustration and anxiety on your part.

    Check out a local church. Not only may they be able to be a support system for you, many may know of places that can help someone overcome addiction. Even if they are unable to help the person with the addiction, they may be just the support you need.


    Blame the addiction, not the addict

    Many people who love an addict claim that the person becomes someone else entirely that they don’t even recognize. This is because addiction makes fundamental changes to brain chemistry resulting in extremely upsetting behavior that you would never expect from your loved one. While you may want to better understand how things got so wrong, there’s little to be gained from playing the blame game.

    6653628559_d2afb37c96_b.jpg

    Help without enabling

    When we love someone, it’s common to want to curry their favor by trying to make them happy. Addicts are cognizant of this and will try to manipulate it to their own ends. Therefore it’s important to help without enabling. Helping will usually involve some tough love and unpleasant but necessary straight talk while enabling tends to be the giving of money and lying to ourselves about where it will go or turning a blind eye to suspicious activities.

    There are no foolproof ways of helping a loved one conquer an addiction, simply ways in which to help the both of you cope and access the help that is out there.

              11.11.11, second wave, doorway, warning!        
    I already wrote about 9-11 meanings that the ruling elite of satanists worship posting a lot of YouTube videos here for you to awake. Now that we're aware that the ruling elite kept us ignorant for so long, we should fight back. Instead of watching their movies, television, listening to their radio and music, we should use that time wisely and pray to Father, Allah and Jesus for the destruction of all evil in the Universe and hell. Someone told me not so long ago that hell is a dark and cold place. Well, just look around you, we're all in a very dark and very cold place. Our entire planet is in a very cold and totally dark place, the darkest and coldest possible .. duh! No wonder sh*t happens all the time. I'm not joking, I'm just emotional, thus using special words to depict my current state.

    11.11.11 seems to have even deeper meaning and importance to NWO elite of satanists. It's some kind of doorway or whatever, I'm giving you links toward videos below. Those illuminati and masons are just pure evil, they're ugly and stupid and will burn in a lake of fire, soon. Personally, I think we should just go and burn them ourselves. I mean, there are so few of them, under 1%, and I'm sure if we'd cut them open they'd bleed and squeal like pigs, there would be nothing special about them in any way. So they try to confuse us all with their rituals and sh*t. However, I've been noticing that they're actually revealing what they would do on a global, planetary, scale, through movies, music and symbols. Eg. when they committed atrocity on 11th September 2001 and I later on watched series called The Arrivals, I was able to see that they plan on making a series of conflicts in the Muslim countries. However, this did not help at all, since Muslims failed to unite and are more divided than ever and evil is present in their countries as well.

    Meanwhile, I managed to understand the meaning and purpose of our existence. We're made with the gift of freewill in a hope that we would make a right choice, despite all the flaws. And the right choice would be to pray and cry to our Creator, sincerely, asking for help and the destruction of the infrastructure of satan, hell, pentagon, pentagram and all their followers. But, since we're very curious creations, we often get distracted and confused by other things and this is what satan and its followers exploit all the time through their technology and infrastructure of hell. Satan followers, NWO, illuminati / masons, will attack the remains of Muslim countries this and probably next year. And 11.11.11 marks the beginning of that moment. I'm also the one seeing 11:11 on the clock when I look at it, both, before noon and in the evening, also a lot of 666. And this has been going on for a very long time, well, since the bombing of my country by NATO back in 1999.







    The advertisement below is one of most deceptive things I ever saw. It's not really an advertisement for the Internet, they think we're stupid, they deceive us all the time.



    And all said in this advertisement is a lie. They're actually making diseases to afflict our bodies, to torture us and make us suffer, in a hope that suffering and torture would take away our faith in Father, our Creator, which is the ultimate goal. They're also destroying our resources, destroying entire planet. Pollution was never greater, people are dying not just from satanic particles of pollution, that hack our environment and our bodies, but also from lack of food and and natural water. Who they think they'll fool with this ad? It's true that they lower our IQ every day, but are we really this stupid? And now watch this sh*t:




    November 12th 2011 update

    And here's even weirder shit. Obama is talking about his reptilian part of the brain. You can see that on the video below, the moment when he starts talking about it is at 1:11. What I think is really happening here is that they're trying to indoctrinate all of us into thinking that they're something special, something above all the rest of us, like their shit don't stink or something like that, but in reality they're actually much worse than all of us. They're NOT more evolved. In fact, their reptilian brain is much less evolved and they're mostly retarded in comparison with our, human, brain. However, dumb and evil human degenerates, who came to power, are conducting genetic experiments and have found a way to "enhance" themselves by combining genes from reptiles. During these gene experiments, they tortured and killed thousands of homeless people, including children, during all trials that failed. Well, it's not actually the evil ruling elite who is conducting experiments, but smart humans who're forced to work for them. The way to force people is to blackmail them, usually threatening to harm family members. Anyway, the experiments were conducted on animals for centuries and eventually a goat has been altered and there's now a limited number of special specie called "spider-goat", so gene experimentation is nothing new or too scientific for you to laugh about and say how I'm stupid and that it's just an SF Hollywood movie. (Spider-Goat article)



    Obama seems pretty confident in his speech, he thinks he's better than all of us, special, on top of the ruling pyramid, safe, because he's backed up by illuminati / masons / satanists. But humans will restore faith and Father will come and destroy entire infrastructure of satan in just one day. It took them thousand years to build the most evil and corrupted empire of hell, and it'll fall down like a tower of cards in a single day.
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              The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (Hercule Poirot, #4)        
    The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (Hercule Poirot, #4)
    author: Agatha Christie
    name: Lawyer
    average rating: 4.19
    book published: 1926
    rating: 5
    read at: 2017/01/28
    date added: 2017/01/29
    shelves: hercule-poirot, agatha-christie, mystery, murder, 2017, 20th-century, england
    review:
    The Murder of Roger Ackroyd: Something Hidden

    "The truth, however ugly in itself, is always curious and beautiful to the seeker after it."-
    Hercule Poirot


    Hercule Poirot appears for the third time in a novel. Remarkably, after only two novels, The Mysterious Affair at Styles, and The Murder on the Links, we find that Poirot has retired and taken a house, The Larches, in the fictional village of King's Abbot, near the home of his friend Roger Ackroyd.

    Unlike the previous Poirot outings, the narrator of this tale is village physician John Sheppard. Where is Hastings? Why, married and off to the Argentine. The happy event occurs in Christie's first anthology, Poirot Investigates.

    Every Holmes must have his Watson. Dr. Sheppard fills the role here.

    Poor Ackroyd. He loved Mrs. Ferrars, rumored to have murdered her abusive and drunken husband. Poor Mrs. Ferrars, who would have become Mrs. Ackroyd as soon as her period of mourning was over, is being blackmailed.

    Tested beyond her emotional and financial limits, commits suicide. An overdose of sleeping draughts, Veronal. Ackroyd is set on bringing the person he holds responsible for his love's death be discovered and brought to justice.

    However, before Ackroyd achieves his wish, someone stabbed him in the back with a dagger from his own home, always displayed in a glass top table. It is gone. Of course, it is. It is most definitely in Ackroy's back.

    The game is afoot when Ackroyd's niece Flora approaches Poirot to ask him find out who killed Roger Rabbit. I mean Ackroyd. Ahem.

    Poirot takes the case. No matter wherever the truth lies. That will be quite painful. For all the evidence points to Ackroyd's step son, RalphPaton. Ah. Paton is engaged to Flora Ackroyd.

    However, suspects abound. There is Parker, the butler. Raymond, Ackroyd's efficient male secretary, who's lost a bit on the ponies. Blunt, the big game hunter, whose reputation is built on his renown as a big game hunter, who is certainly in love with Flora who is pledged to Paton. The parlor maid, Ursula Bourne, dismissed from her position after a heated argument the afternoon before he was killed. Miss Russell, the mysterious head housekeeper.

    We have the suspects. Each had a motive.

    Poirot tells Sheppard that cases of this type all have one thing in common. Everyone has something they want to hide.

    But all eyes focus on Ralph Paton. He was staying in King Abbot, but at the Three Boars Inn, not his stepfather's house. He fled the village leaving his clothing and luggage th nightAckroyd was killed. If he's innocent, why doesn't he come forward?

    As Poirot puts his little grey cells to work, he will put the pieces together.

    This novel pays off in the reveal. The identity of the killer was stunning. Everything clicks in the last twelve pages.

    Poirot knows who killed Roger Ackroyd. He will take the truth to the Inspector in the morning. A mere ploy to get the real murderer to confess? Ah, an intelligent idea, but what will you think of it all should you solve the mystery?

    What Christie achieved in this novel may not seem so original to us today. Perhaps we have become jaded and think Agatha Christie unimaginative and her books are ready for the Dust bin. But, no. That is not the case.

    From Wiki:

    In 1990, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd came in at fifth place in The Top 100 Crime Novels of All Time, a ranking by the members (all crime writers) of the Crime Writers' Association in Britain. A similar ranking was made in 1995 by the Mystery Writers of America, putting this novel in twelfth place. In 2013, the Crime Writers' Association voted this novel as CWA Best Ever Novel.[3] The 600 members of CWA said it was "the finest example of the genre ever penned." It is a cornerstone of crime fiction, which "contains one of the most celebrated plot twists in crime writing history." The poll taken on the 60th anniversary of CWA also honored Agatha Christie as the best crime novel author ever.


    This is a must read if you have any curiosity in how the writing of crime and mystery novels came to be.






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              Weird how, since the connection to Democratic dirty-tricks firm Fusion GPS came up, the press stopped talking about the Russia “collusion” story overnight.        
    Imran Awan Scandal Shows Just How Much Dirt Dems Wanted to Hide By Focusing on Trump-Russia

    When U.S. Capitol Police, the FBI, and Customs and Border Protection teamed up to arrest Imran Awan, an IT staffer for Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-Fla.) and other congressional Democrats, Americans began to realize just how broken and corrupt the Democratic Party has become. Indeed, such scandals beg the question of whether the Trump-Russia hype has not been a desperate attempt to distract the country from a long train of scandals on the Left.

    Awan was arrested Monday night on charges of bank fraud, to which he has pled not guilty. As Forbes' Frank Miniter argued, however, his strange case "has all the feeling of the opening scene of a movie that might soon include political corruption and so much more."

    Politico reported that Awan is "at the center of a criminal investigation potentially impacting dozens of lawmakers." He was arrested after wiring $283,000 from the Congressional Federal Credit Union to Pakistan, The Daily Caller reported.


    PJ Media's Debra Heine has been on the story since it broke in February of this year. Imran Awan and his Pakistani-born brothers, Abid and Jamal Awan, are under criminal investigation by the U.S. Capitol Police and the FBI on suspicion that they accessed congressional computers without permission and stole equipment.

    The Awan brothers worked for more than 30 House and Senate Democrats, as well as former Democratic National Committee (DNC) Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz, who only fired Imran Awan on Tuesday after his arrest. News of the investigation broke in February, but Schultz kept Awan on staff for five months before firing him. Schultz even threatened Capitol Police Chief Matthew Verderosa about the investigation in May.

    The family had repeated long-term financial struggles, despite extraordinarily high salaries for congressional IT aides. Jamal, who public records suggest is only 22 years old, was paid nearly $160,000 annually, three times the average House IT staff salary. Abid was paid $161,000 and Amran $165,000. Even so, the family has a history of massive debts and bankruptcy.

    Abid Awan had more than $1 million in debts following a failed business called Cars International that he ran in Falls Church, Va., from November 2009 to September 2010. Business associates said in court documents that Abid had stolen money and vehicles from them.

    Just this past weekend, The Daily Caller reported that FBI agents seized damaged computer hard drives from the Awan family last February. According to sources, it looked like someone had "tried to destroy" the hard drives. Sound familiar?

    Other House IT aides wondered whether the Awans were blackmailing the Democrats who waited so long to fire them. "I don't know what they have, but they have something on someone. It's been months at this point" with no arrests, Pat Sowers, a 12-year House IT aide told The Daily Caller.

    "There's no question about it: If I was accused of a tenth of what these guys are accused of, they'd take me out in handcuffs that same day, and I'd never work again," said a manager at a tech-services company that works with Democratic House offices. He also reported offering his company's services to Democrat offices for one-fourth the price of Awan and his brothers, but the Democrats declined.

    After WikiLeaks published emails hacked from the DNC server, evidence suggested the Democratic Party had favored Hillary Clinton over Bernie Sanders in the 2016 primary. An email to DNC staff actually discussed "pay to play letters." Other emails revealed the blatant disregard and contempt with which Hillary Clinton and her staff viewed traditional Christianity.

    This scandal also followed Hillary Clinton's email scandal, in which it was discovered that the former secretary of State sent classified information on her private email server. Even former FBI Director James Comey, in declining to prosecute Clinton, called her actions "extremely careless," and noted that her emails might have been accessed by foreign actors.

    Democrats have jumped headlong into claims that Donald Trump "colluded" with Russia in order to win the 2016 election. While Donald Trump Jr. did take a meeting with Russian lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya on the pretext that she would give him opposition material against Hillary Clinton, that meeting bore no fruit. While Trump did suggest Russian President Vladimir Putin hack into Clinton's email to reveal the missing emails, that also led to nothing.

    Earlier on Thursday, however, it was revealed that Fusion GPS, the same Left-wing group that defended Planned Parenthood, attacked Mitt Romney donors, and compiled the Trump dossier, was hired by none other than Veselnitskaya to destroy the good name of a whistleblower murdered by Putin's regime. Oh, and Fusion GPS did not register as representing a foreign agent.

    Clinton and the Left seemingly have clearer ties to Russia than Trump ever did (remember Uranium One?), but the Left and the Democratic Party have squeezed the Trump-Russia narrative dry.

    Could it be that they were trying to distract Americans from yet more brewing scandals? Could they be trying to hide just how divided the Democratic Party still is, in the wake of 2016? Could they be hiding their lack of a message?


              Debbie Wasserman Schultz and the Pakistani IT Scammers        
    There’s more than bank fraud going on here.
    This is not about bank fraud. The Awan family swindles are plentiful, but they are just window-dressing. This appears to be a real conspiracy, aimed at undermining American national security.

    At the time of his arrest, the 37-year-old Imran Awan had been working for Democrats as an information technologist for 13 years. He started out with Representative Gregory Meeks (D., N.Y.) in 2004. The next year, he landed on the staff of Wasserman Schultz, who had just been elected to the House.

    Congressional-staff salaries are modest, in the $40,000 range. For some reason, Awan was paid about four times as much. He also managed to get his wife, Alvi, on the House payroll . . . then his brother, Abid Awan . . . then Abid’s wife, Natalia Sova. The youngest of the clan, Awan’s brother Jamal, came on board in 2014 — the then-20-year-old commanding an annual salary of $160,000.

    A few of these arrangements appear to have been sinecures: While some Awans were rarely seen around the office, we now know they were engaged in extensive financial shenanigans away from the Capitol. Nevertheless, the Daily Caller’s Luke Rosiak, who has been all over this story, reports that, for their IT “work,” the Pakistani family has reeled in $4 million from U.S. taxpayers since 2009.

    That’s just the “legit” dough. The family business evidently dabbles in procurement fraud, too. The Capitol Police and FBI are exploring widespread double-billing for computers, other communication devices, and related equipment.

    Why were they paid so much for doing so little? Intriguing as it is, that’s a side issue. A more pressing question is: Why were they given access to highly sensitive government information? Ordinarily, that requires a security clearance, awarded only after a background check that peruses ties to foreign countries, associations with unsavory characters, and vulnerability to blackmail.

    These characters could not possibly have qualified. Never mind access; it’s hard to fathom how they retained their jobs. The Daily Caller has also discovered that the family, which controlled several properties, was involved in various suspicious mortgage transfers. Abid Awan, while working “full-time” in Congress, ran a curious auto-retail business called “Cars International A” (yes, CIA), through which he was accused of stealing money and merchandise. In 2012, he discharged debts in bankruptcy (while scheming to keep his real-estate holdings). Congressional Democrats hired Abid despite his drunk-driving conviction a month before he started at the House, and they retained him despite his public-drunkenness arrest a month after. Beyond that, he and Imran both committed sundry vehicular offenses. In civil lawsuits, they are accused of life-insurance fraud.


    Read the whole thing.
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              Filibusters and fools        
    I don't get it. I don't get why the Dems are such cowards. I don't get why they're so inept. Why don't they make the Republicans actually filibuster? Make them go on the record actually arguing against sanity and for insanity. Why do the Dems let them off the hook so often?

    This unwillingness to do the right thing, makes it easier for the MSM to misrepresent what's happening on the rare occasions when they actually have the vote on cloture.

    And then I realize that, once again, this is another example of What Digby Said, even to the point about having been away.
    You may have noticed that I've been posting less than usual the last few days...

    [...]

    First, as I wondered earlier in the week, is there some reason that the Democrats didn't force the Republicans to actually filibuster the Webb legislation the old fashioned way and force them to publicly justify why they don't think the troops in Iraq should be allowed to spend some time at home before being redeployed? I still can't figure that one out --- it seemed like a no-brainer to me. Let Huckelberry Graham and Holy Joe explain why the president's prerogatives are more important than the troops and their families. I still don't get it.
    Digby goes on to talk about the Liebermann amendment to Defense Spending Bill and makes the important point that the answer to why the Dems are behaving so incomprehensibly better not be because they're trusting the Republicans to be honorable.
    I cannot believe that the Democrats voted for this en masses on the merits. It had to be a deal of some sort, or some kind of assurance from the powers that be or something that I'm just not getting. I'm usually pretty good at figuring out the kabuki of these inexplicable legislative actions but in this case, I'm stumped.

    It makes no sense at all for the Democrats to empower this administration in any way, shape or form to do anything with respect to Iran. Nada. It certainly doesn't make political sense -- nobody in the country wants war with Iran and nobody will suffer at the polls for failing to sign off on the president and Lieberman's crazy schemes. The idea that Democrats need to be scared of seeming soft on Iran is ludicrous. And even if it did, all they had to do was scuttle the amendment anyway ---they didn't have to call for a vote. I just can't find any political benefit to this at all, and tons of serious, substantive risk.

    (It's possible that their little friend Lieberman is blackmailing them, but if that's the case they should just turn the Senate over to the Republicans, return their pay to the taxpayers and go home. Let the war with Iran commence without their compliance.)

    On the substance, it's just plain nuts. If they think they can depend on the military to hold Bush and Cheney back, I hope they talked to the air force, because the flyboys have to be chomping at the bit to get in on the action. There have been few medals and promotions for them in the GWOT so far --- they sure could use a good bombing campaign. (And if the Dems believed any assurances from Bush, they should be the ones who are impeached.)

    Like I said, I've been busy and so perhaps didn't catch all the nuance. But between the flummoxed Dem response to the Bush officials' three stooges-style committee testimony and defiance of subpoenas, to the inability to force the Republicans to take responsibility for their obstruction to this sloppy wet kiss-up to Joe Lieberman, I don't understand what the hell is going on with the congress at all.

    Seriously, do they really think that these lawless Republicans are going to comply with some quaint rules or live up to their "word"? That they will see the light and come over from the dark side? The GOP is looking down the barrel of an electoral defeat so extreme they may never recover. The party is falling apart under the leadership of a misfit and a certified lunatic and more than a quarter century of political philosophy has just been proven to be complete rubbish. They are cornered animals.

    And anyway, the Republican Party has not acted with restraint for more than a decade, using whatever institutional power they had without regard to consequences, precedent or effect on the constitution --- a partisan impeachment by a reckless Republican majority in the congress, a stolen election by a ruthless political machine in Florida in concert with a blatantly partisan Supreme Court majority --- and now the lawless rule of the Republican executive branch under Bush and Cheney. The wholesale corruption and decadence of their rule should be more obvious to them than it is to us. There is not one political act of the last decade that should give anyone the least bit of assurance that the Republicans are acting in good faith.

    This isn't really about Bush and it isn't really about Cheney. It is about the malignant political aberration that calls itself the modern Republican Party.

    I don't know what kind of "strategy" the Democrats think is in play when they sign off on a bizarre statement about Iran that opens up all kinds of avenues for the president to start another war, but they are engaging in a very dangerous game. Arming the Republicans with any excuse to shoot the moon right now is political malpractice. On their best days, the Republicans are reckless and delusional. Now that they're desperate, anything could happen. Why did the Dems just hand them a loaded gun? I don't get it.

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              Blackmailed Milf In Pantyhose Gets Forced On Sex In the Locker Room        
    Watch Blackmailed Milf In Pantyhose Gets Forced On Sex In the Locker Room on rnoPo.com - free hardcore porn videos and amateur sex tapes.
              Russian Lawyer’s ‘Trump Mission' was to Dump Magnitsky Act        

    Largely overlooked in the heated discussion of last summer’s meeting between Natalia Veselnitskaya and Donald Trump’s campaign executives, and whether or not it constituted “collusion,” is the reason the Kremlin-connected lawyer and lobbyist sought the meeting in the first place. By her own admission, it was to try “to get the United States to reverse the Magnitsky Act” in the event of a Trump victory. Whatever else this story reveals, it is an important reminder of the Kremlin’s priorities—and of its continued attempts to undermine the 2012 US law that authorized targeted visa bans and asset freezes for Russian officials complicit in “gross violations of human rights.”

    The Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law Accountability Act, enacted with sweeping bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress over opposition from the Obama administration, set a groundbreaking precedent: for the first time, responsibility for human rights abuse was assigned where it was due—not to an entire country, but to specific empowered individuals “responsible for extrajudicial killings, torture, or other gross violations of internationally recognized human rights.” “All the infamies of the [Putin] regime—lies, cruelty, miscarriage of justice, thievery, bigotry result from impunity,” wrote Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov, who was instrumental in convincing the US Congress to pass the law. “The Magnitsky list is the most pro-Russian decision taken in the West in many years. It is harmful to Putin’s thieves, murderers and scoundrels, and it is beneficial to the country.”

    The reason this law is so harmful to Putin’s system is the well-known preference of Kremlin officials and Kremlin-linked oligarchs for Western lifestyle. Like their Soviet predecessors, they preside over a system that suppresses the most basic rights and freedoms of their citizens—but unlike members of the Politburo, they opt for the West when it comes to storing their own (ill-gotten) money, buying their houses, and educating their children. Losing that privilege was unthinkable, and the Kremlin was ready to use any methods—from Putin’s order tasking his foreign ministry with stopping the law to using blackmail and conditioning Western adoptions of Russian orphans on the non-passage of the Magnitsky sanctions. As Moscow columnist Valery Panyushkin commented at the time, “I know of only two organizations in the world that harm their own children in order to scare their enemies—they are Hamas and [Putin’s] United Russia party.” Putin continues to publicly condition US-Russia cooperation in strategic areas—such as the revival of a bilateral agreement on the disposal of plutonium—on the repeal of the Magnitsky Act. As Veselnitskaya’s mission shows, unofficial proxies also continue to be used for the same goal.

    As of today, 44 people have been sanctioned by the US government as human rights violators under the provisions of the Magnitsky Act. They include Putin’s top law-enforcement official, General Alexander Bastrykin, responsible for a slate of politically motivated prosecutions and for personally threatening the life of an investigative journalist. At his Senate confirmation hearing in January, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson pledged that the Trump administration will continue to apply the Magnitsky Act. So far, it has not added any new names to the list of individuals sanctioned under this law. There would be no better way for the administration to back up its assertion that the meeting with Veselnitskaya was “such a nothing” than to demonstrate its commitment to the continued implementation of one of the noblest pieces of legislation passed on US soil.

    OG Image: 

              Don 2: The King is Back (2011)        

    Don 2 is a pizza made with toppings from James Bond, Mission Impossible, Oceans 11 and even the Dark Knight. The crust is not rich enough and toppings are bland. A disappointing offering from a Director who set the standard for intelligent cinema, made within the commercial framework. As the title suggests, the film is so much a homage to the character that it makes the rest of the cast look weak, a move that costs the film much needed balance and makes Don’s challenges look quite easy.

    The story starts with Don giving himself up to Interpol in Malaysia, a strategy employed to get Vardhaan out of jail, so that he could give him the key to a locker that has a tape, that can be used to blackmail Diwan, the VP of a European bank called DZB, that has printing plates for the Euro. That is the entire first half. The second half is dedicated to a heist, where Don and Vardhaan have to break into the high security DZB to get the printing plates. The additional challenge is for Don to escape the Interpol led by old love turned foe, Roma and double crossers that he accumulates as he plans the elaborate theft.

    To start with, the story is too one sided. The objective to glorify the intelligence of Don could also have been achieved by improving the capabilities of his adversaries, especially Interpol and also of crooks, who have worked with him before. Instead we are subjected to more than 2 hours of tributes to the legend of the character, while the action leading up to the dialogue just doesn’t match up. The action sequences, such an important part of this genre, all seem lifted from a variety of mainstream Hollywood films and hence lack originality, at least to a discerning viewer who has been exposed.

    The characters all seem too stupid or too lame to do anything to stop Don. Vardhaan is constantly bickering and playing catch up: Roma and a guy who wants to be her boyfriend, not to mention the rotund Inspector Malik round up the intelligentsia of Interpol. Farhan Akhtar has revealed that the story came from two fans who came in to his office with the idea. He would have done well to help them polish it for the screen. Shankar-Ehsaan-Loy’s music is peppy and does well in the only major song of the movie-Zara Dil Ko Thaam Lo, which is shot well.

    Shah Rukh Khan does a great job of portraying the street smart, charming yet menacing character. He lights up the screen with his trademark snarls and chuckles and makes the rest of the characters look pale-too pale. He is sadly let down by the lop sided character balance. Priyanka Chopra as Roma and the talented Boman Irani as Vardhaan are wasted, while Om Puri should take a cue from his equally talented contemporary Naseeruddin Shah on choice of roles and slipping into character.

    Don 2 is disappointing. Strictly for fans of Shah Rukh Khan.

              â€˜How Can You Work ... for a President That Undermines Your Work?’        

    Last week, Dan Coats, the former senator from Indiana and current head of the U.S. intelligence community, was interviewed by NBC’s Lester Holt in front of a live audience at the Aspen Security Forum, a gathering where diplomats, journalists and top U.S. officials mingle with business executives in between livestreamed panel discussions on world affairs. (The hourlong discussion was posted on YouTube.)

    ProPublica has obtained internal talking points, apparently written by one of Coats’ aides, anticipating questions that Holt was likely to ask. They offer a window into the euphemisms and evasions necessary to handle a pressing issue for Coats: how to lead the intelligence community at a time when the president has insulted it on Twitter and denigrated its work while questions about Russian influence consume ever more time and attention in Washington. Sixteen of the 26 questions addressed by the talking points concerned internal White House politics, the Russia investigation, or the president himself. One question put the challenges facing Coats this way: “How can you work as DNI for a president that undermines your work?”

    DNI spokesman Brian Hale told ProPublica that the 17-page document was a small, unclassified part of “a thick binder” of preparation documents for Coats’ interview. The other pieces, according to Hale, “had substantive material on Russia, China, Iran, Venezuela, North Korea.” The talking points document, he said, “was designed to address the questions we anticipated being asked because of the news cycle.”

    Prepared questions and answers — talking points — have long been standard procedure in Washington for officials facing a major interview or public testimony. In this instance, the document anticipated far sterner questions than Holt posed in the actual interview and Coats, an experienced official, often departed from the script.

    In the talking points, Coats was advised to say that he and the president have “a trusted relationship,” framing any disagreements as constructive ones. “We may not always agree,” the document stated. “We must maintain an open dialogue … the relationship portrayed in the media between the president and the intelligence community is a far cry from what I have personally experienced and witnessed … there is a healthy dialogue and a good back and forth discussion.”

    There’s no doubt that Coats, the statutory leader of the 16-agency intelligence community, is operating in an unusual environment. Normally, American intelligence agencies do their work quietly, avoid public political disputes, and settle whatever differences they have with the White House privately.

    But Trump’s willingness to openly criticize the intelligence community has altered that equation. Days before taking office, he compared America’s spies to Adolf Hitler’s Gestapo. “Intelligence agencies should never have allowed this fake news to ‘leak’ into the public,” Trump tweeted, referring to allegations contained in the Steele dossier, the controversial, unverified research that purportedly raised the possibility that Trump could be susceptible to Russian blackmail. “Are we living in Nazi Germany?”

    The differences between the White House and the leadership of the intelligence community are severe, in the view of former CIA and NSA Director Michael Hayden. “This is a bit of a true-believer administration,” he said in an interview with ProPublica at the Aspen conference. “Faith-based, faith with a small ‘f.’ They think they know all the answers. And then you’ve got people living in this fact-based, empirical, inductive world. They’re talking to people who, as an article of faith, know what the answers are. That creates great tension at the very top.” (Hayden had not seen Coats’ talking points when we spoke, and he declined to review them later.)

    American spies do not like having their work dismissed by the president. Nor do they appreciate comparisons to Nazi Germany. At Aspen, former CIA Director John Brennan made it clear that the wounds inflicted by Trump’s words had not yet healed. “The person who said that should be ashamed of himself,” Brennan said, during another panel. Coats’ predecessor, Gen. James Clapper, called Trump’s comments “a terrible, insulting affront … completely inappropriate.”

    As president, Trump has heaped public scorn on the U.S. intelligence community’s conclusion that the Russian government sought to interfere in the election. “Well, I think it was Russia, and I think it could have been other people in other countries,” the president said earlier this month, when asked during a news conference to give a definitive answer on Russian involvement. The White House continues to cast doubt on Kremlin interference, despite repeated and unequivocal statements to the contrary from the intelligence community.

    Trump’s opinions are out of step with the conclusions of the agencies he is supposed to be leading. At Aspen, CIA Director Mike Pompeo said he was “confident that the Russians meddled in this election, as is the entire intelligence community.”

    Coats’ script echoed that view. “I stand by the IC’s Assessment,” it stated. “President Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential election.”

    Former Intelligence Official: Trump Conflict With Spy Agencies Creates ‘Dangerous Moment’

    Matthew Olsen, a senior national security official in both Democratic and Republican administrations, says the ongoing conflict between President-elect Trump and the U.S. intelligence community poses grave risks. Read the story.

    The talking points anticipated that NBC’s Holt would ask, “Does it trouble you that President Trump has not come out strongly and said ‘yes’ Russia interfered in the election?” The proposed responses sidestepped the question: “The intelligence community has made it clear as to what our assessment is regarding Russian activity during the 2016 elections. … The president and his policymaking team … must consider intelligence information along with other inputs from other sources too. So intelligence is only one of many inputs,” read the talking points.

    “What other inputs should he be listening to?” said a former official from the Obama White House who reviewed the document at ProPublica’s request. “What Putin tells him behind closed doors? What he reads on InfoWars? This answer should be read as a slap in the face of the intelligence community.”

    When asked whether Trump’s comments have hurt the community’s morale, Coats was advised to say that he is “so proud to lead the US intelligence community … extremely impressed,” and that he frequently interacts with subordinates “over brown bag lunches.” At the same time, the points emphasize Coats’ close proximity to Trump and his good relations with Pompeo. The word “community” was repeatedly emphasized. Coats was advised to describe his role as “head coach” and say “we’re all on the same team.”

    At several moments during his interview (here’s the transcript) Coats appeared to draw from the script. One was his description of Trump himself, who was criticized during the transition for skipping the president-elect’s customary daily intelligence briefing. In response to the question of how Coats can work with a president who undermines him, the talking points advised that Coats describe Trump like this: “He is fully engaged and asks important and insightful questions when being briefed. He is so engaged that sometimes the briefing [sic] go longer than scheduled and we are asked to wrap it up to allow for his next scheduled meeting.”

    Coats’ actual description of Trump’s approach to briefings also emphasized the president’s inquisitiveness and appetite for intelligence: “He interjects questions on a very frequent basis and we have to lot of times keep coming back to some of the central points. … What has turned out to be what was thought to be a 10-minute briefing every day is at least 30 minutes has turned into 40 minutes.”

    One answer at the end of the document pointed towards substantial differences between the White House and Coats regarding climate change. The talking points characterize climate change as a potential national security risk, one that could potentially “lead to conflict” and is “likely to contribute to migrations that exacerbate social and political tensions.” Trump, meanwhile, has said he will withdraw the U.S. from the Paris climate accord, which seeks to limit the global rise in temperature to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

    When asked about morale, Coats used the script’s lines about brown bag lunches and his own pride about leading a talented workforce. “Intelligence officers don’t expect their work to be easy,” was another answer suggested by the document. Coats left that part out.


              Peace Revolution episode 078: Rise of the Whistleblowers / How Freedom becomes Free Again        
    itunes pic

     

    Peace Revolution episode 078: The Rise of the Whistleblowers / How Freedom Becomes Free

     

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    Reference Map to Episode 078

    (0m-1m) John Lennon: Insane People Control the Planet

    (1m-2m) Despotism (1946) Encyclopedia Britannica Public Service Announcement

    (2m-3m) DNI James Clapper says the NSA doesn’t spy on Americans

    (3m-11m) NSA Utah Data Center will have 5 Zettabytes of Memory

    (11m-12m) Rasputin and the Empress

    (12m-16m) DNI James Clapper won’t lead NSA review

    (16m-21m) Whistleblower: Juice News / Rap News Edward Snowden

    (21m-32m) NSA Recruiting session Q&A

    (32m-35m) Simon Sinek: Leadership and Confidence

    (35m-47m) Richard’s introductory monologue

    (47m-2h20m) Congressman Neil Gallagher: A Profile in Courage

    (2h20m-2h33m) Richard Clarke CIA did 9-11

    (2h33m-3h32m) NSA Whistleblower Thomas Drake speaks at the National Press Club

    (3h32m-3h44m) NSA Whistleblower William Binney “Everyone in the U.S. is under surveillance”

    (3h44m-5h05m) NSA Whistleblower Russell Tice goes on the record and reveals new information

    (5h05m-5h15m) NSA Whistleblower Edward Snowden

    (5h15m-6h19m) FBI Whistleblower Sibel Edmonds blows the whistle on Government Blackmailing

    (6h19m-8h16m) DYI with Ernie Hancock: Richard Grove and Chris Duane discuss Self-Reliance

    Would You Like to Know More?

    See also: (Audio)

    Peace Revolution episode 046: Liberty is Life / Practical Applications of Rationality

    Peace Revolution episode 047: Slavery is Death / Practical Applications of Irrationality

    Peace Revolution episode 048: The Philosophy of Life / This is John Galt Speaking

    And of course:

    Peace Revolution episode 023: How to Free Your Mind / The Occulted (Hidden) Keys of Wisdom


              Hitman’s new elusive target is live now in Paris        
    The 19th Elusive Target will be walking around Paris for the next 10 days, and Hitman players need to take him out. Your goal as the ever silent Hitman is to eliminate Walter Williams, and retrieve the memory stick he’s carrying. It conatains information on his ex-lover which he intends to use as blackmail. As […]
              The evil that men do        

    The referendum in the UK has hardly been a spectacle of informed and intelligent debate.

