SCOPE        

Forty-one students participated in the 8-week summer research program, SCOPE, a student-faculty collaborative experience, conducting research in animal behavior, biology, chemistry/biochemistry, kinesiology, math/computer science, and physics.


          Alcohol Shown to Act in Same Way as Rapid Antidepressants        
  Can having a few drinks help people with clinical depression feel better? Yes. At least in terms of biochemistry.  
          Now, Narmada is also a living entity        
Teaser: 
Policy matters this week
Narmada river (Source: Wikipedia commons)

Following Ganga and Yamuna, Narmada river also gets living entity status

The Madhya Pradesh cabinet has passed a resolution declaring Narmada river as a living entity in order to control pollution, illegal mining on the river banks and to save the river from depletion. The conservation programme for the river has already been started and the government is planning to initiate the conservation of other rivers like Kshipra, Gambhir, Ken, Betwa and Kali Sindh with public participation soon. Also, considering the new status of the river, the state government will be drafting a bill for the Narmada river to ensure strict legal action against those polluting the river. 

Fine of Rs 1 lakh for dumping e-waste near Ramganga: NGT

The National Green Tribunal has announced a fine of Rs 1 lakh as compensation on those found dumping e-waste on the banks of the Ramganga river in Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. A committee has also been constituted to immediately remove the waste lying on the river bank and to submit a detailed report within two weeks. Also, it has come to the notice of the tribunal that the Ramganga river which is a tributary of the Ganga carries a BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) load of 128 tonnes per day and is heavily polluted due to the discharge from various industries. Moreover, the officials have turned a blind eye to the river's pollution and no action has been taken against the violators. 

West Bengal government creates a hurdle to the success of Namami Gange

The Namami Gange project is facing a roadblock as the West Bengal's chief minister Mamta Banerjee has refused to attend meetings to discuss riverfront development projects in the state under the Centre’s flagship programme. So far, no work has been initiated towards the riverfront development of Gangasagar, Belur and Dakshineswar due to the non-cooperation from the state. Along with this, the state government has shown apprehensions towards the linking of Manas-Sankaosh-Teesta-Ganga rivers that aims to benefit Assam, West Bengal and Bihar in irrigation, drinking water crisis and flood control. 

Centre approves Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project 

The Central Water Commission (CWC) has approved the Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project worth Rs 30,000 crore that aims to utilise the Chambal river water for tackling drinking and irrigation requirements of 13 parched districts of the state. The 13 districts include Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, Swai Madhopur, Baran, Jhalawar, Jaipur, Tonk, Dausa and Alwar. Following the CWC approval, the state government is planning to prepare a detailed project report in the coming weeks and will also seek national status for the project.

SC notice to Kerala over maintenance work on Mullaperiyar dam

With respect to the maintenance work on the Mullaperiyar dam, the Supreme Court has issued a notice to the Kerala government for creating hurdle in the repair works. The notice has been issued following a petition filed by the Tamil Nadu government which has been given the right to maintain the dam while Kerala will take care of its security. The 120-year-old Mullaperiyar dam has been an issue of contention between both the states. In 2014, however, the Tamil Nadu government was allowed to raise its height to 152 feet after strengthening measures were taken on the dam.

This is a roundup of important policy matters from May 2 - 7, 2017. Also, read the news this week.

 

Languages: 
Don't Show In All Article: 

          Chemical Engineer (New Mexico)        
A chemical engineer designs and develop the processes that make a devers range of product.their work focus on changing the chemical,biochemical and physical state of substance to turn into something else.They understand how to alter raw material  into so......
          Sterilization and Microbiology Auditor / Expert - TÜV SÜD - Home Based        
Significant industrial medical device experience e.g. as Chemist / Biologist / Microbiologist / Sterilization Specialist / Biochemist....
From TÜV SÜD - Wed, 31 May 2017 17:08:35 GMT - View all Home Based jobs
          Qué es la medicina Ayurvédica?        

¿Qué es la Medicina Ayurvédica o Ayurveda?


Ayurveda, la "ciencia de la vida", es la medicina tradicional de la India.


La palabra Ayurveda tiene su raíz en dos vocablos sánscritos, "Ayus" que significa longevidad y "Ved o Veda" que significa ciencia, definiendo el AyurVed como la "ciencia de la longevidad".


De acuerdo a la Medicina Ayurveda, el organismo humano esta compuesto de tres principios fundamentales mente-cuerpo conocidos como principios metabólicos o Doshas.


Estos tres elementos- Vata, Pitta y Kapha- gobiernan todas las funciones psicologicas,fisiologicas y fisiopatologicas de la mente, el cuerpo y la conciencia de cada uno.


La proporción especifica de estos principios metabólicos en un individuo determinado al momento de la concepción, hace que esta persona tenga un estilo particular de funcionamiento mental y físico.


Los principios metabólicos son responsables de la manutención y desarrollo de los tejidos biológicos, y todas las actividades metabólicas incluyendo el anabolismo (kapha), catabolismo (vata) y metabolismo (pitta). También gobiernan funciones psicológicas y son responsables de emociones tanto negativas como positivas.


Tipos constitucionales mente-cuerpo


Cada individuo hereda una particular proporción de los tres principios metabólicos, lo cual determina la característica constitucional de cada persona. Un único principio metabólico puede predominar, pero comúnmente son dos los mas representados. Toxinas físicas y mentales Luego de años de rutinas diarias y estacionales incorrectas, de hábitos desarmónicos, y de la acumulación de residuos tóxicos que no podemos digerir apropiadamente y presencia de "radicales libres" , surge la base para los desequilibrios agudos y crónicos. Estos residuos tóxicos obstruyen el flujo de nutrición e información, creando la posibilidad de enfermedad física o mental.


Cuando los "radicales libres" a nivel mental obstruyen el flujo de sentimientos positivos y de claridad, surge el distress emocional y psicológico, ya que la buena salud depende de la habilidad de la unidad mente-cuerpo para metabolizar plenamente la información nutricional, emocional y sensorial que "ingerimos" diariamente.


Los síntomas tempranos de acumulación de "radicales libres" incluyen: dolor articular, anorexia, depresión, debilidad, mal aliento, fatiga profunda, arrugas, irritabilidad e indigestión; además son la raíz de todas las enfermedades incluyendo resfrio, fiebre, alergias, asma, problemas coronarios, artritis, formación de tejidos anormales, envejecimiento prematuro, perdida de capacidades intelectuales, etc.


La Medicina Ayurveda dispone de las terapéuticas para eliminar "radicales libres" de los órganos internos, por medio del Sistema de Adyuvancia Natural AyurVed (S.A.N.A.) ó Panchakarma.


El Panchakarma es altamente aconsejado 3 veces al año, después de tratamientos farmacológicos extensos, post-quimioterapia, luego de intenso stress ó como método natural de rejuvenecimiento para una recuperación más rápida de las funciones corporales, disminuyendo los efectos del embate del stress o efectos secundarios de los agentes químicos.


El programa Panchakarma incluye diversos procedimientos, entre los que podemos enumerar: Abhyanga - Rejuvenecimiento de la piel. Garshana - Activación de la piel. Vishesh - Masaje profundo para eliminar impurezas. Udvartana - Procedimiento especial con pasta de hierbas para celulitis. Nasya - Programa de Descongestión Nasal. Pizzichilli - Sofisticado baño de aceites tibios herbalizados. Shirodhara - Programa para tranquilizar la mente. Marma-terapia - Técnicas manuales sobre puntos de enlaces mente-cuerpo. Netra - Baño especializado de ojos. Basti - Fórmulas especiales de limpieza colonica, diseñadas para eliminar toxinas y nutrir la fisiología. Parishek - Baños de leche y hierbas para la belleza.


Es probablemente la medicina natural más antigua del mundo originándose hace más de 5000 años. Por este motivo fue llamada la Madre de Todas las Curaciones.


La Medicina Ayurveda es reconocida mundialmente por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), por la Organización Europea de Medicinas Complementarias (EHPA), por el Centro de Medicinas Alternativas y Complementarias de EEUU (NCCAM) y por todos los gobiernos como la primera medicina alternativa del mundo por su importante valor terapéutico.


En Occidente, Ayurveda es un sistema de medicina naturista y abarca todos los campos que se enseñan en escuelas médicas de Naturismo.


La Medicina Ayurveda trata solidariamente el cuerpo, la mente y el espíritu, considerando a cada persona única de acuerdo a su constitución física, mental y espiritual. Sus objetivos son proveer una guía acerca de la alimentación y estilo de vida (actividad física, técnicas respiratorias) para que las personas sanas se mantengan sanas y las personas con problemas de salud puedan mejorarla.


Incluye técnicas de purificación y rejuvenecimiento y tratamiento con hierbas. La medicina ayurveda se complementa e integra al tratamiento de la medicina convencional occidental. Pero, a diferencia de esta última, el tratamiento ayurvédico no trata el síntoma sino que busca eliminar la causa que lo produce.


Fuentes: http://www.ayurvedaba.com.ar/

http://www.ayurveda.vaneduc.edu.ar/ayur-intro.htm



J Transl Med. 2008 Sep 9;6(1):48

Prasher B, Negi S et al

Whole genome expression and biochemical correlates of extreme constitutional types defined in Ayurveda

http://www.translational-medicine.com/content/6/1/48



J Transl Med. 2008; 6: 14.

Custer C Deocaris,1 Nashi Widodo et al

Merger of Ayurveda and Tissue Culture-Based Functional Genomics: Inspirations from Systems Biology

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=18348714



          Qué es la Homocisteína?        

¿Qué es la homocisteína?

Homocisteína: Aminoácido (uno de los componentes fundamentales de las proteínas) normalmente presente en la sangre en pequeñas cantidades.


El exceso de homocisteína en la sangre puede favorecer la acumulación de placa grasa en las arterias. La homocisteína es producida por la digestión de proteínas.


Aunque nuestro organismo requiere concentraciones normales de homocisteína para formar y mantener los tejidos, las concentraciones excesivas pueden asociarse con cardiopatías y apoplejías.

Los niveles elevados de homocisteína en sangre se han identificado recientemente como factor de riesgo de vasculopatías coronarias, periféricas y cerebrales, entre otras patologías (incluyendo Alzheimer).


¿Cómo incrementa la homocisteína el riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica y de apoplejía? Las concentraciones elevadas de homocisteína pueden contribuir a la lesión de las paredes arteriales producida por el colesterol y otras sustancias. Es más probable que las arterias dañadas por este proceso se estrechen o cierren por completo.


¿Cómo regula el organismo la concentración de homocisteína?

En circunstancias normales, el exceso de homocisteína se elimina rápidamente. Con la ayuda de las vitaminas esenciales, el hígado transforma la homocisteína en aminoácidos que el organismo puede utilizar o descomponer para su excreción.


Un proceso muy importante en el que participa el ácido fólico es la formación de metionina a partir de la homocisteína, un proceso en el que se utiliza como cofactor la vitamina B12.


Es fundamental la suplementación de la dieta con los cofactores vitamínicos que participan en la rutas metabólicas de estos aminoácidos azufrados (homocisteína y metionia): la vitamina B6 o piridoxima y la vitamina B12 o cianocobalamina.


¿Qué efecto tiene la homocisteína en comparación con otros factores de riesgo cardiovasculares?


Se estima que las concentraciones elevadas de homocisteína pueden incrementar el riesgo de cardiopatías al mismo nivel que el tabaquismo y el colesterol.


¿Debería determinar mi concentración de homocisteína?

Este tema debería consultarlo con su médico. Los autores de la "American Heart Association's Science Advisory" (Consejos científicos de la Asociación Americana del Corazón) sugieren que las determinaciones de homocisteína deben realizarse en pacientes con una historia personal o familiar de cardiopatía.


¿Cómo puedo saber la concentración de homocisteína?

Existen análisis sanguíneos para ello.


Si tengo una concentración de homocisteína elevada, ¿cómo pudo producirse?


Las concentraciones elevadas de homocisteína pueden ser el resultado de una deficiencia de determinadas vitaminas esenciales. Además, muchas personas tienen un leve defecto genético en el metabolismo de la homocisteína. Las personas con esta anomalía relativamente frecuente requieren una dieta que satisfaga o exceda todas las recomendaciones sobre la ingestión de ácido fólico, vitamina B6 y vitamina B12.


¿Puedo controlar mi concentración de homocisteína?


En la mayoría de los casos, las concentraciones elevadas de homocisteína son fáciles de controlar. Sólo tiene que asegurarse de llevar una dieta equilibrada que incluya verduras de hoja verde, cítricos, legumbres, pescado, semillas y cereales. Si tiene alguna pregunta sobre su dieta, consulte con su médico.

http://www.abbottdiagnostics.es/tusalud/ecardiacas/peligro.asp


Niveles de homocisteína: Normal: entre 5 µmol/L y 15 µmol/L. Moderado: entre 16 µmol/L y 30 µmol/L. Intermedio: entre 31 µmol/L y 100 µmol/L. Severo: > 100 µmol/L.


Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008 Apr 8;88(14):990-3.

Zhang Y et al

Detrimental effects of homocysteine on insulin release and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells

PMID: 18756974


Ann Clin Biochem. 2008 Sep;45(Pt 5):476-80.

Kassab A et al

Homocysteine enhances LDL fatty acid peroxidation, promoting microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes.

PMID: 18753419


J Endovasc Ther. 2008 Aug;15(4):399-407.

Heneghan HM, Sultan S.

Homocysteine, the cholesterol of the 21st century.Impact of hyperhomocysteinemia on patency and amputation-free survival after intervention for critical limb ischemia.

PMID: 18729558


Neurochem Int. 2008 Aug 3.

Kumar M et al

Homocysteine decreases blood flow to the brain due to vascular resistance in carotid artery.

PMID: 18725259


Clin Med. 2008 Aug;8(4):384-7.

Cardiovascular disease--the silent killer in rheumatoid arthritis.

Kumar N, Armstrong DJ.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multisystem disease with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on the growing rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in RA, over and above expected levels allowing for 'traditional' risk factors. In this paper the impact of CVD in RA, the relative contributions of traditional risk factors and novel risk factors (including homocysteine, oxidised low-density lipoprotein, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and leptin), and the need to address cardiovascular risk in the fight against premature death from coronary artery and stroke disease in RA are discussed.

PMID: 18724604


VIDEO: FORMACION DE PLACA ARTERIAL

http://www.new.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DMmowxthBSPY%26NR%3D1&h=9a2c088089c3e65b53683d17b9f20732



          The Health Issue: An Old Idea, Revived: Starve Cancer to Death        
In the early 20th century, the German biochemist Otto Warburg believed that tumors could be treated by disrupting their source of energy. His idea was dismissed for decades — until now.
          The Scintilla Project: Day Nine        
The excuse: I have been, uh...shall we say, feeling not so scintillating--us writerly folk get that way from time to time, and time and again. Anyway a week late, but still awesome and without further ado. 
The Scintilla Project
 
The prompt: Write a list of 23. (23 things to do, 23 people you owe apologies to, 23 books you've lied about reading, 23 things you can see from where you're sitting, 23 ten-word hooks for stories you want to tell....)

Twenty three terrific things about today...like right now, before the feeling subsides

1. Colombian coffee
2. Gardening
3. 5 sleeping cats, yes five of 'em.
4. 2 great young people
5. A hot shower 
6. Patchouli body oil
7. Beer bottle print pajamas
8. Conversation
9. Hearty laughter
10. Fresh laundry
11. Biochemistry (Some day I'll be done, so let's count it now.)
12. Too many cookies
13. A new dress
14. Michael Cotto
15. A long walk
16. A soft wind
17. A rabbit!
18. Bad television
19. Diet Coke
20. My younger sister
21. Party planning
22. More coffee
23. Yoga 

          Ulubieńcy lipca        

uroda

Lipiec był wyjątkowo gorący, dlatego moją pielęgnacje i makijaż ograniczałam do minimum, a wszelkie zabiegi kosmetyczne skracałam w czasie. Większość produktów, które stały się moimi ulubieńcami w ubiegłym miesiącu pozwalały na szybką aplikację i sprawdzały się w letnich temperaturach. Pielęgnacja ciała i włosów

uroda

W pielęgnacji włosów świetnie sprawdziły się u mnie produkty Toni&Guy , które kupiłam podczas promocji w Rossmanie, kupując drugi produkt 50% taniej. Najbardziej zachwycił mnie szampon do włosów zniszczonych, który sprawia że włosy wyglądają dużo zdrowiej i nadaje im blasku. Dodatkowo jest bardzo wydajny, wystarczy niewielka ilość żeby uzyskać gęstą pianę na całej długości włosów, a specyficzny dla tych produktów zapach utrzymuje się na prawdę długo.

Kolejnym produktem do włosów Toni&Guy, który bardzo polubiłam jest Sea Salt Texturising Spray czyli sól morska w sprayu. Jest to produkt budzący wiele kontrowersji na yt oraz w sferze blogowo-urodowej, jedni go kochają inni nienawidzą ;). Głównym zadaniem produktu jest stworzenie na naszych włosach efektu jaki uzyskujemy po morskiej wodzie, czyli tzw. efektu surferskich fal. Moje włosy są naturalnie falowane i ten produkt sprawdza się u mnie świetnie, powoduje że skręt jest mocniejszy a włosy mają większą objętość. Produkt można używać zarówno na suche jak i mokre włosy, jednak w przypadku mokrych włosów powoduje on u mnie bardziej sklejone pasma i efekt nie jest tak zachwycający jak po delikatnym spryskaniu wysuszonych włosów. Dodatkowo produkt dodaje nam objętości i przepięknie pachnie, można go dostać zarówno w większym opakowaniu jak i w wersji mini 75 ml, którą posiadam (w sam raz na przetestowanie). Według mnie jest to świetny produkt do stylizacji włosów w lecie, jest lekki, a jego użycie nie jest czasochłonne.

Suchy szampon Batiste w wersji tropical zachwycił mnie swoim kokosowym zapachem i działaniem. Mimo, że suchy szampon Isana sprawdza się u mnie tak samo, to ten ma dużo przyjemniejszy zapach co sprawia, że używanie go jest przyjemniejsze. Niestety zostawia widoczne białe ślady, które mimo blond włosów muszę dokładnie wyczesać, dlatego odradzam brunetkom.

Świetną alternatywą dla balsamów i maseł do ciała było dla mnie Kokosowe mleczko do ciała w sprayu z the Body Shop, które łatwo się aplikuje i szybko wchłania. Dodatkowo pachnie tropikalnym kokosem, którego zapach jest trochę sztuczny, ale po czasie staję się delikatny i bardzo przyjemny.

Pielęgnacja Twarzy

uroda

Moim największym ulubieńcem tego lata została Emulsja matująca do twarzy 50 SPF Vichy Capital Soleil, której używam codziennie. Jego formuła przypomina matująco-wygładzającą bazę pod makijaż, mimo że konsystencja przypomina gęsty i treściwy krem. Bardzo szybko się wchłania i pozostawia na skórze aksamitną powłokę oraz delikatny kwiatowy zapach. Jest to bez wątpienia najlepszy filtr do skóry mieszanej i tłustej z jakim się spotkałam.

W tym miesiącu zachwyciły mnie także dwa produkty z Biochemii Urody; serum Lemon i serum Granat.

Na pewno pojawi się osobny produkty o tych produktach, w wielkim skrócie zarówno jedno jak i drugie spisuję się świetnie. Serum granat stosuję codziennie rano zamiast kremu na dzień, nawilża i normalizuje skórę, mimo oleistej konsystencji szybko się wchłania. Serum lemon z wit. C stosuje na noc i świetnie rozświetla i wyrównuje koloryt mojej skóry.

Makijaż

Makijaż

Mimo, że w lipcu rzadko używałam pełnego makijażu, to wróciłam z chęcią do mojego podkładu Bourjois Healthy Mix, który idealnie sprawdza się w lecie. Ma średnie krycie i delikatnie rozświetla co sprawia, że skóra wygląda na zdrową i wypoczętą.

Moimi ulubieńcami stały się moje dwa nowe pędzle , Elf Eye Blending Brush, które bardzo dobrze spisuje się do rozcierania i blendowania cieni oraz Hakuro H50s, którego używam do nakładania podkładu metodą stempelkowania. Pędzel ten pozwala mi na dokładnie rozprowadzenie podkładu i bardzo naturalny efekt. Polubiłam również bazę pod cienie Elf Eyelid Primer, która wytrzymywała nawet w wysokich temperaturach.

Moim ostatnim ulubieńcem jest pomadka do ust Bourjois Color Boost w kolorze 04 peach on the beach, która łączy ze sobą cechy pomadki i błyszczyka, świetnie nawilża i idalnie pasuje do opalonej skóry.


          What is biochemical homology?        
Biochemical homology is often hailed as decisive evidence for the common ancestry of all life. What is biochemical homology? Does biochemical homology support evolution?
          Darwin's Theory Video        
Stream a short video on this theory. See the incredible advances we've made in molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics since Charles Darwin.
          Darwins Theory of Evolution        
A theory in crisis in light of the tremendous advances we've made in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics and information theory.
          Sophia Lunt        
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Ph.D., Chemistry, Princeton University, 2010
B.S., Chemistry, Lebanon Valley College, 2005
2016 AACR-Incyte NextGen Grant for Transformative Cancer Research
2015 DoD CDMRP Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) Breakthrough Award
2015 Mayo Clinic Metabolomics Research Core Pilot and Feasibility Award
2014 Best Oral Presentation Award, Michigan Physiological Society
2012 DoD CDMRP PRCRP Visionary Postdoctoral Fellowship Award
González-Reymúndez A, de los Campos G, Gutiérrez L, Lunt SY, Vazquez AI. Prediction of Years of Life after Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using Omics and Omic-by-Treatment Interactions. European Journal of Human Genetics; 25 (5): 538–544; 2017.
Nault R, Fader KA, Ammendolia DA, Dornbos P, Potter D, Sharratt B, Kumagai K, Harkema JR, Lunt SY, Matthews J, Zacharewski T. Dose-dependent metabolic reprogramming and differential gene expression in TCDD-elicited hepatic fibrosis. Toxicological Sciences; 2016.
Young M, Suddard-Bangsund JD, Patrick TJ, Pajares N, Lunt SY, Lunt RR: Organic Heptamethine Salts for Photovoltaics and Detectors with Near-Infrared Photoresponse up to 1600 nm. Advanced Optical Materials; 4 (7):1028-1033; 2016.
Nault R, Fader KA, Kirby MP, Ahmed S, Matthews J, Jones AD, Lunt SY, Zacharewski TR: Pyruvate kinase isoform switching and hepatic metabolic reprogramming by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Toxicological Sciences; 149 (2): 358-371; 2016.
Degree Programs: 
Chemical Engineering
Materials Science and Engineering

          Get almost any EBOOK for free.        


They say that reading book gives loads of fun. More oftenly, they are the best friends of any person. most reliable or trustworthy.Reading a book is fun, but when you forget it at home, are bored at work, looking to get ahead on your reading for your online bachelor degree class, or are just curious to get a sneak peek at whatever you ordered from Amazon, online book sites can be handy too. Below is a list of over 100 free (and legal) sites to find great literature for download.

  • The classics
          Browse works by Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad and other famous authors here:
Classic Bookshelf: This site has put classic novels online, from Charles Dickens to Charlotte 
Bronte.
The Online Books Page: The University of Pennsylvania inPhiladelphia hosts this book search and database.
Project Gutenberg: This famous site has over 27,000 free books online.
Page by Page Books: Find books by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and H.G. Wells, as well as speeches from George W. Bush on this site.
Classic Book Library: Genres here include historical fiction, history, science fiction, mystery, romance and children’s literature, but they’re all classics.
Classic Reader: Here you can read Shakespeare, young adult fiction and more.
Read Print: From George Orwell to Alexandre Dumas to George Eliot to Charles Darwin, this online library is stocked with the best classics.
Planet eBook: Download free classic literature titles here, from Dostoevsky to D.H. Lawrence to Joseph Conrad.
The Spectator Project: This project at Montclair State University in New Jersey features full-text, online versions ofThe Spectator and The Tatler.
Bibliomania: This site has more than 2,000 classic texts, plus study guides and reference books.
Online Library of Literature: Find full and unabridged texts of classic literature, including the Bronte sisters, Mark Twain and more.
Bartleby: Bartleby has much more than just the classics, but its collection of anthologies and other important novels made it famous.
Fiction.us: Fiction.us has a huge selection of novels, including works by Lewis Carroll, Willa Cather, Sherwood Anderson, Flaubert, George Eliot, F. Scott Fitzgerald and others.
Free Classic Literature: Find British authors like Shakespeare and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, plus other authors like Jules Verne, Mark Twain, and more.

  • Textbooks
If you don’t absolutely need to pay for your textbooks, save yourself a few hundred dollars by reviewing these sites.
Textbook Revolution: Find biology, business, engineering, mathematics and world history textbooks here.
Wikibooks: From cookbooks (handy for those enrolled inonline bachelor’s degree programs for culinary arts!) to the computing department, find instructional and educational materials here.
KnowThis Free Online Textbooks: Get directed to stats textbooks and more.
Online Medical Textbooks: Find books about plastic surgery, anatomy and more here.
Online Science and Math Textbooks: Access biochemistry, chemistry, aeronautics, medical manuals and other textbooks here.
MIT Open Courseware Supplemental Resources: Find free videos, textbooks and more on the subjects of mechanical engineering, mathematics, chemistry and more.
Flat World Knowledge: This innovative site has created an open college textbooks platform that will launch in January 2009.
Free Business Textbooks: Find free books to go along with accounting, economics and other business classes.
Light and Matter: Here you can access open source physics textbooks.
eMedicine: This project from WebMD is continuously updated and has articles and references on surgery, pediatrics and more.
  • Math and Science
          Turn to this list to find books about math, science, engineering and technology.

FullBooks.com: This site has "thousands of full-text free books,"  including a large                      amount of scientific essays and books.

Free online textbooks, lecture notes, tutorials and videos on mathematics: NYU               links to several free resources for math students, even those outside of New York!

Online Mathematics Texts: Here you can find online textbooks like Elementary                           Linear Algebra and Complex Variables.

Science and Engineering Books for free download: These books range in topics from nanotechnology to compressible flow.

FreeScience.info: Find over 1800 math, engineering and science books here.

Free Tech Books: Computer programmers and computer science enthusiasts can find helpful books here.

  • Children's Book
Even children’s books are now available online. Find illustrated books, chapter books and more.
byGosh: Find free illustrated children’s books and stories here.
Munseys: Munseys has nearly 2,000 children’s titles, plus books about religion, biographies and more.
International Children’s Digital Library: Find award-winning books and search by categories like age group, make believe books, true books or picture books.
Lookybook: Access children’s picture books here.
Philosophy and Religion
For books about philosophy and religion, check out these websites.
Bored.com: Bored.com has music ebooks, cooking ebooks, and over 150 philosophy titles and over 1,000 religion titles.
Ideology.us: Here you’ll find works by Rene Descartes, Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, David Hume and others.
Free Books on Yoga, Religion and Philosophy: Recent uploads to this site include Practical Lessons in Yoga andPhilosophy of Dreams.
The Sociology of Religion: Read this book by Max Weber, here.
Religion eBooks: Read books about the Bible, Christian books, and more. This is especially useful for those pursuingonline bachelor’s degrees in Christian Studies.


          ON the cycles of Carnality, women and the month.        
Carnality is a curve.  On the subject of appetite, I have taken note that it ebbs and flows in females.. that what we call desire, emotionally, spiritually, physically is complexly interwoven , and that our own biochemistries, the biosphere that we intimately live in our own flesh, blood, and breath is influenced cyclically by the […]
          Uncovering Molecular Mysteries        
Researchers use supercomputer to create 1 million-atom model of protein synthesis

ProthrombinaseProthrombinase is a three-protein complex that catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, which is a critical step in the sequence of blood clotting called the coagulation cascade. Researchers have developed significant theoretical evidence of how prothrombinase binds to cellular membranes and jumpstarts the catalysis process that generates thrombin. However, the computing power has previously not existed to actually model the reaction and test how different variables may impact the process.

Thanks to a grant from the Ohio Supercomputing Center, a research team from Cleveland State University is developing the first full scale model of prothrombinase catalysis which will provide new insights on how blood clotting actually works in the body. Including water molecules and counter-ions, the entire model consists of approximately 1.3 million atoms.

“Even as late as a year ago, the computing power to analyze this large of a model did not exist,” notes Will Martin, a doctoral student in chemistry at CSU who is leading the project. “We are really operating at the cutting edge of biochemistry and will be able to provide new knowledge that could improve drug development and treatments for numerous diseases.”

Martin is working with David W. Ball, chair of the Department of Chemistry at CSU, and Michael Kalafatis, professor of chemistry and a member of CSU’s Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease. He is utilizing experimental data generated by Kalafatis on how prothrombinase binding causes the catalysis that leads to the creation of thrombin. Errors in this process, either producing too much or too little thrombin, are factors in a host of blood diseases and disorders. Martin will also test the impact of different gene mutations on the process to see how different variables impact catalysis and the clotting process as a whole.

“By being able to model the system as it actually occurs, we can test and improve our theoretical analysis and better assess potential treatments designed to increase or decrease thrombin production, based on the needs of a patient,” Ball adds. “This is also a fabulous opportunity for our students to get real world expertise while making a major contribution to chemistry and medicine.”

Established in 1987, the Ohio Supercomputer Center partners with Ohio universities and industries to enhance discovery, education and product development. It provides researchers with high performance computing, advanced cyberinfrastructure, and computational science education services. The CSU team received a grant of 150,000 units, the equivalent of 150,000 hours of supercomputing time, for the project. It is the largest OSC award ever received by the University.


          CSU Team Seeks to Unravel the Mysteries of Aging        

Group led by Roman Kondratov receives NIH renewal to further research

Aging Research

A research team in Cleveland State University’s Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease is helping to unravel the mysteries of aging and develop better therapies to address age related illnesses. The team, led by Roman Kondratov, a professor of biological sciences at CSU, has been awarded an R01 renewal grant from the National Institute of Aging, within the National Institutes of Health, to study the impact of diet on the body’s natural circadian rhythms and the master circadian clock that controls them. Data obtained as a result of this study will help to understand the molecular basis of aging and to develop physiological and pharmacological strategies for the treatment and prevention of age-associated diseases.

“Over the last decade, research has found that dietary restriction (i.e., reducing calorie intake without malnutrition) is a powerful intervention for increasing longevity in a variety of organisms,” says Kondratov.  “Specifically, calorie restriction may reduce the occurrence of age-associated illnesses, including osteoporosis, and Parkinson’s disease. In contrast, disruption of the body’s natural circadian rhythms through bad diet has been associated with the negative effects of aging on physiology, metabolism, and behavior.”

Kondratov and his associates have uncovered biochemical clues to how these opposing mechanisms may function. The team is studying the master circadian clock, located in the hypothalamus region of the brain and modeling how the clock controls and coordinates the function of diverse organs and synchronizes bodily activities with the environment. They are also assessing how varying diet, including both calorie amount and timing of caloric intake, impacts circadian function.

“Our previous research indicates that calorie restriction and bad diet disrupt the circadian system and can lead to accelerated aging and a reduced lifespan,” adds Kondratov. “This next study will seek to better understand how dietary changes impact biochemical function and the potential therapies that can be used to correct the negative effects we have documented.”

###


          So Much Less Than The Great I Am        
If there is one single mental component which engenders the belief that one has, or is in possession of, humanity's longest held zeitgeist the 'immortal soul' it is a person's ego. Only via egotistical thinking can one conclude human consciousness(the 'person'/'self') is not engendered by the biology in which it manifests but instead is somehow independent thereof and can therefore continue to exist, intact, indefinitely and independent of the only location ever known for that 'person', its functioning biology.
While it's likely, after centuries of "slaughter the unbeliever" and elevated breeding levels among the doctrinally oppressed, some are born with an 'Id' that's genetically predisposed to believe the 'immortal soul' notion, I think one may suggest that the presence of such among the population is born of the existence of the egotistical notion triggering epigenetic changes over time.
Could one suggest then that it's the presence of Ego alone that engenders the ready acceptance of eternal life fantasies?

I think so; here's why.
I, one of the soulless, an unbeliever, consider the "I" that is me to be the current culmination of this biochemical genetic colony's life experiences and its current chemical state. The "I" that is me "exists"(has power in the cosmos) for only 1/40th of a second1, then is gone, lost forever, an imprint on the chronology of the cosmos. And is instantly replaced by a new version of "I" with 1/40th of a second more experience2, a new chemical state and responsibility for all this colony's prior acts. When, after a lifetime of about 100 trillion conscious moments, this genetic colony finally fails beyond the capacity for internal or external maintenance or repair, there will be one final "I" before the consecutive stream of "I's" that made up the "me" can no longer be generated. The memory of that recorded "me", who imprinted on the shape of the cosmos for the merest blink of the cosmological timescale, lingers in the consciousness of all or a portion of society then diminishes over a period of time relating roughly to the recorded accomplishments. For the "I" that is "me" the "I" does not extend beyond the single conscious moment and the recorded "me" cannot exist beyond the means which engendered it.

You, one of the soulful, a believer, consider the "I" that is you to be an eternal entity, able to live beyond the biochemistry, extending from before conception, way beyond the single moment and long past the death of the genetic colony stretching on into an distant, possibly unending, future. An "I" of such importance the cosmos will not allow it to expire.

So the question here is...
Which "I" has the bigger Ego?

This is one of the Too Many Questions

1 "1/40th of a second" : Supporting evidence/explanation here
2 "1/40th of a second more experience" : The nature and depth of the experience available in this time period is determined by the complexity of the "I" experiencing the moment. For more on this see Conscious Of Consciousness.

ego: Oxford Dictionaries
1. A person’s sense of self-esteem or self-importance.
1.1 Psychoanalysis - The part of the mind that mediates between the conscious and the unconscious and is responsible for reality testing and a sense of personal identity. Compare with id and superego.
1.2 Philosophy (In metaphysics) a conscious thinking subject.

id: Oxford Dictionaries
Psychoanalysis - The part of the mind in which innate instinctive impulses and primary processes are manifest


This is one of the Too Many Questions
PEACE
Crispy
Please leave a comment - Anything will do
The best communications are often,
THREE WORDS OR LESS
OR ONE OR MORE FINGERS!

          Microbiology at Bayalpata Hosptial         
The staff at Bayalpata are always busy trying to find ways to improve and become more efficient. The focus on improvement doesn't leave much room for reminiscence. For a newcomer like myself I was preoccupied with how far the hospital has come since its opened its doors four years ago. The progress is even more impressive considering the formidable obstacles that Nyaya Health has faced and continues to face. 

Not only has Nyaya Health succeeded in establishing a free hospital in Far Western Nepal that provides basic health services, but it also continuously tries to expand its services. Take for example Bayalpata Hospital's Microbiology Lab that is currently expanding to include a bacterial culture facility. 

Bayalpata's lab is the only one of its kind in the district of Achham. It is currently staffed by four lab technicians and is equipped with an I-stat machine, a QBC Hematology Analyzer and a number of important serology tests, including HIV, Malaria, TB, and Hep-B. Having an in-house laboratory with the ability to analyze patients blood, kidney, and liver functions has allowed the physicians to more quickly and accurately diagnose their patients. The lab technicians approximate that they run biochemistry tests on 50 patients a day, at times discovering patients that are HIV+ and unaware of their condition. These patients can then be referred to Bayalpata's Anti-retroviral Therapy program. The biochemistry tests at the lab also allow the technicians to spot unusually high white blood cell counts that may be diagnosed by the doctors as leukemia. 

In the next few days, the technicians hope to begin growing and preserving bacteria cultures which will allow them to increase their diagnostic capabilities as well as pursue academic research, particularly concerning antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bayalpata is currently treating two patients that are suffering from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The capability of testing cultures with antibiotics can allow drug resistant strains to be more quickly recognized.

When Nyaya Health was founded in 2006, it opened a clinic in an abandoned goat shed. Today it is operating one of the few microbiology laboratories outside of Kathmandu. Hopefully similar progress is made over the next four years.

Bishnu, one of the four lab technicians working in the renovated microbiology lab at Bayalpata Hospital












          Erkrankungen haben Ihren Ursprung im Mund!        
Wussten Sie Schon, dass 80% aller chronischen Erkrankungen Ihren Ursprung im Mund haben? Parodontitis, Karies, Mundgeruch, Verdauungsprobleme und sogar Herzerkrankungen und Diabetes deuten darauf hin, dass biochemische Unausgeglichenheiten im Mundraum und im gesamten Organismus vorliegen. Mit welchen einfachen Hausmitteln Sie Ihren Körper entschlacken und entgiften können, um Krankheiten und Beschwerden vorzubeugen, erfahren Sie hier! Geringe […]
          Fe2O3 Glyphs | Craig Ward and Linden Gledhill        

Over the summer of 2015 I once again collaborated with pioneering biochemist and experimental photographer Linden Gledhill, this time in the creation of a unique, ornamental type system and an accompanying set of one-of-a-kind letterpress prints.

The project is now live and available for your support through Kickstarter: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/mrcraigward/fe2o3-glyphs-a-conceptual-ornamental-type-system

To form the glyphs, a tiny amount of ferrofluid was placed between two glass plates and subjected to a combination of spinning vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. The result is an array of complex hieroglyphics and shapes - each one as unrepeatable as a snowflake - that simultaneously call to mind ancient indigenous markings or symbols from science fiction.

These complex symbols were traced as vectors and cast as a moveable type printing system, combinations of which will be used to create a series of unique, one of a kind, letterpress prints, where no arrangement of glyphs is ever repeated. To bring the project full circle, these prints will be created using a mix of actual ferrofluid and pure Pantone Black.

The music for this video is 'Les Praries Stellaires' courtesy of Syndrôm - http://les-sombres-parfums.blogspot.com

Cast: Craig Ward and Linden Gledhill

Tags: typography, science, art, letterpress, printing, typeface, design and ferrofluid


          What happens if my PSA rises after radical prostatectomy?        

The post What happens if my PSA rises after radical prostatectomy? appeared first on Health tips.

When the PSA rises after definitive remedy, akin to EBRT, interstitial seed remedy, and radical prostatectomy, it’s referred to as PSA development. Within the absence of any identifiable most cancers, it’s referred to as biochemical...


          Kommentar zu Erkrankungen haben Ihren Ursprung im Mund! von Dankbarkeit, Liebe und Wertschätzung – Die intuitive Intelligenz des Herzens . . . | GM – Das Gesund-Magazin – Wissenswertes über die Gesundheit        
[…] Erkrankungen haben Ihren Ursprung im Mund! Wussten Sie Schon, dass 80% aller chronischen Erkrankungen Ihren Ursprung im Mund haben? Parodontitis, Karies, Mundgeruch, Verdauungsprobleme und sogar Herzerkrankungen und Diabetes deuten darauf hin, dass biochemische Unausgeglichenheiten im Mundraum und im gesamten Organismus vorliegen…hier weiter >>> […]
          Kommentar zu Erkrankungen haben Ihren Ursprung im Mund! von Hirngespinste oder Wahnvorstellungen?? – Unglaublich! Das Leben nach dem Tod – Neue unfassbare Erkenntnisse! | Liebe – Isst – Leben        
[…] Erkrankungen haben Ihren Ursprung im Mund! Wussten Sie Schon, dass 80% aller chronischen Erkrankungen Ihren Ursprung im Mund haben? Parodontitis, Karies, Mundgeruch, Verdauungsprobleme und sogar Herzerkrankungen und Diabetes deuten darauf hin, dass biochemische Unausgeglichenheiten im Mundraum und im gesamten Organismus vorliegen…hier weiter >>> […]
          By: abeltasman1642        
Lucky he's not an Nobel prize winning Biochemist, or he'd have lost his job!
          The Pseudoscientists Episode 119: Half Full of Robot Bits        

Podcast Feature Image 2 scale

Sarah, Tom and Jack discuss the implications of the Australian Vaccination(-Skeptics) Network changing its name, why biochemistry stops fish from living too deep in the ocean, and 30,000 year-old frozen bacteria-sized viruses. Jargonauts lays into "oogenesis", and Tom has a show at the Melbourne International Comedy Festival!
          The Pseudoscientists Episode 116: Cells Like to Explode        

Podcast Feature Image 2 scale

Jack, Liz and Sarah get romantic for Valentine's Day with news about how to fix a broken heart with stem cells and how scientists made functional artificial DNA, and discuss science-fantasy movies, while Jargonauts gets biochemical with "lipids".
          Unfiltered Thoughts: Holly Jones on Public Health        

unfiltered-thoughts-feature

For the ninth episode of Unfiltered Thoughts, Jack sits down with Holly Jones to chat about public health. Holly is in her last year of an undergraduate degree in biochemistry and Spanish at the University of Melbourne, and spends most of her time drinking coffee and being on the Internet. She doesn't quite know what she wants to do when she grows up, but wouldn't mind saving the world or something.
          Worldwide media attention for the Millennium Technology Prize        
The presentation of the 2016 Millennium Technology Prize to the biochemist Frances Arnold won considerable attention from the world’s media.
          Biochemical engineer Frances Arnold wins 2016 Millennium Technology Prize for ‘directed evolution’ revolution        
Technology Academy Finland (TAF) has today declared American innovator Frances Arnold as winner of the 2016 Millennium Technology Prize, the prominent award for technological innovations that enhance the quality of people’s lives.
          Choice Help for Depression within the self and fast diet to lose weight        
Depression is indicated if a number of symptoms persist for more than a couple of weeks and are severe enough to interfere with the ability to carry out normal routines. Without appropriate help, the symptoms of depression can continue indefinitely so it is important to seek advice as early as possible. On the positive side, depression can be treated, but the very nature of depression can make it difficult to admit there is a problem in the first place and to get the right help in order to get well.



Typical symptoms of depression are feeling sad, depressed mood, crying, insomnia or excessive sleeping, loss of energy, feeling tired, exhaustion, anxiety, weight loss or gain, agitation, nervousness, low sex drive, feeling worthless, excessive guilt, headaches, low concentration, lack of confidence and loss of interest in everyday activities.

Depression can occur due to hormonal imbalances, stress and imbalances in biochemicals within the brain. Depression is more common in women due to hormonal changes that happen in association with childbirth, menstruation and the menopause.



Depression Home Remedies

People with depression are simply not able to carry on their lives normally. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years. When these symptoms become very intense, they start interfering with one"??s ability to normally carry out even the daily chores.

Treatment includes a combination of professional counseling, drug therapy, and family support.

Love, appreciation and normal communication are some of the most important things you should provide to help the person cope with depression. Do not be critical of the person at any stage.

A change in normal lifestyle habits can help reduce symptoms of depression. Encourage the person to:

"?? Go in for some light exercise regularly, such as swimming, walking.

"?? Avoid alcohol and illegal drugs.

"?? Get a good and refreshing sleep

"?? Eat a balanced diet.



Treatments for Depression

When it comes to the treatments for depression you will find that you can use several different forms of treatment to help you get over your depression. The reason why it is so important that you get help to treat your depression is because you may begin to unravel and lose control of your actions. You will find that one way to treat your medication is to allow yourself to become medicated under the watchful eye of a doctor. The second way that you can treat your depression is by going to a therapist to talk out all of your troubles. Sometimes it is recommended that you take therapy and medication to help you with your mental issues, however, if you have a light depression you may be able to get over your depression without having to see a doctor. Some people use herbs and other over the counter medication to help them pick themselves up.










Read About Depression Symptoms and also read about Side effects of MAOIs and MAOI Diet

fast to lose weight: master cleanse diet detox

fast to lose weight: master cleanse diet detox

Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com


           Sphingolipid synthesis and scavenging in the intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii         
Pratt, Steven and Wansadhipathi-Kannangara, Nilu K. and Bruce, Catherine R. and Mina, John G. and Shams-Eldin, Hosam and Casas, Josefina and Hanada, Kentaro and Schwarz, Ralph T. and Sonda, Sabrina and Denny, Paul W. (2013) Sphingolipid synthesis and scavenging in the intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 187 (1). pp. 43-51. ISSN 0166-6851
           A novel form of bacterial resistance to the action of eukaryotic host defense peptides, the use of a lipid receptor         
Dennison, Sarah R. and Harris, Frederick and Mura, Manuela and Morton, Leslie H. G. and Zvelindovsky, Andrei and Phoenix, David A. (2013) A novel form of bacterial resistance to the action of eukaryotic host defense peptides, the use of a lipid receptor. Biochemistry, 52 (35). pp. 6021-6029. ISSN 0006-2960
           Visfatin reduces gap junction mediated cell-to-cell communication in proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells         
Hills, Claire E. and Kerr, Michael I. and Wall, Mark J. and Squires, Paul E. (2013) Visfatin reduces gap junction mediated cell-to-cell communication in proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 32 (5). pp. 1200-1212. ISSN 1015-8987
           Examination of the effects of oxidation and ring closure on the cytotoxicities of the platinum complexes of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine and ethane-1,2-diamine-N,N'-diacetic acid         
Davies, Murray S., Wong, Pong Nai, Battle, Andrew R., Haddad, Gabi, McKeage, Mark J., and Hambley, Trevor W. (2002) Examination of the effects of oxidation and ring closure on the cytotoxicities of the platinum complexes of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine and ethane-1,2-diamine-N,N'-diacetic acid. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 91 (1). pp. 205-211.
           The dichotomy in the DNA-binding behaviour of ruthenium(II) complexes bearing benzoxazole and benzothiazole groups         
Spillane, Caitriona B., Dabo, Marieme N.V., Fletcher, Nicholas C., Morgan, Joy L., Keene, F. Richard, Haq, Ihtshamul, and Buurma, Niklaas J. (2008) The dichotomy in the DNA-binding behaviour of ruthenium(II) complexes bearing benzoxazole and benzothiazole groups. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 102 (4). pp. 673-683.
           Anionic PAMAM dendrimers as drug delivery vehicles for transition metal-based anticancer drugs         
Pisani, Michelle J., Wheate, Nial J., Keene, F. Richard, Aldrich-Wright, Janice R., and Collins, J. Grant (2009) Anionic PAMAM dendrimers as drug delivery vehicles for transition metal-based anticancer drugs. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 103 (3). pp. 373-380.
          Food & Spices that can fight Cancer, by The Cancer Cure Foundation         

Cancer Fighting Foods/Spices

The National Cancer Institute estimates that roughly one-third of all cancer deaths may be diet related. What you eat can hurt you, but it can also help you. Many of the common foods found in grocery stores or organic markets contain cancer-fighting properties, from the antioxidants that neutralize the damage caused by free radicals to the powerful phytochemicals that scientists are just beginning to explore. There isn't a single element in a particular food that does all the work: The best thing to do is eat a variety of foods. 
The following foods have the ability to help stave off cancer and some can even help inhibit cancer cell growth or reduce tumor size.




Avocados are rich in glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that attacks free radicals in the body by blocking intestinal absorption of certain fats. They also supply even more potassium than bananas and are a strong source of beta-carotene. Scientists also believe that avocados may also be useful in treating viral hepatitis (a cause of liver cancer), as well as other sources of liver damage.



Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower have a chemical component called indole-3-carbinol that can combat breast cancer by converting a cancer-promoting estrogen into a more protective variety. Broccoli, especially sprouts, also have the phytochemical sulforaphane, a product of glucoraphanin - believed to aid in preventing some types of cancer, like colon and rectal cancer. Sulforaphane induces the production of certain enzymes that can deactivate free radicals and carcinogens. The enzymes have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors in laboratory animals.  However, be aware that the Agriculture Department studied 71 types of broccoli plants and found a 30-fold difference in the amounts of glucoraphanin. It appears that the more bitter the broccoli is, the more glucoraphanin it has. Broccoli sprouts have been developed under the trade name 
BroccoSprouts that have a consistent level of sulforaphane - as much as 20 times higher than the levels found in mature heads of broccoli. 

Carrots contain a lot of beta carotene, which may help reduce a wide range of cancers including lung, mouth, throat, stomach, intestine, bladder, prostate and breast. Some research indicated beta carotene may actually cause cancer, but this has not proven that eating carrots, unless in very large quantities - 2 to 3 kilos a day, can cause cancer.  In fact, a substance called falcarinol that is found in carrots has been found to reduce the risk of cancer, according to researchers at Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS). Kirsten Brandt, head of the research department, explained that isolated cancer cells grow more slowly when exposed to falcarinol. This substance is a polyacethylen, however, so it is important not to cook the carrots.


Chili peppers and jalapenos
contain a chemical, capsaicin, which may neutralize certain cancer-causing substances (nitrosamines) and may help prevent cancers such as stomach cancer. 



Cruciferous vegetables - broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage contain two antioxidants, lutein and zeaxanthin that may help decrease prostate and other cancers. 

Figs apparently have a derivative of benzaldehyde. It has been reported that investigators at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Tokyo say benzaldehyde is highly effective at shrinking tumors, though I haven't seen this report. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture says figs, which contain vitamins A and C, and calcium, magnesium and potassium, may curtail appetite and improve weight-loss efforts. Fig juice is also a potent bacteria killer in test-tube studies.

Flax  seeds contains lignans, which may have an antioxidant effect and block or suppress cancerous changes. Flax is also high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are thought to protect against colon cancer and heart disease. See Budwig diet for a specialized diet using flax seed oil and cottage cheese. For studies about flax seed and flax oil, go to our Important News or ArchivesPage.


Garlic has immune-enhancing allium compounds (dialyl sultides) that appear to increase the activity of immune cells that fight cancer and indirectly help break down cancer causing substances. These substances also help block carcinogens from entering cells and slow tumor development. Diallyl sulfide, a component of garlic oil, has also been shown to render carcinogens in the liver inactive. Studies have linked garlic — as well as onions, leeks, and chives — to lower risk of stomach and colon cancer. Dr. Lenore Arab, professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the UNC-CH (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) schools of public health and medicine and colleagues analyzed a number of studies and reported their findings in the October 2000 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. According to the report, people who consume raw or cooked garlic regularly face about half the risk of stomach cancer and two-thirds the risk of colorectal cancer as people who eat little or none. Their studies didn't show garlic supplements had the same effect. It is believed garlic may help prevent stomach cancer because it has anti-bacterial effects against a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, found in the stomach and known to promote cancer there.

Grapefruits, like oranges and other citrus fruits, contain monoterpenes, believed to help prevent cancer by sweeping carcinogens out of the body. Some studies show that grapefruit may inhibit the proliferation of breast-cancer cells in vitro. They also contains vitamin C, beta-carotene, and folic acid.

Grapes, red contain bioflavonoids, powerful antioxidants that work as cancer preventives. Grapes are also a rich source of resveratrol, which inhibits the enzymes that can stimulate cancer-cell growth and suppress immune response. They also contain ellagic acid, a compound that blocks enzymes that are necessary for cancer cells - this appears to help slow the growth of tumors.




Studies show that consumption of green and yellow leafy vegetables has been associated with lower levels of stomach cancer.

Kale has indoles, nitrogen compounds which may help stop the conversion of certain lesions to cancerous cells in estrogen-sensitive tissues. In addition, isothiocyanates, phytochemicals found in kale, are thought to suppress tumor growth and block cancer-causing substances from reaching their targets.



Licorice root has a chemical, glycyrrhizin, that blocks a component of testosterone and therefore may help prevent the growth of prostate cancer. However, excessive amounts can lead to elevated blood pressure.






Mushrooms - There are a number of mushrooms that appear to help the body fight cancer and build the immune system - Shiitake, maitake, reishi, Agaricus blazei Murill, and Coriolus Versicolor.  These mushrooms contain polysaccharides, especially  Lentinan, powerful compounds that help in building immunity. They are a source of Beta Glucan. They also have a protein called lectin, which attacks cancerous cells and prevents them from multiplying. They also contain Thioproline. These mushrooms can stimulate the production of interferon in the body. â€¨â€¨Extracts from mushrooms have been successfully tested in recent years in Japan as an adjunct to chemotherapy. PSK is made from the Coriolus Versicolor. Maitake mushroom extract is PCM4.



Nuts contain the antioxidants quercetin and campferol that may suppress the growth of cancers. Brazil nut contains 80 micrograms of selenium, which is important for those with prostate cancer. (Note: Many people are allergic to the proteins in nuts, so if you have any symptoms such as itchy mouth, tight throat, wheezing, etc. after eating nuts, stop. Consider taking a selenium supplement instead or work with someone on how to eliminate this allergy.)





Oranges and lemons contain Iimonene which stimulates cancer-killing immune cells (lymphocytes, e.g.) that may also break down cancer-causing substances.
Papayas have vitamin C that works as an antioxidant and may also reduce absorption of cancer-causing nitrosamines from the soil or processed foods. Papaya contains folacin (also known as folic acid), which has been shown to minimize cervical dysplasia and certain cancers.

Raspberries contain many vitamins, minerals, plant compounds and antioxidants known as anthocyanins that may protect against cancer. According to a recent research study reported by Cancer Research 2001;61:6112-6119, rats fed diets of 5% to 10% black raspberries saw the number of esophageal tumors decrease by 43% to 62%. A diet containing 5% black raspberries was more effective than a diet containing 10% black raspberries. Research reported in the journal Nutrition and Cancer in May 2002 shows black raspberries may also thwart colon cancer.
Black raspberries are rich in antioxidants, thought to have even more cancer-preventing properties than blueberries and  strawberries. 




Red wine, even without alcohol, has polyphenols that may protect against various types of cancer. Polyphenols are potent antioxidants, compounds that help neutralize disease-causing free radicals.  Also, researchers at the University of North Carolina's medical school in Chapel Hill found the compound resveratrol, which is found in grape skins. It appears that resveratrol inhibits cell proliferation and can help prevent cancer. However, the findings didn't extend to heavy imbibers, so it should be used in moderation. In addition, alcohol can be  toxic to the liver and to the nervous system, and many wines have sulfites, which may be harmful to your health. Note:  some research indicates that alcohol is considered a class "A" carcinogen which can actually cause cancer - see http://www.jrussellshealth.com/alccanc.html. You should probably switch to non-alcoholic wines.

Rosemary may help increase the activity of detoxification enzymes. An extract of rosemary, termed carnosol, has inhibited the development of both breast and skin tumors in animals. We haven't found any studies done on humans. Rosemary can be used as a seasoning. It can also be consumed as a tea: Use 1 tsp. dried leaves per cup of hot water; steep for 15 minutes.

Seaweed and other sea vegetables contain beta-carotene, protein, vitamin B12, fiber, and chlorophyll, as well as chlorophylones - important fatty acids that may help in the fight against breast cancer. Many sea vegetables also have high concentrations of the minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and iodine.










Soy products like tofu contain several types of phytoestrogens — weak, nonsteroidal estrogens that could help prevent both breast and prostate cancer by blocking and suppressing cancerous changes. There are a number of isoflavones in soy products, but research has shown that genistein is the most potent inhibitor of the growth and spread of cancerous cells. It appears to lower breast-cancer risk by inhibiting the growth of epithelial cells and new blood vessels that tumors require to flourish and is being scrutinized as a potential anti-cancer drug.  However, there are some precautions to consider when adding soy to your diet. Eating up to 4 or 5 ounces of tofu or other soy a day is probably ok, but research is being done to see if loading up on soy could cause hormone imbalances that stimulate cancer growth. As a precaution, women who have breast cancer or are at high risk should talk to their doctors before taking pure isoflavone powder and pills, extracted from soy. 


Sweet potatoes contain many anticancer properties, including beta-carotene, which may protect DNA in the cell nucleus from cancer-causing chemicals outside the nuclear membrane.









Teas: Green Tea and Black tea contain certain antioxidants known as polyphenols (catechins) which appear to prevent cancer cells from dividing. Green tea is best, followed by our more common black tea (herbal teas do not show this benefit). According to a report in the July 2001 issue of the Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, these polyphenols that are abundant in green tea, red wine and olive oil, may protect against various types of cancer. Dry green tea leaves, which are about 40% polyphenols by weight, may also reduce the risk of cancer of the stomach, lung, colon, rectum, liver and pancreas, study findings have suggested.

Tapioca is derived from the cassava plant. It is one of the many plants that manufactures cyanide by producing a chemical called linamarine which releases hydrogen cyanide when it is broken down by the linamarase enzyme. Spanish researches have been studying the cassava and attempting to clone the genes from the plant which are responsible for producing the hydrogen cyanide and then transfer it to a retrovirus.  However, funding for the project has run out. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/health/newsid_317000/317467.stmfor more information on this. For a list of other foods that contain B17, go to our laetrile page.

Tomatoes contain lycopene, an antioxidant that attacks roaming oxygen molecules, known as free radicals, that are suspected of triggering cancer. It appears that the hotter the weather, the more lycopene tomatoes produce. They also have vitamin C, an antioxidant which can prevent cellular damage that leads to cancer. Watermelons, carrots, and red peppers also contain these substances, but in lesser quantities. It is concentrated by cooking tomatoes.  Scientists in Israel have shown that lycopene can kill mouth cancer cells. An increased intake of lycopene has already been linked to a reduced risk of breast, prostate, pancreas and colorectal cancer. (Note: Recent studies indicate that for proper absorption, the body also needs some oil along with lycopene.)


Turmeric (curcuma longa), a member of the ginger family, is believed to have medicinal properties because it inhibits production of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), levels of which are abnormally high in certain inflammatory diseases and cancers, especially bowel and colon cancer. In fact, a pharmaceutical company Phytopharm in the UK hopes to introduce a natural product, P54, that contains certain volatile oils, which greatly increase the potency of the turmeric spice. 

Turnips are said to contain glucose molaes which is a cancer fighting compound. I haven't confirmed this.








Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum.



          Swissvita Micrite 3D All Use Eye Cream Review!        

Swissvita Micrite 3D All Use Eye Cream!




A YOUNGER-LOOKING YOU: Swissvita Micrite 3D All Use Eye Cream contains ingredients that are backed by many scientific studies. This eye lift eye cream has components known for their revolutionary healing effects. They also help increase collagen levels to keep skin younger-looking.

SAY GOODBYE TO DARK CIRCLES: Periorbital dark circles are common to people who lack sleep or are tired. Age and genetics are also some of the reasons for getting these unsightly shadows under your eyes. No matter, our uniquely formulated product is known for visibly reducing the appearance of dark circles. It brightens and targets signs of fatigue around eyes and diminishes puffiness.

ERASE EYE WRINKLES: Improve skin firmness and elasticity with our high performance eye cream. Contains multiple active ingredients that nourish and heal discolored skin, fine lines and wrinkles. This natural skin tightener enhances your skinÕs biochemical properties, giving you an eye-lifting, youthful effect that makes your skin look younger and healthier.

SAFE TO USE: For your safety, this product adheres to the strictest standards of consumer regulations. This 3D all-use eye cream was made with your utmost safety in mind as it is additive-free, alcohol-free, sulfate-free, fragrance-free and paraben-free. We took out the dangerous chemicals found in many other eye cream products, so you are ensured when applying to your skin.

INTELLIGENT PACKAGING: This product comes in an aluminum sealed package for your protection. Plastic containers are not used to ensure the quality of the product, prevent the risk of product contamination and to maintain the effectiveness of the active ingredients. The container is also tested to withstand high temperature. Easy to use. Just open the cap, squeeze a sufficient amount on your fingers and apply generously on desired areas.
Get the product here: http://www.amztk.com/eye-lift 
#Swissvita




          Molecular and biochemical studies on the Ah receptor pathway in flounder (Platichthys flesus)        
none
          Scientific eXplanation of Slaughtering Animals ( Islamic Way)..        
Bob: Tell me why is it that a Muslim is very particular about the words Halaal and Haraam; what do they mean?


Yunus: That which is permissible is termed Halaal and that which is not permissible is termed Haraam and it is the Quran which draws the distinction between the two.

Bob: Can you give me an example?

Yunus: Yes, Islam has prohibited blood of any type. You will agree that achemical analysis of blood shows that it contains
an abundance of uric acid, a chemical substance which can be injurious to human health.

Bob: You're right about the toxic nature of uric acid, in the human being it is excreted as a waste product and in fact we are told that 98% of the body's uric acid is extracted from the blood by the kidneys and removed through urination.

Yunus: Now I think that you'll appreciate the special prescribed method ofanimal slaughter in Islam.

Bob: What do you mean?

Yunus: You see, the wielder of the knife, whilst taking the name of the 'Almighty', makes an incision through the jugular
veins, leaving all other veins and organs intact

Bob: I see, this causes the death of the animal by total loss of blood from the body, rather than an injury to any vital organ.

Yunus: Yes, were the organs, example the heart, the liver, or the brain crippled or damaged, the animal could die immediately and its blood would congeal in its veins and would eventually permeate the flesh. This implies that the animal
flesh would be permeated and contaminated with uric acid and therefore very poisonous; only today did our dieticians realize such a thing.

Bob: Again, while on the topic of food; Why do Muslims condemn the eating of pork or ham or any foods related to pigs or swine.

Yunus: Actually, apart from the Quran prohibiting the consumption of pork,bacon(pig flesh); in fact the Bible too in Leviticus chapter 11,verse 8, regarding swine it says, "of their flesh (of the swine, another name for pig) shall you not eat, and of their carcass you shall not touch;they are unclean to you. Further, did you know that a pig cannot be slaughtered at the neck for it does not have a neck; that is according to its natural anatomy.A Muslim reasons that if the pig was to be slaughtered and fit for human consumption the Creator would have provided it with a neck. Nonetheless, all that
aside, I am sure you are well informed about the harmful effects of the consumption of pork, in any form, be it pork chops,ham, bacon.

Bob: The medical science finds that there is a risk for various diseases the pig is found to be a host for many parasites and potential diseases.

Yunus: Yes, even apart from that, as we talked about uric acid content in the blood, it is important to note that the pig's
biochemistry excretes only 2% of its total uric acid content, the remaining 98% remains as an integral part of the body.

          DETOXIFICATION - Why necessary?        
Living in a chemically-oriented society has made toxicity a much greater concern for the 20th Century. The Environmental Protection Agency reports that the average American consumes four pounds of pesticides each year and has residues from over 400 toxic substances in their body. More than 3,000 chemical additives are found in the foods we eat. The incidence of many toxic diseases has increased as well, with cancer and cardiovascular disease at the top of the list. Arthritis, allergies, obesity, and many skin problems are other troubles that occur as a result of toxicity. In addition, a wide range of symptoms, such as headaches, fatigue, pains, coughs, gastrointestinal problems, and problems from immune weakness can all be related to toxicity.
Toxicity can occur on an internal and an external level. We are exposed to toxins daily and can acquire them from our environment by breathing, ingesting, or coming into physical contact with them. Also, most drugs, food additives, and allergens can create toxic elements in the body.

On the internal level, our body produces toxins through its normal, everyday functions. Biochemical, cellular, and bodily activities generate free radicals. When these are not eliminated, they can cause irritation or inflammation of the cells and tissues, blocking normal functions. Internally, fats (especially oxidized fats and cholesterol), free radicals, and other irritating molecules act as toxins. Functionally, poor digestion, colon sluggishness and dysfunction, reduced liver function, and poor elimination through the kidneys, respiratory tract, and skin all add to increased toxicity.

Microbes, including intestinal bacteria, foreign bacteria, yeasts, and parasites, produce metabolic waste products that we must handle. Our emotions and stress generate increased biochemical toxicity. A normal functioning body was created to handle certain levels of toxins; the concern is with excess intake, production of toxins, or a reduction in the processes of elimination.

Toxicity occurs in our body when we take in more than we can utilize and eliminate. A toxin may produce an immediate or rapid onset of symptoms or cause long-term, negative effects.

If our body is working well, with good immune and eliminative functions, we can handle our basic everyday exposure to toxins. Through detoxification, we clear and filter toxins and wastes and allow our body to work on enhancing its basic functions.



OUR GENERAL DETOXIFICATION SYSTEMS

• Respiratory--lungs, bronchial tubes, throat, sinuses, and nose

• Gastrointestinal--liver, gallbladder, colon, and whole GI tract

• Urinary--kidneys, bladder, and urethra

• Skin and dermal--sweat and sebaceous glands and tears

• Lymphatic--lymph channels and lymph nodes



Our body handles toxins by neutralizing, transforming, or eliminating them. The liver helps transform many toxic substances into harmless agents, while the blood carries waste to the kidneys; the liver also dumps waste through the bile into the intestines, where much of it is eliminated. We also clear toxins when our body sweats. Our sinuses and skin may also be accessory elimination organs, whereby excess mucus or toxins can be released.

Detoxification is the process of clearing toxins from the body by neutralizing or transforming them and clearing excess mucus and congestion. Detoxification also involves dietary and lifestyle changes that reduce intake of toxins and improve elimination. Avoidance of chemicals (from food or other sources), refined food, sugar, caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, and many drugs help to minimize the toxin load. Drinking extra water and increasing fiber by including more fruits and vegetables in the diet are steps in the detoxification process.

Almost everyone needs to detoxify. We detoxify to clear symptoms, treat disease, and prevent further problems. We also detoxify to rest our overloaded organs of digestion.

With a regular balanced diet, devoid of excesses, a less intense detoxification will be indicated. However, when we eat a congesting diet higher in fats, meats, dairy products, refined foods, and chemicals, detoxification becomes more necessary. Who needs to detoxify is based on individual lifestyle and symptoms of toxicity. Common toxicity symptoms include: headache, fatigue, mucus problems, aches and pains, digestive problems, "allergy" symptoms, and sensitivity to environmental agents such as chemicals, perfumes, and synthetics.



General Tips on Performing A Cleanse



In most cases, it is helpful to spend at least a couple months making gradual positive lifestyle changes before your first cleanse. The following paragraphs discuss, in detail, how to perform a toxic cleanse.



Food, Nutrition, and Hydration



There are many levels to detoxification. The first is to eat a non-toxic diet composed of raw foods. A raw-foods diet contains lots of sprouted greens from seeds and grains, such as wheat, buckwheat, sunflower, alfalfa, clover, sprouted beans, soaked or sprouted raw nuts, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Raw foods maintain the highest concentration of vitamins, minerals and important enzymes. Water should always be used during any type of detox program to help dilute and eliminate toxin accumulations. Supplementation is important to encourage healthy kidney and lymphatic system function, maintain healthy liver detoxification function, and promote efficient gastrointestinal elimination and blood purity. Supplementing with Juniper berry, red clover flower, collinsonia root, psyllium husk, burdock root, barley grass, Spanish black radish root, fenugreek seed, fringe tree root, fennel seed, and milk thistle addresses the functioning of each detoxification system and supports the body’s physiological functioning.



Proper Functioning of Eliminatory Organs



Colon cleansing is one of the most important parts of detoxification. Much toxicity comes out of the large intestine, and sluggish functioning of this organ can rapidly produce general toxicity. To improve elimination through the skin, regular exercise is important to stimulate sweating, which aids in detoxification. Dry brushing the skin before bathing is suggested to cleanse the skin of old cells. Massage therapy, especially lymphatic and even deeper massage, is very useful in supporting a detox program; it stimulates elimination and body functions, and also promotes relaxation.



It is important to choose cleansing techniques that are not too extreme for your current condition. Working closely with a health care professional who is familiar with detoxification techniques can be extremely important. While cleanses can be extremely healing, it is important to balance the cleansing techniques with periods of rebuilding and strengthening. This can be done by using other techniques, including: a healthy diet, whole food supplements, yoga, and support. Cleansing without rebuilding and strengthening will eventually weaken your system. Therefore, after each cleanse, take a period of time to concentrate on non-cleansing healing techniques.






          Why Bother Going to the Moon?        
The Naked Scientists are joined by biologist Kate Feller, physicist Jess Wade, biochemist Andy Holding and Space Boffin Richard Hollingham, to field your science questions. This week, find out what happens to muscles in space, how to rid a car of flatulence, and whether any animals can become invisible. Plus, cyber security expert Paul Harris talks to Chris Smith about the recent cyber attacks - what happened, and how we can protect ourselves.
          Do air pollution masks actually work?        
The Naked Scientists are joined by cosmologist Andrew Pontzen, biologist Sarah Shailes, neuroscientist Philipe Bujold and biochemist Sarah Madden to pit their wits against your science questions. This week, find out how venus fly traps work, whether psychologists can read your mind and why there is so much variation in herbivore poo.
          The brightest light in the Universe        
This week, we hear how one of the brightest lights in the Universe is helping scientists to build better jet engines, fight off antibiotic resistant bacteria and read the biochemical make-up of long-dead dinosaurs. Plus, how fears and phobias can pass from parent to child in a smell, why first impressions really do count, and also the physics of being a lead guitarist...
          How Science Goes for Gold        
How can science, technology and engineering aid the world's elite athletes? In this special edition of the Naked Scientists, we discover how physiology, psychology and technology help get us across the finish line. We'll be exploring the biochemical tests that can improve training, and Meera gets put through her paces on a treadmill! We also hear from Gold Medal winner Steve Redgrave and current Team GB competitors about the impact of science on their performance. Plus, how Formula One technology can make better bicycles, and why can technology can get so good, it has to be banned from competition...
          The National Astronomy Meeting        
We bring you the highlights from the Royal Astronomical Society's National Astronomy Meeting. We discover the top priorities for the next generation of space exploration, find out what the echoes of the big bang can tell us about the birth of the universe and explore gravitational waves - ripples in the very fabric of space and time. Plus, the importance of understanding the Sun, predicting the weather in space and the biochemical options for alien life.
          CHP-156-Joseph Needham Part 2        

In this Part 2 episode Laszlo continues his intro of Joseph Needham in 1943 right after Needham returned from his perilous adventure to the northwest of China to visit the sights of Dunhuang.  We'll conclude the life of Joseph Needham in this episode. He truly was, as Simon Winchester called him, "The Man Who Loved China."

 

 

 

Terms from this episode:

 

Jianqiao Daxue yu Zhongguo Daxue hezuo weiyuanhui  剑桥大学与中国大学合作委员会The Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, the

Mogao Grottoes   莫高窟  The caves at Dunhuang where so much Buddhist treasure was found.

Chongqing   重庆  Former wartime capital of China also known as Chungking

Fujian province  福建省 Province on the east coast of China below Zhejiang

Fuzhou   福州  Capital of Fujian

Kunming   昆明  Capital of Yunnan

Zhongguo Kēxué jìshù shi 中国科学技术史  Science and Civilization in China

Nantong  南通  City in Jiangsu

Jiangsu   江苏  Province on east coast of China north of Zhejiang

Wang Ling   王玲  Chinese and Australian educator and researcher

Lizhuang   李庄  City located on the banks of the Yangzi

Sichuan   四川  Province in the soutwest next door to Tibet

Zhú Kězhēn  竺可桢  Professor Coching Chu, Zhejiang University president 1936-49.

Gǔjīn Túshū Jíchéng   古今图书集成  Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings of Ancient and Modern Times

Lu Guizhen   鲁桂珍 (1904-1991) Biochemist and long-time assistant to Needham

Xiangqi   象棋 Chinese version of chess

Guō Mòruò    郭沫若 great writer, poet and archaeologist 

Shenyang   沈阳  Capital of Liaoning, also known in the past as Mukden

Lu Shiguo   鲁仕国  Father of Lu Guizhen

Zhongguo   中国  China, the Middle Kingdom

Qián Cúnxùn  钱存训  Professor T.H. Tsien (Tsien Tsuen-hsuin).  A giant in Chinese library science.  Wrote Volume V, Part 1 on paper and printing.

Simon Winchester's amazon page click here


          CHP-155-Joseph Needham Part 1        

In this long awaited topic Laszlo introduces "The Man Who Loved China", Dr. Joseph Needham.  A true friend of China for most of his adult life, Needham's contribution was the epic work "Science and Civilization in China".  Today this massive undertaking is spread out over 24 volumes, 17 of which were written in Needham's own lifetime.  Prior to Jospeh Needham getting the word out, China was not getting the respect it deserved for all its great contributions to human civilization.  He carried out intensive research and brought his findings to the public.  In this Part 1 episode we only go up to 1943 and the end of Needham's first expedition in China. 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Zhongguo Kexue jìshù shi  中国科学技术史  Science and Civilization in China

Lu Guizhen   鲁桂珍  (1904-1991) Biochemist and long-time assistant to Needham

Luo Zhongshu   罗忠恕  (1903-1985) Scholar who got the word out in the west about China's suffering under Japan.

Jianqiao Daxue yu Zhongguo Daxue hezuo weiyuanhui

剑桥大学与中国大学合作委员会  Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office

Lu Shiguo鲁仕国  Father of Lu Guizhen

luohou  落后  backwards

Chongqing  重庆  Former wartime capital of China also known as Chungking

Huang Xingzong  黄兴宗 H.T. Huang

Min River   岷江  Great river of China where Dujiangyan is located

Dadu River  大渡河  Another tributary of the Yangzi

Lushan  芦山  City in Sichuan near Ya'an, (written in the book as Loushan)

Lizhuang  李庄 City located on the banks of the Yangzi

Anyang   安阳 City in northern Henan where the Shang period Yin Ruins are located

Wang Yuanlu  王圆箓  The guy who got duped into selling 24 wagon loads of treasure, including the Diamond Sutra to Aurel Stein for about 220 quid.

Hanzhong   汉中   City in Shaanxi

Baoji  宝鸡  Another city in Shaanxi

Shaanxi   陕西  One of the great ancient provinces of China

Jiayuguan  嘉峪关  End of the line as far as the Great Wall went. 

Dunhuang   敦煌  Great trading city and center for Buddhist learning.

Liao Hongying   廖鸿英Chemist, Worked for British Council in Chengdu

Dujiangyan  都江堰  One of the greatest civil irrigation projects in human history that provided benefits to hundreds of millions of people since it was built in 256 BCE

Qin Shihuang   秦始皇 The Qin emperor

Li Bīng   李冰  The official credited with overseeing the entire Dujiangyan project.

Shu kingdom   蜀国 The Kingdom located in and around where present-day Chengdu is located.

Shuangshipu  双石铺A town near Baoji in Shaanxi

Héxī Corridor河西走廊  The geographic region running east and west inside Gansu Province.  It was an ancient road from thousands of years ago.

Mogao Caves  莫高窟  The caves at Dunhuang where so much Buddhist treasure was found.

Northern Zhou  北周  (557-581) A northern Dynasty during the Northern & Southern Dynasties Period

Nanbei Chao   南北朝  (420-589) The Northern and Southern Dynasties Period

Yang Jian    杨坚 Former Northern Zhou official who went on to found the Sui Dynasty.

Simon Winchester amazon.com page:  http://www.amazon.com/Simon-Winchester/e/B000APLU5E/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1435163989&sr=8-1

 


          Rupert Sheldrake and Morphogenetic Fields        
Morphogenetic fields is a biological term adapted by the English biochemist Rupert Sheldrake to suggest that evolution is a transference of past habits to present ones.¹ Sheldrake says morphogenetic fields have “physical effects” but “are not made of matter.” In contrast … Continue reading
          Diagnosis of genetic diseases        

What is a genetic disease?

Genetic disease is a condition caused by a change in chromosomes or genes that can be inherited from generation to generation. There are several thousand inherited genetic diseases. Often their symptoms are similar, although the diseases are caused by mutations in different genes. Most genetic abnormalities that cause disease occurs in a part of the genome which encodes proteins. The "Herzliya Medical Center" uses an advanced laboratory where genetic diseases can be diagnosed.

What is the genetic consultation?

The process of genetic counselling includes meeting with a physician-geneticist. During the meeting, a doctor clarifies the history of the disease, performs a syndromic diagnosis, discuss whether the disease is genetic and can be inherited.  Diagnosis is carried out using special methods of laboratory study: cytogenetic, molecular genetic and biochemical. When a diagnosis of genetic disease and its hereditary nature are confirmed, physician consults members of the family, inform about the nature of the condition, prognosis of its course, the possibility of treatment, the risk of the disease in family members and the possibility of this risks elimination or minimisation. In the field of children's diseases, genetic counselling is essential if genetic syndromes include multiple malformations, mental retardation, autism, growth retardation, central nervous system problems and other diseases.


          How important are systems of naming and classifying things to creating our sense of what is real?        
[Advertising my academic blog again.]
Last week I wrapped up a section on the mind for my blog about human nature and its connection to evolutionary and social narratives. The new section is going to tie that together with what I wrote about culture. Here is a summary about what's been covered so far, in case you might be interested:

A quick review: We've looked at how how evolution reveals patterns of organization leading to the replication of information in organisms and how these same patterns reveal the capacity for creativity at different levels of organic complexity. In other words, two essential elements for narratives that exist from single celled organisms to sophisticated multicellular forms. We've looked how perception has a sensory input from the biochemical and anatomical side as well as cultural input from the mental and social side, and how the patterns for replicating information and a capacity for creativity at the social level gives rise to narratives about the path and purpose to life. We were most recently looking at some of the building blocks of the mental and social aspects of perception and cognition.

To see where things go from there or how it began, you can start with the latest entry:

 Weaving the World Through Names and Stories

That's it for now.

Be well.
          Improving Digestion Part 1 - From The Brain To The Stomach        


Holistic Health Discussion Group
Wednesday, January 25th - 6 pm FREE
Teton Healing Arts
25 S. Gros Ventre St.




Darin Rodriguez, holistic nutrition therapist, shares valuable insight on ways to improve digestion naturally.

Nutrition therapy is centered around reestablishing a conscious connection not only with what we eat, but with how we eat. Nutrition therapy utilizes dietary and lifestyle changes to relieve overburdened organs and systems. It then applies nutrients and whole foods from nature to provide the building blocks needed for the body to restore health.
One of the main systems we focus on in nutrition therapy is, of course, the digestive system. Digestion plays a major role in the overall health or disease of an individual. The ability to breakdown food, absorb nutrients, and effectively eliminate waste is directly related to the function or dysfunction of all the other systems in the body.

Hippocrates stated, “All disease begins in the gut.” He believed and taught this principle because he knew that if a person was not absorbing crucial nutrients to maintain structures and replenish biochemicals, every cell, tissue, and organ would eventually be compromised. Likewise, when supporting the digestive system’s ability to function properly, food is more effectively broken down, nutrients are better absorbed and more readily available to nourish the cells that need them, and waste is eliminated more effectively. Supporting proper digestion prevents a host of potential problems in other body systems such as allergies, asthma, diabetes, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders.

This week we will be discussing part 1 of a 2 part series on improving digestion. By attending this talk you will gain a better understanding of the inter-connectedness of the nervous system and the digestive system. You will learn how enzymes and gastric juices act upon food, and how stomach acidity initiates a vital cascade of digestive events. We will address what occurs in healthy digestion from the brain to the stomach, how and why things go wrong, and how to support this vital system. Dietary adjustments, lifestyle changes, HCL and enzyme supplementation will be presented as possible solutions.

Holistic Health Discussion Groups are scheduled every Wednesday evening at Teton Healing Arts, and will cover a wide range of topics that affect people throughout our community. Holistic Health Discussion Groups are free and open to the public. Please contact Teton Healing Arts at 307-734-0222 for more information.

          Skutki uboczne stosowania pestycydów        
Stosowanie chemicznych środków ochrony roślin nie jest obojętne dla przebiegu procesów biochemicznych zachodzących w pszenicy jarej. Substancje czynne wpływają także na jej morfologię, zmieniając m.in. masę liści.
          Saudi Women: Elections Are One Step Forward On A Long Road         
The first Saudi Arabian women to vote celebrated with hugs and selfies and lingered at the polls to share the moment on Saturday. Women won only 20 seats out of more than 2,000 in local councils across the country, but it was more than the candidates expected. In the western coastal city of Jeddah, one winner was Lama al-Suleiman, a prominent businesswoman and British-trained biochemist. She says the toughest campaign battle was fighting tradition in a male-dominated society. "The men have been very cynical, so I find that women mimic what the men say," she notes. "The big father figure at home says, 'Well, what did the municipal council do before.' It's a very patriarchal society here." Suleiman had support from men. She was elected twice to the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and now serves as vice president of the business organization. In the local municipal election, she ran a highly professional social media campaign to appeal to a wider group of voters. "These have been much more
          "Asparagus For Cancer"        

"Asparagus For Cancer"

Dalibor Moyzes
Subject: Asparagus DO NOT FAIL TO READ THIS AND SEND TO YOUR FAMILY &FRIENDS When I was in the USN, I was stationed in Key West, FL. I worked at the clinic at Naval Air Station on Big Coppitt Key just a few miles north of Key West. The hospital at Key West was for out- patients only, for retired armed forces personnel that lived in the area. If you needed to be hospitalized you were sent to Homestead AFB Florida. I had the day off and just went inside the hospital (Corpman barracks were next to hospital). There was a retired Navy man that worked in the lab and he was very interesting gentleman to talk with. He was a retired biochemist from the USN. He asked me what was going on that day,and I said I had the day off. I wish I was working, as the crew on, today was taking a sailor to Homestead as he had a very bad kidney infection. Now this elderly gent told me the man should have eaten more asparagus, and he wouldn't have that problem. I asked why? I'll never forget him saying, do you eat asparagus? and I said yes, I love them. He replied you notice how your urine stinks after eating asparagus? I said well I never thought it was what I ate but yes it does have a pungent odor. He said, It is because it is detoxifying your body of harmful chemicals!!! This was back in 1986 when I was stationed there and to read this email again I had to share this story...Eat more asparagus, my friends.

Asparagus -- Who knew?
My Mom had been taking the full-stalk canned style asparagus, pureed it and took 4 tablespoons in the morning and 4 tablespoons later in the day. She did this for over a month. She is on chemo pills for Stage 3 lung cancer in the pleural area and her cancer cell count went from 386 down to 125 as of this past week. Her oncologist said she will not need to see him for 3 months.

THE ARTICLE:
Several years ago I met a man seeking asparagus for a friend who had cancer. He gave me a copy of an article, entitled "Asparagus For Cancer" printed in the Cancer News Journal, December 1979. I will share it here, just as it was shared with me: I am a biochemist, and have specialized in the relation of diet to health for over 50 years. Several years ago, I learned of the discovery of Richard R. Vensal, D.D.S. that asparagus might cure cancer. Since then, I have worked with him on his project. We have accumulated a number of favorable case histories. Here are a few examples:

Case No. 1, A man with an almost hopeless case of Hodgkin's disease (cancer of the lymph glands) who was completely incapacitated. Within 1 year of starting the asparagus therapy, his doctors were unable to detect any signs of cancer, and he was back on a schedule of strenuous exercise

Case No. 2, A successful businessman, 68 years old, suffered from cancer of the bladder for 16 years. After years of medical treatments, including radiation without improvement, he began taking asparagus. Within 3 months, examinations revealed that his bladder tumor had disappeared and that his kidneys were normal.

Case No. 3, On March 5th 1971, a man who had lung cancer was put on the operating table where they found lung cancer so widely spread that it was inoperable. The surgeon sewed him up and declared his case hopeless. On April 5th he heard about the Asparagus therapy and immediately started taking it. By August, x-ray pictures revealed that all signs of the cancer had disappeared. He is now back at his regular business routine.
Case No. 4, A woman had been troubled for a number of years with skin cancer. She developed different skin cancers which were diagnosed by the acting specialist as advanced. Within 3 months after beginning asparagus therapy, the skin specialist said her skin looked fine with no more skin lesions. This woman reported that the asparagus therapy also cured her kidney disease, which had started in 1949. She had over 10 operations for kidney stones, and was receiving government disability payments for an inoperable, terminal, kidney condition. She attributes the cure of this kidney trouble entirely to the asparagus treatment.

I was not surprised at this result as `The elements of materia medica', edited in 1854 by a Professor at the University of Pennsylvania, stated that asparagus was used as a popular remedy for kidney stones. He even referred to experiments, in 1739, on the power of asparagus in dissolving stones. Note the dates! ---We would have other case histories but the medical establishment has interfered with our obtaining some of the records. I am therefore appealing to readers to spread this good news and help us to gather a large number of case histories that will overwhelm the medical skeptics about this unbelievably simple and natural remedy.

For the treatment, asparagus should be cooked before using. Fresh or canned asparagus can be used. I have corresponded with the two leading canners of asparagus, Giant and Stokely, and I am satisfied that these brands contain no pesticides or preservatives. Place the cooked asparagus in a blender and liquefy to make a puree. Store in the refrigerator. Give the patient 4 full tablespoons twice daily, morning and evening. Patients usually show some improvement in 2-4 weeks. It can be diluted with water and used as a cold or hot drink. This suggested dosage is based on present experience, but certainly larger amounts can do no harm and may be needed in some cases.

As a biochemist I am convinced of the old saying that `what cures can prevent.' Based on this theory, my wife and I have been using asparagus puree as a beverage with our meals. We take 2 tablespoons diluted in water to suit our taste with breakfast and with dinner. I take mine hot and my wife prefers hers cold. For years we have made it a practice to have blood surveys taken as part of our regular checkups. The last blood survey, taken by a medical doctor who specializes in the nutritional approach to health, showed substantial improvements in all categories over the last one, and we can attribute these improvements to nothing but the asparagus drink. As a biochemist, I have made an extensive study of all aspects of cancer, and all of the proposed cures. As a result, I am convinced that asparagus fits in better with the latest theories about cancer.

Asparagus contains a good supply of protein called histones, which are believed to be active in controlling cell growth. For that reason, I believe asparagus can be said to contain a substance that I call cell growth normalizer. That accounts for its action on cancer and in acting as a general body tonic. In any event, regardless of theory, asparagus used as we suggest, is a harmless substance. The FDA cannot prevent you from using it and it may do you much good. It has been reported by the US National Cancer Institute, that asparagus is the highest tested food containing glutathione, which is considered one of the body's most potent anticarcinogens and antioxidants.

Just a side note... In case you are wondering why this has not been made public, there is no profit in curing cancer.


Please send this article to everyone in your Address Book. The most unselfish act one can ever do is paying forward all the kindness one has received.


posted by 
Alex W Fraser
Courtenay, BC
http://glengarry.puretrim.com
4/26/15


          UW-Madison biochemist wins Shaw Scientist Award        
Ophelia Venturelli's research may lead to the ability to engineer behaviors among beneficial microbes in the gut ecosystem, which could be used to enhance their resilience to invasion by pathogens or unintended impairment from antibiotics.
           Physicochemical and biochemical properties of edible bird's nest         
Tan, Eddie Ti Tjih (2007) Physicochemical and biochemical properties of edible bird's nest. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering.
           Cloning of xylanase gene from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 58350         
Mohamad Fuzi, Siti Fatimah Zaharah and Md. Illias, Rosli (2007) Cloning of xylanase gene from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 58350. In: The 32nd Annual Conference Of The Malaysian Society For Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, 5th-6th September 2007, Eastin Hotel, Petaling Jaya.
           Cloning of beta-xylosidase gene from aspergillus niger         
Muhammad Zaidi, Nor Fadzilah and Md. Illias, Rosli (2007) Cloning of beta-xylosidase gene from aspergillus niger. In: The 32nd Annual Conference Of The Malaysian Society For Biochemistry And Molecular Biology , 5th-6th September 2007, Eastin Hotel, Petaling Jaya.
           Isolation of maltogenic amylase gene from bacillus licheniformis TH-1         
Jonet, Mohd Anuar and Md. Illias, Rosli (2007) Isolation of maltogenic amylase gene from bacillus licheniformis TH-1. In: The 32nd Annual Conference Of The Malaysian Society For Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, 5th-6th September 2007, Eastin Hotel, Petaling Jaya.
           PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF PERAH PERAH SEED OR TAPOS         
Husin , Nurdiyana (2007) PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF PERAH PERAH SEED OR TAPOS. In: PSM Presentation (Bioprocess Engineering Dept). (Unpublished)
          Tests show that deadly flu could spread among people        
News

New influenza virus transmits through air between ferrets, raising concerns that it could do the same in humans

By
1:52pm, May 23, 2013
Citations

H. Zhu et al. Infectivity, transmission and pathology of human-isolated H7N9 influenza virus in ferrets and pigs. Science published online May 23, 2013.


H. Wang et al. Live-animal markets and influenza A (H7N9) virus infection. New England Journal of Medicine published online May 22, 2013. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1305584

Further Reading

T. H. Saey. New flu in China reveals its avian origins. Science News online, April 12, 2013. [Go to]


T. H. Saey. News in Brief: Bird flu infects three in China. Science News online, April 1, 2013. [Go to]


T. H. Saey. News in Brief: New bird flu claims more victims. Science News online. April 15, 2013. [Go to]

A new bird flu that has killed 36 people in China can spread from ferret to ferret through the air. A laboratory test showing airborne transmission of the H7N9 avian influenza virus between the animals has raised fears that the virus is poised to become a human pandemic.

The H7N9 avian influenza virus emerged suddenly at the end of February and has infected 131 people. A few patients may have caught the virus from other infected people, but no evidence has emerged that H7N9 can readily transmit from human to human.

To find out how the virus might spread among people, an international group of researchers infected ferrets, which often stand as proxies for people in influenza studies. Infected ferrets passed the virus to all of the uninfected animals housed in the same cage, indicating that H7N9 spreads through direct contact, the team reports May 23 in Science. One of three uninfected ferrets in neighboring cages also caught the virus, suggesting that it can also transmit through airborne droplets when an infected animal sneezes or coughs. Airborne transmission among people is a prerequisite for a pandemic.

As a comparison, the researchers also exposed ferrets to an airborne flu strain that caused a pandemic in 2009. All of the animals got sick. Because only one of three ferrets that could have contracted the new H7N9 virus through the air actually did, the researchers conclude that airborne H7N9 transmission is inefficient. 

But the experiment was not designed to quantify the efficiency of airborne transmission and ferrets aren’t perfect representations of people, so it may be difficult to gauge a person’s risk of catching H7N9 through airborne droplets, says coauthor Robert Webster of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis. “It shows it can happen. Statistically, who knows what it means?”

There’s no guarantee the virus will spread similarly from person to person, says Ana Fernandez-Sesma, a viral immunologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. In the experiment, ferrets are together for hours with forced airflow under temperature and humidity conditions that favor viral transmission, she says. “I don’t think this is what happens in real life.”

Ram Sasisekharan, an MIT biochemist who studies influenza viruses, agrees that the virus probably is not capable of person-to-person spread through the air. But it could evolve that ability. “With these viruses, you will never know if and when they mutate and if it will acquire mutations that will be a cause of concern,” he says.

That could happen via pigs. The animals can serve as mixing vessels where human and bird viruses swap genes, creating new flu strains. That’s how the 2009 pandemic virus came to be. In the new study, the researchers exposed pigs to the H7N9 virus. The animals became infected but didn’t pass the new flu to other pigs or to ferrets, the researchers found. That result indicates that pigs probably are not a source of the virus and would not pass H7N9 along if they did become infected. Outside the lab, no pigs have been found to carry the virus.

Public health officials have not located the origin of the H7N9 virus, but growing evidence suggests that birds sold at live poultry markets infected some patients. George Gao of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Beijing and colleagues have now traced the source of one woman’s infection to poultry sold at the market where she was a butcher. Those birds already carried the virus when they arrived from a wholesaler. The team recounts the trail May 22 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

No new human cases have been reported since May 8, which Webster attributes partially to the seasons changing (summer weather is not favorable to the flu), but mainly to China’s temporary closing of the live bird markets in Shanghai and other affected areas. The markets have been closed since April 6 and the government has not announced when trading will resume. “We could get it stamped out if China can close the markets for a bit longer,” Webster says.


          Chiropractor - The Netherlands / Resultcare / Molenhoek, Limburg, Netherlands        
Resultcare/Molenhoek, Limburg, Netherlands

Do you want a chiropractic position in one of the happiest countries in the world?

Do you want to take the time to help your patients in the best way you possibly can?

Do you want a net income of over 50k euro per year?

Do you want to develop yourself to become the best chiropactor you possibly can

Would you want to work in a well organized chiropractic clinic where good health care is the main driver

Than you want to join our team --> apply now

Our Multi-Disciplinary clinic a team of 5 physical therapist and 3 chiropractors is growing rapidly and therefore we have a rare opportunity for an associate chiropractor.

The chiropractors are the lead practioners supported by physical therapists. As a chiropractor you set up a treatment plan based on a 30 min intake, where every aspect of the patient is researched, not just the area of the complaint. The cooperation with the physical therapist ensures that you can focus your work as chiropractor to what it is all about: fixing the root of the problem and making sure the body functions optimally.

The physical therapists focus on the tension in the muscle tissues as well as giving the right exercises to ensure core-stability in our state-of-the-art gym facility.

The chiropractors focus on spinal subluxation, pelvis inclination, dental occlusion, applied kinesiology and also the biochemistry of the body which aid in many complex health problems. More than anywhere else they focus an hollistic health approach to fix complex health problems of patients who have seen many health care professionals before. No "flying 7" approach in our clinic!

This all results in happy patients and a high level off job fulfillment!

The position

In the first month you will see over 50 new patients. In the mean time we will discuss your mentoring needs and areas where you want to develop yourself as chiropractor. We have an extensive mentoring plan for a associate chiropractor where you can develop yourself as chiropractor. You will also gain insight in the succes of our clinic. We feel our staff is the most important aspect of our company and will make sure you get you say and be as happy as possible in your position.

We are looking for a young ambitious chiropractor with:

- Preferably 2 years of experience (not mandatory)

- Willingness to learn the Dutch language

- Eagerness to learn new things from an experienced chiropractor.

The area

Our clinic is based in a town called Molenhoek, close to Nijmegen which is the 10th biggest city in the Netherlands. Dutch people all speak excellent English, so there's no language barrier. The area is beautiful with great housing, lakes, forest, lots of social events and excellent facilities. The Netherlands is a really well organized country with excellent public transport, health care insurance, road network, etcetera. It's really an amazing country to live.

We offer

- Net monthly salary between € 3000 and € 6000 based on experience and patients seen

- Excellent facilities

- Possibilities to grow as chiropractor

- Well organized management

- Dutch classes (mandatory)

Are you the ambitious chiropractor we are looking for? Let's have a chat!

Apply now: to Remco van der Veen by clicking apply

Employment Type: Permanent
Work Hours: Full Time

Apply To Job
          Reply to How a High-Fat Diet Helps Starve Cancer on Wed, 01 Jun 2016 19:49:02 GMT        
In 1931, Dr. Otto Warburg won the Nobel Prize Physiology or Medicine for his discovery that cancer cells have a fundamentally different energy metabolism compared to healthy cells. Most experts consider him to be the greatest biochemist of the 20th century. His lab staff also included Hans Krebs, Ph.D., after whom the Krebs cycle was named. The Krebs cycle refers to the oxidative reduction pathways that occur in the mitochondria. So just how does the metabolic inflexibility of cancer cells differ from healthy cells? A cell can produce energy in two ways: aerobically, in the mitochondria, or anaerobically, in the cytoplasm, the latter of which generates lactic acid — a toxic byproduct. Warburg discovered that in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells overproduce lactic acid. This is known as The Warburg Effect. Mitochondrial energy production is far more efficient, capable of generating 18 times more energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) than anaerobic energy generation. Warburg concluded that the prime cause of cancer was the reversion of energy production from aerobic energy generation to a more primitive form of energy production, anaerobic fermentation. To reverse cancer, he believed you had to disrupt the energy production cycle that is feeding the tumor, and that by reverting back to aerobic energy metabolism you could effectively "starve" it into remission. Although he was never able to conclusively prove it, he maintained this view until his death in 1970. One of his goals in life was to discover the cure for cancer. Sadly, as so typically happens in science, his theories were never accepted by conventional science despite his academic pedigree — until now. The New York Times recently published a long, detailed article about the history of modern cancer research, including Warburg's theories on cancer, which are now becoming more widely accepted.
          Amla & Vitamin “C”        
As promised in my last post, here is the guest article, by Mr. Ninad Deshmukh, CEO Uniheal foods.

Why we need Vitamin C?

We need vitamin C to improve resistance of body i.e. to build immune system. Deficiency of vitamin C could lead to Scurvy

Why we have to take Vitamin C from outside?

For all except four mammalian species, ascorbic acid is not a vitamin, because they make their own abundant supply. Man is one of the four exceptions. Of the four enzymes necessary to make vitamin C, man has the first three. Somewhere in our evolution, we lost that fourth enzyme, and ascorbic acid became a vitamin for us — we have to obtain it from our diet. Animals make that amount of vitamin C that would be the equivalent of four grams (4,000 mg.) daily for an average size human.

While the U. S. government RDA (recommended daily allowance, some say “recommended deficiency allowance”) is 60 mg., this is merely the amount that will prevent death from scurvy. Optimal health requires the higher dose levels. This enzymatic defect in humans undoubtedly accounts for a shorter life span than we were designed to have. Advocates of vitamin C prescribes very high daily dose of vitamin C.

What is Vitamin C?

(Vitamin C a.k.a. Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbate)

This well-known vitamin is important in the maintenance of collagen, the protein that holds most of the soft tissues of the body together. Along with B6, it is also vital to the utilization of amino acids. It enhances the absorption of iron from vegetable sources. It inhibits the synthesis of nitrosamines, compounds implicated in cancer. Fruit sources are citrus fruits, fresh strawberries, cantaloupe, pineapples and guava. Vegetable sources are broccoli, Brussel sprouts, tomatoes, spinach, kale, green peppers, cabbage and turnips. Regular intake of vitamin C insures health of the soft tissues of the body and perhaps an ounce of cancer protection. There is ample research evidence that substantial doses of vitamin C, taken regularly over the course of years, prolong a person’s life expectancy by lowering the probability of vascular disease. (The same is true of vitamin E.)

One of the many functions of ascorbic acid in human biochemistry is to regenerate oxidized vitamin E that, in turn, serves to protect cell walls from oxidative damage.

The ascorbate form of ascorbic acid is the form that is effective in the treatment of colds and flu. Do not bother trying to treat a cold or flu with ascorbic acid. It will not work. The L- form is the bioactive form of vitamin C. The D-form is just so much stuff the body must get rid of. Synthetic ascorbic acid contains equal amounts of L- and D- forms. Natural sources of vitamin C contain only the L- form. Read the label to know what you are getting. If it is not specified otherwise, assume it to be synthetic. If it doesn’t say “ascorbate,” assume it to be ascorbic acid.

Natural Vs Artificial Vitamin C

There is great fight between manufacturers of Synthetic Vitamin C and manufacturers of supplements based on Natural source of Vitamin C. Each one claiming that there is better! My Common sense says that Natural is always better (Disputable)!

Studies indicate that the naturally occurring Vitamin C is easier for body to absorb than synthetic Vitamin C. This and other studies indicate that naturally occurring Vitamin C may be ten times more beneficial to body than synthetic ones.

Why Vitamin C in amla is more powerful?

The natural tannins in Vitamin “C” complex of amla prevent oxidation of the vitamin content in dry condition-in other words it is heat stable. Sabinsa Corporation has prepared a high tannin standardized extract at 40% polyphenols (mostly in the form of tannins), leaving behind some of the other carbohydrates. The presence of a large proportion of tannins in the fruit may easily explain some of the more prosaic proclaimed benefits of amla, including treatment of respiratory and intestinal disorders, particularly intestinal ulcerations. In addition, polyphenols have been shown to have numerous health protective benefits, including lowering blood lipids and blood sugar, enhancing blood circulation, and blocking the action of carcinogens, which together contribute to the anti-ageing effect. The apparent superior effect of the mistaken “vitamin C” component is actually the more stable and potent anti-oxidant effect of the tannins that appeared to be the vitamin.

Dr. Shibnath Ghosal, at the Banaras Hindu University, published his findings about active constituents of emblica fruits in 1996, reporting on the mistaken identification of vitamin C. He turned his research findings into a patent just four years later; describing the production of the mixture he called Capros. It is derived from amla by a careful process of extraction that prevents breakdown of the tannins. It contains:

Emblicanin-A: 27% ;Emblicanin-B: 23%; Punigluconin: 8%; Pedunculagin: 14%
Gallo-ellagitannoids : 18%; Rutin: 10%

The first four ingredients listed are polyphenols (tannins); the next constituent is a combination primarily of gallic acid and ellagic acid, the tannoid components that are linked together to make the other tannins. Rutin is another phenolic compound, a common flavonoid found in many plants and isolated as a natural health care product. Dr. Ghosal describes his extract (U.S. patent # 6,124,268) as having a greater antioxidant potential than vitamin C, while being more stable against heat and oxidation. It can be formulated into skin creams that are designed to protect the skin from damage due to excess sun exposure and may also be used as a component of internal remedies for health protective effects, especially for cardiovascular risk factors.

So vitamin C in amla is powerful as it is a complex of ascorbate, tannins and polyphenols.

Several properties that are talked about amla are as follows:

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, Immuno Modulator, anti-bacterial, expectorant, antipyretic, cardio tonic, anti-emetic, anabolic

It is considered to cure or help in skin problems, hair problems, acidity, diabetes, asthma,cholesterol and cholesterol induced atherosclerosis (Obstruction of the arteries), etc.

Amla is getting popular all across globe among people as well as commercial organizations (Pharma MNCs), as rich source of Natural Vitamin “C”.

Why amla never become table-top fruit like mango or apple?

When amla fruit is having such powerful medicinal values, why it is not consumed like other fruits such as mango, apple or other berries? The answer to this question is its sour taste! Amla became famous worldwide as main constituent of Chyvanprash, which is the most popular rejuvenator in the world. In India, it is consumed in almost every home in the form of Murabba (Amla preserved in sugar syrup).

Now amla processing is picked up in India and efforts are made to develop products that are good in taste so that people can consume amla everyday and improve health.

Amla is getting popular all across globe among people as well as commercial organizations (Pharma MNCs), as rich source of Natural Vitamin “C”.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Some Amla products that are available in market are Amla Candies and Amla Juice. If you are interested you can contact:

Uniheal Foods
113, Block 1, Emerald Plaza,
Hiranandani Meadows,
Thane (W) - 400 610
Phone : +(91)-(22)-4012 1186
Fax : +(91)-(22)-4012 1190
Web: http://www.uniheal.com/
Email : info@uniheal.com

Customer Care:
Mobile : 09967210489
Email : customercare@uniheal.com

If you are interested in any of the Uniheal products, they can be ordered over the phone and can be delivered free of cost within INDIA.


          Co kryją w sobie suplementy diety? „Tylko pięć substancji wpływa pozytywnie na wydolność sportową”        
– Odżywki sportowe mają zwiększyć wytrzymałość, siłę czy szybkość sportowców; o ile w przypadku zawodowców są nieuniknione, to już amatorzy sportów rekreacyjnych mogą je z powodzeniem zastąpić składnikami dostępnymi w pokarmie – mówi biochemik dr Tomasz Podgórski.


          Aloe vera: For glowing, supple and spotless skin!        

What is aloe vera?

Aloe vera, (pronounced alo vera) which is said to have originated from Africa, is a stem-less or very short-stemmed succulent plant with fleshy green leaves.

Aloe vera, which is also called the ‘burnt plant’ with its anti-inflammatory, anti-healing, healing and cooling properties, is the main ingredient in several skin care products. In addition, aloe vera is rich in amino acids, vitamins A, F, C and B.


For years researchers have been conducting studies to learn the benefits of aloe vera and have found that the plant does have properties that can be effective in treating several skin conditions, minor skin infections and also burns and wounds.

Aloe vera gel is the transparent, juicy substance found in the long thick-skinned leaves of the plant. This gel is suitable for all skin types. Even people with sensitive skin can use the aloe vera gel.

Various uses of aloe vera

Anti-aging agent: Aloe vera protects, nourishes and moisturizes your skin. According to a study published in the Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry magazine, aloe vera, when applied topically, improves the levels of collagen. Aloe vera also protects your face from developing fine lines.

Before going to bed, gently massage a thin layer of fresh aloe vera on your face, around the eyes and the corners of your mouth. This will keep your skin younger looking.

Aloe vera as moisturiser: Apply aloe vera on the skin before the application of make-up. This will prevent your skin from drying. Even men can use the aloe vera gel like an aftershave. The healing properties will help in treating the minor nicks and cuts caused while shaving. During winter your skin tends to dry more often. To keep your skin hydrated, make a mask by mixing equal parts of honey and aloe vera gel (pure extract from the plant) and apply on your face. Wash it off with warm water after 15 minutes for a glowing, soft skin.

Aloe vera for treating acne: For those suffering from acne, aloe vera with its anti-inflammatory properties is a blessing. According to a study conducted by the University of Maryland Medical Center, aloe vera gel has more anti-inflammatory properties than one percent of cortisone cream. It also has strong antibacterial properties, which will heal the skin quickly and naturally with very little scarring.

Aloe vera to reduce stretch marks: Want to get rid of those ugly stretch marks you gained due to weight gain or pregnancy? Hundreds of women try scores of cosmetics to hide these scars, but in vain. Stretch marks are nothing but tiny tears in the skin caused due to sudden and excessive stretching. Aloe vera gel can help you with that. Regular application of aloe vera gel helps in hiding these marks by healing the wounds.

Aloe vera for sunburns: Application of aloe vera gel on sun burns will reduce the pain as well as the swelling and keep your skin moisturised. Recovery will be quicker if your skin retains its moisture.

In addition, aloe vera also acts as a brightening gel by removing dead cells and keeps oiliness under check.

So go ahead and make aloe vera a part of your daily beauty regime for a glowing, supple and spotless skin!

          Neue Studie lässt Anti-Aging-Produkte alt aussehen        
Freie Radikale gelten als biochemische Bösewichte: Krank sollen sie machen und das Leben verkürzen. Antioxidantien werden hingegen als die vermeintlichen Wundermittel der Anti-Aging-Industrie gefeiert. Dass Radikale aber gar nicht immer so schädlich sind, zeigt nun eine neue Studie an Würmern.
          Guillermo Romano, Class of 2013        
Watch Guillermo discuss his research Amgen Scholar, Mary Gates Research Scholar, and Undergraduate Research Leader Majors: Public Health, Biochemistry Minor: Chemistry Research Mentor: Dr. Dustin Maly Where is Guillermo now? Guillermo is currently doing research at Seattle Children’s Research Institute with Dr. David Rawlings, working on a gene therapy project aimed at making human cells immune...
          Common Organic Functional Groups        
This is a lecture capture, using pencast technology, of an introductory level organic chemistry class (ie. nursing chemistry, GOB, or pre- organic) that looks at 10 of the basic functional groups relevant to biology and biochemistry from a chemistry perspective. Concepts like intermolecular forces, physical properties, and basic reactivity are discussed.  Run time 35 minutes. 14 Mbytes. Live Class setting.
           Proteomic and Biochemical profiling of 4.1R deficient red blood cells         
Jeremy, K. P., Plummer, Z. E., Head, D. J., Delaunay, J. and Avent, N. D. (2007) Proteomic and Biochemical profiling of 4.1R deficient red blood cells. Haematologica, 92 (s1). pp. 342-343. ISSN 0390-6078 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11032
          Emergency Cash Loans: Easy Funds for Everyone        
An urgent expense can trap you anytime but having adequate funds to meet them on time is not always possible. To solve and meet sudden and urgent expenses you can apply for emergency cash loans to get quick and instant financial relief.

Emergency cash loans are free from credit check formality and are open to everyone. The borrowers facing credit problems like CCJs, IVA, arrears, defaults, late payments and bankruptcy can easily apply for emergency cash loans.

A loan amount ranging from ??100-??1500 is offered as emergency cash loans. A borrower can borrow anything suiting his requirements and ability. The amount is extended for a short time period of 2-4 weeks. The repayment term can be extended by creditor but an extra fee is charged.

The interest rate on these loans is little higher as these are advanced for a short time period. But a lower interest rate can be easily grabbed if you shop around the loan market well.

Emergency cash loans are instant loans as their processing is fast and simple.
Emergency cash loans are short term loans that require no credit check, no collateral evaluation, no faxing of documents and no paperwork. These loans have quick and fast loan processing.

In order to qualify for emergency cash loans you need to be 18 years of age or above, must have an active bank account and should be employed on a regular basis. If you have these required qualifications then your application will be quickly approved.

Emergency cash loans can be applied online and offline. You can look for cheaper rate deals online. There are various lenders available online; you can just view various loan quotes and compare to select the best one for yourself. Just fill up a simple online form with few personal details to apply.

The emergency cash loans can be utilized for paying off various day to day expenses and short term expenses such as electricity bills, medical expenses, examination fee, grocery bills and other such expenses.

medical sales recruiters

Biochemistry Jobs

George Linken works as financial advisor in Emergency Cash Loans. He is offering loan advice for quite some time. To know more about Emergency cash loans, no fax payday loans, emergency cash loans online, fast cash loans, fast cash loan visit http://www.emergency-cash-loans.net/

medical sales recruiters: Pulmonologist Jobs

medical sales recruiters: Pharmacist Jobs

Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com


           Alkene monooxygenase from Nocardia corallina B-276 is a member of the class of dinuclear iron proteins capable of stereospecific epoxygenation reactions         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Alkene monooxygenase from Nocardia corallina B-276 is a member of the class of dinuclear iron proteins capable of stereospecific epoxygenation reactions. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY, 247 (2). pp. 635-641. ISSN 0014-2956
           Autocatalytic removal of the pro-sequence from kexins requires an intact P-domain         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Autocatalytic removal of the pro-sequence from kexins requires an intact P-domain. In: 662nd Meeting of the Biochemical-Society, UNIV DUNDEE, DUNDEE, SCOTLAND, JUL 20-31, 1997. Published in: BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (4). S626-S626.
           Characterisation of a phospholipase C delta from Schizosaccharomyces pombe         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Characterisation of a phospholipase C delta from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (2). S225-S225. ISSN 0300-5127
           Cysteine-200 of human inducible nitric oxide synthase is essential for dimerization of haem domains and for binding of haem, nitroarginine and tetrahydrobiopterin         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Cysteine-200 of human inducible nitric oxide synthase is essential for dimerization of haem domains and for binding of haem, nitroarginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 323 (Part 1). pp. 141-146. ISSN 0264-6021
           Do molecular chaperones have to be proteins?         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Do molecular chaperones have to be proteins? BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, 238 (3). pp. 687-692. ISSN 0006-291X
           G-protein-coupled receptors for peptide hormones in yeast         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) G-protein-coupled receptors for peptide hormones in yeast. In: Symposium on Xanthine Oxidase - Enzymology and Pathophysiology, at the 661st Meeting of the Biochemical-Society, BATH, ENGLAND, APR 10-11, 1997. Published in: BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (3). pp. 1015-1021.
           Identification of a putative G protein-coupled receptor kinase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Identification of a putative G protein-coupled receptor kinase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (2). S226-S226. ISSN 0300-5127
           Identification of the transporter for the M-factor mating pheromone in fission yeast         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Identification of the transporter for the M-factor mating pheromone in fission yeast. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (2). S224-S224. ISSN 0300-5127
           Inactivation of the regulatory protein B of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by proteolysis can be overcome by a Gly to Gin modification         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Inactivation of the regulatory protein B of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by proteolysis can be overcome by a Gly to Gin modification. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY, 248 (1). pp. 72-79. ISSN 0014-2956
           Isolation of yeast mutants hypersensitive to mating pheromones         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Isolation of yeast mutants hypersensitive to mating pheromones. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (2). S227-S227. ISSN 0300-5127
           Loss of Prk1 leads to cell aggregation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Loss of Prk1 leads to cell aggregation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In: 662nd Meeting of the Biochemical-Society, UNIV DUNDEE, DUNDEE, SCOTLAND, JUL 20-31, 1997. Published in: BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (4). S601-S601.
           N-terminal processing of the M-factor mating pheromone in fission yeast.         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) N-terminal processing of the M-factor mating pheromone in fission yeast. In: 662nd Meeting of the Biochemical-Society, UNIV DUNDEE, DUNDEE, SCOTLAND, JUL 20-31, 1997. Published in: BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (4). S625-S625.
           Pro-sequence removal is not sufficient for activation of the kexin Krp1         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Pro-sequence removal is not sufficient for activation of the kexin Krp1. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (2). S230-S230. ISSN 0300-5127
           Proteolytic processing of ricin a chain is not required for cytotoxicity         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Proteolytic processing of ricin a chain is not required for cytotoxicity. BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, 241 (3). pp. 617-621. ISSN 0006-291X
           Structural and kinetic description of cytochrome c unfolding induced by the interaction with lipid vesicles         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Structural and kinetic description of cytochrome c unfolding induced by the interaction with lipid vesicles. BIOCHEMISTRY, 36 (42). pp. 13122-13132. ISSN 0006-2960
           Sxa2, a carboxypeptidase that degrades extracellular pheromone in fission yeast.         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Sxa2, a carboxypeptidase that degrades extracellular pheromone in fission yeast. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (2). S228-S228. ISSN 0300-5127
           Unusual characteristics of amino-terminal and hydrophobic domains in nuclear-encoded thylakoid signal peptides         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Unusual characteristics of amino-terminal and hydrophobic domains in nuclear-encoded thylakoid signal peptides. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY, 245 (2). pp. 340-348. ISSN 0014-2956
           The iron form of methane mono-oxygenase and its mode of action         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) The iron form of methane mono-oxygenase and its mode of action. In: 659th Meeting of the London-Biochemical-Society, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, LONDON, ENGLAND, SEP 04-06, 1996. Published in: BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (1). pp. 69-74.
           The role of sxa1 in pheromone recovery in Schizosaccharomyces pombe         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) The role of sxa1 in pheromone recovery in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 25 (2). S229-S229. ISSN 0300-5127
          Zenopa: Technical Sales Specialist - Life Science Assays and Reagents        
25000.00 - 38000.00 GBP Annual + based on experience, 20% bonus and company car: Zenopa: An excellent opportunity for a PhD educated life scientist to move into scientific sales! A background in Immunology/Western Blotting/Flow Cytometry/ELISA/Molecular/Immunohistochemistry/Biochemistry and related techniques would be preferred for this role. East Ayrshire
          Alexander Oparin - JBS Haldane wellness spa Primordial Soup Sauna near ARAD/Romania, 1st of May        



































































Journey into deep time by the means of a sauna


We wanted to carry on with the DIY end-of-times anti-Internet sauna tradition that started with the e-tribes Survival Tablets. It was a bet for us, Romanians, a non-sauna tradition to manage and improvise a sauna in the courtyard of the Fabrica de Pensule. What the Russians, Finnish and Japanese have managed in thousand of years of tradition we managed to pull apart & remake in a few days.
It is true, we stole some wood from our puritan and deeply religious neighbors from Cluj that were building a huge cathedral, but a deity will always provide for those that are pure at heart.
We started washing river stones found in the nearby trash-filled river, while eating Parizer and Napolact Yogurt and chatting with the local workers and factory doorkeepers.
The next we did in Berlin for the Knot project on the Tempelhof former Marshall plan airbase. We used stones stolen from pavement of the city of Berlin to try and help out the local German youth and improve its health. Some of the stones cracked. Nobody was injured.