    We have seen absurd statements made by politicians who must clearly know that they are lying. The cost of EU membership is easily provable with the most cursory online research and yet the the Leave campaign have run with a number that is provably not true- £350 million a day is at least twice and probably three times more than any actual number, and anyway assumes that the UK receives no benefit from membership, which we do, even if Leave can hardly deny, although they try. Leave has predicted that the entire population of Turkey- all 70 odd million of them- would come to the UK as soon as Turkey joined the EU- an immediate prospect, according to them. The facts are simple: Turkey is unlikely to join the EU for years, probably decades, and possibly never, and even if they did, it is patently absurd to expect all the Turks to move from the sun kissed beaches of the Mediterranean to the millionaires playground of Scunthorpe. It is fear tactics pure and simple. Time after time the Leave campaign has been not merely economical with the truth, but excessive with the lie direct.

    Now the Leave campaign, scenting that they may have been rumbled, is resorting to a whinging victimhood that is truly emetic. At a time when the opinion polls show the race to be neck and neck, they resort to the tactics of throwing mud: accusing the Remain campaign of the disgraceful tactics that they themselves are guilty of. The idea that anyone would wish to make a political spectacle of the brutal murder of Jo Cox is utterly repellent. Yet that is what the Leave campaign suggests the Remain in campaign is orchestrating. I would encourage a close reading of the headlines in the Daily Express, Daily Mail and the Sun in recent months. I would suggest that Nigel Farage's Immigration poster - cropped white faces and all- is not a dog whistle, it is as someone said recently, a siren:
       

    So Farage, so unsurprising. But when Farage was predicting violence on the streets if immigration was not "controlled" he was doing a bit more than predicting: he was inciting. If, like the right wing press, you continue to put out the idea that immigration is creating a breaking point, you can hardly be surprised when a mentally ill person with extreme views may indeed break: and the result is oh so predictable, but not perhaps quite in the way that Mr. Farage intended. So lies about immigration, lies about the EU budget, what can we trust about the Leave campaign?

    Well, we can judge them by their friends. The fact is that the "leadership" of the motley crew of Leave: Boris Johnson, Michael Gove, Nigel Farage, George Galloway are hardly the mainstream. What is mainstream is the backing of the most right wing newspapers: The Daily Telegraph, owned by the non-dom Barclay brothers from their Sark off-shore haven. The Daily Mail, owned by the non-dom Lord Rothermere through a network of off shore trusts. The Daily Express- a "newspaper" so wedded to the truth that it refuses to accept any newspaper regulation- is owned by the porn baron Richard Desmond, again through a series of non transparent ownership vehicles and finally The Sun, a foreign owned newspaper that has been implicated in a series of scandals. 

    This referendum may be the last hurrah for this cankerous right wing rag-tag. For years they have twisted the truth, insulted those who seek a more just country and undermined their political enemies through blackmail and threats. The fact is that Leave has become the voice and puppet of the the right wing political-media complex. I do not underestimate their power. Despite everything, the fact that 40% of the press supports Leave, with only the Guardian, the FT and the Economist wholly supporting Remain, is a big advantage. In the past there would have been little doubt that such a united front in support of a political cause would have carried the day. Yet perhaps for the first time, it may not happen this time. News is now gathered from a wide variety of sources, and the bias of the right wing is more obvious and more strident than it has been in the past, although also it is of course more easy to challenge. Fact checkers have stood ready to demolish any argument with a stout leavening of facts: something that the Mail journalists in particular have trouble with. This is why Leave have faced such an uphill challenge: their argument is not supported by very many facts, only be primitive emotions, which are the stock-in-trade of the Tabloids.

    The battle seems to have been fought by the marionettes of Leave to defend their media masters, but this could be the last time. I for one have viewed the antics of the right wing press with, at first, disbelief and now with contempt. The British press has showed itself to be at their very worst. As today I read screeds of Leave propaganda in the Daily Mail, I have lost all patience. The shrill poison of their ignorance, coupled with the arrogant certainty of their invective has left a young mother murdered, but as the obvious accusation emerges, these hypocrites scream that the just anger of those who have seen what has happened is "playing politics".

    It is a stain on our democracy that these people retain so much power that they could yet persuade the British people to embark on the economic train wreck that Leave would cause. It is an outrage that the deep pain that people feel at the senseless murder of an MP is dismissed as a mere pose. It is criminal that these vermin continue to have the power to twist and subvert with unabashed lies.

    Whatever the result, the time has come for the stables to be cleaned: this cancer must be destroyed. 
              http://www.jookos.com/2016/06/20/list-celebrities-openly-backed-donald-trump-pretty-surprising/        
    Paul Davey, the father of 20-year-old Michael Sandford, helped pay for him to go to the United States to "get his life sorted out" The father of a Brit accused of trying to kill Donald Trump said today his son had never shown an interest in politics and believes he may have been "put up to it or blackmailed". Paul Davey, the father of 20-year-old Michael Sandford, said his family are "absolutely devastated" by reports he has been charged with attempting to assassinate the Republican presidential nominee. Sandford is charged with 'an act of violence on restricted grounds ' after...
              Re: Nashua mayor’s budget calls for cuts, level spending and sacrifice        

    Reductions in staff and servicing in education have already created the sort of damage that will take years to rebuild. Class sizes are expected to go up, numerous teachers have lost their positions, students now pay a fee to play sports...I also find it troubling that she presents her budget, then essentially is trying to blackmail city unions into accepting non-negotiated health care concessions. Negotiations are always contentious, and we're still trying to rebuild trust after the last brouhaha...this isn't the way to go about that.  


              London's Rockstar Party         
    London had some very big opinions regarding her 5th birthday party. Apparently the apple doesn't fall far from the tree, and my girl loves party planning almost as much as I do. She knew exactly where she wanted to have the party (a local gym for kids), who she wanted to invite, and what the theme should be (Rock Star, of course!). She even picked her color scheme. 

    Here are the decorations that London and I picked together. 







    The kids had the best time playing in the gym.









    After they played for an hour or so, it was time for cake! 


    Shy is not a word I would use to describe London Paisley, but every year she gets so bashful when everyone is singing Happy Birthday to her. Its so precious!  






    Can you say "blackmail"? Sorry, Dylan, I had to! 


    Grammy made London's skirt and bow so that she could look and feel like a little rockstar for her special day. 




    London is loves playing hostess and the thing she talked about during party planning was make treat bags and giving them out to her friends after the party. 



    Our sweet girl was spoiled rotten by her friends and family. She had a very special day! 


    Happy 5th Birthday, Beautiful. 
    You fill our hearts and life with so much joy.
    Your spunky spirit keeps us on our toes and keeps us laughing constantly.
    Your tender heart makes us proud. 
    We love you...
    "As big as the sky." 



    post signature
              Michael Flynn’s Mess        

    So Michael Flynn is gone from a job that he should never have had in the first place. The question now is whether his departure marks the final gasp of a political scandal or just the beginning of a crisis that could conceivably oust Donald Trump from power.

    As we now know, in late January, Acting Attorney General Sally Yates warned the White House counsel that Flynn’s phone calls with Russian officials were of such a nature that he had opened himself up to blackmail. Yates and the Justice Department’s investigators had discovered, from intercepts of those phone calls, that Flynn had discussed U.S. sanctions policy—essentially telling them not to react to President Obama’s economic penalties against Russia, or to his expulsion of 35 Russian diplomats in the wake of Vladimir Putin’s manipulation of the election, because Trump would reverse the measures after he took office.

    This we know. But what if Trump knew the subject of Flynn’s conversations at the time? What if he had authorized Flynn to discuss sanctions relief or had been otherwise complicit in the arrangement? Then Trump himself would be vulnerable to Russian blackmail. This has been the underlying concern in the various probes of Trump’s possible financial ties to Russia. It was the essence of the “dossier” assembled by the British ex-spy Christopher Steele, detailing the kompromat—the term in Russian intelligence circles for compromising material—that the Kremlin allegedly had on Trump.

    The probes of Trump’s financial ties have not panned out. Steele’s dossier is as yet unverified, though U.S. law-enforcement agents are finding it increasingly plausible, as many of the meetings it recounts—the names, dates, and places—match the real records. Flynn’s fate—the revelation that he had discussed sanctions policy with Russian officials, that he lied about it to Vice President Mike Pence and others, and that Trump did nothing about this for weeks after the acting attorney general warned him to beware—greatly boosts the odds that more investigations will take place, whether by the FBI, various counterintelligence agencies, Congress, or all of the above.

    If there’s more to be discovered, it is now more likely than before that it will be discovered. If Flynn’s scandal sticks to Trump, or if it turns out that Flynn was acting at Trump’s instigation all along, and if Trump’s motives seem to resemble what the dossier suggests, then Trump is in trouble. Congressional Republicans and their base have managed to overlook, reinterpret, or dismiss Trump’s many lies, evasions, and acts of carelessness in the brief span of his presidency so far. But one thing that they might not be able to ignore, the thing that might go a bridge too far for all but the most diehard of his supporters, would be clear evidence that the president of the United States is secretly beholden to a foreign power.

    Whether or not this scenario comes to pass, Trump’s White House, chaotic from the outset, is currently in turmoil. In Flynn’s wake, the president’s foreign policy apparatus, which has been spinning in several directions, is rudderless, and his already severe isolation is intensified.

    Flynn was the ultimate loyalist, a retired three-star general who abandoned the officers’ apolitical creed to join the Trump campaign in full lather, to the point of retweeting the craziest anti-Clinton conspiracy screeds and screaming at the Republican National Convention, “Lock her up! Damn right!” Through the election, the transition, and the first few weeks of Trump’s presidency, Flynn was a constant presence, one of the few fully trusted insiders, the only confidant whose sole portfolio was national security, and Trump seemed to rely on him for more than that. According to the Huffington Post, Trump once phoned Flynn, of all people, at 3 a.m. to ask whether a strong dollar was good or bad for the economy. (Flynn didn’t know, and why should he?)

    Tensions were already emerging between Flynn and Trump’s secretary of defense, retired four-star Gen. James Mattis. Many in the foreign policy community, and in Congress, had put huge hopes on Mattis as a counterweight to Flynn’s influence. The hopes have so far borne fruit as Mattis convinced Trump to back away from a draft executive order—which Mattis learned about from a newspaper report—that would have reopened CIA black sites for detainees and reconsidered the ban on torture. Flynn was the main force behind the order; Mattis was on record as firmly opposing the idea.

    What happens now? Retired Lt. Gen. Joseph Keith Kellogg, the National Security Council’s chief of staff, has taken over as acting national security adviser. Kellogg is a veteran of the Vietnam and Gulf wars with experience at staff jobs in the Pentagon and the White House. And he was listed as a foreign policy adviser to Trump during the campaign, though they aren’t seen as having a close relationship.

    Kellogg is reportedly one of the names on a shortlist of replacements for Flynn. But the most intriguing, even provocative name is Gen. David Petraeus, who is said to be meeting with Trump this week. Petraeus, of course, comes with baggage. In 2013, he resigned as CIA director after it was revealed he was having an extramarital affair with his biographer, Paula Broadwell. The following year, he was charged with sharing classified material with her and for making false statements to the FBI. (He pleaded guilty to reduced misdemeanor charges, was fined $100,000, and is still on probation.) The national security adviser does not have to undergo Senate confirmation, but given concerns about the mishandling of classified information by Flynn, Hillary Clinton, and Trump himself after his high-profile briefing about North Korea’s missile test in the middle of the Mar-a-Lago dining room, this may weigh against his chances.

    Then again, Petraeus is widely admired in the foreign policy community, whose denizens are increasingly disturbed by Trump’s judgment and competence. Petraeus may be a route to relief. He has actually participated, alongside Cabinet secretaries, as a member of the NSC Principals Committee. He has global experience in national security policy and has a strategic mindset.

    But this experience may end up a debit. Petraeus is a consummate operator, and, despite his discrediting in some circles, he still has connections throughout the national-security bureaucracy. When President Obama was considering Petraeus as possible chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, White House aides advised against it, seeing him as too independent, too politically savvy, and too invested in his own agenda. Trump’s advisers may have the same concerns. Especially in this administration, where the president and his inner circle know little about foreign policy, and where so many senior positions are still unfilled in the State and Defense Departments, Petraeus could run the show—manipulating Trump far more than the other way around. Finally, Petraeus was on good terms with Hillary Clinton, even sitting in on a campaign advisory council. Though he never endorsed her, this could be the crucial blow against him in Trump’s eyes.

    In that sense, a possible compromise candidate—and another name on the list—is Vice Adm. Robert Harward, a former Navy SEAL who has served as director of defense issues on the NSC staff, as the Joint Chiefs’ representative at the National Counterterrorism Center, and as deputy commanding general of U.S. Central Command. This last post may be most significant of all as the commanding general at the time was Mattis, and the two got along well. If Trump relies on Mattis’ recommendation, Flynn’s replacement may well be Harward.

    But who knows? Newspapers have printed supposed shortlists for various top slots in the Trump administration, and sometimes they’ve turned out to be false. Remember when the secretary of state was going to be Rudy Giuliani, Mitt Romney, or John Bolton?

    So how about this as a wild card for Flynn’s replacement? Robert Gates—former secretary of defense, CIA director, and deputy national security adviser: respected in all corners.

    Trump asked Gates for advice on nominating a secretary of state—and he took it, naming Rex Tillerson, whom he’d never met before. Gates probably doesn’t want the job. He loathes much about Washington: His tell-all memoir, Duty, was so brutal about so many people, it amounted to a plea and a warning to future presidents not to give him a job in the capital again. And yet a close acquaintance of Gates’ told me in a phone conversation Tuesday that he could see Gates taking the job if Trump offered it. “Being asked to serve the country by presidents is his Kryptonite,” the acquaintance said. “It’s the one thing he is helpless against.”

    Whoever replaces Flynn, his biggest challenge won’t merely be to stabilize the USS Trump in stormy waters but to keep the whole ship from capsizing.

    This article has been updated with new information since it was originally published.


              Hacking Mr. Robot        

    Slate and Future Tense are discussing Mr. Robot and the technological world it portrays throughout the show’s second season. You can follow this conversation on Future Tense, and Slate Plus members can also listen to Hacking Mr. Robot, a members-only podcast series featuring Lily Hay Newman and Fred Kaplan.

    Mr. Robot, which returns Wednesday night for a second season on the USA Network, is a remarkable TV show: funny, edgy, suspenseful, subversive, and a piercing probe of the modern social fabric. In short, it’s about a world controlled by computers and the hackers—especially our anti-hero and narrator, a lonely hacker named Elliot Alderson (brilliantly played by Rami Malek), who finds himself the kingpin of a secret society of hackers—plotting to bring down that world, the mainsprings of which only they understand.

    At Season 1’s fade-out, the hackers, who call themselves Fsociety, launch their massive cyberattack on E Corp., the evil megabank that seems to run the global economy (more on this later), wiping out all its data, erasing the debt of hundreds of millions of people, and thus fomenting revolution.

    As the new season opens, the world is in chaos. In one scene, E Corp.’s general counsel walks into her smart home and, suddenly, all the Internet of Things runs amuck: the shower turns scalding hot, the stereo turns blaring loud, lights flash off and on, the burglar alarm’s pass code doesn’t work. Fsociety has hacked into her home’s main computer, and she doesn’t know what to do. “It’s all inside the walls!” she screams into the phone, when a tech-support staffer advises her to check the wiring. That’s the way her smart home was packaged.

    What a metaphor for modern life—and only a slight extension of its reality. Nearly all the pieces of our critical infrastructure—banking, transportation, energy, waterworks, government, the military, and of course information technology—are wired into computer networks. With the Internet of Things, so, increasingly, are our appliances and cars. If these systems break down, whether due to a technical flaw or a hacker’s keystrokes, most of us don’t—and won’t—know what to do. In a DARPA-financed experiment last year, a pair of computer specialists, one of whom used to work at the National Security Agency and is now the security chief of Uber’s driverless-car program, hacked into a Jeep Cherokee and commandeered its steering wheel, accelerator, brakes, GPS receiver, windshield wipers—everything.

    In other words, there’s more than a patina of authenticity to Mr. Robot.

    Most shows that deal with technology lose their footing when they try to go deep or get detailed. The viewers who know the field roll their eyes in derision; those who don’t still sense that something’s off. The creators of Mr. Robot—showrunner Sam Esmail and his crew of consultants—get these things, small and large, right. When the characters type commands and codes on their laptops, what we see on their monitors is the real deal: no post-production green-screen gibberish here. In the early part of Season 1, before Elliot joins (or realizes that his schizoid self is leading) the revolution, he hacks his few friends, his boss, and his shrink, as well as a few miscreants (a child pornographer, a drug dealer, and his shrink’s philandering boyfriend) whom he blackmails or turns in to the authorities. The techniques he uses to crack their passwords or otherwise gain access to their files are real, time-tested tools. It’s so easy for Elliot (and for the many hackers in real life) and so shocking to his victims when they realize how wide-open they’ve left themselves.

    These scenes capture a new power equation in the internet era—the control, by those who have mastered the technology, over the rest of us who blithely plaster everything about ourselves online. In one scene, Elliot phones one of his prey, pretending to be a bank officer (he’s already found out where the target banks), and asks, as part of a “security review,” for his address, favorite sports team, and pet’s name. From that information, Elliot pieces together the guy’s password.

    It’s often as simple as that. When I was researching my book, Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War, Matt Devost, president and CEO of the cybersecurity firm FusionX, told me about his days running the “red team” in war games that tested the vulnerability of NATO communications systems. In one game, Devost was having a hard time cracking the commanding general’s password. So he looked up his biographical sketch on a military website, tried out some of the personal details it cited, and finally hit gold by combining “Rutgers,” where the general’s son was attending college, with a two-digit number, which a commercially available random-numbers generator guessed in less than a second.

    But what about the show’s larger premise: Could a skilled hacker penetrate a megacorporation’s computer network; erase all its data; and, as a result, topple the capitalist system—or at least wipe out the debt of the masses? This is where the show goes too far and, in another sense, not far enough.

    The irony is that, of all the critical sectors of the American economy, banking and finance are doing pretty well when it comes to cybersecurity. Their entire business, after all, relies on taking your money and earning your trust. They also have a lot of money, which allows them to hire the best engineers to secure their networks. Hackers try to get in all the time, but they rarely succeed, and when they do, they’re detected and ejected fairly quickly, and the hole is patched not long after. A major attack, of the sort portrayed in Mr. Robot, is plausible, but its results might not be enduring. (Even if the bank’s cybersecurity team couldn’t repair the damage, the Department of Homeland Security could send the NSA an official request for technical assistance. And I’m pretty sure that, whatever a backroom of anarchic hackers could do, the elite hackers of the NSA’s Tailored Access Operations office could trace and reverse.)

    One other feature of the American economy: compared with other industrialized nations, it’s decentralized. The cyber-shutdown of a very large bank would send devastating shockwaves across the entire financial system (think Lehman Brothers in 2008), but it wouldn’t mean the shutdown of all banks or all bank transactions. Even if hackers jammed or erased Bank of America’s data (and its backup files), they wouldn’t have touched the data at J.P. Morgan, Citigroup, Wells Fargo, or the others. The liberation of every indebted citizen isn’t so plausible.

    Finally, if there really was a firm as monolithic as E Corp., and if hackers really did freeze its data, the chaos would be a lot wilder. We do catch a glimpse of the disorder in one scene, where a woman, after waiting three days for an appointment, tells a banker that she’s paid off her mortgage and presents the papers to prove it; but the banker can’t get into the computer and doesn’t trust the paperwork because, so she says, a lot of counterfeit documents are out there. But in other scenes, we see normal street traffic, open bodegas, routine commerce—when I suspect that, in fact, there’d be rioting everywhere.

    Maybe the larger breakdown will erupt in future episodes.

    But the basic syllogism of contemporary life, Mr. Robot gets precisely right: Almost everything is hooked up to the internet; almost everything on the internet can be hacked and thus manipulated or destroyed; therefore, almost everything can be hacked and manipulated or destroyed. Should this dynamic take off, should the potential threats that we read about erupt into actual attacks and breakdowns, then up will be down, down up, and the line between madness and order—the line that Elliot walks more and more precariously as the show progresses—could blur into a haze of indistinction.


              BBC: Huge data breach prompts resignation of top US official        
    3 hours ago  BBC
    From the sectionUS & Canada


    The director of the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has resigned after a massive data breach involving more than 20 million people.
    Katherine Archuleta said she would step down on Friday to help the department "move beyond the current challenges".

    Authorities suspect that Chinese-based hackers targeted the computer systems of the OPM, which acts as the personnel office of the federal government.

    Initially the OPM said four million workers were affected by the breach.

    However, the department disclosed on Thursday that the data of more than 20 million people, including current and former employees, may have been compromised.

    Authorities in Beijing have publicly denied any involvement.

    Ms Archuleta resignation comes a day after Democrats and Republicans in Congress called for her to step aside as the scope of the data breach expanded significantly.

    Among the data targeted were forms used to vet potential employees of federal agencies including as the CIA and branches of the military.

    OPM serves as the human resource department for the US government
    The stolen data includes health and financial information, criminal records, and the names and addresses of government employees and their relatives.

    Experts are concerned that the sensitive information could be used to blackmail US agents.
    What was stolen?
    social security numbers
    residency and educational history
    employment history
    information about immediate family and other personal and business acquaintances
    health, criminal and financial history
    findings from interviews conducted by background investigators
    fingerprints
    usernames and passwords that background investigation applicants used

    Source: OPM news release

    Last month, US intelligence chief James Clapper said China was the "leading suspect" in the massive data breaches.

    His comments came after three days of high-level talks in which China and the US agreed to a "code of conduct" on cyber security issues.

    US Democratic presidential hopeful Hillary Clinton said China was "trying to hack into everything that doesn't move in America".

    But China has dismissed claims of involvement as "irresponsible and unscientific".

              Charter Cities and Seasteading        

    The more people all over the world are geting sick of fake democracies, excessive corruption, political sleaze and an intolerably wide gap between the rich and the rest, the more diligently people are looking for ways out, either way. Some try to improve socio-economical conditions, others try to further corrode them. Just in one edition of German educational magazine GEO (October 2012, cf. p. 22, pp. 80-92, p. 150.) I found three articles dealing with different approaches.



    Charter Cities
    "Chicago Boy" economist Paul Romer's suggestion to establish city states (in host states like Honduras) governed by their own laws of pure market belief (see http://chartercities.org/).


    Unconditional Basic Income (Basic Income Guarantee (or Grant, abbr. BIG)
    Funded by a coalition of churches, labour unions and aid organizations, the inhabitants of the Namibian village Otjivero (Omitara) received monthly 700-800 Dollar per person, from January 2008 to December 2009 (see Global Basic Income Foundation, Basic Income Grant Coalition)


    Floating Free States (Seasteading)
    Kind of social labs at sea (sometimes called seasteads), outside the territory claimed by the government of any nation; autonomous ocean communities designed for performing social experiments with volunteers to find out the best way of government (see The Seasteading Institute). Proponents: PayPal cofounder Peter Thiel and Patri Friedman (grandson of economist Milton Friedaman)


    Unfortunately, none of these projects were designed to run under scientific rules of experiment. Comprehensive data of the outcome of the BIG project in Namibia are missing.
    Based on a totally different mindset, Charter and Floating Cities look like the ultimate outsourcing projects. Details regarding the living conditions of workers do no exist and those available are rather scary (it is half-way instructive to read both FAQs, e.g. in Paul Romer's vision of recruiting unskilled workers directly out of slums:

    "Q: What kind of apartments could these workers afford?A: Small apartments. We know from existing data that living space varies linearly with income. As income grows, people will rent larger, nicer apartments. A city that starts by catering to people getting entry level jobs would start by building small, minimalist apartments and add larger ones with more amenities as incomes rise."

    And in the Seasteading FAQ section, the question

    "Are seasteading enthusiasts just a bunch of rich guys wanting to escape paying taxes?"

    is already telling. Considering the lack of data in both projects, one has to rely on guessing, and my guess is that both are designed to acquire cheap labor slaves through a new legal back door, and yes, trying to create a new systematic loophole for escaping the so-called "regulators" - a term which the plutocracy likes to use for "legislators" and "executive authorities". (My guess is only based on what I found on their websites - which is very unspecific, leaving one with the suspicion that dubious reasons might be behind the lack of details.)

    It's funny how well this mechanism of corroding modern democracies is working: first you do everything against the state (the bad regulator) and then you say it's the state that is responsible for the mess and that we have to minimize government (further corrode it). First you create international trading laws which favor large international corporations so that they can easily blackmail governments by threatening to move abroad where production costs and taxes are lower. At home, you proceed by corroding values like consumer and worker protection and introduce subcontracted labour. You reinvest your gains by employing lobbyists, think-tanks and mass-media infotainment who spread your gospel of the entrepreneurial saviour. Further you go by introducing outsourcing techniques - another blackmailing instrument. Finally, you end up by destroying millions of jobs in your own country by outsourcing to other countries, producing products with the help of cheap labor slaves abroad and selling these products overpriced back home, while at the same time tranferring technology to tother countries for free. Your own country is left to pay the price by being forced to pay all kinds of subsidies in order to save society from further disintegration and debt. And then you say the government is incapable of housekeeping.

    If you firmly believe that such a downward spiral is good, it is only natural to assume that the final goal can only be your own entrepreneurial city state (or island) where you are the legislator and there are no limits, no rules, no regulations holding you back from doing business, whatever kind of business.

    Seasteading's Patri Friedman comes straigth to the point when he finds democracy ridiculous in comparison with the allegedly high standard of entrepreneurial product innovation:

    "Yet the governance technology that we use in most of the world - representive democracy - is 2 thousand years old. It originated in ancient Athens. And here in the US we use a constitution which is 200 years old. And that's ridiculous compared with consumer technologies, right? If you'd drive a car from 200 years ago, it would be a horse." (03:38)





    Guess it's time to rethink some other more than 2000 years old concepts: e.g. rational thinking, deductive science, speeches in front of an audience, and - last but not least - brigandism and entrepreneurship. For some people with a certain mindset, Friedman's argument might appear compelling, but it's one of the weakest I have ever heard.

    Democracy is a human longtime project like science - it is at any time only as good as its proponents, it is always prone to error and it is always improvable. Unfortunately democracy can be faked almost perfectly. (Scientists control each other, politicians do not.)



    Related topic:
    The Plutocracy Will Go to Extremes to Keep the 1% in Control






              

    A gay Chechen man explains what it's like being at the center of a human rights atrocity.

       
         

    The anti-gay crackdown doesn't show signs of stopping.


    A startling new report from the Russian LGBT Network highlights just how bad the crackdown on gay, lesbian, and bisexual people in Chechnya has gotten in recent months. As the reported number of people who've been detained or killed for suspicion of being LGBTQ skyrockets, it's hard to know what can be done to help. Making matters worse, details are few and far between, with even the new Russian LGBT Network report admitting it's hard to understand the full scope of the assault for certain.

    What we do have are stories, like the one a gay Chechen man shared at Meduza back in April, which comes to life in a haunting new video.

    Titled "Unable to breathe," the animated short follows the unnamed man as he's arrested for suspicion of homosexuality, physically and mentally tortured for a week without food or water, and eventually flees the country, forced to leave his family behind. (The subtitles are a bit small, so you may want to watch this full screen.)

    "They beat me for several hours straight. They broke my ribs. They used electricity to torture me — they have this special coil and metallic pegs. In the neighboring rooms, people were also interrogated and tortured. I could hear their screams. The policemen wanted me to confess to being gay and to snitch on my friends, but I didn’t break."

    The story takes a number of horrifying turns, but perhaps the most disturbing aspect is the portion where he reveals that the Chechen government wants families to murder their gay relatives.

    "One of my relatives participates in 'gay-hunts'," he says in the video. "He does not suspect me, so he told me that the police have already arrested about 200 people. The police are blackmailing their families, threatening the relatives with dishonor. They are forcing the families to 'take care' of them. It means to kill. If they don’t do it, the police will. I don’t know what to do."

    This assault on LGBTQ individuals is a human rights atrocity, and we cannot remain silent.

    Some have spoken up — including Senator Marco Rubio (R-Florida), 50 members of the House of Representatives, U.S. ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley, former Vice President Joe Biden, and others. Still, many of the most powerful people in the world — such as President Trump and Vice President Pence — have remained silent in the face of this terrible campaign.

    That's why it's so important that we don't allow stories like these to just fade into the background. We must keep them front of mind, and sharing the stories of those most affected by this barbaric treatment is one very important way to do that.



              Free English Translation of Swiss Federal Court Decision on Fenerbahce Match-Fixing        
    Federal Court Tribunal federal Tribunale federale Tribunal federal





    {T} 0/2
    4A_324 / 2014




    Judgment of 16 October 2014 First Civil Law Division

    occupation
    Federal Judge Klett, president, Federal Judge Kolly, Federal judges hollow, Kiss, Niquille Court: Leemann.

    Parties
    Fenerbahge Spor Kulübü,
    Represented by
    Dr. Bernhard Berger and Dr. Andreas Güngerich,
    complainant,


    against


    Union des Associations Europeennes de Football (UEFA)
    represented by Dr. Jean-Marc Reymond and lawyer Delphine Rochat, Respondent.
    object
    International Arbitration,


    Complaint against the arbitral award of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) on 11 April, 2014.





    Facts:


    A.


    A.a. Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (complainant) is a professional football club based in Istanbul, Turkey. He is a member of the Turkish Football Federation (TFF).



    The Union des Associations Europeennes de Football (UEFA, Respondent) with headquarters in Nyon is the European Football Association, which also includes the Turkish Football Federation. It organizes, inter alia, the UEFA Champions League.







    From. On 21 and 26 February, on 6, 7 and 20 March and 9 April 2011 several football matches were played under the Turkish "Süper Lig" in which persons in the vicinity of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü bribes for Match loss allegedly paid.







    On April 14, 2011 entered a new Turkish law (no. 6222) entered into force which provides for a special offense for match-fixing.



    On 17 and 22 April and 1 May 2011 more football games from the "Süper Lig" took place, in which people are paid in the context of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü money to influence games.



    On May 5, 2011 gave Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü UEFA the signed form "UEFA Club Competitions 2011/2012 Admissions Criteria Form" A, with the Football Club confirmed since April 27, 2007 to have been involved in match-fixing, directly or indirectly.
    On May 8, 15 and 22, 2011 more Soccer Games of the Turkish Süper Lig were held to have been where paid by individuals with ties to Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü bribes to the opposing team for the game loss.





    On May 22, 2011 Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü won the championship in the "Süper Lig" and thus qualified simultaneously for the group matches of UEFA Champions League game of the 2011/2012 season.





    A.c. On 3 July 2011, the Turkish police arrested 61 people as part of a wide-scale criminal investigation concerning match fixing in Turkish football. The suspected match fixing among others, the president and vice president, two members, the coach and the financial director of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü, this in connection with various soccer games, the game 2010/2011 season.










    On 11 July 2011 the TFF Executive Committee urged the Ethics Commission to launch an investigation into match-fixing in Turkish football.




    On 20 July 2011, the Turkish prosecutor provided the TFF Ethics Commission with information and evidence related to the criminal proceedings initiated.






    A.d. On 24 August 2011, the TFF Executive Committee UEFA about his decision, the football club Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü informed not to pit in the Champions League this season.



    On 25 August 2011, the TFF Arbitration Board had a Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü against
    Decision from the TFF Executive Committee imposed vocation.


    On appointment of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü against the decision of the TFF Arbitration Board from August 25, 2011 through the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) dismissed the applications to grant interim relief to decide from 9 September and 3 November 2011.





    On 2 December 2011, the Turkish prosecutor brought charges against several people, including officials from Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü.



    On 3 January 2012, the TFF Disciplinary Committee against Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü and other Turkish football clubs as well as numerous individuals initiated disciplinary proceedings because of match-fixing.



    25 April 2012 Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü withdrew his appeal to the TAS, which the decision of the Turkish Association, Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü not to let the game 2011/2012 season competing in the Champions League, became final.







    A.e. On 26 April 2012, the TFF Ethics Commission adopted a Report into allegations of manipulation of certain football matches, including those involving Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü was involved.





    In its decision of 6 May 2012, the TFF Disciplinary Commission imposed a board member of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü a three-year prohibition on pursuing a one-year ban, football-related activities against the vice president and the coach.







    B.


    B.A. On June 4, 2012, UEFA received the report of the TFF Ethics Committee of 26 April 2012 Design.


    By letter dated 7 June 2012, the UEFA General Secretary urged the chairman of the Control and Disciplinary Committee of UEFA on, disciplinary proceedings against Fenerbahce Spor
    Kulübü initiate.




    On 2 July 2012, the High Criminal Court decided in Istanbul that of under the leadership
    B., the president of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü, a criminal organization formed
    was and that officials from Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü in 13 games of the season would 2010/2011 involved in match-fixing. Of the 93 defendants 48 were convicted, among them








    - B., the president of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (two and a half years imprisonment for
    Forming a criminal organization, three years and nine months and TRY 1'312'500 .-- for match-fixing);



    - C., vice president of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (one year and three months imprisonment
    for membership in a criminal organization; one years, 10 months and 14 days because of match-fixing);



    - D., a board member of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (one year and six months
    Imprisonment for membership of a criminal organization; a year 25 [sic] months and 15 days as well as TRY 900,000 .-- for match-fixing);





    - E., board member of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (one year and six months
    Imprisonment for membership of a criminal organization; one year, one month and 15 days, and TRY 135,000 .-- for match-fixing);





    - F., manager of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (one year and three months imprisonment for
    Membership in a criminal organization; 11 months, 7 days and TRY 15'626 .-- for match-fixing);



    - G., finance director of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (one year and three months imprisonment
    for membership in a criminal organization; one year and three months, or TRY 49'980.-
    - Buses for match-fixing).
    On 31 May 2013, the UEFA disciplinary inspector submitted his report on the existing disciplinary procedures. On June 20, 2013 Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü submitted observations to.



    In its decision of 22 June 2013, the Control and Disciplinary Committee of UEFA Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü precluded from participating in the next three UEFA club competitions for which the Football Club would qualify, the third year of the ban was suspended.







    B.b. In its decision of 10 July 2013, the UEFA Appeals Chamber overturned the decision of the Control and Disciplinary Committee of 22 June 2013 appointment of Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü back partially and restricted the lock on the next two UEFA club competitions a.








    B.C. By submission of July 16, 2013 Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü challenged the decision of the UEFA Appeals Chamber on 10 July 2013 to the CAS and requested suspensive effect. UEFA did not oppose the granting of the suspensive effect.





    On July 18, 2013 Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü informed the CAS, which, inter alia, that the parties agreed on the timing procedure.



    Also on July 18, 2013 confirmed the TAS in view of the agreement reached between the parties, the suspensive effect. Moreover, it took from the agreement between the parties on an accelerated procedure note that the grounds for appeal to 26 July 2013 and the appeal response to August 9, 2013 submitted, held the oral main negotiation between 21st and 23 August 2013, and a decision to 28th August 2013 is to be like.
    On July 26, 2013 Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü filed the grounds for appeal, essentially with the application, the penalty imposed by the UEFA Appeals Chamber in its decision of July 10, 2013 barrier should be set aside; eventualiter was the decision set aside on 10 July 2013, dismissed the case to the UEFA Appeals Chamber.







    On 9 August 2013, UEFA submitted its appeal response, in which it requested that the appeal be dismissed and to confirm the decision of the UEFA Appeals Chamber.



    On 21 and 22 August 2013, the oral trial was held in Lausanne. A total of 20 designated by the parties were interviewed; on the survey of 13 other witnesses refrained Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü during the trial.








    B.d. In an award dated 28 August 2013 (with reasons delivered on 11 April 2014) had the TAS the appeal, upheld the contested decision of the UEFA Appeals Chamber on 10 July, 2013.





    C.
    With Civil law appeal Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü submits that the Federal Tribunal should the arbitral award of the CAS of 28 August 2013 annulled.



    The respondent moved to dismiss the complaint as is capable of appeal. The TAS moved to dismiss the complaint in its consultation.




    The complainant has the Federal Court a replica, the Respondent filed on August 5, 2014 August 26, 2014 rejoinder.




    D.
    By order of 22 July 2014, the Federal Court dismissed the petition of the complainant to grant suspensive effect.



    By order of 1 September 2014, dismissed the application for reconsideration concerning the non-members suspensive effect and confirmed the disposal of 22 July, 2014.








    Considerations:


    1.
    After
    Art. 54 para. 1 BGG
    issues its decision of the Federal Court in an official language, usually in that the decision under appeal. Was this edited in another language, the Federal Tribunal uses the official language chosen by the parties. The decision under appeal is in English. Since this is not an official language and the Parties used the Federal Court of the German language, the decision of the Federal Court was made in German.










    . 2
    190-192 PILA (SR 291) (77 1 Art. Para. Letter a BGG) In the field of international arbitration is the complaint in civil matters under the requirements of Art. Allowed.


    2.1. The seat of the arbitral tribunal is in Lausanne. The complainant in the reference point located outside Switzerland (Art. 176 para. 1 IPRG
    ). Since the parties have expressly excluded the application of chapter 12 PILA, the provisions of this chapter be applicable (Art. 176 para. 2 IPRG).
    2.2. Permitted Only those grievances, which in Art. 190 para. 2 IPRG
    exhaustively enumerated are (BGE 134 III 186 E. 5 p 187; 128 III 50 E. 1a p.53; 127 III 279 E. 1a S. 282). Under Art. 77 para. 3 BGG
    the Federal Tribunal reviews only the grievances which are brought forward and reasoned in the appeal; this corresponds to in Art. 106 Para. 2 BGG
    for the violation of fundamental rights and provided by cantonal and intercantonal law (BGE 134 III 186 E. 5 p 187 with references). Appellatorische criticism is inadmissible (BGE 134 III 565 E. 3.1 p 567; 119 II 380 E. 3b S. 382).









    2.3. The Federal Tribunal bases its decision on the facts, which the Tribunal has determined (Art. 105 para. 1 BGG
    ). These include the findings about the life facts of the dispute underlying as well as those regarding the expiry of lower-instance procedure, so the findings about the process the facts, and the name the parties' claims, their factual allegations, legal analyzes, process returns and discovered evidence, the contents of a testimony, an expert or the findings on the occasion of any inspection include (BGE 140 III 16 E. 1.3.1 with references).











    The Federal Court, the factual findings of the arbitral tribunal not rectify or supplement, even if it is obviously untrue or on an infringement within the meaning of Art. 95 BGG
    based (see. Art. 77 para. 2 BGG, of the application of Art. 97 BGG
    as
    Art. 105 Para. 2 BGG
    excludes). However, the Federal Tribunal may review the factual findings of the arbitral award, when compared to such factual findings admissible grievances within the meaning of Art. 190 para. 2 IPRG
    be or exceptionally considered Noven (BGE 138 III 29 E. 2.2.1 S. 34; 134 III 565 E. 3.1 p 567; 133 III 139 at 5 p 141; with references). In order to claim on an exception to the binding of the Federal Court to the factual findings of the arbitral tribunal and to have the facts corrected or supplemented, shall set forth with reference to the record that the corresponding factual allegations have already been set up process compliant in arbitration proceedings (see. BGE 115 II 484 E. 2a S. 486; 111 II 471E 1c S. 473;. with references).
     
    2.4. The complainant fails to recognize the loyalty of the Federal Court to the findings in the contested decision to process facts when he preceded his legal arguments, a detailed exposition of the facts, in which he describes the background to the dispute and the proceedings from its own perspective and thereby partially from the factual findings of the arbitral tribunal deviating or these expanded without making substantiated exceptions to the binding character facts. The relevant passages have to be ignored.













    Irrelevant are the new facts submitted (Art. 99 para. 1 BGG
    ). So the complainant alleges about, in the meantime, the Turkish Court of Cassation of four judgments against board members have two and dismissed for a new trial in the first instance.






    2.5. The Board is fully justified within the period for appeal submitted (Art. 42 para. 1 BGG
    ). If there is a second correspondence, the complaining party the Replica (see. BGE 132 I 42 E. 3.3.4) must not use it to supplement its complaint or to improve. The replica is to be used only to statements, including the statements in the consultation of other parties give rise (see, BGE 135 I 19 E. 2.2).
     
    Unless the complainant goes in his reply about his remarks can not be considered.




    . 3
    The complainant alleges that the CAS disregarded the principle of equal treatment of the parties injured (
    Art. 190 para. 2 lit. d PILA).


    3.1. He argues that the CAS was considered primarily on quickness in judging the appeal despite the extensive process substance and decided only just six weeks after receipt of the appeal and within less than six days after the completion of a multi-day trial in an accelerated procedure instead the dispute to the UEFA rejected. So that the CAS would have the unequal treatment of the parties that had their origin in the procedure before the departments of UEFA continued.












    UEFA had in summer 2011 almost two years taken time for them to have the complainant finally delivered its report on the investigations carried out on 10 June 2013, and opened a disciplinary procedure. Then it was "blow by blow" gone until the decision had been like. Before the UEFA Control and Disciplinary Committee he had been admitted for an opinion, although the authoritative report as well as the other documents submitted were very extensive just 10 days. The subsequent proceedings before the UEFA Appeals Chamber was nothing but a farce, it had nevertheless taken from the entrance of the appeal to the decision of 10 July 2013 just five days, the Appeals Chamber - despite his protests - even substantial new evidence of the Respondent have approved.
    A comprehensive review and effective judicial protection, the complainant had not received even before the TAS; the extensive dispute was dealt with and dismissed after receiving his appointment in just six weeks the hearing was limited to two days with correspondingly few opportunities for the party and witness interviews.








    The expedited procedure before the CAS had agreed voluntarily not the complainant. Basis of the accelerated procedure was the registration form (Admission form) of UEFA have been the must sign a football club, if he wished to take part in UEFA competitions. He would have an accelerated procedure before the CAS not agreed, if there had been an opportunity to participate without signing the appropriate form to the UEFA competitions; the relevant statement could not be invoked against him thus. The difference in treatment was carried out before the association's internal bodies have continued in arbitration before the CAS. The respondent had time trying to force a clarification of the question before the draw to see who could take part in the Champions League season 2013/2014. The complainant had ultimately had no choice but to undergo this dictates the respondent in order to preserve its ability to still be able to participate in this contest. At the expedited procedure before the association's internal organs and the CAS absolutely no serious interest have existed; the Respondent would perform an orderly appeal procedure readily and also can agree to a proper conduct of the arbitration before the CAS. With its unilateral and unnecessary insistence on the implementation of an urgent procedure before the CAS, the respondent has intentionally taken into account that the unequal treatment of the parties and therefore impermissible curtailment of procedural rights before the CAS would have continued. The TAS has the right to equal treatment can only preserve by the dispute - would have remitted to the Respondent - as requested.
     
    3.2.


    3.2.1.
    Art. 190 para. 2 lit. d PILA
    makes the challenge alone because of the mandatory procedural rules pursuant to Art. 182 para. 3 PILA
    to. Thereafter, the arbitral tribunal must especially respect the claim of the parties to be heard. This corresponds - with the exception of the right to justification - the in article 29, paragraph 2 BV..
    legal constitutional law (BGE 130 III 35 E. 5 p 37 f .; 128 III 234 E. 4b S. 243; 127 III 576 E. 2c S. 578 f.). The law derives in particular the right of parties from to comment on all the judgment essential facts to defend their legal position, to prove their decisive essential factual allegations with suitable and timely manner and form correctly offered funds to participate in the negotiations and the to inspect files (BGE 130 III 35 E. 5 p 38; 127 III 576 E. 2c S. 578 f .; with references). The principle of equal treatment also requires that the parties are treated equally throughout the arbitral proceedings (see. BGE 133 III 139 E. 6.1 p 143).




















    3.2.2. The party, which is characterized by a denial of due process or another according to Art. 190 para. 2 IPRG
     
    relevant procedural violation for holding disadvantaged forfeited their complaints, if they are not in time brings forward these through arbitration and not every reasonable effort is taking to the defect - if possible - to eliminate (BGE 130 III 66 E. 4.3 p 75; 126 III 249 E . 3c S. 253 f .; 119 II 386 E. 1a S. 388; with references). The federal judicial review of the award process on infringements is thus far a subsidiary, as the parties have to be reported corresponding defects initially the arbitral tribunal so that they can be resolved before the end of arbitration. It contradicts good faith to rebuke a procedural violation only in the context of an appeal, although in the arbitration, the possibility would have been to give the arbitral tribunal an opportunity to remedy the alleged defect (BGE 119 II 386 E. 1a S. 388). Faithful offense and abuse of rights is especially the party that holds Rügegründe speak in reserve to this nachzuschieben with an unfavorable course of the process and a foreseeable loss process (see BGE 136 III 605 E. 3.2.2 S. 609;. 129 III 445 E. 3.1 p 449; 126 III 249 S. E. 3c 254).



























    3.3.


    3.3.1. Unless the complainant establishes a procedural violation federal court order, it was not sufficient given the possibility for party and witness interviews during the two-day trial, he can not be heard. It is not clear how he would put forward this alleged deficiency to arbitration; the contrary is clear from the findings of fact in the contested decision that the applicant, the number of called witnesses belittled by itself of first 53 two days before the hearing on 35 and a day earlier on 32, said he was still at the hearing to the hearing refrained from 13 other witnesses called. The complaint is forfeit.
     
    Even with his subsequent shows not on the complainant that he had been reprimanded unequal treatment by the arbitral tribunal during the arbitration proceedings. Contrary to his argument before the Federal Court he gave acting either in his grounds for appeal nor at the hearing to correct the alleged defect in the arbitration. Rather, he referred in his grounds of appeal only to various shortcomings in the association's internal procedure and the TAS requested that the dispute should be rejected to the UEFA Appeals Chamber to new assessment, if the TAS its principal claim, annul the penalties imposed, should not be followed. Shortly before the end of the hearing, the complainant stated that it did not support the accelerated procedure voluntarily, so the procedure should be rejected on the association's internal organs of UEFA. That he, the CAS more time for further comments or inquiry or a repeat or supplement certain steps requested, let alone a difference in treatment would reprimanded to arbitration, the applicant does not point to.


























    He has not made every effort to work towards a remedy the alleged defect in the current arbitration procedure. He forfeited for the right, in the appeal proceedings before the Federal Court on alleged unequal treatment within the meaning of
    Art. 190 para. 2 lit. d PILA
    to invoke. In this plea must also not enter.
     
    3.3.2. Anyway, does not point to the complainant how the TAS had him treated differently in the arbitration proceedings (see. BGE 133 III 139 E. 6.1 p 143). Rather, he also criticized the Federal Court mainly the combined internal procedures or the conduct of the Respondent and derives from the facts alleged by him involuntariness of accelerated procedure not from around that the CAS would have to carry out a proper procedure, but sees a difference in treatment rather in the dismissal of his appeal requests by the arbitral tribunal. He's really-is not raised, the other party was, procedurally granted under the arbitration, in which the dispute can be reviewed in fact and in law something that was denied, but criticized in an impermissible manner the content of the contested award ,




















    . 4
    The complainant alleges that the arbitral tribunal, by surprising application of the law his right to be heard (Art. 190 par. 2 lit. d PILA) hurt to have.




    4.1. By the Federal Court case law, there is no constitutional claim of the parties to be especially consulted on the legal assessment of the system established by them in the process facts. Nor follows from the right to be heard, that the parties would advance to indicate the essential facts for the decision. An exception exists especially if a court intends to justify its decision by an legal base, to which the parties have not appointed and its relevance not reasonably expect had (BGE 130 III 35E 5 p. 39; 126 I 19 E . 2c / aa 22 S. and E. d / bb p 24; 124 I 49 E. 3c p.52).
    4.2. The author submits that UEFA Appeals Chamber had convicted him of eight games and manipulated for false statements in the registration form to (unconditional) two-year exclusion from European club competitions. The CAS would have a conviction for false statements repealed the form used and also found that the applicant had merely tried to manipulate four games. This has however led to no criminal reduction; Instead, the CAS had confirmed the two-year sanction. The complainant referred to the result as a "eye-catching industrial accident" for sentencing at which it came to the sentencing provisions of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADA Code) due to a never thematized in previous processes analogy. The CAS would have but the parties were no opportunity to comment on these "completely surprising analogy".






















    4.3. Contrary to what the applicant appears to accept that the CAS has not left the sentencing criteria of Article 17 of the UEFA disciplinary regulations (2008 edition) about the benefit of those of the WADA code out of consideration, but has certainly supported for sentencing on that provision. In addition, the arbitration is explicitly addressed as to why it did not reduce the penalty imposed, although it considered "only" in four cases as created in contrast to the association's internal instances of match-fixing. In particular, the CAS held having regard to Article 17 of the UEFA disciplinary regulations, a two-year suspension in the specific case of clearly justified.
    The tribunal considered, taking into account its own case, after for match-fixing penalties between one and eight years were imposed, given the particular severity of the case compared with previously assessed match fixing even a penalty at the upper end of this range is appropriate, but it does Reserve left with Note on the principle ultra petita - the respondent had waived an appeal - in the two-year ban. The notice of the TAS that in doping cases comparable penalties are pronounced, which generally offers a two-year ban would impose that would be higher for very serious offenses and to put deep in extenuating circumstances, thus came - contrary to the view in the appeal view - not " the crucial importance for the determination of penalties "to. The CAS was not required in these circumstances, the complainant specifically give an opportunity to comment on the sentencing provisions of the WADA Code.























    A hearing to claim infringing surprising application of the law is absent.




    . 5
    The complainant alleges that the TAS before, for not having examined several of his decisive significant argument in violation of the right to be heard.




    5.1. The right to be heard in an adversarial procedure in accordance
    Art. 182 para. 3 and
    Art. 190 para. 2 lit. d PILA
    excludes settled case also claim to justification of an international arbitral award (BGE 134 III 186E. 6.1 with references). Nevertheless, this results in a minimum requirement of arbitrators to consider the key relevant issues, to deal with. This requirement violates the arbitral tribunal, if it disregarded leaves due to an oversight or a misunderstanding rather substantial allegations, arguments, evidence or proof of evidence of a party. This does not mean that the arbitral tribunal must explicitly deal with each individual arguments of the parties (BGE 133 III 235 E. 5.2 with references).
     
    5.2.


    5.2.1. The complainant alleges that the arbitral tribunal, first, it had left some of his arguments entirely out of account in assessing the competence of UEFA to impose sanctions for match-fixing. He had claimed that he did Article 2.06 of the Regulations of the UEFA Champions League (UCLR) not yet recognized as binding at the time of discharge of some of the controversial games. Given the arbitral tribunal shall have no more expressed as to its argument that the Court of TAS the disciplinary regulations of UEFA must be interpreted objectively by its wording and legislative context. Also on his argument that the interpretation of association rules-especially disciplinary regulations - should take place in doubt at the expense of the user, the CAS had received no word. Moreover, its arguments concerning the interpretation and meaning of the Circular submitted by the respondent at the hearing no. 24/2013 had been the UEFA unaudited and appreciated. If the arbitral tribunal his decisive substantial arguments for missing Criminal expertise of UEFA checked the complainant, it would have had to approve his appointment.

    5.2.2. The arbitration leads to the issue of jurisdiction of UEFA to conduct disciplinary proceedings in the contested decision as one of the main issues to be assessed. It took the complainant's position to the effect this together, that the disputed allegations of match fixing relate to championship games of the 2010/2011 season, and thus did not fall within the disciplinary expertise of UEFA by the authoritative association rules.










    The tribunal considered in consequence, the competence of the UEFA imposed for match-fixing detail. This clear instruction, among other points to the complainant's argument, according to which UEFA have lacked the necessary disciplinary expertise at the time of his alleged conduct after the then applicable Association rules; such was only introduced subsequently according to the complainant, which is why the responsibility for punishment carried neither Article 50 (3) of the UEFA Statutes nor Article 2.05 or 2:06 UCLR or Article 5 of the Disciplinary Code'll support. The arbitral tribunal considered the issue of the legal basis for sanctioning the issue of match-fixing by UEFA detail by interpreted the above provisions, while also assessed their applicability in terms of time. It manifested itself inter alia on the interpretation and meaning of the Circular no. 24/2013.




















    The arbitral tribunal may, under these circumstances not be criticized, it breached its minimum duty to examine the key relevant issues and treat (see. BGE 133 III 235 E. 5.2 p 248 with references). Given the detailed reasoning in the contested decision it can be assumed that it has led the complainant into the Arguments field at least by analogy discarded. The arbitral tribunal has the right to be heard by the complainant not infringed by failing 24/2013 expressly dealt with each of its arguments concerning the applicability of Article 2.06 UCLR, to supposedly authoritative interpretation method in Association regulations or the interpretation and meaning of Circular No..
     
    5.3. The complainant alleges further that he had raised during the arbitration that pronounced by the respondent sanction applicable in criminal law principle nulla poena sine lege contrary. However, the arbitral tribunal set up in its decision with this objection in any way apart. Individual titles ( "[...] and were the sanctions imposed in accor dance with the legality principle?" Or "Is there a Sufficient legal basis for the disciplinary measure?") Led to the conclusion to be sure that this issue should be dealt with content , which is not incorrect.













    The raised in the complaint - but not further substantiated - allegation that the mentioned headlines turned out to be "pure misnomer", is incomprehensible. The complainant presents itself not in dispute that the arbitration be argument that relied on for the penalty imposed Association provisions, the requirements of the principle of legality (nulla poena sine lege scripta et certa) expressly lists in the decision notice. It directs his remarks to the principle of legality, under the heading "Is there a Sufficient legal basis for the disciplinary measure?" so a, according to Swiss law and established case law of TAS presupposes the imposition of a disciplinary measure a sufficiently clear and unambiguous legal basis ( "a clear and unambigous legal basis for the sanction"). Legal certainty requires that the applicable provision - in this case, Article 2.06 UCLR - is sufficiently determined what considered the arbitral tribunal in the sequence and -for match-fixing, but not -bejahte for the accusation of false statements in the registration form.
    A mistake or a misunderstanding, due to which the arbitral tribunal would have left a fairly substantial argument of the complainant disregarded, is not available in this context.





    5.4. A hearing injury is not visible even in terms of the complainant's arguments for the design of the disciplinary measure. The tribunal has listed the corresponding argument in the contested decision expressly and the amount of the penalty scrutinized. By the complainant referred to the arbitration justification as "not understandable", it exerts only undue criticism of the contested decision, but not show a violation of the right to be heard.












    . 6
    The complainant alleges that the TAS before a violation of public policy.




    6.1. He argues that the contested award was contrary to the matter of public policy pursuant to Art. 190 para. 2 lit. e IRPG belonging ne bis in idem (prohibition of double jeopardy). It had been pronounced against him for the same offense two penalties. The TAS of the contested decision imposed or confirmed punishment is contrary to the aforementioned principle and is therefore incompatible with public policy.
     
    6.2.


    6.2.1. A violation of the procedural public policy front is a violation of fundamental and generally recognized principles of procedure, and failure to comply is the sense of justice in an intolerable contradiction, so that the decision as to the force in a constitutional state legal and value system utterly incompatible appears (BGE 140 III 278 E. 3.1; 136 III 345 E. 2.1 S. 347 f .; 132 III 389 E. 2.2.1 S. 392; 128 III 191 E. 4a p.194).










    The arbitral tribunal violated the procedural public policy when the substantive legal force of a previous decision disregards when making its decision or if it is different in its final award of the view that it has expressed in a preliminary decision regarding a substantive preliminary (BGE 140 III 278 E. 3.1; 136 III 345 E. 2.1 p 348; with references).






    The ne bis in idem principle also forms part of public policy within the meaning of Art. 190 para. 2 lit. e PILA
    , The Federal Court has, however, left open whether this penal principle in disciplinary law of sport to be considered equally (judgment 4A_386 / 2010 from January 3, 2011 E. 9.3.1). The question does not need to be deepened in the present case, the TAS went himself of its applicability and examined the compatibility of the sanctions with this principle in detail. Therefore, the Federal Tribunal is limited to a review of the actual application of the principle mentioned by the arbitral tribunal (cf.. Judgment 4A_386 / 2010, supra, E. 9.3.1 a.e.).
















    6.2.2. The complainant in arbitration infringement of the principle ne bis in idem is seen that he had been excluded from the Champions League the playing season 2011/2012 with decision of the Turkish Football Federation dated 24 August 2011; he can not therefore be ruled out a second time from the UEFA competitions.
     
    The tribunal was considering the time decreed by the Turkish federation TFF exclusion for the 2011/2012 season conclude later banned for more Game seasons not under a disciplinary procedure. It relied on Article 50 (3) of the UEFA Statutes (2010 edition), and Article 2.05 and 2.06 UCLR (2011/2012), which are as follows:









    Article 50 (3) of the UEFA Statutes (2010):


    "The admission to a UEFA competition of a Member Association or club Directly or Indirectly Involved in any activity Aimed at arranging or influencing the outcome of a match at national or international level can be refused with immediate effect, without prejudice to any possible disciplinary measures. "







    Article 2.05 UCLR (2011/2012):


    "If, on the basis of all the factual circumstances and information available to UEFA, UEFA Concludes to its comfortable satisfaction did a club has been Directly and / or Indirectly Involved, since the entry into force of Article 50 (3) of the UEFA Statutes , ie 27 April 2007, in any activity Aimed at arranging or influencing the outcome of a match at national or international level, UEFA will declare examined club ineligible to participate in the competition. search ineligibility is effective only for one football season. When taking its decision, UEFA can rely on, but is not bound by, a decision of a national or international sporting body, arbitral tribunal or state court. UEFA can refrain from declaring a club ineligible to participate in the competition if UEFA is comfortably satisfied dass die impact of a decision taken in connection with the same factual circumstances by a national or international sporting body, arbitral tribunal or state court has already had the effect to prevent did club from participating in a UEFA club competition. "
    Article 2.06 UCLR (2011/2012):


    "In addition to the administrative measure of declaring a club ineligible, as provided for in paragraph 2.05 the UEFA organ for the Administration of Justice can, if the circumstances so justify, so take disciplinary measures in accor dance with the UEFA Disciplinary Regulations."







    The tribunal considered that Article 50 (3) of the UEFA Statutes provides for a two-stage process in conjunction with Article 2.05 and 2.06 UCLR: In a first stage will having regard to Article 2.05 UCLR an administrative measure ( "administrative measure") in the form of a one-year exclusion pronounced by the European Club competition. In a second stage, a disciplinary measure would be imposed, which know no maximum time period, and in addition to the administrative measure ( "In addition to the administrative measure [...]") could be adopted. The two types of match suspensions were distinguish clearly by the regulatory purpose of the provisions mentioned by first with immediate effect an exclusion would be imposed by the competition before the UEFA check the allegations of misconduct in detail. UEFA have a legitimate interest to exclude a football club from the competition immediately, without first initiating a comprehensive disciplinary proceedings against him. The administrative measure, the TAS, therefore constitutes not definitive, but merely a preliminary minimum sanction which seeks to protect the integrity of the concrete competition.
     
    6.2.3. Applying the principle of ne bis in idem requires inter alia that the court in the first process must have granted the opportunity to assess the facts in all factual regular points (BGE 135 IV 6 E. 3.3; 119 Ib 311 E. 3c with hints ). To what extent this is true, after it but only went in the first process of the Turkish Football Federation to an administrative measure to protect the integrity of the concrete competition in a preliminary process in a timely manner, and not to a comprehensive disciplinary procedures for final determination of allegations of misconduct, does not light a , As the Supreme Court has laid down in a decision in the field of Sport Arbitration, the application of the double jeopardy prohibition obliges it an identity of the legal interest protected; Moreover, it pointed out that such a prohibition does not preclude that the same behavior in addition to criminal and civil, administrative or disciplinary consequences draws (judgment 4A_386 / 2011 of 3 January 2011 E. 9.3.2).






















    On the fact that the different procedures referred to in Article 2.05 and 2.06 UCLR also tracks each different purpose and extent various legal interests are protected, the applicant does not address, however. He contents himself rather with the indication that the arbitral tribunal in both methods of sanctions ( "sanctions") talks, which he fails to indicate that it is the one-year exclusion decreed by Article 2.05 is a decision, the same object as the having subsequently having to Article 2.06 pronounced disciplinary measure. Given the described two-stage process, each with different regulatory purpose is also not clear to what extent the Turkish federation TFF had been granted the option in the first process, finally to assess the facts in all factual regular points.
    The TAS is no breach of the principle ne bis in idem reproach. The complaint of violation of public policy thus pushes into space.




    . 7
    The complaint is unfounded and must be dismissed, can be extent that the matter. the Appellant must the outcome of the procedure costs and compensate the Respondent (Art. 66 para. 1 and Art. 68 para. 2 BGG






    Therefore, the Federal Court:


    1.
    The appeal is rejected to the extent capable of appeal.




    . 2
    The judicial costs of CHF 30'000 .-- be borne by the Appellant.




    . 3
    The complainant shall pay to the Respondent for the federal judicial proceedings Fr. 35'000 .--.




    . 4
    This judgment shall be notified to the parties and the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) in writing.





    Lausanne, October 16, 2014
     
    On behalf of the First Civil Law Court of the Swiss Federal Court


    The President: Klett


    The Clerk: Leemann



              Swiss Federal Tribunal Decision in German on Fenerbahce-UEFA Case Concerning The Match-Fixing Scandal        
    Swiss Federal Tribunal Decision in German on Fenerbahce-UEFA Case Concerning The Match-Fixing Scandal

    Bundesgericht
    Tribunal federal
    Tribunale federale
    Tribunal federal

    {T 0/2}
    4A_324/2014

    Urteil vom 16. Oktober 2014 I. zivilrechtliche Abteilung

    Besetzung
    Bundesrichterin Klett, Präsidentin, Bundesrichter Kolly, Bundesrichterinnen Hohl, Kiss, Niquille, Gerichtsschreiber Leemann.

    Verfahrensbeteiligte
    Fenerbahge Spor Kulübü,
    vertreten durch Rechtsanwälte
    Dr. Bernhard Berger und Dr. Andreas Güngerich,
    Beschwerdeführer,

    gegen

    Union des Associations Europeennes de Football (UEFA),
    vertreten durch Rechtsanwalt Dr. Jean-Marc Reymond und Rechtsanwältin Delphine Rochat, Beschwerdegegnerin.
    Gegenstand
    Internationales Schiedsgericht,

    Beschwerde gegen den Schiedsentscheid des Tribunal Arbitral du Sport (TAS) vom 11. April 2014.

    Sachverhalt:

    A.

    A.a. Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (Beschwerdeführer) ist ein professioneller Fussballclub mit Sitz in Istanbul, Türkei. Er ist Mitglied des türkischen Fussballverbands (TFF).

    Die Union des Associations Europeennes de Football (UEFA, Beschwerdegegnerin) mit Sitz in Nyon ist der europäische Fussballverband, dem auch der türkische Fussballverband angehört. Sie veranstaltet unter anderem die UEFA Champions League.

    A.b. Am 21. und 26. Februar, am 6., 7. und 20. März sowie am 9. April 2011 wurden im Rahmen der türkischen "Süper Lig" verschiedene Fussballspiele ausgetragen, bei denen von Personen im Umfeld von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü Bestechungsgelder für den Matchverlust bezahlt worden sein sollen.

    Am 14. April 2011 trat ein neues türkisches Gesetz (Nr. 6222) in Kraft, das einen besonderen Straftatbestand für Spielmanipulationen vorsieht.

    Am 17. und 22. April sowie am 1. Mai 2011 fanden weitere Fussballspiele der "Süper Lig" statt, bei denen Personen im Umfeld von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü Geld bezahlt haben sollen, um die Spiele zu beeinflussen.



    Am 5. Mai 2011 reichte Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü der UEFA das unterzeichnete Formular "UEFA Club Competitions 2011/2012 Admissions Criteria Form" ein, mit dem der Fussballclub bestätigte, seit 27. April 2007 weder direkt noch indirekt an Spielmanipulationen beteiligt gewesen zu sein.
    Am 8., 15. und 22. Mai 2011 fanden weitere Fussballspiele der türkischen Süper Lig statt, bei denen von Personen mit Beziehungen zu Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü Bestechungsgelder an die gegnerische Mannschaft für den Spielverlust bezahlt worden sein sollen.

    Am 22. Mai 2011 gewann Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü die Meisterschaft in der "Süper Lig" und qualifizierte sich damit gleichzeitig für die Gruppenspiele der UEFA Champions League der Spielsaison 2011/2012.

    A.c. Am 3. Juli 2011 verhaftete die türkische Polizei 61 Personen im Rahmen einer weit angelegten Strafuntersuchung betreffend Spielmanipulationen im türkischen Fussballsport. Der Spielmanipulation verdächtigt wurden unter anderem der Präsident und Vizepräsident, zwei Vorstandsmitglieder, der Trainer und der Finanzdirektor von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü, dies im Zusammenhang mit verschiedenen Fussballspielen der Spielsaison 2010/2011.

    Am 11. Juli 2011 forderte das TFF-Exekutivkomitee die Ethikkommission dazu auf, eine Untersuchung zu Spielmanipulationen im türkischen Fussballsport einzuleiten.

    Am 20. Juli 2011 versorgte die türkische Staatsanwaltschaft die TFF-Ethikkommission mit Informationen und Beweismitteln im Zusammenhang mit dem eingeleiteten Strafverfahren.

    A.d. Am 24. August 2011 informierte das TFF-Exekutivkomitee die UEFA über seinen Entscheid, den Fussballclub Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü diese Saison nicht in der Champions League antreten zu lassen.

    Am 25. August 2011 wies die TFF-Schiedskommission eine von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü gegen den
    Entscheid des TFF-Exekutivkomitees erhobene Berufung ab.

    Auf Berufung von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü gegen den Entscheid der TFF-Schiedskommission vom 25. August 2011 hin wies das Tribunal Arbitral du Sport (TAS) die Anträge um Erlass vorsorglicher Massnahmen mit Entscheiden vom 9. September und 3. November 2011 ab.

    Am 2. Dezember 2011 erhob der türkische Staatsanwalt Anklage gegen verschiedene Personen, unter ihnen Funktionäre von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü.

    Am 3. Januar 2012 leitete die TFF-Disziplinarkommission gegen Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü und weitere türkische Fussballclubs sowie zahlreiche natürliche Personen Disziplinarverfahren wegen Spielmanipulationen ein.

    Am 25. April 2012 zog Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü seine Berufung an das TAS zurück, womit der Entscheid des türkischen Verbands, Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü für die Spielsaison 2011/2012 nicht in der Champions League antreten zu lassen, rechtskräftig wurde.

    A.e. Am 26. April 2012 verabschiedete die TFF-Ethikkommission einen Untersuchungsbericht zu den Manipulationsvorwürfen bezüglich bestimmter Fussballspiele, unter anderem solchen, an denen Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü beteiligt war.

    Mit Entscheid vom 6. Mai 2012 verhängte die TFF-Disziplinarkommission gegen ein Vorstandsmitglied von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü ein dreijähriges Verbot, gegen den Vizepräsidenten und den Trainer ein einjähriges Verbot, fussballbezogene Aktivitäten auszuüben.

    B.

    B.a. Am 4. Juni 2012 erhielt die UEFA den Bericht der TFF-Ethikkommission vom 26. April 2012.

    Mit Schreiben vom 7. Juni 2012 forderte der Generalsekretär der UEFA den Vorsitzenden der Kontroll- und Disziplinarkommission der UEFA auf, ein Disziplinarverfahren gegen Fenerbahce Spor
    Kulübü einzuleiten.

    Am 2. Juli 2012 entschied der High Criminal Court in Instanbul, dass unter der Führung von
    B. , dem Präsidenten von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü, eine kriminelle Organisation gebildet
    worden sei und dass sich Funktionäre von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü bei 13 Spielen der Saison 2010/2011 an Spielmanipulationen beteiligt hätten. Von den 93 Angeklagten wurden 48 verurteilt, unter ihnen

    - B. , der Präsident von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (zweieinhalb Jahre Freiheitsstrafe für die
    Bildung einer kriminellen Organisation, drei Jahre und neun Monate sowie TRY 1'312'500.-- für Spielmanipulationen);

    - C. , Vizepräsident von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (ein Jahr und drei Monate Freiheitsstrafe
    wegen Mitgliedschaft in einer kriminellen Organisation; ein Jahr, 10 Monate und 14 Tage wegen Spielmanipulationen);

    - D. , Vorstandsmitglied von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (ein Jahr und sechs Monate
    Freiheitsstrafe wegen Mitgliedschaft in einer kriminellen Organisation; ein Jahr, 25 [sic] Monate und 15 Tage sowie TRY 900'000.-- wegen Spielmanipulationen);

    - E. , Vorstandsmitglied von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (ein Jahr und sechs Monate
    Freiheitsstrafe wegen Mitgliedschaft in einer kriminellen Organisation; ein Jahr, ein Monat und 15 Tage sowie TRY 135'000.-- wegen Spielmanipulationen);

    - F. , Trainer von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (ein Jahr und drei Monate Freiheitsstrafe wegen
    Mitgliedschaft in einer kriminellen Organisation; 11 Monate und 7 Tage sowie TRY 15'626.-- wegen Spielmanipulationen);

    - G. , Finanzdirektor von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü (ein Jahr und drei Monate Freiheitsstrafe
    wegen Mitgliedschaft in einer kriminellen Organisation; ein Jahr und drei Monate sowie TRY 49'980.-
    - Busse wegen Spielmanipulationen).
    Am 31. Mai 2013 legte der UEFA-Disziplinarinspektor seinen Bericht über das bisherige Disziplinarverfahren vor. Am 20. Juni 2013 reichte Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü seine Stellungnahme dazu ein.