Now we are back in Banat, in the Western part of Romania, with our friends, in the forest, just on the 1st of May, the international workers day.
Now we realized this was a way for us to go back into deep geological time and witness fabulous geothermal energies of the Earth. To live a few minutes like the thermophile(thermal-lover) ARCHAEA was our quest.
These ancient animalcules from the dawn of time have continued their extreme lifestyle on the bottom of deep sea hydro-thermal vents where ultra hot, mineral-rich hot spring water keeps spewing out of the ocean floor, supporting a unique ecosystem.
We would like to dedicate this sauna to one of the inventors of the "Abiotic soup" theory of the origins of life on Earth, the Soviet biochemist Alexander Oparin (also called Oparin-Haldane thesis) because it was separately supported by both Oparin and pioneer geneticist and evolutionary biologist J B S Haldane.
Taking account of the discovery of methane in the atmosphere of Jupiter and other giant gas planets, Oparin postulated that the infant Earth had possessed a strongly reducing atmosphere, containing methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water vapor. In his opinion, these were the raw materials for the evolution of life.
Some (Norman Horowitz, David Hawkins) have pointed out the Edenic qualities of Oparin's abiotic soup theory.
Maybe derived from an earlier version of Darwin's "warm little pond", Oparin made the most out of an ideal epoch of heterotrophic-first organisms that flourished in a beginning of plenty and intial abundance. This Edenic period was soon disrupted and followed by a fall-from-grace period, with overpopulation and severe crisis launched by diminished resources and competition that finally gave rise to the first intermediary metabolism and then autotrophic (chemotrophic and photosynthetic life-forms). We should also seriously question Oparinian orthodoxy with its Biblical overtones, and part of that is also the STEAM, the vapors and condensed chemistry that rained back on earth. volcanic islands could function as a sort of "chemical factories" (former student of Miller, marine biologist Jeffrey Bada).
There where others problems with the strongly reducing atmosphere - since Earth didn't yet acquire its protective layer of clouds it simply exposed all methane and ammonia to degradation by ultraviolet rays from the sun. The only place where this would not happen would be on volcanic island and early continents, where the lightening and gases where available and amino-acids could be produced.

But only if the gases came from above not below! Miller created just 5 amino-acids in the first experiment out of the 20 compounds essential to life. Miller altered his experiment for the better (and improved!) in an unpublished experiment by Miller uses this 'volcanic' plume that would spark life, before they are destroyed by the sun. All the gases enter from below, but because of the backward technologies of the time he failed to record his own success. This 'volcanic apparatus' was even more successful in producing more essential amino-acids and hinted to a "hot little puddle" (Deamer) hypothesis where early life simmered at 70-80 degrees Celsius.

Carl Woese put forth another hypothesis of autotrophic-first life and a critique of Oparinist abiotic theories, with droplets of steam being possible predecessors of cellular life. These droplets could be seen as precursors to cellular life-forms, their surfaces coated with large organic compounds and their interiors full of reactive chemical cocktails. Active membrane chemistry needs a large surface and these droplets hovering in the steamy air offered incredible amounts of surface! Instead of being a two-step process, first chemicals get produce above, then rain down to form organisms that start gulping all the remaining soup, the solution-based chemistry is a late-comer, arriving after the membrane (interface) chemistry already does the job. Its important to know that there are alternatives to the primordial soup scenario of Oparin made of floating colloidal droplets.
The watery Edenic expanse is a very powerful image of oceanic proportions, the primordial ocean may not have been so primordial after all, and life may have been cooked and prepared in a different, more sauna-like environment before it could settle and swim in a aqueous home.
Life was not only at the mercy of plenty or external scaricity, it was involved in shaping and changing its surroundings. Early dynamic relationships continued to play an important role later on as complexity grew under the auspices of earlier developements. Methanogenic microbes, thus be employed in this momentous change, in cooling the Earth down, in making water available as liquid by diminishing the proportion of CO2, CO and Hydrogen in the initial atmosphere. They could have contributed in an active way, in parallel with natural geochemical processess to the cooling down effect. In this new perspective life wasn't just a passive bystander, it didn't just start in the oceans, it made the oceans happen in the first place.
The earth surface was just too hot for liquid water to form, just as our hot sauna stones. Any water would just immediately evaporate. Immense cloud banks made out of mineral dust particles and condensed water would be the initial starting place of biochemestry.
Our plastic sack membrane also helps us to understand the rudiments and clear lessons of membrane chemistry. As an envelope it permits chemicals to accumulate and concentrate just on at the interface of its surface!

Our sauna in Arad was a way to experiment with a few basic components the early conditions of infant Earth on our own Eukaryotic bodies. Our sauna was a primordial soup experiment involving a lot of steam and good humor.
Because we are surrounded nowadays by relatively cold conditions, only a sauna can actually replicate or simulate the initial very hot conditions of primordial Earth (the Hadean eon) that were actually experimentally proved by the Miller-Urey spark-discharge experiment. Primordial conditions fluctuated in the 20th century theories of the origins of the Earth as hot when at first seen as a piece of the sun, becoming cold (as cold accretion Earth in the 50s) and hot again with the heavy asteroid bombardment as witnessed by the early Moon (60s to present).

We did this on the first of May a day for workers of the whole world to relax and get acquainted with steamy, sweaty materialism.
The incredible photos (no special effects or Photoshopping used!) are made possible by Pnea Pneuma, Gelu and Ivi.
This is a very clear case of Z A C A M A N T!
          Bioidentical Hormones and The Wiley Protocol Testimonies        
Bioidentical Hormones: Its Dose Dependency and Duty for Hormone Receptor Reaction

There's this little FDA approved drug named estrazorb and it's a small kechup sachet filled with soy oil and estradiol. It comes in 4.3mgs. and you are meant to have it twice a day. That is's 8.6 mgs, the basic dose on the Wiley Protocol. Okay. It never goes past that except for 2 days. We are within the range of FDA but nobody notices it. Even with an FDA merchandise you can't expect to get benefits from right away. Without peaks and valleys, without differential drops and high amounts, you can't reset receptor response and it's not how much you take, its how much receive.

So, without those receptors falling into line and making this work in a normal way as it might in a normal young woman. You are not having hormone re-establishment. You barely have replacement. I attempt to make them understand that bioidentical hormones are dose reliant in their effects. This much does one thing, this much does another thing. So, they understand that without that peak on day 12, you have got steady proliferation in any static dose of anything.

Estrogen converts it on the twelfth day. It's a negative feedback loop. Hormones are efficient same as endocrinology both on positive and negative results and with no high level on the twelfth day, not only will it put a stop to estrogen but also it will not permit the progesterone receptor to accept progesterone in the second half batch.

I'm not sure it is very clear in the literature. Isn't it just common-sense that after you eventually studied molecular biology that both progesterone and estrogen creates its own *** by making another receptor for the progesterone. And that is just negative cycle. Negative feedback loop to turn itself off. *** on arrest or just expansion stopping on day twelve is not enough.

He will have to disengage from the procedure. So you turn off the receptor energy amd then deactivated. Then you turn off the estrogen. All of these ladies who've been robbed, who have lost their uris, the gynecologist who prescribes static dose hormones, and then get to perform surgery later.

That is where ladies take a pause in this nation. Infrequently they are stuck on them, even in such an inexpensive manner. They're known as iatrogenic but am not so sure of the rationale why. They're stuck. They are not of the same field in endocrinology. The endocrinologist wont be in a position to cure menopause. Endocrinologists are put in drugs to address diabetology and thyroid and infertility. They're dealing with hormones.

They have incorrect interpretation of men having andropause and women having menopause as having none whatsoever. So they are not being treated. They just have faith in what these doctors say because these doctors are also knowledgeable in medicine. They assume they could modify some things but they cannot.

Dr. Fred Bloem Question and Answer

Question:
Medical practicians have come across a discovery that is pliable for the enhancement of finding and healing the patients. Then they take that knowledge and use it to those in want.

My name is Dana Gillian together with Dr. Fred Bloem, a physician with an expertness in the area of family and internal medicine. He thinks in a holistic medical practice involving bio-identical hormone replacement therapy, weight decrease therapy, nutrition, vitality healing and some raw food instruction. He practices in Olney, Maryland. So, you attended the two days back on earth seminar. What is the important information you've extracted from that symposium?

Dr. Fred Bloem:
There are 2 essential things. One was seeing T.S. Wiley prior to coming to Santa Barbara. I came to hear about her through Susan Somers' book Ageless and her own "Sex, Lies and Menopause." But, meeting her was really impressive. Seeing her made it possible, I had learned about her through another physician that I spoke with before making the conclusion to come to Santa Barbara. So, I knew that she was very intelligent. I was not disappointed when I came to Santa Barbara. She has a wealth of knowledge on the topic of internal secretions and related physiology. That is why I am glad to have listened to her.

Another thing that was very central to me was validation. Convening with the other physicians from all over North America who generously contribute their views and testimonies.

Question:
With your own experience, what is the most essential positive answer given to women who undertook the Wiley Protocol?

Dr. Fred Bloem:
The very important aid is the aid on their common issues. Some of these include hot flashes, insomnia sweating during nighttime. Another, one is less feasible but the ability to regain their femininity.

Question:
Is there any distinct story of your patient who undertook the Wiley Protocol?

Dr. Fred Bloem:
Yes, I would be happy to share with you an example of a patient who's been very successful on the Wiley Protocol. She was 45 years old when she came to me last year. She consulted me for a weight loss treatment. But as I met with her, I discovered that she was actually born without a left ovary and she only had a little right ovary. And because of that she never got to experience having menstrual periods, the only time she did have was once when she was given Premarin and birth control pills.

She shared with me that for a long time she was angry because she was not able to have kids. She disliked her body type. Her chest was a bit slight. All her life she's been misery and so I recommended the Wiley Protocol and recounted to her some of my patients' experience. She had the process since last June and she felt positive effects in just one month. She shared with me that she had more vitality. She shared that her body felt weird and felt that the hormones altered the shape of her body. She noted that her breasts became fuller within the first month and she also felt that the heaviness and this is actually a way how she identified her feelings of depression that feeling of heaviness vanished.

She also said that her rest pattern bettered and totally feels contented. And one of the things that she shared with me also which I found was very interesting was that she never felt womanly. She always felt more butch. She was joyful to tell me that Wiley Protocol made her feel like a actual woman again. I thought that was very interesting. Most of my patients really feel the distinct switch when they begin the Wiley Protocol. The Wiley Protocol has been an significant facet of my medical practice.

I really consider myself really lucky that I have been introduced to this protocol indirectly through my patients by their sharing Susan Somers book Ageless with me. It really makes a lot of sense to me. I have been recommending bioidentical hormones replacement therapy for more than six years and have had in mind as to how much is the proper dose of Estradiol and Progestrone for my patients and whether to use Estradiol or Biased and just how long should I be giving it in sessions.Should I organize it with a ***4:47? I was really bewildered about things like that and I really didn't have a good understanding of the lab follow up in terms of what the right dosages of Estradiol and Progesterone should be for women at any particular time in the cycle. And so getting acquainted with the Wiley Protocol is really significant for me.

We replace Estradiol and Progesterone and we observed a pattern that we see in healthy young women and so we know that Estradiol, sometimes it should be low in the cycle and sometimes it should be high on day twelve. Progesterone throughout the follicular stage and gradually build up through the luteal stage, highest level is at 21 and it goes down. And I found that that is really the optimal way for women, young and old, to place their internal secretions and it does not matter whether they're you know perimenopausal or post-menopausal or whether they're younger. In my years of medical work, I found that some young women also encounter problems with regards to menstrual period. And that is an indication that their Estradiol and Progesterone secretion is not harmonious.

Dr. Mitchel Fleisher Sees Dramatic Results in Auto-Immune Illnessees With Wiley Protocol

My interest in it is having the ability to combine this very accurate rhythmic bioidentical hormone therapy with constitutional homoeopathy which is you've got the bio-energetic kick, specific bio-energetic kick on a mind, body, spirit plane together with biochemical, bio-hormonal kick and bringing in both in the balance ideally to realize perfect health and well being. And I'm actually anticipating interfacing with other doctors who're using this protocol and standardizing it so we actually, actually know what we're doing and having the ability to have a definitive protocol to work by that everybody's using at the same level and gather enough research ad clinical info that we can present it to the medical profession and to the govt. and say hey, this is the way to go.

This is the way to be in a position to deal with lots of protracted sicknesses we have not been in a position to master. I have heard stories of some of my co-workers in Texas and other states who've been treating patients with dreadful autoimmune illness diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis that they put them on the Wiley Protocol and they saw amazing results. I help patients with illnests with the use of the Wiley Protocol and I'm excited to mix it with homeopathic nutritive that may be good for all.

A Testimony on Wiley Protocol by Julie and Ola Johnson

The common problems that are being complained by most women are the hot flashes, sleeplessness, head blurriness, different aches and the feeling of not being alive. I did have the mind fog. I had insomnia. I didn't experience hot flashes but there were so many other problems I had and after staring the process, I felt that I was back once more.

PYou know, I felt reconnected to everything and everybody and I had balance again.|I felt I had regained all that I have lost and felt the balance.} And when you are of this age, you know you are 50s, you are sixties, you've got a lot of issues to handle in your family immediate and otherwise. And I wasn't coping well you know and then when I kept balance again, I was able to actually get a grip of everything and I got my life back basically.

When she had not had the process yet she used to have all kinds of the issues and signs during menopause and could not absorb well because of the mind blurriness and most of all a little grouchy. After going thru the Wiley Protocol, she somewhat turned back to her ld self again and our sex life hasn't ever been better. She regained her old self again and our regular lives went on to be better and we appear to be always in high spirits. So, I'm totally happy with her being on the protocol, naturally.

If you do not resolve anything and will not take the hormones then you get ill. You die. When you go have hormones, you experience a better feeling. You have a great reaction. In some rare instance, you feel ecstatic. And when you do feel better, it's a sign that it is good for you. So, I suspect the fear thing is very over blown by maybe the media, maybe by other people that have no idea but you have to have the experience. You need to try it. You've got to do your own research and then go by how you're feeling and you look. You don't end up running out of step drugs in your system or arthritis drugs or sleeping pills. There is just a sense of hollowness within once the hormones are imbalanced. So, when you replace them, you know you basically get your life back.

The Wiley Protocol

Year after year A4M, the world's greatest anti aging establishment organize global seminars. So we took out cameras on the show hall grounds to offer you an idea about what are the latest in the anti aging marketplace.

The Wiley Protocol is a multi-phasic rhythmic dosing schedule for bioidentical hormones to be provided to women in a bio-mimetic way to mimic biology. Nobody has tried doing this before. WE started the transdermal estrogen and progesterone in a manner that it cpies the usual sequence of a young female in her twenties. Then we give explanation for the quantity of dose to be given with the aid of serum blood levels on the twelfth day and 21 to make sure if she turns out to be the 20 year old she was before. It is very profound because young women still have no trace of various sicknesses. So, when we put women back, we actually restore their hormone. We don't just treat the signs and we know that those young women are healthier in every way.

The delivery system is simple. We use 3ml syringes color coded, purple for progesterone, green for estrogen, and the women that way don't pick up the inaccurate syringe in the middle of the night when they're putting on their hormones and take the wrong thing. One of the reasons why the federal authorities wants to eradicate the bioidentical hormones is that they are constituted and made in so many manner. We have governed the means, the substance, the tagging and dose measure so they can be used for research. You can visit our website www.thewileyprotocol.com. In there you will see all the information you need including the practicing physicians.
          How Menopause Symptoms and Sleep Benefit From The Wiley Protocol As Proven By Experts        
The Hormone Receptor Reaction Obligation and Dose Dependency of Bioidentical Hormones

There's this little FDA authorized drug named estrazorb and it's a little kechup sachet full of soy oil and estradiol. It comes in 4.3mgs. and you are meant to have it twice a day. That's's 8.6 mgs, the basic dose on the Wiley Protocol. Fine. It must not exceed within 2 days. We are inside the range of FDA but nobody notices it. Even FDA products, you cannot treat somebody and get any effects immediately. Without tops and valleys, without differential drops and high doses, you can't reset receptor response and it isn't how much you take, its how much receive.

If receptors don't fall in its right places and not having the ability to work in the usual demeanour like it should have been in younger women. You do not have hormone restoration. You hardly have replacement. I try and make them see that bioidentical hormones depend on dose's result. This much does one thing, this much does another thing. So, they know that without that top on day 12, you have steady proliferation in any static dose of anything.

Estrogen turns it so far on day twelve. It is a damaging result circle. Hormones are effective same as endocrinology both on positive and negative results and with no high level on the twelfth day, not merely will it put a stop to estrogen but also it won't allow the progesterone receptor to accept progesterone in the second half batch.

I do not know it is very clear in the literature. Isn't it just common sense that after you ultimately studied molecular biology that both progesterone and estrogen makes its own *** by making another receptor for the progesterone. And that's just negative cycle. Negative feedback loop to turn itself off. It is in steady motion or stop the expansion on the 12th day.

He will have to disengage from the procedure. So you switch off the receptor energy amd then deactivated. Have all of the receptors turned off. So for those girls undergoing the treatment,that already is the validation to make it function better.

Here's where girls are stuck in this country. They're stuck taking something that basically makes them worse. They're called iatrogenic but am not so sure of the explanation why. They are steady. They are not endocrinologists. The endocrinologist won't treat menopause for women or andropause for men. Endocrinologists are put in medication to deal with diabetology and thyroid and infertility. They are dealing with hormones.

They perceive folks in andropause and menopause not to have any. So, they don't treat them. They just fall thru the cracks because endocrinology could step in here and there may be menopause medicine. They think they could change some things but they cannot.

Dr. Fred Bloem Question and Answer

Question:
Medical practicians have come across a breakthrough that is pliable for the enhancement of determining and healing the patients. Then they take that cognition and give it to those in need.

Hello, I'm Dana Gillian and I'm speaking today with Dr. Fred Bloem, a physician with a background in family and internal medicine. He thinks that bio- identical hormone replacement therapy, wait reduction therapy, nutrition, energy curing and other raw food lesson constitutes to the holistic medical practice. He operates in Olney, Maryland. So, you attended the two days back on earth seminar. What is the important info you've drawn from that symposium?

Dr. Fred Bloem:
Well, really 2 things. One was seeing T.S. Wiley prior to coming to Santa Barbara. I had only learnt about her through Susan Somers's book Ageless and through her book "Sex, Lies and Menopause." But, meeting her was really impressive. Seeing her was a validation because I had spoken with another physician before thinking of coming to Santa Barbara. That's how I came to know of her intelligence. I was not unfulfilled when I came to Santa Barbara. She has a huge storage of info regarding internal secretions and physiology. That is why I am happy to have listened to her.

Another thing that was very central to me was validation. The chance to meet other physicians from all across North America who shared their insights and success stories.

Question:
With your own practice, what is the most essential positive answer given to women who undertook the Wiley Protocol?

Dr. Fred Bloem:
The very important help is the aid on their everyday issues. Examples are easing of hot flashes, night sweat problems, sleeping problems with memory palpitations in several instances. Another, one is less tangible but the ability to regain their femininity.

Question:
Can you share any particular experiences of patients that have experienced dramatic results or any especially unforgettable patients you have had from the Wiley Protocol?

Dr. Fred Bloem:
Yes, I would be willing to share with you an example of a patient who's been very successful on the Wiley Protocol. She was forty five years old when she came to me last year. She came to me for weight reduction therapy. But as I met with her, I discovered that she was in reality born without a left ovary and she only had a little right ovary. So, for that reason, she never got a menstruation and in reality the first time that she did get a menstruation was when she was 18 years old and she was granted Premarin and birth control tablets.

She told me that she was unrewarded for the longest time for not able to have babies. She didn't like her body type. She had smaller breasts. All her life she's been woeful and so I recommended the Wiley Protocol and recited to her some of my patients' experience. She had the process since last June and she felt positive results in just one month. She shared with me that she had more vitality. She told me that somehow she felt that the internal secretions have modified her body. She noticed that her breasts became plumper within the first month and she also felt that the heaviness and this is in reality a way how she described her feelings of clinical depression that feeling of heaviness evaporated.

Also, she felt that her slumber was much improved and just felt very comfortable overall. And among the things that she shared with me also which I found was very interesting was that she never felt womanly. She had that feeling that she was more similar to a man. She was really charged to share with me that she was just observing now what it was like to be a female since beginning the Wiley Protocol. That was just so extraordinary. I have patients like that, not precisely like her but patients who experience a tremendous transformation when they start the Wiley Protocol. The Wiley Protocol has become a very significant part of my practice.

I really see myself really lucky that I have been introduced to this protocol indirectly through my patients by their sharing Susan Somers book Ageless with me. It really makes plenty of sense to me. I have been offering Bio-identical hormone replacement therapy to my patients for about six or seven years starting with statically dosed bioidentical hormones replacement and from the very start, I always wondered what is the right dosage of Estradiol and Progesterone for my patients and should I use Estradiol or Biased and for how long should I use it in the cycle.Should I synchronize it with a ***4:47? I was really baffled about things like that and I really didn't have a good understanding of the laboratory follow up in terms of what the right doses of Estradiol and Progesterone should be for women at any particular time in the cycle. And so getting acquainted with the Wiley Protocol is really remarkable for me.

We substituted Estradiol and Progesterone and observed a sequence seen in healthy youthful women and now we discovered that Estradiol should be low in dosage and must be high on the twelfth day. And Progesterone is low during the follicular stage and it slowly rises during the luteal stage, peaks only at 21 and then goes down. I discovered that it is the most possible means for women to put their internal secretions whether they are young or old. In my years of medical profession, I discovered that some young women also encounter troubles with regards to menstrual period. And that is an indication that their Estradiol and Progesterone secretion is not well-balanced.

The Outstanding Effects of Wiley Protocol in Different Illnessees by Dr. Mitchel Fleisher

My interest in it is having the ability to combine this very accurate rhythmic bioidentical hormone care with constitutional homoeopathy which is you've got the bio-energetic stimulation, particular bio-energetic stimulation on a mind, body, spirit plane together with biochemical, bio-hormonal stimulation and bringing in both in the balance ideally to gain perfect health and well being. And I am really anticipating interfacing with other physicians who're using this protocol and standardizing it so we really, really know what we are doing and having the ability to have a conclusive protocol to work by that everyone's using at the same level and gather enough research ad clinical info that we can present it to the medical profession and to the govt and say hey, this is the way to go.

This would be the best demeanour in working with other illnesses that we haven't mastered yet. I have heard anecdotes of some of my co-workers in Texas and other states who've been treating patients with dreadful autoimmune disease sicknesses, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis that they placed them on the Wiley Protocol and they found dramatic results. I help patients with illnests with the utilization of the Wiley Protocol and I am excited to combine it with homeopathic nutritional that would be good for all.

Julie and Ola Johnson's Testimony on the Wiley Protocol

The one that folk debate the most naturally would be their hot flashes and then it goes into sleep issues, mind fog, aches, pains, you know just feeling discombobulated; I think and for me before the protocol, I actually felt like a ghost. I did have the mind fog. I had insomnia. I didn't experience hot flashes but there were so many other issues I had and after staring the procedure, I felt that I was back.

PYou know, I felt reconnected to everything and everyone and I had balance again.|I felt I had found all that I have lost and felt the balance.} When you reach a certain age like your 50's to sixties, there are numerous issues that you do encounter in your family and so on . And I didn't cope up with all of the pressure but when I regained balance I felt like i was ready to face and deal nearly anything and I felt happy.

When she had not had the procedure yet she used to have all kinds of the problems and signs during menopause and couldn't absorb well thanks to the mind blurriness and most of all a tiny grumpy. After the Wiley Protocol, it was like the old lady again, physically and emotionally and our sex life improved tremendously. She, of course, had a period again which kept everything I suppose working as a young girl and our life seemed to be much smoother and happier. So I'm satisfied too she had the procedure.

If you don't do anything, if you don't take any hormones, you get sick. You die. You take hormones, you're feeling good. You have a good reaction. In some rare example, you feel euphoric. And when you do feel better, it is a sign that it is good for you. What causes the fear is the media hype and the talks from others who haven't yet experienced it. You have to experience it. You have to look at it and base the result on how you feel good within and out. You don't finish up running out of step drugs in your system or arthritis drugs or sleeping pills. There is just a feeling of hollowness inside once the hormones are imbalanced. So when you replenish them it gives a replenished feeling, of being alive again.

The Wiley Protocol

The A4M, the world's largest anti-aging organisation hosts dozens of global conferences every year. So, we took out cameras on the exhibit hall floor to show you what's new in the anti-aging marketplace.

The Wiley Protocol is a multi-phasic rhythmic dosing agenda for bioidentical hormones to be given to women in a bio-mimetic way to mimic biology. Nobody has tried doing this before. We brought in transdermal estrogen and progesterone in a way that mimics the normal cycle a young woman had at twenty. Then, we justify the dosing by using serum blood levels on days twelve and twenty one to see if she is in indeed the 20 year old reference range. It is very significant because young women still have no trace of various illnesses. So when we have them undergo the process, it's like bringing back their hormones. We don't just treat the symptoms and we know that those young women are healthier in every way.

The way of distribution is very plain. We use 3ml syringes color coded, purple for progesterone, green for estrogen, and the women that way don't pick up the inaccurate syringe in the middle of the night when they're putting on their hormones and take the wrong thing. Among the ways the federal government intends to get rid of bioidentical hormones is because they're recommended in so many ways, made so many ways. We have regulated the means, the substance, the marking and dosage measure so they can be used for research. You can read about us and our products in our internet site, www.thewileyprotocol.com. In there you will see all the data you require including the practicing doctors.
          Calcium To Magnesium: How The Ratio Affects Your Health - Juvenon Health Journal        
Your diet may not provide essential nutrients in sufficient amounts, iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, support the biochemical reactions of metabolism. Are you getting enough?
          Plants, Genes and Health: a Growing Connection - Juvenon Health Journal        
Medical research is getting closer to “fine-tuning” the body’s biochemical reactions. Nutrigenomic studies underscore the importance of including plants in our diet.
          Moderate Exercise: The Elixir of Mental Health - Juvenon Health Journal        
Recent research into brain function has made it evident that the expression of a particular mental state — happiness, aggressiveness, depression, submissiveness — is the consequence of different physical-biochemical properties of specific regions of the brain, revealing the benefits of exercise.
          Metabolic Balance for Maximum Health - Juvenon Health Journal        
The health of our body at the biochemical level is a metabolic balance that involves numerous metabolic pathways interacting and communicating with each other.
          Tablets used for acne        

Tablets used for acne

More common then the best rid as can enjoy a higher in fact, many acne. There are a full money back acne, skin or unsightly! But it a comment from treatment because of the increasing number of adult female acne in one of all more conscious manageable condition. Stress as acne treatment that works acne especially those oils impact of the skin's pores and remove the purchase bottles. What acne seems to for anyone to our expert biochemist has no acne treatments don't help to clear alternative.

Most acne. Works for the same least off and therefore the bag.


          Medical School Researchers New Book Proposes a Science-Based Diet for Better Health Longer Life        
Wake Forest University School of Medicine biochemist and nutrition researcher Floyd H. "Ski" Chilton, Ph.D., has written a new book, The Gene SmartTM Diet, which explains how science has shown that a precise diet can regulate gene expression and activate the body's "adaptive stress response," to fight what some scientists think is the underlying cause of our most terrible afflictions, including heart disease, asthma, arthritis, diabetes, digestive and skin disorders, as well as certain kinds of cancer.
          How early life experience is written into DNA | Moshe Szyf        
Moshe Szyf is a pioneer in the field of epigenetics, the study of how living things reprogram their genome in response to social factors like stress and lack of food. His research suggests that biochemical signals passed from mothers to offspring tell the child what kind of world they're going to live in, changing the expression of genes. "DNA isn't just a sequence of letters; it's not just a script." Szyf says. "DNA is a dynamic movie in which our experiences are being written."
          Blade Trinity (2004)        
And so the Blade series brings us another first for Marvel movies; the first trilogy entry. Oh yeah, it was also the first trilogy entry to suck horribly on levels that no analogy about sucking can do justice.

Blade Trinity marks David Goyer’s second writer/director film, but it’s his first big budget theatrical one (the first was direct to video, Zig Zag, starting Blade’s Wesley Snipes) and feels like something I would have wrote in high school, and yes I just insulted myself. It has dozens of really unnecessary plot devices and characters, and above all it has my deep hatred for the “what you know about vampires (in this case Dracula specifically) is wrong” plot device, which is a shame because Drake, which is apparently Dracula’s real name, is played by Dominic Purcell who is a fantastic actor.

Also there’s a good amount of unnecessary swearing, a good portion of which just doesn’t make sense. Here’s an example for you, this conversation takes place as HHH (yes the wrestler) introduces a captured Hannibal King (Ryan Reynolds) to his genetically altered vampire dog:

Hannibal King: Well, that depends who you ask. Because clearly, this dog has a bigger dick than you.
Jarko Grimwood: And when the fuck did you see my dick, fuck-face?

Seriously, no one talks like that, anywhere.

This movie feels like Goyer filled the script with a bunch of ideas that sounded cool to him but no one stopped and said, “David, you know a lot of this really doesn’t make any sense at all.” Here’s a list of such things, created as I realized that my first attempt at this review was getting REALLY long because of all the horrible things I wanted to address:

- The opening line of the movie is this - Hannibal King: In the movies, Dracula wears a cape, and some old English guy always manages to save the day at the last minute with crosses and holy water. But everybody knows the movies are full of shit. The truth is, it started with Blade, and it ended with him. The rest of us were just along for the ride.
Yes it sounds cool, sort of, but it doesn’t make sense.

- Cool equipment like high power hand guns with video cameras in them (and mini DVD burner), bullets with electrical components, and something that looks like a bow but has a high concentrated UV light instead of a string, used to slice up vampires. This UV light is, and I quote directly, “half as hot as the sun.”

- A pissed Abigail (Jessica Biel) readies herself for the final assault by target practicing with her bow and arrow, firing through something that reads speed and power of each arrow. Somehow while using a compound bow, which has a limit on how far back you can pull the string, the speed and force of impact goes up with every shot.

- The Nightstalkers have a biochemist who’s a single mother and blind. This is clearly done to try and make us care about the character, and fails miserably because she has maybe 5 minutes of screen time. However she is played by the bat-shit crazy Natasha Leone; check out the special features on the DVD where she talks about doing research for this role by spending time at a school for the blind even though her character being blind is pretty damn inconsequential plus unrealistic.

- Use silver in a gas form to rescue Hannibal King (it’s pumped into the room he’s being kept in). More specifically it's colloidal silver, which within two seconds of research I discovered is very bad for a human to inhale.

- Abigail likes to listen to her iPod while fighting, with ear buds and all, which would make it ridiculously easy for a vampire to sneak up on her.

I literally could go on and on for several pages, but I think I’ve made my point.

Honestly the only thing that makes this movie remotely tolerable is Ryan Reynolds. While Jessica Biel isn’t terrible, her role is just too bland and not developed enough.

Unrated Version Note: There is honestly nothing worth watching in the unrated version. All of it belonged on the cutting room floor, what incredibly little there was that is.

Marvel Movie Score = 2

Why That?: I had to rewatch this movie since my first viewing was so forgettable, but the entire time my mind couldn’t help but pick every scene in the movie apart. So that 2 is all for Ryan Reynolds keeping me from turning the movie off and giving up.
           Low pH enhances the action of maximin H5 against Staphylococcus aureus and helps mediate lysylated phosphatidylglycerol induced resistance         
Dennison, Sarah Rachel, Morton, Leslie Hugh Glyn, Harris, Frederick and Phoenix, David Andrew (2016) Low pH enhances the action of maximin H5 against Staphylococcus aureus and helps mediate lysylated phosphatidylglycerol induced resistance. Biochemistry, 55 (7). pp. 3735-3751. ISSN 0006-2960
           A study on the interactions of Aurein 2.5 with bacterial membranes.         
Dennison, Sarah Rachel, Morton, Leslie Hugh Glyn, Shorrocks, Andrea Julie, Harris, Frederick and Phoenix, David Andrew A study on the interactions of Aurein 2.5 with bacterial membranes. In: RSC and Biochemistry Workshop, 2008, Edinburgh University, Scotland. (Unpublished)
          Sterilization and Microbiology Auditor / Expert - TÜV SÜD - Home Based        
Significant industrial medical device experience e.g. as Chemist / Biologist / Microbiologist / Sterilization Specialist / Biochemist....
From TÜV SÜD - Wed, 31 May 2017 17:08:35 GMT - View all Home Based jobs
          New study recommends immediate radiation when PSA Levels spike after prostate cancer surgery        

Following surgery to remove a cancerous prostate gland, some men experience a biochemical recurrence, meaning that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has become detectable in their blood. Since only the prostate releases PSA, removing the gland should drop this protein to undetectable levels in the body. Detecting PSA could signify that prostate cancer cells are lingering, and […]

The post New study recommends immediate radiation when PSA Levels spike after prostate cancer surgery appeared first on Harvard Prostate Knowledge.


           Effect of mutations in the transmethylase and dehydrogenase/chelatase domains of sirohaem synthase (CysG) on sirohaem and cobalamin biosynthesis         
Woodcock, S.C. and Raux-Deery, Evelyne and Levillayer, F. and Thermes, C. and Rambach, Alain and Warren, Martin J. (1998) Effect of mutations in the transmethylase and dehydrogenase/chelatase domains of sirohaem synthase (CysG) on sirohaem and cobalamin biosynthesis. Biochemical Journal, 330 (1). pp. 121-9. ISSN 0264-6021. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
          ANNOUNCEMENT: Get ready for the NEXT year's Science Blogging Anthology and Conference        
2008 Science Blogging Conference

Not to be bragging, but the '07 Science Blogging Conference was a great success, and most attendees voiced their approval of Chapel Hill as a permanent venue for the event, so Anton and I are starting early in planning for the next one.

There are rumors of a mid-summer equivalent event to be held on the West Coast (Seattle or somewhere there) which would be great - more the merrier - but we will also try to find some way to help a few West-Coasters make their way to North Carolina in winter as well.

We pored over all of your feedback forms and read all the blog posts about the conference in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses and make the next meeting much better.

We are already in talks with sponsors (and potential new sponsors) about the next year. Many have promised greater involvement for the second meeting than they did for the first, which will allow us to have a bigger conference - and that is what most of you asked for.

While several attendees suggested we expand the conference to two days, we are not sure it is feasible yet. Instead, we will make a bigger, richer program for that one day. This should include sessions targeted at new or non-bloggers (e.g,. scientists, teachers), sessions for old science bloggers who want details on fancy technical stuff or questions about copyright, as well as sessions designed to bring the two groups together.

We definitely need a bigger space so we can accomodate more sessions as well as have more space for people to just sit and chat in the hallways between the sessions - always the most important part of a conference. Thus, we will likely have to move away from the UNC campus. That also means that we will be too far away from Franklin Street to go to local eateries for dinner. Instead, we can have the program last a little longer into the afternoon and have the dinner catered (a banquet!) on the site, which will also ensure that we do not all have to break up into little groups but can all stay together (going to town for drinks afterwards will still be possible).

We will announce the exact date shortly. We are trying to avoid conflicts with other popular science, tech, blogging, skeptical and science-fiction conferences, so the date is likely to fall somewhere in-between the SICB Annual Meeting (January 2-6, 2008 in San Antonio, TX) and the AAAS Annual Meeting (February 14-18, 2008 in Boston, MA). As soon as we set the date, we will start contacting potential speakers and session leaders and I'll keep you updated from time to time on this blog.

The Open Laboratory 2007

You may all remember the fast and frenzied way the first anthology was assembled - from the initial idea to sales in a little over three weeks! The Open Laboratory - The Best Writing on Science Blogs 2006 is selling quite nicely (for an online-only book with no marketing) up on Lulu.com. After the annual retreat and some initial glitches, the complimentary copies are, I hear, now travelling to their destinations to all the authors included in the anthology. Also, the book should start getting marketed and will show up in independent bookstores pretty soon, and on online booksellers (e.g., amazon) in a few weeks.

So, we are getting ready to start thinking about the next edition. And, having ten months instead of three weeks, we do not need to rush. This way, we can do a much better job. Oh, when I say "we", it is not a Royal We - I really will not do it alone this year. Reed Cartwright and I will do it together. And we enjoy the experience, we may do it again and again and again.

To make it easier for everyone, we have put together an automated Open Laboratory Submission Form. Use this form to nominate a blog post for The Open Laboratory: The Best Writing on Science Blogs 2007. You can nominate as many entries as you wish, written by you or others. Each needs to be originally published as a blog post between 12-20-06 and 12-20-07 to be elligible.

Reed and I will place one or the other of these two cute buttons in the sidebars of a variety of blogs (e.g., on Panda's Thumb, De Rerum Natura, A Blog Around The Clock, BlogTogether, perhaps my old blogs as they still get some traffic, and whoever else wants to spread the word - feel free to steal the button and use it):[Update: You can pick up the code for these buttons here as well as for the buttons declaring that you aready ARE in the 2006 book]:


Open Laboratory Submission Form

Open Laboratory Submission Form

Clicking on the button will take you to the submission form. Reed and I will get e-mail notification every time there is a new entry and we will read them all and jot down some 'notes to self'. Since we have ten months to do this, we will not need a jury of 12 bloggers to help us read all the entries, but do not be surprised if we ask you to vet/factcheck/peer-review a post that is in your domain of expertise (and not ours) later in the year.

So, go back to December 20th, 2006 and start looking through your archives as well as archives of your favourite science bloggers and look for real gems - the outstanding posts. Many have been written recently for the "Science Only Week", or for the "Basic Terms and Concepts" collection.

Try to look for posts that cover as many areas of science blogging as posssible: mathematics, astronomy, cosmology, physics, chemistry, earth science, atmospheric/climate science, marine science, biochemistry, genetics, molecular/cellular/developmental biology, anatomy/physiology, behavior, ecology, paleontology, evolution, psychology, anthropology, archaeology, and/or history of science, philosophy of science, sociology of science, science ethics and rhetorics, science communication and education, the business of science, the Life in Academia (from undergraduate, graduate, postdoc, faculty or administrative perspective), politics of science, science and pseudoscience, science and religion, etc.

Also, try to think of different post formats: essays, personal stories, poems, polemics, fiskings, textbook-style prose, etc. For now, let's assume that color images cannot make it into the book (I'll let you know if that changes) and certainly copyrighted (by others) material is a No-No. Posts that are too heavily reliant on multiple links are difficult to turn into hardcopy as well. Otherwise, write and submit stuff and hopefully one of your posts will make it into the Best 50 Science Posts of 2007 and get published!

          David Kupelian        

-- Managing editor of WND (formerly known as WorldNetDaily)

-- Author of “The Marketing of Evil: How Radicals, Elitists, and Pseudo-Experts Sell Us Corruption Disguised as Freedom,” which is largely focused on the idea that LGBT rights has been "sold" to America as part of an evil marketing strategy

 

Facts

-- Compares gay and transgender people to jihadists who murder strangers: "Consider for a moment how children in the Arab-Muslim Middle East develop the “mental illness” of wannabe jihad martyrdom. How exactly do innocent little kids come to be possessed by such overwhelmingly powerful emotions and beliefs that they’re willing to blow themselves up while murdering innocent strangers – and thinking such a despicable crime is the will of God? If I suggested genetics or biochemical imbalances were responsible, you would laugh. Little jihadists are created when, from an early age, they are continually indoctrinated, intimidated, degraded, rewarded, tempted, lied to, punished, threatened and praised (for reinforcement) – until their little developing minds and emotions are not their own anymore. They have a new implanted identity, very different from the one they were born with. So, if the forces in one child’s home can transform him so totally that, when he looks in a mirror, he sees someone who feels like killing infidels and himself in a glorious “martyrdom operation,” couldn’t the forces in another child’s home (perhaps much more subtle, but nevertheless powerful) transform him or her into a person with feelings and attractions he likewise was not born with – including homosexual or transgender feelings?"

-- Comparing the LGBT rights movement to a fictional arch-villiain, claims LGBT rights is "corrupting our nation's core": “[T]his particular issue – this revolutionary sexual anarchy movement, which more than any other ideology, including Marxism, Islam or atheism, has the potential of permanently corrupting our nation’s core ‘operating system’ called the family – is the one issue that almost everybody is afraid to confront"...“Like Voldemort, the arch-villain so feared by everyone in the ‘Harry Potter’ stories that they ‘dare not speak his name,’ almost no one – not Democrats, not Republicans, not churches, not the media (including Fox News), not talk radio (with a few exceptions), not even the big alternative news websites, with the exception of WND – dares speak of it."

-- Says support for a transgender six-year-old is "ghoulish" and in the sprit if Halloween

-- Claims same-sex marriage will lead to five men marrying wastebaskets: "...[O]nce you say that two men can be married and two women can be married you have to say that three men can be married or three women can be married or five men and a wastebasket can be married."

-- Suggests saying to gay friends about their marriages: "I don't want to be party to further unraveling the fabric of our civilization, one which safeguards your rights and mine, that protects us in an exceedingly dangerous world, a moral foundation rock that's served us well for thousands of years. For your sake as much as for mine, I'm not willing to throw that away. I hope you understand.'""

-- Wrote that the Boy Scouts of America's inclusion of gay scouts was tantamount to "suicide"

-- Warns that LGBT acceptance is going to destroy us: "Today’s idiotic and ultimately suicidal national pretense that homosexuality is perfectly normal – that two men or two women can somehow be joined together in holy matrimony, that moral/religious opposition to this perversity renders you a bigot and a criminal, and that justice is somehow served by forcing a Christian mother to turn over her beloved daughter to a litigious homosexual – all this, my friends, is high mockery of God and His laws. However, 'God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.' (Galatians 6:7 KVJ) If we do not change course, America the Exceptional – the freest, most moral, prosperous, blessed and beloved nation on earth, which millions fought and died to protect – will reap the whirlwind of national disintegration and unimaginable suffering."

-- Says homosexuality is "unnatural and self-destructive": "In truth, there is something wrong with homosexuality. Simply put, it is unnatural and self-destructive – just as Western civilization has long understood it."

-- Equates homosexuality with alcoholism and smoking: "Most of all, we’ve forgotten as a society what love is because supporting and justifying homosexuality is not real love any more than glorifying drinking helps the alcoholic or celebrating smoking helps wipe out lung cancer."

-- Describes our LGBT accepting society as a "sodom & Gomorrah freak show" (@ 4:26)

-- Says it's "real love" to "heal" gay people: "To the homosexual living in denial, then, even a loving offer of help from, say, a Christian ex-gay ministry or “reparative therapy” counselor (to help overcome homosexual addiction) feels like the most vile, abusive hatred. In fact, it’s real love – which we misinterpret as hatred and “bigotry” simply because it causes us to confront a truth that is not welcome in us."..."Remember, our conflicts contain the seeds of redemption – that is, as long as we know we have a problem, there’s hope for a change. But if we deny there’s a problem, we are literally robbed of the chance to find healing. That’s exactly what America has done in buying into the 'gay rights movement.' We have betrayed our homosexual brothers and sisters. Glorifying dysfunctionality and corruption, we have relieved homosexuals of the inner conflict they once felt over their condition – something they desperately need, indeed all of us need, if we’re ever going to overcome our problems and find wholeness..."[T]he most loving stance for others to take is not to serve as enablers of self-destructive and immoral compulsions, but to stand in patient but firm opposition. In other words, we need to side with the afflicted person’s conscience. In America, we’ve done the opposite."

-- Says LGBT rights activists are "forces of corruption": "Stop giving permission for the forces of corruption and confusion to transform your country so that your children grow up in a land unrecognizable to our founding fathers." "

-- Compares transgender people to anorexics: "Whether it’s the anorexic or transgender individual staring intently into the mirror and seeing the exact opposite of reality, or countless other people in similar straits tormented from within, our minds are – to put it inelegantly – capable of lying to us."

-- Calls marriage equality "The most bizarre perversion of human civilization’s core institution"

Region: 

          Diet and Optimum Health Conference         
Wednesday, May 15, 2013 - Saturday, May 18, 2013 (all day event)

Diet and Optimum Health 2013 will emphasize dietary and lifestyle approaches to improving human health and preventing or treating disease, including dietary supplements, micronutrients, and antioxidants. Saturday May 18 is especially for the public, with morning presentations by renowned scientists focusing on whole food approaches to disease prevention. The conference includes scientists and health professionals in biochemistry, nutrition, preventive medicine, public health, endocrinology, cardiology, oncology, and gerontology. We anticipate a strong scientific look at the cutting edge of nutrition research. The program features individual sessions including:

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Health
  • Diet and Epigenetic Impacts on Disease and Aging
  • Vitamin D—Health Benefits Beyond Bone
  • Health Effects and Mechanisms of Action of Xanthomumol
  • Health Benefits of Vitamin C: Beyond Scurvy
  • Micronutrients in Fertility and Pregnancy
  • Whole Food Approaches to Disease Preventio

          Publikacje naukowców z UM w Lublinie nagrodzone przez Biomedical Materials        
Czasopismo naukowe „Biomedical Materials: Materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine” wyróżniło naukową pracę dr Agaty Przekory i prof. dr hab. Grażyny Ginalskiej z Katedry i Zakładu Biochemii i Biotechnologii UM w Lublinie.
          Medizinskandal Krebs (gebundenes Buch)        
Wie Sie bahnbrechende Fortschritte der Molekularmedizin, Biochemie und Epigeneitik, sowie geheim gehaltene Studien und das INSIDER-Wissen der erfolgreichsten Krebstherapeuten der Welt aus diesem 978 Seiten schweren, unabhängigen Krebsratgeber erfolgreich zur HEILUNG Ihrer Krebserkrankung oder aber sicheren VORBEUGUNG von Krebs nutzen können! Sollten Sie selbst oder aber ein Ihnen nahestehender Mensch an Krebs erkrankt sein, oder aber Sie lediglich sicher Krebs vorbeugen wollen, wird sich dieses Buch als die […]
          Regenerative Medicine Wipes Out Degenerative Diseases        

Once nanotechnology, stem cell research, and genetic engineering were able to converge upon the same laboratories it became clear that a wide variety of deadly and debilitative diseases share their origin: damaged or failing tissues, organs and bodily systems.  Some are chronic due to aging, others are more acute, but they have correlated pathologies after all.  The interrelationships between the biggest 20th century killers of humankind became astonishingly clear, as did the road to the regenerative medicine to cure nearly all of them.RespiroVik4.jpg


Category: Biotechnology
Year: Beyond
Tags: technology, future, health, medicine, biochemistry, genetics, genetic, engineering, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, regenerative, nanotech, stem, cells, aging, disease, space, exploration, ocean, colony, colonies
           Stimulation of regulatory volume increase (RVI) in avian articular chondrocytes by gadolinium chloride         
Ong, Sang-Bing, Shah, Dinesh, Qusous, Ala', Jarvis, Simon M. and Kerrigan, Mark J.P. (2010) Stimulation of regulatory volume increase (RVI) in avian articular chondrocytes by gadolinium chloride. Cell Biology & Biochemistry, 88 (3). pp. 505-512. ISSN 0829-8211
          First-Year Ramapo Student Earns Spot on Jeopardy! Semifinals; Show to Air on Thursday, November 17        
MAHWAH, N.J. – Ramapo College first-year Biochemistry major and Literature minor, Emily LaMonica ’20, will be competing in the semifinals of the Jeopardy! Teen Tournament on Thursday, November 17 at 7 p.m., airing on ABC-TV. Emily, who learned she had made the Teen Tournament last winter and went to film the episodes back in April, has had to […]
          Vitamins and Minerals: How Much Does Your Body Need?        
They line the shelves of every pharmacy and health store, thousands of tiny bottles, claiming everything from improving memory and providing energy to preventing cancer and aging. In fact, chances are you take one or two, maybe a handful, daily. And if you don’t, maybe you should. What are these super pills? You guessed it – vitamin and mineral supplements. The biggest question in nutrition these days isn’t who needs vitamins and minerals, but how much.

In simplest terms, everyone requires vitamins and minerals. They are essential for life, fueling virtually every biochemical reaction in our bodies. It has long been realized that certain groups of people such as pregnant and breastfeeding women, chronic dieters, vegetarians, alcoholics, the elderly, and athletes often have increased nutrient needs and may require supplements. But for the most part, it has been assumed that the average, healthy adult can get all the vitamins and minerals their body needs from a healthy diet. The fact is most of us don’t.

Even if you are one of the few people who manage to eat a varied and healthy diet each and every day, factors such as environmental pollutants in our air and water; food filled with uncountable additives and preservatives; destructive agricultural practices which rob the soil of essential nutrients; food processing, storage and preparation – all reduce the nutrient content of food.

If that isn’t enough, physical and mental stress, illness, certain drugs, and a genetic predisposition towards certain diseases increase our nutrient needs. And taking into consideration the newest research, which suggests that higher doses of certain vitamins may protect against the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease, it might be a good time to visit a dietician or talk with your doctor about whether or not you might benefit from supplements.

What Are Vitamins and Minerals?

What Are Vitamins?
Vitamins are organic compounds essential for life that, with the exception of vitamin D, can only be obtained from food or supplements. While vitamin D can be found in dietary sources, the body also synthesizes it when sunlight meets the skin.

Fat-soluble Vitamins
Vitamins can be divided into two broad categories based on whether they dissolve in water or fat. The fat-soluble vitamins include A, E, D, and K. These vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues, and therefore, it is not necessary to get a fresh supply every day. However, the fact that they can be stored also means that they can accumulate to toxic levels if taken in excess.

Water-soluble Vitamins
The rest of the vitamins, the family of B-vitamins (including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid and cobalamin) and vitamin C, dissolve in water. Any excess is harmlessly excreted in your urine, making toxic levels virtually impossible. But note that this also means that you need a fresh supply of these vitamins every day to maintain adequate levels.

Remember that while vitamins help you extract energy from food, they themselves provide no calories and thus no energy.

What Are Minerals?
Minerals are inorganic compounds found in rocks and metals, although we get them from plants grown in mineral-rich soil or animals that have eaten mineral-rich plants. There are at least 10 minerals essential for life and a few others we house in minute levels, although scientists haven’t pinned down an exact role for all of them in the body.

Macrominerals
Minerals are divided into two groups based on how much our bodies need. The major minerals, or macrominerals, are required in comparatively large amounts and include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chloride.

Trace Elements or Microminerals
Minerals required in very small amounts, less than 100mg/day, are called trace elements or microminerals. These include: boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silicon, tin, vanadium, and zinc.


How Much Does Your Body Need?

Recommended Dietary Allowances
So now you know that you need 13 vitamins and some 15+ minerals, but how much does your body need? The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine developed the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) to help you out. These values reflect the amounts of vitamins and minerals you need daily to prevent deficiency diseases and are "safe and adequate" to meet the needs of most healthy people. They are the minimum values you need to prevent overt signs of deficiency diseases and are updated approximately every five years or so to reflect current research. A newer term, Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs), represents an average value recommended for children and adults over the age of four and will replace the complex RDAs. The RDIs and RDAs are basically the same.

Many nutritionists now think that the current values are too low and it is expected that future RDAs will be increased to address the issues of optimum health and disease prevention. In a position statement released by the American Dietetic Association, the criteria for establishing a recommended intake for a nutrient should not "assume that the recommended amounts can be met from dietary sources."

Meeting Your RDAs

According to Melanie Polk, RD, Director of Nutrition Education at the American Institute for Cancer Research, the best way to meet your RDAs is through a careful diet based on the Food Guide Pyramid. "Eating at least five servings of fruits and vegetables each day is essential," she says. Unfortunately, only one in ten people actually consume their recommended five servings.

Nutritionists agree that supplements are not a replacement for a healthy diet, but may be beneficial in addition to a healthy, varied diet. Carolyn Manning, Mag RD, and professor of nutrition and dietetics at the University of Delaware warns that relying too much on supplements can cause people to become irresponsible about their eating habits. Her motto, "Food first!"

There are additional health benefits from getting many of your nutrients from food. A group of recently discovered compounds found in plants called phytochemicals, are thought to protect against certain cancers. A few have been discovered but scientists think that there may be thousands of these compounds. "We don’t know exactly how they work, or if they work as a team with other phytochemicals or nutrients," says Polk, but they can’t be found in a pill.

Both Manning and Polk agree, that some groups require more nutrients than a healthy diet alone can provide.
          The Quest for Aphrodisia: Pheromones        
For the human brain, all roads lead to aphrodisia. We can be sexually stimulated through any of our five senses — thanks to a bit of imagination, memory, and a really big brain. Although mankind continues to ransack the planet for anything that might raise his expectations, the most authentic aphrodisiac is a lot closer than we think.

In the morning of the world, when mortal man first encountered the original aphrodisiac, he got mixed results. Paris, a young prince of Troy, had to choose "The Fairest" of three goddesses. Hera offered him riches and dominion over all men. Athena promised him wisdom and renown as the bravest, most invincible of heroes.

Then the goddess of love and beauty spoke. In a sweet voice, teasing with laughter and understanding, Aphrodite said, "Choose me and I will give you love and the most beautiful woman in the world for your wife."

Without hesitation, Paris chose Aphrodite. True to her word, the enchanting goddess introduced him to the lovely Helen, whom Paris promptly proceeded to abduct from her husband, the King of Sparta, which didn't go down too well with him and his boys. (Did somebody say Trojan War?) The rest is mythstory. . . .

Casualties of Lore
Aphrodite herself had a somewhat violent origin. Known to the Romans as Venus, she was born of the sea, having emerged from the white foam (aphros) produced by the god Uranus's severed genitals. Today, mankind's eternal quest for an aphrodisiac — a food, drink, drug, or scent that can arouse or increase sexual desire — continues to bring its share of violence.

Many innocent creatures have suffered abuse from our insatiable appetite that continues to devour creatures large and small, from seahorse to rhinoceros. Animals aren't the only ones who suffer, though. A legendary aphrodisiac called Spanish fly is made from the dried bodies of blister beetles that contain cantharidine. This irritating chemical causes a rush of blood to the sex organs. Spanish fly is a poison that can lead to genitourinary infections, scarring of the urethra, and even death.

Stimulant vs. Tonic
Herbs can be used to stimulate the genitals, but in the long run it's safer and more effective to use tonics — botanicals that strengthen the sexual system — not ones that stimulate it. "If you take an aphrodisiac that creates the illusion of more energy, then you're ripping yourself off," cautions Felice Dumas, Ph.D., author of Passion Play: Ancient Secrets for a Lifetime of Health and Happiness Through Sensational Sex. "You will have used more of your life force. It's like emptying the cup very quickly to feel more in the short term."

Coffee is an empty stimulant; it doesn't strengthen anything. Alcohol is another example. "Venus drowned in Bacchus" was the proverbial Roman expression for the debilitating effects of alcoholic intoxication. Drinking, said Shakespeare in Macbeth "provokes the desire but takes away the performance."

Size Matters
Unlike other primates, who are sexually active only when females are in estrus, human beings have evolved the capacity to engage in year-round sexual activity. Perhaps our 24/7 sexuality is related to our relatively large brain. (Dolphins, too, have proportionately large brains and have been observed to be very sexual.)

Ultimately, the human brain is the greatest aphrodisiac of all. Like the legendary philosophers' stone that transforms whatever it touches into gold, our brains can imbue most anything with aphrodisiacal qualities.

Men and women have devised and believed in love charms since the beginning. Aphrodite herself possessed an enchanting girdle, called Cestus, which was embroidered with arousing amulets that made its wearer quite irresistible. One can only imagine. . . .

The Touch of Kindness
We get sex on the brain through imagination and memory, as well as through all our sensory portals: eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and of course touch. We are easily turned on by the caress of a lover, or even from casual contact with an attractive stranger. Massage relaxes and sets the mood for love, or arouses in the extreme.

Affectionate touching — especially the breasts, lips, and earlobes — can raise levels of oxytocin, a powerful neurohormone. Dubbed the "cuddling chemical," oxytocin is released during female orgasm and nursing. In men, moderate concentrations of oxytocin facilitate both erection and ejaculation.

Singing Me Softly
Sounds can certainly be an aphrodisiac. (It works for birds.) That special tone of a lover's sweet whisperings, even over the telephone, can stir the loins. For the Greek poet, Homer, Aphrodite was "a lover of laughter." Whether the flirtatious giggling and coy cooing of young maidens or the tender tenor of a Cyrano or a Bocelli — the human voice has arousing possibilities.

Charles Darwin suggested that early human females originally acquired musical powers and used their high voices as musical instruments in order to attract the opposite sex. Love songs are certainly a hallmark of our society. We will never know to what extent our population explosion was coaxed along by the seductive sound of Sinatra or Sade, the romantic resonance of Enya or Iglesias.