    Mit Entscheid vom 22. Juni 2013 schloss die Kontroll- und Disziplinarkommission der UEFA Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü von der Teilnahme an den nächsten drei UEFA-Clubwettbewerben aus, für die sich der Fussballclub qualifizieren würde, wobei das dritte Jahr der Sperre zur Bewährung ausgesetzt wurde.

    B.b. Mit Entscheid vom 10. Juli 2013 hob die UEFA-Berufungskammer den Entscheid der Kontroll-und Disziplinarkommission vom 22. Juni 2013 auf Berufung von Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü hin teilweise auf und schränkte die Sperre auf die nächsten zwei UEFA-Clubwettbewerbe ein.

    B.c. Mit Eingabe vom 16. Juli 2013 focht Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü den Entscheid der UEFA-Berufungskammer vom 10. Juli 2013 beim TAS an und beantragte die aufschiebende Wirkung. Die UEFA widersetzte sich der Gewährung der aufschiebenden Wirkung nicht.

    Am 18. Juli 2013 teilte Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü dem TAS unter anderem mit, dass sich die Parteien über den zeitlichen Verfahrensablauf geeinigt hätten.

    Ebenfalls am 18. Juli 2013 bestätigte das TAS angesichts der zwischen den Parteien getroffenen Einigung die aufschiebende Wirkung. Ausserdem nahm es von der Einigung der Parteien auf einen beschleunigten Verfahrensablauf Kenntnis, wonach die Berufungsbegründung bis 26. Juli 2013 und die Berufungsantwort bis 9. August 2013 eingereicht, die mündliche Hauptverhandlung zwischen 21. und 23. August 2013 abgehalten und ein Entscheid bis 28. August 2013 gefällt werden soll.
    Am 26. Juli 2013 reichte Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü die Berufungsbegründung ein, im Wesentlichen mit dem Antrag, die von der UEFA-Berufungskammer mit Entscheid vom 10. Juli 2013 verhängte Sperre sei aufzuheben; eventualiter sei der Entscheid vom 10. Juli 2013 aufzuheben und die Sache an die UEFA-Berufungskammer zurückzuweisen.

    Am 9. August 2013 reichte die UEFA ihre Berufungsantwort ein, in der sie beantragte, die Berufung sei abzuweisen und der Entscheid der UEFA-Berufungskammer zu bestätigen.

    Am 21. und 22. August 2013 fand in Lausanne die mündliche Hauptverhandlung statt. Dabei wurden insgesamt 20 von den Parteien bezeichnete Personen befragt; auf die Befragung von weiteren 13 Zeugen verzichtete Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü während der Verhandlung.

    B.d. Mit Schiedsentscheid vom 28. August 2013 (mit Begründung zugestellt am 11. April 2014) wies das TAS die Berufung ab und bestätigte den angefochtenen Entscheid der UEFA-Berufungskammer vom 10. Juli 2013.

    C.
    Mit Beschwerde in Zivilsachen beantragt Fenerbahce Spor Kulübü dem Bundesgericht, es sei der Schiedsentscheid des TAS vom 28. August 2013 aufzuheben.

    Die Beschwerdegegnerin beantragt die Abweisung der Beschwerde, soweit darauf einzutreten sei. Das TAS beantragt in seiner Vernehmlassung die Abweisung der Beschwerde.

    Der Beschwerdeführer hat dem Bundesgericht am 5. August 2014 eine Replik, die Beschwerdegegnerin am 26. August 2014 eine Duplik eingereicht.

    D.
    Mit Verfügung vom 22. Juli 2014 wies das Bundesgericht das Gesuch des Beschwerdeführers um Erteilung der aufschiebenden Wirkung ab.

    Mit Verfügung vom 1. September 2014 wies es das Gesuch um Wiedererwägung betreffend der nicht erteilten aufschiebenden Wirkung ab und bestätigte die Verfügung vom 22. Juli 2014.

    Erwägungen:

    1.
    Nach
    Art. 54 Abs. 1 BGG
    ergeht der Entscheid des Bundesgerichts in einer Amtssprache, in der Regel in jener des angefochtenen Entscheids. Wurde dieser in einer anderen Sprache redigiert, verwendet das Bundesgericht die von den Parteien gewählte Amtssprache. Der angefochtene Entscheid ist in englischer Sprache abgefasst. Da es sich dabei nicht um eine Amtssprache handelt und sich die Parteien vor Bundesgericht der deutschen Sprache bedienen, ergeht der Entscheid des Bundesgerichts auf Deutsch.

    2.
    Im Bereich der internationalen Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit ist die Beschwerde in Zivilsachen unter den Voraussetzungen der Art. 190-192 IPRG (SR 291) zulässig ( Art. 77 Abs. 1 lit. a BGG ).

    2.1. Der Sitz des Schiedsgerichts befindet sich vorliegend in Lausanne. Der Beschwerdeführer hatte im massgebenden Zeitpunkt seinen Sitz ausserhalb der Schweiz ( Art. 176 Abs. 1 IPRG
    ). Da die Parteien die Geltung des 12. Kapitels des IPRG nicht ausdrücklich ausgeschlossen haben, gelangen die Bestimmungen dieses Kapitels zur Anwendung ( Art. 176 Abs. 2 IPRG ).

    2.2. Zulässig sind allein die Rügen, die in Art. 190 Abs. 2 IPRG
    abschliessend aufgezählt sind (BGE 134 III 186 E. 5 S. 187; 128 III 50 E. 1a S. 53; 127 III 279 E. 1a S. 282). Nach Art. 77 Abs. 3 BGG
    prüft das Bundesgericht nur die Rügen, die in der Beschwerde vorgebracht und begründet worden sind; dies entspricht der in Art. 106 Abs. 2 BGG
    für die Verletzung von Grundrechten und von kantonalem und interkantonalem Recht vorgesehenen Rügepflicht (BGE 134 III 186 E. 5 S. 187 mit Hinweis). Appellatorische Kritik ist unzulässig (BGE 134 III 565 E. 3.1 S. 567; 119 II 380 E. 3b S. 382).

    2.3. Das Bundesgericht legt seinem Urteil den Sachverhalt zugrunde, den das Schiedsgericht festgestellt hat ( Art. 105 Abs. 1 BGG
    ). Dazu gehören sowohl die Feststellungen über den Lebenssachverhalt, der dem Streitgegenstand zugrunde liegt, als auch jene über den Ablauf des vorinstanzlichen Verfahrens, also die Feststellungen über den Prozesssachverhalt, zu dem namentlich die Anträge der Parteien, ihre Tatsachenbehauptungen, rechtlichen Erörterungen, Prozesserklärungen und Beweisvorbringen, der Inhalt einer Zeugenaussage, einer Expertise oder die Feststellungen anlässlich eines Augenscheins gehören (BGE 140 III 16 E. 1.3.1 mit Hinweisen).

    Das Bundesgericht kann die Sachverhaltsfeststellung des Schiedsgerichts weder berichtigen noch ergänzen, selbst wenn diese offensichtlich unrichtig ist oder auf einer Rechtsverletzung im Sinne von Art. 95 BGG
    beruht (vgl. Art. 77 Abs. 2 BGG , der die Anwendbarkeit von Art. 97 BGG
    sowie
    Art. 105 Abs. 2 BGG
    ausschliesst). Allerdings kann das Bundesgericht die tatsächlichen Feststellungen des angefochtenen Schiedsentscheids überprüfen, wenn gegenüber diesen Sachverhaltsfeststellungen zulässige Rügen im Sinne von Art. 190 Abs. 2 IPRG
    vorgebracht oder ausnahmsweise Noven berücksichtigt werden (BGE 138 III 29 E. 2.2.1 S. 34; 134 III 565 E. 3.1 S. 567; 133 III 139 E. 5 S. 141; je mit Hinweisen). Wer sich auf eine Ausnahme von der Bindung des Bundesgerichts an die tatsächlichen Feststellungen des Schiedsgerichts beruft und den Sachverhalt gestützt darauf berichtigt oder ergänzt wissen will, hat mit Aktenhinweisen darzulegen, dass entsprechende Sachbehauptungen bereits im schiedsgerichtlichen Verfahren prozesskonform aufgestellt worden sind (vgl. BGE 115 II 484 E. 2a S. 486; 111 II 471E. 1c S. 473; je mit Hinweisen).

    2.4. Der Beschwerdeführer verkennt die Bindung des Bundesgerichts an die Feststellungen im angefochtenen Entscheid über den Prozesssachverhalt, wenn er seinen rechtlichen Vorbringen eine ausführliche Sachverhaltsdarstellung voranstellt, in der er die Hintergründe des Rechtsstreits und des Verfahrens aus eigener Sicht schildert und dabei teilweise von den tatsächlichen Feststellungen des Schiedsgerichts abweicht oder diese erweitert, ohne substantiiert Ausnahmen von der Sachverhaltsbindung geltend zu machen. Die entsprechenden Ausführungen haben unbeachtet zu bleiben.

    Unbeachtlich sind auch die neu vorgebrachten Tatsachen ( Art. 99 Abs. 1 BGG
    ). So trägt der Beschwerdeführer etwa vor, in der Zwischenzeit habe der türkische Kassationshof von vier Urteilen gegen Vorstandsmitglieder zwei aufgehoben und zu erneuter Verhandlung in erster Instanz zurückgewiesen.

    2.5. Die Beschwerde ist innert der Beschwerdefrist vollständig begründet einzureichen ( Art. 42 Abs. 1 BGG
    ). Kommt es zu einem zweiten Schriftenwechsel, darf die beschwerdeführende Partei die Replik nicht dazu verwenden, ihre Beschwerde zu ergänzen oder zu verbessern (vgl. BGE 132 I 42 E. 3.3.4). Die Replik ist nur zu Darlegungen zu verwenden, zu denen die Ausführungen in der Vernehmlassung eines anderen Verfahrensbeteiligten Anlass geben (vgl. BGE 135 I 19 E. 2.2).

    Soweit der Beschwerdeführer in seiner Replik darüber hinausgeht, können seine Ausführungen nicht berücksichtigt werden.

    3.
    Der Beschwerdeführer rügt, das TAS habe den Grundsatz der Gleichbehandlung der Parteien verletzt (
    Art. 190 Abs. 2 lit. d IPRG ).

    3.1. Er bringt vor, das TAS sei bei der Beurteilung der Berufung trotz des umfangreichen Prozessstoffs primär auf Raschheit bedacht gewesen und habe nur gerade sechs Wochen nach Eingang der Berufung und innert weniger als sechs Tagen nach Abschluss einer mehrtägigen Hauptverhandlung im Wege eines beschleunigten Verfahrens entschieden, anstatt die Streitsache an die UEFA zurückzuweisen. Damit habe das TAS die Ungleichbehandlung der Parteien, die ihren Ursprung in den Verfahren vor den Instanzen der UEFA gehabt habe, fortgeführt.

    Die UEFA habe sich ab Sommer 2011 fast zwei Jahre Zeit genommen, bis sie dem Beschwerdeführer am 10. Juni 2013 schliesslich ihren Bericht über die erfolgten Untersuchungen zugestellt und ein Disziplinarverfahren eröffnet habe. Danach sei es "Schlag auf Schlag" gegangen, bis der Entscheid gefällt worden sei. Vor der UEFA-Kontroll- und Disziplinarkommission seien ihm gerade einmal 10 Tage Zeit für eine Stellungnahme eingeräumt worden, obwohl der massgebende Bericht wie auch die übrigen Prozessakten sehr umfangreich gewesen seien. Das anschliessende Verfahren vor der UEFA-Berufungskammer sei nichts anderes als eine Farce gewesen, habe es vom Eingang des Rechtsmittels bis zum Entscheid vom 10. Juli 2013 doch nur fünf Tage gedauert, wobei die Berufungskammer - trotz seines Protests - noch umfangreiche neue Beweisstücke der Beschwerdegegnerin zugelassen habe.
    Eine umfassende Prüfung und wirksamen Rechtsschutz habe der Beschwerdeführer auch vor dem TAS nicht erhalten; die umfangreiche Streitigkeit sei nach Eingang seiner Berufung in gerade einmal sechs Wochen behandelt und abgewiesen worden; die mündliche Verhandlung sei auf zwei Tage beschränkt gewesen mit entsprechend wenigen Möglichkeiten für die Partei- und Zeugenbefragungen.

    Dem beschleunigten Verfahren vor dem TAS habe der Beschwerdeführer nicht freiwillig zugestimmt. Grundlage des beschleunigten Verfahrens sei das Zulassungsformular (Admission Form) der UEFA gewesen, das ein Fussballclub unterzeichnen müsse, wenn er sich an UEFA-Wettbewerben beteiligen wolle. Er hätte einem beschleunigten Verfahren vor dem TAS nicht zugestimmt, wenn es eine Möglichkeit gegeben hätte, ohne Unterzeichnung des entsprechenden Formulars an den Wettbewerben der UEFA teilzunehmen; die entsprechende Erklärung könne ihm daher nicht entgegengehalten werden. Die vor den verbandsinternen Instanzen erfolgte Ungleichbehandlung habe sich im Schiedsverfahren vor dem TAS fortgesetzt. Die Beschwerdegegnerin habe rechtzeitig vor der Auslosung eine Klärung der Frage erzwingen wollen, wer an der Champions League der Saison 2013/2014 teilnehmen könne. Der Beschwerdeführer habe letztlich keine andere Wahl gehabt, als sich diesem Diktat der Beschwerdegegnerin zu unterziehen, um seine Möglichkeit zu wahren, doch noch an diesem Wettbewerb teilnehmen zu können. An der Durchführung des beschleunigten Verfahrens vor den verbandsinternen Organen und vor dem TAS habe überhaupt kein ernsthaftes Interesse bestanden; die Beschwerdegegnerin hätte ohne Weiteres ein geordnetes Beschwerdeverfahren durchführen und auch einem geordneten Ablauf des Schiedsverfahrens vor dem TAS zustimmen können. Mit ihrem einseitigen und unnötigen Beharren auf der Durchführung eines Eilverfahrens vor dem TAS habe die Beschwerdegegnerin gewollt in Kauf genommen, dass sich die Ungleichbehandlung der Parteien und damit die unzulässige Beschneidung der Verfahrensrechte vor dem TAS fortgesetzt hätten. Das TAS hätte das Recht auf Gleichbehandlung nur wahren können, indem es die Streitsache - wie beantragt - an die Beschwerdegegnerin zurückverwiesen hätte.

    3.2.


    3.2.1.
    Art. 190 Abs. 2 lit. d IPRG
    lässt die Anfechtung allein wegen der zwingenden Verfahrensregeln gemäss Art. 182 Abs. 3 IPRG
    zu. Danach muss das Schiedsgericht insbesondere den Anspruch der Parteien auf rechtliches Gehör wahren. Dieser entspricht - mit Ausnahme des Anspruchs auf Begründung - dem in Art. 29 Abs. 2 BV
    gewährleisteten Verfassungsrecht (BGE 130 III 35 E. 5 S. 37 f.; 128 III 234 E. 4b S. 243; 127 III 576 E. 2c S. 578 f.). Die Rechtsprechung leitet daraus insbesondere das Recht der Parteien ab, sich über alle für das Urteil wesentlichen Tatsachen zu äussern, ihren Rechtsstandpunkt zu vertreten, ihre entscheidwesentlichen Sachvorbringen mit tauglichen sowie rechtzeitig und formrichtig offerierten Mitteln zu beweisen, sich an den Verhandlungen zu beteiligen und in die Akten Einsicht zu nehmen (BGE 130 III 35 E. 5 S. 38; 127 III 576 E. 2c S. 578 f.; je mit Hinweisen). Der Grundsatz der Gleichbehandlung gebietet zudem, dass die Parteien während des gesamten Schiedsverfahrens gleich behandelt werden (vgl. BGE 133 III 139 E. 6.1 S. 143).

    3.2.2. Die Partei, die sich durch eine Verweigerung des rechtlichen Gehörs oder einen anderen nach Art. 190 Abs. 2 IPRG

    relevanten Verfahrensmangel für benachteiligt hält, verwirkt ihre Rügen, wenn sie diese nicht rechtzeitig im Schiedsverfahren vorbringt und nicht alle zumutbaren Anstrengungen unternimmt, um den Mangel - soweit möglich - zu beseitigen (BGE 130 III 66 E. 4.3 S. 75; 126 III 249 E. 3c S. 253 f.; 119 II 386 E. 1a S. 388; je mit Hinweisen). Die bundesgerichtliche Überprüfung des Schiedsspruchs auf Verfahrensverstösse ist mithin insoweit subsidiär, als die Parteien entsprechende Mängel zunächst beim Schiedsgericht so zu rügen haben, dass diese noch im laufenden Schiedsverfahren behoben werden können. Es widerspricht Treu und Glauben, einen Verfahrensmangel erst im Rahmen eines Rechtsmittelverfahrens zu rügen, obwohl im Schiedsverfahren die Möglichkeit bestanden hätte, dem Schiedsgericht die Gelegenheit zur Behebung des angeblichen Mangels zu geben (BGE 119 II 386 E. 1a S. 388). Treuwidrig und rechtsmissbräuchlich handelt insbesondere die Partei, die Rügegründe gleichsam in Reserve hält, um diese bei ungünstigem Prozessverlauf und voraussehbarem Prozessverlust nachzuschieben (vgl. BGE 136 III 605 E. 3.2.2 S. 609; 129 III 445 E. 3.1 S. 449; 126 III 249 E. 3c S. 254).

    3.3.


    3.3.1. Soweit der Beschwerdeführer einen Verfahrensmangel vor Bundesgericht damit begründet, ihm sei während der zweitägigen Hauptverhandlung nicht ausreichend die Möglichkeit für Partei- und Zeugenbefragungen eingeräumt worden, ist er nicht zu hören. Es ist nicht ersichtlich, inwiefern er diesen angeblichen Mangel bereits im Schiedsverfahren vorgebracht hätte; im Gegenteil ergibt sich aus den Sachverhaltsfeststellungen im angefochtenen Entscheid, dass der Beschwerdeführer die Anzahl aufgerufener Zeugen von sich aus von zunächst 53 zwei Tage vor der mündlichen Verhandlung auf 35 und einen Tag vorher auf 32 herabsetzte, wobei er noch während der mündlichen Verhandlung auf die Anhörung von 13 weiteren angerufenen Zeugen verzichtete. Die Rüge ist verwirkt.

    Auch mit seinen weiteren Ausführungen zeigt der Beschwerdeführer nicht auf, dass er eine Ungleichbehandlung durch das Schiedsgericht bereits während des Schiedsverfahrens gerügt hätte. Entgegen seinen Vorbringen vor Bundesgericht hat er weder in seiner Berufungsbegründung noch in der mündlichen Verhandlung auf eine Behebung des angeblichen Mangels im Schiedsverfahren hingewirkt. Vielmehr hat er sich in seiner Berufungsbegründung lediglich auf verschiedene Unzulänglichkeiten im verbandsinternen Verfahren berufen und dem TAS beantragt, die Streitsache sei an die UEFA-Berufungskammer zu neuer Beurteilung zurückzuweisen, falls das TAS seinem Hauptantrag, die verhängten Sanktionen aufzuheben, nicht folgen sollte. Kurz vor Abschluss der mündlichen Verhandlung erklärte der Beschwerdeführer, dem beschleunigten Verfahren nicht freiwillig zugestimmt zu haben, weshalb das Verfahren an die verbandsinternen Organe der UEFA zurückzuweisen sei. Dass er vor dem TAS mehr Zeit für weitere Stellungnahmen bzw. Beweiserhebungen oder eine Wiederholung bzw. Ergänzung bestimmter Verfahrensschritte beantragt, geschweige denn bereits im Schiedsverfahren eine Ungleichbehandlung gerügt hätte, zeigt der Beschwerdeführer nicht auf.

    Damit hat er nicht alle zumutbaren Anstrengungen unternommen, um auf eine Behebung des angeblichen Mangels im laufenden Schiedsverfahren hinzuwirken. Er verwirkte damit das Recht, sich im Rechtsmittelverfahren vor Bundesgericht auf eine angebliche Ungleichbehandlung im Sinne von
    Art. 190 Abs. 2 lit. d IPRG
    zu berufen. Auf die entsprechende Rüge ist ebenfalls nicht einzutreten.

    3.3.2. Ohnehin zeigt der Beschwerdeführer nicht auf, inwiefern ihn das TAS im Schiedsverfahren ungleich behandelt hätte (vgl. BGE 133 III 139 E. 6.1 S. 143). Vielmehr kritisiert er auch vor Bundesgericht vorwiegend das verbandsinterne Verfahren oder das Verhalten der Beschwerdegegnerin und leitet aus der von ihm beanstandeten Unfreiwilligkeit des beschleunigten Verfahrens nicht etwa ab, das TAS hätte ein ordentliches Verfahren durchführen müssen, sondern erblickt eine Ungleichbehandlung vielmehr in der Abweisung seiner Berufungsanträge durch das Schiedsgericht. Damit macht er richtig besehen nicht geltend, der Gegenpartei sei im Rahmen des Schiedsverfahrens, in dem die Streitsache in tatsächlicher und rechtlicher Hinsicht neu beurteilt werden kann, verfahrensrechtlich etwas gewährt worden, was ihm verweigert wurde, sondern kritisiert in unzulässiger Weise den Inhalt des angefochtenen Schiedsspruchs.

    4.
    Der Beschwerdeführer wirft dem Schiedsgericht vor, durch überraschende Rechtsanwendung seinen Anspruch auf rechtliches Gehör ( Art. 190 Abs. 2 lit. d IPRG ) verletzt zu haben.

    4.1. Nach bundesgerichtlicher Rechtsprechung besteht kein verfassungsrechtlicher Anspruch der Parteien, zur rechtlichen Würdigung der durch sie in den Prozess eingeführten Tatsachen noch besonders angehört zu werden. Ebenso wenig folgt aus dem Gehörsanspruch, dass die Parteien vorgängig auf den für den Entscheid wesentlichen Sachverhalt hinzuweisen wären. Eine Ausnahme besteht namentlich, wenn ein Gericht seinen Entscheid mit einem Rechtsgrund zu begründen beabsichtigt, auf den sich die beteiligten Parteien nicht berufen haben und mit dessen Erheblichkeit sie vernünftigerweise nicht rechnen mussten (BGE 130 III 35E. 5 S. 39; 126 I 19 E. 2c/aa S. 22 und E. d/bb S. 24; 124 I 49 E. 3c S. 52).

    4.2. Der Beschwerdeführer bringt vor, die UEFA-Berufungskammer habe ihn wegen insgesamt acht manipulierter Spiele und wegen unwahrer Angaben im Zulassungsformular zu einem (unbedingten) zweijährigen Ausschluss von den europäischen Clubwettbewerben verurteilt. Das TAS habe die Verurteilung wegen unwahrer Angaben im verwendeten Formular aufgehoben und zudem befunden, dass der Beschwerdeführer lediglich versucht habe, vier Spiele zu manipulieren. Dies habe jedoch zu keiner Strafreduktion geführt; stattdessen habe das TAS die zweijährige Sanktion bestätigt. Der Beschwerdeführer bezeichnet dieses Ergebnis als einen "ins Auge springenden Betriebsunfall" bei der Strafzumessung, zu dem es aufgrund eines im bisherigen Verfahren nie thematisierten Analogieschlusses mit den Strafzumessungsregelungen des World Anti-Doping Code (WADA-Code) gekommen sei. Das TAS habe den Parteien jedoch keine Möglichkeit gegeben, sich zu dieser "völlig überraschenden Analogie" zu äussern.

    4.3. Entgegen dem, was der Beschwerdeführer anzunehmen scheint, hat das TAS die Strafzumessungskriterien nach Artikel 17 des UEFA-Disziplinarreglements (Ausgabe 2008) nicht etwa zugunsten derjenigen des WADA-Code ausser Acht gelassen, sondern hat sich bei der Strafzumessung durchaus auf diese Bestimmung gestützt. Ausserdem ist das Schiedsgericht ausdrücklich darauf eingegangen, weshalb es die verhängte Sanktion nicht herabsetzte, obwohl es im Unterschied zu den verbandsinternen Instanzen Spielmanipulationen "nur" in vier Fällen als erstellt erachtete. Insbesondere hielt das TAS gestützt auf Artikel 17 des UEFA-Disziplinarreglements eine zweijährige Sperre im konkreten Fall für eindeutig gerechtfertigt.
    Das Schiedsgericht erachtete unter Berücksichtigung seiner eigenen Rechtsprechung, nach der für Spielmanipulationen Sanktionen zwischen einem und acht Jahren verhängt wurden, angesichts der besonderen Schwere des Falls im Vergleich mit bisher beurteilten Spielmanipulationen gar eine Sanktion am oberen Ende dieses Spektrums für angemessen, beliess es aber mit Hinweis auf den Grundsatz ultra petita - die Beschwerdegegnerin hatte auf eine Berufung verzichtet - bei der zweijährigen Sperre. Dem Hinweis des TAS darauf, dass in Dopingfällen vergleichbare Strafen ausgesprochen werden, womit grundsätzlich eine zweijährige Sperre zu verhängen wäre, die bei besonders schweren Vergehen höher und bei mildernden Umständen tiefer anzusetzen wäre, kam somit - entgegen der in der Beschwerde vertretenen Ansicht - keineswegs "die alles entscheidende Bedeutung für die Festlegung des Strafmasses" zu. Das TAS war unter diesen Umständen nicht verpflichtet, dem Beschwerdeführer eigens Gelegenheit einzuräumen, zu den Strafzumessungsregelungen des WADA-Code Stellung zu nehmen.

    Eine den Gehörsanspruch verletzende überraschende Rechtsanwendung liegt nicht vor.

    5.
    Der Beschwerdeführer wirft dem TAS vor, in Verletzung des Gehörsanspruchs verschiedene seiner entscheiderheblichen Vorbringen nicht geprüft zu haben.

    5.1. Der Anspruch auf rechtliches Gehör in einem kontradiktorischen Verfahren gemäss
    Art. 182 Abs. 3 und
    Art. 190 Abs. 2 lit. d IPRG
    umfasst nach ständiger Rechtsprechung nicht auch den Anspruch auf Begründung eines internationalen Schiedsentscheids (BGE 134 III 186E. 6.1 mit Hinweisen). Dennoch ergibt sich daraus eine minimale Pflicht der Schiedsrichter, die entscheiderheblichen Fragen zu prüfen und zu behandeln. Diese Pflicht verletzt das Schiedsgericht, wenn es aufgrund eines Versehens oder eines Missverständnisses rechtserhebliche Behauptungen, Argumente, Beweise oder Beweisanträge einer Partei unberücksichtigt lässt. Das bedeutet jedoch nicht, dass sich das Schiedsgericht ausdrücklich mit jedem einzelnen Vorbringen der Parteien auseinandersetzen muss (BGE 133 III 235 E. 5.2 mit Hinweisen).

    5.2.

    5.2.1. Der Beschwerdeführer wirft dem Schiedsgericht zunächst vor, es habe bei der Beurteilung der Kompetenz der UEFA zur Verhängung von Sanktionen wegen Spielmanipulationen einzelne seiner Vorbringen vollständig ausser Acht gelassen. So habe er geltend gemacht, dass er im Zeitpunkt der Austragung einiger der umstrittenen Spiele Artikel 2.06 der Regulations of the UEFA Champions League (UCLR) noch gar nicht als verbindlich anerkannt habe. Dazu habe sich das Schiedsgericht ebenso wenig geäussert wie zu seinem Argument, dass nach der Rechtsprechung des TAS die Disziplinarregelungen der UEFA nach deren Wortlaut und Regelungszusammenhang objektiv auszulegen seien. Auch auf sein Argument, wonach die Auslegung von Verbandsregelungen -insbesondere Disziplinarregelungen - im Zweifel zu Lasten des Verwenders zu erfolgen habe, sei das TAS mit keinem Wort eingegangen. Zudem seien seine Vorbringen zur Auslegung und Bedeutung des von der Beschwerdegegnerin in der mündlichen Verhandlung vorgelegten Rundschreibens Nr. 24/2013 der UEFA nicht geprüft und gewürdigt worden. Hätte das Schiedsgericht seine entscheiderheblichen Argumente zur fehlenden Strafkompetenz der UEFA geprüft, so der Beschwerdeführer, hätte es seine Berufung gutheissen müssen.

    5.2.2. Das Schiedsgericht führt die Problematik der Zuständigkeit der UEFA zur Durchführung eines Disziplinarverfahrens im angefochtenen Entscheid als eine der zu beurteilenden Hauptfragen auf. Es fasste den Standpunkt des Beschwerdeführers hierzu dahingehend zusammen, dass sich die bestrittenen Vorwürfe der Spielmanipulation auf Meisterschaftsspiele der Saison 2010/2011 bezögen und somit nach den massgebenden Verbandsbestimmungen nicht in die Disziplinarkompetenz der UEFA fielen.

    Das Schiedsgericht prüfte in der Folge die Kompetenz der UEFA zur Ahndung von Spielmanipulationen eingehend. Dabei wies es unter anderem ausdrücklich auf das Argument des Beschwerdeführers hin, wonach der UEFA im Zeitpunkt des ihm vorgeworfenen Verhaltens nach den damals anwendbaren Verbandsregeln die erforderliche Disziplinarkompetenz gefehlt habe; eine solche sei nach Ansicht des Beschwerdeführers erst nachträglich eingeführt worden, weshalb sich die Zuständigkeit für die erfolgte Bestrafung weder auf Artikel 50 (3) der UEFA-Statuten noch auf Artikel 2.05 bzw. 2.06 UCLR oder Artikel 5 des Disziplinarreglements stützen lasse. Das Schiedsgericht prüfte die Problematik der rechtlichen Grundlage für eine Sanktionierung der fraglichen Spielmanipulationen durch die UEFA ausführlich, indem es die erwähnten Bestimmungen auslegte und dabei auch deren Anwendbarkeit in zeitlicher Hinsicht beurteilte. Dabei äusserte es sich unter anderem zur Auslegung und Bedeutung des Rundschreibens Nr. 24/2013.

    Dem Schiedsgericht kann unter diesen Umständen nicht vorgeworfen werden, es habe seine minimale Pflicht verletzt, die entscheiderheblichen Fragen zu prüfen und zu behandeln (vgl. BGE 133 III 235 E. 5.2 S. 248 mit Hinweisen). Angesichts der ausführlichen Begründung im angefochtenen Entscheid ist davon auszugehen, dass es die vom Beschwerdeführer ins Feld geführten Argumente zumindest sinngemäss verworfen hat. Das Schiedsgericht hat den Gehörsanspruch des Beschwerdeführers nicht verletzt, indem es sich nicht mit jedem einzelnen seiner Vorbringen zur Anwendbarkeit von Artikel 2.06 UCLR, zur angeblich massgebenden Auslegungsmethode bei Verbandsregelungen oder zur Auslegung und Bedeutung des Rundschreibens Nr. 24/2013 ausdrücklich auseinandersetzte.

    5.3. Der Beschwerdeführer rügt weiter, er habe im Schiedsverfahren vorgetragen, dass die von der Beschwerdegegnerin ausgesprochene Sanktion gegen den im Strafrecht geltenden Grundsatz nulla poena sine lege verstosse. Das Schiedsgericht setze sich in seinem Entscheid mit diesem Einwand jedoch in keiner Weise auseinander. Einzelne Überschriften ("[...] and were the sanctions imposed in accordance with the legality principle?" oder "Is there a sufficient legal basis for the disciplinary measure?") liessen an sich darauf schliessen, dass diese Frage inhaltlich abgehandelt werden sollte, was jedoch nicht zutreffe.

    Der in der Beschwerde erhobene - jedoch nicht weiter begründete - Vorwurf, die erwähnten Überschriften entpuppten sich als "reiner Etikettenschwindel", ist nicht nachvollziehbar. Der Beschwerdeführer stellt selbst nicht in Abrede, dass das Schiedsgericht sein Argument, wonach die für die verhängte Sanktion herangezogenen Verbandsbestimmungen die Anforderungen des Legalitätsprinzips ( nulla poena sine lege scripta et certa ) in der Entscheidbegründung ausdrücklich aufführt. Es leitet seine Ausführungen zum Legalitätsprinzip unter der Überschrift "Is there a sufficient legal basis for the disciplinary measure?" damit ein, nach schweizerischem Recht und ständiger Rechtsprechung des TAS setze die Verhängung einer Disziplinarmassnahme eine hinreichend klare und unzweideutige Rechtsgrundlage ("a clear and unambigous legal basis for the sanction") voraus. Die Rechtssicherheit verlange, dass die anwendbare Bestimmung - im konkreten Fall Artikel 2.06 UCLR - hinreichend bestimmt sei, was das Schiedsgericht in der Folge prüfte und -für Spielmanipulationen, nicht jedoch für den Vorwurf unwahrer Angaben im Zulassungsformular -bejahte.
    Ein Versehen oder ein Missverständnis, aufgrund dessen das Schiedsgericht ein rechtserhebliches Argument des Beschwerdeführers unberücksichtigt gelassen hätte, liegt auch in diesem Zusammenhang nicht vor.

    5.4. Eine Gehörsverletzung ist auch hinsichtlich der Argumente des Beschwerdeführers zur Bemessung der Disziplinarmassnahme nicht erkennbar. Das Schiedsgericht hat die entsprechenden Vorbringen im angefochtenen Entscheid ausdrücklich aufgeführt und die Höhe der Sanktion eingehend geprüft. Indem der Beschwerdeführer die schiedsgerichtliche Begründung als "nicht nachvollziehbar" bezeichnet, übt er lediglich unzulässige Kritik am angefochtenen Entscheid, ohne jedoch eine Verletzung des Gehörsanspruchs aufzuzeigen.

    6.
    Der Beschwerdeführer wirft dem TAS eine Verletzung des Ordre public vor.

    6.1. Er bringt vor, der angefochtene Schiedsspruch verstosse gegen den zum Ordre public gemäss Art. 190 Abs. 2 lit. e IRPG gehörenden Grundsatz ne bis in idem (Verbot der doppelten Strafverfolgung). Es seien zwei Strafen wegen der gleichen Tat gegen ihn ausgesprochen worden. Die vom TAS mit dem angefochtenen Entscheid verhängte bzw. bestätigte Strafe verstosse gegen den erwähnten Grundsatz und sei daher mit dem Ordre public unvereinbar.

    6.2.

    6.2.1. Ein Verstoss gegen den verfahrensrechtlichen Ordre public liegt vor bei einer Verletzung fundamentaler und allgemein anerkannter Verfahrensgrundsätze, deren Nichtbeachtung zum Rechtsempfinden in einem unerträglichen Widerspruch steht, so dass die Entscheidung als mit der in einem Rechtsstaat geltenden Rechts- und Wertordnung schlechterdings unvereinbar erscheint (BGE 140 III 278 E. 3.1; 136 III 345 E. 2.1 S. 347 f.; 132 III 389 E. 2.2.1 S. 392; 128 III 191 E. 4a S. 194).

    Das Schiedsgericht verletzt den verfahrensrechtlichen Ordre public, wenn es bei seinem Entscheid die materielle Rechtskraft eines früheren Entscheids unbeachtet lässt oder wenn es in seinem Endentscheid von der Auffassung abweicht, die es in einem Vorentscheid hinsichtlich einer materiellen Vorfrage geäussert hat (BGE 140 III 278 E. 3.1; 136 III 345 E. 2.1 S. 348; je mit Hinweisen).

    Der Grundsatz ne bis in idem gehört grundsätzlich ebenfalls zum Ordre public im Sinne von Art. 190 Abs. 2 lit. e IPRG
    . Das Bundesgericht hat allerdings offengelassen, ob dieser strafrechtliche Grundsatz im Disziplinarrecht des Sports gleichermassen zu berücksichtigen ist (Urteil 4A_386/2010 vom 3. Januar 2011 E. 9.3.1). Die Frage braucht auch im vorliegenden Verfahren nicht vertieft zu werden, ging das TAS doch selbst von dessen Anwendbarkeit aus und prüfte die Vereinbarkeit der Sanktion mit diesem Prinzip eingehend. Das Bundesgericht beschränkt sich daher auf eine Überprüfung der konkreten Anwendung des erwähnten Grundsatzes durch das Schiedsgericht (vgl. Urteil 4A_386/2010, a.a.O., E. 9.3.1 a.E.).

    6.2.2. Der Beschwerdeführer hatte im Schiedsverfahren eine Verletzung des Grundsatzes ne bis in idem darin erblickt, dass er bereits mit Entscheid des türkischen Fussballverbands vom 24. August 2011 von der Champions League der Spielsaison 2011/2012 ausgeschlossen worden war; er könne daher nicht ein zweites Mal von den Wettbewerben der UEFA ausgeschlossen werden.

    Das Schiedsgericht erwog, der damals vom türkischen Verband TFF verfügte Ausschluss für die Saison 2011/2012 schliesse eine spätere Sperre für weitere Spielsaisons im Rahmen eines Disziplinarverfahrens nicht aus. Es stützte sich dabei auf Artikel 50 (3) der UEFA-Statuten (Ausgabe 2010) sowie Artikel 2.05 und 2.06 UCLR (2011/2012), die wie folgt lauten:

    Artikel 50 (3) der UEFA-Statuten (2010) :

    "The admission to a UEFA competition of a Member Association or club directly or indirectly involved in any activity aimed at arranging or influencing the outcome of a match at national or international level can be refused with immediate effect, without prejudice to any possible disciplinary measures."

    Artikel 2.05 UCLR (2011/2012) :

    "If, on the basis of all the factual circumstances and information available to UEFA, UEFA concludes to its comfortable satisfaction that a club has been directly and/or indirectly involved, since the entry into force of Article 50 (3) of the UEFA Statutes, i.e. 27 April 2007, in any activity aimed at arranging or influencing the outcome of a match at national or international level, UEFA will declare such club ineligible to participate in the competition. Such ineligibility is effective only for one football season. When taking its decision, UEFA can rely on, but is not bound by, a decision of a national or international sporting body, arbitral tribunal or state court. UEFA can refrain from declaring a club ineligible to participate in the competition if UEFA is comfortably satisfied that the impact of a decision taken in connection with the same factual circumstances by a national or international sporting body, arbitral tribunal or state court has already had the effect to prevent that club from participating in a UEFA club competition."
    Artikel 2.06 UCLR (2011/2012) :

    "In addition to the administrative measure of declaring a club ineligible, as provided for in paragraph 2.05, the UEFA Organs for the Administration of Justice can, if the circumstances so justify, also take disciplinary measures in accordance with the UEFA Disciplinary Regulations."

    Das Schiedsgericht erwog, dass Artikel 50 (3) der UEFA-Statuten in Verbindung mit Artikel 2.05 und 2.06 UCLR ein zweistufiges Verfahren vorsehe: In einer ersten Stufe werde gestützt auf Artikel 2.05 UCLR eine Administrativmassnahme ("administrative measure") in Form eines einjährigen Ausschlusses vom europäischen Clubwettbewerb ausgesprochen. In einer zweiten Stufe werde eine Disziplinarmassnahme verhängt, die keine zeitliche Höchstdauer kenne, und zusätzlich zur Administrativmassnahme ( "In addition to the administrative measure [...]" ) erlassen werden könne. Die beiden Arten von Spielsperren seien nach dem Regelungszweck der erwähnten Bestimmungen klar auseinanderzuhalten, indem zunächst mit sofortiger Wirkung ein Ausschluss vom Wettbewerb verhängt werde, bevor die UEFA die vorgeworfenen Verfehlungen eingehend prüfe. Die UEFA habe ein schutzwürdiges Interesse, einen Fussballclub unverzüglich vom Wettbewerb auszuschliessen, ohne zunächst ein umfangreiches Disziplinarverfahren gegen ihn einzuleiten. Die Administrativmassnahme, so das TAS, stelle somit nicht die endgültige, sondern lediglich eine vorläufige minimale Sanktion dar, die den Schutz der Integrität des konkreten Wettkampfs bezwecke.

    6.2.3. Die Anwendung des Prinzips ne bis in idem setzt unter anderem voraus, dass dem Gericht im ersten Verfahren die Möglichkeit zugestanden haben muss, den Sachverhalt unter allen tatbestandsmässigen Punkten zu würdigen (BGE 135 IV 6 E. 3.3; 119 Ib 311 E. 3c mit Hinweisen). Inwiefern dies zutreffen soll, nachdem es im ersten Verfahren des türkischen Fussballverbands doch lediglich um eine Administrativmassnahme ging, um die Integrität des konkreten Wettkampfs in einem vorläufigen Verfahren zeitgerecht zu schützen, und nicht um ein umfassendes Disziplinarverfahren zur abschliessenden Beurteilung der vorgeworfenen Verfehlungen, leuchtet nicht ein. Wie das Bundesgericht in einem Entscheid im Bereich der Sportschiedsgerichtsbarkeit festgehalten hat, setzt die Anwendung des Doppelbestrafungsverbots unter anderem eine Identität der geschützten Rechtsgüter voraus; zudem wies es darauf hin, dass dieses Verbot nicht ausschliesst, dass dasselbe Verhalten neben strafrechtlichen auch zivilrechtliche, verwaltungsrechtliche oder disziplinarische Folgen nach sich zieht (Urteil 4A_386/2011 vom 3. Januar 2011 E. 9.3.2).

    Auf den Umstand, dass mit den unterschiedlichen Verfahren nach Artikel 2.05 und 2.06 UCLR auch je verschiedene Zwecke verfolgt und insoweit verschiedene Rechtsgüter geschützt werden, geht der Beschwerdeführer allerdings nicht ein. Er begnügt sich vielmehr mit dem Hinweis darauf, dass das Schiedsgericht bei beiden Verfahren von Sanktionen ("sanctions") spricht, womit er nicht aufzeigt, dass es sich bei dem nach Artikel 2.05 verfügten einjährigen Ausschluss um einen Entscheid handelt, der denselben Gegenstand wie die nachfolgend gestützt auf Artikel 2.06 ausgesprochene Disziplinarmassnahme aufweist. Angesichts des geschilderten zweistufigen Verfahrens mit je unterschiedlichem Regelungszweck ist auch nicht erkennbar, inwiefern dem türkischen Verband TFF im ersten Verfahren bereits die Möglichkeit zugestanden hätte, den Sachverhalt abschliessend unter allen tatbestandsmässigen Punkten zu würdigen.
    Dem TAS ist keine Verletzung des Grundsatzes ne bis in idem vorzuwerfen. Die Rüge der Verletzung des Ordre public stösst somit ins Leere.

    7.
    Die Beschwerde erweist sich als unbegründet und ist abzuweisen, soweit darauf eingetreten werden kann. Dem Ausgang des Verfahrens entsprechend wird der Beschwerdeführer kosten- und entschädigungspflichtig ( Art. 66 Abs. 1 sowie Art. 68 Abs. 2 BGG

    Demnach erkennt das Bundesgericht:

    1.
    Die Beschwerde wird abgewiesen, soweit darauf einzutreten ist.

    2.
    Die Gerichtskosten von Fr. 30'000.-- werden dem Beschwerdeführer auferlegt.

    3.
    Der Beschwerdeführer hat die Beschwerdegegnerin für das bundesgerichtliche Verfahren mit Fr. 35'000.-- zu entschädigen.

    4.
    Dieses Urteil wird den Parteien und dem Tribunal Arbitral du Sport (TAS) schriftlich mitgeteilt.

    Lausanne, 16. Oktober 2014

    Im Namen der I. zivilrechtlichen Abteilung des Schweizerischen Bundesgerichts

    Die Präsidentin: Klett

    Der Gerichtsschreiber: Leemann

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              John Stuart Mill on Use and Abuse of Political Terms        
    JOHN STUART MILL'S REVIEW OF GEORGE CORNEWALL LEWIS' USE AND ABUSE OF POLITICAL TERMS



    as published on Tait's Edinburg Magazine

    Mr. Lewis is known in society as the son of the Right Hon. T. Frankland Lewis, and in literature, as the translator, Jointly with Mr. Henry Tufnell, of two erudite and interesting works are classical antiquity, Midler's Dorians, and Bockh's Public Economy of Athens. Mr. Lewis is also the author of a little work on logic; to which subject, stimulated like many others of the Oxford youth, by the precepts and example of Dr. Whately, he has devoted more than common attention, and was so far peculiarly qualified for writing sack a work as the volume before us professes to be. This alone should entitle him to no slight praise ; for such is the present state of the human mind, in some important departments, that it is often highly meritorious to have written a book, in itself of no extraordinary merit, if the work afford proof that any one of the requisites for writing a good book on the same subject is possessed in an eminent degree.

    Certain it is, that there scarcely ever was a period when logic was so little studied, systematically, and in a scientific manner, as of late years; while, perhaps, no generation ever had less to plead in extenuation of neglecting it. For if, in order to reason well, it were only necessary to be destitute, of every spark of fancy and poetic imagination, the world of letters and thought might boast, just now, of containing few besides good reasoners; people to whom, one would imagine, that logic must be all in all, if we did not, to our astonishment, find that they despise it. But the most prosaic matter-of-fact person in the world must not flatter himself that he is able to reason because he is fit for nothing else. Reasoning, like all other mental excellencies, comes by appropriate culture; not by exterminating1 the opposite good quality, the other half of a perfect character. Perhaps the mere reasoners, with whom the world abounds, would be considerably less numerous, if men really took the pains to learn to reason. It is a sign of a weak judgment, as of a weak virtue, to take to flight at the approach of every thing which Gen, by any remote possibility, lead it astray. Men who, for want of cultivation, have the intellects of dwarfs, are of course the slaves of their imagination, if they have any, as they are the slaves of their sensations, if they have not; and it is partly, perhaps, because the systematic culture of the thinking faculty is in little repute, that imagination also is in such bad odour; there being no solidity and vigour of intellect to resist it where it tends to mislead. The sublimest of English, poets imposed an elementary book of logic for the schools; but our puny rhymsters think logic, forsooth, too dry for them,+ and our logicians, from that and other causes, very commonly say with M. Casimir Perier, A quoi un poete est-il bon?

    In undertaking to treat of the use and abuse of the leading terms of political philosophy, Mr. Lewis has set before himself a task to which no one but a logician could be competent, and one of the most important to which logic could be applied. If, however, we were disposed for minute criticism, we might find some scope for it in the very title-page. We might ask, what is meant by an abuse of terms; and whether a nan m not at liberty to employ terms in any way which enables him to deliver himself of his own ideas the most intelligibly; to bring home to the minds of others, in the greatest completeness, the impression which exists in his own? This question, though it has a considerable bearing upon many parts of Mr. Lewis's book, throws, how ever, no doubt upon the importance of the object he aims at. His end is, to prevent things essentially different, from being confounded, because they happen to be called by the same name. It is past doubt that this, like all other modes of false and slovenly thinking, might be copiously exemplified from the field of politics; and Mr. Lewis has not been unhappy m his choke of examples. The instances, in which the confusion of language is the consequence, and not the cause, of the erroneous train of thought (which we believe to be generally the more common ease,) are equally worthy of Mr. Lewis's attention, and will, no doubt, in time receive an equal share of it.

    Some notion of the extent of ground over which our author travels may be gathered from his table of contents; which, with that view* we transcribe :-

    "1. Government. 2. Constitution—Constitutional. 3. Right—Duty—Wrong;— Rightful—Wrongful—Justice. 4. Law—Lawful-Unlawful. 6. Sovereign Sovereignty—Division of Forms of Government. 6. Monarchy—Royalty-King 7. Commonwealth—Republic—Republican. 8. Aristocracy—Oligarchy—Nobility. 9. Democracy. 10. Mixed Government—Balance of Powers. 11. People—Community. 12. Representation—Representative—Representative Government. 13. Rich Middle Class-Peer, 14. Nature-Natural-Unnatural-State of Nature. 15. liberty—Freedom—Free, 16. Free Government—Arbitrary Government-Tyranny—Despotism—Anarchy. 17. Power—Authority—Force. 18. Public-Private—Political—Civil—Municipal. 19. Property—Possession—Estate—Estates of Parliament. 20. Community of Goods."

    To explain thoroughly the various senses of any one of these terms, would require, possibly, as much space, as Mr. Lewis has devoted to them all. His observations, however, are those of an instructed and intelligent mind. They contain, perhaps, not much that is absolutely new ; except that ideas, which the mind has made completely its own, -always come out in a form more or less different from that in which they went in, and are, in that sense, always original. Moreover, any one who can look straight into a thing itself, and not merely at its image mirrored in another man's mind, can also look at things, upon occasion, when there is no other man to point them out.1

    Yet, highly as we think of this work, and still more highly of the author's capabilities, we will not pretend that he has realized all our conceptions of what such a work ought to be. We do not think he is fully conscious of what his subject requires of him. The most that he ever seems to accomplish, is to make out that something is wrong, hut not how that which is wrong may be made right. He may say, that this is all he aimed at; and so, indeed, it is. But it may always be questioned, whether one has indeed cut down to the very root of an error, who leaves no truth planted in its stead. Mr Lewis, at least, continually leaves the mind under the unsatisfactory impression, that the matter has not been probed to the bottom, and that underneath almost every thing which he sees, there lies something deeper which he does not see. If in this we should be deemed hypercritical, we would say in our defence, that we should never think of ranging Mr. Lewis in the class of those, from whom we take thankfully and without asking questions, any trifling matter, which is all they have to bestow. The author of such a work as the present, is entitled to be tried by the same standard as the highest order of intellect; to be compared not with the small productions of small minds, but with ideal perfection.

    Mankind have many ideas, and but few words. This truth should never be absent from the mind of one who takes upon him to decide if another man's language is philosophical or the reverse. Two consequences follow from it; one, that a certain laxity in the use of language must be borne with, if a writer makes himself understood; the other, that, to understand a writer who is obliged to use the same words as a vehicle for different ideas, requires a vigorous effort of co-operation on the part of the reader. 'These unavoidable ambiguities render it easier, we admit, for confusion of ideas to pass undetected: but they also render it more difficult for any man's ideas to be so expressed that they shall not appear confused; particularly when viewed with that habitual contempt with which men of clear ideas generally regard those, any of whose ideas are not clear, and with that disposition which contempt, like every other passion, commonly carries with it, to presume the existence of its object. It should be recollected, too, that many a man has a mind teeming with important thoughts, who is quite incapable of putting them into words which shall not be liable to any metaphysical objection; that when this is the case, the logical incoherence or incongruity of the expression, is commonly the very first thing which strikes the mind, and that which there is least merit in perceiving. The man of superior intellect, in that case, is not he who can only see that the proposition precisely as stated, is not true; but he who, not overlooking the incorrectness at the surface, does, nevertheless, discern that there is truth at the bottom. The logical defect, on the other hand, is the only thing which strikes the eye of the mere logician. The proper office, we should have conceived, of a clear thinker, would be to make other men's thoughts clear for them, if they, cannot do it for themselves, and to give words to the man of genius, fitted, to express his ideas with philosophic accuracy, Socrates, in the beautiful dialogue called the Phaedrus, describes; his own vocation as that of a mental midwife, not so Mr. A., or B., who, perhaps, owes the advantage of clear ideas to the fact of his having no ideas which it is at all difficult to make clear. The use of logic, would seem, to such a person, is not to help others, but to privilege himself against being required to listen to them. He will not think it worth his while to examine what a man has to say, unless it is put to him in such a manner that it shall cost, him no trouble at all to make it out. If you come to him needing help, you may learn from him that you are a fool; but you certainly will not be made wise.

    It would be grossly unjust to Mr. Lewis to accuse him of any thing approaching to this ; but we could have wished that his work could have been more decidedly cited as an example of the opposite quality. We desiderate in it somewhat more of what becomes all men, but, most of all, a young man, to whom the struggles of life are only in their commencement, and whose spirit cannot yet have been wounded, or his temper embittered by hostile collision with the world, but which, in young men more especially, is apt to be wanting—a slowness to condemn, A man must now learn, by experience, what once came almost by nature to those who had any faculty of seeing; to look upon all things with a benevolent, but upon great men and their works with a reverential spirit; rather to seek in them for what he may learn from them, than for opportunities of shewing what they might have learned from him; to give such men the benefit of every possibility of their-having spoken with a rational meaning; not easily or hastily to persuade himself that men like Plato, and Locke, and Rousseau, and Bentham, gave themselves a world of trouble in running after something which they thought was a reality, but which he Mr. A. B. can clearly see to be an unsubstantial phantom; to exhaust every other hypothesis, before supposing himself wiser than they; and even then to examine, with good will and without prejudice, if their error do not contain some germ of truth; and if any conclusion, such, as a philosopher can adopt, may even yet be built upon the foundation on which they, it may be, have reared nothing but an edifice of sand.

    Such men are not refuted because they are convicted of using words occasionally with no very definite meaning, or even of founding an, argument upon an ambiguity. The substance of correct reasoning map. still be there, although there be a deficiency in the forms. A vague term, which they may never have given themselves the trouble to define, may yet, on each particular occasion, have excited in their minds precisely the ideas it should excite. The leading word in an argument may be ambiguous; but between its two meanings there is often a secret link of connexion, unobserved by the critic but felt by the author, though perhaps he may not have given himself a strictly logical account of it; and the conclusion may turn not upon what is different in the two meanings, but upon what they have in common, or at least analogous.

    Until logicians know these things, and act as if they knew them, they must not expect that a logician and a captious man will cease to be, in common apprehension, nearly synonymous. How, in fact, can it he otherwise In the mind of a person, who knows not very clearly what logic is, but who finds that he can in no way give utterance to his conviction without infringing logical rules, while he is conscious all the time that the reel grounds of the conviction here not been touched in the slightest degree?

    It is only in a very qualified sense that these admonitions can he applied to Mr. Lewis; but there are so few persons of our time to whom they do not apply more or less, (and perhaps there here been hut row at any time,) that we are not surprised to find them even in his case far from superfluous. It remains for us to establish this by particular instances.

    Mr. Lewis, under the word right, gives a definition of legal rights, and then lays it down that all rights are the creatures of law, that is, of the will of the sovereign; that the sovereign himself has no rights, nor can any one have rights as against the sovereign; because, being sovereign, he is by that supposition exempt from legal obligation, or legal responsibility. So far, so good. Mr. Lewis then says, that to call any thing a right which cannot be enforced by law, is an abuse of language. We answer,—Not until mankind have consented to be bound by Mr. Lewis's definition. For example, when Dr, Johnson says that a man has not a moral right to think as he pleases, "because he ought to inform himself, and think justly, "Mr. Lewis says he must mean legal right; and adds other observations, proving that he has not even caught a glimpse of Johnson's drift. Again, according to him, whoever asserts that no man can have a right to do that which is wrong, founds an argument upon a mere ambiguity, confounding a right with the adjective right: and this ambiguity is "mischievous, because it serves as an inducement to error, and confounds things as well as words."

    Now, we contend that Mr. Lewis is here censuring what he does most thoroughly understand, and that the use of the word right, in both throe cases, is as good logic and as good English as his own. Right is the correlative of duty, or obligation; and (with some limitations) is co-extensive with those terms. Whatever any man is under an obligation to give you, or to do for you, to that you have a right. There are legal obligations, and there are consequently legal rights. There are also moral obligations; and no one, that we know of considers this phrase an abuse of language, or proposes that it should be dispensed with. It-seems, therefore, but an adherence to the established usage of our language, to speak of moral rights; which stand in the same relation to moral obligations as legal rights do to legal obligations. All that is necessary is to settle distinctly with ourselves, and make it intelligible to those whom we are addressing, which kind of rights it is that we mean; If we fail in which, we become justly liable to Mr. Lewis's censure. It has not totally escaped Mr. Lewis that there may be some meaning in the phrase, moral rights; but he has, by no means, correctly hit that meaning. He expounds it thus,—"claims recommended by views of justice or public policy;" the sort of claim a man may be said to ham to anything which you think it desirable that he should possess. Not such thing. No man in his sound senses considers himself to be wronged every time he does not get what he desires; every man distinguishes between what he thinks another man morally bound to do, and what he merely would like to see him do; between what is morally criminal, a fit subject for complaint or reproach, and what excites only regress and a wish that the act had been abstained from. No system of moral philosophy or metaphysics that we ever heard of, denies this distinction; though several have undertaken to account for it, and to place it upon the right footing.

    If you may say that it is the moral duty of subjects to obey their government, you may also express this by saying that government has a moral right to their obedience. If you may say that it is the moral duty of sovereigns to govern well, or else to abdicate, you may say that subjects have a right to be well governed. If you may say, that is is morally culpable in a government to attempt to retain its authority, contrary to the inclinations of its subjects; you may say, that the people have a right to change their government. All this, without any logical' inaccuracy, or "abuse of language." We are not defending this phraseology as the best that can be employed; the language of right and the language of duty, are logically equivalent, and the latter has, in many respects, the advantage. We are only contending, that, whoever uses tho word right shall not be adjudged guilty of nonsense, until it has been tried whether this mode of interpreting his meaning will make it sense. And this we complain that Mr. Lewis has not done.

    To explain what we meant by saying that almost everything which Mr. Lewis sees has something lying under it which he does not see, we have now to show, that, in catching at an imaginary ambiguity near the surface, he has missed the deeper and less obvious ambiguities by which men are really misled. Two of these we shall briefly set forth.

    Speaking morally, you are said to have a right to do a thing, if all persons are morally bound not to hinder you from doing it. But, in another sense, to have a right to do a thing, is the opposite of having no right to do it,—viz. of being under a moral obligation to forbear from doing it. In this sense, to say that you have a right to do a thing, means that you may do it without any breach of duty on your part; that other persons not only ought not to hinder you, but have no cause to think the worse of you for doing it. This is a perfectly distinct proposition from the preceding. The right which you have by virtue of a duty incumbent upon other persons, is obviously quite a different thing from a right consisting in the absence of any duty incumbent upon yourself. Yet the two things are perpetually confounded. Thus a man will say he has a right to publish his opinions; which may be true in this sense, that it would be a breach of duty in any other person to interfere and prevent the publication:—but he assumes thereupon, that in publishing his opinions, he himself violates no duty; which may either be true or false, depending, as it does, upon his having taken due pains to satisfy himself, first, that the opinions are true, and next, that their publication in this manner, and at this particular juncture, will probably be beneficial to the interests of truth, on the whole. In this sense of the word, a man has no right to do that which is wrong, though it may often happen that nobody has a right to prevent him from doing it.

    The second ambiguity is that of confounding a right, of any kind, with a right to enforce that right by resisting or punishing a violation of it. Men will say, for example, that they have a right to a good government; which in undeniably true, it-being the moral duty of their governors to govern them well. But in granting this, you are supposed to have admitted their right or liberty to turn out their governors, and perhaps to punish them, for having failed in the performance of this duty; which far from being the same thing, is by no means universally true, but depends upon an immense number of varying circumstances, and is,-perhaps, altogether the knottiest question in practical ethics. This example involves both the ambiguities which we have mentioned.

    We have dealt longer on this one topic than the reader perhaps will approve. We shall pass more slightly over the remainder.

    Our author treats with unqualified contempt all that has been written by Locke and others, concerning a state of nature and the social compact. In this we cannot altogether agree with him. The state of society contemplated by Rousseau, in which mankind lived together without government, may never have existed, and it is of no consequence whether it did so or not. The question is not whether it ever, existed, but whether there is any advantage in supposing it hypothetically; as we assume in argument all kinds of cases which never occur, in order to illustrate those which do. All discussions respecting a state of nature are inquiries what morality would be if there were no law. This is the real scope of Locke's Essay on Government, rightly understood: whatever is objectionable in the details did not arise from the nature of the inquiry, but from a certain wavering and obscurity in his notion of the grounds of morality itself. Nor is this mode of viewing the subject, we conceive, without its advantages, in an enlarged view, either of morality or law. Not to mention that, as is observed by Locke himself, all independent governments, in relation to one another, are actually in a state of nature, subject to moral duties but obeying no common superior; so that the speculations which Mr. Lewis despises, tend, in international morality at least, to a direct practical application.

    Even the social compact, (though a pure fiction, upon which no valid argument can consequently be founded,) and the doctrine connected with it, of the inalienable and imprescriptible rights of man, had this good in them, that they were suggested by a sense, that the power of the sovereign, although, of course, incapable of any legal limitation, has a moral limit, since a government ought not to take from any of its subjects more than it gives. Whatever obligation any man would lie under in a state of nature, not to inflict evil upon another for the sake of good to himself, that same obligation lies upon society towards every one of its members. If he injure or molest any of his fellow-citizens, the consequences of whatever they may be obliged to do in self-defence, must fall upon himself; but otherwise, the government fails of its duty, if on any plea of doing good to the community in the aggregate, it reduces him to such a state, that he is on the whole a loser by living in a state of government, and would have been better off if it did not exist. This is the truth which was dimly shadowed forth, in howsoever rude and unskilful a manner, in the theories of the social compact and of the rights of man. It was felt, that a man's voluntary consent to live under a government, was the surest proof he could give of his feeling it to be beneficial to him; and so great was the importance attached to this sort of assurance, that where an express consent was out of the question, some circumstance was fixed upon, from which, by stretching a few points, a consent might be presumed. But the test is real, where, as in imperfectly settled countries, the forest is open to the man who is not contented with his lot.

    Notwithstanding the length to which our remarks have extended, we cannot overlook one or two passages, less remarkable for their importance, than as proofs of the haste with which Mr. Lewis must have examined the authors and even the passages he has criticised.

    Thus, where Mr. Bentham recommends natural procedure in the administration of justice, in opposition to technical Mr. Lewis observes, that as it is impossible to suppose that any mode of judicial procedure should be left to the discretion of the judge guided by no rules, the word natural, 'in this case', "seems to be a vague term of praise, signifying that system which, to the writer, seems most expedient." It shows but little knowledge of Mr. Bentham's habits of mind, to account in this way, of all others, for any phraseology he may think proper to adopt. The fact is, as has been explained a hundred times by Mr. Bentham himself/—that by natural procedure, he means what he also calls domestic procedure; viz. the simple and direct mode of getting at the truth which suggests itself naturally,—that is, readily and invariably, to all men who are inquiring in good earnest into any matter which; -happening to concern themselves, they are really desirous to ascertain. That the technical methods of our own, and all other systems of law, are bad in proportion as they deviate from this, is what Mr. Bentham affirms, and, we will add, proves.

    Again, when Mr. Mill speaks of the corruptive operation of what are called the advantages of fortune, Mr. Lewis comments upon the strange, ties of this sentiment from the writer of a treatise on Political Economy; that is, on the production and accumulation of wealth; and hints, that the work in question must have been composed with an object similar to that of a treatise on poisons. Did it never occur to Mr. Lewis, that Mr. Mill's meaning might be, not that a people are corrupted by the amount of the wealth which they possess in the aggregate, but that the inequalities in the distribution of it have a tendency to corrupt those who obtain the large masses, especially when these come to them by descent, and not by merit, or any kind of exertion employed in earning them?

    To add one instance more, Mr. Lewis falls foul of the often quoted sentence of Tacitus, «that the most degenerate states have the greatest number of laws; in corruptissima republica plurimae leges; a position not only not true, but the very reverse of the truth, as the effect of the progress of civilization is to multiply enactments, in order to suit the extended relations, and the more refined and diversified forms of property, introduced by the improvement of society." Mr. Lewis is a scholar, and understands the words of Tacitus, but, in this case, it is clear, he has not understood the ideas. He has committed what he himself would call an ignoratio elenchi. By a corrupt society, Tacitus (we will take upon ourselves to assert) did not mean a rude society. The author was speaking of the decline of a nation's morality, and the critic talks to you of the improvement of its industry. Tacitus meant, that, in the most immoral society, there is the most frequent occasion for the interposition of the legislator; and we venture to agree with him, thinking it very clear, that the less you are able to rely upon conscience and opinion, the more you are obliged to do by means of the law- a truth which is not only not the opposite of Mr. Lewis's position, but stands in no logical relation to it at all, more than to the binomial theorem.

    These are the blemishes of Mr. Lewis's work. Yet they do not induce us to qualify our high opinion, both of the book and of its author. It is an able, and a useful publication; only, it is not a sufficient dissertation on the use and abuse of the leading political terms.

    We have often thought, that a really philosophical Treatise on the Ambiguities of the Moral Sciences would be one of the most valuable scientific contributions which a man of first-rate intellectual ability could confer upon his age, and upon posterity. But it would not be so much a book of criticism as of inquiry. Its main end would be, not to set people right in their use of words, which you never can be qualified to do, so long as their thoughts, on the subject treated of, are in any way different from yours; but to get at their thoughts through their words, and to see what sort of a view of truth can be got, by looking at it in their way. It would then be seen, how multifarious are the properties and distinctions to be marked, and how few the words to mark them with, so that one word is sometimes all we have to denote a dozen different ideas, and that men go wrong less often than Mr. Lewis supposes, from using a word in many senses, but more frequently from using it only in one, the distinctions which it serves to mark in its other acceptations not being adverted to at all. Such a book would enable all kinds of thinkers, who are now at daggers-drawn, because they are speaking different dialects and know it not, to understand one another, and to perceive that, with the proper explanations, their doctrines are reconcilable; and would unite all the exclusive and one-sided systems, so long the bane of true philosophy, by placing before each man a more comprehensive view, in which the whole of what is affirmative in his own view would be included.

    This is the larger and nobler design which Mr. Lewis should set before himself, and which, we believe, his abilities to be equal to, did he but feel that this is the only task worthy of them. He might thus contribute a large part to what is probably destined to be the great philosophical achievement of the era, of which many signs already announce the commencement; viz. to unite all half-truths, which have been fighting against one another ever since the creation, and blend them in one harmonious whole.


    • Use and Abuse of Political Terms. By George Cornwall Lewis, Esq. Student of Christ Church, Oxford.—London : Fellowes, 1833.

    + The greatest English poet of our own times lays no claim to this glorious independence of any obligation to pay regard to the laws of thought. Those whom Mr. Wordsworth honours with his acquaintance, know it to be one of his favourite opinions, that want of proper intellectual culture, much more than the rarity of genius, is the cause why there are so few true poets; the foundation of poetry, as of all other productions of man's reason, being logic. By logic, he does not mean syllogisms in and figure, but justness of thought and precision of language ; and, above all, knowing accurately your own meaning.

    While we are on this subject, we must be permitted to express our regret, that a meet who has meditated as profoundly on the theory of his art, as he has showed assiduously in its practice, should have put forth nothing which earn convey any adequate notion to posterity of his merits in this department; and that philosophical speculations on the subject of poetry, with which it would be folly to compare any others existing in our language, have profited only to a few private friends.

    1 Mr. Lewis has very properly, in our opinion, spared himself the ostentation candour of mentioning the authors to whom he was indebted, obey being mostly writers of established ten of established reputation. Such studious honesty in disclaiming any private right to truths which are the common property of mankind, generally implies either that the author cares, and expects the reader to care, more about the ownership of an idea than about is Value; or else that he designs to pass himself off as the first promulgator of every thought which he does not expressly assign to the true discoverer. This in one of the thousand forms of that commonest of egotisms, egotism under a shew of modesty. The only obligations which Mr. Lewis with a just discrimination stops to acknowledge, are to a philosopher who is not yet so well known as he deserves to be, Mr. Austin, Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of London.



              Right, Duty, Wrong, Rightful, Wrongful, Justice        
    A section from Use And Abuse of Political Terms (1832)
    by George Cornewall Lewis

    RIGHT, DUTY, WRONG, RIGHTFUL, WRONGFUL, JUSTICE

    When the sovereign power commands its subjects to do or forbear from certain acts, the claim1 for such performances or forbearances which one person thereby has upon another, is called a right; the liability to such performances or forbearances is called a duty; and the omission of an act commanded to be done, or the doing of an act commanded to be forborne, is called a wrong.

    All rights, therefore, must be subsequent to the establishment of government, and are the creatures of the sovereign power; no claim upon another, which may not be enforced by process of law, i.e. by calling in the assistance of the sovereign, however recommended by moral justice, can, without an abuse of language, be termed a right. The existence of a moral claim may often be a matter of doubt when the facts are ascertained, and one party may demand what the other may not think himself bound in conscience to yield; but, the facts being given, the existence of a right, or a legal claim, can never admit of dispute, as it is defined and conferred by a third party, who will, if required, step in to enforce it.

    Properly, therefore, right signifies a claim conferred or sanctioned by the sovereign power, i.e. a legal right. Sometimes, however, it is used to mean a claim recommended by the practice, analogy, or doctrines of the constitution, i.e. a constitutional right; and, sometimes, a claim recommended by views of justice or public policy, i.e. a moral right.

    By the first and proper sense is meant a claim which may be enforced in a court of law, or by the proper authorities, and which actually exists: by the two last a claim which cannot be enforced by any public authority, and which does not exist. Thus, in the first sense, it is said that a man has a right to his own property, reputation, &c., meaning that he has an available claim which can be enforced by process of law. It is also said that, constitutionally, every British subject who pays taxes has a right to vote for a member of the House of Commons; meaning that such a claim is supported by the practice or doctrines of our constitution. It is also said that all the people have a right to be represented; that they have a right to choose their own governors, to cashier their governors for misconduct, and to frame a government for themselves; that the poor have a right to be maintained by the rich; that the poor have a right to spoil the land-owners, and divide their lands; that the poor have a right to spoil the rich, and divide their property, &c. In the latter cases, the persons who use these expressions mean that, in their opinion, there is a claim founded in justice and expediency, which they call a right; though, in truth, what they mean to express is, that it ought, by the sanction of the legislature, to be made a right.