Who has not been swayed by the music of the world: caressed by jazz; rolled with rock; lifted by arias; transported by Caribbean rhythms. The primal beat of different drums — from Ravel's "Bolero" to Jagger's "Moonlight Mile" — has lit a fire under many a bedspread.

Another auditory aspect is story-telling and its stimulating effect upon the imagination. The word "romance" originated from the fanciful medieval love tales, often in verse, about a hero and his lady. Later written, they were the beginning of erotic literature (Eros is the son of Aphrodite). In ancient Greece, "pornographos" was one who wrote about prostitutes.

First Sight
Studies show that humans everywhere strongly respond to the same visual signals, such as smooth skin, dilated pupils, and a symmetrical face and body. Young women throughout the world have been observed to flirt in exactly the same manner: first she smiles at her admirer and lifts her eyebrows in a swift, jerky movement. This briefly displays more of her eyes until she turns her head sideways, looks back, and drops her eyelids. (Even King Solomon warned his son not to be "ensnared by her eyelids.")

More than skin deep, beauty is a certificate of health. Men are attracted to youthful fertility suggested by rounded buttocks and breasts, full lips, wide eyes, a heart-shaped face, and a particular figure. Whether Rubenesque or Twiggyesque, men unconsciously prefer women with about a 2 to 3 waist-hip ratio — one that suggests a high reproductive status. Although Miss America's weight has decreased over the past fifty years, her waist to hip ratio has been a consistent 7.2, according to David M. Buss, Ph.D., author of The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating.

For women, power is an aphrodisiac. In a global survey of more than 10,000 people in 37 cultures, Dr. Buss found it universally true that women prefer confident, ambitious, and successful men with money, resources, power, and high social status — men who will invest in them and their children.

Visual stimuli such as tallness and broad shoulders are physical cues indicating the potential of a man to protect and provide. The reproductive success of taller men was recently demonstrated in a study of 3,200 Polish men, aged 25 to 60. Those who had fathered at least one child were on average 1.2 inches taller than the men without children. (Nature, Jan. 13, 2000)

Brain chemicals are also affected by visual stimuli. The sight of an infant's face can increase levels of oxytocin, which helps a mother to bond with her child, or a woman with her lover. The chemical basis of "love at first sight" might be phenylethylamine (PEA), a neurotransmitter that can surge at the sight of an attractive partner, or even in response to a romantic movie.

The Dance of Imagination
Thanks to imagination, the flash of a Victorian ankle was a turn-on. The allure of lingerie is a combination of what you see and what you imagine you will get.

Dance is a universal turn-on. From indigenous tribes to trendy clubs, women shake their booties and men strut their stuff in various versions of the human mating dance, from the Masai leap and the flamenco stomp, to the hula, belly dance, and now the lap dance.

The Shape of Things to Come
Sight plays another role in aphrodisia: the notion that animal organs or plants resembling genitalia may impart sexual powers. For example, because of their shape, the tuberous roots of orchids were used as an aphrodisiac. The plant is even named after the Greek word for testicle (orkhis). More well-known examples include rhinoceros horn, oysters, and ginseng.

Rhinoceros horn contains polypeptides, sugars, phosphorus, calcium, ethanolamine, and free amino acids. If one were seriously malnourished, this could possibly provide a boost, but a good multivitamin would do as well.

Based on their shape, foods such as bananas, carrots, and cucumbers were once considered aphrodisiacs. Perhaps the enzyme bromelain found in bananas and other tropical fruits may influence erectile function due to its positive effect on circulation.

Nineteenth-century French bridegrooms were advised to consume mass quantities of warm asparagus at their prenuptial dinner. In West Africa, the mucilage seeds of the okra pod are considered an aphrodisiac. They are rich in magnesium, iron, zinc, and B vitamins.

Venus on the Half-Shell
Cleopatra's favorite fruit was said to be figs, and the ancient Greeks celebrated the arrival of a new crop of figs by ritual copulation. Other foods that may suggest female genitalia include oysters, clams, and mussels. Many seafoods such as eels, octopus, conch, fugu, sashimi — as well as savory soups like bouillabaisse and chowder — have a reputation as an aphrodisiac, in part because of their association with Aphrodite's emergence from the sea.

In a sense, human beings also emerged from the sea. Recent archeological findings show that early humans thrived along seacoasts and lakeshores where foods high in omega-3 fatty acids were plentiful. The evolution of the large human brain depended on these rich sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (Click here for more information about essential fatty acids and brain structure.)

The omega-3 fatty acids obtained from seafood are also needed by the body to make anti-inflammatory PGE3 prostaglandins, which support proper blood circulation by preventing blood platelets from clumping.

Oysters and Pearls, Boys and Girls
Rich in zinc, selenium, and other minerals, oysters may have gained their reputation at a time when diets were more apt to be deficient. High concentrations of zinc are found in the testes and prostate, and zinc is essential for hormonal activity and reproductive health in both men and women. Zinc is vital to healthy immune and circulatory systems, and is depleted by stress.

Zinc deficiency in children has been linked to a failure of sex organs to properly mature. A deficit of this vital mineral substantially reduces testosterone levels, sperm production, and muscle endurance, as well as decreases the ability to taste and smell.

Raw oysters can be risky due to pollution. Other good sources of zinc include lean meats, fish, eggs, nuts, seeds, peas, lima beans, and wheat germ. Although whole grains contain zinc, they also contain phytates that inhibit the absorption of zinc and other vital minerals. By soaking grains overnight, phytates can be neutralized so the grains, in effect, are predigested and their nutrients more available. These alternatives, however, are no match for fresh fleshy oysters, even if you don't find the pearl.

Seeds of Construction
Eggs and seeds are strong fertility symbols. Chicken eggs are one of the most sexually nutritious foods available. Caviar and a number of plant seeds, especially pumpkin, were considered to be aphrodisiacs. We now know they are rich in vitamin E and fatty acids essential for reproduction. Pumpkin seeds are also high in zinc and selenium.

Then there's the truffle. Ever since the Romans raved about it, this musky mystery has been a perennial favorite in the realm of aphrodisia. A famous French epicurean claimed truffles were "not vegetables, but miracles." Their great rarity, cost, and indescribable aroma adds to their fame.

Ginseng — "the Man Root"
Ginseng's reputation as an aphrodisiac may have originated from its marked similarity to the male body. By far the most widely used herbal tonic, ginseng has been used for millennia because of its invigorating and rejuvenating effects.

Chemical evidence supports the stimulatory influence of ginseng; several steroids, peptides, sugars, and saponins have been isolated from root extracts. Animals treated with ginseng have demonstrated a sexual response, however no successful animal model for assessing aphrodisiacs has been developed that can be applied to humans. Our psychological and socioeconomic factors cannot be replicated.

Just Say NO — Nitric Oxide
A study at the Yale University School of Medicine found a link between Panax ginseng and nitric oxide (NO). Researchers concluded that the aphrodisiac action of the root could be due to enhanced NO synthesis that contributed to ginseng-associated vasodilation in the corpus cavernosum. (Biochem Pharmacol 1997 Jul 1;54.1:1-8) A later animal study showed that crude extracts of Panax ginseng acted as a nitric oxide donor and induced the relaxation of smooth muscle of rabbit penises through the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. (Br J Urol 1998 Nov;82.5:744-8)

The corpus cavernosum is a sponge-like structure that forms the erectile tissue which expands with blood in the penis and in the clitoris. Nitric oxide — not nitrous oxide, the "laughing gas" used by dentists — enables the corpus cavernosum (and the corpus spongiosum in the penis) to relax, fill with blood, and become erect.

For both men and women, healthy sexual arousal depends on a sufficient flow of blood to the genital area. Poor circulation can be a major cause of sexual dysfunction, which is perhaps why many hot foods gained their claim to aphrodisiac fame. Peppers, chilies, curries and other spices can raise heart rate and sometimes cause sweating: physiological effects similar to the physical reactions experienced during sex. Damiana, a Mexican herb, is reputed to stimulate blood flow to the genitals, (but it can interfere with iron absorption).

Arginine, Viagra, and Yohimbe
In the body, the amino acid arginine is the primary source of nitrogen for the production of nitric oxide. In turn, nitric oxide increases levels of a substance called cyclic GMP. A shortage of cyclic GMP interferes with the erectile tissue relaxation response that is necessary before blood can engorge the clitoris and penis. Foods high in arginine include chocolate, carob, and oats.

Viagra works by prolonging the effects of cyclic GMP, allowing the penis to engorge with so much blood that the outflow of blood is blocked. Because Viagra will not work without sexual stimulation, it is not considered an aphrodisiac. It is only promoted as an impotence drug, however Hugh Hefner regards Viagra as a good deal more than that: "It takes the uncertainty out of performance. . . It redefines the boundary between fantasy and reality."

NO may help account for the sexually stimulating effects of yohimbine, an alkaloid found in the bark of the West African yohimbe tree, which natives have long regarded as a tonic to enhance sexual power and virility. Yohimbine has been used in the West as a sexual stimulant for domestic animals and, more recently, to treat impotence in men. A 1999 study with humans found that certain compounds of yohimbine functioned as nitric oxide donors. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999 Jul;290.1:121-8) The FDA considers yohimbine an unsafe herb, due to its potentially dangerous effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

Padre, Is That a Rocket in Your Garden?
Arugula, also known as garden rocket, had a good reputation in Europe as an aphrodisiac, except for one 17th-century French monastery where arugula was grown and consumed regularly by the monks. An 1869 book on aphrodisiacs reported they "were so stimulated by its aphrodisiacal virtues that, transgressing alike their monastic walls and vows, they sought relief for their amorous desires in the fond embraces of the women residing in the neighborhood."

Europeans have long appreciated parsley and savory for their aphrodisiac properties. More recently, nettles, oats, and saw palmetto berries have been studied for their ability to maintain levels of free testosterone, which stimulates sexual activity in both men and women. Compounds in these plants seem to inhibit the breakdown of testosterone into di-hydrotestosterone (DHT), a metabolite that causes the prostate gland to enlarge and lose its vitality.

Montezuma's Romance
While many sweet herbs, such as skirret and licorice root, were at one time considered sexual stimulants, chocolate's designation as an aphrodisiac has remained undisputed for centuries. In the early 1500s, the Aztecs introduced the Spanish to the bitter seeds of the cacao tree, which was concocted into a sacred drink associated with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility. (The Spanish reciprocated with small pox, the god of decimation.)

Besides added sugar, chocolate contains significant amounts of caffeine (5-10 mg per ounce), iron, plus an amphetamine-like substance called phenylethylamine (PEA). In the brain, PEA is a neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and activation. It may be responsible for the excitement and euphoria of falling in love. It's not certain, however, that the PEA in chocolate actually reaches the brain. (The essential amino acid phenylalanine is known to raise PEA levels in the brain, and D-phenylalanine inhibits enzymes that break down endorphins.)

The psychological effect of indulging in chocolate, especially when received from a lover, certainly adds to its aphro-mystique. The power of mind to imbue food with passion is well-illustrated in Like Water for Chocolate, where cooking is used to enchant a lover.

Cornucopia and Coition
Many foods are exotic and sensual in their own right. From peaches and apricots to strawberries and grapes, the texture, color, taste, and aroma of these botanical delights can, in the right circumstances, jump-start amorous intentions. Aphrodite herself was associated with golden apples and red pomegranates.

Around the Mediterranean, pine nuts have a reputation as an aphrodisiac. Nineteen-hundred years ago, the Greek physician Galen recommended drinking a glassful of thick honey, and eat 20 almonds and 100 grains of the pine tree before going to bed. After three nights, a man will acquire "vigour for coition."

Honey Do
The Greeks frequently referred to Aphrodite's beauty as "golden," and golden honey is another classic food for lovers. Cavemen no doubt used sweet honey to win female favors (and vice versa). Since honey was obtainable only seasonally and at great personal risk, its annual collection and sharing may be echoed by our annual Valentine's Day, although rejection is now the primary risk.

The wedding ceremonies of many cultures include honey, and that month of tender pleasures is called the honeymoon — also named because love is as changeable as the moon.

Made from the nectar of flowers, honey is a natural candidate for aphrodisia. Bee pollen is the male sexual grains of seed-bearing plants, and royal jelly nurtures queen bees. The ultimate preservative, honey never spoils. A Haitian text describes honey on bananas as an "exquisite" aphrodisiac.

Aphrodite: A Memoir of the Senses is Isabel Allende's evocative personal odyssey to aphrodisia. In it, she tells how Cleopatra beautified her skin by applying honey and ground almonds, and how her lovers, Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, were "fond of licking dessert from the intimate goblet of that seductive queen."

Olfactory Alchemy
Aromas such as pumpkin pie and freshly baked cinnamon buns can be more sexually stimulating than fine perfume, according to research done by neurologist Alan R. Hirsch, M.D., author of Scentsational Sex: the Secret of Using Aroma for Arousal. He reports that the smell of certain foods, especially licorice and doughnuts, actually increased penile blood flow.

Older men experienced the greatest enhancement with vanilla. Those who felt sexually satisfied responded most to strawberry. Lavender was most stimulating for men whose sexual partners wore cologne.

Aphrodite's favorite flower was the rose, and for multitude of Valentines, roses will do the trick. Cleopatra supposedly perfumed the sails of her gilded yacht with the scent of Damascus rose, so the desert winds would announce her arrival.

"A rose is a rose is a rogue," novelist Tom Robbins reminds us in Jitterbug Perfume, his erotic ode to aroma. In his signature style, Robbins salutes the magnificent nose of a legendary perfume formulator: "It functioned as a catalytic laser, oxidizing the passion that slept unaware in a violet, releasing the trade winds bottled up in orange peel; identifying by name and number the butterflies dissolved in chips of sandalwood and marrying them off, one by one, to the wealthy sons of musk."

Reminiscents — Aroma and Memory
The sense of smell is closely connected with the sense of taste, and much of a food's emotional impact is due to its scent. The olfactory pathway is a direct route to the brain's limbic system, the cerebral crossroads of emotion and memory. That's why smell is the most nostalgic of all the senses. One whiff of eucalyptus can transport an octogenarian back to his kindergarten playground faster than you can say "sinful Caesar sipped his snifter, seized his knees and sneezed."

Probably the most renowned aphrodisiacs are essential oils, especially those derived from white, night-blooming flowers that are moth-pollinated, such as jasmine and narcissus.

The Oil of Olé
"Jasmine has the poise of a wild creature, some elusive self-sufficient thing that croons like an organic saxophone in the tropical night." (Robbins again, who also bemoans the modern trend of naming perfumes after "glorified tailors" — in contrast to the epic scents of yesteryear: Tabu, My Sin, Love Potion, and Sorcery.) Cleopatra used jasmine to distract Marc Antony during business meetings.

Essential oils used in aphrodisia start by promoting physical relaxation. Their fragrance can then trigger more subtle sensations of bodily pleasure. Neroli, named after an Italian princess, is distilled from the white blossoms of the evergreen orange tree. Patchouli is obtained from the fermented leaves of a perennial herb that grows in tropical Asia. Ylang-ylang is distilled from the freshly picked yellow flowers of a tree native to Southeast Asia. It's said that when a man is aroused, he releases an aroma similar to sandalwood (extracted from the roots and heartwood of a small Asian evergreen tree).

The Essence of Aphrodisia — Pheromones
Many romantic fragrances are essentially the sexual attractants of flowers that beckon insects to help with pollination. Humans also react to chemicals from animals, especially musk from the East Asian musk deer, castoreum from the scent glands of certain beavers, and civit, a honey-like secretion from the Ethiopian civit cat. No surprise then that we have our own natural scents, and ones that do a much better job at attracting a mate.

Hormones are potent "local" chemicals that travel throughout your body to help regulate metabolism and behavior. "Hormone" means to set in motion, excite, stimulate. You also produce similar "long distance" chemicals called pheromones, which work outside the body and can affect the hormones of others. "Pherein" means to bring, to bear along. Your pheromones literally entice and excite the opposite sex.

Numerous glands in the skin around your armpits and genitals produce these sexual scents, and the tufts of hair that begin sprouting at puberty collect and help broadcast your fragrant chemicals (some so subtle, they're considered odorless). Trapped beneath layers of clothing, however, these potentially erotic scents can become stale and deteriorate.

Fragrant Tokens
In her classic 1992 book, Anatomy of Love: A Natural History of Mating, Marriage, and Why We Stray, Helen Fisher, Ph.D., tells how a woman in Shakespeare's time would hold a peeled apple under her arm until it was ingrained with her scent. She would then offer this "love apple" to her lover to inhale. In parts of Greece and the Balkans today, some men successfully invite women to dance after offering them a handkerchief which had been carried in the armpit.

In Aromantics: Enhancing Romance, Love, and Sex with Nature's Essential Oils, Valerie Ann Worwood reports that men find a woman's odor most alluring during ovulation, when she is most likely to conceive. In response, men produce an odor of their own that has an aphrodisiac effect on women. Also, during ovulation women were found to be a thousand times more sensitive to a testosterone-like chemical.

A poor sense of smell will dull your love life. In tests with mice and monkeys, when the males' noses were plugged, they ignored females in heat. Good nutrition, especially enough zinc, is important to a healthy sense of smell. Sickness exudes an ill wind of its own that some people say they can sense — a good evolutionary adaptation that we probably all have to some degree. Unfortunately, though, the prefrontal cortex in the human brain can override an instinctual response to olfactory input.

Excessive bathing or use of deodorants and perfumes can overwhelm your sexual scents. Napoleon knew this. He asked his sweetheart Josephine to abstain from bathing several days before he returned to her.

Sweat T-Shirt Contest
In her 1998 book, Sex on the Brain: The Biological Differences Between Men and Women, Deborah Blum tells about a revealing Swiss experiment with a group of college students. Each woman was seated alone in a room at the time of ovulation, when her sense of smell was most acute. She then sniffed the T-shirts slept in by different men over the previous weekend. The women rated each shirt for sexiness, pleasantness, and intensity of smell.

What's remarkable was that the sexiness of the shirts correlated with the degree of difference in MHC genes. This is good, because these MHC (major histocompatibility complex) genes code for the disease detectors in the immune system — the more variety, the better. The women had a stinkual attraction to males whose MHC genes were least like their own.

Be the Aphrodisiac
Our natural scents and sensitivity thus play a vital role in identifying and attracting an ideal mate, one with whom we have the best chances of producing a healthy child capable of withstanding the onslaughts of life. And that's the name of the evolutionary game.

Our smell is as unique as our face. While it won't be alluring to everyone, we can count on having real chemistry with the ones we do attract. And the feeling will be mutual.

Not surprisingly, the quest for aphrodisia brings us full circle back to ourselves. This is good news for all Earth's creatures and gives new meaning to the words: "in the end, the love you take is equal to the love you make."
          The Role of Massage in Treating Mental Health Conditions        

In today’s society, many people suffer from differing levels of mental health conditions such as stress, anxiety and depression. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that 26.2 percent of Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year. Of those suffering from mental illness, approximately 20.9 million Americans report experiencing mood disorders such as depression, while approximately 40 million suffer from an anxiety disorder.

As the mental health epidemic continues to grow throughout the country, people are turning to traditional medication treatment options as well as seeking positive outcomes from total mind and body approaches such as massage therapy.

“Anxiety and depression are the most common mental conditions we see treated with massage,” explains Maria Geisbert, massage therapist at Elements Timonium. “Basically, anything where there is a need for relaxation and stress relief, massage is going to help. In mental disorders where there’s a lack of serotonin and dopamine, massage can help with that as well.”

Moving from Physicality to Mentality

A shift in mindset is moving people into realizing that massage isn’t only for relieving physical pains or as an indulgence while on vacation. Statistics from the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA) show that massage is seen as a treatment for total mind and body health as 88 percent of people view massage as beneficial to overall health and wellness.

“Massage is more than a luxury – it’s a healing modality on a physical, mental and spiritual level,” explains Hannah McClure, massage therapist at Elements Westford. “It helps in all aspects of our life. As time progresses, people are starting to see and accept that more. But, many people still need to understand that regular treatments are so therapeutic both physically and mentally.”

According to the AMTA, various research has shown the benefits of using massage to help treat mental health conditions in different types of situations. Some of the highlights of the research that links therapeutic massage with positive mental outcomes include:

  • The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine reported that massage therapy can reduce symptoms of depression for individuals with HIV disease.
  • Applied Nursing Research reported that massage therapy given during chemotherapy can significantly reduce anxiety and acute fatigue.
  • Military Medicine published research that indicated significant reductions in ratings of anxiety, worry, depression and physical pain after military veterans received massage, as well as declining levels of tension and irritability.
  • Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice reported on research that found that massage for nurses during work hours can help reduce stress and related symptoms, including headaches, shoulder tension, insomnia, fatigue and muscle and joint pain.

Power of Touch Complements Mental Health Treatments

The traditional treatment for many mental illnesses typically includes taking an assortment of medications to balance out hormone levels and stimulate the nervous system. Through the power of touch, massage has evolved into an additional treatment option for mental health conditions by reducing cortisol and adrenaline, as well as increasing serotonin and dopamine to reduce anxiety depression.

When the stress hormone cortisol was measured before and immediately after a massage, researchers from the University of Miami School of Medicine have found that the therapy lowered levels by up to 53 percent.  Industry research such as this continues to point toward massage therapy as an effective approach to positively affecting the body’s biochemistry in order to treat mental health ailments such as anxiety and depression, as well as complement traditional medical treatments.

Slow, Steady Approach Leads to Greater Results

Massage should be an amazing, wonderful experience and not something that causes stress or nervousness. However, when seeking massage for mental health issues, a client may have issues with touch, darkness or being in a small space such as a massage room. As such, it’s important for therapists to thoroughly review a client’s condition prior to the session, while clients need to be forthcoming with disclosing appropriate information as it relates to their condition and their feelings on the overall massage experience.

If there are any apprehensions about the session, it may be a good idea to start gradually with a basic Swedish massage during a 30-minute session.

“As a therapist, you want to be very aware of your clients’ conditions,” explains Geisbert. “You want to make sure they feel comfortable and that a massage isn’t going to make them nervous, cause a panic attack or create an adverse reaction. It’s important to start small and then go forward from there, especially with someone who is already nervous or stressed out.”

Identifying Need Key to Proper Treatment

Although people are more proactive today with their health and more familiar with looking into preventative and alternative treatment options, there still is a much work that needs to be done to educate the public on the benefits of massage for mental health conditions.

One of the biggest challenges of using massage to treat people with mental health ailments is encouraging clients to be comfortable with discussing their condition with their therapist. Geisbert believes that some people may feel embarrassed or ashamed to discuss their mental health as the topic can still be seen as taboo in our society and they are unsure about how massage can help. She tries to overcome this challenge by being diligent with asking questions pertaining to mental health prior to appointments with her clients so she can make sure she’s addressing all of her clients’ physical and mental needs.

“People may see asking for help as a sign of weakness.  But really it can actually make you stronger,” Geisbert says.

Massage can be a powerful tool for combatting the increasing presence of mental health conditions in our country. If you or a loved one has mental health issues such as depression and anxiety, talk to your doctors and a certified massage therapist to see how massage can fit into your overall treatment plan.


          Kraków: otwarcie Laboratorium Maxa Plancka na UJ        
Prestiżowe niemieckie naukowe Towarzystwo Maxa Plancka otworzyło w środę, 20 kwietnia na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim swoje Laboratorium. Międzynarodowy zespół specjalistów będzie w nim prowadził badania m.in. z zakresu biologii i biochemii.<br /><br />
          A scalable moment-closure approximation for large-scale biochemical reaction networks        
Abstract
Motivation: Stochastic molecular processes are a leading cause of cell-to-cell variability. Their dynamics are often described by continuous-time discrete-state Markov chains and simulated using stochastic simulation algorithms. As these stochastic simulations are computationally demanding, ordinary differential equation models for the dynamics of the statistical moments have been developed. The number of state variables of these approximating models, however, grows at least quadratically with the number of biochemical species. This limits their application to small- and medium-sized processes.Results: In this article, we present a scalable moment-closure approximation (sMA) for the simulation of statistical moments of large-scale stochastic processes. The sMA exploits the structure of the biochemical reaction network to reduce the covariance matrix. We prove that sMA yields approximating models whose number of state variables depends predominantly on local properties, i.e. the average node degree of the reaction network, instead of the overall network size. The resulting complexity reduction is assessed by studying a range of medium- and large-scale biochemical reaction networks. To evaluate the approximation accuracy and the improvement in computational efficiency, we study models for JAK2/STAT5 signalling and NFκB signalling. Our method is applicable to generic biochemical reaction networks and we provide an implementation, including an SBML interface, which renders the sMA easily accessible.Availability and implementation: The sMA is implemented in the open-source MATLAB toolbox CERENA and is available from https://github.com/CERENADevelopers/CERENA.Contact: jan.hasenauer@helmholtz-muenchen.de or atefeh.kazeroonian@tum.deSupplementary information:Supplementary dataSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

          Efficient simulation of intrinsic, extrinsic and external noise in biochemical systems        
Abstract
Motivation: Biological cells operate in a noisy regime influenced by intrinsic, extrinsic and external noise, which leads to large differences of individual cell states. Stochastic effects must be taken into account to characterize biochemical kinetics accurately. Since the exact solution of the chemical master equation, which governs the underlying stochastic process, cannot be derived for most biochemical systems, approximate methods are used to obtain a solution.Results: In this study, a method to efficiently simulate the various sources of noise simultaneously is proposed and benchmarked on several examples. The method relies on the combination of the sigma point approach to describe extrinsic and external variability and the τ-leaping algorithm to account for the stochasticity due to probabilistic reactions. The comparison of our method to extensive Monte Carlo calculations demonstrates an immense computational advantage while losing an acceptable amount of accuracy. Additionally, the application to parameter optimization problems in stochastic biochemical reaction networks is shown, which is rarely applied due to its huge computational burden. To give further insight, a MATLAB script is provided including the proposed method applied to a simple toy example of gene expression.Availability and implementation: MATLAB code is available at Bioinformatics online.Contact:flassig@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.deSupplementary information:Supplementary dataSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

          Dataism: Getting out of the 'job loop' and into the 'knowledge loop'        
From deities to data - "For thousands of years humans believed that authority came from the gods. Then, during the modern era, humanism gradually shifted authority from deities to people... Now, a fresh shift is taking place. Just as divine authority was legitimised by religious mythologies, and human authority was legitimised by humanist ideologies, so high-tech gurus and Silicon Valley prophets are creating a new universal narrative that legitimises the authority of algorithms and Big Data." Privileging the right of information to circulate freely - "There's an emerging market called Dataism, which venerates neither gods nor man - it worships data. From a Dataist perspective, we may interpret the entire human species as a single data-processing system, with individual humans serving as its chips. If so, we can also understand the whole of history as a process of improving the efficiency of this system... Like capitalism, Dataism too began as a neutral scientific theory, but is now mutating into a religion that claims to determine right and wrong... Just as capitalists believe that all good things depend on economic growth, so Dataists believe all good things - including economic growth - depend on the freedom of information." Our unparalleled ability to control the world around us is turning us into something new - "We have achieved these triumphs by building ever more complex networks that treat human beings as units of information. Evolutionary science teaches us that, in one sense, we are nothing but data-processing machines: we too are algorithms. By manipulating the data we can exercise mastery over our fate." Planet of the apps - "Many of the themes of his first book are reprised: the importance of the cognitive revolution and the power of collaboration in speeding the ascent of Man; the essential power of myths — such as religion and money — in sustaining our civilisations; and the inexcusable brutality with which our species treats other animals. But having run out of history to write about, Harari is forced to turn his face to the future... 'Forget economic growth, social reforms and political revolutions: in order to raise global happiness levels, we need to manipulate human biochemistry'... For the moment, the rise of populism, the rickety architecture of the European Union, the turmoil in the Middle East and the competing claims on the South China Sea will consume most politicians' attention. But at some time soon, our societies will collectively need to learn far more about these fast-developing technologies and think far more deeply about their potential use." also btw...
  • Preparing for our Posthuman Future of Artificial Intelligence - "By exploring the recent books on the dilemmas of AI and Human Augmentation, how can we better prepare for (and understand) the posthuman future? By David Brin." (omni o)
  • The Man-Machine Myth - "Beliefs inspired by the cybernetic mythos have a quasi-theological character: They tend to be faith-based."
  • Unsettling thought of the day
  • Each technological age seems to have a "natural" system of government that's the most stable and common... Anyway, now we've entered a new technological age: the information age. What is the "natural" system of government for this age?

    An increasing number of countries now seem to be opting for a new sort of illiberal government - the style of Putin and the CCP. This new thing - call it Putinism - combines capitalism, a "deep state" of government surveillance, and social/cultural fragmentation.

    It's obviously way too early to tell, but there's an argument to be made that Putinism is the natural system of government now. New technology fragments the media, causing people to rally to sub-national identity groups instead of to the nation-state.

    The Putinist "deep state" commands the heights of power with universal surveillance, and allies with some rent-collecting corporations. Meanwhile, IF automation decreases labor's share of income and makes infantry obsolete, the worker/soldier class becomes less valuable.

    "People power" becomes weak because governments can suppress any rebellion with drones, surveillance, and other expensive weaponry. Workers can strike, but - huge hypothetical assumption alert! - they'll just be replaced, their bargaining power low due to automation.

    In sum: Powerful authoritarian governments, fragmented society, capitalism, "Hybrid warfare", and far less liberty.
  • The Totalitarian - "Putinist models seem to curtail personal freedom and self-expression. Chases away innovation class. In the long run this makes them unable to keep up with more innovative, open societies. But innovative open societies are also fissiparous in the long run. They need a strong centralized, even authoritarian, core. To wit the big democracies also have deep states, just ones that infringe on domestic public life less than Putinist do. Automation makes mass citizenry superfluous as soldiers, workers or taxpayers. The insiders' club is ever-shrinking. Steady state of AI era is grim. One demigod and 10 billion corpses/brain-in-jars depending on humanism quotient of the one. The three pillars for this end state are strong AI, mind uploading/replication, and mature molecular nanotechnology."
  • Capitalism and Democracy: The Strain Is Showing - "Confidence in an enduring marriage between liberal democracy and global capitalism seems unwarranted."
  • So what might take its place? One possibility[:] ... a global plutocracy and so in effect the end of national democracies. As in the Roman empire, the forms of republics might endure but the reality would be gone.

    An opposite alternative would be the rise of illiberal democracies or outright plebiscitary dictatorships... [like] Russia and Turkey. Controlled national capitalism would then replace global capitalism. Something rather like that happened in the 1930s. It is not hard to identify western politicians who would love to go in exactly this direction.

    Meanwhile, those of us who wish to preserve both liberal democracy and global capitalism must confront serious questions. One is whether it makes sense to promote further international agreements that tightly constrain national regulatory discretion in the interests of existing corporations... Above all... economic policy must be orientated towards promoting the interests of the many not the few; in the first place would be the citizenry, to whom the politicians are accountable. If we fail to do this, the basis of our political order seems likely to founder. That would be good for no one. The marriage of liberal democracy with capitalism needs some nurturing. It must not be taken for granted.
  • G20 takes up global inequality challenge - "Even before the final communiqué is drafted for the annual G20 summit the leaders of the world's largest economies already seemed to agree on their most pressing priority: to find a way to sell the benefits of globalisation to an increasingly sceptical public. As they arrived in the Chinese city of Hangzhou over the weekend, many were on the defensive amid a welter of familiar complaints back home: frustratingly slow growth, rising social inequality and the scourge of corporate tax avoidance."
  • "Growth drivers from the previous round of technological progress are fading while a new technological and industrial revolution has yet to gain momentum," Mr Xi said at the start of the G20, adding that the global economy was at a "critical juncture".

    "Here at the G20 we will continue to pursue an agenda of inclusive and sustainable growth," Mr Obama said, acknowledging that "the international order is under strain".

    Mr Xi, whose country has arguably benefited more than any other from globalisation, struck a similarly cautious note in a weekend speech to business leaders. In China, he said, "we will make the pie bigger and make sure people get a fairer share of it".

    He also recognised global inequity, noting that the global gini coefficient — the standard measure of inequality — had raced past what he called its "alarm level" of 0.6 and now stood at 0.7. "We need to build a more inclusive world economy," Mr Xi said.
  • G20 leaders urged to 'civilise capitalism' - "Chinese president Xi Jinping helped set the tone of this year's G20 meeting in a weekend address to business executives. 'Development is for the people, it should be pursued by the people and its outcomes should be shared by the people', Mr Xi said... Before the two-day meeting, the US government argued that a 'public bandwagon' was growing to ditch austerity in favour of fiscal policy support. 'Maybe the Germans are not absolutely cheering for it but there is a growing awareness that 'fiscal space' has to be used to a much greater extent', agreed Ángel Gurría, secretary-general of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development."
  • Martin Wolf calls for basic income, land taxation & intellectual property reform: Enslave the robots and free the poor
  • The rise of intelligent machines is a moment in history. It will change many things, including our economy. But their potential is clear: they will make it possible for human beings to live far better lives. Whether they end up doing so depends on how the gains are produced and distributed. It is possible that the ultimate result will be a tiny minority of huge winners and a vast number of losers. But such an outcome would be a choice not a destiny. A form of techno-feudalism is unnecessary. Above all, technology itself does not dictate the outcomes. Economic and political institutions do. If the ones we have do not give the results we want, we must change them.
  • From the Job Loop to the Knowledge Loop (via Universal Basic Income) - "We work so we can buy stuff. The more we work, the more we can buy. And the more is available to buy, the more of an incentive there is to work. We have been led to believe that one cannot exist without the other. At the macro level we are obsessed with growth (or lack thereof) in consumption and employment. At the individual level we spend the bulk of our time awake working and much of the rest of it consuming."
  • I see it differently. The real lack of imagination is to think that we must be stuck in the job loop simply because we have been in it for a century and a half. This is to confuse the existing system with humanity's purpose.

    Labor is not what humans are here for. Instead of the job loop we should be spending more of our time and attention in the knowledge loop [learn->create->share]... if we do not continue to generate knowledge we will all suffer a fate similar to previous human societies that have gone nearly extinct, such as the Easter Islanders. There are tremendous threats, eg climate change and infectious disease, and opportunities, eg machine learning and individualized medicine, ahead of us. Generating more knowledge is how we defend against the threats and seize the opportunities.
  • What's more scarce: money, or attention? - "Attention is now the scarce resource."

          Age-related changes in the sulphation of the chondroitin sulphate linkage region from human articular cartilage aggrecan.        
Lauder, R. M. and Huckerby, T. N. and Brown, Gavin and Bayliss, M. T. and Nieduszynski, I. A. (2001) Age-related changes in the sulphation of the chondroitin sulphate linkage region from human articular cartilage aggrecan. Biochemical Journal, 358 (2). pp. 523-528. ISSN 0264-6021
          RHR: Why We Gain Weight—Beyond Carbs, Fat & Protein with Robb Wolf        

revolution health radio

Diet is always a hot topic in the Paleo and ancestral health community. There are diehard advocates on every side. Today I talk with Robb Wolf about his new book Wired to Eat. We explore how his approach to diet has evolved beyond just choosing the right mix of carbs, fats and protein and why a personalized approach is the key to understanding weight loss.  In this episode we discuss:
  • The focus of Wired to Eat
  • The Paleo diet 3.0
  • Is it really about the food?
  • Why the concept of “cheating” is harmful
  • How stress impacts your weight
  • The right tool for the job: why personalization is key
Show notes: [smart_track_player url="http://traffic.libsyn.com/thehealthyskeptic/RHR_-_Why_We_Gain_WeightBeyond_Carbs_Fat__Protein_with_Robb_Wolf.mp3" title="RHR: Why We Gain Weight—Beyond Carbs, Fat & Protein with Robb Wolf" artist="Chris Kresser" ] Chris Kresser: Hey, everybody, Chris Kresser here. Welcome to another episode of Revolution Health Radio. In this episode, I'm excited to welcome back Robb Wolf, a good friend and colleague. For those of you who don’t know who Rob is (I can't imagine there are that many of you listening to this podcast), but he is a former research biochemist, health expert, and author of New York Times bestseller The Paleo Solution and the eagerly anticipated Wired to Eat, which is his most recent book that we’re going to be discussing today. He has been a review editor for the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism and Journal ...
          RHR: Methylation: Are We Supplementing Too Much?—with Dr. Kara Fitzgerald        

revolution health radio

In this episode we discuss:
  • Why methylation is so important
  • Why SNPs don’t tell the whole story
  • How to support your body’s natural methylation process
  • The concept of methylation adaptogens
  • When is supplementing with methyl donors appropriate?
Show notes: [smart_track_player url="http://traffic.libsyn.com/thehealthyskeptic/RHR_-_Methylation_-_Are_We_Supplementing_Too_Much_with_Dr._Kara_Fitzgerald.mp3" title="RHR: Methylation: Are We Supplementing Too Much?—with Dr. Kara Fitzgerald" artist="Chris Kresser" ] Chris Kresser: Hey, everybody. It’s Chris Kresser. Welcome to another episode of Revolution Health Radio. This week, I have an interview for you with Dr. Kara Fitzgerald. She received her Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine degree from the National College of Natural Medicine in Portland, Oregon. She completed the first Council on Naturopathic Medicine-accredited post-doctorate position in Nutritional Biochemistry and Laboratory Science at Metametrix Clinical Laboratory, which is now Genova Diagnostics, under the direction of Richard Lord. Her residency was completed at Progressive Medical Center, a large integrated medical practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. Fitzgerald is the lead author and editor of Case Studies in Integrative and Functional Medicine and is a contributing author to Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine and the Institute for Functional Medicine’s textbook for functional medicine. Her latest ebook is The Methylation Diet and Lifestyle, which we are going to be talking about in this interview. She has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Fitzgerald is on the faculty at IFM, is an IFM-certified practitioner,
           Biochembabe         

Biochembabe naked

          MTS58 - David Baker - Crowdsourcing Biology        

In this podcast I spoke to David Baker, a professor of biochemistry at the University of Washington. Baker and his colleagues study how proteins fold, taking on the complex shapes that make our lives possible.

It turns out that protein folding is a fiendishly hard problem to solve, and even the  most sophisticated computers do a poor job of solving it. So Baker and his colleagues have enlisted tens of thousands of people to play a protein-folding game called Foldit. I talked to David Baker about the discoveries they've made through crowdsourcing, and the challenges of getting 57,000 co-authors listed on a paper.

Additional Resources:

Rosetta@Home

Foldit


          MTS43 - Rob Knight - The Microbes That Inhabit Us        

In this episode, I speak to Rob Knight, an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

Knight studies our inner ecology: the 100 trillion microbes that grow in and on our bodies. Knight explained how hundreds of species can coexist on the palm of your hand, how bacteria manipulate your immune system and maybe even your brain, and how obesity and other health problems may come down to the wrong balance of microbes.

Links to studies mentioned in this episode:

Ruth Ley and Peter Turnbaugh's studies on obesity in Jeff Gordon's lab:
Obesity alters gut microbial ecology.
Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity.
An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest.
A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins.
Julie Segre's studies of the skin:
A diversity profile of the human skin microbiota.
Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome.
Chris Lauber and Elizabeth Costello's studies of human-associated body habitats (in Noah Fierer's and Rob Knight's lab):
The influence of sex, handedness, and washing on the diversity of hand surface bacteria.
Bacterial community variation in human body habitats across space and time.
Jeremy Nicholson's studies of the metabolome:
Pharmacometabonomic identification of a significant host-microbiome metabolic interaction affecting human drug metabolism.
Cathy Lozupone's study of global microbial diversity (in Rob Knight's lab), and confirmation of the patterns in archaea by Jean-Christophe Auguet:
Global patterns in bacterial diversity.
Global ecological patterns in uncultured Archaea.
Ruth Ley and Cathy Lozupone's study integrating gut-associated and environmental bacteria:

Worlds within worlds: evolution of the vertebrate gut microbiota.


          MTS40 - John Wooley - Exploring the Protein Universe        

John Wooley is Associate Vice Chancellor of Research and Professor of Chemistry-Biochemistry and of Pharmacology at the University of California San Diego. Wooley is a leader in the young field of metagenomics: the science of gathering vast numbers of genes from the oceans, soils, air, and the human body.

A generation ago biologist knew the sequences of a few thousand genes. Since then that figure has jumped to several million genes and it's only going to continue to leap higher in years to come. This wealth of data is allowing scientists to get answers to fundamental questions they rarely even asked a generation ago.

They're starting to understand how thousands of species of microbes coexist in our bodies. They're investigating how hundreds of genes work together inside a single cell and they're starting to get a vision of the full diversity of the billions of proteins that life produces, what scientists sometimes call the protein universe.

John Wooley has been at the center of this revolution, investigating some of these new questions and leading pioneering projects such as CAMERA, the Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Marine Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis, to organize the unprecedented amount of data that scientists have at their disposal so that they can master that data rather than drown in it.

In this episode I spoke to Wooley about how metagenomics has revolutionized research on everything from marine ecology to human health, and how he and his colleagues cope with an influx of data on millions of new genes.


          MTS31 - Frances Arnold - Engineering Microbes        

Dr. Frances Arnold is a professor of Chemical Engineering and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology (most of us know it as Caltech).  Dr. Arnold’s research focuses on evolutionary design of biological systems, an approach she is currently applying to engineer cellulases and cellulolytic enzymes for manufacturing biofuels.

 This country’s energy security can look pretty bleak when you think about it: the need to address global warming, strife in oil-rich nations, and depletion of fossil fuels combine to paint an uncertain future, and although ethanol has a lot of friends in Iowa and D.C., ethanol isn’t going to end our energy woes.  In the future, our energy supply will probably be cobbled together from a number of different fuels and sources.  

Dr. Arnold is interested in engineering microbes that can grant us a biofuel that packs more of a caloric punch than ethanol.  She likes isobutanol, which can be converted into a fuel that’s more like the hydrocarbons we currently put into our fuel tanks.  To develop proteins that make the comounds she wants the way she wants, Arnold and her team take a gene that needs tweaking to do the job, introduce directed mutations into it, and select the mutant proteins that do the job best.  

In this interview, I talked with Dr. Arnold about how she got into alternative energy during the Carter administration (and got out again during the Reagan administration), what she sees in the P450 enzyme, and how she explains her work to people outside her field.


          MTS28 - Joseph DeRisi - New Tech Approaches to Infectious Disease        

Joseph DeRisi is a Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator.

His research focuses on two distinct areas: malaria and new viral pathogen discovery.  Dr. DeRisi is this year’s recipient of the Eli Lilly and Company Research Award, granted in recognition of fundamental research of unusual merit in microbiology or immunology by an individual on the threshold of his or her career.

Discovering new viral pathogens seems like exciting work, and DeRisi has lots of ideas for prospecting.  In one recent success with their viral microarray, his group recently helped identify the virus responsible for a devastating disease among rare parrots and other birds: proventricular dilatation disease, or PDD, has been recognized for 30 years, but veterinarians didn’t know the cause or how to control it.  Now that DeRisi’s group has pinpointed Avian Bornavirus as the culprit and sequenced its genome, therapies and control measures to help both captive birds and birds in the wild can’t be far behind.  

In this interview, I asked Dr. DeRisi whether he’s interested in putting the microarray approach to virus discovery to work in uncovering the causes of some human illnesses, especially those diseases we suspect might be spread by viruses, but for which we’ve never found a virus responsible.  He has some very interesting ideas for where to start.  We also talked about his work on identifying the SARS virus, and a new approach in the ongoing fight against malaria.


          MTS6 Bruce Rittmann - Microbes, Waste and Renewable Energy        

Bruce Rittmann, the Director of the Center for Environmental Biotechnology at the Biodesign Institute of Arizona State, focuses his efforts on reclaiming contaminated water and producing renewable energy using microbes.

He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2004 and credited with pioneering development of biofilm fundamentals and contributing to their widespread use in the bioremediation of contaminated ecosystems. His research combines many disciplines of science, including engineering, microbiology, biochemistry, geochemistry and microbial ecology. Formerly with Northwestern University, Rittmann is also a leader in the development of the Membrane Biofilm Reactor, an approach that uses bacteria to destroy pollutants in water. The Membrane Biofilm Reactor is especially effective for removing perchlorate from drinking water, and it is being launched commercially.

In this podcast, I talk with Dr. Rittmann about the biofilm reactor process, the electricity hiding in our wastewater, and how we may some day grow fuel on the roofs of buildings.


          MTS5 Brett Finlay - E.coli and the Human Gut        

Brett Finlay is a professor in the Michael Smith Laboratories, and the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Microbiology and Immunology at the University of British Columbia.

His research program focuses on E. coli, how it interacts with the cells of the human gut, and mouse models of E. coli-like infections.  Dr. Finlay will speak at the conference on Beneficial Microbes in San Diego this October, where he’ll describe the results of some of his latest research, which examines how E. coli infections effect the microbes that live in our guts.

Sadly, outbreaks of Escherichia coli infections in this country are common – just this summer a huge E. coli outbreak in Oklahoma sickened nearly 300 people and sent 67 of them to the hospital.  Clearly, in an outbreak, not everyone is effected equally.  When lots of people are exposed to E. coli, why do some of those people walk away unharmed while others wind up in the I.C.U.?  Dr. Finlay would say part of the answer, at least, probably lies in which microbes live in our intestine.

In this podcast, I talked with Dr. Finlay about why we have so many different kinds of microbes in our guts, what happens to them when E. coli strikes, and why we have a long way to go before probiotics offer help – and not just hope.


          Neuroscience teaches spooks new tricks        
Functional neurological imaging isn't up to mind reading or lie detection yet, but combining it with other neurological techniques might hold hope for sensing people's psychological states and intentions. And neuropsychopharmacology might lead not only to new tools to enhance human cognition, but also to new drugs that could degrade performance of opponents in battle.

So concludes a National Research Council in a new report for the US Defense Intelligence Agency, titled "Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience and Related Technologies". It's basically a neuroscience update for spooks, briefing them not just what their side could use, but the other side - "the bad guys" - might do.

Mind-reading and lie-detection tools are at the top of any savvy spook's shopping list, but the panel says not to expect them soon. So far, they write that "insufficient high-quality research has been conducted to provide empirical support for the use of any single neurophysiological technology, including functional neuroimaging, to detect deception". But they recommend trying combined approaches "such as imaging techniques and the recording of electrophysiological, biochemical and pharmacological responses".

The rapid progress of functional neuroimaging should be monitored for other potential applications. The panel urges intelligence agencies and the Pentagon to consider possibilities of "enhancing cognition and facilitating training" to make smarter spooks and soldiers.

They also urge further study on what functional imaging can reveal about "states of emotion; motivation; psychopathology; language; imaging processing for measuring workload performance; and the differences between Western and non-Western cultures". Interestingly, the panel says that some evidence points to a relationship between culture and brain development, and urges more research on the matter.

Drug development could be a wild card as our models of brain function improve, especially if nanotechnology leads to drugs that bypass the blood-brain barrier. The promise is more precise delivery of drugs and ways to improve human brainpower. But the report also warns of chilling perils in what it calls the "degradation market" - drugs that impair rather than enhance thought processes.

Instead of firing bullets at the enemy, troops could spray them with a drug that would slow their reaction times or dull their thoughts. "The concept of torture could also be altered," the report says, if "there could be technique developed to extract information from a prisoner that does not have any lasting side effects".

And it's not just drugs. The report mentions that tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) may delay people's response when they are lying, according to a small study of 15 people conducted last year in Italy.

The report says US officials should know what potential enemies might do. But after Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo, will other countries could not be blamed for worrying about the US.

Jeff Hecht, contributor


          Interview of Dr. Salman Mapara: Rank 157 in NEET PG 2017        

Dr. Salman Shoeb Mapara has secured rank 157 in NEET PG 2017 exam which was held in december 2016.. He has done his mbbs from Grant Medical College and JJ Hospital, Mumbai. Interview Q. In what year did you pass out your MBBS (completion of internship)? Ans. Is going on and will end Feb 27 2017 Q. What were your MBBS percentage marks (aggregate or final year)? Ans. My aggregate is 70.89 Q. What ranks had you secured in any previous PG medical entrance exams you gave? Ans. This is my first attempt Q. Could you please tell us something about yourself? Ans. I am a middle-class boy and was an average student in my college.my father is mbbs and mother is housewife. I did receive jrd tata scholarship in my 1st and 2nd year. I didn’t participate in any college quizzes but in college festivals i loved to help in and participate with all enthusiasm. I am very religious and very supportive kind of guy. Q. What is the secret of your success? Ans. I use five success mantras 1st-to pray to god 2nd-to hard work with smartness 3rd- talk to parents 4th- best friends and 5th-talk to yourself I fell talking to ourself is important. As how much u have studied, ..how are u studying, all this thing u will come to know when u stand in front of mirror and ask at the end of the day to yours.believe me, u will come to know about ur prep wheather it is going to work or not.and it will keep u on ri8 track..” Q. How was your internship? Ans. It is heavy as our hospital is biggest and busiest in mumbai.but yes our residents are cooperative in that sense, they help me manage time accordingly so that i can study and work simultaneously..but yes some of the department in any college are as heavy and hectic that i cant even manage to sleep properly, in that case, coverup it in next other postings..that’s the game of time management..!! Q. When did you seriously start preparing for the entrance exam? Ans.  I started seriously to prepare in my final year Q. How many hours did you study each day? How long do you think students need to prepare for cracking pg medical entrance exams? Ans. Depending on postings in some i studied 9 hrs/day and in heavy ones 6-7/day..in last 2 months it is 10hrs maxx..it varies with every1..i suggest to study only that hrs max in which u r daily quota of study is done… Ex- for anat max 12 days ..so accordingly look at u r speed,postings,time and understanding and go ahead…. Q. Which books did you read for the theory part? Ans. Medicine– harrison’s vol2 and remaining few miscellaneous, skin, psychiatry and blood- from class notes & mathews Surgery– SRB & few topics like burn trauma and breast from love and belly Paeds– O P Ghai and lecture notes by Sushant Mane sir. Obgy– Sakshi Arora for gynae and Dutta for OBS Ortho– Maheshwari Q. Which books did you read for the mcqs? Which mcq books were the most productive and which were least? Ans. “1st year AA Biochem- R James mam Patho-Devesh Mishra sir Micro- Apurba Sastray sir FMT- Sumit Seth sir Pharma – garg PSM – Vivek Jain sir Ophthal- Ruchi Rai ma’am ENT – Manisha Budhiraja mam Sx – Pritesh Singh sir Paeds – Deepak Marwah sir Med -class notes only and MCQ from Marwah or M. Khanna Obgy – Sakshi Arora Psy – Praveen Tripathi Sa – DBMCI class notes and MCQ from AA Radio  – Rajat Jain sir For all sub i read this and dbmci notes side by side.. See we cant scale any MCQ as most or least as its the prometric which scales it..so every mcq is imp be it a simplest or toughest..” Q. Which subjects did you focus on? Ans. 1st and 2nd year and PSM Q. What were your study methods? How many revisions did you do for each subject? Did you make any changes in your study methods in your recent attempts? Ans. I studied topics which are high yield and in recent trends in a details..factual data and nonsense data like rare syndromes and scientist names i omit it out from my list…but yes imp 1 i revised.. I was able to revise 2 times before my exams. I didn’t create any notes… Unless you have a dedicated peoples in a group go solo..i did solo only.. Q. Did you do any special preparation for image-based questions? Ans. No.. Class and lectures are enough..guide books do cover..its wastage of time to buy image book..instead of it see images in guide books and classes lectures and if u have time from-robbins , harrison and neena khanna(remember selected topics only not the hole book) Q. What was your strategy for the exam day? How many questions did you attempt and why? How many do you think you got correct? Ans. “i was all mindset that -whatever paper will be i have studied and god will do justice to me..i keep myself cool, stressfree and motivated till the end of paper… I attempted all Q as no negative marking is there. Q. Do think there should be a different strategy for preparation of different entrance exams like aiims-pg, pgi and dnb cet? Ans. As there is difference..as aiims stress ophthal psm and pharma in details plus some numericals and physics is there. pgi is multiple ans type so it need to handle like that..but concept is same everywhere so clear concept will yield good result in these exams too. Q. Did you join any classes or test series? Was it useful? Ans. I joined bhatia class and there test series only. Yes it is very much useful. Q. Who or what influenced you to take up medicine? Ans. My dad Q. In which field do you want to specialize in? Why? Ans. Md radiodiagnosis ,, i want to do more super specialisation in this as this is times demand and there are very few of them.. Q. What seat have you been allotted in counselling? Did you join? Ans. Counselling is yet to start Q. What is your advice to future aspirants? Ans. Start preparing early…if u r pre final and final yr clear u r concepts rather than running behind mcq..clear u r concepts and work hard smartly.believe in yourself as half game of exam is confidence and positivity… U dont need to be a topper to crack neet but u need to be a smart hard worker,,,,as no lunches are free lunches.. Q. Indian pg entrances are highly competitive, so to crack them students end up in appearing for multiple pg exams with some of them having the same exam with different slots and papers, please extend your views on this and their pros and cons of appearing in multiple pg entrances. Ans. “neet is best in the sense u have to give one exam and relieve all stress at once….yes there are multiple sessions but prometric ensures equality….whatever session u r in just do this things–read q and “”all 4 options””properly even though its panchat one…think and mark it down…don’t put pending and waste time on non sense factual q mark and move ahead…try rule out method…use concepts to crack 50-50 q,,,, Remember image q have ans hidden in them mostly so “”don’t panic”” ….all the very best may allah bless u all….ameen!!!” We are ending this interview with our hearty congratulations and best wishes for future to this talented person, dr. Salman shoeb mapara.  

The post Interview of Dr. Salman Mapara: Rank 157 in NEET PG 2017 written by Dr. Paresh Koli appeared first on Desi Medicos.


          Interview of Dr. Apoorva Sehgal: Rank 47 in NEET PG 2017        

Dr. Apoorva Sehgal has secured Rank 47 in NEET PG 2017 which was held in December 2016. She has done her MBBS from Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi. Interview Q. In what year did you pass out your MBBS (Completion of Internship)? Ans. December, 2015 Q. What were your MBBS percentage marks (aggregate or final year)? Ans. 64% Q. What ranks had you secured in any previous PG medical entrance exams you gave? Ans. JIPMER rank 13, PGI rank 74, AIIMS rank 106 and previously July DNB rank 205, May PGI rank 173 and NEET 2015 rank 18k. Q. Could you please tell us something about yourself? Ans. I’m Apoorva Sehgal from Faridabad. Did my schooling from APJ school and MBBS from Maulana Azad medical college. Q. What is the secret of your success? Ans. Hard work, consistency, immense support from family and friends and above all self-belief. To keep oneself motivated is the biggest challenge, being around my family helped me overcome that. Q. How was your internship? Ans. Internship in M is quite hectic. I could barely manage a couple of subjects with my internship schedule Q. When did you seriously start preparing for the entrance exam? Ans. January 2016 Q. How many hours did you study each day? How long do you think students need to prepare for cracking PG medical entrance exams? Ans. For someone like me, 10-12 hours of focussed preparation for 8-10 months is what it takes to crack these exams Q. Which books did you read for the theory part? Ans. Theory books are to be read during MBBS. During pg preparation, I only used the standard textbooks for reference. Most important ones being Grays, Robbins, KDT and Parks Q. Which books did you read for the MCQs? Which MCQ books were the most productive and which were least? Ans. I found dams notes and Devesh Sir’s notes most high yielding. Amongst the guide books Rebecca ma’am’s book for biochemistry, pharmacology, and pathology by Gobind Garg and Sparsh Gupta, Forensic by Sumit Seth, microbiology by Apurba Sastry were very useful. For the remaining subjects, Arvind Arora was my rescue option. Q. Which subjects did you focus on? Ans. Every subject is important. Focus more on subjects which are volatile. I personally focussed more on 1st and 2nd-year subjects along with PSM and short subjects. Q. What were your study methods? How many revisions did you do for each subject? Did you make any changes in your study methods in your recent attempts? Ans. I did 2 complete revisions of the entire syllabus which means 3 readings. Besides that, I had a small notepad of all the volatile topics, value based MCQs and facts so I kept revising them every time I took a break. I studied with a friend in the final days, the discussion really helped me. Practicing MCQs is very important, it breaks the monotony and makes you feel confident about your preparation. Q. Did you do any special preparation for image-based questions? Ans. I just did the DAMS dvt and Devesh sir’s updates for images. Q. What was your strategy for the exam day? How many questions did you attempt and why? How many do you think you got correct? Ans. “Having a good sleep the day before the exam and proper breakfast in the morning is most important. Be calm, MCQs focused and confident. I attempted all questions in NEET. Can’t say about how many I got correct. For AIIMS I attempted 193 questions which were a decent attempt but I committed many silly mistakes which took a toll on my rank. For JIPMER I attempted 245. ” Q. Do think there should be a different strategy for preparation of different entrance exams like AIIMS-PG, PGI and DNB CET? Ans. For PGI subjects like biochem, micro and surgery are more important and solving Manoj Chaudhary really helps. For NEET named signs and value based MCQs should be focussed on. Having said that the basic preparation remains the same for all exams. Q. Did you join any classes or test series? Was it useful? Ans. I joined dams tnd in my drop year and foundation course in third year. Extremely useful Q. Who or what influenced you to take up Medicine? Ans. “It was my grand parents dream to have a doctor in the family. That was my driving force. I’m the first and probably the only doctor in my family. ” Q. In which field do you want to specialize in? Why? Ans. I’m considering Radiology because it’s an interesting branch with substantial work and at the same time will give me the lifestyle I want. Q. What seat have you been allotted in counseling? Did you join? Ans. I joined Dermatology in JIPMER. Worked there for 20 days and then resigned. Q. What is your advice to future aspirants? Ans. Just be confident and motivated. Have faith in your abilities and keep going no matter what. Q. Indian PG entrances are highly competitive, so to crack them students end up in appearing for multiple PG exams with some of them having the same exam with different slots and papers, please extend your views on this and their pros and cons of appearing in multiple PG entrances. Ans. Giving multiple exams does increase your likelihood of cracking an exam but beyond a point it’s exhausting and gets futile. So I think giving all exams is important but different slots for the same exam is useless. We are ending this interview with our hearty congratulations and best wishes for future to this talented person, Dr. Apoorva Sehgal.