    Burke's explanation of rights, in fact, amounts to no more than that last stated, though he appears to have intended something very different; as his definition is perfectly consistent with the doctrines which he is professedly combating, and which he held in utter abhorrence. The following passage from his work on the French Revolution2, is in answer to those who maintained the doctrine of the natural rights of men. 'The pretended rights of these theorists are all extremes; and, in proportion as they are metaphysically true, they are morally and politically false. The rights of men are in a sort of middle, incapable of definition, but not impossible to be discerned. The rights of men in governments are their advantages; and these are often in balances between differences of good; in compromises sometimes between good and evil, and sometimes, between evil and evil.' If this doctrine were admitted, a man would have a right to everything which might appear advantageous to him, and private opinion would be the only rule of law3.

    No objection, even on the score of inconvenience, can be made to the use of an equivocal word when its different senses are plain and palpable; as, for example, the word light, which sometimes means the contrary of heavy, sometimes the contrary of dark; or the word duty, which sometimes means a legal or moral obligation, sometimes a tax on a commodity. By such ambiguous terms as these, no one could be misled. But when the two significations lie on each other's confines, the one being perhaps a metaphorical or derivative use of the same word, there is great difficulty in marking the boundaries which the ambiguity always tends to confound; though the distinction is the more important, because, even if the names were different, such near neighbours would be likely to encroach on each other's territories. In the present case, the confusion of legal and moral rules, to which, at all times, mankind are sufficiently prone, is heightened by an additional meaning of the word in question.

    Right is sometimes a substantive, sometimes an adjective. When used as a substantive, it properly signifies a legal claim, and answers to duty. Where the law confers a right on one person, it creates a corresponding duty in another. Wrong, the substantive, signifies the violation of a right. But, when used as an adjective, right expresses agreement with the standard of morality (whatever that may be), and is opposed to wrong, the adjective, that which disagrees with this standard. Thus a right may be right or wrong (i.e. a claim given by law may be just or unjust, politic or impolitic) in the judgement of different persons. The necessity of a legislative sovereignty, or of a power of altering old and enacting new laws, is entirely founded on the supposition that rights may be wrong—a truism which has sometimes been treated as a paradox and an antithesis. If the different senses of right, just pointed out, really coincided ; that is, if all claims founded on justice and sound policy were legal rights, and all legal rights were founded on justice and sound policy, there would be no necessity for deliberative assemblies or legislative enactments, and the whole business of government might be confined to the administration of existing laws.

    This ambiguity, so manifest when pointed out, and so easily detected by a translation into Latin (which has different terms for the substantive and adjective)4 has yet misled many unreflecting persons, and even some writers of high authority, who might have been expected to keep clear of so obvious a fallacy. Thus Paley, in his Moral and Political Philosophy, b. I, chap. 9, says that 'right is a quality of persons or of actions;—of persons, as when we say, Such a one -has a right to this estate, &c.;—of actions, as in such expressions as the following: It is right to punish murder with death, &c.' The argument by which Blackstone proves the latter part of his definition of municipal law, that it is 'a rule of civil conduct.prescribed by the supreme power in a state, commanding what is right, and prohibiting what is wrong5, 'proceeds entirely on this uncertainty of meaning. 'In order to do this completely,' he says, 'it is first of all necessary that the boundaries of right and wrong be established and ascertained by law. And when this is once done, it will follow of course that it is likewise the business of the law, considered as a rule of civil conduct, co enforce these rights, and to restrain or redress these wrongs6.' If, in defence of Blackstone, it should be said that by right and wrong he only means that which the law enjoins or forbids, then the latter part of his definition is superfluous, and to say that a law is right would be an identical proposition7. Hence also Crabb, in his Dictionary of English Synonyms, says, that ' right (the substantive) signifies what it is right for one to possess.' The same confusion of the two very different senses of right is well shown in the following passage, where the argument turns upon the double sense. 'If it be right that the property of men should be protected, and if this can only be done by means of government, then it must be right that some person or persons should possess political power. That is to say, some person or persons must have a right to political power8.' The apparent force of this argument rests on a mere verbal fallacy. So the author of the Dictionary of English Synonyms, just cited, states, that a certain conclusion cannot be received, 'unless we admit the contradiction that men have a right to do what is wrong9. This instance is perhaps the more worthy of notice, because it occurs in the work of a writer whose professed object was to point out and illustrate the different meanings of words10. In the celebrated verse which would represent as a paradox 'The right divine of kings to govern wrong,' the antithesis is only in sound and not in sense: if a sovereign has not the power to enforce his commands, whether right or wrong, that is, whether the subject thinks them right or wrong, he is not sovereign. 'When governors shall be so perfect, as never to propose a measure that is not faultless, and when subjects shall be so infallible in their judgements, and so candid in their dispositions, as universally to perceive and acknowledge this perfection—then, and not till then, may a peaceable and permanent government be established on such principles11.'

    It may moreover be observed, that if all rights are the creatures of the sovereign power, and can only be enforced by calling in the assistance of a superior authority; no absolute monarchs or sovereign governors can be said to possess rights, or to be subject to duties, except in a moral sense. A claim which a man gives himself, of which he is alone judge, and which he can alone enforce, may undoubtedly be called a right, though it seems much more precise and simple, in such cases, merely to speak of power; but a sovereign, whether one or many, can never be liable to any legal duties, because a legal duty implies the legal means of enforcing it; and if a sovereign power should be legally forced to any act, it would not be sovereign. That governors have not, as governors, any legal duties, is distinctly stated by Dr. Whately, in a sermon preached before the University of Oxford, although he too speaks of the rights of a governor. 'The governor,' he says, 'is bound to make a good use of his power, no less than his subjects are to obey him; and he is accountable to God for so doing; but not to them; for if this merely conditional right to obedience be once admitted, it must destroy all government whatever12.' The attributing of rights to governors appears to have arisen from a confusion of the effects produced by the exercise of the power of a sovereign, and of the right of a subject. A man by hiring a servant acquires a right to his services and obedience; a sovereign issues its commands, and thereby has a claim on the submission of its subjects : whence it is inferred that the claim of the sovereign is of the same nature as the claim of the master; i.e. that they both have a right to the performance of the respective duties. But in the one case, the claim is given by a third party; in the other, it is obtained by -an exercise of individual volition: three parities are necessary to the existence of a legal right, as two parties are necessary to the existence of moral justice. A man cannot be just towards himself, nor can that be a right which A gives himself against B, and A alone can enforce13

    In this country a mistaken notion as to the rights of subjects has arisen, from confounding the powers of the King and those of the Parliament. The people have rights as against the King; and hence it is correct to say that Charles the First and James the Second violated the rights of their subjects: without having the legislative sovereignty, they commanded acts to be done which were contrary to law. But the people have no rights as against the Parliament, or the whole sovereign body; and hence such expressions as the Parliament withholding or refusing the rights of the people, are not only unmeaning and absurd, but also mischievous, as they tend to encourage the idea that members of that body are legally, as well as morally, answerable for their acts.

    In a like manner, the rule of the English constitution that the King can do no wrong, appears to be an absurdity, and startles some who hear it, only because a breach of legal right is confounded with a breach of moral duty. Neither the whole sovereign body, nor any part of the sovereign body, so far as it is sovereign, can do a wrong, that is, infringe a right; as that implies a superior power to redress the wrong or enforce the right, which, by the supposition, does not exist. All orders issued by a competent authority are necessarily dispunishable; but this immunity does not extend to those who execute them, if contrary to law. For example, the King may order his ministers to do an illegal act, but they will obey at their peril. The House of Commons may order their serjeant-at-arms to arrest a man for an act not falling within their jurisdiction, but their officer will obey at his peril. If the House of Lords, or House of Commons, were to go in a body and kill a man, they would be guilty of murder, because this would not be an act done in virtue of the sovereign power which in their collective capacity they severally possess for certain purposes14. This is stated in substance by Blackstone15, though his expressions are not strictly accurate. 'The supposition of law is,' he says, 'that neither the King nor either house of Parliament (collectively taken) is capable of doing any wrong ; since, in such cases, the law feels itself incapable of furnishing any adequate remedy; for which reason, all oppressions which may happen to spring from any branch of the sovereign power, must necessarily be out of the reach of any stated rule or express legal provision.' He afterwards states, that the maxim that ' the King can do no wrong,' means two things: 1. 'That whatever is exceptionable in the conduct of public affairs, is not to be imputed to the King, nor is he answerable for it, personally, to his people;' and, 2. 'That the prerogative of the crown extends not to do any injury16.' As to the first of these rules, it is clear that the King cannot be answerable for any act done by him in his capacity of sovereign; as this immunity is implied in the idea of supreme power: while the second is merely a statement, in different terms, of the proposition that 'The King can do no wrong'; for King, putting prerogative of the crown; and for 'wrong, 'injury. By 'injury,' a breach of law can only be meant; as all political parties think that the King does that which is hurtful to the nation, when he chooses his ministers from their opponents17. The statement of this rule by Hume, in his Essay on Passive Obedience, is very precise, and seems framed for the express purpose of cautioning persons against the superficial error, so often committed, of confounding a legal injury with a moral impropriety. The King of England, he says, 'though limited by the laws, is, in a manner, so far as regards his own person, above the laws, and can neither be questioned nor punished for any injury or wrong which may be committed by him18.'

    Before the word 'right' is dismissed, it may be useful to notice some of the epithets applied to it; the number, variety, and discordancy of which are almost past belief: though,' when they come to be examined, most of them will be found to be either unmeaning or inapplicable. The following passage occurs, as spoken by Dr. Johnson, in a conversation preserved by Boswell19: 'Every man has a right to liberty of conscience, and with that the magistrate cannot interfere. People confound liberty of thinking with liberty of talking; nay, with "liberty of preaching. Every man has a physical right to think as he pleases; for it cannot be discovered how he thinks. He has not a moral right, for he ought to inform himself, and think justly.' Here 'physical right' must mean power; 'moral right' appears to mean 'legal right,' for Johnson never could have intended to say that a man is, in conscience, bound to conceal opinions which he thinks true: the doubt would rather be the other way, whether a man is justified in concealing what he thinks true. On another occasion he said that 'there seems to be in authors a stronger right of property than that by occupancy; a metaphysical right, a right, as it were, of creation, which should, from its nature, be perpetual20.' This expression is manifestly founded on the erroneous supposition, that a right to a tangible is more corporeal than a right to an intangible object; but elsewhere he uses a more common epithet, when, speaking of government, he says that 'if the abuse be enormous, Nature will rise up, and, claiming her original rights, overturn a corrupt political system21.' It is, however, a contradiction to speak of original rights, if by original is meant anterior to government; for, as has been shown above, the notion that 'right is altogether an abstract thing, which is independent of human laws and institutions22,' is not only not true, but is the direct contrary of the truth. The verse of .Dryden, in the Wife of Bath's Tale, that 'Sovereign monarchs are the source of right,' expresses the truth, but not the whole truth; as not only sovereign monarchs, but all sovereign legislatures, whether of one or many, are, and are alone, the sources from which all rights flow. Yet we hear of original rights, natural rights, indefeasible rights, inalienable rights, imprescriptible rights, hereditary rights, indestructible rights, inherent rights, &c., where there is no pretence of legislative sanction: indeed the only object of using these names is to induce the legislature to convert these supposed rights into real rights, by giving them the sanction of law. The phrase, natural right, takes its origin from the doctrine of a state of nature, which will be more fully explained below23- It appears to signify a claim recommended by natural law, or by those rules which were recognized by common consent, when mankind were in a state of nature, An indefeasible right-is a right which man enjoyed in a state of nature, and which he only surrendered conditionally at the making of the social compact; so that nothing has since been able to defeat or destroy it, and it is ready to be revived at any time. An imprescriptible right is a right which was prior to the social compact, and which continues to exist without being subject to prescription or failure by lapse of time. An inalienable right is a right which cannot be alienated from a man. Indestructible rights, inherent rights, hereditary rights, birth rights of liberty, &c., appear to have nearly the same meaning; viz. that they are dormant rights, never exercised by the possessors, and not extinguishable by any law. In fact, however, these imprescriptible, inalienable, indefeasible, rights, in most cases never have been rights, or, if they have, long since were alienated and defeated by the sovereign power. These various expressions have all taken their origin from the theory of the state of nature and the social compact; but they are frequently used by persons who have never heard of this absurd and mischievous doctrine, and would perhaps reject it if they knew it. All that those persons mean is, that, in their opinion, the claims which they call rights ought, in sound policy, to be sanctioned by law. It is the duty of such persons to show that sound policy requires what they require; but as this would require a process of reasoning, and as reasoning is often both hard to invent and to understand, they prefer begging the question at issue by employing some of the high-sounding phrases just mentioned.

    Rights are, moreover, divided into political or civil rights, and private rights: the meaning of which division will be explained elsewhere24.

    'Vested rights'25 is another expression which has been much used of late years. In its legal sense, 'vested' is opposed to 'contingent,' and expresses a right of which the next possessor is ascertained, whenever the prior right to the same object may determine; as opposed to a right of which the next possessor is not so ascertained26. But its political sense (with which alone we are now concerned) is widely different from its legal acceptation, and appears to have no connexion with it whatever27. When a legislature passes a law, not for any temporary purposes, nor limited as to the time of its operation, and which therefore may be reasonably expected to be permanent—and persons, confiding in its permanency, embark their capital, bestow their labour, or shape the course of their life, so that their only hope of success is founded on the existence of the law—the rights which they have acquired in the reliance upon its continuance are termed 'vested rights'; and persons in this situation are considered as having a moral claim on the legislature for the maintenance of the law, or at least for the allowance of a sufficient time to withdraw their investments, and to take the measures necessary for guarding against the loss consequent on so large a change. When duties are imposed for the purpose of excluding a cheap foreign commodity, in order to enable it to be produced at a higher price at home, the persons who carry into effect the intentions of the legislature, by engaging in the favoured manufacture, are considered as having a vested right in their undertakings, and possessing a claim to notice of a reasonable length, before the duties are removed; for although their profit is not larger than it would have been in any other unprotected branch of trade, and although the public lose the difference between the prices of the foreign and native commodity; yet having, in consequence of the encouragement of the legislature, once engaged in the protected trade, they cannot, at a moment's warning, withdraw their capital and invest it elsewhere, without incurring a certain loss. In consequence of the high duties on French, Portuguese, and Spanish wines, many persons were induced to invest their capital in the making of wine at the Cape of Good Hope. They produced an inferior commodity at a higher price: but when it was proposed to equalize the import duties on wines, it was allowed that the vested rights of these persons ought to be respected, and that they were fairly entitled to have a sufficient time to engage in new speculations. All preferences given to particular classes of traders create vested rights of this description; and it is for this reason that, although the existence of such preferences is an unmixed evil, their abolition is very far from being an unmixed good.

    A vested right may therefore be described as a right of investment28; giving to its possessor a moral claim upon the legislature, for the permanency or tardy abolition of a law, which he has gained by employing his capital or labour in adventures only compatible with the existence of the law. Being founded on the principle of not disappointing expectations, it is founded on a principle of the wisest and most enlarged policy; but the doctrine of vested rights must not be stretched too far, as there is scarcely a right on which some expectations are not founded, and which does not, in some degree, serve as a guide of conduct: it can only be admitted where the loss would be great, and the probability of the law being repealed or modified was inconsiderable.

    Of vested rights, that on which the greatest number of calculations and expectations is founded, and which, in most states, offers the fairest hope of permanency, is the right of property. There is scarcely a step in a man's life, if it has any prospective view, which is not taken in reference to his property. His bodily and mental habits, his connexions, whether of friendship or marriage, are all formed with reference to the rank of society in which his property places him. A man is brought up by his parents, and insensibly adapts himself, to the situation - which he is likely to fill, A poor man suddenly made rich is not more likely to be happy, and is much less likely to do good to others, than a rich man suddenly made poor29. There is no change in the condition of human life, except the change from freedom to slavery or imprisonment—no deprivation of rank, honours, dignity, political power, military power, or sovereign dominion—which blights so many prospects, which chills so many hopes, which brings such bitter disappointments, and such painful humiliations30, which offers such violence to a man's familiar habits and thoughts, and forces him into courses for which he is so little fitted, as the change from affluence to beggary. The interruption of this right takes a man from a station 'where he is contented,, and which he is fitted to fill, to put him in a station where he will be discontented and dangerous, and which he is not fitted to fill, The effect on the person who is supposed to be benefited by his loss, need not be considered; as, at times when this right is interrupted, the resistance is usually so great, that although the plundered are impoverished, the plunderers are seldom enriched. It is for these, among many other reasons, that the right of property is one of those vested rights which should be most sparingly and tenderly interfered with by a wise legislature; but, like all other rights, it is the mere creature of the sovereign power, which can at any moment destroy what it created: and to deny the power of the legislature to dispose of it at pleasure, is to confound expediency and justice with fact, and to conclude that what ought not to be done, cannot be done.

    Wrongful and rightful are the adjectives of wrong and right the substantives; and differ from wrong and right the adjectives, inasmuch as the former signify that which agrees or disagrees with the rule of law, the latter that which agrees or disagrees with the rule of morality.

    Justice is commonly used by political writers in the sense of moral justice. In this sense alone it is applicable to acts of the legislature. Sometimes, however, it is used as identical with law, as when we speak of the administration of justice, of courts of justice, &c.31



    1 There does not appear to be any reason why claim or requisition should not be considered as the genus of rights; though Mr. Bentham (Principles of Morals and Legislation [224 n. in the Clarendon Press edition]) says, that right has no superior genus.

    2 Reflections on the Revolution in France, ed. 1792, p. 94.

    3 'When I went into the house first,' says one of the witnesses examined on the trial of Watson for high treason, ' I went in company with a nobleman's servant who wore a livery; they seemed discoursing among themselves for a little while, and then turned round and observed that the crest upon his button was the crest of a lord, and they asked him who made his master a lord. He could make no answer, not readily, to this question that was put to him. After a little while they turned to me, upon which I explained it as well as I knew how: and after my explanation, they asked me how this nobleman came to be possessed of so much landed property as he was possessed of; and they turned round to the servant, and told him he had a right to as much land as his master, and that the time was now fast approaching when he would be as good a man as his master, and possess as much property; and also asked by what right he held this property.'—2 Watson's Trial, 65. This passage affords a striking example of the effect which may be produced on ignorant persons by the ambiguity of imposing terms, and the employment of (what Mr. Bentham has termed) question-begging appellatives, [James Watson, surgeon, was tried for high.treason in 1817, and acquitted: see State Trials, ed. Howell, vol. xxxii.]

    4 Jus means a right, the substantive ; honestus' or rectus, right, the adjective. On the other hand, the Latin language has an ambiguity of jus, from which the English is free, viz. that it means both law and right, an ambiguity which has led Blackstone into the most fearful errors.—See Mill's British India, vol. i. p. 195; and Austin's admirable Outline of a Course of Lectures on Jurisprudence in the London University, p. 48. (London, 1831.) The French droit, and the German recht, have the ambiguities both of the Latin and English words, for they signify lex, jus, and rectus. Ambiguities of words are often brought out in translation ; for instance, lingua in Latin and Italian, in English is sometimes rendered by tongue, sometimes by language. The most perplexing ambiguities, however, run through all the commonly known languages of civilized nations. It may be remarked as a singular circumstance, that the Greek language should possess no term for right, or jus. The treatise of Aristotle entitled δικαιώματα πόλεων appears to have heen upon the rights, or privileges, of different states (see Neumann, Aristotelis πολιτειών fragments,, p. 43): but the word δικαίωμα never came into general use in the sense of jus. Sir J. Mackintosh, misled by a false reading Πολέμων for πόλεων, represents this as a treatise on the laws of war.—On-the Law of Nature and Nations, p. 16.

    5 I Com. 44. Introd. § 2.

    6 I Com. 53.

    7 It is however obvious, that he uses right and wrong in the former sense, as he quotes the words of Cicero, repeated by Bracton, that a law is ' sanctio justa, jubens honesta, et prohibens contraria.'—1 Com. 122.

    8 Edinburgh Review, vol. lii. p. 364. [The quotation is from Macaulay's article on the Civil Disabilities of the Jews.]


    9 Crabb's English Synonyms, in Right.

    10 Mr. Bentham, in ins Principles of Morals and Legislation [p. 323, Clarendon Press edition], points out an ambiguity of the English word law, which signifies both a single law, and the whole body of laws, or (as we say) the law ; and appears to lament that we have not, like the Germans, appropriated the word right to the entire corpus juris, i.e. to law in its collective sense. Doubtless it would be desirable to have two different words to express the two ideas distinguished by Mr. Bentham; but it cannot be wished that any additional burden should be laid on the term right, which has already a sufficient weight of meanings to sustain.

    11 Whately's Sermon on Obedience to Rulers [in Bamplon Lectures, &c, third edition, p. 295].

    12 Ibid. p. 289.

    13 [It must not be forgotten that a civilized government voluntarily submits to the rules of law which it applies to subject persons. Thus, for example, in employing a member of the civil service, the government virtually makes a contract with him, and acts as if it were bound by the contract.]

    14 [If the Queen were to kill a man, the act would he murder, but the Queen could not he tried for it, because she is personally exempt from the jurisdiction of the courts.]

    15 I Com. 244. Boswell, in his Life of Johnson [ed. Birkbeck Hill, i. 423], reports a conversation on this point, between Goldsmith and Johnson. Goldsmith argued, that 'as the King might, in the exercise of his regal power, command and cause the doing of what was wrong, it certainly might be said, in sense and in reason, that he could do wrong.' (This is what the logicians call an ignoratio elenchi; the question was, whether the King could do a wrong.) Johnson in answer, among other things, said, 'We hold the King can do no wrong, that whatever may happen to be wrong in government may not be above our reach by being ascribed to majesty. Redress is always to be had against oppression by punishing the immediate agents. The King, though he should command, cannot force a judge to condemn a man unjustly; therefore it is the judge whom we prosecute and punish.' Johnson's sentiments are quite accurate; -though he too falls into the common errors of confounding wrong, an injury, with wrong, improper.

    16 1 Com. 246.

    17 'The Attorney-General, in his speech in Hardy's trial, cites a passage from an American work communicated to an English political society, where it is said, that 'in government, the maxim being that a King can do no wrong, the maxim ought to be that he can do no good.'—See Erskine's Speeches, vol. iii. p. 199. If the author of this passage had understood the maxim which he objects to, so far from thinking that his remark was pointed and antithetical, he would have seen that it is absolutely unmeaning. Mr. Hallam, in his History of the Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 243, 4to ed., says, that 'In the prudent fiction of the English law, no wrong is supposed to proceed from the source of right.' This statement is not correct; it is not a legal fiction, bnt a plain truth, that the King can do no wrong. It is another maxim of English law, that there is no wrong without its remedy: and against the acts of the King, no remedy is, or can be, provided by law.

    18 [Essays, ed. Green and Grose, i. 463.]

    19 [Life of Johnson., ed. Hill, ii. 249.]

    20 [Ibid. ii. 259.] Burke, in his Reflections on the French Revolution, also speaks of metaphysical rights; where, by metaphysical, he appeals to mean imaginary, or unreal.

    21 [Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 424.]

    22 Crabb's English Synonyins, in Right.

    23 In the word Nature.

    24 In the word Political.

    25 This passage is noticed and commented upon by Austin, in his fifty-third lecture.

    26 [Rights in expectancy are vested or contingent; rights generally are said to be vested when there is an existing ascertained person entitled to exercise them.]

    27 [The two are really the same. It is a rule of policy, commonly observed by legislative authorities, that valuable rights, vested in private persons, should not be taken away without compensation.]

    28 [This is quite incorrect. If I give a penny to a beggar, he acquires a vested right to the coin ; but there is no question of investment on my part or on bis.]

    29 [The author must have meant to say, 'than a rich man who has received the training which befits his position.']

    30 It is to this that Juvenal probably refers, when he so feelingly says 'hat ' Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se
    Quam qnod ridicnlos homines facit.'—iii. 152. Men are not ridiculous simply by being poor; it is when they become poor, that the shifts and expedients to which they are driven, in order to conceal their poverty and keep up a semblance of their former wealth, too frequently make them ridiculous.

    31 'The legal criminal intention necessary in criminal law is not identical in strictness with the evil intention imputable in morals. It is enough, that there exists an intention to do the act. It is not necessary that the party should know that the act is morally wrong. It makes no difference even if the party believe that the act is morally virtuous. ... A case like that of Martin the incendiary will illustrate the distinctions. There could be no pretence for his acquittal, supposing the jury of opinion that he believed that it was morally or religiously right to burn York Minster, but knew, at the same time, that it was legally wrong. If they meant by their verdict to express that his understanding was too disturbed to be capable of knowing that it was legally wrong, the acquittal was correct.'—Edinburgh Review, vol. liv, p. 221. 'There Could be no doubt that Martin was aware that the burning of York Minster was a criminal act, as his contrivances for escaping observation in committing the deed evinced considerable forethought; and the same remark applies to nearly all cases of crimes committed by madmen. If madmen were acquitted only when proved to be ignorant of the law, they would be acquitted, not on the ground of their madness, but on quite a different plea, of which others, besides madmen, might avail themselves. The true state of the question seems rather to be, whether, when a man's mind is so diseased that he believes himself to be driven by an overwhelming duty, whether moral or religious, to the commission of an act which he knows to'be illegal, he is to be considered as a person whose punishment can be useful to society, and whom society can hold as responsible for his acts. A merely depraved man may think murder or robbery indifferent acts; he may deny the existence of right and wrong, or of all moral rules whatever; but if he commits murder or robbery, he is properly amenable to punishment. But a madman is not indifferent to a moral duty; he is hurried on to a violation of law by the suggestions of a deranged understanding and a heated imagination, which seem to him far to outweigh all other considerations. A man in this state of mind is no more an accountable political agent, and a fit subject for the animadversion of the law, than he is an accountable moral agent, and a subject for moral disapprobation: as a moral agent, his errors can only be pitied; as a political agent, he must only be prevented from doing further mischief. [For the trial of Jonathan Martin, see the Annual Register for 1829, p. 301.]


              John Austin On Vested Rights        


    LECTURE LIII

    In this evening's discourse, I shall consider the distinction between vested and contingent rights.

    In order to the existence of a right, the two following (amongst other) essentials must concur:—1st. A determinate person or persons, presently existing, in whom the right resides. 2ndly. That the title, mode of acquisition, or investitive fact, to which the law annexes the right, be presently consummate or complete.

    Hence it follows, that the epithet " present" or " vested," as applied to a right, is superfluous or tautological. Every right, properly so called, is of necessity present or vested: that is to say, it presently resides in, or is presently vested in, a present and determinate party, through the title, or investitive fact, to which the law annexes it as a legal consequence or effect.

    When we oppose a vested or present, to a future or contingent right, we are not, I apprehend, opposing a right of one class to a right of another class, but we are rather opposing a right to the chance or possibility of a right. Accordingly, the contingent right of the apparent or presumptive heir to rights which the party presently entitled may alien from him, is frequently styled, not a right, but spes successionis: that is to say, the chance or possibility, that the heir, who has not presently a right, may hereafter acquire one. And, generally, a contingent right is frequently styled "spes; spes incerla; hoffnungarecht" or hope-right: a present chance, or a present possibility, that a right may hereafter arise, and may vest in a person in being, or hereafter to be. When, then, in compliance with custom, I use the expressions "vested and contingent rights," I am not opposing rights of a class to rights of another class, but right* to chances or possibilities of rights.

    And here I would advert to a meaning, frequently annexed to the expressions "vested rights," which is mentioned in Mr. Lewis's treatise " On the Use and Abuse of Political Terms."

    When it is said that the legislature ought not to deprive parties of their "vested rights" all that is meant is this: that the rights styled "vested" are sacred or inviolable, or are such as the parties ought not to be deprived of by the legislature. Like a thousand other propositions, which sound speciously to the ear, it is either purely identical and tells us nothing, or begs the question in issue.

    If it mean that there are no cases in which the rights of parties are not to yield to considerations of 'expediency, the proposition is manifestly false, and conflicts with the practice of every legislature on earth. In every case, for example, in which a road or canal is run by authority of parliament through the lands of private persons, the rights, or vested rights, of the private owners are partially abolished by the legislature. They are compelled to yield up a portion of their rights of exclusion, and to receive compensation agreeably to the provisions of the Act.

    When the expression "vested right" is used on such occasions, it means one or another of two things:—1st. That the right in question ought not to be interfered with by the legislature; which (as I have remarked already) begs the question at issue; or, 2ndly, that, in interfering with rights, the legislature ought to tread with the greatest possible caution, and ought not to abolish them without a great and manifest preponderance of general utility. And, it may be added, the proposition, as thus understood, is just as applicable to contingent rights, or to chances or possibilities of rights, or to vested rights, or rights properly so called. To deprive a man of an expectancy, without a manifest preponderance of general utility, were just as pernicious as to deprive him of a right without the same reason to justify the measure.

    Before I proceed to contingent rights, or to chances or possibilities of rights, I must remark that vested rights, or rights properly so called, are divisible into two classes;— 1st Present or vested rights which are coupled with a present right to enjoyment or exercise: 2ndly. Present or vested rights which are not coupled with a right to present enjoyment or exercise.

    For example: If I am absolute owner of land or a moveable, not subject to a right in another of limited duration, I have not only a present right to or in the subject, but also a right to the present possession of it: that is to say, a present right to enjoy or exercise my present right of ownership.

    But if the subject be let to another, I have a present right of ownership without a present right to exercise my right of ownership: I have merely a reversion, expectant on the determination of the lease, and which, till the lease determine, cannot take effect in possession.

    Or if a legacy be given to an infant, but with a direction in the will that the legacy shall not be paid to him till be come of age, he has a present or perfect right to the legacy, although he cannot touch it before he shall become adult. For if he should die before he come of age, the legacy would not lapse, (or the gift would not be inoperative), but the legacy would pass to the successors of the legatee, and not to those of the testator. It is not a gift conditioned to take effect in case the infant shall come of age, but an absolute gift with a direction suspending the payment to him until he shall come of age. If he should die before be come of age, 1) is successors would be entitled to present payment, as well as to a present right in the subject of the bequest.

    A right, therefore, may be present or vested, although the right to enjoy it or exercise it, be contingent or uncertain. Or, in other words, a present and certain right to possession is not of the essence of a present and certain right.

    For example: In the case of the legacy, to which I have just adverted, it is presently uncertain whether the infant will over be entitled to the payment: but still he has a present right to the subject of the bequest, inasmuch as the right would pass to his successors though he himself were to die before the period fixed for payment.

    Again: In every case of a vested right, expectant on the determination of a preceding right, the right of the expectant to possession or enjoyment is necessarily uncertain. For, though he has a present or perfect right, to take effect ill possession on the determination of the preceding right, ha may die himself (or even die without representatives capable of enjoying the expectancy), before the preceding right shall come to an end.

    The distinction which I have tried to explain ought to be carefully marked. For it is often supposed, even by writers who commonly perceive the distinction between vested and contingent rights, that a right to present enjoyment is of the essence of a present right: or, what comes to the same thing, that a right of which the enjoyment or exercise is uncertain is necessarily an uncertain or contingent right.

    [Examples:—Blackstone, vol. ii. p. 163. " Of estates in possession whereby a present interest panes to and resides in the tenant, not depending on any subsequent circumstance or contingency, etc" as if a right not in possession might not be coupled with a present interest.]

    I have said already, that in order to the existence of a present right, or in order to the existence of a right properly so called, the two following (amongst other) essentials, most concur:—1st. A determinate person or persons, presently existing, in whom the right resides, or in whom it is vested. 2ndly. That the title, mode of acquisition, or causa, to which the right is annexed as a legal consequence or effect, be presently consummate or complete.

    Hence it follows, that a right is contingent in either of the following cases:—1st. The right is contingent, if the person to whom it is destined or determined, (or in whom it is to reside or vest,) be not presently existing. In this case it is supposed that the events constituting the title whereon the right is to arise have already happened wholly or in part: but that though the title be presently consummate, the right nevertheless is presently contingent, inasmuch as the person to whom it is determined may never exist to take it.

    2ndly. The right is contingent, if the person to whom it is determined be presently existing, but the title, or mode of acquisition, whereon it is to vest in that person, be not presently consummate, and never may be.

    In this last case, it is necessarily supposed that the title is complex (or consists of two or more successive events): that one or more of those events has already happened: but that one or more of those events has not yet happened, and may never happen.

    For example: If land be now given by deed or will to A for his life, and after A's death to the eldest son (now unborn) of B, in tail or in fee, the right which is determined by the gift to the unborn son of B is contingent. By the gift itself the title is presently complete: for if B had now It son, the estate in tail or in fee would now be vested in him, although his right to possession, or to the enjoyment or exercise of his right, would not begin till after the determination of A's estate for life. But though the title is presently consummate, the right nevertheless is presently contingent i for it is presently uncertain whether B will have a son, and whether the persou to whom the right is determined will ever exist.

    Again: If land be given to A for his life, and, in case B (a person now existing) shall survive A, to B in fee, the right which is determined by the gift to B and his heirs general is presently a contingent right. For though the person to whom it is determined is now in existence and capable of taking it, the title, or mode of acquisition, whereon the right is to arise, is presently inchoate only, and perhaps will never be consummate. By the gift to B, in case he shall survive A, a part only of the complex title has presently happened. Before it can be consummate, and the right determined to B can vest or come into existence, A must die, leaving B surviving him: which event, forming a part of the entire complex title, has not yet occurred, and possibly may never occur.

    Wherever, therefore, the person to whom the right is determined is not presently in being, or wherever the title is presently inchoate, and its consummation is presently uncertain, the right is contingent: that is to say, there is not properly a right, (residing, as a right must do, in a present person or persons), but a present chance or possibility that a right may arise hereafter, and may reside in the person or persons, existing or to exist, to whom it is determined or destined.

    The two grounds of uncertainty to which I now have adverted may happen to exist together in one and the same case: that is to say, the person to whom the right is determined may not be yet in being, and the title determining the right to the person may yet be merely inchoate, and its consummation contingent. Insomuch that the right would be presently contingent, although the party were* presently existing.

    For example: If an estate were given to the eldest son of B, (B having presently no son) on condition of B or bis son doing some given act, the right would be contingent in two ways. For it is uncertain whether the person to whom the right is determined will ever exist. And, though the person presently existed, the deed or performance which is a part of the entire title, would be contingent. Until B have a son, and B or his son do the given act, there is no right properly so called, but a mere chance or possibility that a right may arise and vest in a given party.

    As a further example of contingent rights, I may mention the spas successionis which resides in the presumptive or apparent heir: meaning, for the present, by the heir, the person who takes from the domino*, or absolute owner, in the way of succession ab intestato.

    Strictly speaking, the apparent or presumptive heir is not heir. For nemo est haeres vicentis. In order to the existence of the relation between the predecessor and the successor, the predecessor, in the case of heirship, must have died: that is to say, must have died physically, or must have died civilly. By the apparent heir, we mean the person who would be heir presently, if the party, to whom he is heir apparent, presently died intestate. By the presumptive heir, we mean the person who would be heir presently, if the party presently died intestate, and no person entitled to take as heir in preference to the presumptive heir came into existence before the decease.

    Now it is manifest that the right of the apparent heir is a contingent or uncertain right. Before he can acquire as heir properly so called, he must not only survive the party to whom he is heir apparent, but that party must die intestate; and, in case the subject of the uncertain succession be some single right, and not the university or aggregate of the party's rights, that party must also die without having aliened the right in his lifetime.

    The right of the presumptive heir is more uncertain still For before be can acquire as heir properly so called, the party to whom he is heir presumptive must die in his own lifetime; the party also must die intestate, or intestate and without aliened the right by act inter vivos; and no party entitled to the heritage in preference to the presumptive heir must come into being, between the time present and the happening of all those other contingencies.

    Such is the influence of words over the understanding, that I thought, at first, the right in question was not a contingent right: that it was a present or vested right liable to end on certain contingencies, that is to say, the death of the so called heir before the decease of the party to whom he is presently heir (apparent or presumptive); alienation by the party in the way of will or otherwise; and so on.

    But this difficulty arose from the name which is improperly to the apparent or presumptive heir. In truth he is not heir: for nemo est haeteres viventis. He is merely the person who will be heir in case certain contingencies shall conspire to cast the heritage upon him. He has not a present or perfect right; but he has merely an inchoate right which may become consummate, in case certain facts necessary to the completion of his rights shall arise hereafter in his favour. And, accordingly, his so-called right is commonly called spes successionis : that is to say, not a right, but a chance or possibility that he may acquire a right.

    The test, then, of a vested right (or of a right as opposed to contingent right or to the chance or possibility of a right) is, I apprehend, this:--
    If the right be perfectly acquired, or if the whole series of facts necessary to its existence have already happened, the right is present or vested, or (in other words) is a right. If the right be not perfectly acquired, or if that whole series of facts be presently incomplete and may never become consummate, the right is contingent or uncertain, or is rather a chance or possibility that a right may hereafter arise.

    And in order to the perfect acquisition of the right, or to the completion of the series of facts whereon the right arises, two things must conspire.

    1st. The title to which it is annexed must be consummate: that is to say, the fact (or the whole series of facts), constituting the title, must have happened already.

    2ndly. The person to whom it is determined by the title must have come into existence, and must actually be entitled to the right, or (if he have died, and the right be transmissible), must have transmitted it to his own successors.
    If the title be not consummate, or if part of it consist of a contingency or of a fact which may never happen, the right is presently contingent. And though the title be consummate, the right also is presently contingent, in case the title determine it to a person who is not yet in existence For, to the being of a perfect right, the existence of a person in whom it resides is not less requisite, than the consummation of the title by which the right is vested in him.

    I apprehend that a right is contingent, in case the title be incomplete and may never become consummate, although the completion of the title depend upon the will of a present party to whom the title determines the right. This, for example, is the case, in the Roman Law, where a party dies intestate, but the heritage is not cast on the apparent or presumptive heir ipso jure: that is to say, where the heir, in order to the completion of his title, or in order that he may become heir perfectly and trudy, must adire haeredilatem, or accept the heritage.

    Until he accept the heritage, he has a right deferred or proffered by the law (jus delalum), but he has not a right fully acquired (jus acquisitum): so that if he repudiate the inheritance, it passes over to a party who takes aa heir to the intestate, and not through the party to whom the heirship has been merely proffered. In this case, the party who has jus delatum has merely -a contingent right, although the happening of the contingency necessary to the consummation of bis title, depends upon his own will.

    The same may be said of the right of the heir (according to the law of England), who baa not completed his title, upon the death of the ancestor, by doing some act which amounts to seisin: that is to say, taking possession (physically or constructively), of the laud which has descended from the ancestor. The ancestor being dead, intestate and without otherwise aliening, the heir has jus delatum (to borrow the language of the Roman Law), which he may turn into jus acquisitum by an act of his own: that is to say, by taking seisin or possession of the subject. But, until he fully acquire by seisin or possession, he has not a present or vested, but merely a contingent right. Insomuch that if he die before seisin, the land will not descend through him, but will descend to some party who acquires as immediate successor to the predeceased ancestor.

    The same may be said of parties who are entitled to probate or to take out letters of administration. By virtue of the will, or of the relation wherein they stand to the deceased, they have jus delatum.- which, by proving the will, or by taking out administration, they may convert into jus acquisitum. But they are not ipso jure representatives of the deceased; and must do a contingent act, depending on their own will, before their inchoate right can become consummate.

    If, then, a right be determined to a party who may never come into existence, or if the title be incomplete, and may never be consummate, the right is contingent; that is to say, it is presently uncertain whether the right will ever arise. And this is the only mark of a contingent right which I have been able to discover.

    Mr. Fearne, in his beautiful essay "on Contingent Remainders and Executory Devises" lays down the following, as the invariable test by which a vested remainder is distinguished from a contingent one. "It is not the uncertainty of ever taking effect in possession, that makes a remainder contingent The present capacity of taking effect in possession, if the possession were now to become vacant, and not the certainty that the possession will become vacant before the estate limited in remainder determines, universally distinguishes a vested remainder from one that is contingent."

    Now I cannot help thinking that this test of a vested remainder is fallacious.

    For we may imagine a contingent remainder which is presently capable of taking effect in possession, in case the preceding estate were presently to end.

    For example: If land be given to A for life, and, in case B survive A, to B in fee, B has a contingent remainder: For it is uncertain whether B will survive A. And yet the estate of B, so long as B lives, is presently capable of taking effect in possession, in case A's estate presently determined. For if A were now to die, leaving B him surviving, B's estate would not only become vested by the happening of the given contingency, but, by the happening of the same event, would also take effect in possession: that is to say, B would become entitled to a present or perfect right coupled with a right to present enjoyment or exercise.

    The present capacity of taking effect in possession, if the possession were now to become vacant, will not then distinguish a vested from a contingent remainder: inasmuch as there are contingent as well as vested remainders to which that same capacity is incident.

    But whether Mr. Fearne's test be or be not a test of a vested remainder, it certainly will not distinguish vested rights generally from contingent rights generally. For, by our own law, and other systems of law, there are numberless present rights, and numberless contingent or uncertain rights, which are not vested or contingent remainders, and have little or no resemblance to them.

    In the ease, for example, of a specific legacy given to an infant absolutely, but with a direction that the payment shall be deferred till the infant come of age, the test can have no application. There, the right of the legatee is a present right, and cannot take effect in possession till he come of age. But there can be no question about its present capacity of taking effect in possession. For there is no preceding interest on which it is expectant, and on the determination of which the enjoyment is to commence. The absolute ownership is now in the infant, and yet the infant cannot enjoy until the arrival of the period fixed by the will.

    The only marks of a contingent right which I have been able to discover are those which I have endeavoured to explain.

    1st. Although the facts constituting the title have all of them happened, (or, more briefly, although the title be consummate,) the right is a contingent or uncertain right, if it be determined to a party who may never come into existence.

    2ndly. Although that party be in existence, the right nevertheless is a contingent right, if the title be not consummate, and may never be completed.

    And here I would remark, that a contingent right, or a chance or a possibility of a right, may be transmissible to the heirs or representatives of the party to whom the right is determined. It may, indeed, happen, that the existence of the party, at a given time, may be the very contingency, or parcel of the very contingency, on which the right is to arise. And, on that supposition, if the party die before the given time, the contingent right can never vest, and there is no possibility transmissible to his representatives.

    For example: If land be given to A for life, and in case B survive A, to B and his heirs, if B die before A, the contingent right can never vest.

    But if the existence of the party at a given time be not parcel of the contingency, the contingent right (if it be calculated to endure beyond the party's life,) may devolve to his representatives.

    For example: If land be given to A for life, and, in case C survive A, to B and bis heirs, B has a contingent right transmissible to his representatives. The contingency on which the right is to arise is the death of A, leaving C surviving. And if B die before the contingency happens, the chance or possibility still exists, and may pass from B himself to the heirs or representatives of B.

    [Query. Whether jus in rem may be future without being contingent?
    In all these cases there seems to be a present or perfectly acquired right, of which the enjoyment is postponed to a future but certain period.]

    There are two senses wherein a right may be styled contingent: one of which senses is large and vague; the other, more strict and definite.

    In the large and vague sense, any right to which any body (now in being or hereafter to be,) may any how become entitled, is a contingent right. It is possible, for example, that I or you, or any body now in being or hereafter to be, may become owner or proprietor of A's house, or, more generally still, of any house whatever.

    But when we oppose a contingent right to a present or vetted right, we commonly mean by a "contingent right" a specifically determined right: and we commonly mean moreover that the right is inchoate, although the right is not consummate, and although its consummation be uncertain. A contingent right is a determinate right of which the title is inchoate, or an indeterminate right of which the title is not even inchoate, (unless in so far as capacity to take be a commencement.)

    The contingent rights which are subjects of legal rules, are those which are inchoate: ¦*. e. the title to which has begun, although (being a complex title, or consisting of several incidents) it is not consummate, and never may be: i e. some of the incidents necessary to complete it, have not happened.

    The right also must be determinate: i. e. the inchoate title must not. consist in a mere general capacity to take rights, or rights of a given class: e. g. The right of the presumptive or apparent heir is a contingent right determinate and inchoate.

    The mere capacity of taking an estate in fee simple is not a title to any determinate right.

    The mere capacity of husband is also distinguishable from that of heir. It is a capacity to take his share of any rights to which the wife may become entitled. But that of the heir is an inchoate and determinate right i i. e. the party stands in a relation to the deceased which forms part of the title, and the right itself is a right to a given res singula or to a given universitas.

    Sometimes, however, we speak of contingent rights in the larger and vaguer meaning. For example: The contingent rights embraced by the spes successionis, are any contingent rights to which the heir will become entitled on the death of the predecessor. So, again, a mortgage of all a man's future rights.

    In considering the distinction between present and contingent rights, I have considered it as abstracted from all the peculiarities of the English Law. To expound the distinction as concrete in those peculiarities, with vested remainders, contingent remainders, executory devises, conditional limitations, etc., and all these implicated with distinctions between law and equity, and real and permanent property, would take volumes.

    These spring mainly from seisin.

    In treating of vested and contingent rights, I have confined my remarks to jura in rem, or to rights which avail against the world at large. But distinctions resembling those to which I have just adverted also obtain between rights of the opposite class.

    Every jus in personam, or which avails exclusively against a person or persons determinate, is a right to an act or forbearance. But the act to be done, or the forbearance to be observed, may be to be done, or to be observed, either certainly, or on the happening of a given contingency. If it be to be done certainly, the right may lie deemed vested. If it be to be done on a condition, or on the happening of a contingency, the right may be deemed contingent.

    And if it be to he done certainly, it may be to be done presently, (or on the demand of the obligee,) or it may be to be done at a determinate future time. In the first of which cases, the right may be deemed a present right, coupled with a right to immediate fulfilment. And in the last of which cases, the right may be deemed a present right, of which the fulfilment is presently postponed.

    A right (vested or contingent), which is liable to end before the lapse of its possible duration.

    First, as to vested rights.
    (a. 1.) Where the right is a right of limited and defined possible duration, it may be made liable to end, on happening of a given contingent event, before the lapse of the defined period for which it is calculated to endure. (See Blackstone, vol. ii. p. 143.)
    (a. 2.) Where the right is a right of limited but indefinite possible duration, it may be made to end, on happening of a given contingent event, before happening of certain facts up to which it is calculated to endure. (See Black-stone, vol. ii. p. 121.)
    (b.) Where the right is a right of unlimited duration, it also may be made to end, on the happening of a contingent event, before the lapse of its possible duration : t. e. to end on another given contingency before the contingent failure of the line of successors to whom it is capable of devolving, etc (See Blackstone, vol. ii. p. 154.)

    Secondly, as to contingent rights.

    What has been said of a vested, is applicable (with a few modifications,) to a contingent right. For it may be made liable to end {if tt should ever vest,) on a given contingency before the lapse of its possible duration.

    Notes.

    The fidei-commissa and trust-substitutions of Roman Lawyers are placed with inheritances : for, with them, contingent interests were created by will. Even, therefore, where the subject was a res singula, it was considered after testaments.

    Contingent interests not allowable by strict Roman Law.

    Dispositions suspending vesting, and preventing alienation.

    In the case of usus, etc., there was no remainder over to a third party (still leas an uncertain party on an uncertain event,) but a mere reversion in the grantor descendible to his heirs.
    (Gaius, Lib. ii.; from § 179 to § 274.)
    Conditional fees and estates tail to be ranked with substitutions, fidei-commissa, etc. To rank them with inheritances, (i.e. with rights which devolve agreeably to law in default of a disposition,) leads to nothing but confusion. Such an inheritance or fee ought to be considered as a aeries of life-interests. The language resembles that of the Roman Fidei-commissa. (See Mackeldey.)

    Various means of limiting inalienability: In the Roman Law, directly : In the English, by fictions. (Blackstone, vol. ii. p. 110.)


              Peculium In Roman Law        
    Peculium means any property or asset assigned by the father of the family to a family member or a slave. The father of the family maintains the property right by the beneficiary will have the disposition right.

    Let us note that, in Roman Law, onlay father of a family (Pater Familias) had the capacity to own and gain properties. Any property/asset held or gained by the family members or slaves would be the father's property. Accordingly, members and slaves could have anything to dispose only by provision of peculium.

    Let us also note that this term is the origin of today's English phrase "peculiar to". Where a property is provided as a peculium to someone, that property is 'peculiar to' him or her as it was assigned exclusively by the father.



              Enforcement Implementation Difference        
    What is the difference between enforcement and implementation?

    Enforcement is a use of force to actualize what is written in laws. It is similar to execution; only less challenging. An execution is enforcement where it faces a possible private opposition.

    Whereas, implementation is making real what was already designed.

    Therefore, enforcement, and in more general sence execution, is a practice of the legislation, whereas implementation is a practice of a completed design.




              Debit Credit Cards        

    The difference between debit cards and credit cards is:

    Debit cards allow the holder to draw the money already deposited by the account holder. When the account holder pays money into her or his account, that amount becomes payable by the bank and receivable by the customer. So, it becomes as debit on the bank's side. With a debit card, the holder withdraws the 'debit' of the bank payable to the customer.

    Whereas, credit cards allow the holder to lend money from the bank. The money used by the customer is provided from the bank's own funds. As the amount used by the customer becomes payable by the customer and receivable by the bank, it becomes a credit on the bank's side. So; with a credit card, the holder withdraws the 'credit' lent by the bank, and to be owed by the customer.




              Legal Definition-Consent Decree        
    Consent decree means supervision of a police department by a federal authority upon the police department's own consent.

    Pursuant to the terms of a federal consent decree in effect for 25 years, NYCHA had been prohibited from commencing a summary eviction proceeding for non-desirability (including drug related activity) without first affording the tenant an administrative hearing (Escalera Decree) (Escalera v NYCHA, 425 F2d 853 [2nd Cir 1970](No. 67 Civ 4307[WRM], SD NY, March 23, 1971)).
    See New York City Hous. Auth. v Williams



              Brady Violation        
    Brady violation means public attorney's failure to provide the defendant side with material evidence in favor of the defendant.

    The obligation of the public attorney was set under Brady vs. State of Maryland


              Tunnel Vision Legal Definition        
    Tunnel vision is a type of misconduct by police and public attorney, where they are so strictly dependant on one theory for analysing the crime that they find a way to interpret every information and documentation about the crime in favor of that theory. This vision fails chacking validity of the explanations suggested other than the fixed theory.

    Finally, the evaluations said his attitude and judgment were slipping due to "tunnel vision" which led him to desire only to ride his motorcycle. McManigal's supervisor said if his attitude did not change, a transfer would be recommended.
    See McManigal v. City of Seal Beach (1985)





              What Does Dry-Labbing Mean?        
    Dry-labbing or drylabbing means false testimony given by experts on their forensic tests, which were never performed actually.

    It is a fictional result provided in lieu of a scientific evidence.




              What is the Difference Between Admission and Confession        
    In every confession, there is an admission: "I did it".

    However, a confession contains more than an admission. It may further give details about the crime, or suggest a defence about the crime.





              Legal Term For Withholding Information        
    Legal term for withholding information is concealment of information or suppression of information.

    Concealment of information more refers to a physical hiding of information, whereas suppression of information more refers to a mental way of avoiding a disclosure.










              Legal Term For Lying        
    Legal term for lying is perjury, if it is committed under oath.

    A general legal term for lying is intentional misstatement.

    Other legal terms for lying such as deception, deceit, distortion etc. cover, but are not limited to the act of making false statement intentionally. Creation of a misleading evidence or any such acting without words may also be referred to as deception, deceit, distortion, but they do not constitute an intentional misstatement.
















              Legal Term For Blackmail        
    Blackmail has been used as a legal term since 1968.

    Before, the legal term for blackmail was "extortion", "extorted money" or "hush money".

    Below are three definitions from law dictionaries, all published before 1968.










              What Does Prosecutorial Misconduct Mean?        
    Prosecutorial misconduct means improper operation of a public prosecution process. It usually involves, though not necessarily, false accusation of a person.





















              JUST IN! Senator Leila De Lima Was Issued Another Arrest Warrant For Drug Trafficking!        

    On Staurday, June 24, 2017, GMA News reported that Sen. Leila De Lima, vocal critic of President Duterte’s bloody war on drugs, was once again issued an arrest warrant that alleges she was involved in “the proliferation of illegal drugs inside the New Bilibid Prison during her term as Justice secretary.”
    According to Sen. De Lima’s legal counsel, Alexandra Padilla, the arrest warrant was issued on June 21, 2017 by Judge Amelia Fabros-Corpuz of the Muntinlupa RTC. The warrant also includes Jose Adrian Dera a.k.a. Jad De Vera.
    De Lima’s legal counsel is pushing for the arrest warrant to be dropped, seeing it as the weakest among the 3 drug cases that De Lima currently faces from the Department of Justice (DOJ).
    Senator De Lima is still currently under the custody of the Philippine National Police (PNP) in their custodial center located within Camp Crame. She was arrested and detained on February 23, 2017, also for drug charges. Judge Juanita Guerrero ordered her arrest.
    The DOJ accused De Lima and Dera of conspiring to extort money from Peter Co, an inmate in Bilibid. Co claims in an affidavit that Dera blackmailed him by detaining and threatening his niece, Sally. Co claims Dera received 2 out of the 5 million pesos that he extorted from the inmate. Dera also allegedly took 4 of Co’s vehicles and used them during Sen. De Lima’s 2016 campaign. Co adds that Dera received 3 million pesos from Co’s niece, which he used to finance Sen. De Lima’s campaign.
    In an interview with GMA, Padilla said:
    “Dera denied knowing Senator Leila and there’s clearly no trail of the supposed vehicles and the alleged campaign donation that would have any link to Senator Leila. It’s the weakest case for the prosecution.”GMA News wrote:
    “The high court had submitted the petition for decision last April after the parties submitted their respective memoranda following oral arguments held in March.”
    What do you think of this recent development? Share your opinion in the comments section.

              A Guy's Top Ten Date Movies        
    A Guy's Top Ten Date Movies

    Movies are a crucial element of any dating regimen, but the gap between guy movies and chick flicks remains an issue for couples that really just want an excuse to make out. Dudes don't mind a little romance as long as it's taking place inside of a speeding bus engulfed in flames; girls want to watch the heroine dump her cheatin' boyfriend and end up with the tender guy next door.
    I'm sure it can seem impossible to try to please a guy without renting Terminator 2 for the fifteenth time, but there is a rare breed of film that both men and women enjoy equally. These are the movies that can make the difference between "good night" and "good morning."

    The Break-Up
    True to the name, Vince Vaughn and Jennifer Aniston aren't actually a couple for the majority of this movie. A bitter and sometimes funny battle over their condo ensues, and by the end you're left wondering if they'll end up together after all…
    Why guys like it: Vince Vaughn is the fast-talking comedian every dude wants to be friends with; Jennifer Aniston shows her butt for like, a second.
    Why girls like it: Aniston ditches meat-headed Vaughn, and you know she'll do better.
    Why you'll both like it: The arguments feel real—they begin for no reason and turn ugly. You'll find yourselves pledging never to say such mean things to each other. It's like a "what not to say in an argument" instructional video.

    Enchanted
    I can't stand animated movies. I know they all have elements that only adults are supposed to pick up on, but I just don't care about the Shreks, Nemos or Wall-Es of the world. Enchanted breaks out of the pack as an animation come to life that pokes fun at the typical Disney fare.
    Why guys like it: In one of many musical scenes, Patrick Dempsey asks if he’s the only one that doesn’t know the song everyone else is singing in unison. I’ve always wondered that about musicals, and Im glad Enchanted can laugh at itself.
    Why girls like it: At its core, it's still an animated fairy tale movie. If you like Disney movies, you'll like Enchanted.
    Why you'll both like it: It's not uproariously funny, but it has plenty of giggle moments. It would be a good ice-breaker for a first or second date.

    Notorious
    Hitchcock's Notorious is nothing short of a classic. Cary Grant blackmails Ingrid Bergman into helping him spy on Nazis hiding out after the war, but the two end up falling for each other anyway. Grant must save the woman he loves from the danger he himself put her in.
    Why guys like it: It's a smart spy movie with just enough action. Cary Grant is as cool as they come.
    Why girls like it: The way Grant and Bergman get pouty with one another masks a genuine affection that's endearing.
    Why you'll both like it: Old thrillers are perfect date movies—less gore, more romance and all of the jump-into-each-others'-arms suspense.

    Juno
    Juno is perfect for a date early in the relationship. Sometimes cute, sometimes serious, it's a good test of your date's sense of humor—can they laugh at a movie about teen pregnancy? I hope so.
    Why guys like it: Michael Cera is worth the price of admission alone, but Ellen Page steals the show with her snarky wit. She says it best herself: "Jocks always want freaky girls…they just won't admit it."
    Why girls like it: I every girl can find something in Juno's character with which they can identify—she's smart, strong, funny and feminine.
    Why you’ll both like it: If two wacky teenagers can make it through a pregnancy, you should be able to stay together for at least a few more dates.

    Stranger Than Fiction
    This has been a go-to date movie of mine since it's been out. Will Ferrell's life is being written for him, and he can only hope for a happy ending.
    Why guys like it: Will Ferrell's awkward antics.
    Why girls like it: Will Ferrell's awkward charm. 
    Why you'll both like it: It's an original idea, but the story isn't bulletproof. In fact, I think there are several loose ends that are never resolved, but you'll get the gist of it even if you only watch it half the time—a perfect make-out flick.
     
    Far And Away
    I remember seeing Far And Away in the theater and thinking it was the most epic thing I had ever seen. It hasn't stood the test of time very well, but I still think it's a great romance story.
    Why guys like it: All of those gritty bare-knuckle boxing scenes and plenty of trans-American adventure.
    Why girls like it: A young Tom Cruise shows his butt for like, a second.
    Why you'll both like it: An actual couple at the time, Kidman and Cruise have a tangible chemistry.

    Keep reading...

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              Re: Major FriendFeed News: You can now post comments back into Twitter        

    VC Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan is Plagiarist, Shame for VC, Shame for HEC, Shame for Pakistan
    Respected and Honorable Professors,
    As you must be aware of the ping pong of plagiarism at the University of the Punjab. The VC Mujahid Kamran has also committed plagiarism on the peak of his life. Now he commits that he has no research publication in the last 18 years. So his research career can be judged. I want to show the Mujahid Kamrans black face.
    Please visit the web site at
    http://www.forgeriesinpu.15...
    Its just that I want to show the right face of these people. Hope you will spare some time for it.

    Here are few prominent forgerers who are considered “Forgery Masters”
    * Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran
    * Prof. Dr. Najma Najam
    * Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi
    * Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar
    * Prof. Dr. Shaukat Ali
    For the time being we will be giving information regarding malpractices, forgeries, curruptions of above metioned culprits. Later on we will add forgeries and curroptions of other members and associates of this mafia.
    Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran
    Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran is the present Vice Chancellor University of the Punjab. From the day of his appointment as VC, University of the Punjab is in the clutches of his comrades Prof. Dr. Najma Najam, Prof. Dr. Mujahid Mansoori, Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi , Prof. Dr. Shaukat Ali etc. Dr. Mujahid Kamran is known as “Forger” and “Political Blackmailer” With the blessing of Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman (Chairman H.E.C), Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director H.E.C) and sheltered by Begd. (rtd) Ijaz Shah (Former I.B Head), present Vice Chancellor is bent upon ruining the peace of the University of the Punjab.
    Please see web site
    http://www.forgeriesinpu.15...
    His competency can be judged that he was dropped in M. Phill (Physics) programe at Quaid-a-Azam University, Islamabad in 1972.
    Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran is also involved in serious forgeries like tempering and producing fake documents to gain illegal benefits. He illegally promote his wife Prof. Dr. Najma Najam to Professor Meritorious despite of the fact that she is still in active service (Visit University of the Punjab website). Using political influence is a common negativity of this gang. There were some serious objections upon his selection raised by the chancellor’s office.
    • Prof. Dr. Najma Najam

    Prof. Dr. Najma Najam is Ex. Vice-Chancellor of Fatima Jinnah Woman University, Rawalpindi and current Director External linkages(University of the Punjab) and also wife of Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran (present Vice Chancellor, University of the Punjab). She is involved in forgeries of serious kind. She is promoted to Professor Meritorious by her husband Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran despite of the fact that she is still in active service(Visit University of the Punjab website). She with the help of her husband was involved in tempering of official documents, producing fake documents to gain illegal benefits like" leave with pay" as well as various scholarships. Following are some facts of her forgeries.

    In addition to academic and financial malpractices, Prof. Dr. Najma Najam has come to rescue of her group giving illegal benefits. Among the illegal beneficiaries are Umniya Khan and Sadia, who were removed from service of the University of the Punjab because of inefficiency/dicipline, were recruited on contract in the Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi. Within a period of six months, Umniya Khan was awarded scholarship with the active collaboration of Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director H.E.C) and was sent abroad within few months of their appointment.
    • Prof. Dr. Shaukat Ali
    [Head of Physics Department, PU , Lahore, who was not eligible for associate professor]
    Prof. Dr. Shaukat Ali

    Prof. Dr. Shaukat Ali is an important member of kitchen cabinet of Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran. He has been accused of tempering his date of birth in secondary school certificate. An inquiry was conducted against him in which it was found that he is a sole beneficiary of the forgery in order to obtain bogus certificate. But the report was postponed after extreme pressure from Prof. Dr. Mujahid Kamran.

    • Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi
    Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi

    Another case of forgery (plagiarism) is Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi (Current Chairperson and Professor, Department of Psychology and Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore). She is a notorious personality in University of the Punjab because of her immature attitude (Click here for more information) . Almost all of her research articles are taken from students work without recognizing them. Saveral complaints about Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi's plagiarism had already been made to the H.E.C through Executive Director Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi but no action has been initiated by the Higher Education Commission against her. According to Daily Dawn dated March 1, 2008 "Her entire work is based on students research/dissertations, undertaken during their academic years as practical assignments and which are being published by her without acknowledging the students’ efforts and without the permission of the department to bag high research claims. Some facts of Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi's plagiarism are as follow.
    Aalia Shah studied at the Psychology Department during 1996-1998 session. Prof. Dr. Yasmin Farooqi had supervised her M.Sc thesis titled “Pre-post evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients undergoing mastectomy and hysterectomy”. On the basis of that thesis Aalia Shah was awarded degree of M.Sc. Prof. Dr. Yasmin Farooqi published the her research into journals under the title “Depression and anxiety in mastectomy cases” in Illness,Crisis and Loss Vol. 13(3) 267-278, 2005 and “Depression and anxiety in patients undergoing hysterectomy” in Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Jan 2005; 2(1): 13 without acknowledging Aalia Shah's contribution. As goes the established rules in research, the work that primarily belonged to Alia Shah should have written her name as the first author of this paper or have due citation of her M.Sc thesis. View the complaint to Dean, Faculty of Life Sciences

    These papers were presented by Prof. Dr. Yasmin Farooqi in following conferences as her own research papers.
    Depression and Anxiety in the hysterectomy Cases.
    National Conference on Role of Psychology in Socio-Economic Development of Pakistan. National Institute of Psychology. Center of Excellence. Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. ( 2004)
    Depression and Anxiety in Mastectomy Cases
    International Social Sciences Conference. Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. (2004)
    Depression and Anxiety in Mastectomy Cases
    Second International Congress on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry- Trauma Psychology. Tehran, Iran. (2005)

    Prof. Dr. Yasmin Farooqi is also involved in forgery. According to an inquiry report, she was involved in bogus purchase of books out of Higher Education Commission, Pakistan.
    Copy of Inquiry Report

    * Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar

    Another beneficiary is Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar who was removed from the chairpersonship of Department of Psychology and Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, when caught red handed in amoral activities.
    View copy of Inquiry report

    She took away departmental records and files and the matter is still pending for inquiry. She was immediately taken on deputation to Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi and has been brought back to University of the Punjab when her benefactor returned.

    With best Regards
    Student forum Punjab University, Lahore.


              Episode Recap: The Last Recruit        
     Welcome to another week of LOST recapping!  Hope you all had a great week. :)  As always, I'm sharing my thoughts on the show and I want to hear from you so chime in in the comments!
    • Locke Monster confessed to both Jack and Claire that he was using their father's body back when they first got to the island.
    • Locke Monster's comments about the original Locke being a sucker just made me sad.  I hope that this doesn't turn out to be the truth about the original Locke. 
    • Claire to Jack: "You decided the moment you let him talk to you.  Like it or not, you're with him now." What is the significance of letting Locke Monster talk to you?  That seems to be a huge theme but I'm not sure why.
    • Widmore's people can bomb Locke Monster's people?  If that is the case, they should be able to get rid of Locke Monster, don't you think?
    • Hurley's comment about people being brought back from the "dark side" - you know, "like Anakin" - was great!
    • Kate is basically blackmailing Sawyer in the alternate timeline regarding his trip to Australia.
    • Ilana is Desmond's lawyer. Ha!
    • I loved Desmond's comment to Sayid: "What are you going to tell this woman that you did to get her back?"  I'm REALLY hoping this is the key to bringing Sayid back to the "light" side ...
    • Is Claire coming back to her senses because of Kate's speech?  Funny, I thought it would take more than that.
    • Claire and Jack meet in the alternate timeline (after Desmond worked some of his magic) but Jack is called away to emergency surgery - I'm guessing this will be for Locke (I was right about that).  It looks like the alternate timeline is parallleling the island timeline - Claire and Jack, Sun and Jin, etc.  Did you notice that as well?
    • Why don't I think that Sawyer's escape plan will work?
    • And now Sawyer wants to throw Jack off the boat because Jack isn't sure about leaving the island ... and there goes Jack!
    • Jin & Sun are at the hospital and their baby is going to be okay - yay!
    • Jack and his son are bonding.  This is good, but I'm thinking something is going to go wrong.
    • Back on the island Jin and Sun are FINALLY reunited - YAY!!!!!!!! (oh, and Sun can speak again too)
    • Looks like Widmore doublecrossed Sawyer - go figure.
    • Widmore bombed Locke Monster but it's Jack who is injured.  I'm having flashbacks to the original plane crash, what about you?
    • Locke Monster to Sawyer: "It's ok, you're with me now."
    Is it just me or did the preview for next week look like the preview for a horror movie?  Why is that?
              Yeni Albüm: Replikas – “Alfred Hitchcock’s Blackmail” | Live at Istanbul Modern        
    Ä°lk albümleri tam 14 yıl önce ‘Köledoyuran‘ ismi ile yayımlayan Türkiye müzik sahnesinin önemli rock gruplarından biri olan Replikas, geçtiğimiz yaz Istanbul Modern‘de verdikleri konserden 7 şarkılık kayıtlarını albüme dönüştürmüş. Alfred Hitchcock’s Blackmail adını verdikleri albümü bugün facebook hesaplarından duyuran grup, albümü bandcamp üzerinden ücretsiz edinmenizi de sağlıyor. Gökçe Akçelik, Selçuk Artut, Orçun Baştürk, Barkın Engin, Burak Tamer‘in yer aldığı Replikas’ın […]
              SEEKING GLYCON - BLOND-HAIRED, HUMAN-HEADED, SERPENT-BODIED, AND VERY TALKATIVE!        

    The statue of Glycon unearthed at Tomis, Romania, in 1962; right-hand view (public domain)

    A snake with a blond head of hair and the ears of a man would certainly be a marvel – but how much more so would one be that could also speak, and even foretell the futures of those who sought an audience with this wondrous ophidian oracle? All of this and much more – or, quite probably, a great deal less – was Glycon, the Roman Empire's incredible serpentine soothsayer.

    In c.105 AD, a very controversial, enigmatic figure was born who would in time come to be known far and wide as Alexander of Abonoteichus, after the small fishing village on the Black Sea's southern coast that was his birthplace. Back in Alexander's time, Abonoteichus was located within the Roman province of Bithynia-Pontus (specifically within Paphlagonia, which was sandwiched between Bithynia and Pontus), but today it is contained within the Asian Turkish province of Kastamonu, and is now named Inebolu.

    19th-Century illustration of an African rock python (public domain)

    Apparently very handsome and tall with an extremely charismatic personality, Alexander was originally apprenticed to a physician/magician, but after his mentor died Alexander met up with a Byzantine chorus-writer nicknamed Cocconas, and the two spent some time thereafter travelling around together, earning their living as fake magicians, quack doctors, and via other chicanery. Eventually, they reached Pella in Macedonia, and it was here that Glycon was born, so to speak, because this is where they purchased for just a paltry sum of money an extremely large and impressive-looking yet very tame snake (such serpents being commonly for sale in this locality at that time).

    It was probably an African rock python Python sebae, as specimens of this very sizeable species (averaging 15.75 ft long but sometimes exceeding 20 ft) were apparently brought back to Rome, because it is depicted in Roman mosaics. Also, fertility-related snake cults had long existed in Macedonia, stretching back at least as far as the 4th Century BC.