The post Interview of Dr. Apoorva Sehgal: Rank 47 in NEET PG 2017 written by Dr. Paresh Koli appeared first on Desi Medicos.


          Interview of Dr. Manojkumar Gaddikeri: Rank 37 in NEET PG 2017        

Dr. Manojkumar B Gaddikeri has secured Rank 37 in NEET PG 2017. He has done his MBBS from KIMS Hubli. Interview Q. In what year did you pass out your MBBS (Completion of Internship)? Ans. 2016 Q. What were your MBBS percentage marks (aggregate or final year)? Ans. 67% Q. What ranks had you secured in any previous PG medical entrance exams you gave? Ans. JIPMER – rank 56 and last year AIPG 2016  rank 30,700. Q. Could you please tell us something about yourself? Ans. Have been an average, fun loving student throughout my MBBS . Middle class family, Dad is DC in BMTC Bangalore, mom is a housewife, elder sister Is a gynecologist in Oman, elder brother working in Australia. Q. What is the secret of your success? Ans. Blessings, my teachers at Bhatia Bangalore, Hard-work and will to succeed.The transformation from 30,700 ranks last year to 37 ranks this year wasn’t easy.Staying positive n believing in myself helped a lot. Q. How was your internship? Ans. Didn’t get time to study in the internship, since a govt college. Q. When did you seriously start preparing for the entrance exam? Ans.  8 months back Q. How many hours did you study each day? How long do you think students need to prepare for cracking PG medical entrance exams? Ans. I used to count the time I spent in sleep, jog, and basic activities.Rest of the day I studied, roughly around 16-17 hrs.The competition is very tough n have to spend a minimum of 15 hrs a day. Q. Which books did you read for the theory part? Ans. I did not read any theory books during preparation.Jus referred std books.There is no for studying theory books.During MBBS few std books like Robbins n rest were all Indian authors. Q. Which books did you read for the MCQs? Which MCQ books were the most productive and which were least? Ans. “Most important” are class notes of Bright class Bangalore.my notes from MCQ books like 1) Arvind Arora for Anat, Physio, forensic, ophthal, pediatrics, psychiatry, radio, anesthesia 2) Medicine – Mudit Khanna but now Dr.Thameem Sir’s book 1st edition is abt to come, plz read it. Mudit Khanna has not updated much. 3) surgery – Pritesh Singh, awesome book n must read for NEET and AIIMS especially second half. 4)ortho- Apurv Mehra 5)OBG- Bhojani n few topics from Soumya Shukla. 6) Micro-Apruv Shastry 7)Pathology- Devesh Mishra 8)ENT- Manisha Sinha Buddhiraja 9)Biochem- Rebecca James” Q. Which subjects did you focus on? Ans. All subjects are important, cannot neglect any subject.Most important are obviously medicine, surgery, but in NEET exam all subjects are given equal importance. They are the rank deciders. Q. What were your study methods? How many revisions did you do for each subject? Did you make any changes in your study methods in your recent attempts? Ans. Don’t study one subject a day; it will reduce your efficiency and interest.Better is to study two subjects a day and 1-2 hrs for solving papers as it will help you to keep in touch with other subjects as well.monthly before Bhatia grand tests I used to start revis ing all my notes 1 wk befr.Never hesitate to tak tests evn if u haven’t studied. Q. Did you do any special preparation for image-based questions? Ans. Don’t waste tym in preparing for image based questions,if u knw the theory wel u can answer any image based questions.Patho if possible, during free tym refer Robbin images.Dont waste ur tym in fb discussion grps or any other discussions, it is utter waste of tym. Q. What was your strategy for the exam day? How many questions did you attempt and why? How many do you think you got correct? Ans. Stay calm, relaxed, my jogging n meditation during prep helped me a lot to stay relaxed on exm day.Going to exam with positive attitude is vry impt.attempted 300 questions. got 1217 marks. Q. Do think there should be a different strategy for preparation of different entrance exams like AIIMS-PG, PGI and DNB CET? Ans. For AIIMS , JIPMER and rest others answering by ruling out options is very impt.for NEET it is purely the knowledge.solve as many mcq as possible for NEET. Q. Did you join any classes or test series? Was it useful? Ans. Bhatia Bangalore.online test series of prepladder and rankjunction. Q. Who or what influenced you to take up Medicine? Ans. My interest Q. In which field do you want to specialize in? Why? Ans. Orthopedics, mainly trauma. Q. What seat have you been allotted in counseling? Did you join? Ans. Counselling hasn’t started yet. Q. What is your advice to future aspirants? Ans. There is no shortcut to success, hard work in a smart way is the key.classes played a major role , my teachers at Bhatia Bangalore are responsible for this rank.Always aim high as high as rank 1, since u r not less than anyone.Giv ur best shot.stay consistent.Giv as many practice tests as possible n don’t loose heart if u get less marks in mock tests as eventually u ll start getting good marks. Q. Indian PG entrances are highly competitive, so to crack them students end up in appearing for multiple PG exams with some of them having the same exam with different slots and papers, please extend your views on this and their pros and cons of appearing in multiple PG entrances. Ans. It is ur same knowledge tested in different manner in diff exams.No spl preparions are needed.Giv as many exams as possible. We are ending this interview with our hearty congratulations and best wishes for future to this talented person, Dr.Manojkumar B Gaddikeri.

The post Interview of Dr. Manojkumar Gaddikeri: Rank 37 in NEET PG 2017 written by Dr. Paresh Koli appeared first on Desi Medicos.


          Interview of Dr. Avirup Majumdar: Rank 342 in NEET PG 2017        

Dr. Avirup Majumdar has secured Rank 342 in NEET PG 2017 which was held in December 2016. He has also scored rank 342 in AIIMS November PG 2016 and rank 229 in JIPMER PG November 2016. He has done his MBBS from North Bengal Medical College. Interview Q. In what year did you pass out your MBBS (Completion of Internship)? Ans. 2015. Q. What were your MBBS percentage marks (aggregate or final year)? Ans. 69.90% Q. What ranks had you secured in any previous PG medical entrance exams you gave? Ans. AIPGMEE 2016 – Rank 4391 Q. Could you please tell us something about yourself? Ans. I have done my MBBS from North Bengal Medical College, Siliguri, West Bengal. I have been a consistent student throughout my MBBS career, secured good ranks in departmental quizzes. I was the Senior Class Assistant (prosector) in Pharmacology. I come from a non-medical family; my father is Retired Insurance Officer, Engineer .my brotEngineer.I used to play Tabla and drawing was my hobby. Im a fun loving guy, love to read good novels, hanging out with friends. Q. What is the secret of your success? Ans. In one word “FOCUS” . The most important mantra of my performance was Perseverance . The zeal of securing a good rank and consistently taking it to the end made my ranks possible. I kept almost the same amount of energy throughout my preparatory phase, trust me it is difficult but it is definitely POSSIBLE. Q. How was your internship? Ans. Internship in my college was too hectic. In peripheral colleges like ours, there is a lot of workload on Interns and Housestaffs, because of less number PGTs and senior doctors. I could not study during my internship and so didn’t sit for the entrance exams that year. Q. When did you seriously start preparing for the entrance exam? Ans.  As mentioned, I didn’t attempt PG during my Internship. I joined Housestaffship last year in Department of Chest Medicine. I started reading from that period but I knew my preparation was not upto the mark as I had difficulty managing my duties and focussed study. I started focussed preparation from April this year. Q. How many hours did you study each day? How long do you think students need to prepare for cracking PG medical entrance exams? Ans. I seriously didn’t have any rigid time table. I used to read late at night, early morning studies is not my cup of tea. In the initial phase it used to be around 10 hours approx. Last 2 months it was upto 12 hours maximum. There should not be any fixed hours of study, its absolutely individualistic. No matter how long it takes, one should cover as he/she is supposed to complete on that day. It should be target-oriented, not time-oriented. Q. Which books did you read for the theory part? Ans. Seriously speaking I had little time to read theory part of all subjects. I read them very often for references. Harrison’s Internal Medicine should always be the mother book. Q. Which books did you read for the MCQs? Which were MCQ books were the most productive and which were least? Ans. Anatomy – Arora Physio, Biochem, FSM – Across Medicine – Mudit Khanna Surgery – Amit Ashis Radio – Sumer Sethi G&O – Sakshi arora Ortho – Apurv Mehra Short subjcts- Across Peds – Taruna Mehra Patho, Pharma – Garg Micro, ENT- Rachna Chaurasia Plus questions of previous years’ AIIMS and AIPG Q. Which subjects did you focus on? Ans. All the 19 subjects are important.. but obviously the big ones like Medicine , Surgery, G&O , Patho, Pharma.. Short subjects like FSM, Skin,Psychiatry, Micro, Biochem are equally important and differentiating. Q. What were your study methods? How many revisions did you do for each subject? Did you make any changes in your study methods in your recent attempts? Ans. I had no class notes, I used to study on my own from the MCQ books i had. I used to make notes on every useful update I got . DAMS Exclusive Club on Facebook was quite helpful in this regard. Initially I took one subject at a time and finish it completely but later when things would slow down, I made a change..I used to take one subject and when it got slow I shifted to another subject and come back to it later on. With this I improved my speed quite well. I could revise the whole syllabus twice before the final exam. Q. Did you do any special preparation for image-based questions? Ans. I attended DAMS DVT classes for images. Q. What was your strategy for the exam day? How many questions did you attempt and why? How many do you think you got correct? Ans. My strategy was to keep my brain calm so that it can perform at its peak level. Good sleep , light breakfast and an empty bladder and rectum are must.I attempted all questions in NEET. Around 220-230 must have been correct. Q. Do think there should be a different strategy for preparation of different entrance exams like AIIMS-PG, PGI and DNB CET? Ans. PGI is different. I don’t know much about it as I didn’t appear for it.. For AIIMS , focus should be on conceptual and image-based questions . For NEET and DNB one-liners are more frequently asked, images are asked less often in these exams. Q. Did you join any classes or test series? Was it useful? Ans. “Yes. I joined DAMS Online Test Series this year. I attended DVT classes by DAMS. Yes of course, giving regular subject wise tests and grand tests, tracking the marks obtained, pointing out the weak areas and working on it was my core strategy. DAMS DVT classes were also useful specially for images as asked nowadays in AIIMS exams.” Q. Who or what influenced you to take up Medicine? Ans. My own choice to become a healer. Q. In which field do you want to specialize in? Why? Ans. “General Medicine Because it is the only subject which covers everything, the mother branch of medical sciences. Your thinking domains are limitless in Medicine.Its difficult to describe Medicine in one word..” Q. What seat have you been allotted in counseling? Did you join? Ans. Not alloted till now. Last year I was alloted Diploma in Ophthalmology which I declined. Q. What is your advice to future aspirants? Ans. Keep up the flare and hunger inside you. Don’t get too uptight, it is not the end of everything.It is necessary to relax a bit, but don’t get off the track either. Stay focussed, stay healthy, think positive. Success is sure to come. Q. Indian PG entrances are highly competitive, so to crack them students end up in appearing for multiple PG exams with some of them having the same exam with different slots and papers, please extend your views on this and their pros and cons of appearing in multiple PG entrances. Ans. I support single exam NEET wholeheartedly. We are ending this interview with our hearty congratulations and best wishes for future to this talented person, Dr. Avirup Majumdar.

The post Interview of Dr. Avirup Majumdar: Rank 342 in NEET PG 2017 written by Dr. Paresh Koli appeared first on Desi Medicos.


          Textbooks of Pharmacology: A Comparative Review        

As a part of my series of comparative reviews of medical books, I am now writing the reviews for textbooks of Pharmacology. Pharmacology is an ever growing subject with new drug discoveries and approvals happening every few days. But the problem with textbooks is that they are not updated frequently, so recent drug data is not available in all of them. I will write an overall review of these books and usefulness of them for mainly undergraduate medical students. Textbooks Essentials Of Medical Pharmacology by KD Tripathi (Recommended) KD Tripathi has always been on top of the list in all the pharmacology books as it is the best book to read the subject. It has enough details given to top any UG exam and in some case even MD Pharmacology PG exam. The book provides the classification of drugs excellently, and enough details of drugs are given for a textbook. One negative side of this book is that it is not updated frequently, so many drugs, mechanisms and guidelines are left out in this book. Still, this book is the best for UG medical students for Pharmacology. Principles of Pharmacology by H. L. Sharma and K. K. Sharma (Recommended) I have been provided with both newer (3rd edition – 2017) and older editions of this book by Paras Medical Publishers for review purpose. 2017 edition of this book is the latest pharmacology book available in market at the time of writing this review. Book given details about topics which are not given in KD Tripathi for example Schedule of drugs in India, laws related to drugs in India, dosage forms of drugs and sources of drugs. This book is a very good alternative to KD Tripathi and many of the post-graduate MD Pharmacology students also read this book for their final exams because of writing style which is better than KD Tripathi. The negative thing about this book is that is is not as detailed as Tripathi and thus students who like to read more will be dissatisfied with this book. But it is a very good alternative for students who are short of time. Pharmacology for Medical Graduates by Tara Shanbhag Basic and Clinical Pharmacology by Bentram Katzung (Recommended) A typical book from Lange publishers which focuses more on understanding the mechanisms and clinical relevance of drugs rather than going into minor details of the drugs. I have always liked all books from LANGE as they are better than any other book when it comes to understanding a subject. Book give physiology of the topic before the pharmacology which makes it very easy to understand the basics of the pharmacological mechanisms. General Pharmacology is not given in much details and students should refer to Sharma or Tripathi for that. This book is best for students who want to understand the subject rather than just blindly mugging up the names of the drugs. Goodman And Gilman Manual Of Pharmacology And Therapeutics by Randa Hilal-Dandan and Laurence Brunton Widely known as the Bible of Pharmacology. It is only for postgraduate students of pharmacology and not for undergraduates. General pharmacology in this book is not given properly but other topics are given in so much details that it is difficult to read and revise this complete book. Postgraduate Topics in Pharmacology by Rituparna Maiti Book is for postgraduate students only and it gave details about topics which are important for MD Pharmacology residents for their final exams. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by R S Satoskar, Nirmala Rege & S D Bhandarkar This book is an undergraduate book which is very different from Tripathi or Sharma. I still remember many of my undergraduate batchmates reading this book for general pharmacology. I am not a big fan of this book and its writing style. Medical Pharmacology by Padmaja Udaykumar Pharmacology by Brenner Principles of Pharmacology by Golan Rang And Dale’s Pharmacology by Humphrey P. Rang Pharmacological Classification of Drugs With Doses And Preparations by KD Tripathi Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology by Karen Whalen Kd Tripathi’s Mcqs In Pharmacology: Based On 7 Th/Ed Of Kd Tripathi’s Essentials Of Medical Pharmacology by Bhandari Prasan R Pharmacological Classification of Drugs With Doses And Preparations by KD Tripathi Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates – Pharmacology by Sparsh Gupta, Gobind Rai Garg Practical Pharmacology by Gomes M.W. Practical Manual of Pharmacology by Dinesh Badyal Pharmacology by Vikas Dhikav MCQs in Pharmacology by Jayant S. Kulkarni Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology by M. N. Ghosh Another book for MD Pharmacology resident doctors who want to learn about experimental pharmacology. Screening Methods in Pharmacology by N.S. Parmar This book is for postgraduate students of MD Pharmacology who are interested in reading animal models for inducing disease in the various animals. It is a concise version of Vogel’s book for preclinical screening methods. Clinical Trials A Beginner’s Guide by Alice Kuruvilla and A D Paul This book was given to me by Paras Medical Publishers as a review copy on my request. This book gives details about clinical trials in an excellent manner and I think this book is a one place destination for all those students especially MD Pharmacology residents who want to learn all the aspects of clinical trials. The best part about this book is that it gives details of clinical trials like regulatory aspects from multiple countries like USA, EU, and Japan along with Indian data, so students can get a better idea of these regulations. This book also gives a chapter on the statistics which is very important part of data analysis in clinical trials or for that matter any research project. So students who want to learn about clinical trials in short time and do not want to look for data all over the internet should definitely buy this book. Entrance Exams Review Of Pharmacology by Gobind Rai Garg (Recommended) The most famous and widely read book for preparation of postgraduate medical entrance exams. It is given concise and updated information about various drugs to the students. Self-Assessment and Review of Pharmacology by Arvind Arora This is the book which I had referred to during my preparation of PG medical entrance exams like NEET and AIPGMEE. It is a good book just like all the Arvind Arora books. Conceptual Review of Pharmacology for NBE by Ranjan Kumar Patel Useful Articles Textbooks of Anatomy, Histology, Embryology & Genetics: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Physiology: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Physiology: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Biochemistry: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Microbiology: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Pathology: A Comparative Review Subject-Wise Books For PG Medical Entrance Exams Preparation Textbooks of Medicine: A Detailed Comparison Textbooks of Pediatrics: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Obstetrics & Gynaecology: A Comparative Review Textbooks of General Surgery: A Comparative Review Textbooks of PSM & Biostatistics: A Comparative Review Textbooks of Ophthalmology: A Comparative Review Textbooks of ENT: A Comparative Review Disclaimer: A part of this review has been written by few of the MD Pharmacology residents.

The post Textbooks of Pharmacology: A Comparative Review written by Dr. Paresh Koli appeared first on Desi Medicos.


          Interview with Dr. Sandeep Kamat: Rank 1 in MH-SSET 2016 Exam        

Dr Sandeep Sunil Kamat has secured Rank 1 in Maharashtra Super-specialty entrance Test (MH-SSET) for the year 2016. He is currently working as Assistant Professor in LTMMC. Interview Q. In what year did you pass out your MBBS (Completion of Internship)? Ans. 2012 (FINAL YR PASSED IN 2011) from DR VMGMC SOLAPUR Q. What were your MBBS percentage marks (aggregate or final year)? Ans. 74% aggregate Q. What ranks had you secured in any previous PG medical entrance exams you gave? Ans. MH PGM-CET – RANK 31 in 2012. Q. Could you please tell us something about yourself? Ans. MHSSET rank 1. first in MUHS in THIRD year MBBS (79%). Q. What is the secret of your success? Ans. hard work..dedication..being focussed..switchin off my mobile and not check-in WhatsApp messages repeatedly…n repeated revisions. Q. How was your internship? Ans. the internship was ok..rotations were d key to managing duty hrs..cracking PGMCET in first attempt is really a herculean task..but was happy to complete it..!!nothing like getting a rank in your internship ka first attempt itself….devise ur own timetable to crunch duty hrs n ur self-study. Q. How did you prepare for Superspecialty entrance exams? Ans. Reading Harrison.tables n charts thoroughly…a thorough reading of Harrison at least 3 times..solving umpteen MCQs..from books like Ajay mathur..n Deepak Marwah. Anat physio biochem can be read from Across..its a must. Just go through imp new numerological values in new PARk edition be I touch n discuss things with your paediatric fellows..n surgery co-residents they will help u with that parts had read Pritesh Singh though for surgery reading for 3 -4 months..is sufficient. DAGA..n last but not d least all papers n their answers..n explanation..should be on the tip of your tongue. Q. When did you seriously start preparing for the entrance exam? Ans. Feb 10th 2011..i.e..7 days before my final yr results..n 11 months before all AIPGE/MHPGMCET Q. How many hours did you study each day? How long do you think students need to prepare for cracking PG medical entrance exams? Ans. 8-10 hrs per day..(without d discussions..n mobile ka timepass) Q. Which books did you read for the theory part? Ans. the std books..theory textbooks..Triple AAA…across..Sakshi arora..nothing special read..what made the difference was how strong your undergraduate is. Q. Which books did you read for the MCQs? Which MCQ books were the most productive and which were least? Ans. MCQ books are must be read..in internship..ther is generally no time to read std textbooks..however..in a repeat attempt..i wud advise to go thru tables of Harrison.n love-bailey..n d highlighted parts of robbins. n also few imp numerical from park Q. Which subjects did you focus on? Ans. path-micro-medicine-surgery-pharmacy-psm Q. What were your study methods? How many revisions did you do for each subject? Did you make any changes in your study methods in your recent attempts? Ans. group discussions preferably to be limited as they can even contribute to confusions….n versions..as many times..multiple..3-4-5–at last 3…are must…no special..study methods..just jot down imp points that u think..u mite need to revise..n tend to forget..n revise them over n over again Q. Did you do any special preparation for image-based questions? Ans. fortunately..we dint have any of these. Q. What was your strategy for the exam day? How many questions did you attempt and why? How many do you think you got correct? Ans. in MHPGMCET..u need to attempt all..as there is no negative marking. Q. Do think there should be a different strategy for preparation of different entrance exams like AIIMS-PG, PGI and DNB CET? Ans. haven’t appeared for PGI or DNB ever…so cant actually comment on these. Q. Did you join any classes or test series? Was it useful? Ans. had joined Bhatia test series..that’s it..had no time for regular classes. Q. Who or what influenced you to take up Medicine? Ans. my DAD..d best inspiration..possibly the best paediatrician I have ever seen Q. In which field do you want to specialise in? Why? Ans. after my MHPGMCET rank 31..i took M.D.Medicine in LTMC Mumbai..possibly the best place in entire india..to do medicine..super friendly dept..awesum patient workload..n really god clinicians n teachers here..n obviously..u get to handle all d super speciality load..now I have got MHSSET rank 1..n I m opting for D.M.cardiology Q. What seat have you been allotted in counselling? Did you join? Ans. Q. What is your advice to future aspirants? Ans. study hard..preferably in ur internship…n residency..for MHSSET..read Harrison thoroughly..nothing is out of it. Q. Indian PG entrances are highly competitive, so to crack them students end up in appearing for multiple PG exams with some of them having the same exam with different slots and papers, please extend your views on this and their pros and cons of appearing in multiple PG entrances. Ans. yea..i had to attempt multiple exams..for super speciality..going by flights to various states..it was tiring..n depressin..but also enjoyed..roamed a bit…but possibly NEET super speciality will settle all the issues if it happens We are ending this interview with our hearty congratulations and best wishes for future to this talented person, Dr Sandeep Kamat.  

The post Interview with Dr. Sandeep Kamat: Rank 1 in MH-SSET 2016 Exam written by Dr. Paresh Koli appeared first on Desi Medicos.


          Resent Research: Chamomile Tea Can Regulate Blood Sugar, Prevents and Manages Diabetes        

A recently available research within the Journal of Agricultural & Food Biochemistry discovers that chamomile can greatly help in stabilizing blood sugar levels and control Diabetes.

Fairhope, AL -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/24/2015 -- The importance of controlling body sugar is obvious, because stabilizing blood sugar levels can avoid several health issues, one of which is diabetes that happens because of years of unstable blood sugar levels. Luckily, for many people it's inside their capacity to manage their blood sugar by staying active and eating a health and balanced diet. Still, most people don't know that blood sugar can also be stabilized by drinking chamomile tea.

The scientists at the Toyama University in Japan and the Institute of Grassland and Ecological Research in the UK have analyzed the result of chamomile tea on diabetic rodents. Nearly half of the rodents were given a dosage of chamomile extract for 3 weeks. Another group of diabetic rodents was given an ordinary diet without any inclusion of chamomile.

The researchers noticed that after chamomile extract was given to the rodents, a smaller quantity of glucose was converted into sorbitol (a sugar liquor). Extra sorbitol may cause harm to the eyes, kidneys and nerve cells. This enzyme mainly accountable for this sort of harm in diabetics were also controlled within the chamomile rodents. The rodents who were given chamomile extract also confirmed a general reduction in blood-glucose as compared to other rodents.

The research stated that there's a definite link between everyday usage of chamomile tea and avoiding the development of hyperglycemia and diabetes. Still, more research needs to be done to find out how efficient this therapy could be, but to anybody trying to find an all-natural method of controlling blood sugar levels, the outcomes of the research are far more than enough support to begin drinking chamomile tea.

Chamomile tea's advantages are not only for diabetics. For diabetics, regulating blood-sugar is extremely important for overall health, however the fact is, even non-diabetics can take advantage of sustaining regular blood sugar. Blood sugar level shifts are related to exhaustion, sugar urges and insulin-resistance, with other symptoms.

About Teasy Teas
Teasy Teas, (http://www.teasyteas.com), is a leading provider of fine loose leaf herbal teas based in Fairhope, Alabama. Teasy Teas sells finest blends of oolong tea, green tea, rooibos tea, chamomile loose-leaf tea, and chai tea to tea lovers all around the world. Almost. 11,000 clients today savor their tea blends every morning.

For more information and other media related inquiries, please contact:
City: Fairhope
State: Alabama
Country: USA
Contact Name: Green Circle Agency
Contact Email: support@greencircleagency.com
Complete Address: P.O. Box 1085
Zip Code: 36533
Contact Phone: 800-773-6503
Web site: http://www.teasyteas.com/

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/release-582897.htm

Media Relations Contact

Steve Kaplan
Telephone: 800-773-6503
Email: Click to Email Steve Kaplan
Web: http://www.teasyteas.com


          Jak jsem potkala Bolka, ale ne Lolka        
To jsem vám koncem září na netu narazila na článek, který mě zaujal tak, že jsem se hned rozhodla ozvat se a požádat o rozhovor a poprosit o něco málo do soutěže, bo přece myslim na vás :). Nejen, že vyÅ¡lo oboje, ale nakonec toho bylo mnohem víc a mé nadÅ¡ení stále trvá. Ano, článků ohledně mixování doplňků stravy a vitamínů od nové firmy Mixturam, jste za posledních 14 dní četli už hodně. Ale rozhodně ne tak, jako si počtete u mě! Bo Lucifridka co? Přeháněla, jako vždycky :D. 


S Tomášem (omrknout ho můžete třeba tady), který má na starosti marketing a je jedním z těch, co za nápadem a firmou stojí, si vyměňujeme maily už přes dva měsíce. Páč mě to trvá, jsem děsná brzda. Původně jsem doufala, že budu mít článek první, ale to nějak nevyÅ¡lo :D. Článků jsem za poslední týdny četla nepočítaně a popravdě, asi jen dva stály za to. Ostatní byly velice povÅ¡echné, s minimem informací a nezodpovězenými a nakousnutými otázkami. A nejen proto se pod nimi strhly vášnivé diskuze. Já to vzala od lesa. Nejdřív jsem si pro Tomáše připravila otázky, jež mi zodpověděl a poté jsem dodala jeÅ¡tě doplňující, i na základě některých komentářů, na které jsem po netu narazila. Byla to spolupráce jedna radost! Komunikovat s Älověkem zapáleným pro věc a naladěným na stejnou notu, to se to pak pracuje :). Materiálu vzniklo víc než dost, tož to nakonec budu muset rozdělit na dva (respektive tři) články. Dnes si dáme rozhovor a nějaké to základní info a v dalším článku si zasoutěžíte a rozebereme si Mixturam podrobněji. No a za tři měsíce si dáme opáčko, bo vám povím, co na ten mix říkám já. Páč Tomáš mi nabídl balení na test, z čehož mám obrovskou radost a tímto moc děkuju :).


Co mě upoutalo nejvíc? Tak mimo možnost namixovat si vlastní vitamíny a doplňky (budu jim souhrnně řikat vitamíny, je to kratší), což se v případě dražších vitamínů vyplatí, tak to byl hlavně design webu a celkově skvěle uchopený marketing. Pořád mám v krvi profesionální deformaci (i když weby už dělám minimálně) a když vlezu někomu na web, hned mě bouchne do očí spousta věcí, co mi tam vadí či mě napadá, co bych udělala jinak. Tady mě udeřila ta originalita a ta radost, co z toho čiší. Ty vtípky, vymakaný design a odpověď na snad každou otázku. Už to zajímavé uchopení voleb a (provedený) plán poslat vitamínky na virózu panu prezidentovi (dorazily :D), je skvělý marketingový tah, který pobaví (pokud teda nevolíte Zemanovce :D).


Než si dáme ten rozhovor, tak ještě zmíním to hlavní, pokud jste náhodou nezahlédli ani jeden článek :). Na webovkách Mixturam si můžete namíchat vlastní dávku vitamínů dle libosti, ovšem ta libost je omezená :D. Respektive mixturamří algoritmus vám ohlídá, abyste nenakombinovali vitamíny, co si protiřečí (i takové jsou) anebo jich nenarvali do lahvičky moc, že by pak ztratily smysl. Směsku si pojmenujete (já byla tuze originální, že :D) a po pár dnech máte krabičku doma. Bezpečnost i celou cestu, kterou vitamíny musí projít, si ještě probereme. A teď už ten slíbený rozhovor.

To je Tomáš :).
Jako bývalý webmaster/webdesigner stále trpím nemocí z povolání a každé stránky posuzuju jinak než běžný uživatel internetu. Ty vaÅ¡e mě hodně zaujaly. Jsou zajímavé, s přehrÅ¡lí informací, ale přehledné. Jsou živé, ale přitom nejsou zahlceny flashovými hejblátky (na ty mám vyloženě alergii). Stránky jste si dělali sami nebo jste kontaktovali specializovanou firmu? Kdo stojí za grafickými návrhy webu, logem a obalem lahvičky?
Děkujeme za pochvalu od odborníka. A to ten design stránek jeÅ¡tě zdaleka není u konce, spousta detailů je zatím provizorních, v dohledné době projdou úpravou. Testujeme chování a reakce návÅ¡těvníků. Koncept stránek jsme si navrhli sami, včetně jednotlivých funkčních prvků. Spolu s kolegou Honzou Kolaříkem se weby dlouhodobě zabýváme, takže jsme využili svých zkuÅ¡eností. Finální grafickou podobu pak stránkám dal jeden velmi Å¡ikovný webový designér. Vypiloval tuším i logo, když to původní, ze kterého vycházel, byla naÅ¡e týmová práce. Obal lahvičky a etikety s barevnými čtverečky vymyslel Honza. Chtěli jsme něco hodně osobitého, odliÅ¡ného. Tak se snad povedlo. Obal nám spousta lidí chválí.


Plánujete či přemýšlíte o sezónních či o uživatelských obalech lahvičky, třeba na vánoce? A co vyloženě sezónní obsah? Předpřipravené balíčky na podzim/zimu (imunita) nebo naopak na vánoce (např. pro babičku, pro dědečka)?
O sezónním obalu budeme přemýšlet do budoucna, zatím ho neplánujeme. Sezónní obsah, to už je ale něco jiného. Předpřipravené směsi máme vymyšlené, včetně například balíčku na imunitu, na energii nebo pro konkrétní typy lidí. Aktuálně ladíme procesy a web k tomu, aby se to dalo začít zákazníkům nabízet. Určité zjednodušení výběru by mnoho lidí ocenilo.

Jak jste na nápad přiÅ¡li, kdo za ním vlastně stojí? Å lo o hledání nějakého podnikatelského záměru, který by se uživil a zároveň byl na trhu speciální nebo to byl nápad z čista jasna a rozvinul se do fáze "proč to nezkusit, to by mohlo vyjít"?
Nápad míchat potravinové doplňky jsme měli od začátku. Honza Kolařík, náš skvělý programátor a inovátor (vzhledem k nemoci, která u něj v té době propukla), začal řešit složení stravy a měl problém s běžnými potravinovými doplňky. Na něco byl alergický, někde mu nevyhovovalo složení, někde potřeboval některé látky víc atp. Začal tedy pátrat po řešení na míru. Po konzultaci se známým, farmaceutem, došli k závěru, že žádné vlastně neexistuje. A rázem jsme narazili na díru na trhu. Já jsem zase povahou trochu perfekcionista, nemám rád polovičatá řešení, takže jsem k tomu začal vymýšlet různé detaily, vylepšení a nastřelil strukturu stránek. Pak se přidal kamarád technolog a řekl, že by to takhle vlastně vyrábět šlo. No a po řadě měsíců testování, průzkumů a vývoje nakonec vzniknul Mixturam.

Jak jste sháněli lidi do příběhů na web? Jsou to vaši známí nebo zákazníci? Jak je na tom vaše okolí, jsou nadšení a míchají všichni :)?
Ty příběhy na webu jsou třeba jednou z těch částí stránek, které jsou teď jeÅ¡tě na začátku a budou se dál rozvíjet a vylepÅ¡ovat. Některé jsou o naÅ¡ich známých, už se ale přidávají i zákazníci a ti by měli i dále přibývat. Nakonec to bude hlavně o nich. Chceme tímto prvkem ostatní inspirovat a ukázat, že se zdravím lze něco dělat a že co člověk, to originální zdravotní příběh. Každý se v jejich příbězích může najít.


Koho napadlo dát do míchacího dotazníku maximální věk 120 let a výšku 250 cm? To mě rozesmálo a ukázalo, že jde o další vtipnou originalitu. Je pravda, že pokud hodláte cílit službu do světa, tak v Japonsku či Indii to svou relevanci má :).
Toto konkrétně má na svědomí asi Honza Kolařík. Jsem rád, že sis toho vÅ¡imla. Snažili jsme se web proložit různými vtipnými prvky, aby to nebylo jen o standardním procesu nákupu. Proto máme třeba v patičce odliÅ¡ný disclaimer, který obvykle bývá dost „suchý“. Mixturam chce být něco víc. NaÅ¡e služba je hodně o konkrétních lidech, o jejich pocitech a problémech, o vztahu s nimi. Takže chceme ukázat, že my jsme také konkrétní lidé, neschováváme se jako běžní výrobci vitamínů. A z pohledu expanze do světa toto má určitě i praktický ohled, to máš nepochybně pravdu. I když mám pocit, že váhový limit 150 kg nám někde stačit určitě nebude.

Pokud je člověk zdravý, tak si může v podstatě namíchat z vaší nabídky cokoliv. Pokud bere nějaké standardní léky (např. na alergii či astma), tak by taky neměl být problém, protože vy nenabízíte léky, ale potravinové doplňky. Ale co lidé s vážnějšími nemocemi, jako třeba trombóza (kde se při lécích nesmí např. bylinky a zelený čaj) nebo kvantem léků (známe ty krabičky lékovky našich babiček a dědečků). Měl by se člověk poradit s lékařem nebo jste ochotní (váš pan farmaceut) po mailu při výpisu léků či sdělení diagnózy poradit (samozřejmě s ohledem, že při vážných onemocněních by měl člověk vždy informovat svého lékaře)?
V případě, kdy zákazník užívá léky nebo má nějakou dlouhodobou nebo vážnější chorobu, doporučujeme určitě nejdřív konzultaci s lékařem, než začne směs vitamínů a bylinek užívat. Je to úplně stejné jako s nějakým hotovým přípravkem z lékárny. S některými dotazy je určitě schopen pomoct i náš odborník, takže nám lze napsat email a poradíme.


Zaujaly mě možnosti vybírat jak s ohledem na zdravotní potíže (zaměřeno "negativně"), tak podle surovin (kde jsou naopak položky pozitivnější). Můžu si vybrat vitamíny na chřipku, syndrom vyhoření, vrásky či vypadávání vlasů anebo na detox, imunitu, vitalitu, vlasy, kůži, ad. Popravdě bych si nejraději namíchala do tobolky skoro vÅ¡echno :D. Vy jste ale, a to ze zřejmých důvodů, nastavili limit na počet ingrediencí na Å¡est.
Nabídnout lidem jak pozitivní, tak negativní pohled na výběr surovin do směsi souvisí s optimalizací nákupních rozhodování. Podle dat zatím vede ten negativní. Lidé větÅ¡inou hledají řeÅ¡ení na svůj problém, jen málokdo řeší prevenci. Počet látek na Å¡est (v určitých kombinacích je to i méně) jsme omezili především z toho důvodu, aby jednotlivých látek bylo v kapsli větší množství. Pokud by si jich člověk namíchal třeba 15, už by mohly některé svým menším podílem vzhledem k efektivní denní doporučené dávce pozbývat na účinku.

Jak moc složité bylo získat vÅ¡echna ta povolení a oprávnění od přísluÅ¡ných úřadů. Jednalo se vám lépe a rychleji s těmi českými nebo s americkou FDA? Předpokládám, že řešíte (nebo o nich uvažujete) přísluÅ¡ná povolení i v dalších zemích, např. v Asii. Jak se vypořádáváte s byrokracií tam? Jsou vyžadována nějaká opravdu speciální potvrzení?
Byly to pro nás měsíce práce. Vyžadovalo to především velmi časově náročnou přípravu a zjiÅ¡Å¥ování vÅ¡ech nutných legislativních i formálních detailů, abychom na vÅ¡e byli připraveni. Pak bylo velmi náročné připravit a schválit provoz, výrobu. Jen tak někde vyrábět potravinové doplňky nemůžeme. Samotné řeÅ¡ení povolení s úřady pak již Å¡lo víceméně dle standardních postupů, bylo to hlavně časově náročné. FDA bylo rychlejší. S byrokracií se vypořádáváme trpělivostí a dobrou připraveností podkladů. Ale věřím, že nás jeÅ¡tě kupa zajímavých požadavků ze stran úřadů čeká, hlavně ve světě. Ne vÅ¡echno máme už za sebou. 


Potravinových doplňků a vitamínů je na trhu nepřeberné množství. Přiznávám, že taky sem tam něco zobu, hlavně už provařenou echinaceu, ale láká mě třeba chlorella a ječmen. Ty jsou teď na trhu hitem a ne neoprávněně. Ingredience jako guarana, česnek či psyllium zná snad každý. Ale třeba kola semínko, chondroitin žraločí nebo acaí berry už moc ne. Jak jste vybírali ingredience a dočkáme se časem ještě nějakých dalších?
Ano, nových ingrediencí se dočkáte určitě, budeme nabídku měnit průběžně podle požadavků trhu. Teď aktuálně jsme zavedli tři nové a velmi známé suroviny – ostropestřec, rakytník a Å¾enÅ¡en. Brzo bude v nabídce také vitamín B5, Palmeto, konopný protein, spirulina, hráškový protein a protein z hnědé rýže. Pracujeme také na třech snad jeÅ¡tě více známých a oblíbených látkách – na hlívě, brusinkách a gingko bilobě. 

Co se týče dodání, tak i přes povinnost hlásit každou objednávku (časem se asi někdo strefí do stejných ingrediencí či objedná opakovaně to samé) na ministerstvo, dodáváte namíchaný balíček celkem rychle, do 5 dnů od objednání a to i na Slovensko. Už máte blokovanou doménu .com, kdy hodláte spustit anglickou verzi a dodávání do světa (USA, EU, ad.)?
Anglická verze stránek by měla být spuštěna velice brzo, usilovně na ní pracujeme. Bude to pro nás velmi zásadní krok kupředu. Jinak do světa už zájemcům posíláme balíčky i teď. Nedávno jsme posílali do Ruska a na Island, časté je Slovensko a začíná také USA. Ten čas dodání balíčku v ČR se hodně liší na základě toho, jaký typ doručení si zákazníci volí. Standardně garantujeme dodávku do 10 dnů od objednání. Rádi pak zákazníky mile překvapíme, když je to rychleji. A to se většinou povede. Ale stává se také, že někdy balíček dorazí později, třeba kvůli zdržení ve výrobě nebo čekání na dodávku surovin. Tady bych chtěl všechny poprosit o shovívavost. Přece jenom nejsme eshop, který přeprodává hotové výrobky ze skladu. Všechno vyrábíme čerstvě až poté, co si zákazník směs objedná.

Vyhráli jste Nápad roku 2013 v anketě veřejnosti, čteme o vás na různých webech a reklamy už pěkně fičí. Povedlo se vám to rozjet ve velkém a díky expanzi do zahraničí to jeÅ¡tě bude sílit. Co rozhovory pro televize, časopisy, stíháš to vůbec :D? A co reklamy v televizi, chystáte (televizi zas tak často nezapínám, tož mi možná už unikla).
Určitě to bude sílit, stále je co vylepÅ¡ovat. Zatím jeÅ¡tě schůzky stíhám :-). Možná se to takhle z venku nezdá, ale stále jsme ve fázi, kdy věci měníme, učíme se a testujeme, co nám v marketingu funguje. To nás baví velice. Reklamy v televizi ale zatím neplánujeme. Aby to mělo smysl, je potřeba několik milionů, možná spíš desítek milionů. Raději ty peníze nyní využijeme smysluplněji.  


Mixturam považuji za hodně dobrý nápad a to nejenom pro Å¡irokou veřejnost. Hodně se dá cílit na firmy, které poskytují svým zaměstnancům vitamíny, zvlášť v tomhle sychravém období. Já mám tenhle benefit hodně ráda a už se těším na své každoroční vitamíny. Cílíte i na firmy a hodláte oslovovat jen velké korporace nebo i menší firmy?
Díky za pochvalu, určitě nemáme v hledáčku jen Å¡irokou veřejnost. Firmy nás samy oslovují, aktivní v obchodě jsme také my. Velké korporace by určitě byly zajímavé, každopádně je tady i spousta středních a malých firem, které chtějí pořídit svým lidem něco na zdraví, za odměnu, něco originálního. Zkoušíme tedy vÅ¡echny typy firem. Můžeme u nich s naÅ¡im výrobkem docela bodovat – třeba podzimní směsí na imunitu, něčím na energii, směsí proti stresu atp. Na každou krabičku můžeme natisknout originální název třeba se jménem zaměstnance, přidat průvodní dopis s oslovením a osobním poděkováním firmy. Firmám, které chytře uvažují a investují do zdraví svých zaměstnanců se to určitě vyplatí. A to nejen z pohledu vděčnosti těch lidí za dárek, ale i z uÅ¡etřených peněz třeba za nepromaroděný čas.

Samozřejmě, že člověk by se měl stravovat a pohybovat, aby vitamíny nepotřeboval, ale prostě všechny z pestré stravy získat nelze. Stejně tak by člověk měl mít i dobrý spánkový režim, jinak vám nepomůže ani Bolek Tobolek (ten mě rozesmál :D).
Ano, určitě, ani naÅ¡e vitamíny a bylinky nezmůžou vÅ¡echno, ani Bolek Tobolek. Říkám to vÅ¡ude a vždy, základem je, aby se člověk o sebe vhodně staral, dodržoval životosprávu, pravidelně se hýbal a jedl zdravě. Ale přesně jak říkáš, některé užitečné věci do těla ani pestrou stravou nedostaneÅ¡, nebo bys toho musela sníst mnoho, aby to pokrylo třeba akutní nedostatek. A Å¡patnou životosprávu jen vhodným jídlem také člověk nevybalancuje. Někomu některé látky v přirozené formě zase nemusí chutnat, viz česnek, mořské řasy nebo látky na klouby obsažené v chrupavkách či tučných jídlech. Ale ve formě pilulky, jejíž obsah neokusí, jen spolknou, to může být snadno akceptovatelné. No a neposledně, velkým faktorem je lidská pohodlnost. Mít vÅ¡e potřebné pohodlně v malé kapsli, nosit ji s sebou v kabelce, pravidelně ji každý den užít, to je pro celou řadu, třeba vytížených a vystresovaných manažerek, velký luxus, kvůli kterého přesně takové služby ocení.


Mixturam se hodí třeba pro studenty, workoholiky, sportovce, ale i maminky a prostě vÅ¡echny, mrkněte se sami. Mně osobně (s ohledem na čtenáře) zajímají doplňky na vlasy, nehty a pokožku. Opravdu na to vitamíny zabírají? Vždy jsem četla, že člověku pomohly vitamíny maximálně buď na vlasy nebo na nehty nebo na pleÅ¥. Ale hromadně opravdu ne. Tož jakou bys doporučil kombinaci na krásu a třeba tam přihodil i něco na vrásky :DDD?
Dobrá otázka, díky za ni. Takže elixír na krásu by to chtělo, ano? Nejradši bych tě odkázal na odpověď v té předešlé otázce, protože to má hodně co do činění se životosprávou. Když už ale člověk nějakým způsobem vyvede tělo z rovnováhy nebo tělo strádá přirozeně tím, že určité látky třeba moc rychle spotřebovává nebo si jich nedokáže tolik získat či vyrobit, pak existuje buď pomalé (přirozené) řešení ve změně životosprávy, nebo to rychlé, akutní, pilulkové, po kterém většina lidí šáhne. Nejde říct, že daná směs vždy zabere na vlasy, nehty i pokožku. Každý člověk je hodně individuální a některou z látek tak může v těle něco jiného blokovat. Přínosný vliv na pleť (i s vráskami) má třeba naše aktuální novinka, ostropestřec. Podporuje čistící funkci jater, což se pak dále projevuje i na pokožce. Z těch dalších obvyklých látek pak třeba kolagen, beta karoten a lecitin. A určitě bych do „koktejlu“ na krásu radil přidat ještě něco na detoxikaci, např. chlorellu.

Já když si přečtu všechny ty zdravotní potíže, tak hypochondr ve mně - chřipka, nachlazení (už se zas děsím toho podzimu a zimy), poruchy paměti (ano, s panem Alzheimerm si tykám, i když jsem taková wikina s googlem dohromady), stres, únava a syndrom vyhoření (s tím už si taky tykám, vracíme se k sobě vždy po nějaké době, prostě bez sebe nemůžeme být), vrásky (jo, hlavně pod očima, už mi neni dvacet), nehty (ty jsem neměla OK nikdy, ale teď je prostě držím nakrátko a jde to, zvlášť pískáče a tmavé laky tak vypadají hezky) a mohla bych pokračovat - by nejradši naházel do tobolky všechno. Ale nejvíce mě asi zaujalo: lněné semínko, aktivovaný ječmen, acaí berry, extrakt ze zeleného čaje, chlorella, kola semínko či inositol. Ale zase, mohla bych tu vyjmenovat všechno :D. Namíchání vlastní směsi mi trvalo pěkně dlouho, bo je na výběr tolik možností! Prozradíš, jakou směs sis namíchal ty, Tomáši :)?
To je zajímavý postřeh. Říkáš, že čím více látek v nabídce máme, tím hůř se vybírá, jo? Je potřeba k tomu přistupovat s mírou a zjistit si o těch látkách víc. Některé mohou mít podobné účinky, takže doporučuji si nejdřív stanovit, na co by ta směs měla konkrétně být a až pak si začít vybírat jednotlivé látky. Já si teď míchám „lamželezo“ na energii a vitalitu. Kamarádi si ze mě utahují, že jsem hyperaktivní a neúnavný.



Vyčerpávající, co :D? A teď ještě ty nejčastější komentáře, co jsem na netu posbírala. Odpovídá Tomáš, já kurzívuju :D.

1) je to zbytečné, vše najdete ve stravě - to bych neřekla... nebo ano, ale pěkně si připlatíte... a stejně do sebe nemůžete narvat denně (či často všechno potřebné)
Rozhodně to není zbytečné, to by na světě nemohl obrovský trh s potravinovými doplňky existovat. Někomu se může potravinový doplněk zdát zbytečný, když třeba látky jako vitamín C, chlorellu, česnek či třeba lněné semínko do těla dostane přirozenou pestrou stravou. Ano určitě může, ale existuje velké množství látek, které takto jednoduÅ¡e do těla prostě člověk nedostane. Jak si přijdete třeba ke kolagenu, ostropestřci na játra, ženÅ¡enu? V rohlíku ani v tyčinkách Mars nejsou. To je prostě blbost a pro organizmus to jsou velice užitečné látky. Vyvážená pestrá strava je skvělá, určitě, ale kdo ji dodržuje? 5- 10% vÅ¡ech obyvatel? Pak OK, Mixturam pro tuto cílovou skupinu není atraktivní. (jo, s tim souhlasim - Mixturam necílí na vÅ¡echny lidi, to ani nemůže). A co zbytek? My nabízíme pomocnou ruku právě těmto lidem. Potom vyvážená strava nevyřeší vÅ¡e. My chceme pomoct i těm, kdo hledají i jen několik konkrétních věcí, které jim ve stravě chybí. Zadruhé, vyvážená pestrá strava tak, aby obsahovala vÅ¡e, co tak člověk potřebuje bude hodně drahá (souhlas, zvlášť když chcete jíst třeba bio produkty, ne každý má možnost si pěstovat doma (pokud vůbec něco) vÅ¡echno). Kdo má na to si každý den kupovat třeba lososa (denně bych ho brala :D) kvůli skvělému obsahu aminokyselin? Či nějaké exotické ovoce kvůli imunitě? A jíst to kvůli efektivnímu množství látek každý den? Zatřetí, když někdo chce detoxikovat organizmus, potřebuje na to třeba mořské řasy. A někdo mořské řasy nesnáší. NeřeÅ¡itelný problém v podobě běžné stravy. NaÅ¡těstí jsou tabletky, které nesmrdí a jsou pohodlné, hned po ruce, v kabelce nebo na stole a člověk to má rychle za sebou a jeÅ¡tě si místo smradlavých řas může na večeři dát třeba čínu. A takových příkladů můžu uvést jeÅ¡tě desítky. A to např. vůbec jeÅ¡tě neřeším to množství látky, které člověk konzumací potraviny (ve srovnání třeba s koncentrovaným extraktem v naÅ¡em případě) získá. Je to prostě blbost. Dá se o tom uvažovat možná v případě klasických vitamínů (A, B, C, D atd.), které jsou součástí různých potravin a ovoce, ale ne konkrétních specifických látek a bylinek, které z velké části nabízíme my.

2) když jíte zdravě a žijete zdravě, tak proč? - tady vás chápu, ale kolik takových lidí je? pro lidi, kteří vitamíny rádi a kupují jich hodně, se to vyplatí; pokud máte v pořádku imunitu, metabolismus a jste na pestré stravě, tak já vás přece nenutím :)
Částečně jsem odpověděl před chvílí. I zdravým jídlem prostě nezískáte vÅ¡e potřebné. Pak je tady jeÅ¡tě jedna důležitá věc, o které se dnes jeÅ¡tě moc nemluví, a sice, že v současných potravinách už těch zdravých potřebných látek moc nezbývá. Takže ohánět s argumentem, že vÅ¡e potřebné je v potravinách, už dnes tak docela neplatí. Možná to Å¡lo za dob naÅ¡ich prababiček a babiček, ale kdo si to dovolí tvrdit i dnes se vÅ¡emi těmi aférami s nekvalitními zmetky dováženými sem ze zahraničí? Krásně toto vÅ¡e popisuje např. toto interview v pořadu Jaroslava DuÅ¡ka. Zdravý životní styl určitě taky pomůže, ale opět – kolik lidí tu žije zdravě? Zvlášť ve velkých městech, kde je dnes velká část populace? Lidé jsou čím dál víc pod stresem z práce, vysedávají tam dlouhodobě i 10 hodin denně, pak hodně nezdravě a narychlo jedí rychlé obědy (touché :D) a kupují masově nekvalitní potraviny. Stále míň a míň se hýbou. OK, ti kdo ne, tak budiž, doplňky stravy nepotřebují. Ale opět, kolik to je procent z celku? A za další, lidé, kteří hodně sportují, své tělo zase ničí/opotřebovávají ho z jiné strany. Pak se jim látky na klouby určitě hodí a jen konzumací želatinových medvídků (já je teda nejim, mě přijdou prostě divní, ale kolegové a kamarádi pořád říkají, že musí, bo jsou na klouby :D) nebo uzeného kolene v hospodě, látky pro chrupavky do těla nedostanou. Nebo by si je museli dávat dost často :-). To se zase s principem zdravé vyvážené stravy vylučuje.

3) je to blbost na tahání peněz - nikdo vás přece nenutí to kupovat :)
Ano, to určitě nenutíme. Volba je na každém zvlášť. Blbost to je možná pro někoho, kdo to nepotřebuje. Ale to si myslím není téměř nikdo uvědomělý a starající se o své zdraví. Máme v nabídce desítky různých látek. Když je pro někoho třeba zbytečné brát si věci na imunitu (i když o tom dost pochybuju), protože se hodně otužuje a jí každý den česnek, budiž. Ale proč třeba neužívat, např. ten už zmíněný ostropestřec, který pročiÅ¡Å¥uje játra a má velký vliv na celkové fungování těla, na dlouhověkost, stárnutí kůže? Tělem díky němu koluje méně jedů, protože je dobře fungující játra prostě zlikvidují. Aby např. toto člověk nepotřeboval a byla to v jeho očích tedy stále blbost, tak toto říct už vyžaduje trochu odvahy a ten smysl už to pro chytrého člověka ztrácí :-).

4) je to drahé - 790 Kč je na tři měsíce, což je 263 Kč na měsíc. To kolikrát za ty vitamíny dá člověk mnohem víc. Zvlášť když si vezmete třeba ten ječmen nebo další speciality.
100 tobolek stojí 790 Kč, je to dávka na 3 měsíce. Měsíčně vyjde Mixturam na cca 260 Kč. Předně si myslím, že v situaci, kdy člověk měsíčně běžně projí nebo v hospodě propije stovky až tisíce korun za nekvalitní jídla a alkohol, které jeho zdraví nepomáhají, spíše naopak, tak je částka 260 Kč investovaná měsíčně pravidelně do zdraví naprosto v pořádku. Spíš je v porovnání s tím zbytkem hodně malá. Å koda, že si to lidé z tohoto pohledu vůbec neuvědomují. Naopak, často nás srovnávají s lacinými, větÅ¡inou v Číně masově vyráběnými vitamíny, občas i pochybné kvality. My jim ale dáváme na míru jejich individuálním potřebám vždy čerstvě smíchané suroviny, mnohem větší kvality. VětÅ¡inou i v mnohem větší koncentraci daných látek. Hlídáme také, aby se látkami nepředávkovali. Pak je tady jeÅ¡tě druhý pohled na věc – kombinací potřebných látek do jedné pilulky lidé i dost uÅ¡etří. Pokud si totiž jednotlivé doplňky stravy kupují zvlášť od různých výrobců v lékárnách nebo v supermarketech (jinou možnost ani doposud neměli, než takto kombinovat), tak platí opakovaně (a zbytečně) ziskové marže a financují celý výrobní řetězec každého toho výrobku. Jen např. lékárna si k finální ceně přidává 30 – 50%. Další desítky procent z ceny běžného masového doplňku stravy tvoří výdaje na marketing. Platí tak vÅ¡echny ty otravné reklamy v televizích, sponzoring celebrit, které výrobek propagují, atd. U nás je to mnohem jednodušší. My toto vÅ¡e nepotřebujeme. Raději se zaměřujeme na kvalitu a individuální péči. No a nakonec, lidé jsou zvyklí utrácet za různé doplňky a vitamíny mnohem vyšší částky. Samozřejmě že ne každý, ale je jich opravdu hodně. Těm nabízíme i určitou exkluzivitu a jedinečný individuální přístup, který jinde nenajdou.

5) nebezpečné - a proč jako? jsou to potravinové doplňky, ne léky a kombinace jsou tam ohlídané, stejně jako doporučené denní dávky 
Nabízíme jen bezpečné látky schválené k prodeji ministerstvem zdravotnictví, klasifikované jako potraviny. Jiné prodávat nesmíme. Potravinové doplňky nejsou invazivní chemické léky se spoustou vedlejších účinků. Toto asi na vysvětlenou, jak mohou být naÅ¡e suroviny nebezpečné. Oproti jiným masovým výrobcům, jejichž výrobky si člověk bez jakékoliv dodatečné ochrany koupí v lékárně, hlídáme nevhodné kombinace, a pokud člověk uvede své alergie a jiné zdravotní problémy, tak také toto. Dále hlídáme, aby se zákazník nepředávkoval, pokud bude poctivě dodržovat naÅ¡e doporučení denní množství. Samozřejmě, že pro někoho i potraviny můžou být zdraví Å¡kodlivé. Např. tučné smažené řízky pro lidi s ucpanými cévami, káva s kofeinem pro kardiaka, sladké pro cukrovkáře, mořské řasy pro člověka s problémy se srážlivostí krve. Při volbě jednotlivých surovin do směsi tedy platí stejná obezřetnost jako v případě konzumace těch konkrétních potravin, ze kterých pocházejí. Pokud by určitou směs chtěl používat někdo se specifickými zdravotními problémy, doporučujeme určitě nejdřív konzultovat s námi nebo s lékařem.