    Apollo after slaying the serpent dragon Python, engraving by W Wellcome, late 1700s (public domain)

    Alexander and Cocconas then journeyed to Chalcedon, a maritime town in Bithyna, where they lost no time in concealing inside its temple to the god Apollo a series of bronze tablets proclaiming that both Apollo and his serpent-associated son Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine and healing, would soon be appearing in Alexander's home village of Abonoteichus. They then contrived for these 'hidden' tablets to be found, and news of the tablets' sensational proclamations swiftly travelled widely, eventually reaching Abonoteichus itself, whose inhabitants promptly began building a temple dedicated to Apollo and Asclepius. It was then, in or around 150 AD, that the partnership of Alexander and Cocconas broke up, with Cocconas electing to stay in Chalcedon and continue producing phoney oracles, whereas Alexander was keen to put the next stage of their original plan into action, and so he duly set off back to Abonoteichus.

    Using more fake oracles to proclaim himself as a prophet and healer, Alexander also claimed that his father was none other than Podaleirius, son of Asclepius himself and a legendary healer in his own right. Moreover, as signal proof of this, he arranged for a goose egg that he had 'discovered' inside Abonoteichus's newly-built temple to be publicly opened by him at noon on the following day in the village's marketplace before a crowd of curious but credulous onlookers, promising that a wonder would be revealed that would confirm all that he had alleged. And sure enough, when he opened the egg, a tiny snake emerged (one that supposedly he had subtly inserted inside before overtly 'discovering' the egg in the temple). As snakes were sacred to Asclepius (one common European species, the Aesculapian snake Zamenis longissimus, is actually named after Asclepius's Roman counterpart, Aesculapius), Alexander's grandiose claims were readily accepted by Abonoteichus's simple, unworldly villagers.

    Statue of Asclepius and snake, 2nd Century AD, found on the island of Rhodes, Greece (public domain)

    As an interesting aside here: Chickens are often infected with parasitic gut-inhabiting worms, including the ascarid roundworm Ascaris lineata, a nematode species that can grow to a few inches in length (a related giant species in humans can grow to over 1 ft in length!). They are often passed out of the bird's gut when it defaecates. Unlike in mammals, however, the bird's gut and its reproductive system share a common external passageway and opening – the cloaca. Sometimes, therefore, an ascarid worm ejected from the gut finds its way into the bird's reproductive system rather than being excreted into the outside world, and moves into the oviduct. Once here, however, it becomes incorporated into the albumen of an egg, inside which it remains alive yet trapped when the egg is laid. But as soon as the egg is broken open to eat by some unsuspecting diner, the worm wriggles its way out of it and inevitably scares the diner, who frequently but mistakenly assumes that this unexpected creature is actually a tiny snake.

    I wonder if such a scenario explained the above 'snake-inside-egg' incident involving Alexander? Or could the egg have actually been a genuine snake egg, but passed off to the ingenuous crowd by Alexander as an unshelled, undersized goose egg, perhaps?

    Ascaris, a large parasitic nematode (public domain)

    But that was not all. Alexander also stated that the baby snake was itself a deity, and that he would therefore be caring for it. After a few days had elapsed with the villagers not setting eyes upon this infant reptilian god, Alexander reappeared, once again thronged by awed spectators, but now only briefly and ensconced within a small dimly-lit shrine inside the temple where viewing conditions were far from ideal. Moreover, this time his huge, fully-grown pet snake from Pella was wrapped around his body, and he glibly announced that the baby serpent deity had miraculously matured directly into adulthood.

    Yet even that incredible high-speed transformation was not the most surprising facet of Alexander's outrageous revelation. Instead of possessing a typical snake's head, the head of this remarkable creature apparently resembled that of a man, and sported an abundance of long blond hair sprouting liberally from it, as well as a pair of human ears! Moreover, it could even speak, and in the future would directly voice certain oracles or autophones to temples worshippers seeking guidance. Alexander announced that this astonishing entity was called Glycon, and constituted a new, living, physical manifestation or incarnation of Asclepius.

    Two Romanian postage stamps, issued in 1974 and 1994 respectively, depicting the famous statue of Glycon unearthed in 1962 (public domain)

    Henceforth, Alexander's reputation, wealth, prestige, influence, and power, derived from his status as a celebrated prophecy-spouting soothsayer and in turn a highly-esteemed personage attracting acclaim and attention from all strata of Roman society, knew no bounds. In particular, the temple that he had established at Abonoteichus (by now a prosperous town) became a focus for fertility-themed worship and offerings by barren women wishing to become pregnant; and also for the very lucrative provision of oracles (always requiring prior receipt of payment). Moreover, Alexander was frequently consulted by public figures of high political standing anxious to solicit his ostensibly Heaven-sent advice regarding significant matters of state. The fact that sometimes his advice was by no means reliable seemed to be conveniently overlooked.

    Thus it was, for example, that in 161 AD, Alexander provided a very favourable oracle to Marcus Sedatius Severianus, the Gaul-originating Roman governor of Cappadocia, on the basis of which Severianus put into action his plan to invade Armenia – only for his invasion force, including himself, to be slaughtered by the Parthians. Allegedly, Alexander soon afterwards replaced the official temple record of his oracle with a revised one that was much less favourable.

    A sheet of Romania's Glycon-depicting postage stamp issued in 1974, from my own philatelic collection (public domain)

    In 166 AD, Alexander provided an oracle verse that was utilised as an amulet and inscribed above the doors of numerous houses throughout the Roman Empire in the hope of warding off the devastating Antonine Plague that had been introduced into the Empire by troops returning home from campaigns in the Near East, and which killed thousands of people every day. Not surprisingly, the amulets had no effect (indeed, it was actually claimed by critics of this futile course of action that households bearing an amulet suffered more plague-induced deaths than those not bearing it!), but Alexander was too powerful by then for his standing to be affected by any such dissension.

    Not long after that debacle, the Roman emperor himself, Marcus Aurelius, requested Alexander to send an oracle to his troops on the Danube River during ongoing warfare (168-174 AD) with a Germanic tribe called the Marcomanni. The oracle that Alexander duly sent declared that victory would be achieved if two lions were thrown alive into the Danube. Once again, however, the stark fact that after obeying this unusual command the emperor's army was annihilated there (20,000 Roman soldiers killed, and even the hapless lions clubbed to death) failed to elicit any censure for the unperturbed Alexander, who coolly pointed out that the oracle had not specified which side in the war would achieve success!

    Bust of Marcus Aurelius (public domain)

    Of course, Alexander was far from being entirely unsuccessful as a prophet, but reputedly his triumphs often involved the use of spies, thugs, and blackmailers to obtain the necessary information upon which to base his oracles. In addition, there were claims that sealed scrolls containing requests for oracles that acolytes presented to him were secretly opened by him using hot needles in order to discover what information they contained and thus devise an oracle in accordance with it. He also benefited from making friends in (very) high places, of which one of the most significant was Publius Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus, a former Roman consul and provincial Roman governor in Asia and Upper Moesia, who declared himself protector of the Glycon oracle. He also provided Alexander with some very high-ranking contacts in Roman society, and he even married Alexander's own daughter.

    Not content with merely being an exceptionally famous mystic, meanwhile, Alexander utilised Rutilianus's own eminence to help launch a very spectacular annual three-day festival replete with processions, ceremonies, and re-enactments of various mystical rituals, all held at the temple in Abonoteichus. These were devoted to the celebration of Apollo's birth and that of his son Asclepius, the appearance of Glycon, Alexander's own mother's supposed marriage to Asclepius's son Podaleirius, and even an alleged romance between Alexander himself and the Greek moon goddess Selene that purportedly led to the birth of Alexander's daughter, now the wife of Rutilianus.

    Selene the Greek moon goddess, with Phosphoros the Morning Star and Hesperos the Evening Star, depicted on Roman marble altar, 2nd Century AD (public domain)

    Alexander even persuaded the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius to change Abonoteichus's name to the much grander-sounding Ionopolis ('Greek city'). In addition, this same emperor and also his successors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius all issued coinage depicting Glycon. Yet despite achieving such successes as these, with savage irony a prediction that he made about himself proved to be singularly inaccurate – just like many that he had predicted for others had been. He prophesied that he would live to the age of 150, but died at only 70 in or around 170 AD, caused by a gangrenous limb. Yet although the cult's leader was no more, the cult itself, and its veneration of Glycon, persisted for at least a further century – having occupied a vast area at its peak of popularity, stretching from the Danube in the west to the Euphrates in the east - before eventually petering out. Having said that, it is nothing if not interesting to note that as recently as the 1970s, belief in a "magical snake" still existed among Turkish locals living in the vicinity of Inebolu (formerly Ionopolis/Abonoteichus).

    But how do we know about Alexander and Glycon, almost a millennium after their demise? In fact, only a single primary source for the extraordinary history of the reputedly phoney prophet and his talkative hairy-headed human-eared snake god is known, and it just so happens to be an exceedingly acerbic, hostile account written by an infamously vituperative satirist with a very specific reason for hating Alexander and all that he represented. Needless to say, therefore, one might well be forgiven for wondering whether the entire saga was totally fictitious.

    The statue of Glycon unearthed at Tomis, Romania, in 1962; left-hand view (© CristianChirita/Wikipedia – CC BY-SA 3.0 licence)

    Happily, however, independent corroboration for the reality of the Glycon cult also exists. This includes not only the survival of some of the afore-mentioned Roman coinage bearing the image (and even the name) of this very singular deified serpent, but also a magnificent marble statue of Glycon, dating from the Severan dynasty (193-235 AD), standing almost 3 ft tall, and in excellent condition. It had been excavated in April 1962 along with various other statuary under the site of a former railway station in Constanta, Romania, formerly the ancient city of Tomis.

    So spectacular and unexpected was this ornate Glycon sculpture, now housed at Constanta's Museum of National History and Archaeology, that it featured on a Romanian postage stamp in 1974 (which is what first brought Glycon to my attention, as an enthusiastic stamp collector during my childhood), as well as on a second one issued in 1994, and also on a Romanian 10,000 lei bank note in 1994.

    The Romanian 10,000 lei bank note depicting the Glycon statue, issued in 1994 – sample only (Wikipedia/public domain – reproduced here on a strictly non-commercial Fair Use basis only)

    Moreover, smaller Glycon statuettes in bronze have been found in Athens too, confirming the cult's spread into and across southwestern Europe. And according to the 2nd-Century-AD Christian philosopher Athenagoras of Athens, writing in his Apology (c.176/177 AD), a statue of Alexander once stood in the forum of Parium, which was a Greek city in Mysia on the Hellespont (now called the Dardanelles). 

    Consequently, as there can be no doubt that Glycon, regardless of its true nature, really did exist, should we look more favourably upon its sole primary literary source, even though said source originated from the pen of an inimical satirist? This is where it all becomes much more complex, as will now be seen.

    Lucian of Samosata, engraving by William Faithorne, 1600s (public domain)

    The source in question is a concise but coruscating essay tersely entitled Alexander the False Prophet, written in Ancient Greek by Lucian of Samosata (Samosata being an ancient Syrian city on the west bank of the Euphrates river). A popular Greek satirist and rhetorician, Lucian was a contemporary of Alexander, and was particularly noted for the scoffing, sarcastic nature of many of his writings. His essay contained the history of Alexander and Glycon that I have summarised here in this present article of mine, but also included many additional claims and suppositions of fraud, lewd behaviour, and other undesirable activities relative to its human and serpentine subjects.

    For instance, Lucian confidently asserted that the talking head of Glycon was not this snake's real head (which, he claimed, was kept well hidden under Alexander's armpit), but was instead an artificial construction made from linen and skilfully manipulated by Alexander using a lengthy internal tube composed of conjoined bird windpipes that led out from the false head into a hidden chamber where an assistant spoke words into the tube, thus making it seem as if Glycon were speaking. Lucian further alleged that a series of very fine, attached horse-hairs acted as internal pulleys to make the false head open and close its mouth, and extend and retract its tongue.

    Sculpture of Lucian of Samosata, atop an ornamental pillar in the grounds of Nordkirchen Castle, near Münster, Germany (© Mbdortmund/Wikipedia – GFDL 1.2 licence)

    Lucian also 'explained' how various of Alexander's correct predictions had been achieved via fraudulent activity. He even alleged that shortly after a somewhat acrimonious meeting with Alexander (in c.162 AD) during which he had tried to trick Alexander and had even attempted (albeit unsuccessfully) to dissuade Rutilianus from marrying the latter's daughter, he had narrowly avoided death during a boat trip when Alexander had supposedly paid the vessel's crew to murder him, only being saved when the captain prevented them from carrying out the heinous deed.

    Traditionally, this vicious character assassination of Alexander by Lucian in literary form has tended to be viewed uncritically by those modern-day scholars actually aware of it (with Glycon in particular being among the Roman Empire's least-known figures of interest nowadays). However, all of that changed dramatically in June 2011.

    Steve Moore with fellow FT colleagues in 2002 - from left to right, back row to front row: Mark Pilkington,  Paul Sieveking, Bob Rickard, Ian Simmons, Steve Moore, and Owen Whiteoak (© Paul Sieveking)

    This very notable volte-face was due to the publication of a fascinating, eye-opening article presenting a very erudite reappraisal of Alexander, Glycon, and their portrayal by their longstanding nemesis Lucian. Appearing in the British monthly periodical Fortean Times (which is devoted to the serious investigation and chronicling of unexplained and controversial phenomena of every conceivable - and inconceivable! – kind), the article was authored by Steve Moore.

    Steve was a highly-respected veteran researcher of ancient Asian and European mysteries, as well as one of the original Gang of Fort associated with the founding of Fortean Times itself (originally entitled The News), and his article directly challenged many of Lucian's long-accepted claims.

    Opening page of text from Steve Moore's excellent Fortean Times article (© Steve Moore/Fortean Times)

    For example, Steve questioned how Lucian could have known any specific details about Alexander's early years, especially those shared with Cocconas, bearing in mind that he, Lucian, had not spent any time alongside the pair to witness anything at first hand, and that Cocconas and Alexander were hardly likely to have informed him (or anyone else, for that matter) what they had been doing if they had truly been engaged in fraudulent activity during that time period, as vehemently asserted by Lucian in his account. Indeed, Steve went even further, by questioning whether Cocconas even existed – after all, there is no mention of him outside Lucian's poisonous diatribe. Might he therefore have been a wholly fictitious character, invented specifically by Lucian in order to cast Alexander's early years in as bad a light as possible?

    No less circumspect are Lucian's wholly-unsubstantiated claims of spying, thuggery, blackmail, furtively opening sealed scrolls, and a varied assortment of other equally unpleasant activities attributed by him to Alexander. As for Lucian's once again unconfirmed allegation of almost being murdered by henchmen of Alexander while taking a boat ride, this just so happens to have been a very popular storyline in romantic works of fiction from that time period (and of which Lucian would certainly have been well aware). So it should clearly be viewed with great caution as a supposed statement of fact.

    Was Glycon's voice achieved by ventriloquism and its head a glove or sock puppet, i.e. comparable, for instance, with how the famous American entertainer Shari Lewis 'brought to life' Lamb Chop and Charlie Horse? (public domain)

    Equally, Steve pointed out that Lucian's bold statements regarding the nature of Glycon's head and speech were mere supposition too. True, the notions that Lucian had put forward regarding the mechanisms by which a fake head could have been secretly operated by Alexander were nothing if not ingenious, but that is all that they were – notions, not facts. No physical evidence or direct eyewitness observations confirming them were presented by Lucian in support of his accusations, it was all speculation (and spiteful speculation at that) on his part, nothing more. Other, much less controversial options also existed but which Lucian never mentioned, such as ventriloquism to make Glycon speak, and a simple glove or sock puppet-like creation to make its fake head move and open its mouth (always assuming of course that a fake head really was present).

    Moreover, we only have Lucian's very questionable testimony that Glycon actually talked at all! In fact, it is even possible that Lucian never actually saw Glycon or spoke to anyone who had done so, because, amazingly, his essay makes no mention whatsoever of Glycon's two most remarkable physical features – its human ears and blond hair. Conversely, whereas Lucian claimed that it possessed a human-like head, most of the physical depictions of Glycon currently known (i.e. the various coins and statues noted earlier by me in this article) actually portray it with a long-snouted head that is certainly more pythonesque than humanoid in appearance. If for no other reason than this, therefore, the authentic nature of the content of Lucian's essay clearly should not - can not - be taken in any way for granted.

    Glycon portrayed upon a 2nd-Century AD Ionopolis coin (copyright holder unknown, despite considerable searches by me; reproduced here on a strictly non-commercial Fair Use educational basis only)

    Returning to the matter of the mobility and loquacity of Glycon's head, it would be very prudent here to quote Steve's take on Lucian's assertions regarding this:

    In boasting that he knows how the trick was done, Lucian is plainly covering up the fact that this can only be a matter of conjecture. These conjectures may be very close to the truth; but they remain conjectures, not proof.

    Steve also applied this same line of sound reasoning very successfully and convincingly to many other of Lucian's scathing claims masquerading as facts against Alexander. In addition, certain of Alexander's activities that Lucian deemed to be evidence of his fakery – most notably his retreating overnight into an inner, subterranean sanctuary called the adyton, in order to receive his oracles in peaceful solitude via dreams, and then reveal them publicly the following morning - were shown by Steve to be no different from those performed by various soothsayers and oracle-givers who had not been accused of or linked to fraud, such as the very famous, much-revered Oracle of Apollo at Claros, on the coast of Ionia in present-day Anatolia, Turkey.

    'Chariot of Apollo', by Gustave Moreau, late 1800s (public domain)

    Indeed, there is even a very relevant, present-day parallel, as Steve tellingly revealed in his own article:

    The adyton is an underground chamber, and it's now know
              Did the Alleged Silk Road Kingpin Get Scammed Out of $650,000 by a Phony Hit Man?        

    Last week, federal prosecutors announced that Ross William Ulbricht, the alleged proprietor of the black market online vice emporium Silk Road, was now suspected of attempting to commission six murders, not just two. In addition to the alleged hits on a former site employee from Utah and a troublesome would-be blackmailer called “FriendlyChemist” in Canada, prosecutors now allege that Ulbricht (aka Dread Pirate Roberts) ordered the assassination of a Canadian Silk Road user named “tony76” and his three housemates. Ulbricht allegedly commissioned these hits from another Silk Road user named “redandwhite,” who was also the ostensible assassin in the first Canadian murder-for-hire plot. Police and prosecutors have no evidence to indicate that any of the five murders for which redandwhite was allegedly paid ever took place. (The hit on the ex-employee never took place, either; the “hit man” in that situation was actually a federal agent.)

    Of all the aspects to this ongoing story, the redandwhite angle might be the most confusing. As far as we know, Ulbricht allegedly paid redandwhite $650,000 total to commit these murders. He may have believed that redandwhite was affiliated with the Hells Angels. (Ulbricht allegedly wrote that he “sent payment to angels for hit on tony76 and his 3 associates.”) He apparently received some sort of confirmation that convinced him that they actually took place. Beyond that, nobody really knows what happened. Who is redandwhite? What actually happened here? Here are a few theories that are now in circulation.

    Redandwhite was running a very long con on Ulbricht. This is what probably happened: a clever grifter scammed Dread Pirate Roberts out of $650,000. If you believe this theory, whoever was behind the “redandwhite” account was in cahoots with the people whom Ulbricht allegedly was trying to have killed—or maybe redandwhite actually was one of those people. After allegedly convincing Ulbricht that “tony76” and “FriendlyChemist” posed a threat to Silk Road, redandwhite stepped in and offered to neutralize that threat, for a fee. Once Ulbricht allegedly paid for the hits, “redandwhite” staged a murder scene and the offending accounts disappeared, making it look like those users had been killed. This is an elaborate ruse, to be sure, but not an entirely implausible one.

    Redandwhite was a government agent. Ulbricht had allegedly been scammed by a government agent posing as a hitman once before. Was the redandwhite saga a similar sting operation? It’s possible. The trouble with this theory is that the government has admitted its involvement in the first sting, which makes it odd that they wouldn’t do the same thing here. While I can think of reasons why the government might want to keep the details of this sort of operation secret—to avoid burning a confidential informant in an ongoing investigation, perhaps—and while it certainly seems like there’s stuff the government isn’t yet telling us about how it identified and caught Ulbricht, I find this theory less convincing than the “Ulbricht was scammed” one.

    Redandwhite was an actual hit man, and did a great job covering his tracks. Highly dubious. The Canadian government said there’s no evidence that anyone was ever killed when, where, and how they were supposed to have been killed by redandwhite. Maybe the Canadians are just very bad at investigating or noticing murders. But it’s more likely that the murders never happened in the first place.


              On This Day in 1957, the FBI Finally Had to Admit That the Mafia Existed        

    On Nov. 14, 1957, 56 years ago today, New York state troopers noticed a suspicious number of expensive cars with out-of-state license plates converging on the small town of Apalachin.* The cars, it turned out, belonged to Mafia leaders from across America, who had come to Apalachin for a national summit meeting. The aftermath of the Apalachin Meeting would shed new light on a criminal organization that greatly valued its secrecy. It also forced the FBI to admit once and for all that the Mafia operated on a nationwide scale.

    Today, thanks to decades’ worth of mob-related entertainment products, even small children know what the Mafia’s all about (funny nicknames, cannoli, and men kissing other men on the cheek). But for many years before Apalachin, the FBI refused to even admit that the Mafia existed. J. Edgar Hoover felt that communists and domestic subversives were the major threats facing the country, and he directed the bureau’s resources toward neutralizing them. Organized crime was a distraction that the FBI didn’t want.

    They couldn’t ignore what happened at Apalachin, though. The small town near Binghamton was the home of Joseph Barbara, a subordinate of Buffalo, N.Y., crime lord Stefano Magaddino. Magaddino suggested Barbara’s house as the location for a meeting that would hopefully settle some of what had been riling the Italian mob. Two New York mobsters, Vito Genovese and Frank Costello, had been angling for control of the Luciano crime family. (Costello had it, Genovese wanted it.) After much bloodshed, Genovese emerged victorious, and he called for a nationwide meeting of mob leaders in hopes that the other families would acknowledge his control.

    But the meeting hadn’t gone very far before it fell apart. State troopers noticed all the fancy cars parked in Barbara’s driveway, and started taking down license plate numbers. (Some have suggested that one of Genovese’s rivals tipped the cops, in hopes of spoiling Genovese’s crown ceremony.) The assembled mafiosi noticed this, and began to panic. Some fled into the woods, some hid in the basement. Others ran to their cars and tried to drive away. The troopers caught about 60 of them; when questioned, many insisted they were there for a barbecue, or that they had just come to visit their good friend Joe Barbara, who was recovering from a heart attack. When all was said and done, the troopers had apprehended Mafia leaders from New York, New Jersey, Tampa, Los Angeles, Cleveland, Dallas, Pittsburgh, and several other locations. A New York state investigative commission eventually brought obstruction of justice charges against 20 of the summit participants, for refusing to explain why they had all come to Apalachin. The men were convicted, but the convictions were later reversed. (Eliot Lumbard, chief counsel to the Apalachin commission, just died earlier this month.)

    The whole thing made national news, and it finally forced the FBI to acknowledge that organized crime was a matter worthy of notice. Some believe that J. Edgar Hoover’s reluctance to acknowledge the mob’s existence can be ascribed to the Mafia somehow acquiring photographs of Hoover in drag, and using those to blackmail him into leaving the Mafia alone. There is no evidence to suggest that this is true. What is clear, however, is that before Apalachin, Hoover had scoffed at the idea that criminals were organizing across state lines, insisting that so-called crime syndicates were local fiefdoms, to be investigated by local police.

    Apalachin destroyed that fiction, and Hoover begrudgingly established a unit called the Top Hoodlum Program, devoted to investigating organized crime in the United States through wiretaps, human intelligence, and other methods. Even then, the pursuit wasn’t always very avid; in his book Gangbusters, Ernest Volkman noted that Hoover initially instructed every FBI field office to “prepare a list of ten ‘top hoodlums’—no more, no less—and target them for investigation and prosecution.” (The field office in Butte, Mont., “desperately searched for hoodlums to put on the list,” Volkman writes. “Finally it listed ten local juvenile delinquents and vowed a full investigation of their ‘criminal activities.’ Headquarters praised Butte for its diligence.”)

    As for Vito Genovese, the disaster at Apalachin was an inauspicious beginning to his stint at the head of the Luciano family, which was renamed the Genovese family in his honor. He was convicted of heroin trafficking in 1959, and died in federal prison 10 years later.

    *Correction, Nov. 14, 2013: This post originally stated that the Apalachin Meeting happened 66 years ago. It was 56 years ago.


              No more political blackmailing ,CM Virbhadra Singh warns BJP        

              Philipina Maid Blackmailed By Boss To Suck Him Off        
    Watch Philipina Maid Blackmailed By Boss To Suck Him Off at ExSexTape.com - best homemade sex videos and amateur porn movies.
              Saudi Arabia Threatens To Crash The Dollar If Congress Exposes Their Role In 9/11 Attacks        




    A bombshell report by the New York Times has revealed that Saudi Arabia, the third largest holder of U.S. Treasury bills in the world behind China and Japan, has warned the Obama administration and Congress that they will begin liquidating their U.S. assets if Congress passes a bill allowing for the Saudi government to be held responsible for their role in the terror attacks of 9/11.
    Make no mistake that this is blackmail, as the Saudis are estimated to hold three-quarters of a trillion dollars in T-bills and the sudden divestment would almost certainly crash the dollar as well as global markets along with it.
    Perhaps this explains Obama’s unwavering support for the Wahhabi regime, as congressional aides and administration officials have confirmed that the President has been lobbying Congress to block passage of the bill. Administration officials have warned Senators that if the Saudis make good on their threat, there would be extreme economic and diplomatic fallout.
    The bill before the Senate is meant to clarify that the immunity enjoyed by foreign nationals should not be applicable to cases where a nation is found responsible for a terrorist attack on American soil. If passed, the bill would effectively clear the way for the role of the Saudi government to be explored in the numerous lawsuits filed regarding 9/11.

    Realizing their complicity in the events of 9/11 are on the precipice of being exposed, Saudi Arabia has gone into full panic mode. They are now threatening to liquidate hundreds of billion in U.S. denominated assets, and perhaps as much as $750 billion in U.S. T-bills (the NYT’s estimate of Saudi Treasury holdings).

    During the last month's visit to Washington, Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir delivered a message from the Saudi King, reportedly “telling lawmakers that Saudi Arabia would be forced to sell up to $750 billion in treasury securities and other assets in the United States before they could be in danger of being frozen by American courts,” according to the NY Times.
    The spectacular threat by the Saudis was not expected, as speculation about using divestment of T-bills as a weapon was largely thought of as a potential threat to be wielded by the Chinese in the event of a major geopolitical conflict with the United States. Surprisingly, it was the Saudis that are the first to threaten to use this potentially devastating economic weapon.
    The threat is indicative of a continually deteriorating relationship with the Saudis, as the U.S. and the Kingdom have been at odds over how to deal with Iran. Many experts are skeptical of the threat by the Saudis due to the fact that the move, would in turn, decimate the Saudi Arabian economy, as their currency is pegged to the dollar.
    According to the NY Times report:
    Obama has been lobbying so intently against the bill that some lawmakers and families of Sept. 11 victims are infuriated. In their view, the Obama administration has consistently sided with the kingdom and has thwarted their efforts to learn what they believe to be the truth about the role some Saudi officials played in the terrorist plot.

    So why would this be the case

    Surprisingly, it isn’t the economic impact that the Obama administration is most concerned about, but rather what a legitimate inquiry into the Saudi Arabian role in the attacks of 9/11 would reveal, and subsequently whom it would implicate in the attacks.
    Hence, the administration has forwarded a strawman argument, claiming that the legislation would ultimately put Americans at risk overseas.
    “It’s stunning to think that our government would back the Saudis over its own citizens,” said Mindy Kleinberg, whose husband died in the World Trade Center on Sept. 11 and who is part of a group of victims’ family members pushing for the legislation.
    Families of the 9/11 victims have attempted to utilize the U.S. court system as a means of holding members of the Saudi royal family, Saudi banks, and charities liable due to alleged Saudi financial support for the attacks. These efforts have largely been stymied, in part because of a 1976 law that gives foreign nations some immunity from lawsuits in American courts, according to Zero Hedge.
    It is this 1976 law that the proposed Senate bill aims to overturn, which now has the Saudis threatening the economic “nuclear” option.
    Of course, the administration can’t outright admit that they are attempting to keep the truth buried, thus the government claims that weakening the sovereign immunity provisions would put the American government, along with its citizens and corporations, in legal risk abroad because other nations might retaliate with their own legislation. This was highlighted in February when Secretary of State John Kerry told a Senate panel that the bill would “expose the United States of America to lawsuits and take away our sovereign immunity and create a terrible precedent.”
    In layman terms, if the U.S. fully explores the role of the Saudis in the 9/11 attacks, due to the passing of this bill, then other nations would perhaps follow suit and strip U.S. immunity — in respect to terror attacks on their soil.
    Essentially, the U.S. government fears that their own global terrorist misdeeds will then be unmasked if there is a reciprocation by other nations, an almost unthinkable scenario that would decimate U.S. standing across the globe.
    Jay Syrmopoulos is a political analyst, free thinker, researcher, and ardent opponent of authoritarianism. He is currently a graduate student at University of Denver pursuing a masters in Global Affairs. Jay’s work has been published on TheFreeThoughtProject.com, where this article first appeared, Ben Swann’s Truth in Media, Truth-Out, Raw Story, MintPress News, as well as many other sites. You can follow him on Twitter@sirmetropolis, on Facebook at Sir Metropolis and now on tsu.

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              CIA chief Petraeus steps down, having failed to keep his drone in his pants        

    David H. Petraeus, the head of America's Central Intelligence Agency, resigned just days after the election after issuing a statement saying he had engaged in an extramarital affair.

    "By acknowleding an extramarital affair, Mr. Petraeus, 60, was confronting a sensitive issue for a spy chief," reports the New York Times. "Intelligence agencies are often concerned about the possibility that agents who engage in such behavior could be blackmailed for information."

    In an email to Wired's national security blog Danger Room, a former confidant says of the disgraced general, “He feels that he screwed up. He did a dishonorable thing and needed to try to do the honorable thing.” The source says the affair began after Petraeus retired from the military and became CIA director. (more…)


              ORGANISING SEX WORKERS WITHIN MAINSTREAM LABOUR MOVEMENT         

    The controversy of whether “sex work” can be defined and treated as real work or not is one that evokes a lot of emotion and sentiments. This is not surprising because the answer to this will determine whether this area of “Work” deserves to be acknowledged and given as much legal and social protection and recognition as any other type of work recognized under the auspice of labour laws. It cannot be denied that “sex workers”, like them or hate them, provide a service. Since prostitution is commonly referred to as the oldest profession, sex work is a service as old as humankind.
     
     

    With the advent of globalization, internet dating, chat rooms, cyber-sex etc, the world’s touted oldest profession has not been left behind in modernizing its trade and services to keep up with the ever changing technology; dynamism is indeed the name of the game. In today’s world, a sex worker is no longer just the woman in skimpy red dress and high heels, lurking at the corner of the street in the middle of the night looking for a customer. A sex worker now include prostitutes, pornography actors and actresses, chat room /telephone sex providers, escorts, gigolos etc.  

    However, like all work, especially in this era of neo–globalization and privatisation of anything that generate profits, prostitutes in many cases do not own their bodies anymore, many are not really in a position to negotiate the prices for their services. The big lords, hotel owners, club owners, chat room owners, internet warlords are now the real employer of sex workers' labour. The money bags have the money to run the business, employ women and in a growing number of cases men too, to render sexual services, they act as the sub contractors, in fact, it is just an advanced stage of pimping.

    ‘IF YOU HAVE A BOSS, YOU NEED A UNION” is a popular slogan in Labor movement. It is increasingly obvious that sex workers are in most cases employed by other big time business operators, who like many employers, are basically concerned about profit and not necessarily the welfare of their employees. Even in cases where sex workers are their own bosses, instances of police brutality and harassment abound. Policemen have been known to extort sex workers, demand for cuts from their earnings, deny them protection, rape and torture them; in fact, sex workers are subjected to all sorts of indignities and degrading treatment when arrested.
    In Nigeria, it is a common occurrence for policemen to raid a brothel, clubs or local joints to arrest young women, especially female students on the suspicion of prostitution. To the policemen, the  evidence  of the prostitution charge lies in the  way the women are dressed, their physical appearance, if they were smoking, drinking alcohol, the company they keep, or just the mere fact that they were in that environment at an 'ungodly' hour serves as evidence of prostitution.
    Many women arrested in such circumstances are often tortured, extorted, blackmailed, raped and assaulted. In an effort to protect their identity and secure their freedom, these young women would do anything to please their torturers. Sometimes they are forced to confess to crimes they never committed and in many cases, are forced to perform sexual favours to gain their freedom. Of course, this action of the police is sexist, a violation of so many fundamental human rights and a restriction on the right of women to move freely in the country.

    It is however interesting to note that the over-zealousness of the police is never extended to elitist clubs. Sex workers, who work for and provide services to the elites, enjoy a sort of coded protection. However the protection is only valid for as long as the boss is pleased, any disagreement or rancor could lead to withdrawal of that protection. Therefore the power to negotiate the terms and conditions of service is tacitly taken away from the vulnerable sex workers.
    Also, sex workers are often looked at as disease carriers, a mobile carrier of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. While there is no gainsaying that exposure to many sexual partners without protection increases the risk of contacting a sexually transmitted disease, it is also important to note that the client could be as guilty if not more guilty than the service provider therefore it is important to involve and educate the clients too on the need to practice safer sex. It is important to have a holistic approach to this subject in order to curb sexually transmitted diseases. 

    Sex workers must be accorded the respect they deserve and seen as stakeholders who can contribute meaningfully to creating awareness about HIV/AIDS and help curb its spread. We must also recognize that sexual health and well being of sex workers is also important.
    The stigmatization and consequent exploitation of sex workers would be minimized if sex work is accorded its recognition as a bonafide job, a real job which has its challenges like every other job but which also has its rights and protections under the law.
    Criminalization of sex-work in many countries and jurisdictions makes it difficult to create a safe, enabling environment and workplace for sex workers. The continued criminalization of sex-work, rather than serves as a deterrent has only succeeded in exposing sex workers to violence, intimidation, harassment, exploitation etc.

    As was said in the Wolfenden Committee report of 1957, what two adults do in the privacy of their rooms is no business of the law. Decriminalization of sex work would make it easier to organize sex workers, improve their working conditions, curb exploitation and protect their rights and accord them the dignity in labour every worker deserves.

    Recognizing sex work and organising sex workers within mainstream labour movement is a task not just for the unions but one that must jointly be carried out by both the trade unions and sex workers.  Sex workers must be ready to organise themselves from within, they must be prepared to approach unions that are capable of meeting their needs and willing to accept them as full members with all the rights accorded members.

    Trade unions on their part must be ready to live up to its primary duties, which is organising workers and protecting their rights. In this time when the labour movement is concerned about dwindling membership mainly due to global economy down turn, trade unions sh