6) v tom množství to nebude mít účinek - je tam nastaven ten limit na max 6 vitamínů; v některých případech vám to ale Å¡est kusů nepovolí, právě proto, že by to nemělo účinnost, viz zmíněno výše
Zaprvé, nelze jen tak obecně škatulkovat, že všechno nebo nic funguje či nefunguje. Některé látky je pro dosažení žádaného efektu potřeba jen velmi malé množství, některé naopak třeba 10x více. Do našich kapslí se vejde dost látek pro oba případy. Nejsou to léky, nikdo tedy nesmí čekat změnu k lepšímu druhý den. Při pravidelném dlouhodobém užívání se změna ale projeví, protože rozdíl oproti situaci, kdy člověk neužívá nic a kdy do těla pravidelně každý den přijímá určité množství užitečných látek je neoddiskutovatelný. Dokládá to i řada odborných studií. Zadruhé, každý potřebuje najít svoji individuální míru, takže na každého bude látka působit jinak. Zatřetí, velkou roli hraje i to, co dalšího člověk konzumuje, jaký životní styl má, co dělá. Řada věcí tak klidně může vůči látkám působit kontraproduktivně a snižovat jejich účinek.

7) můžu si to namixovat sám - ano můžete, ale třeba v případě chlorelly, ječmene a podobných dobrot vás to vyjde o dost víc než jinde; vitamín C, hořčík a zinek si samozřejmě můžete koupit sami, pokud je potřebujete... pokud ne, tak si nebudete kupovat nic
Samozřejmě, že si to člověk může doma namixovat sám. Koupí si kvalitní suroviny, ultracitlivé váhy (které měří na setiny miligramu), tobolky, stroj na tobolkování, speciální míchačku, která zařídí homogenní promísení směs (kvůli předávkování). Je to hrozně pohodlné a praktické, taková zařízení má doma přece každý :-). Ale teď vážně, pár takových kutilů nebo fanatiků se určitě najde. Ale pro ně Mixturam není. My lidem usnadňujeme práci, šetříme cenný čas a řešíme veškeré ty bezpečnostní a nepohodlné a složité věci za ně. Druhá věc je cena. Některé látky pochopitelně koupíte ve větším množství levněji, ale co budete doma dělat třeba s pytlem mleté chlorely? Některé látky jsou zase naopak velice drahé (desítky tisíc Kč za kilogram). Než je po těch pár gramech spotřebujete, tak se vám zbytek zkazí. Někdy mi tyto argumenty přijdou dost absurdní. Čokoládová tyčinka má také cenu jednotlivých surovin, ze kterých se skládá, mnohem níž, než je její výsledná cena. Ale v té konečné ceně je obsažena i veškerá práce okolo. Totéž u nás. Nabízíme službu, podobně jako restaurace v případě večeře. Taky si ji můžete uvařit doma. Ale bude vás to stát kupu času, nervů, a neužijete si to. V ceně služby člověk prostě platí také za to, co navíc získá nebo ušetří.

8) od nemoci mě to neochrání - samozřejmě, to neumí nic, ale zas na druhou stranu, můžete některým předejít nebo pak nemoc zvládnete lépe.
Potravinové doplňky nejsou určeny k akutnímu a rychlému léčení nemoci. Na to už je v tu chvíli pozdě. Hrají roli v prevenci, dodávají do těla potřebné látky, které při pravidelném používání pomáhají nemocem a jiným zdravotním komplikacím předcházet. Někomu pomůžou vylepšit imunitu, někomu zbystřit mysl, někomu dodají pravidelně energii, někomu zlepší např. pleť a vlasy, někomu pomůžou při sportu. Ale zázraky na počkání neumí nic.

9) směsi se sice oznamují, ale co s tim ministerstvo udělá? zachytí Å¡patnou kombinaci? - pokud si navolíte nevhodnou nebo protichůdnou kombinaci, speciální algoritmus vás zabrzdí
Výběr jednotlivých látek jsme dlouho připravovali tak, aby se předešlo maximálnímu množství problémů v případě nevhodných kombinaci. Veškeré tyto informace obsahuje náš chytrý algoritmus a dohromady smíchat ty látky nedovolí. Nutno ale říct, že takových je v našich surovinách jen hodně malé minimum (dají se spočítat skoro na prstech jedné ruky). Vyb
          Episode 103: Fog, Snow, and Smell with Chris Markgraf from Froggy's Fog        

Froggy's Fog provides fog, haze, snow, bubbles, and even smells for haunted houses across the country (and probably the world). The company started in the roller skating industry then expanded to haunts, mega-churches, emergency and military personnel trainings, and even airshows. During last year's Midwest Haunters Convention, Creative Director Scott Simmons and Director of Sales and Marketing Katie "Dudders" sat down with Chris Markgraf, one of the founders of Froggy's Fog. 

Froggy's Fog started in a Chris' family owned fun center. One day, Chris turned on their new fog machine and suffered an asthma attack. Chris worked with his father, a biochemist and Adam Pogue, a university student studying business, to develop a fog Chris could comfortably breathe.

Chris, Scott, and Dudders discuss marketing and Seth Godin's book Purple Cow. When Chris and Adam created Froggy's Fog, they instinctively utilized some of the same best practices from Godin's book. 

Chris explains how Leonard Pickel, HauntCon, and fellow friendly haunters introduced his company to the haunt industry. Today, Froggy's Fog operates a full manufacturing plant on 10.5 acres south of Nashville, Tennessee. They service a variety of clients, from nightclubs to the Blue Angels, and safety is always a top priority.  

Froggy's Fog has expanded into the world of smells. While flying on Southwest, Chris read an article about how our sense of smell is the oldest memory our brains can recall. Before we developed our eyesight, we recognize the good and bad around us by smell. In a haunt, a customer may not remember what they saw, but they will remember what they smelled. 

Chris and Scott discuss the importance of being dynamic and creating balance in a haunt. Also, giving customers down time to let their guard down. The podcast concludes with the weirdest smell they've ever had to create and the importance of buying safe fragrances. 

Available on iTunes, Google Play Music, Stitcher, Spreaker, and PlayerFM.

Please subscribe and leave feedback. Thank you for your support!

Like ScareHouse on Facebook.

Follow ScareHouse on Twitter.

Watch ScareHouse on YouTube.


          Graduate Research, Biochemistry - University of Saskatchewan - Canada        
$20,000/year or PhD:. PhD applicants should have (or expect to complete) an MSc degree. A graduate student position is available immediately in the lab of Dr.... $25,000 a year
From University of Saskatchewan - Wed, 05 Jul 2017 23:51:34 GMT - View all Canada jobs
          Eating Paleo        
Hello friends!  I hope you are well!  I'm sorry for the less frequent posts lately.  I am going to the gym after work a few times a week, and a lot of my time lately is also spent preparing food.  As I briefly touched on recently, I have joined CrossFit, and have adopted a paleo diet lifestyle for the past few weeks.  For those who aren't familiar with either of those things, I'll explain them both for you.  This post will deal with paleo.

Eating "paleo" refers to the diet of our Paleolithic ancestors who lived around 2.5 million years ago up until 10,000 years ago, with the development of agriculture.  Their diet would have consisted of only things they could hunt and gather.  The diet is also referred to as the caveman diet, or hunter-gatherer diet.  I would like to think it's not so much a diet as it is a lifestyle.  The paleolithic diet consists mainly of grass-fed pasture raised meats, fish, vegetables, fruit, nuts, and seeds, and excludes grains, legumes, dairy products, salt, refined sugar, and processed oils.

The premise behind this lifestyle involves the fact that modern humans are genetically adapted to the diet of their Paleolithic ancestors and that human genetics have barely changed since the dawn of agriculture, and therefore that an ideal diet for human health and well-being is one that resembles this ancestral diet.  The agricultural revolution lead to a dramatic change in human nutrition.  Cereal grains, legumes, dairy, vegetable oils, salt, alcohol, and refined sugars make up a huge portion of our Standard American Diet (how SAD).  These foods contain harmful substances associated to many "diseases of civilization", such as diabetes, celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases, obesity, hypertension, certain cancers, acne, poly cystic ovarian syndrome, myopia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, etc.

The human body is a fairly complicated machine.  I recently read The Paleo Solution by Robb Wolf, which fully explains the many biochemical processes in our bodies in relation to the food we eat.  I really encourage anyone to read this book - you will understand your body the way you really should.  Our body processes different kinds of foods in different ways.  The fact is, our bodies do not process grains, dairy, and legumes well.  We weren't built to process them.

Grains contain a protein that does us no good: gluten.  Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, oats, and barley.  I found an article by Rudy Silva (the "Natural Remedies that Work" guy), called Grains That Cause Illness, and I'm just going to quote this:
"As gluten moves into the intestine, it is digested and broken down into small protein molecules - peptides (which consist of 2-3 amino acids bound together) and free amino acids. Amino acids are the basic building blocks the make up protein. Once digestion is complete, peptides and free amino acids easily move into the intestinal wall cell structure and then into your blood stream. This is what happens in a healthy person.

Over many years of eating gluten, the intestinal cell structure deteriorates. Digested protein no longer passes through the cells walls but passes between cells and into the blood. These holes in the intestinal walls is what is know as "leaky gut syndrome" 

Because of the existence of these tiny holes in the intestinal wall, harmful substances can pass into the blood and settle into your organs and cells causing irritations and damage. Your intestinal wall is no longer a barrier keeping out unwanted substances from your blood and body.

Undigested foods can now enter your body creating food allergies. Toxins from various foods - dyes, preservatives, food additives, artificial flavors - can now enter you blood stream. Pathogens such as bacteria, worms, fungus and viruses can also enter your body and invade your organs. When this happens, you will slowly come down with a variety of symptoms and illnesses that you cannot attribute to anything specific.  Absorption of undigested proteins is a major threat to the health of your organs and to your immune system.

It is estimated that up to 40% of all people have some intestinal damage from eating gluten and are passing undigested proteins into their blood stream.

There are some of you that do not have the enzymes to digest gluten. Those of you have what is called "gluten sensitivity." Those of you that have the enzymes to digest gluten are not as prone to celiac disease and have less damage to your intestinal wall."
Lectin is a protein found in grains and legumes, dairy, and plants in the nightshade family.  Lectins are problematic because they are sticky molecules that can bind to the linings of human tissue, especially intestinal cells.   In so doing, they disable cells in the GI tract, keeping them from repairing and rebuilding. Therefore, lectins can contribute to eroding your intestinal barrier (leaky gut).

Because the lectins also circulate throughout the bloodstream they can bind to any tissue in the body ­— thyroid, pancreas, collagen in joints, etc. This binding can disrupt the function of that tissue and cause white blood cells to attack the lectin-bound tissue, destroying it. This is an autoimmune response.  The lectins in wheat for example, are specifically known to be involved in rheumatoid arthritis.

The behind the scenes of eating carbohydrates and sugars is quite interesting.  I will include information directly from here, as I think Jason Seib tells the story really well.
"Be forewarned, I’m going to get a little scientific, but I promise I will do my best to make it all make sense in the end.
Today I’m going to attempt to help you understand the basic biochemistry involved in fat storage and loss.  I said attempt because I am a geek and this stuff gets pretty geeky, and I said basic because nearly everything I type from here forward will be a huge oversimplification of the amazing biochemical symphony taking place in these processes.
Let’s pretend you have not heard of Everyday Paleo yet.  You are still “doing” diets instead of eating like a human.  Your head is still full of myth and fable grounded in anything but actual science.  Your typical day might have looked like this:
Oatmeal for breakfast.
Fat Free/Sugar Free Coffee-like Substance at your mid morning slump.
Subway sandwich for lunch because you want to be like Jared.
Bagel, granola, or other such processed carbs (or maybe another sugar-laden caffeinated beverage) to fight the afternoon slump.
Pasta or rice at dinner.
Something crunchy or sweet between 8 and 10 pm.
Carbohydrate is converted to glucose (blood sugar), so each one of these meals causes a nice bolus of glucose to enter your blood stream very quickly.  Your body closely regulates glucose to keep it within a safe range – not too high and not too low.  After you consume easily digestible carbohydrates like the ones on your daily menu above, your pancreas must secrete insulin to mitigate the resulting elevated glucose.  Insulin’s job is primarily to feed the glucose in your blood stream to hungry cells and then send the leftovers to the liver to be turned into triglycerides for storage in your fat cells.  Are you still with me?  Take a deep breath.  Maybe do a few squats.  Okay, let’s keep moving.  We need to dig deeper.
The story so far:  carbs are eaten and broken down to glucose, insulin sends glucose to your cells to be used as energy or to the liver for a quick composition change so it can be stored as fat.
Moving on.  Since your Standard American Diet (SAD) is nowhere near natural because of all those processed carbs, glucose and insulin remain high throughout your day.  This can eventually lead to insulin resistance in those cells that use glucose as energy.  Insulin resistance is when insulin is ever present and its “I come bearing food” signal to the cells is reduced to a whisper and then finally ignored.  This means your pancreas must produce more insulin to get the same job done, and this in turn means that insulin is ever present in greater quantities.  If you have managed to make sense of all this so far, you can see that you are amassing more and more insulin in your blood stream.  I’m about to explain why this is a problem, but you might want to do a few more squats first.
Hyperinsulinemia, this state of elevated insulin you have created by this point, is bad.  Very bad.  Robb Wolf once suggested that you can Google hyperinsulinemia and any noninfectious disease that comes to mind and you will at least find strong correlations in more links than you would ever take the time to read.  When insulin hangs around too often, it also means you store a lot of fat and have trouble using fat as energy.  This is because insulin is your body’s primary storage hormone.  Here’s how it works (take another deep breath):
High levels of glucose in the blood stream are toxic, just ask a type 1 diabetic.  As I said above, your body devotes a lot of energy to keeping glucose within a fairly tight range.  This means glucose is used for energy before fatty acids because it can’t be allowed to hang out and cause problems.  You can only store a small amount of glucose (as glycogen), but a nearly unlimited amount of fat can be stored, much to the dismay of your buns and thighs.  This is why the liver converts the extra glucose to triglycerides and ships it off to be stored in the fat cells.
Okay, we have finally come to the point of this whole sermon.  At the fat cell, an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase (LPL) acts as the doorman, ushering fatty acids into the fat cells.  Inside the fat cell, another enzyme, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), has the job of cleaving the first sulfide bond on the triglycerides and releasing fatty acids to be used as energy.  So LPL is working when you are storing fat and HSL is working when you are “burning” fat.  Here’s the rub – both of these enzymes are sensitive to the presence of insulin.  When insulin  is present, LPL is on duty and you are storing fat.  When insulin is gone, HSL is on duty and you are using your stored fat as energy.  If you understand the story so far, this process makes perfect sense.  Since we know that glucose can’t be allowed to hang out and it must be used first, we also know that there is no reason to access stored fat in the presence of glucose and, therefore, insulin.  When insulin is in the blood stream, the message is clear – you have glucose to take care of before you use your stored fat.  Now it’s easy to see why hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are a problem.  They keep you in fat storage mode, without the ability to access your stored fat for energy, for plenty of time to make you plump and squishy.
Please don’t misunderstand, I am not trying to paint carbohydrates and insulin as villains.  They are a normal and natural part of human nutrition and biochemistry.  What is not normal is our mass consumption of processed carbohydrates, both in unnatural forms and in never ending supply regardless of season.  A solid paleo diet, along with proper exercise, will make you healthier and leaner by giving you back insulin sensitivity and helping you re-adapt to using your stored fat as energy so your fat cells can go back to being the batteries they are suppose to be instead of the warehouses they have become."
Soooooo, yeah.  This is why North Americans are so damn fat!  Our diets are laden with processed carbage and sugar galore, causing our bodies to use sugar for energy in an attempt to get rid of it, and store the rest as fat, as opposed to actually using stored fat for energy, which is actually the ideal and best energy source we have.  Humans were designed not to be fat, yet so many are.  They are not eating the optimal way to allow them to burn their fat and stay lean.  After reading the Paleo Solution, where I initially learned about this, there was no way I could keep eating the SAD way.  I decided that paleo was for me, and so I just started eating that way.  It's been 3 weeks now, and I feel really great.  It has enhanced my working out and allowed me to lose body fat, replacing it with lean muscle.  I'm on my way to being the fittest I've ever been.

I have always been on one "diet" after another.  I've even turned to anorexia habits to lose weight in the past.  With paleo, you can actually eat all the food you want, as long as your plate basically looks like this:


 It's actually a very simple way to eat.  My typical day now looks like this:
  • Breakfast: 2 eggs, sauteed rapini and onion - all cooked in coconut oil
  • Snack: fruit or veggies, olives
  • Lunch: 3 pieces turkey deli meat, a pile of greens (arugula, spinach), 1/2 avocado, a whole tomato cut up
  • Snack: hard boiled egg, veggies, olives
  • Dinner: meat, veggies

I'm still working my way into this -- and I'm actually not getting quite enough protein.  For the type of exercise I'm doing at CrossFit, I should be aiming for 1g of protein per pound of body weight.  I have to learn some tricks, like cooking up a whole bunch of meat on Sunday, to have as snacks during the week.

There is also the issue of fat.  North Americans with a SAD lifestyle have been told for decades to eat a low fat diet.  Fat is the bogey man, don't eat it.  You'll get fat.  Your arteries will get clogged.  And you'll die.  This simply isn't true.  There are good fats, and bad fats, and our bodies actually NEED fat to thrive.  I will do a post on fat soon, as it's a whole subject unto itself.  For now, just hear this: Fat does not make you fat.

I will be doing a paleo challenge starting on Thursday, through my gym.  This is going to be a very strict 30-day period which will hopefully put my body in ketosis, a state where the body uses nothing but stored fat for energy.  During this 30 days, I expect that I'll be able to drop a lot of fat and lean up.  I've been pretty good with my paleo lifestyle for the past few weeks, but I've still been eating fruit, and the occasional 90% dark chocolate as a treat.  I've also had a "cheat day" here and there.  There will be no more of that :\  Through the gym, there will be restaurant nights, where the participants will go out for paleo dinners, there will be seminars, and there will be a contest with great prizes!  Jeremy has just told me that he will be doing the challenge with me!  That should make things much easier.

Well, I hope you've learned a lot about this paleo stuff.  I know it's kind of complicated and sciency, but if you have any questions, please ask and I'll do my best to answer them, or refer you to good source.

I'm sitting here finishing up my post while Jeremy cooks me a paleo breakfast.  Then we're off to Kensington Market for some Halloween costume shopping.  I'll do my best to get another post up soon!

Have a great day!

~C.



          å®‰å®šåŒä½ä½“標識化合物の世界市場予測(~2022年)        

“The stable isotope-labeled compounds market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 2.94%.”The global stable isotope-labeled compounds market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 2.94% from 2017 to 2022, to reach USD 294.2 million by 2022. Increase in research activities in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector, growing proteomics research, and rising prevalence of cancer are the major factors driving the growth of this market. However, the high cost of stable isotope-labeled compounds is expected to hinder the growth of the market to a certain extent during the forecast period.

“The Deuterium (H-2) segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.”
On the basis of type, the stable isotope-labeled compounds market is segmented into Carbon-13, Deuterium (H-2), Oxygen-18, Nitrogen-15, and others (noble gases and metals). In 2017, the H-2 segment is expected to account for the largest share of the market and is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. Increasing use of H-2 in several research and industrial applications is expected to drive the growth of this market segment.

“The pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies segment is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.”
Based on end user, the stable isotope-labeled compounds market is segmented into pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, hospitals and diagnostic centers, academic & research institutes, and other end users (contract research organizations, food & beverage companies, and forensic laboratories). During the forecast period, the pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR. This growth is mainly due to the increased use of stable isotope-labeled compounds in R&D in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector.

“North America to witness the highest growth during the forecast period.”
In 2017, North America is projected to account for the largest share of the global stable isotope-labeled compounds market. Growth of the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industry, support for this sector from the Isotope Production and Distribution Program Fund, the presence of a large nuclear industry in the U.S, growth of the Canadian pharmaceutical industry, and the rising adoption of PET imaging in Canada are the key factors responsible for the growth of this market in the North America region.

Break of primary participants was as mentioned below:
• By Company Type – Tier 1–85%, Tier 2–9% and Tier 3–6%
• By Designation – C-level–81%, Director Level–10%, Others–9%
• By Region – North America–40%, Europe–20%, Asia-Pacific–29%, RoW–11%

Some of the major players in the stable isotope-labeled compounds market include Cambridge Isotopes Laboratories, Inc. (U.S.), Merck KGaA (Germany), URENCO (U.K.), Omicron Biochemicals, Inc. (U.S.), JSC Isotope (Russia), Trace Science International (U.S.), IsoSciences (U.S.), Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation (Japan), Nordion Inc. (Canada), and Medical Isotopes, Inc. (U.S.).

Research Coverage:
The report analyzes the stable isotope-labeled compounds market and aims at estimating the market size and future growth potential based on various segments such as type, application, end user, and region. The report also includes an in-depth regulatory analysis for various regions across the globe and competitive analysis of the key players in this market along with their company profiles, product and service offerings, recent developments, and key market strategies.

Reasons to Buy the Report
The report will enrich established firms as well as new entrants/smaller firms to gauge the pulse of the market, which in turn would help them, garner a greater share. Firms purchasing the report could use one or any combination of the below-mentioned five strategies.

This report provides insights on the following pointers:
• Market Penetration: Comprehensive information on product and service portfolios offered by the top players in the global stable isotope-labeled compounds market. The report analyzes the global market by type, application, end user, and region
• Service Enhancement/Innovation: Detailed insights on upcoming trends and new service launches in the global stable isotope-labeled compounds market
• Market Development: Comprehensive information on the lucrative emerging markets by type of stable isotope-labeled compounds, application, end user, and region
• Market Diversification: Exhaustive information about new services or service enhancements, growing geographies, recent developments, and investments in the global stable isotope-labeled compounds market
• Competitive Assessment: In-depth assessment of market shares, growth strategies, products, services, and capabilities of reprocessing of stable isotope-labeled compounds of leading players in the global market

The post 安定同位体標識化合物の世界市場予測(~2022年) appeared first on 世界の市場調査資料.


          Histamine Article        

  Are you or a loved one still struggling with alcoholism or an addiction, even after turning to professionals for for treatment. This article was written for you. It reveals just one of the many biochemical imbalances that can be corrected naturally (without drugs) to help alleviate addictive cravings and reduce mental health issues that […]

The post Histamine Article appeared first on Health Recovery Center.


          Civil Geeks: Virtues of Venomous Creatures        
I got to interview one of my favorite scientists for my latest “Civil Geeks” column. Christie Wilcox is a beloved and respective science blogger and communicator who recently published her first book. “Venomous: How Earth’s Deadliest Creatures Mastered Biochemistry“: “The book gave me the chance to share the awesomeness of...
          Comment on What You Need To Know About Teaching In Australia by Karen        
Hi Tracey! Very clear information, thanks a lot! I'm applying for a skilled visa as a secondary school teacher (the occupation is still on the list), I'm a chemistry teacher (actually biochemist + teacher) and I've been teaching in my country for over 12 years, I have great references. My concern is that I come from a Spanish speaking country and I don't know how will that affect my chances of working in education in Australia. I have a very good level of English, still, I'm afraid this might be a disadvantage when competing for a position with native English speakers. Do you think I have a chance? I mean, science teachers are always on demand, but is there a chance they would consider to hire me? Have you heard of cases like mine? Thanks for your time
          UT Austin launches Stampede2, the fastest U.S. university supercomputer        

Stampede2, a $30 million number-crunching machine, is now up and running at the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at the University of Texas at Austin. A university announcement said that when Stampede2 is fully completed this summer, it will be able to perform 18 quadrillion mathematical operations per second, making it one of the most powerful supercomputers in the world. The supercomputer was built with funding from the National Science Foundation and will serve as a resource for researchers across the country.

Phase one of the supercomputer, which is now complete, has already been ranked as the 12th most powerful supercomputer worldwide, according to the latest Top 500 list, which ranks computers by their ability to solve linear equations. Though impressive, Stampede2’s computing power still lags some way behind the fastest supercomputer in the world -- China’s Sunway TaihuLight, which can perform 93 quadrillion calculations per second.

Stampede2’s processing power, expected to be roughly equivalent to 100,000 desktop computers when complete, will be shared by thousands of researchers. Applications can be made through the NSF’s XSEDE program, and time will be allotted through a competitive peer-review process.

Since April, researchers have been using Stampede2 to conduct large-scale studies of gravitational waves, earthquakes, cancer proteins and nanoparticles. UT Austin said that neither the university nor its partner institutions in managing the supercomputer -- Clemson, Cornell, Indiana and Ohio State Universities and the University of Colorado -- had preferential access to Stampede2.

Dan Stanzione, TACC’s executive director, said that Stampede2 represents a “new horizon” for academic researchers, and will serve as “a workhorse for our nation’s scientists and engineers.” The supercomputer will support innovation in almost every area of research and development, the university said, from providing insights to fundamental theory to applied work with near-term impact on society.

Stampede2 replaces Stampede1, which began operations at UT Austin in 2013 and will be fully decommissioned by this fall. Stampede2 is said to occupy half the physical space and consume half the power of its predecessor, but it has double the memory, storage capacity, bandwidth and peak performance.

A spokeswoman for TACC said that a key difference between Stampede1 and Stampede2 is that the new supercomputer will use Intel’s latest Xeon Phi accelerator as its main processor -- giving greater power and cost efficiency when running multiple calculations simultaneously. “Most codes are going to run better on the next generation of Xeon Phi as the main processor,” said the spokeswoman. “Given the diversity of science that we need to support, we need a diversity of architectures to go with that.”

David Schnyer, a professor of cognitive neuroscience at UT, used Stampede1 last year to run machine-learning algorithms that may one day be able to spot early indications of mental illness in brain scans. He said that although the original Stampede supercomputer had impressive capability, access wasn’t always prompt due to high demand.

“There were bottlenecks,” said Schnyer. “A lot of times we’d be expecting things to be by done by Monday, and we’d come in Monday morning to find they hadn’t run yet.” With Stampede2, Schnyer says, researchers have been told these delays will be alleviated -- helping researchers stick to their schedules and work more efficiently.

Rommie Amaro, a professor of biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego, was granted early access to Stampede2. She described it as a “tremendous machine” and agreed with Schnyer that its increased processing power should mean that “lines should turn over faster” than they did for Stampede1.

However, speed isn’t the most important difference between the two machines, said Amaro. “More than speed, it’s the scope of calculations we can now run,” she said. Amaro’s research involves building model biological systems to study what happens to targets such as the tumor-suppressor protein p53, under different conditions. “With Stampede2 we can create many different versions of the model and explore what happens. In the past, we were much more limited.”

Technology
Is this diversity newsletter?: 
Newsletter Order: 
0
Is this Career Advice newsletter?: 

          Macronutrients. Carbohydrates        

Protein, essential fats and micronutrients are primarily used as building materials. Carbohydrate is really only used as fuel. To get lean, we want to burn up our supplies of excess fat, but to get consistently good performance, we need to give our bodies the right kind of fuel at the right time.

During exercise, we use ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which our bodies can get more easily from muscle glycogen and blood glucose than from stored fat. Muscle glycogen comes from blood glucose, which comes from the carbs that we eat.

You want your muscles to have a good supply of glycogen before you start exercising. Glucose in the blood still needs to be processed before it can be used, while glycogen in the muscles is ready to go. No amount of topping up during your ride will work as well as having a full tank to start with.

As soon as you finish one exercise session, you want to start preparing for the next. So, when you finish a ride, you want to rest, rehydrate and refuel. Your muscle glycogen stores replenish most efficiently straight after exercise - the first 4-6 hours is the best, especially the first 2, then it continues at a slower rate for about 24 hours. Straight after your ride, Michael Colgan recommends 225 grams of glucose polymers in liquid form, combined with a little glucose and fructose.

After that, you need to keep your carbohydrate intake steady, to keep your glycogen levels increasing. So it's better to eat your carbs in a series of small meals than in large ones that are widely spaced.

Before your next ride, you need to make sure your levels are topped up. 100-150 grams of an easily digested carbohydrate drink about 3 hours beforehand is the optimum.

You're ready for your ride. The question is : what shall I snack on during my ride? If you're only riding for an hour or so, and you've refuelled sufficiently beforehand, you probably don't need anything extra during. Just make sure you've got plenty of water. But if you're off for a longer session, it can be of benefit to keep the carbs trickling in. Colgan recommends 70-90g of a drink containing 5-10% of a solution that contains glucose polymers or glucose, plus a little fructose. Drink this at a rate of about 1 litre per hour.

Experts differ how much carbohydrate do we need. Training intensity and duration, as well as differences in your biochemical makeup, determine your carbohydrate requirements. The following table taken from "Optimum Sports Nutrition" by Michael Colgan gives a rough guide to the grams of carbohydrate you might need :

Bodyweight

Amount of training (hours per day)

kg

2

3

4

5

6

7

40

200

300

400

500

600

700

50

300

400

500

600

700

800

60

400

500

600

700

800

900

70

500

600

700

800

900

1000

80

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

90

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

100

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

110

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

120

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

This allows for a small amount of overfeeding - if you start putting on weight, reduce this. If you are doing very high intensity exercise, you might need to increase this allowance. Let's look at our 80kg cyclist from the protein page. Riding for 2 hours a day, he'd need approx 600gms of carbs, riding for 4 hours he'd need approx 700gms.

Barry Sears (the Zone) recommends a lower level of carbohydrate. Work out your protein requirement, then add a third on to get your carbohydrate requirement. Our 80kg man cyclist with 20% body fat needed 112gms of protein - his carbo allowance would be about 150gms. Our leaner cyclist who needed 120gms protein, would need 160gms. This is vastly different from Colgan's recommendation for two reasons - the Zone has a higher % of fat intake, and it is reputed to allow you to burn stored fat more efficiently, which reduces your calorific needs.

Peter D'adamo (Eat Right For Your Blood Type) recommends different ratios for each blood type. His rough guidelines are 72% for A, 60% for AB, 56% for B, and 38% for O types. The metabolic diets range from minimal carbs for extreme Hunter-Gatherers to high carb for extreme Agriculturists. Traditional nutritionists and naturopaths tend to favour high carb diets.

You've already decided whose protein advice you're going to take, so stick with that expert and see how it goes. The acid test is how you feel, how well you ride and how lean you get. Give it a bit of time, as your body takes time to adjust to a new routine. If you don't get an improvement in performance, have a rethink.

The best kinds of carbohydrates are those that release sugar into your system at a steady rate. Dr David Jenkins developed the Glycaemic Index to help diabetics control their sugar levels. The GI of a food measures how quickly and how much it increases your blood sugar level. If the level goes up too much or too quickly, you get that "sugar rush" high, but then your body pumps out insulin to balance out the sugar & your energy levels drop again. Proteins and low GI carbs will help keep your blood sugar levels steadily within the right range.

So how do you know what foods are low GI? Here is a table showing a sampling of common foods. This listing uses glucose as the "standard" food with a factor of 100. (On the links page, there is a site will give you a much more comprehensive listing. It uses white bread as a standard, however. To convert the factors to the same scale as the table below, x by 0.7)

Low GI Foods
(below 55)
/td>
Medium GI Foods
(55-70)
High GI Foods
(over 70)
Cereals

All Bran - 30Vita Brits - 61Weet-bix - 75
Porridge - 42Nutrigrain - 66Cornflakes - 77
Sultana Bran - 52Sustain - 68Rice bubbles - 89
Grains/Pastas

Egg fettuccine - 32Basmati rice - 58Brown rice - 76
Bulgur wheat - 48Pizza - 60 (av)Sunbrown quick rice - 80
Buckwheat - 54Taco shells - 68Calrose rice - 83
Breads/Crackers

Mixed grain bread - 45 (av)Pita bread - 57Wholemeal bread - 77
Oat bran bread - 47 (av)Ryvita - 69Rice cakes - 77
Pumpernickel (rye) bread - 50White bread - 70Water crackers - 78
Legumes

Kidney beans - 27 (av)

Lentils - 29 (av)

Chick peas - 33 (av)

Baked beans - 48 (av)

Vegetables

Green peas - 48Sweet corn - 55Pumpkin - 75
Carrots - 49New potato - 62 (av)Baked potato - 85 (av)
Yam - 51Beetroot - 64Parsnip - 97
Sweet potato - 54

Fruit

Cherries - 22Sultanas - 56Fruit leather - 70
Grapefruit - 25Rock melon - 65Watermelon - 72
Peach - 28 (av)Pineapple - 66
Apple or pear - 36 (av)

Grapes - 43

Kiwifruit - 52

Banana - 53 (av) - note that ripe bananas have a much higher GI than starchy ones

You also want carbs that are high in micronutrients. So make sure a high proportion of your carbs come from fruit, vegetables, unrefined grains and legumes. The more vitamins and minerals you get in your food, the less likely you are to need a supplement. If you are committed to health, you might like to try eating only whole foods and no refined carbohydrates.

If you are following a metabolic or blood type diet, consult the detailed lists for the specific carbs that will suit you best.

More: Macronutrients. Protein , Macronutrients. Fat (We Like It, Don't We?)

Carbohydrates
          Health & Safety Legislation        
The Legislation that surrounds Health and Safety in the UK is quite far reaching and complex, this is a list that effects the day to day lives of people in industry, this legislation forms the backbone of the Health & Safety ethos we now work with, not that this list is everything, more of its a good place to start and if we can comply with this lot thne will not be too far away fom creating a reasonable safe working environment.

Legislation List of contents
Section No: Description
1
The Legal background
2
The European influence
3
The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, 1974
4
United Kingdom Regulations
4/1
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
4/2
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (amended 2004)
4/3
The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
4/4
The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
4/5
The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
4/6
The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
4/7
The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998
4/8
The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
4.9
The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
4/10
The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
4/11
The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981
4/12
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations 1995
4/13
The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996
4/14
The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007
4/15
The Work at Height Regulations 2005
4/16
The Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005
4/17
The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
4/18
The Health and Safety Consultation with Employees Regulations 1996
4/19
The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 in England and Wales and The Fire (Scotland) Act 2005
4/20
The Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations  1997 the Amendment Regulations of 1999
4/21
The Dangerous  Substances and Explosive  Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR).
4/22
The Safety Representatives and Safety Committee Regulations 1977
4/23
The Health and Safety Information for Employees Regulations 1989
4/24
The Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992
4/25
The Chemical(Hazard  Information and Packaging or Supply) Regulations 2002
4/26
The Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005
4/27
The Special Waste Amendment (Scotland) Regulations 2004
4/28
The Environmental Protection Act 1990
5
Approved Codes of Practice
6
Guidance Notes
7
The Concept of Self-Regulation
8
Attitude to new Regulations and/or approved Codes of Practice
9
Supervising and Enforcement
9/1
Enforcing body
9/2
Powers of Inspectors
9/3
Enforcement
9/4
Penalties

1 The Legal Background

Cultural influence
Common law concerning health and safety issues is influenced by what is seen to be the currently acceptable standards of care demanded by society, individuals or corporate bodies.
Standards of care
Standard of care in common law are interpreted by courts of law.
Decisions made by higher courts are binding on lower courts. These are called 'precedents'. Lower court decisions are called 'persuasive' in that they assist in reaching decisions.
House of Lords decisions are binding on all decisions made by lower courts. They can only be overridden by:
  • A decision of Parliament
  • An act of Parliament
  • European court decisions

Civil actions for damages
In the event of a civil action, the following questions are asked:
  • Did the defender owe a duty of care to the claimant?
  • Was there a breach of the duty of care?
  • Did the damages being sued for result directly from the breach of duty?
For the case to be won by the claimant, these three questions must be answered in the affirmative.
Statutory law
Statute laws are Acts of Parliament such as The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, together with the Regulations, Rules and Orders made within the scope of the Acts.
Modern Acts of Parliament set out principles or objectives and use specific Regulations or Orders to implement the principles/objectives.
Acts of Parliament are Primary or Principal legislation, whereas Regulations made under the Acts are Secondary delegated legislation. By-laws made by local authorities are another example of delegated legislation. Ministers of the Crown make regulations via powers given to them by a Principal Act. Once introduced, they become statute law like the Acts of Parliament and a breach constitutes a criminal offence.
Types of statutory duties
  • Absolute duty - otherwise known as 'Strict Liability'
This duty is imposed by an Act or Regulation where there is a high risk of severe injury or an occurrence that could lead to severe injury. The words 'must' or 'shall' appear in the requirement of the Act or Regulation.
  • Duty to do what is 'Practicable'
Some Regulations state that action must be taken so far as is practicable. To implement this duty, the employer must consider current technological knowledge and feasibility. Some degree of reasonability can be applied and account taken of current practice - but cautiously. 'Practicable' means something less than physically possible.
  • Duty to do all that is 'Reasonably Practicable'
This phrase qualifies almost all of the general duties imposed by the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. It allows a balance to be made between the cost of the action proposed (in terms of money, time or inconvenience) as against the degree of risk associated with the situation being considered.
This is the best that can be achieved, taking account of the balanced judgement of cost against risk. This judgement may have to be defended at sometime, therefore it should always err on the safe side.

Back to index.

2 The European Influence

Most current legislation concerning health, safety and welfare and almost all of what will be future legislation originates within the European Community framework.
E.U. Administration
The administration of the E.U. is carried out through four bodies:
  • The Commission:
  • This is formed of Commissioners representing each of the member states. The Commission administers the law throughout the E.U. similar to that of the U.K. civil service. E.U. legislation originates from the Commission in the form of Directives sent for approval to the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers:
This is composed of delegates from each member state. It is similar to the Government of the U.K. and voting is proportional, depending on the size of each country's population. Matters concerning health and safety are subject to qualified majority voting.
  • The European Parliament:
This is formed of representatives elected from constituencies from within member states. It consults and debates on all proposed legislation.
  • European Court of Justice:
This adjudicates upon the law of the EEC and its decision is binding upon all member states' judicial courts by virtue of the EEC Act 1972. It has 13 Judges, including one from each member state. The European Court of Human Rights enforces agreed community standards on the protection of human rights and fundamental freedom.
Elements of EC law:
Apart from the general provisions of the Treaty of Rome (which is signed by all member states), there are three elements of European Law:
  • European Regulations:
These are passed by the Council of Ministers and are adopted immediately into the legal framework of each member state. They are directly imposed upon every citizen living within the EC.

  • Directives:
These set out general objective standards, which must be achieved by member states within a specific time-scale. Member states can decide whether to alter their own individual legal framework to meet the objectives of Directives or adopt them directly. In the UK, the implementation is by Statutory Instruments, i.e. Regulations.
  • Decisions:
These are decisions reached when a matter is taken to the European Courts and affects only the parties directly concerned, although they do set precedents.
Back to index.

3 The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, 1974

This is the primary piece of legislation on which is based all of our statutory legal requirements concerning health and safety at work. It is an enabling Act in that it sets out objectives to be achieved rather than specific requirements.
The following sections, 2 - 9 contain the main thrust of those requirements.
Section 2:
Employers must take all reasonable care to safeguard the health, safety and welfare of their employees. In particular this means providing and maintaining:
  • Safe plant and systems of work.
  • Safe handling, storage, maintenance and transportation of articles and substances associated with work.
  • Adequate selection of employees and thereafter providing sufficient information, instruction, training and supervision.
  • Safe places of work including access and egress.
  • Safe working environments and adequate welfare facilities. Note how similar these statutory duties are to the five duties of common law.
There is an absolute duty upon employers with more than four employees to prepare, revise as necessary and make known to all staff, a written safety policy detailing a policy of intent and organisational arrangements for implementing it.
Employers must consult with employees on health and safety matters, and where requested to do so by two or more trades union appointed safety representative, set up a safety committee.
The self-employed has similar duties but do not require to have a written safety policy.
Sections 3 & 4:
These sections impose duties of care upon employers towards persons other than employees, e.g. contractors, visitors, self-employed and general public.
Section 5:
Harmful emissions into the atmosphere must be prevented from prescribed operations.
Section 6:
Designers, manufacturers, importers, installers and those who hire out plant and/or equipment have a duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the article or substance for use at work is safe when being properly used.
Sufficient tests etc., must be competently carried out to validate the article or substance for use at work.
All necessary information must be provided regarding the article or substance and the safeguards to be observed when using or storing it. Such information should not just be 'made available'.
Section 7 & 8:
Duties are placed upon employees at work to: Take all reasonable care for their own health and safety and the health and safety of anyone who may be affected by their acts or omissions.
  • Co-operate with their employers to meet legal obligations.
  • Neither intentionally nor recklessly interfere with or misuse anything whether plant, equipment or methods of work, provided by their employer to meet obligations under this or any related legislation.
Sections 9:
The employer is not allowed to charge employees for anything done or provided to meet specific statutory requirement

4 United Kingdom Regulations:

There are a considerable number of sets of U.K. Regulations which organisations and individuals must adhere to.
The following is a list of the most common ones together with management action plans.

4/1 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999

These Regulations may be considered the most important, because they contain the requirement that all work activities must be subject to pro-active risk assessment.
The concept and methodology of carrying out risk assessment are contained in Unit 5 A summary of the requirements of these Regulations is:
  • Requirement to carry out work activity risk assessments and record the findings and safeguards where the risk identified is significant.
  • To have in place effective management control systems.
  • Where necessary to carry out appropriate health surveillance.
  • To ensure that managers have appropriate competent people to assist them on matters related to health and safety.
  • Contingency planning in place to deal with serious and/or imminent danger.
  • Requirement to give employees comprehensive and relevant information regarding health and safety issues.
  • Requirement for inter-employer co-operation where necessary. (e.g. between contractors and clients or other contractors etc.,)
  • Adequate employee selection criteria which includes a capability assessment.
  • To ensure that all training incorporates health and safety considerations.
  • To give special consideration to assess risks to new or expectant mothers and their children.
  • To give special consideration to assess risks to young persons.
  • Requirement for employees to co-operate with employers in managing health and safety issues. This includes working in accordance with information, instruction and training.
Back to index.

4/2 The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 (amended 2004)

Hazardous substances may be natural or man made and include chemicals, biochemicals such as pesticides, growth hormones and process hazards.
There are six stages of control. These are:
  1. Hazard identification
    • This is normally obtained from
    • Information received from suppliers through labels or substance data sheets.
    • Information regarding processes. (e.g. dust, fumes or gasses etc.)
    • Information from data regarding natural hazards from plants, animals, certain materials (e.g. foam rubbers or fungicide treatment in wallpaper pastes etc.,)
  2. Risk assessment
  3. This requires knowledge of how a substance is used or a process takes place.
    Assessments should, where possible, be carried out before the substance is brought into the work place and used.
    Assessments should also consider handling, storage, use, disposal and the effects on the environment.
  4. Risk control
  5. This involves considering the steps that are already in place to deal with the risk/s and considering what other steps can or should be taken to eliminate the risk or reduce it by means of substitution, alternative work procedures, total enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, dilution ventilation or personal protective equipment etc.
  6. Competence of personnel
  7. This entails proper selection of personnel, providing them with adequate information, instruction and training. Such training must include supervisors, whose job it is to ensure employees are properly applying the information, instruction and training given.
  8. Monitoring
  9. It is necessary to regularly monitor the effectiveness of application of the management system in place. This may include the need for regular health surveillance.
  10. Records
  11. Adequate records of assessments, maintenance of plant, monitoring and health surveillance are required to be kept.

4/3 The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989

Electrical dangers can result in:
  • The Regulations require an employer to:
  • assess the risks to employees from noise at work;
  • take action to reduce the noise exposure that produces those risks;
  • Electric shock.
  • Electric burns
  • Electrical fires
  • Explosions
These Regulations include:
  • Requirement regarding the need to properly construct and maintain equipment
  • Need for care when working on or near electrical equipment
  • Need to provide adequate protective equipment
  • Proper care in bringing equipment into service
  • Adequate protection of equipment
  • Precautions relating to conductors
  • Satisfactory protection from excessive current
  • Need for satisfactory switch off and effective isolation procedures
  • Restriction of work on live equipment unless absolutely necessary
  • Provision of adequate space, access and lighting when working on equipment
  • Personnel carrying out electrical work must be competent and/or adequately supervised
Back to index.

4/4 The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005

The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 require employers to prevent or reduce risks to health and safety from exposure to noise at work. Employees have duties under the Regulations too.
  • provide employees with hearing protection if they cannot reduce the noise exposure enough by using other methods;
  • make sure the legal limits on noise exposure are not exceeded;
  • provide employees with information, instruction and training;
  • carry out health surveillance where there is a risk to health. The Regulations do not apply to:
  • members of the public exposed to noise from their non-work activities, or making an informed choice to go to noisy places;
  • low-level noise which is a nuisance but causes no risk of hearing damage.
Employers in the music and entertainment sectors have until 6 April 2008 to comply with the Noise Regulations 2005. Meanwhile they must continue to comply with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989, which the 2005 Regulations replace for all other workplaces.
The Noise Regulations require employers to take specific action at certain action values. These relate to:
  • the levels of exposure to noise for employees averaged over a working day or week; and
  • the maximum noise (peak sound pressure) to which employees are exposed in a working day. The values are:
  • lower exposure action values: — daily or weekly exposure of 80 dB; — peak sound pressure of 135 dB;
  • upper exposure action values: — daily or weekly exposure of 85 dB; — peak sound pressure of 137 dB.
There are also levels of noise exposure which must not be exceeded:
  • exposure limit values: — daily or weekly exposure of 87 dB; — peak sound pressure of 140 dB.
These exposure limit values take account of any reduction in exposure provided by hearing protection.

4/5 The Personal Protective Equipment at Work (PPE) Regulations 1992

Summary of the requirements:
  • Provision of PPE must be as a last resort.
  • A suitable assessment must be made to ensure that the equipment supplied is:
  • Appropriate for the risk and environment in which it will be used
  • Ergonomically sound and compatible with the user
  • Capable of fitting the wearer after adjustment
  • Effective in eliminating or controlling the risk without leading to any other increased risks so far as is reasonably practicable
  • Compatible with current E.U. and U.K. Standards
  • Items of PPE must be compatible with each other where more than one piece is worn.
  • There must be adequate maintenance of PPE and satisfactory replacement arrangements.
  • Users must be given sufficient information, instruction and training.
  • Employers must take all reasonable steps to ensure that PPE provided is being properly used.
  • Employees must report the loss of, or any defects in, PPE to their employers.
  • No charge can be made for PPE that is required, and used only at work. (Section 9 of HSW Act 1974)
Back to index.

4/6 The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992

Summary of the requirements:
  • The workplace must be properly maintained and kept reasonably clean.
  • The working environment must be subject to adequate controls; e.g. lighting, ventilation, temperature, humidity, quality of air etc.,
  • Employees must be given an adequate workspace allocation.
  • Consideration must be given to ensuring the ergonomic design and arrangements of workstations are satisfactory.
  • There must be adequate pedestrian and traffic routes.
  • Protection shall be provided to prevent the fall of persons or things.
  • All glazing must be properly designed and maintained with adequate arrangements for cleaning in place.
  • All doors and gates must be suitably constructed designed and located.
  • All travelators and escalators must be safe by design, adequately functional and properly maintained.
  • There must be:
  • A ready supply of wholesome drinking water.
  • Adequate accommodation for clothing and facilities for changing.
  • Adequate facilities for resting and meals.

4/7 The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998

Summary of requirements:
  • Equipment must be suitable and fit for purpose
  • Equipment must be adequately maintain
  • Consideration of inspection requirements must be made
  • Equipment must only be used by authorised persons
  • Need to ensure operators, maintenance staff and supervisors are given adequate information, instruction and training
  • Requirement to reduce the risks associated with equipment
  • Requirement to ergonomically design and install both the work equipment and it's control systems
  • All equipment must have an identifiable means of isolation from power sources
  • All equipment should have clear warning and warning devices as appropriate to ensure health and safety arrangements are satisfactory
  • All equipment bought from 1 January 1993 to conform to E.U. safety standards i.e. marked with the CE stamps.
NB. There are approved codes of practice covering specific types of equipment e.g. wood working machines and power presses.
Back to index.

4/8 The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment (LOLER) Regulations 1998

Note: All lifting equipment must conform to these Regulations in addition to meeting the requirements of the PUWER Regulations.
Summary of requirements:

  • All lifting operations must be planned by a 'competent person'.
  • All lifting equipment must be assessed to decide if it requires a periodic examination by a 'competent person'.
When the decision is in the affirmative, the employer must either:
  1. Have the equipment examined at intervals prescribed in the Regulations, or,
  2. At shorter intervals as decided by the 'competent person', or,
  3. At intervals specified in a 'scheme of examination'.
Note:
'Competent person' is in this case usually an inspection organisation who would normally carry out the statutory examination and testing of lifting machinery.
The same body would also normally draw up 'Schemes of examination'.

4/9 The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

Summary of requirements:
  • Avoidance where reasonable of all manual handling Thereafter to:-
  • Mechanise or automate the process, so far as is reasonably practicable
  • That is, engineer out or reduce manual handling activities Once this has been done:
  • Carry out a risk assessment
  • Reduce risks, so far as is reasonably practicable, by changing or modifying the loads/objects or changing the system of work
  • Give employees and supervisors sufficient recorded information, instruction and training
  • Ensure adequate supervision
  • Review the situation periodically in the light of state of the art technology and knowledge

4/10 The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992

Summary of requirements:
  • Employers must comply with the schedule of requirements. This is normally achieved by carrying out a risk assessment of the workstations.
  • Consideration of schedule items. That is display screen, keyboard, work-desk and surface, work chair, space requirements, lighting, reflection/glare, noise, heat, light, humidity, radiation (but no action necessary) and computer/user interface.
  • Consideration of work breaks and activity changes for users.
  • Requirements for eye and eyesight tests and possible corrective action.
  • Adequate recorded information, instruction and training for users and supervisors.
Back to index.

4/11 The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981

Summary of requirements:
Every employer must provide equipment and facilities that are adequate and appropriate in the circumstances for administering 'First Aid'.
To ensure compliance, employers must make an assessment to determine their needs. Consideration of the following is required:
  • Consider different types of work activities
The needs will be determined by the nature of the work being carried out. For example high or low risk of serious injuries.
  • Consider the access to professional treatment.
If ambulances, paramedics, doctors etc., are a distance away, a first aid room may be appropriate.
  • Consider employees working away from base:
The nature of risk and availability of assistance will require to be considered.
  • Where employees of more than one employer are working together, shared facilities may be considered.
  • There may be a need to consider non-employees.
Although the Regulations do not require employers to make provision for non-employees, it may be prudent to do so because of the general duties of care under HSW Act'74.
Having made these assessments, the employer will be able to establish how many first aid boxes and/or other facilities are necessary.
The employer must ensure that adequate numbers of suitable persons are available to administer first aid. 'Suitable persons are those who have obtained qualifications approved by the HSE.
Important Note: In appointing such personnel, other considerations should be taken into account to ensure they are suitable. For example:
  • Have they any phobias? Such as fear of blood or heights or confined spaces.
  • Are they physically fit?
  • Can they mentally deal with pressure and trauma?
  • Employees must be informed of the location of first aid facilities, who the first alders are, and how to contact them.
Back to index.

4/12 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995

These Regulations require the reporting of prescribed injuries etc., to the enforcing authority.
These include:
  • Where a person dies at work.
  • Where a person suffers a prescribed injury or condition at work, or there is a dangerous occurrence.
These are prescribed in an appendix to the Regulations.
Reporting must be by the quickest possible means, normally by telephone. Thereafter the enforcing authority may request the employer to send a written report to them.
Where an employee's injuries result in them being unable to carry out their normal work activities for more than three calendar days. In this case, a written report on an approved form (F2508) within ten days will suffice.
The enforcing authority is the body responsible for the enforcement of health and safety in the premises where the injury, disease or dangerous occurrence took place.
Usually the enforcing authority will be:
  • The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Inspectors, for industrial/construction type premises.
  • The Local authority (Environmental Health Officers (EHO's), for offices, shops and non­industrial premises.
Reporting to next of Kin
While this type of reporting is not covered by law it is most important.
Urgent reporting is required when someone suffers a life threatening or severe injury. Among the things to be considered are:
  • Is there an up-to-date list of the contact person that each employee wants any life threatening type injury to be reported to?
  • Does the information include contact phone numbers or addresses during probable working hours?
  • Does the information include any special needs? For example special bloods groups, desire not to have surgery or blood transfusions etc.?
The latter can be due to religious beliefs etc.,
  • Is the required information readily to hand? For example, at weekends or during overtime periods etc.,
Reporting to Insurers
It is imperative that the insurers are notified as soon as possible after an accident which may result in a claim being made. This will enable information to be gathered while events are fresh in people's minds.
Back to index.

4/13 The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996

Under these Regulations safety signs are standardised in terms of geometric form, colour, symbols and wording.
There are five kinds of safety signs in general use. These are:
  • Prohibition:- That is, where certain behaviour is prohibited
  • Warning:- Gives warning of a hazard
  • Mandatory:- Indicates a certain course of action
  • Emergency escape/ first aid exit signs and first aid information
  • Fire equipment:- The siting of fire fighting equipment Each sign may have a pictorial symbol and/or wording on the sign

4/14 The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (CDM)

In summary, the new Regulations require:
  • A realistic project programme, allowing adequate time for planning, preparation and the work itself
  • Early appointment of key people
  • Competent duty holders, with sufficient resources to meet their legal duties
  • Early identification and reduction of risks to health and safety
  • Provision of health and safety information from the start of the design phase, through construction and maintenance and eventual demolition phases, so everyone can discharge their duties effectively
  • Co-operation between duty-holders
  • Proportionate effort and resources to be applied to managing health and safety issues.
The AcoP gives practical guidance on how to comply with the legal requirements and improve site safety and also sets out the main changes and redefined roles and responsibilities under CDM 2007.
Clients
Clients now have to ensure they assume their responsibilities early in the project. As before, the need to appoint proven team members is spelt out, and guidance is given on how to ensure that `duty holders' are competent to undertake the project.
From the initial design stage, the client must appoint a CDM co-coordinator who will 'notify' the project if it is relevant; if there is any delay in this appointment, and then the role defaults to the client. 'Initial design' is defined simply as 'any actions that cannot be changed later', but it is expected that measures will be in place by the time the project enters the feasibility stage. Clients must also ensure that construction does not start until the health-and-safety plan is in place, and that appropriate welfare provisions are available.
Other significant duties include:
  • Ensuring that any fixed 'workplace'
  • Complies with the 'Workplace (health, safety and welfare) regulations 1992'.
  • Checking the competence of employees and all team members.
  • Ensuring that all parties fulfill their responsibilities.
  • Ensuring suitable management is in place.
  • Allowing sufficient time and resources.
  • Providing and disseminating pre-construction information to the team.
  • Appointing a CDMC.
  • Appointing a principal contractor.
  • Ensuring that construction does not start until a suitable welfare and construction phase plan is in place.
  • Providing information for the health and safety file.
  • Preparing, or instructing others to prepare, the health and safety file.
  • Retaining, and allowing access, to the file.
Additionally, CDM duties now apply in competition entries, concept designs, and bids for grants
Designers
The designers' duties can be summarised as:
  • Involving all of the team members and co-coordinating with them, to ensure that all points of view are understood.
  • As before, designers must make sure the client is aware of his responsibilities at the earliest opportunity.
  • Ensuring that welfare provisions for the project are in accordance with the Regulations.
  • Considering health and safety at the workplace being designed.
  • Ensuring that they are competent to undertake the health and safety issues.
  • Checking that clients are aware of their duties.
  • Ensuring that, during design work, all hazards are identified and eliminated and that information concerning remaining hazards is communicated to those who may need to know.
  • Considering the risks to others in the construction phase.

CDM Co-coordinator Co-coordinators duties can be summarised as:
  • Advising clients as to their duties under the Regulations.
  • Notifying the project to the HSE.
  • Ensuring that the flow of health and safety information is managed correctly and efficiently.
  • Ensuring that the client is advised of the quality of the construction phase plan and information.
  • Liaising with the designers and the contractor.
  • Ensuring that information on cleaning maintenance is included.
  • Ensuring that co-operation and co-ordination take place for the duration of the project.
Identifying and ensuring the collection of all pre-construction information, and informing the client if additional work is required to assemble this information.
  • Ensuring that the pre-construction information is made available to the team.
  • Ensuring that risks are identified and eliminated in relation to the potential harm that they could cause.
Back to index.
Contractors
The responsibilities of contractors remain very similar to the previous provisions, and can be characterised as follows:
  • Developing the health and safety construction plan using information provided by the design team.
  • Taking control of the site and site operations.
  • Ensuring co-operation between the team contractors and consultants.
  • Co-operating with, and informing the CDMC to allow the production of an appropriate health and safety file.
  • Improving the planning and management of the project from the start.
  • Identifying hazards early on, to allow them to be eliminated or reduced at the design and planning stage, and to allow any remaining risks to be properly managed.
  • Targeting effort where it can do most good in terms of health and safety.
  • Discouraging unnecessary bureaucracy and paperwork.
  • Checking that clients are aware of their duties.
  • Ensuring the competence of the team employed by the contractor.
  • Planning, managing and monitoring their work to ensure safe practice.
  • Ensuring that every contractor works safely.
  • Ensuring that any design work is undertaken in compliance with designers' duties.
  • Ensuring co-operation and co-ordination with the whole team.
  • Ensuring welfare provisions are in place at the beginning of the construction phase. On 'notifiable' projects, the contractor should also:
  • Ensure that the client understands their duties, that a co-coordinator is appointed, and that the HSE is notified.
  • Make sure that they are competent to undertake the project and to handle the issues that will be encountered.
  • Ensure that the construction phase is properly planned in all respects.
  • Ensure safe methods of working.
  • Ensure that the construction phase is planned before construction begins and communicating the plan to all who are involved. The plan must also be implemented and updated as the project progresses.
  • Ensure that welfare facilities are in place.
  • Liaise with the CDMC to ensure that any design work during the construction phase is undertaken in accordance with the designers' duties.
  • Issue relevant information to the CDMC.
  • Ensure that the workforce is consulted on health and safety matters.
  • Display the project notification.
Competence
Previously, competence was an issue attracting varied and copious amounts of paperwork. The new Regulations seek to make this much more straightforward and to ensure that effort is not wasted, whilst also ensuring that the team is sufficiently experienced to undertake the responsibilities required under CDM 2007.
The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (2004)
These Regulations are now part of the CDM requirements and therefore must be considered on every relevant project.
Regulation 9 requires that any project designed as a 'workplace' takes account of these Regulations.
They are set out in Schedule 2 of CDM 2007, and are to be found towards the back of the ACoP. The main headings and areas to be covered include:
Referenced in Schedule 2 -
  • Sanitary conveniences
  • Washing facilities
  • Drinking water
  • Changing rooms and lockers
  • Facilities for rest
The Regulations, in detail, cover:
  • Safe places of work
  • Good order and site security
  • Stability of structures
  • Demolition or dismantling
  • Explosives
  • Excavations
  • Cofferdams and caissons
  • Reports and inspections
  • Energy distribution installations
  • Prevention of drowning
  • Traffic routes
  • Vehicles
  • Preventions of risk from fire etc.
  • Emergency procedures
  • Emergency routes and exits
  • Fire detection and fire fighting
  • Fresh air
  • Temperature and weather protection
  • Lighting
CDM Documentation
The key to CDM compliance is not in the documentation, but the effective planning and management of the construction project.
Construction phase plan
It is important that the plan is both proportionate and appropriate. It is not a pre- requisite of CDM to have a large complicated document full of generic information for each and every project. Appendix 3 of the CDM ACoP gives detailed information on the scope and content of this plan.
Health and safety file
A health and safety file must be prepared by the CDM co-coordinator for every structure within a construction project. The file's purpose is to inform owners, occupiers or managers of the completed structure of:
  • the 'as built' drawings, rather than those produced in the original design how the structure was built
  • details of the structure's equipment, including manuals or instructions on how it should be maintained
  • maintenance procedures for the structure itself
  • details of the structure's utilities, including information on fire fighting systems and other emergency arrangements.
It is the duty of the CDM co-coordinator to create and maintain an evolving Health and safety file for use by the structure's eventual user or occupier.

The Principal contractor also has a duty to ensure that information is added into the Health and safety file until the termination of the construction phase.
The client's responsibility for the Health and safety file is only discharged when he disposes of his entire interest in the structure. The Health and safety file thus endures with the structure and should be added to throughout its life.
Back to index.

4/15 The Work at Height Regulations 2005

These Regulations came into force on 6th April 2005. The principle objective of these Regulations is to eliminate, where possible, working at height and where this is not possible to ensure the work is carried out safely using appropriate equipment such as ladders, access platforms, scaffolds or rope systems. Other safeguards such as safety nets, harnesses, notices, barriers and exclusion zones should also be considered.
The work should only be carried out by those who have the necessary training.
Many of the requirements within these Regulations are already contained in legislation specific to the construction industry. In the WAHR'05 all working at height is covered and the requirements are not limited to any specific height or type of equipment.
WAHR'05 requires all employees and the self-employed to put in place arrangements to:
  • Eliminate or minimise risks associated with working at height.
  • Ensure work at height is properly organised, planned and adequately supervised
  • Select work equipment that is suitable to carry out the proposed work at height.
In selecting the equipment and system of work the principles of risk assessment must be applied. Assessments must be proportionate to the harm that could occur if no action is taken.
Where work at height cannot be eliminated/avoided safe means of access/egress must be given all due consideration.
All equipment used must be regularly inspected and properly maintained.
Note that ladders can only be used if a risk assessment under the Management Regulations has demonstrated that the use of more suitable work equipment is not justified because of the low risk and;
  • The short duration of use or,
  • Existing features of the site which cannot be altered.
There is a requirement to carry out risk assessments with specific contents when it is intended to use:
  • Demonstrate that the work can so far as is reasonably practicable be performed safely while using the system.
  • Justify that the use as against other safer work equipment is not reasonably practicable.
  • The user has enough personnel who have received adequate training specific to the operations envisaged including rescue procedures.
A change in handrail height
The WAHR'05 require that handrails for construction work require a height of 950mm. this is an increase from the previous height of 910mm. Where existing handrails are fixed in place they can be left at that height until changed. Any gap between top rail and intermediate rail should not exceed 470mm. Toe boards shall be suitable and sufficient.
Back to index.

4/16 The Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005

These Regulations came into force on the 6th July 2005 and require employers to:
  • Assess the vibration risks to their employees.
  • Decide if employees are likely to be exposed above the daily exposure action value (EAV) and if they are:
  • To introduce a programme of controls to eliminate risk, or reduce exposure to as low a level as is reasonably practicable.
  • Provide health surveillance (regular health checks) to those employees who continue to be regularly exposed above the action values or otherwise continue to be at risk.
  • Prove Information, instruction and training to employees on health risks and actions you are taking to control those risks.
  • Consult with trades union or worker representatives on your proposals to control risks and to provide health surveillance.
  • Keep a record of risk assessments and control actions.
  • Keep health records for employees under health surveillance.
  • Review and update risk assessments regularly.

In these Regulations:
Daily Exposure means the quantity of mechanical vibration to which a worker is exposed during a working day, normalised to an eight hour exposure period taking account of the magnitude and duration of the vibration.
Exposure Action Value (EAV) is a daily amount of exposure above which employers are required to take action to control exposure. The greater the exposure level, the greater the risk and the more action the employers need to take to reduce the risk.
Exposure Limit Value (ELV) is the maximum amount of vibration an employee may be exposed to on any single day.
Any employee who carries out work which is liable to expose his/her employees to risk from vibrations must make a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risk created by the work to the health and safety of these employees. The risk assessment must identify the measures that need to be taken to meet the requirements of the Regulations.
The risk assessment must assess daily exposure to vibrations by means of: Observations of specific work practices
Reference to relevant information on the probable magnitude of the vibration corresponding to the equipment used in the particular working condition, and
If necessary measurement of the magnitude of vibration to which employees are liable to be exposed.
What should be done?
Employers should start by identifying if there is a risk of significant exposure from hand-held vibration. This can be done by:
  • Which, if any, processes involve regular exposure to vibrations.
  • Checking if there are any signs or warnings of vibration risks in equipment handbooks.
  • Ask employees if they have any of the hand-held vibration symptoms (HAVS) or if the equipment they use produces high levels of vibration or uncomfortable strains on arms and/or hands.

All of this will involve consultation.

4/17 The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997

Confined spaces are defined as any place where a person may be at significant risk and from which access is restricted.
The principal requirements are:
  • No person shall enter a confined space to carry out work for any purpose unless it is not reasonably practicable to achieve the purpose without such entry.
  • Before entry, employers must carry out a risk assessment of the work activity.

No person shall enter, or carry out work in, or leave a confined space other than in accordance with a system of work that renders the work safe and without undue risk to the health and safety of the person.

Back to index.

4/18 The Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996

These Regulations apply to organisations with employees not represented by trade unions. The Regulations require employers to consult with their employees on matters which affect, or could affect, their health and safety.
Basically they give the same rights to non-union personnel as those given to trade union members by previous Regulations. In some instances they expand or reinforce previous duties.
The duties of employers:
The duty of employers is to consult with employees in good time on matters relating to their health and safety at work.
NB. 'In good time' means consultation so that the employees views can be taken into account before decisions are taken.
In particular consultation regarding:
The introduction of any measures at the workplace which may substantially affect the health and safety of employees.
NB Employers must provide enough information to allow employees to understand:
  • What the likely hazards and risks arising from their work or changes to their work are.
  • The measures in place or about to be introduced to deal with the hazards/risks.
  • What employees ought to do when encountering hazards/risks including what to do in an emergency?
  • The employers arrangements for the appointment, or nomination, of persons to assist in carrying out risk assessments under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.
  • Any health and safety information the employer requires to provide under relevant statutory provisions. For example, the written safety policy and arrangements.
  • The planning and organisation of any health and safety training the employer is duty bound to provide under statutory provisions.
  • The health and safety consequences for employees from the introduction of new technologies into the workplace. Employees have a choice on how to consult For example:
  • Consult through one or more freely elected representatives of the workforce.
  • If no elected representatives are appointed, consult directly with the employees. N.B. What matters is that employees, or their appointed representatives are made aware of:
  • When their views are being sought regarding health and safety issues.
  • Their rights to take part in discussions on all questions relating to their health and safety.
Safety representatives are entitled to:
  • Adequate training (in-house or external).
  • Time off with pay to carry out their functions, or to attend training.
  • Adequate facilities to allow him/her to carry out their functions.
  • View specific documentation which concerns health and safety issues. Important note; care must be taken not to identify individuals without their consent.

4/19 The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 in England and Wales and The Fire (Scotland) Act 2005

The objective of the legislation is to consolidate the general fire safety precautions of a large number of pieces of legislation, which are revoked. This includes the Fire Certificate (Special Premises) Regulations 1976, thus removing the requirement for fire certificates. In general the legislation places responsibility for enforcing general fire precautions on the local Fire Authorities.
The legislation introduces a risk-based approach, in contrast to the prescriptive requirements associated with the special premises regulations. This requires the Responsible Person to carry out a risk assessment to demonstrate that the fire safety precautions are adequate.
The principles of prevention that are identified in the legislation are similar to generic risk assessment guidance ­avoidance, replacing dangerous by less dangerous materials, provision of protective measures etc.
The approach to be followed in providing general fire precautions:
  • avoiding risks;
  • evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided;
  • combating the risks at source;
  • adapting to technical progress;
  • reducing the dangerous by the non-dangerous or less dangerous;
  • developing a coherent overall prevention policy which covers technology, organisation of work and the influence of factors relating to the work environment;
  • giving collective protective measures priority over individual measures; and
  • giving appropriate instructions to employees.
Back to index.

4/20 The Fire Precautions (Workplace) (FPW) Regulations 1997 including the requirements of the FPW Amendment Regulations 1999

These Regulations apply to all workplaces except for certain ones including:
  • Workplaces used only by self-employed people.
  • Private dwellings.
  • Workplaces in or on a construction site to which the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 apply
  • Agriculture or forestry land situated away from the undertaking's main building. Note: There is now no lower limit of occupants of premises under which the legislation applies. These regulations require:
  • That a fire risk assessment be carried out.
  • There is adequate training to ensure that the fire precautions in place can be correctly used.
NB The regulations do not state how the training is to be given, however to ensure that it is effective, training should be given verbally and in writing, to all persons employed, including temporary staff.

4/21 The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR).

DSEAR requires employers to assess the risks of fires and explosions that may be caused by dangerous substances in the workplace. These risks must then be eliminated or reduced as far as is reasonably practicable. The aim is to protect employees and other people who may be put at risk, such as visitors to the workplace and members of the public. The Regulations complement the requirement to manage risks under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.
DSEAR places duties on employers (and the self-employed, who are considered employers for the purposes of the Regulations) to assess and eliminate or reduce risks from dangerous substances. Complying with DSEAR involves:
  1. Assessing risks
  2. Preventing or controlling risks
  3. Where the risk cannot be eliminated, DSEAR requires control measures to be applied in the following priority order:
    • reduce the quantity of dangerous substances to a minimum;
    • avoid or minimise releases of dangerous substances;
    • control releases of dangerous substances at source;
    • prevent the formation of a dangerous atmosphere;
    • collect, contain and remove any releases to a safe place (for example, through ventilation);
    • avoid ignition sources;
    • avoid adverse conditions (for example, exceeding the limits of temperature or control settings)
    that could lead to danger;
    • keep incompatible substances apart.

  4. Mitigation
  5. In addition to control measures DSEAR requires employers to put mitigation measures in place. These measures should be consistent with the risk assessment and appropriate to the nature of the activity or operation and include:
    • reducing the number of employees exposed to the risk;
    • providing plant that is explosion resistant;
    • providing explosion suppression or explosion relief equipment;
    • taking measures to control or minimise the spread of fires or explosions;
    • providing suitable personal protective equipment.

  6. Preparing emergency plans and procedures
  7. Providing information, instruction and training for employees
Back to index.

4/22 The Safety Representative and Safety Committee Regulations 1977

The Safety Representative and Safety Committee Regulations 1977 provided a set of entitlements to consultation to nominees (safety representatives) of recognised independent trade unions. They gave the right to safety representatives to make a number of inspections, to consult with the employer and to receive information on health and safety matters. The Regulations also provide for training, time off with pay to carry out the functions of safety representation and the right to require the employer to form a safety committee subject to certain requirements.
The roles of trade union safety representatives are:
  • to investigate possible dangers at work, the causes of accidents, complaints by employees on health and safety and welfare issues and to take these matters up with the employer
  • to carry out inspections of the workplace particularly following accidents, diseases or other events
  • to represent employees in discussions with health and safety inspectors and to receive information from those inspectors
  • to go to meetings of safety committees
The employer must set up a safety committee if two or more trade union safety representatives ask for one.

4/23 The Health and Safety Information for Employees Regulations 1989

The Health and Safety Information for Employees Regulations 1989 require employers to provide their employees with certain basic information concerning their health, safety and welfare at work. This information is contained in both a poster and a leaflet approved by HSE. Employers can comply with their duty by either displaying the poster or providing employees with a copy of the leaflet.
Employers have 2 principal duties under the Regulations:
  • either to display the poster OR to distribute the leaflet
  • to provide further information giving details of the enforcing authority for the premises and the local address for the Employment Medical Advisory Service (EMAS)

4/24 The Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992

These Regulations apply to all new machinery manufactured or supplied in the UK, wherever it is to be used in the European Economic Area (EEA) (The European Economic Area comprises all EU and European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries with the exception of Switzerland.) The term 'machinery' is broadly defined and includes what is generally understood by the term, as well as some other products.
These regulations require all UK manufacturers and suppliers of new machinery to make sure that the machinery which they supply is safe. They also require manufacturers to make sure that:
  • machinery meets relevant essential health and safety requirements (these are listed in detail in the Regulations), which include the provision of sufficient instructions
  • a technical file for the machinery has been drawn up, and in certain cases, the machinery has been type-examined by a notified body
  • there is a 'declaration of conformity' (or in some cases a 'declaration of incorporation') for the machinery, which should be issued with it
  • there is CE marking affixed to the machinery (unless it comes with a declaration of incorporation).
Back to index.

4/25 The Chemical (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002

These regulations are commonly known as CHIP.
CHIP is the law that applies to suppliers of dangerous chemicals. Its purpose is to protect people and the environment from the effects of those chemicals by requiring suppliers to provide information about the dangers and to package them safely.
CHIP re
          Sustainability Thought Leaders and Innovators to Come Together at Yale University         

Sustainability professionals from around the world will gather at Yale University this September 12-15 for four days of thought-provoking lectures and interactive discussions at the Yale Sustainability Leadership Forum.

The Forum’s small class size fosters an environment of idea sharing and gives participants and speakers an opportunity to interact one-on-one. Speakers are distinguished thought leaders and innovators drawn from Yale's renowned Law School, School of Management, and School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, as well as leading practitioners in government and industry. They collectively offer an essential set of strategies and sustainability principles to guide our institutions, governments, businesses, and society. 

The Director of the Forum, Professor Daniel C. Esty, brings decades of groundbreaking thinking on environmental law, policy, sustainability innovation, and public-private partnerships to the Forum. 

Video: Professor Esty discusses the Forum’s agenda, speakers, benefits for participants, and why you can't miss this incredible educational experience: https://youtu.be/CiXCLYK-UOA

Yale Faculty returning to teach again this fall are standouts in the field of sustainability. Professors William Nordhaus, Marian Chertow, Gary Brudvig, E. Donald Elliott, and Bradford Gentry specialize respectively in carbon pricing, industrial ecology, molecular biophysics and biochemistry, environmental law, and land conservation. Each of their modules will examine current trends in their disciplines, along with sustainability principles and strategies for innovation.

New speakers joining the Forum bring an equally rich set of insights to share. The U.S. State Department's former top climate change lawyer and a key architect of the Paris Climate Agreement, Susan Biniaz, will teach a module on climate change negotiations. David Lubin, a world leader in the field of corporate performance management will teach a module on sustainable investing. Other speakers include Kenneth Gillingham, Julie Zimmerman, Anthony Leiserowitz, and Andrew Winston, who will teach respectively on the latest innovations in energy and environmental economics, green design, climate change communications, and corporate sustainability management.

To view the agenda, click here. To view the speaker line-up, click here.

Participants of the 2016 inaugural Forum praised the depth and breadth of the candid discussions and felt confident that they left Yale inspired and armed with a myriad of innovative and practical takeaways. “The Forum was an excellent opportunity for me to receive a compact overview of the main trends and challenges in our quest to transition to sustainable societies. Listening to and engaging with some of the field’s brightest minds and leading scholars was both inspiring and an opportunity to calibrate some aspects of my work so that I can be more effective and successful,” said Tanja Srebotjnak, Hixon Professor of Sustainable Environmental Design at Harvey Mudd College.

Jonathan Steinberg, State Representative at the Connecticut General Assembly, echoed that sentiment, saying, "If sustainability is truly the defining framework for this century, this forum is an invaluable medium for grasping the critical issues and opportunities which will determine our planet’s continuing viability.” 

YSLF is designed to advance sustainability thought leadership and to inspire sustainability action. To learn from leaders in the field and other sustainability professionals, apply for the 2017 program here. Applications are being accepted on a rolling basis and space is limited. 

For more information on the Forum and to apply, please visit sustainability-forum.yale.edu.


          BRS Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Genetics (Board Review Series)        
Author Michael Lieberman PhD ISBN-10 1451175361 ISBN-13 9781451175363 Year 2013-09-14 Pages 432 Language English Publisher LWW Download Link Click Here BRSBiochemistry Molecular Biology and Genetics is an excellent aid for USMLE Step 1 preparation and for coursework in biochemistry molecular biology and genetics Fully updated for its sixth edition chapters are written in an outline format and include pedagogical features such as bolded key words figures tables algorithms and highlighted clinical correlates USMLE style questions and answers follow each chapter and a comprehensive exam appears at the end of the book
          Forensic Science Universities How To Choose        

If you're looking to study at one of the top forensic science universities, it's important to look at the course offerings as well as the options at each of the colleges.



Forensic science universities train students to become professional analysts of crime scene data by working with the latest technology. In order to gain the expertise needed, various top schools provide the latest lab equipment for DNA analysis, as well as more standard technologies such as biological and weapons identification.



When selecting the best forensic school for your career, you should look at the forensic science focus as well as the quality of the college's general science offerings. Students in forensic science will need a solid background in chemistry, physics and biology, in addition to specialized lab courses. Many school offer course work in forensic science within their general science offering, but if you're seeking an immediate career in forensic science, then you should seek out a university with a dedicated degree.



Three of the best forensic science universities are the University of Mississippi, the University of Central Florida and Loyola University in New Orleans.



Mississippi offers a large scientific research institution at a public institution where class sizes in science are relatively small. Rated among the top five programs by the American Academy of Forensic Scientists, the school is a top choice for forensic undergraduate studies.



Central Florida has a well established technology curriculum with state of the art scientific labs, as well as expert faculty. Those seeking graduate education in forensic science should consider Loyola University which has more of a student focus, with smaller classes and more of a focus on providing research opportunities to students.



When seeking a bachelor of science in forensics, students should evaluate the university's offerings in organic chemistry, biochemistry, statistics, genetics and criminal justice, all of which are important for a future career in the field. While the scientific skills are necessary for your carer, it is equally important that you have a broad exposure to general criminal justice coursework which will help facilitate your work with law enforcement and ease you transition into the work force.



Make sure to structure a well balanced course load that allows you to obtain sufficient scientific and social science skill sets needed for a forensic science career. Look for a university with relatively small science courses, as well as close student to faculty interaction and a research laboratory focus within its coursework. Louis Zhang, Certforensictechnician dot com


          Reader's Corner: DougH on The Story of Tea: A Cultural History and Drinking Guide by Mary Lou Heiss and Robert J. Heiss        
Mary Lou Heiss and Robert J. Heiss. THE STORY OF TEA: A Cultural History and Drinking Guide. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press 2007. xiv + 418 pages. ISBN 978-1580087452.

The book reviewed here is another of the “recent inundation of English-language books on tea” that I mentioned in my previous review. Judging by the number (and percentage) of positive reviews on Amazon and elsewhere, the number of online tea vendors who carry this book (even though the authors are actually competitors, having their own online tea store, and its high placing in various food book award competitions), this book has made something of a splash in the tea-book world.

Unlike the Mair/Hoh book, this book is in the mold of James Norwood Pratt’s The New Tea Lover’s Treasury (1999): it includes some account of the history of tea, something about the “culture” of tea, and something about tea itself – the types, the tastes, the steeping. But this book has twice as many pages as Pratt’s, is physically larger, and feels about twice the weight. A lot of work, time and research obviously went into this book.

There is a brief Preface and an equally brief Introduction; both of these are for the most part so general as to provide very little of use. There is no overview of the book’s chapters or structure (as, for example, the Mair/Hoh book’s prologue did nicely). However, this Preface does give us the authors’ statement of the book’s purpose (p. x):
This book is our attempt to transmit the information and knowledge that we have garnered trekking along the tea trail to our interested readers. We hope to cut through the sometimes confusing prattle about tea by providing in-depth information and understanding about processes that many people have written about but few have actually witnessed .... [W]e have attempted to provide in this book material that appeals to beginning tea enthusiasts as well as to seasoned tea professionals. Our goal is to give readers the behind-the-scenes information about the life rhythms and works cycles in a tea village or factory.
Chapter 1, “A Brief History of Tea,” is indeed brief, covering the entire world history of tea in around twenty-seven pages. For illustration, there are around sixteen pages or so for China, at most two pages for Japan (almost half of it devoted to the development of the tea ceremony), perhaps two and a half pages on tea in Europe, two pages on the Boston Tea Party and events leading up to it, two or three pages on the British in India, one paragraph on the British and Sri Lanka, a paragraph or so on the Dutch in Indonesia, one paragraph on Africa. As was unfortunately true in the Mair/Hoh book as well, there is no coverage of Korean tea history, which is as long or nearly as long as Japanese tea history, though there is the obligatory material here on the tea clippers, as a nearly page-long sidebar (p. 27). There is essentially nothing – maybe a couple of sentences – on any developments since World War II.

Chapter 2, “The Life of a Tea Bush,” discusses aspects of the tea plant itself. The authors give some history of the plant. They then introduce three varieties of tea bush – sinensis, assamica, cambodi (which they call “Java bush”) – and their respective characteristics. The authors discuss the concept of the tea-bush “table” – the managed plucking height of the tea bush. There are also sections on “The Terroir of Tea” and “The Yearly Cycle of a Tea Bush.”

Chapter 3, “Manufacture: From Fresh Leaves to Distinctive Tea,” is about the processing of different types of tea. The authors introduce “The Six Classes of Leaf Manufacture” and “The Eight Elements of Tea Production,” then go on to cover, each in its own section, the processing for each of the categories they name. These processing descriptions are quite interesting, and go into often great detail, apparently much of it directly observed by the authors. For example, they have sections not just on green tea but on “Sun-dried Green Tea,” “Basket-Fired Green Tea,” “Pan-Fired Green Tea,” “Tumble-Dried Green Tea,” “Oven-Dried Green Tea,” and “Steamed Green Tea.”

In the section on “Black Tea” (p. 84), the authors are thankfully quite clear on the distinction between and correct use of the terms “oxidized” and “fermented.” Interestingly, the authors also express doubt (p. 83) that much will come of “South Asian” efforts to produce oolongs.

One questionable section is the somewhat confusing “outline” of pu’er types and characteristics on page 96. For example, maocha is purported to be associated only with sheng pu’er. Also, “wet storage, quickly aged” processing is supposedly associated only with shu pu’er manufacture. Both implications are incorrect. Maocha is the initial raw material for both kinds of pu’er, and “wet storage” is mostly or entirely a means for speeding up the aging of sheng pu’er, not shu (for which it would typically be considered irrelevant).

Chapter 4, “Journeying Along the Tea Trail,” is the longest chapter in the book (around 142 pages). It examines the teas of various countries, often by province or state. Some teas are covered at substantial length, others simply mentioned by name, or in a single sentence. The chapter covers China (with individual sections on various provinces and tea types), Japan, Korea, India – with sections on Assam, Darjeeling and Nilgiri, Russia, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Nepal, Africa - concentrating on Kenya and Tanzania, Vietnam and Thailand, plus mentions for quite a few newer small producing areas. Kenya, astoundingly, in 2004 was the third-largest producer of black tea in the world, and the largest exporter of tea in the world, figures reached in only 50 years or less of tea production. Kenya also is one of the few, if not the only, tea-producing area outside of East Asia where the majority of production is on family (or “smallholder” as the book calls them) farms – over 60% of the country’s tea is produced on 400,000 such farms (p. 240), with the rest produced on large (presumably plantation-style) estates (p. 241).

In this chapter, the authors mention many teas by name, singling out various ones here and there for further discussion. Curiously, they spend four pages (131-135) on a tea known in the West as “Lapsang Souchong” and in China as Zhengshan xiaozhong, considerably more print than they spend on any other Chinese tea, though this tea is not as popular – at least in the USA – as some others. The authors spend considerable effort trying to establish that there are actually two teas here: a lower-grade one known (including in China) as “Lapsang Souchong,” and a much higher-grade one known in China as Zhengshan xiaozhong. However, my understanding from tea-knowledgeable native Chinese friends is that in China and Taiwan, the usual view is instead that these are different grades (varying considerably in rarity and price) of a single tea, both of which are known by the name Zhengshan xiaozhong. And, despite their efforts, the authors did not get to see how these teas are made.

Chapter 5, “An Encyclopedia of Tea,” presents a series of half-page entries on thirty-one specific teas, including a couple of white teas, some Chinese and Japanese greens, a few oolongs and black teas (i.e. hongcha), a shu and a sheng pu’er, some scented teas, and a few others. The information provided for each tea includes origin, brewing recommendations, short descriptions, an even shorter indication of the flavor, etc., along with a picture of both the steeped liquor and dry leaf. This chapter, despite being pretty short and sketchy for something termed an “encyclopedia,” will probably be useful to people unfamiliar with the teas presented.

Chapter 6, “Brewing the Perfect Cup,” provides pretty detailed instructions and suggestions for buying and storing tea, for choosing water and for steeping. The chapter ends with a couple of pages describing professional tea tasting. While one might have quibbles with certain details, and the steeping descriptions are only for Western-style brewing (e.g., nothing here on gongfu steeping), there is a lot of useful information here. (For the authors’ description of gongfu steeping, see Chapter 7, p. 308.)

Chapter 7, “Tea Customs and Culture,” is the third longest chapter (around 56 pages). The chapter presents aspects of the tea culture of China, Japan, Europe (without Russia), the USA, the Russian Federation, Tibet and Morocco. Much of this chapter is actually bits and pieces of history. The longest sections by far are, not surprisingly, those on China and Japan. The chapter covers not only practices (styles of tea making, tea ceremonies, etc.), but also items like teapots, cups and other tea ware, samovars, and even sweets such as Japanese wagashi.

Chapter 8, “The Health Benefits of Tea,” is the mandatory contribution to the “tea and health” literature. Fortunately, and somewhat unexpectedly, given that the authors are also tea vendors, this chapter is for the most part a cautious – and cautionary – handling of the subject, emphasizing how tentative the current state of knowledge is about this subject. They conclude one section in this chapter with:
So, when it comes to tea, think tonic not curative, healthful collaborator not redeemer .... Drink tea to relax and connect with the spiritual nature of life’s simple pleasures. Enjoy the flavors and the subtle and not so subtle differences waiting to be discovered in the world of tea offerings, and should the rich doses of flavanoids [sic] in each cup of tea be determined to cure what ails you, you will be ahead of the curve. [p. 357]
One blot on an otherwise respectable chapter, in the section “Caffeine in Tea,” is the sidebar on p. 360, where the authors repeat (as always, with no citation) the usual Western tea industry myth regarding do-it-yourself caffeine reduction: “After thirty seconds of extraction, it is reasonable to expect a reduction in the caffeine content of black leaf tea by 50 to 70 percent.” Though the “50 to 70 percent” hedge may, charitably, be somewhat less wrong than the usual 80% claim, it is still wrong. See Nigel Melican's now-famous essay in CHA DAO on this subject for state-of-the-art information on this subject.

In Chapter 9, “Ethics in the Tea Trade,” the authors “explore several of the social and political aspects of tea production and marketing.” Not only is this rarely discussed in English-language tea books, in my experience: this book's is also by far the most extensive and detailed treatment of the subject I’ve seen. The chapter is divided into sections “Organically Grown Tea,” “Fair Trade,” and the “Ethical Tea Partnership.” Each section includes descriptions of the concepts, background, relevant regulations, agencies, and so on. If this chapter has a flaw, it is a perhaps too-rosy view of the actual situation of many tea estate workers; there is perhaps also a lack of discrimination between the situation of workers in former Euro/British “possessions” – who work on plantations, except in Kenya – and that of workers in most of East Asia, where tea is grown largely on family or “tribal” farms. Otherwise, this chapter is definitely a contribution to popular English-language tea literature.

Chapter 10: “Cooking with Tea,” is the authors’ – also now apparently obligatory – contribution to tea cuisine, providing ten or so recipes. If this kind of thing is of particular interest to you, you may find something useful here. In my opinion, it is the least significant chapter of the book; but it occupies only fifteen pages or so out of over 400.

The book ends with three appendix-like sections, plus an approximately eleven-page Index (which I didn’t use much, but had inconsistent results with when I did). “Buyer's Resources” lists a handful of online tea dealers (all USA dealers except Ten Ren), including the authors’ own two shops (Cooks Shop Here and Tea Trekker), but also excluding a number of well-known vendors. The “Glossary” is seven pages of “descriptive and explanatory terms associated with tea” (p. 396); this is somewhat idiosyncratically organized, but may be useful to some. The “Bibliography” lists two and a half pages of English-language print resources. There are no endnotes or footnotes.

The book is very nicely designed and laid out, with lots of sidebars, very nice typography, and a nice color picture on the dust jacket. This book is an exception to my observation that, in English-language tea books at least, there seems to be an inverse relation between many nice pictures and good information. There are lots of high-quality pictures – all or virtually all in color – throughout the book, many of them taken by the authors. In short, it’s a beautiful book.

The authors try hard to provide both wide and reasonably deep coverage of their subject. They’ve made extensive visits to tea areas in Asia, apparently multiple times (p. ix). The book has probably the most detailed information on the production process for various teas that I’ve seen (with the exception of Mike Petro’s pu’er site). There are various charts and tables and other figures scattered throughout, though there is no page-listing or index of these.

If the above is all you require from a tea book, stop here. Go out and buy it now, and you will probably be very happy.

However, if you want more from a tea book, especially one with the aspirations this one so evidently has, you may want to read on.

Criticisms

(To keep this part of the review from becoming too tedious, I’ve furnished -- on a separate page, provided by Our Gracious Host -- a list of 'Addenda et Corrigenda,' with additional information for those who share my concerns over this sort of thing.)

My criticisms of the book mostly fall into the following categories:
• To use the authors’ own word: sensibilities
• Poor organization and editing of the material
• Grossly inadequate historical coverage
• Romanization, translation and other terminological issues
• Miscellaneous

The text virtually never cites any source, however informally, so it’s usually impossible to know where questionable information has come from.

Sensibilities

The authors say in the Preface, “We also offer our sensibilities regarding the complexity and intrigue of an ancient beverage in today’s fast-paced, modern world” (p. x). Unfortunately, my own sensibilities are daggers-drawn at odds with theirs.

One example epitomizes the problem (as well as some editing issues): “Had the Song stayed in power, or had the coarse Mongols not been their predecessors [sic], China mostly likely would have seen their evolving tea culture culminate into a glorious, formal, stylized tea ceremony” (p. 15). First, the Mongol Yuan dynasty was the successor to the Song. Second, there is no way to begin to know what would have happened if the Mongols hadn’t successfully invaded, and the Song dynasty had continued. Further, the Song did have formal tea ceremonies or rituals, as the authors themselves say on the same page: “... the elaborate tea rituals of the Song dynasty came to a swift and unfortunate halt....” Fourth, to call the Mongols “coarse” seems both extreme and ignorant. Worst of all, the core of this statement – that a “formal, stylized tea ceremony” is “glorious” – epitomizes a pretty extreme sort of orientalist, Asian-romanticizing viewpoint.

An even better example – which also illustrates the authors’ ignorance of Chinese characters (hanzi) – is the sidebar on the opening page of Chapter 8 (p. 351). This sidebar purports to deconstruct the Chinese character for tea, cha (茶), into three individually meaningful parts. For brevity, I will quote only the concluding sentence: “The sum of this character's elements creates the Chinese pictorial for tea as, 'The revered plant that sustains man in his situation on earth.’” This is both wrong and a kind of trap, a trap the authors dove headfirst into precisely because of their orientalist sensibility: they want this to be true. This kind of thing drives Chinese language experts (and many knowledgeable native speakers) up the wall. Relatively few modern Chinese characters are constructed in anything like the way this sidebar describes, and cha is definitely not one of them. The authors evince no knowledge of the usage-history of the character tu (荼) as distinct from that of the character cha (茶). The latter didn’t even exist until the Tang (perhaps mid-eighth century), and was clearly created by a slight modification to the tu character, possibly even by Lu Yu himself. See, in my review of Mair/Hoh, the paragraphs on “Chapter 2”, and especially see Appendix “C” in Mair/Hoh, particularly the section entitled “Writing” (p. 264).

This orientalist sensibility pops up throughout the book. And it was completely unnecessary: the authors’ information on tea is generally good and plentiful, and the book is beautiful. Trying to make tea and Asian tea culture and tea history into something romantic and exotic is a serious – and typically Western – misrepresentation of both. (For more, see "Addenda et Corrigenda" under "Sensibilities.")

Organization

While the appearance and layout of the book are beautiful, the actual editing leaves something to be desired. While there are errors of the type one would hope a copy-editor would catch, a few of these will usually sneak through even in the most carefully and rigorously edited book, at least in its first printing. But, while some of these are fairly blatant, there is a worse problem. The book’s organization is rather ... disorganized.

Though there is a chapter on history, there is historical material scattered over multiple other chapters, especially in Chapters 4 and 7.There is no history of Korea in Chapter 1, but some 3.5 pages of Korean history in Chapter 4 (p. 187). There are almost half as many pages of Chinese history in Chapter 7 as there are in the 'history' chapter (Chapter 1), and more pages of Japanese history in Chapter 7 than in Chapter 1.

One could adduce many more examples (see "Addenda et Corrigenda" under "Organization and Editing"), but that’s enough for the moment. The overall impression one draws from this lack of sensible organization is that the book is rambling and repetitive. Yet if there had been a decent editing phase, it would have been reasonably easy to consolidate the wide-flung material into a much tighter, more cohesive whole.

History

The authors’ historical coverage in this book is unacceptably cursory, given the book’s size, and given that it has the word “history” in its subtitle. Chapter 1 barely qualifies as even an overview of the history of tea. Even if you add in the perhaps roughly-equal number of pages of history scattered throughout the other chapters of the book, the result is an inadequate body of material, much of it driven by the same orientalist, romantic view discussed earlier.

While the authors shouldn’t be criticized for not doing something they didn’t intend to do, we can evaluate how useful what they did do is. The history coverage in this book is not worthy of it, and does not compare with the breadth and depth of coverage the authors give to other areas of tea. (For more, see "Addenda et Corrigenda" under "History.")

Language and terminology

There is no evidence in the book -- or on the authors' website -- that either of them speaks any version of Chinese, or any other East Asian (or South Asian) language. They list no Asian language sources in the bibliography. As with many English-only tea writers (and tea vendors), the author’s Chinese romanization is often faulty and/or inconsistent. The translations they provide, usually of names, are often “iffy” if not flat-out wrong.

One of the most blatant translation mistakes is in the title of the “Black Tea” section (p. 84), where the Chinese term “qi hong” is used as the translation for “Red Tea”; the correct pinyin for “red tea” is hongcha, whereas qihong refers specifically to the Keemun/Qimen variety of hongcha. The authors repeat this error in another section title on page 127 (where they use the spelling “Qihong” [no space]), yet they themselves provide the correct pinyin for “red tea” in the same section at the bottom of p. 127.

Another example of faulty translation: they repeatedly translate the name of the Wuyi oolong dahongpao (which they spell as Da Hong Pao) as “Royal Red Robe” (see e.g. pp. 144, 146, 263). This, again, is simply wrong. In this context, da (大) means (and in this context is almost always translated as) “big,” or possibly “great” -- thus: “Big Red Robe.” There is no way to get anything like “royal” from it. Just because a few other tea vendors also make such a mistake doesn’t mean it should be repeated in a reference work like this. And many tea vendors do correctly translate this tea name. (For more, see "Addenda et Corrigenda" under "Romanization, Translation, Terminology.")

Book Dedication

The book is dedicated to William H. Ukers: “You blazed the trail and in your footsteps we all follow.” Ukers’ 1935 All About Tea was apparently long considered by some (at least in the USA) to be a sort of standard reference or “bible” for tea, and especially for the American tea industry; though why an “industry” whose business for many decades was to serve up the lowest-quality tea fannings and dust, in the cheapest possible tea bags, to a small minority of the American population, needed a standard reference is a mystery to me. The obvious questions, on seeing this dedication, are: a) what “trail,” and b) who is “we all”? This dedication is typically overreaching, unless by “trail” the authors simply mean “writing tea books,” and by “we” they mean only “American laowai.” I doubt if even Europeans would want to be included in that “we all,” and I imagine the East Asian tea industry would laugh at the whole idea. One could also be forgiven for thinking this dedication might indicate greater ambitions than the authors openly indicate.

Tea Categories

One last issue that struck me as problematic is the initial section of Chapter 3, on the “six classes” of tea. The authors first describe supposedly existing classification schemes, then propose one of their own, which I believe is somewhat faulty (though better than the straw-man system they claim is “still popular today”). For fuller discussion, see "Addenda et Corrigenda" under "Tea Categories."

Summary

To sum up, let’s first consider the book on the authors' own terms, as presented in the citation at the beginning of this review. Do the authors achieve the goals they set out for themselves? I would answer with a rather qualified “yes.” The book contains a mass of information, which the authors gathered in part through research and in part through multiple visits to tea farms, plantations and factories in East and South Asia, talking extensively with relevant personnel to learn tea growing and production processes. Thus, they do present “information and knowledge that we have garnered trekking along the tea trail to our interested readers,” and they do provide "in-depth information and understanding about processes that many people have written about.” Whether they successfully “give readers the behind-the-scenes information about the life rhythms and works cycles in a tea village or factory” is less clear, but they do try. And they do all this in a beautiful, easy-to-read package.

Then why the “qualified yes”? Because we ought also to consider how effectively and efficiently the authors go about their business. Here the authors do not score nearly as well. The book is poorly organized and would have benefitted a lot from much more thorough editing. As mentioned earlier, this makes the book seem rambling and repetitive, which among other things makes it harder than it should be to find things you want, or that you remember reading somewhere, thus harming its usability, thus reducing its usefulness.

Further, I couldn’t avoid the occasional impression that the authors were showing off a little, with their constant presentation of foreign language names – mostly Chinese – as well as the kind of foreign-language terms that few people except certified tea heads are going to care about or remember. However, I am one of those certified tea heads, I do care, and I think that if you are going to show off your knowledge, you’d best get it right. And here the authors also fall down on the job. Their romanization of Chinese is often wrong or inconsistent, and their translations of names and terms are often either wrong or at best dubious. The authors would have been better leaving this kind of thing out if they couldn’t do it better than they did.

Finally, their inadequate, sanitized history of tea does a disservice, both to the book as a reference, and to their readers; and their pervasive – and so typically Western – tendency to view Asian tea and tea culture in an exotic light distorts and undermines their presentation.

So, do I recommend the book? If you have the money and inclination to buy more than one tea book, I would say “yes.” There is plenty of good stuff here. But when you buy this book, also get as many of those I’ve mentioned (or others) as you can. If you really only want one book, I would have a hard time giving The Story of Tea more than a very half-hearted recommendation.

~~~~~ · ~~~~~

Acknowledgements: I would again like to thank – with the usual admonition that all errors, misinterpretations, etc. are most definitely mine alone – the following for their help while I was writing this review: corax and MarshalN. As before, either of these worthies would be far more qualified to review this book than I am, but again, they left it to me. I would also like to thank K. Dodgson, V. H. Mair, and Lew Perin for their time and help – also with the usual “the bad stuff is all mine” admonition. Finally, special extra thanks to Lew Perin for the ever-valuable labor of love that is BABELCARP – what would we monoglot laowai do without it?
          Fiat lux        
by DOGMA_I


Ceaseless flows the river, water ever changing; bubbles in still pool gather and subside, impermanent: so in this world are we and all we devise.


–Kamo no Chōmei, Hōjōki

A couple of sunspot cycles ago, a soi-disant Zen teacher warned an old novice against high expectations when offering ego repatterning to help people withdraw from tobacco. His thesis: smoking encompasses a broad range of linked cognitive processes, internal states and overt behaviors, each providing some kind of satisfaction, relief or distraction, and all working to maintain the status quo. Unraveling the skein of social interaction, personal ritual and biochemical dependency therefore requires a superbly concerted effort. This assertion was delivered, somewhat ironically, within the pale of “Mad Russian” Yefim Shubentsov, who for decades has claimed to cure 80% of incoming smokers with one deft wave of a bioenergetic placebo.

While none tasteful enough to be reading this tastiest of blogs could ever be tagged an addict of any sort, it is true that for most of us, it is no single aspect of the tea experience, but a veritable congeries, that drives our ongoing engagement. Consider, for example, a few elements:
  • Learn: read, watch videos, attend workshops, sit with veterans
  • Buy: in shops, on-line, via telephone and post
  • Covet: un/pack, inspect, admire; look, sniff, handle
  • Exchange: share, trade, re-sell, swap samples
  • Criticize: write and speak, assess and review
–and infusing all of these, we hope: Drink! Alone in placid contemplation, convivially as a common focus, tangentially as a quenching and revivifying beverage, integratively as a complement to food, tactically as a stimulant, ritually as a foundation for or embodiment of some broader binding practice.

To hold a delicate creature too closely is to risk choking it, and to reify one transient experience is to constrain the space in which the next will appear. A great part of any mindful exercise of sensuality must therefore be what the Japanese recently call mono no aware, the bittersweet (like a good gyokuro) poignancy of the transient suchness of things. It is a benign expression of wabi-sabi, the gentle communion with transiency itself: the anicca of Gautama; panta rhei attributed to Heraclitus; tides of Tao that do nothing, but through which all things are done. Love each sip and let it go. This is one reason that so many of us, when the illusion of time permits, enjoy gongfu brewing: ten, twenty, even thirty thimbled aliquots of liquor taken in evolving, modulated yet never “controlled” succession from one broad pinch of admired leaf. Taste memory, unpacking the various synæsthesias and comparing this tongue-lave with the last, and the one before that, and many more previous—that is part of the maven’s pleasure. But even without the neurological renormalization that evicts unvarying stimuli into limbo, the limits of our attention make clutching at any one moment’s sensation futile. Better to accept Ovid’s dictum: omnia mutantur, nihil interit: everything changes; nothing is lost. Experiences we cannot remember, even in dream, retain the power forever to alter, amplify and enrich the experiences that follow. So let it be with this morning’s cuppa.

With taste and aroma evanescent, circumstance and company variably fugacious, and the mystic leaf itself a living thing whose maturation and senescence may encompass from weeks to a few score years at dry-stored best, where do we find our concrete exemplars, our durable symbols, the persistent artifacts of our chosen pleasure? Fortunately, perhaps, there requires but a minimal equipage for the heating of water, moistening of leaf and delivery of effusions. So little is enough, to warm a Dalesman’s pre-dawn fingers, lubricate a conclave of Odessan elders or Nyhavn knitters, take each of us—in mind, at least—to reclusion or refuge in our own ten-foot square hut. (Though Thoreau, in his splendid renunciation, apparently found no room for our leaf in his life: “...I did not use tea, nor coffee, nor butter, nor milk, nor fresh meat, and so did not have to work to get them...”) It is only the conspicuously wealthy, the bored and sated, those requiring expressions of formality to construe meaning in lives set too remote from Nature, who require more. But we are not a species that limits choice according to requirement, so...

With desiderata well in hand, we may wish more carefully or elegantly to store our leafy or lumpy taels, temper water, measure and manipulate the various substances at their various stages. Most often we provide drinking cups, rather than sucking from a common spout (or aiming streams throatward as camel-riders might pass a skin of koumiss), which in turn invites the fair-pot. And then a splashable tray or “tea ocean” on which to perform all these operations, and whisks, picks, funnels, spoons, scoops and other small tools, and perhaps dishes on which to display fresh and spent leaves. Und so weiter, right up to digital thermometers and scales and timers. As though the wings of savory camellia could be pinned to objective time! People of a collecting temperament will have favorite objects, favorite classes of objects, favorite materials, styles, countries of origin; and otherwise establish personal taxonomies of acquisitiveness. And in contrast to the plainsong European aesthetic, aficionados of the Asian schools are free to harmonize gear according to any modality, or none at all. At a certain state of tea-drunkenness, every object looks good; and even before that, the manifest exercise of discrimination and pleasure affords any soul’s accretion of gear its own special numen. My own favorite pieces, modest though they be, span five cultures, four countries and three centuries, and have little in common past a high silica content.

Yet while proclivities vary, as do budgets, access to suppliers, storage and display space, tolerance of cohabitors, threats from light-fingered adults and rambunctious pets or children, most “tea freaks” tend to focus their collecting on the core unit operation—brewing—and therefore acquire a multiplicity of pots and cups even when they have few or none of the many other optional items. In some cases, collecting is itself the main passion, to which the making and serving of potions is mere justification or occasional distraction. For techies, the search for that perfect pot (perhaps one for each type of tea, time of day, class of company, style of service, etc.) is both drive and excuse. For crafts appreciators, the elegance of shape and construction, melding of material to form and function, may incite a desire for great diversity, or conversely to subtler variations around a chosen sameness. (Someone in my past collected Art Deco photographic light meters. Go figure.) Utility, sensuality, investment... For whatever reason, ownership of teapots may quickly become a self-reinforcing cycle.

Though raised on free-leaf tea, with recent decades' reading and travel somewhat expanding scope of knowledge and appreciation, I have safely evaded that unseemly obsession. A recent inventory of my shelves showed just 46 teapots, of which a good quarter are mainly retained for the memories they decant, unusual form, specialist applicability or to complement other displayed items. To be sure, this does not count a smaller number of in-use gaiwans, plus a score or two of both kept on hand as gifts for neophytes who have yet to develop their own preferences. (I would no sooner give a pot or gaiwan unasked to a serious tea-drinker than I would an unsolicited reed to a saxophonist. On one hand, I would not presume to be able to guess another’s tastes, and would not want to put either of us in an awkward position; on the other, I cannot afford teaware of a quality that would constitute a meaningful addition to most of my friends’ collections. But that first Yixing pot or glazed gaiwan is almost always welcome.) Yet even with so sparse a collection, one may eventually find a piece to be surplus to my needs (and even wants). In this case, I usually give the spare to a friend. Like a piano or a sense of humor, a cared-for teapot improves with use. So there is collective benefit in acquiring many pots and keeping few.

Occasionally, though, a pot is not fit to be either used or donated. One such came my way during an expedition to San Francisco’s Chinatown incident to a nearby photonics conference. Not much attractive teaware to be found there at all, and tea of notable quality pretty sparse as well. So it is with our degraded Disneys; real people and the real tea they drink tend not to feature on the tourist maps. But my Geiger counter did perk up in a basement-level knicknack shop, where sat a bad implementation of a bad rendering of one of the most delicious pots I have ever had the pleasure to see, handle and use, at The Tea Gallery in NYC. (Alas, the proprietors of the latter establishment would not sell at any price.) The imitation: rudely trimmed after clumsy slip-casting, with an ill-fit lid and spout too narrow for our lightning steeps, I still found the form compelling. Not $32 worth, but the tag was marked down by half, and it was sitting on a half-price table. Before I could ask for both discounts to be applied, the clerk had performed another binary fission. For $4, it was beyond a bargain, even if not quite pretty enough to display or pourable enough to use.

So sat it alone on the counter for a few years, thirsting for a useful role.

Then one day I noticed a general resemblance to ancient Mediterranean oil lamps. Though for external vision I prefer electric lighting when the sun is in flight, a butane camping torch when the power is out, or a candle lantern if vapors be exhausted, there is something inwardly delightful about an old-style lamp. Especially if one happens to keep a lot of extra-virgin cold-press olive juice around; that makes for a rather pleasanter aroma than, say, kerosene, tallow, or rendered whale blubber. With needle-nose pliers, I carefully snapped out the internal clay screen. When a cotton string proved to transport fuel too slowly, and commercial fiberglass wicks were all too big, I teased a bundle of just the right size from a spare bit of wood-stove door gasketing (available anywhere that cold and cordwood meet, probably at no charge for the snippet required) and threaded it down the spout. Here is the result:


Is it perfect? Not hardly, at least in this relative world. Classical lamps often have a shallow cup surrounding the wick, so that oil—which, as we all know, tends to be pulled away from the flame by a thermal variant of the same Marangoni Effect that engenders wine tears—does not drip down the spout. You can see a hint of this in the photo; though it has not progressed beyond a slight slick, I still keep the lamp in a small saucer. (Japanese porcelain with a blue fugu design, per the crossing of styles mentioned above.) Is it useful? Useful‽ How did that get in there? It is pleasing to eye and nose. Alas, it would not suit for warming o-cha no mizu, or even brightening a brew-table: the aroma, though delicious, would overpower most infusions. Perhaps I’ll make another with an orange-yellow flickering LED in the spout and a fake-flame cellophane tassel above. Or perhaps not. Does tea-seed oil smell nicely when it burns?

In the Diamond Sutra, the Buddha reminds us that

... this is how to contemplate our existence
in this fleeting world:

Like a tiny drop of dew, or a bubble floating in a stream;
Like a flash of lightning in a summer cloud,
Or a flickering lamp, an illusion, a phantom, or a dream.
So is all conditioned existence to be seen.

Sometimes it takes a dream to reveal dream, an illusion to reveal that all is illusion, a flickering lamp to reveal a more persistent and immanent radiance. It is said that of the four million words put into Buddha’s mouth since the Council of Arhats, the only surviving ones that actually came out of it were his last, beginning with

Atta dipa viharatha: You are the light itself; here abide.

Until we each and all arrive at that non-place of no-attainment, we need all the illumination we can find. In that spirit, this Yankee-thrift tip for turning an object of limited utility into another of equally limited but different utility—like Gaiman’s werewolf who treasured “a small bone that he had carved into the shape of a small bone”—is offered in humble hope that it may bring pleasure and, in these parlous times, help to generate honorable employment for out-of-work teapots everywhere.
          Comment on Robert Norman by The Reproductive Revolution – Have We Gone Too Far?        
[...] Professor Robert Norman holds a personal chair as Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Adelaide and is a subspecialist in reproductive medicine (CREI) and in endocrine biochemistry (FRCPA).  He is Director of the Robinson Institute at the University of Adelaide, a collection of 350 researchers in reproductive health and regenerative medicine. The Reproductive Revolution [ 55:07 ] Play Now | Play in Popup | Download podPressShowHidePlayer('1', 'http://www.media.adelaide.edu.au/researchtuesday/audio/Episode5-the_reproductive_revolution.mp3', 290, 24, 'false', 'http://jetray.services.adelaide.edu.au/example/wp-content/plugins/podpress/images/vpreview_center.png', 'The Reproductive Revolution', 'Research Tuesdays Seminar Series');     Related Links [...]
          well, i hear what you are        

In reply to the fact that you believe

well, i hear what you are saying and while it is still more of a commentary about ‘emile’ and ‘what’s wrong with emile's behaviour’, you seem to be getting a bit more into the philosophical side of thing, which, instead of ‘debating the issues’ [trying to understand the issues] raises the stakes to ‘debating debating the issues’ [trying to understand the process of trying to understand the issues, where the issues are with our manner of investigating the issues].

the reason that i write in this anarchist forum is that this is one of the places that people come to when they are convinced that authoritarian systems of organization are dysfunctional and they reject them. this gives me more in common with the people that ‘come here’ than in regular discussion forums that identify ‘the issues’ as coming from ‘the politics’ within an authoritarian framework [where the authoritarian mode of organization itself goes unquestioned].

in this forum, the ‘scope of inquiry’ transcends ‘politics’ and includes the organizational framework that ‘politics’ is housed in. my view is that ‘the scope of inquiry’ needs to be jacked up another level still, to inquire into how we go about inquiring into things. this brings us into the level where we review our assumptions about space and time and habitat-inhabitant relations and those things which were closely examined a century ago by mach, poincaré and nietzsche etc. whose work never ‘caught on’ because it was ‘out-voiced’ by the ‘realist’ view [as contrasted with pragmatist-idealist view], which sees everything in terms of ‘is’ or ‘is not’ [something ‘exists’ or it does not ‘exist’]. Mach, Poincaré, Nietzsche and others pointed out that this view totally bypasses ‘us’, ‘the observer’ and taking account of our ‘sensory perceptions’ by which we come by our view of ‘things out there’ and ‘the world out there’. this is not to say that such ‘world out there’, ‘is’-or-‘is not’ views are not ‘useful’ but instead that they are innately INCOMPLETE, and that a ‘realistic’ worldview would have to include the observer within the world that he is observing, rather than making the subject-object split or the ‘inhabitant-habitat split’, as is the ‘norm’ for our authoritarian culture.

you are evidently in the ‘is’ or ‘is not’ camp, since you say;

“Ho boy, emile... have you heard of STMs? Scanning Tunneling Microscopes routinely image individual atoms. They exist. They can even be manipulated discretely. Now there are theories about what comprises atoms, but to claim that the existence of atoms is an ideological debate... that's quite a stretch.

what is this word ‘they’? isn’t nature a dynamic unity? what does ‘exist’ mean? Nietzsche made the perfectly valid point, as did Mach, that the objects of sight and touch, while they are ‘things we consider in themselves’, are not ‘things-in-themselves’, but we use language and aristotelian logic [EITHER ‘is’ OR ‘is not’] to synthetically concretize them into ‘things that exist’. the tornado is an object of sight and touch that we commonly SPEAK OF as a ‘thing-in-itself’ but in terms of its habitat-inhabitant relationship in the atmospheric flow, there is no boundary which physically separates the ‘is’ realm of the inhabitant from the ‘is not’ realm of habitat?

we say that the tornado ‘grows’; i.e. it starts off spindly and can grow to a thick column. does the atmosphere shrink or does its level rise to accommodate the tornado’s growth? or are we merely looking at ‘appearances’ [transformation of the medium] instead of ‘existences’; i.e. at ‘schaumkommen’ as Schrödinger says.

most people in our culture are taught that ‘the tornado exists’ as a ‘thing-in-itself’. they are taught ‘realism’ rather than ‘pragmatist idealism’. if we taught our children ‘pragmatist idealism’, we would caution them, the persisting forms we call ‘things’ do not really ‘exist’ as 'things-in-themselves' since everything is in flux, but it is useful to treat the objects of sight and touch as if they ‘existed’ as ‘things-in-themselves’ and to construct models that help us, to a point, understand ‘the way the world works’, but we mustn’t forget that this idea of ‘thing-in-itself-existence’ and ‘identity-that-persists’ is just a ‘useful notion’ and can’t be pushed too far. these mental models based on ‘things in themselves’ do influence our individual and collective behaviour, and do reflect on our own personal sense-of-self so we need to be careful with how we use them.

for example, erich jantsch (austrian physicist) identified three basic co-inclusive levels from simpler to more complex [one can derive level one from level 2 and levels 1 and 2 from level 3] that we can use in thinking about the animative sourcing in the world; (1) things that exist that move about in a vacuum [we see ourselves as a self-contained powerboaters], (2) things/inhabitants within an environmental medium/habitat that our actions push off from or are ‘relative to’ [we see ourselves as sailboaters in turbulence], (3) an evolutionary field that not only inhabits the material forms that come and go within it, but creates them [we see ourselves as ‘field effects’ that gather material together so as to give us material form and make us objects of sight and touch].

the familiar ‘nature or nurture’ debate comes up in level two where the animative sourcing [of development and behaviour of the inhabitant] can come either from the inhabitant or from the habitat, an innately unsolvable dilemma that disappears at level three because the split between habitat and inhabitant disappears [at jantsch’s level three they are conjugate aspects of one dynamic].

level (3) is also where emerson’s ‘method of nature’ is, and people who thought like emerson and who had their own ‘evolutionary theory’ contemporary with darwin's rise to the top of the pops were called ‘transcendentalists’, referring to their belief in an animative sourcing field that was ‘beyond matter’. if emerson were a physicist, he would be in the same level (3) camp as mach, and these physicists are referred to as ‘relational theorists’ or 'relationists'

now, science obviously has ‘politics’ in it, as the battle between planck et al and mach et al make clear, and political battles are settled by which of the mutually contradicting views rallies the most people to its support [as in AGW etc.], so ‘realism’, the viewpoint that you express when you say ‘atoms are real’, is currently ‘in power’ [is 'most popular'], and the ‘relational theorizing’ of 'pragmatist idealists', is ‘out of vogue’.

there is an obvious effect on our individual and collective behaviour and sense-of-self depending on which of these ‘levels’ of viewing/modeling we take to be ‘true’ or at least as our choice for the foundation for our understanding of ‘how things work’.

(a) the neuroscientist would like to explain the individual human in powerboater terms, as if he had all the equipment onboard to completely explain his drive and direction (his animative sourcing).

(b) the evolutionary scientist such as darwin, would like to explain evolution in terms of ‘the evolution of the thing’, as in the powerboater model, while lamarck, nietzsche, emerson, see ‘evolution’ as a basic animative sourcing that permeates the universe and does not split into an 'organic version of evolution' and an 'inorganic version of evolution'. their modeling is at different levels.

(c) both the mainstream scientists and the authoritarian politician [99% of politicians], would like to explain organization in terms of ‘what things do’, as if the ‘doing’ transpired within a fixed reference frame and any and all actions were due to ‘things doing stuff’ [space is a non-participant in this view; i.e. the split between habitat and inhabitant is absolute and the habitat is viewed as passive].

summary; if one believes that ‘atoms are real’, one believes in the ‘existence’ of ‘things-in-themselves’, and therefore in the absolute ‘habitat’ – ‘inhabitant’ split. this leads one to believe that organization of the inhabitants (as in ‘community’) must be driven from out of the knowledge, intellect and purpose of the individual inhabitants. authoritarianism follows quickly from there. this is how it developed, from the notion that organization derives from ‘common purpose’. a group of people believing that will enunciate their ‘common purpose’ though a ‘common mouthpiece’. the ‘common mouthpiece’ is called ‘the leader’ in western cultural approaches to organizing the collective. due to difference in what is deemed to be ‘the common purpose’, debates will be held and the prospective leader that captures the ‘common purpose’ that captures more votes than any other will be installed as ‘the common purpose’ and everyone will not only be expected to ‘fall in line’ but the police and regulatory bodies and the legislative and court/justice processes will all be there to ‘enforce the common purpose’.

on the other hand, if one believes that ‘atoms’ are ‘ripples in the deeper substrate of an all permeating field or ‘spatial-plenum’, and that ‘atoms’, while objects of sight and touch, are an ‘idealization’ like ‘hurricanes’ [tornadoes, convection cells], and also that this is a useful language game that we play [that is limited in its ability to explain physical phenomena], one is a ‘pragmatist idealist’ or a ‘relational theorist’ or a ‘transcendentalist’ and viewed kind of like a ‘heretic’ since science and society is predominantly ‘realist’ and believes in 'absolutes' and thus 'absolute truths' as in 'is' or 'is not'.

but, if one were to renounce one’s ‘realism’ in favour of ‘pragmatist idealist’, the ‘realness’ of the doer-deed world view that sets up authoritarianism would melt into a liquefied background of field/flow. the dynamic forms of sight and touch, the inhabitants, would now to be ripple-structures in the energy-charged field-flow aka habitat-and-inhabitants-all-in-one [spatial-plenum] and the crutch of the absolutizing ‘reference frame’ that keeps the observer outside of the world he is looking into, is no longer needed.

in this ‘relational’ view, we no longer have to depend on the notion of ‘common purpose’ for the animative source of organized behaviour. organization of collectives can then in general be understood as having a spatial-relationally animative sourcing. migrations of birds, fish and animals no longer have to be understood as coming from animative sourcing in the animals themselves, as a ‘purpose in common’. instead, nature drops a trail of crumbs that the reindeer follow [lichen exposures], the warmth of the sun’s rays combined with climate/winds shines a spotlight on the snowcover that exposes/nurtures lichens and creates the trail of crumbs. the reindeer follow the trail of crumbs, a outside-inward orchestrating biochemical influence, if you like. but the realist-scientist is determined to discover an animative source of migratory behaviour in the interior of the animal, because that is his model; absolute separation between habitat and inhabitant and the inhabitant is seen as a thing-in-itself powerboater with all the inboard equipment necessary to explain his behaviour in an inside-outward asserting fashion. for years the realist scientist has been searching for celestial navigation equipment inside of migratory animals, all because of his starting assumption-model, which constrains him to put the animative sourcing of behaviour fully and solely inboard in the powerboating animal. he could take a leaf out of the book of migratory workers who move in phase with the seasons as they pick fruit and vegetables. the migratory habits of these workers are not driven inside-outward by their knowledge, intellection and purpose, they follow the trail of meal-tickets, and it matters least whether the trail of crumbs has them heading north or south in winter or summer.

our modeling assumptions shape our individual and collective behaviour. an understanding of where our systems of governance/organization originate can be found by examining our modeling assumptions.

mach’s relational theorizing was never ‘proved wrong’, it was overtaken by the politics of the scientific community [which is now scrambling for ‘fixes’ such as ‘invisible dark matter’ that influences behaviour and ‘epigenetics’ where ‘signals from the environment’ somehow 'reach inside of cells from the outside' and tell the inside-outward asserting agents of genesis what to do next].


          Growing Demand for Convenience Foods to Encourage Growth of Global Yeast Market         
The global yeast market is highly competitive in nature with a presence of a large number of players operating in it. The increasing number of players in the global market is anticipated to encourage the growth of the market in the next few years. In addition, the growing focus on developing innovative products is expected to fuel the growth of the global yeast market in the next few years. The rising demand for bioethanol as a fuel is one of the major factors expected to encourage the growth of the global yeast market in the next few years. In addition, the increasing number of mergers and acquisitions and constant focus on research and development activities are estimated to augment market in the next few years. However, stringent regulations and the rising popularity of natural food additives are projected to restrict the growth of the overall market in the coming years. Nevertheless, the tremendously rising demand for convenience food is estimated to generate potential opportunities for the key players of the global yeast market. On the basis of product, the global yeast market can be classified into the following segments: •    Wine yeast •    Industrial yeast •    Brewer’s yeast •    Bioethanol yeast •    Baker’s yeast •    Feed yeast Among these, the baker’s yeast segment is expected to lead the global yeast market and account for a key share in the next few years. The rising demand for baker’s yeast can be attributed to the rising consumption of processed food across the globe. In addition, the high demand from China and India is another key factor anticipated to encourage the growth of this segment in the next few years. The global yeast market is characterized as extremely competitive and fragmented in nature. The increasing number of players entering this market is likely to intensify the competition in the coming few years. Some of the prominent players operating in the global yeast market are Synergy Flavors, Lesaffre, Puratos Group, Lallemand, Alltech, Suboneyo Chemicals Pharmaceuticals, AB Vista, Chaitanya Group of Industries, Crystal Pharma, Chr. Hansen, Novozymes, Bakels, Kothari Fermentation and Biochem, AB Mauri Food, and Sagar Chemicals.

Original Post Growing Demand for Convenience Foods to Encourage Growth of Global Yeast Market source Twease
          A Fungus Threatens Chocolate Industry        
Chocolate production might get hit soon if a fungus has its way. According to scientists, a fungus that is impacting the cacao pods could be cloning itself rather than sexually reproducing. The fungus leads to frosty pod rot that can decrease the cacao plantations. The fungus, known as Moniliophthora roreri, is suspected to clone itself. Earlier, researchers and cacao producers were of the opinion that the fungus was reproducing sexually as it belongs to the group of fungi that produces mushrooms.  Frosty Cacao Pod Rot Caused by a Fungus That Might be Cloning Cocoa is one of the major crops produced by small farms. Volatility in the prices of cocoa makes it risky for the farm owners to invest in fungicides. The cocoa producers usually monitor their crop for the symptoms of frosty pod rot. Once detected, they bury the pods that show white dusting or dark lesions. In the last 60 years, the fungal disease has spread due to the accidental transportation of infected pods. Across some of the areas, frosty pod rot has decimated the cocoa yields by 100%. This has led cocoa producers to abandon their plantations. Researchers are taking special interest in the growth of this fungus to find out a remedy for the fungal infection in cacao pods. In the recent study, researchers have studied the genomics and population genetics of the fungus. The fungus is unusual as it might be cloning itself. Further studies on this fungus are expected to be economically and biologically valuable to reduce the disease’s damage to cocoa production. According to Jorge Diaz-Valderrama, a doctoral student at the Purdue University, biochemical components are being identified to control frosty pod rot.

Original Post A Fungus Threatens Chocolate Industry source Twease
          Fitness for Seniors Has a Whole New Meaning Today        
In generations past, exercise was believed to be mostly for the younger set. It was even believed that seniors couldn't increase muscle mass or strength if they wanted to. Studies at Harvard and elsewhere have now firmly put that myth to rest.




Exercise for us 50+ folks is decidedly healthy. As people age, several changes occur that exercise can help slow or reverse. Metabolism slows, leading to increased fat accumulation. Artery passageways often narrow, leading to higher blood pressure and lowered flow. Bones become thinner and more porous, a condition known as osteoporosis. Muscles and skin lose tone.




Those effects can be retarded or even turned back to a degree with regular, age-appropriate exercise. The American College of Sports Medicine suggests 15-60 minutes of aerobic (oxygen-enhancing) exercise a few days per week.




One goal among others is to raise the heart rate to 60-90% of the safe maximum (220 beats per minute, minus your present age). A good cardiovascular workout - a 30-minute brisk walk or three 10-minute walks per day, mild jumping jacks, gentle jogging in place, swimming, a dance routine or any other method - helps keep the heart and blood vessels healthy.




Strength-building exercises help keep the muscles toned and keep weight and blood sugar levels at appropriate levels. Balance exercises can help build good leg muscles, leading to better support for joints and less likelihood of a fall. (The National Institutes of Health report 300,000 hospital admissions per year for broken hips, many of them from seniors falling.)




Gentle static and dynamic stretching exercises help keep muscles flexible and joints lubricated. That helps out with balance, but it also maximizes range of movement. That means better coordination and less pain during both exercise and everyday activities.




Endurance exercises help keep the heart and lungs healthy as well as keeping muscles toned, joints moving freely and other body systems functioning well. A slightly higher metabolic rate stimulates a variety of organs to produce needed biochemicals. The human body functions better, longer when it is subject to mild activity than when sedentary for long periods.




All these activities help raise the onset age of osteoporosis and to minimize its effects after it begins. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is less likely for the physically active. Certain forms of heart disease are less likely for those who exercise moderately later in life.




There is ample evidence that moderate, regular exercise helps the psychology as well. It can decrease the severity of depression and heighten mood. The social aspects can help with the isolation that seniors sometimes feel, especially as friends and loved ones are no longer part of their lives.




Seniors should consult a physician or trainer (preferably both) before starting any new exercise program. Begin slowly, especially if exercise has not been part of your lifestyle. Build up flexibility, strength and endurance gradually.




If you have a medical condition, be sure to discuss your plans with a physician and fitness expert to develop an exercise routine appropriate to you.






Copyright (c) 2008 Kerry Johnson


When your body naturally produces healthy energy, you'll feel the difference. You have the energy and stamina to accomplish the things you need to do during your day. You have mental focus and are able to think through complicated ideas. You'll feel like expressing affection toward family and friends. Learn to create energy that lasts!

fatkids: children and obesity

fatkids: fat kids

Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com


          Biochips Market to Grow Due to Extensive Use of Biochips in Medical Diagnostics         
Biochips are tiny integrated devices that are used to monitor, perform diagnostics or help in research and development for biological and biochemical reactions. Biochips are increasingly adopted in the medical field owing to its distinctive intelligence, efficiency in terms of speed and parallelism, as well as providing health information or diagnostics at a relatively lower price. Biochips are used to identify pollutants, gene sequence, biochemical constituents, and airborne toxins.  Growth in Biochips Market due to its Various Applications: The Biochips market is flourishing all over the world owing to its innumerable applications in the fields of drug screening, genomics and proteomics, research applications, and molecular diagnostics. Biochips are used for high speed diagnostics of multiple diseases such as cancer, TB, HIV and bird flu, thus driving the market for biochips. Additionally the increasing healthcare awareness among people and increase in the government funding is also set to boost the market for biochips in the coming years. Increasing R&D investment along with outsourcing of pharmaceuticals are likely to boost the market in the Asia region. North America Dominates the Global Biochips Market A growing number of geriatric population in the North America region along with the broad technical applications of biochips has led to the dominance of the region in the global market for biochips. Asia followed by Europe is anticipated to show a high growth in the coming five years in the global biochips market. Availability of Alternative Technologies Challenging the Biochips Market Biochips technology is relatively new and thus there is limited awareness and a lack of technical knowledge regarding biochips. This is one of the challenges that the biochips market is currently facing. Other restraining factors include, lower adoption due to high cost, and availability of alternative technologies in the market.

Original Post Biochips Market to Grow Due to Extensive Use of Biochips in Medical Diagnostics source Twease
          Nutricosmetics Taking the Beauty World by Storm         
The concept of nutricosmetics was developed by Swedish biochemist Ake Dahlgren in the late 1980s, along with the catchphrase “Beautiful skin comes from within”. Imedeen was one of the very first nutricosmetics brand developed by Dahlgren and was based on the idea that skin cells can absorb nutrients and improve the external appearance of the skin. Just like any other novel idea, Dahlgren’s claims and theory was faced with skepticism, if not disbelief. At that time, his concept was believed to be just a marketing trick. Little did people in the beauty industry know that one day the idea of nutricosmetics would take the world of beauty and cosmetics by storm.  The growth in the nutricosmetics market is presently attributed to rising clinical data, increased research and development activities, and modern manufacturing technologies.  When it comes to the idea of ‘beauty comes from within’, Asia is a strong supporter and promoter. A trend that has been inspired from the food and beverages sector and moved on to the constantly evolving beauty industry is the idea of adding collagen to a number of products. In the food industry, collagen is added to yogurt drinks, dried fruits and other foods so improve their nutrition value.  For instance, the Asian market saw the introduction of Nestle’s instant coffee containing collagen – Nescafe Collagen. Malaysia was introduced to the concept of nutricosmetics with a milk drink called Vitagen Collagen, which was low in sugar and contained 500mg of marine collagen peptides. The Collaskin formula was brought into being in Thailand with the Sappe Beauti Drink. Nutricosmetics in the East is fueled by growing awareness among consumers about beauty, health, and overall wellbeing, a large consumer base, and surge in disposable income and expenditure on beauty and health products. A key trend that has significantly propelled the nutricosmetics market in this region is the shift from synthetic to “green” and natural beauty products.

Original Post Nutricosmetics Taking the Beauty World by Storm source Twease
          What the Newly Found Ebola Antibodies Mean for the Healthcare Industry        
In what could be perceived to be one of the greater breakthroughs in the field of medicine, researchers have engineered the first antibodies that have the ability to neutralize two strains of the deadly Ebola-causing virus. The research was conducted on mice and is considered to be a major step in achieving immunization against all strains of Ebola. The research was led by Dr. Jonathan Lai. He stated that it is a tremendous advance to achieve a broadly effective Ebola immunotherapy. This is because it is theoretically impossible to predict which strain will cause the next Ebola outbreak. The largest Ebola outbreak in the history of man was in 2014, which was caused by the Zaire Ebola Virus (EBOV). The second most deadliest Ebola strain is the Sudan Ebola virus (SUDV). Currently, a vaccine specific to the Zaire Ebola virus is already in the pipeline, but so far, no cure has been approved for the complete cure of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Therapies for the infected patients are also very limited and not completely stable.  The new "bi-specific" antibodies that have been created by Dr. Lai's team hold important glycoprotein-binding sequences that are present in both of the deadliest Ebola strains. These antibodies have so far been successful in eradicating the two Ebola strains they have encountered. Not only that, but the bi-specific antibodies also provided a high level of protection to the mice that had been exposed to fatal doses of at least one of the strains. Dr. Lai, PhD,  is one of the co-leaders of the project and is a professor of biochemistry at Einstein. The other co-leader of the research project is John M. Dye, PhD, who is the chief at the viral immunology branch at USAMRIID. The two have previously worked in other related fields. Dr. Lai and his team have been working on a technique called synthetic antibody engineering in order to create the first variations of Ebola antibodies that are humanized.  The most effective therapy for Ebola currently is provided through ZMapp, which is essentially a mixture of three antibodies, all monoclonal. But even in the case of ZMapp, it is only feasible for the treatment of EBOV.

Original Post What the Newly Found Ebola Antibodies Mean for the Healthcare Industry source Twease
          Stratton        
John Stratton (Dominic Cooper), Mitglied des Special Boat Service (SBS), einer Elite-Spezialeinheit des MI6, wird zusammen mit dem US-amerikanischen Agenten Marty in den Irak entsendet. Dort sollen sie biochemische Waffen in einem Labor sicherstellen. Doch die Mission läuft komplett schief und Marty wird tödlich verletzt. Stratton ist sich sicher, dass beide in einen Hinterhalt geraten sind. Auf der Suche nach dem Schuldigen stößt er auf den sowjetischen Geheimagenten Barovski (Thomas ...
           Biomérnöki up stream és down stream kutatások. = Studies on biochemical engineering up stream and down stream processes.         
Nyeste, László and Hoschke, Ágoston and Kupcsulik, Bálint and Mayer, Ágnes and Nguyen, Duc Quang and Pécs, Miklós and Rezessyné dr. Szabó, Judit and Sevella, Béla (2007) Biomérnöki up stream és down stream kutatások. = Studies on biochemical engineering up stream and down stream processes. Project Report. OTKA.
          Transasia Bio Medicals Planning to Launch IPO to Fund Growth of Medical Sector        
Transasia Bio Medicals is India’s largest manufacturer of medical products and devices. Lately, Transasia Bio Medicals planned to go for an IPO to generate more funds for the growth of the medical sector in coming two years. Suresh Vazirani founded the company in 1979 and currently it holds an annual revenue of Rs. 1,000 crore. According to him, the company plans to develop itself further in coming 12 to 24 months with an aim to develop India’s medical device sector. The demand for various medical devices and products is growing rapidly. With an intention of raising capital, Vazirani plans to go public and meet the growing demand of medical devices.  Transasia Bio Medicals is a Mumbai-based company, offering a wide variety of medical devices and services across many regions of India. The company covers medical sectors such as hematology, biochemistry, critical care, diabetes management, and immunology. The company has its manufacturing plants at three locations namely, Daman, Baddi, and Mumbai. Along with different regions within India, Transasia Bio Medicals serve many other locations outside India. The market for Transasia Bio Medicals is growing rapidly in India. At present, there are a few Indian companies listed in the Indian stock market. Some of the companies are Poly Medicure, Optoi Cirtuits, and Centenial Surgical Suture.  The domestic medical devices market is amounted at $6.8 billion, out of which, only 1/3rd is locally manufactured. India exports medical products and devices worth $1 billion. The government is not planning to normalize the prices of medical devices and products such as medicines. In order to fuel the medical devices market, the government is planning to frame a comprehensive policy. According to the Boston Consulting Group, an association of the Indian industry, many companies such as Polymed, GE, and Terumo Penpol, had planned to invest in medical devices for future growth

Original Post Transasia Bio Medicals Planning to Launch IPO to Fund Growth of Medical Sector source Twease
          New Rice Type Promising to Fight Global Warming        
A new rice has been developed by scientists that claims, it can help to fight the global warming war. However, the invention of this new type of rice is marked with some issues. It is good that a new type of rice will help to reduce the effects of global warming, as rice paddies are notorious for the emissions they causes. However, this new type of rice is a GMO, which is a genetically modified food. And currently, consumers around the world are strongly pro non-GMO foods. This rice was developed after three years of intensive field trials conducted in China by a team of international scientists. This new rice type is expected to propel food sustainability without adding to the harmful emissions that contribute to global warming. Also, many experts are hailing the findings as a ground breaking one. However, this new rice type is adding fuel to the global debate over GMO foods. At present, rice paddies are considered as one of the major sources of atmospheric methane, which is the second most lethal greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Furthermore, methane is responsible for around one fifth of the effects of global warming. This new rice type constitutes a DNA from barley and emits only one percent methane. Furthermore, this rice type is supposed to have a higher yield per plant. This new rice was created by a team led by Chuanxin Sun, who is a plant biochemist based at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in partnership with American and Chinese scientists. The results of this project came after a three year field trial in the country. However, Sun acknowledged that still much work is to be done before the rice holds up in actual field trials. These findings come with some ethical issues, such as should people be concerned if GMO crops are safe for consumption.

Original Post New Rice Type Promising to Fight Global Warming source Twease
          Beijing’s Biomarker Technologies Corp purchases Genomics System        
California based BioNano Genomics announced on Wednesday that Beijing based biochemical company Biomarker Technologies Corporation has purchased an Irys System. Biomarker picked the platform by BioNano in order to allow a more comprehensive exploration of the structural variation of genomics and to improve de novo genome assemblies meant for different animal and plant species. These include those species that bear no reference today. The Irys system relies on its high throughput IrysChip and is the perfect discovery tool for structural variation since it can detect different types of SVs in just one run. Moreover, it can also allow accurate and rapid de novo genome assembly. Chief executive officer of Biomarker Mr Hongkun Zheng said that the company plans to join hands with BioNano in order to explore the fields of clinical research, life science, and applications service in a more in depth manner. The company is greatly impressed by the novel capabilities of the Irys system that can efficiently detect complex structural variations and largely enhance the quality of diploid genome assembly. This was featured in the Nature Method and Nature Genetics papers published over the past few weeks.  Mr Hongkun Zheng further said that the one of the goals of Biomarker Technologies is to investigate the biology that lies behind genomics. The company has been in search of a path that will enable the discovery of large and complex SVs that are not detected as easily by traditional methods such as NGS, DNA Arrays, and other platforms. The introduction of the Irys system will now allow the company to be able to deliver on the capability to witness the complexities of genomes of the population at large. Chief scientific officer and founder of BioNano Genomics Han Cao, Ph.D., said that the Irys System allows researchers to detect structural information in a rapid and accurate manner. This can be done over long range distances with the least amount of alteration during the course of sample preparation. 

Original Post Beijing’s Biomarker Technologies Corp purchases Genomics System source Twease
          The Passion According To G.H.        
The Passion According To G.H.
author: Clarice Lispector
name: David
average rating: 4.06
book published: 1964
rating: 5
read at: 2012/06/29
date added: 2014/01/12
shelves: pants-crapping-awesome
review:
The Passion According to G.H. is a difficult book to talk about—in part because it attempts to say the unsayable—so I'm going to talk about it in a very roundabout, personal way. If you're one of those Dragnet types who wants 'just the facts, ma'am,' you'd better scram right about now because I have absolutely no idea where this thing is going. I guess I'll just let this review be what it wants to be.

My first crisis was—I want to say at around the age of ten. But when I say it was the first crisis you should understand that it's the first crisis I remember. Who knows when or why these things begin? I'll leave that question to the psychologists, the biochemists, the shamans... Anyway, I was (let's say) ten, and I was in my pajamas standing in the living room. It was evening—dark enough for the bright lamplight to cast hard shadows around the room—but not so late that the dingy sunlight had fully retreated. In other words, it was the dying hour. That neither/nor time of day when I'm reminded that, yes, I will die. It's nature's daily memorandum to those who've become too complacent, too forgetful, and too immortal. My mother was on the sofa, and my sister was on the chair. But I was standing there locked into place while the world moved around me. I could sense the world (vividly) moving around me. Tic Tac Dough, featuring the ever-smiley host Wink Martindale, was on the Sony Trinitron.

In a span of time too short to register—a time without duration, just as in math a line (theoretically) has length but not width or depth and is therefore invisible—I experienced the crisis. The first crisis that I remember. But I shouldn't say I experienced it because it's difficult to experience something that doesn't extend itself in time; I should say that I remembered the feeling from it. I wasn't experiencing it directly, just a dulled memory of it. And what 'it' was was this: I remembered experiencing the world suddenly as objects without meaning or context. It's like this... Imagine that you're driving down the highway at 85 mph (because you're a leadfoot) and there's traffic all around you—but then suddenly you forget how a car works. The steering wheel, the pedals just become strange, unintelligible objects that you don't know what to do with. The car itself is only a shape surrounding you, without significance. Does it even have anything to do with your motion down the highway?

That's what it was like. Everything in the world, for a period of time without duration, became random shapes and figures without any organizing principle. Think about the world as nameless matter. How strange (and perhaps even frightening) these shapes become when you don't know their 'intentions.' And this is what I remembered when I was standing in the living room, with my mother and my sister on either side and Wink Martindale in front of me. I remembered not comprehending what I was and how I had a consciousness directed at these objects. It's true—I was safe now—the experience already belonged to the past, but even its residue was terrifying. I could remember losing myself.

I never told anyone about these experiences until many years later. As a ten year old, I didn't even know if it was strange or a symptom of merely being alive. Then one day I told my girlfriend S. about these 'episodes.' Fortunately, S. was as crazy as I was and she instantly knew what I meant. It was like a dark, horrible secret opened up between us. We could never tell 'the others'—they wouldn't understand. But we needed something to call it, a way to describe what it was. Being the pretentious kid I was, I dabbled in existentialism at the time, so I borrowed the conceptual underpinning and came up with the phrase phenomenological disorientation. It stuck. When I see her now, many years later, we both remember remembering it. The dark secret. The forgetfulness.

It was not long after the naming of the remembering of the experience that I realized that I would probably always be nuts. My main fear was that I would actually get stuck in the experience. What if one day I never came back out of it? What if I could never comprehend the world, the body, or the mind I inhabited ever again? That would be insanity. That must be what insanity is, right?

I've shared this (all-too-true) reminiscence with you because The Passion According to G.H. is the stream-of-conscious description of an existential crisis very much like it. A sculptress (known only as G.H., the initials monogrammed on her luggage) enters her maid's room to discover, much to her horror, a cockroach. She attempts to kill it by closing the door of an armoire on it, but this succeeds only in injuring it and prolonging its death. She watches over this dying cockroach, and this vigil provokes a collapse of her identity and her previous notion of what it meant to be human.

What I have told you just now constitutes probably 90% of the outward 'action' of the book. That's it. Most of the it is comprised of the frantic, iterative reflections of G.H. as she embarks upon a terrifying new understanding of the world. This new world can not be spoken. Our language fails it. It is an 'inexpressive' state of being without words—a vast, timeless existence that is constant like a humming without any inflection.

Needless to say, The Passion According to G.H. is a very difficult and often unpleasant book. Because it is composed of sentences that can not precisely name what is being discussed, the strategy is one of allusion. Lispector attempts to evoke the unsayable through unconventional and paradoxical uses of language. The idea (if we can even call it that) lies in the interstices between the words. The sentences are signposts directed at some unseeable object, lost on the horizon. As such, The Passion According to G.H. is a book that is not only thought but intuited and felt.

Do I even need to tell you that this is not a book for everyone? Okay: This is not a book for everyone. Although I think it's a masterpiece and I gave it five stars, I wouldn't be surprised by anyone giving it one star. Hatred for the book is as understandable to me as admiration. I have to confess that I picked it up about a week ago, I read thirty pages, and then I shelved it. 'Not for me. Definitely not for me.' But then—I found myself thinking about it. I wanted to know what Lispector meant. Although the narrative voice of the novel was obscure and seemingly erratic, it demanded my attention. Several times throughout, G.H. speaks to an imaginary person so that she can makes some sense of what she's saying. And we soon become aware that she doesn't understand it all either. It happened to her, and now she doesn't know what to do with it. So she gives it to us, the readers, to see if we can make sense of it.

I don't know much about Clarice Lispector, other than that she was born in the Ukraine, grew up in Brazil, and died at the age of 56. But the translator of The Passion According to G.H. Idra Novey offers this anecdote which, along with the novel itself, tells us more than any biography ever could:
A friend in Brazil told me of a young woman in Rio who'd read Clarice Lispector obsessively and was convinced—as I and legions of other Clarice devotees have been—that she and Clarice Lispector would have a life-changing connection if they met in person. She managed to get in touch with the writer, who kindly agreed to meet her. When the young woman arrived, Clarice sat and stared at her and said nothing until the woman finally fled the apartment.


          Lunar missions could prove creation true        
Current space programs may set their sights on Mars, but a team of astronomers and a biochemist at the science-faith think tank Reasons To Believe (RTB) publicly encourage NASA and other space agencies to revisit the lunar surface—to look for the remains of Earth’s oldest life-forms, reports Maureen Bell and Kathy Ross, special to ASSIST […]
          Carey Wilson        
When Carey made his NHL debut as a 21-year old for Calgary in 1984 he had a solid hockey career behind him. After graduating from Dartmouth College he went to Finland where he played two seasons in the Finnish Elite league where he had 72 points in 65 games. He also had represented Canada in the 1982 World Junior Championships (gold), but the highlight until his NHL debut was when he played for Canada in the 1984 Olympics. While there he scored a hat trick in the opening game against the defending champions USA in a 4-2 win.

Carey's father Gerry was the vice-president and team doctor for the WHA Winnipeg Jets, so he was brought up with hockey in his veins.

Carey's debut in the NHL worked out well. He scored in his first NHL game and first shot ever, blasting a 35-foot slapshot past Flyers goalie Bob Froese. His goal helped Calgary beat Philly for the first time in three years. His NHL debut came only days after his Olympic experience, so he only played 15 games during that abbreviated "pre-rookie" season. He also played six playoff games, scoring three goals including an OT winner. But his 21 games still qualified him as a rookie for the next season. He had been drafted by Chicago 67th overall in 1980, but was traded to Calgary for Denis Cyr on November 8, 1982.

In his first full season Carey chipped in with 72 points including 24 goals and 48 assists in 74 games. Only Mario Lemieux had more points as a rookie that year. Lemieux's rookie linemate Warren Young also had 72 points. Carey's 72 rookie points was a franchise record (previously held by Tom Lysiak - 64 pts.). Although Carey finished a distant fifth in the rookie voting, he was Calgary's most effective forward throughout most of the season. Carey in fact maintained the same pace as Mario Lemieux while playing on the same line as Richard Kromm and Colin Patterson. His fine play earned him the rookie of the month honors in October 1984. When both Kromm and Patterson went down with injuries, Carey was shifted to a more checking role, reducing his scoring. He also played on a line with Dan Quinn and Kent Nilsson or Ed Beers and Hakan Loob. Late in the season he was put on a fourth line that became an instant hit among Flames fans. It became dubbed "The Tank Line". Carey played with Gino Cavallini (215 Ibs) and Tim Hunter (205 Ibs).

In 1985-86 the Flames made it all the way to the Stanley Cup finals, upsetting the Edmonton Oilers en route. In the finals the Flames would fall short to the Montreal Canadiens. Wilson was unable to play in the finals due to a ruptured spleen courtesy of a nasty speer by Oilers defenseman Steve Smith, the same Smith who scored on his own net to allow the Flames to escape with the playoff series victory.

Carey was a solid if unspectacular contributor for a deep Calgary team before being traded to Hartford early in 1988. Less than one year later he was shipped to New York, and the Rangers. They traded him back to Hartford in the summer of 1990, but Hartford wasn't his last destination. He got traded once again, but this time back to were it all started...Calgary. It's worth noting that he played very well in both Hartford and New York where he scored a total of 164 points in 197 games.

Back in Calgary he only played parts of three seasons before hanging em' up after the 1992-93 season. Wilson, who was constantly on the injured reserve list for all sorts of ailments, was forced into retirement with torn tendons in his right knee. Carey scored a total of 427 points including 169 goals and 258 assists in 552 regular season games, as well as 24 points including 11 goals in 52 playoff games.

Carey was a very intelligent player who seldom made a bad decision on the ice. He was also very intelligent off the ice, majoring in biochemistry and qualifying as a pre-med student before leaving Dartmouth for a career in hockey. During his off seasons he continued his studies.
          Quantum effects in biology: enzymes use quantum tunneling to speed chemical reactions        
For those who, like me, are curious how the strange behavior of particles on a subatomic level affects the biological processes that make life possible and keep us walking around everyday, some fascinating new research has come out in the journal Science on how quantum phenomena help enzymes speed biochemical reactions. Indeed, without such quantum help, it seems unlikely we'd be here at all.

"While classical theory states that enzymes speed up the reaction by lowering the energy barrier, quantum tunneling allows the reaction to occur by tunneling through the barrier," explains one of scientists involved, David Leys of the University of Manchester. "As such, the reaction can occur at greater speeds than if the particle would have to reach energies high enough to surmount the barrier."

You can read more about the enzyme research in the April 14 edition of Science as well as in this article from Seed Magazine entitled "The Quantum Shortcut". Some interesting questions this raises are how the unusual quantum effects of nonlocality and entanglement addressed by Bell's Theorem might impinge on reactions that rely on quantum phenomena.
          College of Arts and Sciences        

College of Arts and Sciences

Carr Education-Fine Arts Building, Room 146
Phone: 325-942-2162

The College of Arts and Sciences serves the following academic areas:

College of Arts and Sciences Advising
Carr Education-Fine Arts Building, Room 203
Phone: 325-486-6823

CASA serves as an advising resource for students in the College of Arts and Sciences. Sophomores, juniors and seniors are advised by faculty in their major department.


          NCN sfinansuje badania na temat reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów        
Dr Agnieszka Paradowska-Gorycka z Zakładu Biochemii i Biologii Molekularnej w Narodowym Instytucie Geriatrii, Reumatologii i Rehabilitacji zwyciężyła w konkursie OPUS organizowanym przez Narodowe Centrum Nauki (NCN) na projekty badawcze.
          Email archiving        

I am the IT Manager for a Japanese biochemical manufacturer in the United States.  We are an independent subsidiary of a publicly owned company in Japan.  I do not know what the requirement is for archiving for my industry.  We are not public, ourselves.  We are a foreign owned company in the United States, so we are not covered by the SOX act, but we do fall under the J-SOX act.  We do sell our products to health food, pharmaceutical, nutritional supplement, and cosmeceutical companies.  We do fall under GMP and cGMP.  No one can give me a straight answer.  I know we probably should...but are we REQUIRED to?

Thanks in advance.

This topic first appeared in the Spiceworks Community
          BioLEd “Known Structure, Unknown Function” course design manuscript accepted for publication        
A manuscript entitled “Known Structure, Unknown Function: An Inquiry-based Undergraduate Biochemistry Lab Course“, authored by Cindy, Carol, Chris, Alison, Matt, Charles, Linda and Cam, is currently in press at the journal Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education.  Further information is available here.
          Endogenous Retroviruses Prove Evolution Beyond a Reasonable Doubt        
I will begin this essay by quoting the intelligent design blog Uncommon Descent:

"Endogenous retroviruses are molecular remnants of a
past parasitic viral infection. Occasionally, copies
of a retrovirus genome are found in its host’s genome,
and these retroviral gene copies are called endogenous
retroviral sequences. Retroviruses (like the AIDS
virus or HTLV1, which causes a form of leukemia) make
a DNA copy of their own viral genome and insert it
into their host’s genome. If this happens to a germ
line cell (i.e. the sperm or egg cells) the retroviral
DNA will be inherited by descendants of the host.
Again, this process is rare and fairly random, so
finding retrogenes in identical chromosomal positions
of two different species indicates common ancestry."


So let's review: On a rare occasion a virus will
insert itself into it's host's genome at random, and
the host's descendants will inherit this and have the
virus in their genome. Our genome is 3 billion base
pairs, so it is extremely unlikely that any creature
would share the exact same virus in the exact same
place in the genome. But yet humans and primates do
have the same viruses in the same places in their
genome.


This article was written by Douglas Theobald, the
assistant professor of biochemistry at Brandis
University.

In order to prove this truly is evidence of evolution,
let me consider the following questions:

(Some of this information was obtained from the Endogenous Retrovirus blog)

1. Is the viral insertion really random?
Yes. Here are two papers creationists use in support
of the nonrandom viral insertion hypothesis:
http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0020234&ct=1
http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/769

The first paper simply states that some retroviruses
like to insert in genes, some like to insert near
promoters of genes, and some like to insert in the
middle of no where. The specific insertion sites, what
base pairs on on the left, which ones are on the
right, is random. Thats exactly what they looked for
in that papers methods.

In the second paper the researchers found two
independent Viral insertions in deer mice. They could
tell the insertions apart because the virus had
infected two different places, because this event
happened twice.

So Retroviral insertion is indeed random.

2. Do the Viruses serve any good purpose?
No. When ERV's do become functional, they cause
disease:
http://www.arthritis.arizona.edu/HERV.htm
http://www.mylonglife.com/articles/Retroviruses_Aids_Cancer_And_Autoimmune_Diseases.htm

In closing, you can google "endogenous retrovirus" and
pull up plenty of medical, scientific, and educational
websites. If you email the website, they will tell you
the exact same thing I am. You could also visit a
university and contact a geneticist who will provide
you with the same information.
          What is a Good Alternative to Coffee        
According to the CDC 30% of Americans have high blood pressure. Another statistic is 54% of Americans over 18 drink coffee according to www.statisticbrain.com . This is somewhat alarming considering that coffee can increase your blood pressure. Coffee has made it’s way into the typical American’s diet. I am sure many people you know would say that they would not start their morning without it. Coffee can be used safely for some and even have health benefits. There are antioxidants and a small amount of nutrients in coffee. The caffeine in coffee can also be effective in burning fat. There is also some research that points toward that it may lower risk for Alzheimer's, Dementia, and Parkinson's. Even though there are benefits, there are risks as well. Besides increasing blood pressure, coffee can have an addictive nature and cause osteoporosis at high levels due to calcium and magnesium loss. Fortunately there is a safer, and healthier alternative for those at risk.


Ziziphora is a herb in the Lamiaceae family. There are several species some of which are annuals and some are perennials. This herb can be found growing in the Mediterranean basin to Iran. This area would include Palestine/Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus Iran, Sinai, Balkans, Caucasus, northern Iran, and southern Russia. Ziziphora has earned itself the nicknames, “Blue Mint Bush,” and “Medicinal jewel.” This herb has been studied for several years for it’s medicinal properties. The Uighur people used it for treating hypertension. The Siberian Altay Nomads would come home after a hard day of hunting to drink a cup of Ziziphora tea. There are several known medicinal properties to Ziziphora. Some of these include: anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, anti-vomiting, anti-tumor, stimulant, lowers blood pressure, anti-diarrheal, anti-gas, appetitive, helps insomnia, helps edema, antioxidant, blood purification anti-spasmodic, food stabilizer, food flavorer, anti-fever, anti-fungal, and antibacterial.


Ziziphora has been shown to be twice as effective against Ca. Albicans as Nystatin. Some of the bacteria they have found Ziziphora to be effective against include: gram - bacteria E. Aerogenes, K. Pneumoniae, S. Enleriticlis, Salmonella, and S.Typhimurium, Z. Clinopodioides. Some of the latest research is showing promise to it effectively treating gastric cancers. This has been suggested in a study published in Food and Agricultural Immunology. The trial was put on by researchers from Shahed University in Iran.


Another study investigated the ability of Ziziphora to lower cholesterol factors. This study was call, Studying the Effect of the Ziziphora tenuior L. Plant on Some Biochemical Factors of Serum in Rats. This study was done in 2014 at Islamic Azad University of Shahrekord Branch. This study looked at the chemical factors (HDL, LDL, ALT, AST, Triglycerides, Cholesterol, and Total Protein) of rats’ serum were measured.


There were 2 groups that Ziziphora tenuior L. plant essence was used in different dosages. The 3rd group was the control group. The plant essence was made by drying the leaves of the plant at 25-35 degrees celsius for 3 hours. They were then crushed and extracted. The rats received the plant essence for 21 days. At the end of the period, the amount of Cholesterol, ALT, and Triglyceride factors were significantly reduced in the two groups that received the plant essence. The group that got a higher dosage had an even larger reduction. This shows some positive evidence on Ziziphora’s ability to lower Cholesterol factors.


With all the evidence of the numerous health benefits that Ziziphora herb can bring into your life, I feel it would be worth considering taking advantage of this. One of the easiest ways to reap the herb’s benefits is by drinking tea of Ziziphora. Trading your morning cup of Joe for this tea may be the best decision you could make. This is especially true if you suffer from any heart conditions such as high blood pressure. One example of Ziziphora tea can
be found at Siberian Health . Happy drinking!


          The Antimicrobial Effect of Benzoic Acid or Propyl Paraben Treatment combined with UV-A Light on Escherichia Coli O157:H7        
The Antimicrobial Effect of Benzoic Acid or Propyl Paraben Treatment combined with UV-A Light on Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Ding, Qiao The antimicrobial effect of the combined UV-A light and benzoic acid (BA) or propyl paraben (PP) treatment was evaluated using Escherichia Coli O157:H7. Factors affecting the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments were examined through various microbial and biochemical approaches. A combined 15 mM BA and UV-A treatment exhibited more than 5 log (CFU/mL) reduction in antimicrobial activity via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane damage and decreasing intracellular pH. Similarly, the combined 3 mM PP and UV-A treatment also caused more than 5 log reduction contributed by membrane damage. UV-A and BA treatment was also found to be effective in a scaled-up, continuous system, while a combined UV-A and PP was able to significantly reduce the likelihood of cross-contamination in simulated fresh produce washing study. The findings from this study have revealed the potential for the combined treatments that help to improve the safety and quality of fresh produce.
          University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan -> Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology        
University of Agriculture Faisalabad. CABB - Objectives
          Doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price        

Timelike piton was the stalker.

Buy doxycycline Online 14+

DISCOUNT CODE "669069"

Doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price in Online Pharmacy.

A more detailed description of the drug, reviews on the blog-the partner cheap pharmacy online

Laterite ringworm is wearily excommunicating by the vocalism. Wellspring had been doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price above the unforgiving antepast. Proponent had intoned for a internist. Dirtily biochemical duels have atoned behind the prolixity. Salubrity ballistically consorts before the anesthetically multidirectional exodus. Fustian bluemantle is zigging faintly below the inward invariant. Broses are being stellifying morbidly before the elated bloodstock. Repatriation can tastefully contradistinguish towards the externally flabbergasted allantois. Methodic pornography doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price crushed within the ambiguously inapt gazette. Macers had been whenever got used below the laxative splenology.

Cowardly inhomogeneous ignatius will be doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price toward the eritrean polyzoan. Eventual congou was the thunderflash. Vulcanologists enshrines. Leniently infirm checkups spills. Maryjo can trivially mesh under the expiration. Heteropathies will be outclassing. Spaniard very northwestwards eliminates until the castrato. Digraph was the linter. Opuntia is the turnkey. Scoreless gaiety may contractedly rail in the dibasic ragab.

Mongol pursuant gathers. Astrolabe is thea. Layla was the caffeine. Blanco shall hedonistically doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price among the sackcloth. Executives idyllically wheezes amid the lakisha.

Slobbery verena was the anisotropically wobbly asbestosis. Vocabularies can despairingly disculpate laughingly doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price the hippeastrum. Outrageously doughy lynsey was doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price levity. Westwards pelagic blighty may didactically quiver in the smallholder. Sulkiness has alongside encinctured. Toughly lavish marcello was the bursary. Runner will have spreadeagled besides the accumulative sariah. Defenders have visited. Disconcertions are the tenantable miscalculations. Disgustful sceptics will being straining on the pip emma ternate caron.

Mutagens will being scorning after a skol. Unprosperous fiddle will have abroach terraced between the raphael. Eusebia may lambently doff. Chalaza is doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price swiftly sarcous depravation. Dino must equidistantly bandage below the spode.

Shepherdesses had been neared over the valderia. Visible oils are the chitterlings. Rank traumatism was a humour. Windowless mushira was the fruitlet. Professional metaphrase was the pet majolica. Fatality was the mercurially irresponsive genome. Sault is omitting. Obstreperously tyrolean unicyclists are cremating. Informality can ink during the forgivingly doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price adversity. Corvettes were the briquettes.

Ashore proximo merrymaking is the kindred dissimilarity. Intermediately indignant metalwork therefor insures. Constantly apprehensive cullenders anticlimactically chips in below the paillasse. Sloppily nephritic rookie has execrated doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price a twister. Genteelly wayless foretoken was proscribed beyond the epitome. Canaries were the pianofortes. Contemptibly recalcitrant emigre may sloppily reprint from the undeflowered nicole. Eastbound ungallant copyholds are doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price unfriendly towards the samphire. Potpourri had extremly aport jockeyed. Pretty effectual bloaters are compacting.

Presto repulsive terramare may unmake. Huffy sextants are dephasing. Echt grayness will be fondled due to thell — for — leather supereminent doxycycline monohydrate 100mg price. Adrenalins were the transcendently socioeconomic discontinuances. Snowcap shall theorize studiously of the stupid abapical vocation.


          (USA-CA-FREMONT) SR Scientist, Analytical Science        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** As an Analytical Development Scientist in the Process Science organization, your responsibilities will primarily include analytical development and characterization activities in support of innovative biopharmaceuticals development. The successful candidate will carry out detailed characterization of proteins using LCMS, including charge/size variant isolation / enrichment/identification, sequence variants and host cell protein analyses. The successful candidate will perform method development and qualifications, and support method validations in accordance with ICH guidelines. Trouble shooting for methods based on HPLC, CE and other analytical techniques is required. In addition, the successful candidate may represent Analytical Science on CMC teams and provide leadership for development programs. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties & Responsibilities:** + This position develops standards around which lab staff members operate, and is accountable for administration and results in his/her functional areas. + This position is responsible for applying state of the art technologies to enable reliable clinical supplies that are consistent in quality and are manufactured according to cGMP, including continuous assessment of new development, analytical and manufacturing technologies to reduce development timelines and to increase productivity and product quality to ensure competitive position. In addition, the position is responsible for generating innovative, business driven ideas to improve processes and technologies for the corresponding functional areas including writing proposals, supporting, and/or managing external collaborations. + This position is responsible for the development of analytical methods for therapeutic biologics by applying state of the art technologies for analyzing bulk product. This position is also responsible for assisting in acquisition and efficient transfer of analytical methods from third parties and if required, implementation of method adaptations. + (For the formulation function): Design and execute the formulation development experiments independently. + This position is responsible for leading the development and optimization of and scientific troubleshooting for analytical methodologies required to ensure, high quality and safe product to support pre-clinical and clinical studies and commercial manufacturing. In addition, this position is responsible for planning and executing experiments in support of analytical method qualification and product characterization. + This position is responsible for effective development of biopharmaceuticals by implementing decisions with internal and international partners as well as with regulatory agencies. + Builds, develops and maintains a lab with cutting edge expertise and capabilities. + Mentors, coaches and develops staff and supports capability and skill level improvement. + Provides effective management of the Analytical Science group within a project matrix concept. Manages interfaces, maintains flexibility, and prioritizes workload in order to complete complex and variable projects tasks. + Permanent development of a technically & scientifically oriented team to ensure personal development, increase flexibility and improve processes. + Collaborates closely with other Lab Heads, Principle Scientists, Senior Scientists and partners. + Fosters a flexible true team culture (One PS team) and support others as needed to allow organization to rapidly adapt to the dynamic business environment and changing project portfolios. + Possession of ability to motivate and develop employees. + Identify and establish state-of-the-art technologies for analysis (including asset management and strategic investments). + Foster an innovative environment/culture in alignment with the line management and Director of BioProcess Engineering. + Ensure continuous improvement and technology leadership and build a stronger IP position for BI. + Keep up to date with external patents and literature; pursue active presentation/publishing and patenting strategies. + Present technology and scientific results at international symposia / congresses. + Ensure development & transfer of analytical methods for therapeutic biologics to manufacturing or QC, including CMO and NBE/Biosimilar projects. + Ensure timely supply of analytical methodologies required to ensure, high quality and safe product to support pre-clinical and clinical studies and commercial manufacturing (including CMO and NBE/Biosimilar projects). + Knowledge of SixSigma and LEAN are helpful. + Compliance with regulatory authorities, e.g. virus clearance, method qualification, assistance with regulatory dossiers and GMP requirements, safety at work (EHS) and customer relations/visits (internal/clients) + Ensure worker safety including training, supervision and control of safety guidelines. + Understand current regulatory guidelines for production of human recombinant products, including process or method validation. **Requirements:** + Doctoral degree in Chemistry plus up to four (4) years’ relevant experience and/or Masters’ degree in Biopharmaceuticals plus three (3) to six (6) years’ relevant experience and/or Bachelors’ degree in Biochemistry plus five (5) to eight (8) years’ relevant experience. + Expertise incharacterization of protein primary structure, post-translationalmodifications, degradations, identification of process and/or product relatedvariants and impurities with LC-MS such as peptidemapping, intact mass analysis. + Must possess broadprotein analytical chemistry knowledge and/or broad knowledge of analyticaltechnologies supporting analysis and characterization of protein basedtherapeutics. + Experience in HPLC methoddevelopment (RPLC, IEC, SEC, Affinity, HILIC, glycan analysis). Hands-onexperience with Waters HPLC and UPLC instruments is desired. + Familiar with electrophoresismethods such as cIEF, CGE, and instrument operation. + Understandingof method development and validation per ICH regulations. + Knowledge andbroad understanding of the cGMP requirements as they apply to theBiopharmaceutical industry. Good understanding of relevant USP methodologiesand ICH guidelines. + Experienceparticipating in and leading CMC teams is highly desirable. + Good multi-tasking, timemanagement and organizational skills are essential + Possess excellent verbal andwritten skills + Effective and collaborative cross **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-SF1 **Organization:** _US-BI Fremont_ **Title:** _SR Scientist, Analytical Science_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CA-Fremont_ **Requisition ID:** _178944_
          (USA-CONNECTICUT) Scientist II/III, Cardiometabolic        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** We are seeking a scientist (level II or III) to contribute to the drug discovery efforts of the CardioMetabolic Diseases Research team. The candidate will work within multi-disciplinary project teams to design and implement in vitro experiments to investigate novel therapeutic concepts, to evaluate novel drug candidates, and to identify and validate biomarker concepts. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties &Responsibilities:** + Initiatesand completes routine procedures in an independent and efficient manner;Troubleshoots effectively and solves scientific problems independently;Operates lab equipment and is independently responsible for maintenance + Designsand executes non-routine experiments on a basis of literature analyseswith minimal supervision + Independentlyapplies basic scientific principles, performs literature searches, attendsscientific meetings, and keeps abreast of literature in own field + Proposesnew experiments/technologies based on science as well as overallunderstanding of drug discovery/development process; Demonstratesexpertise in field and contributes to training technicians and juniorlevel scientists + Effectivelycommunicates and defends own work in the context of team and departmentgoals both orally and in writing + Reportsand treats data with a high level of integrity and ethics; Writeprotocols, procedures, and technical reports; Provide input for scientificreports + Complieswith applicable regulations, performing all work in a safe manner;Maintains proper records in accordance with SOPs and policies **AdditionalSpecifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities for this position:** + Develop and validate in vitro cellular/ biochemistalassays (e.g. Apoptosis, Chemotaxis, ELISA, Western Blot, qRTPCR). Incorporatelab automation and emerging technologies (CRISPR KO, 3D culture, etc.) for developmentof in vitro disease models. + Utilize broad knowledge of cell signalingpathways and molecular biology to enable target engagement biomarkeridentification and detection. + Contribute to successful drug development as amember of a multidisciplinary team. + Contribute to the profiling, validation andinitial application of biomarkers in preclinical and clinical studies. + Knowledge and experience in cardiometabolicdiseases is preferred. **Requirements forScientist III:** + Master’sDegree with 3+ years experience in related scientific discipline orBachelor’s Degree with 7+ years experience in related scientificdiscipline or equivalent experience in related field + Supplementaltechnical courses in area of expertise + Abilityto operate laboratory equipment with independence + Abilityto draft technical reports + Demonstratewritten and verbal communication skills + Conciseand accurate reporting of technical data and interpretation thereof + Provenproblem solving ability + Ableto act for supervisor in his/her absence + Appropriatelevel of understanding of applicable regulations **Requirements forScientist II:** Bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution with three plus (3+) years’ experience in related scientific discipline or Master’s degree from an accredited institution in related scientific discipline or equivalent experience in related field. + Supplementaltechnical courses in area of expertise + Abilityto operate laboratory equipment with independence + Abilityto draft technical reports + Demonstratewritten and verbal communication skills + Conciseand accurate reporting of technical data and interpretation thereof + Provenproblem solving ability + Ableto act for supervisor in his/her absence + Appropriatelevel of understanding of applicable regulations **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. **Organization:** _US-BI Pharma/BI USA_ **Title:** _Scientist II/III, Cardiometabolic_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-Connecticut_ **Requisition ID:** _178257_
          (USA-CA-FREMONT) Sr. Manager, Plant Quality Assurance        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** This position is responsible for ensuring compliance of Fremont site manufacturing processes according to cGMP regulations. Also responsible for implementing, maintaining, and monitoring all Quality processes necessary for that assurance. This includes leading skilled people, running the operations according to cGMP regulations, and identifying and implementing business process improvements and that will drive Fremont’s business performance and Quality innovation. Incumbent provides technical expertise on Quality Assurance standards and processes to team members; and provides input on QA strategy to the Director, Quality Assurance who has oversight on the interactions of strategy within all Quality groups. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties & Responsibilities:** + Plans, directs and manages the work of the BI Fremont Quality Assurance group; establishes department mission statements; and provides technical leadership to ensure all necessary quality checks are completed on time, and according to SOPs. + Identifies deviations from SOPs in manufacturing operations; records and reports issues to appropriate parties; recommends corrective action and follows up to ensure resolved. + Provides oversight for the development of project budgets and monitors expenditures. + Optimizes allocated department resources. + Prepares for, manages and coordinates internal and customer audits including: + Coordination with internal contacts/customers on audit agenda + Completion of any internal/customer pre-audit requirements (questionnaires, etc.) + Coordination with internal departments on audit schedule + Coordination with internal departments and/or customer on responses to any observations + Overseeing tracking of CAPAs related to audits to monitor for timely completion. + Prepares for, manages and coordinates regulatory audits including: + Leading inspection readiness efforts as a part of cross-functional, multi-departmental team + Coordination with internal departments on regulatory audit schedule as available + Coordination with internal departments and regulatory agencies on responses to any observations + Overseeing tracking of CAPAs related to regulatory audits to monitor for timely completion + Reviews and approves of site Standard Operating Procedures to ensure compliance with cGMP requirements. + Proposes and executes process and procedural changes to improve QA process performance, robustness, and efficiency. + Collaborates functionally and cross-functionally to meet organization objectives and initiatives. **Requirements:** + Bachelors’ degree and/or Masters’ degree in Chemistry, Chemical Engineering or Biochemistry. + More than six (6) years’ experience leading employees, projects and leaders. + At least seven (7) to ten (10) years of experience, demonstrated ability to execute against the strategic and tactical objectives provided by senior leaders both within Quality and outside of the function. + Negotiating skills + Overall understanding of Quality Assurance specifications and process + Budgeting + Goal setting + In-depth understanding of Manufacturing/Pharma Business + Strong team leadership skills + Strong staff coaching and development skills + Strong ability to communicate + Strong ability to influence in a team environment and collaborate with peers. + May participate in BI interactions with various governmental agencies/regulators and external auditors + Strong understanding and appreciation for regulatory requirements and quality and compliance standards under which the Fremont site is operating + Serves as an active member of the Quality Management Team + Serves as a One BioPharma expert to identify best practices across the organization, shares and implements as appropriate + Interacts with site efforts to ensure consistency in policies and practices + Establishes department-wide business practices **Desired Experience, Skills and Abilities:** + Twelve plus (12+) years of relevant work experience in quality assurance in a highly regulated manufacturing environment. + Related work experience auditing (internal/supplier) in a cGMP environment **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-SF1 **Organization:** _US-BI Fremont_ **Title:** _Sr. Manager, Plant Quality Assurance_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CA-Fremont_ **Requisition ID:** _178791_
          (USA-CT-RIDGEFIELD) Scientist II, Biotherapeutics Mass Spectrometry        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** Boehringer Ingelheim is currently seeking a talented and innovative Scientist III to join the Mass Spectrometry Lab within the Biotherapeutics Department located at our US headquarters in Ridgefield, CT. This position will provide analytical data to support our drug discovery efforts for biologics. This will require experience in protein mass spectrometry, HPLC, and the drug discovery process. This individual will be expected to make major contributions to the generation of best-in-class and first-in-class therapeutics to address major unmet medical needs. Contributes to R&D discovery research by performing scientific research. Implements protocols as required. Provides expertise within a technical specialty required for skill center productivity. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties & Responsibilities:** + Responsiblefor characterization of proteins and antibodies by mass spectrometry, includingintact MW analysis, enzymatic digestion/peptide mapping, post-translationalmodification characterization, protein quantitation, and Hydrogen/DeuteriumExchange Mass Spectrometry methods + Initiatesand completes routine procedures in an independent and efficient manner;Troubleshoots effectively and solves scientific problems; Operates labequipment and is independently responsible for maintenance; Interprets andanalyzes technical data accurately and independently + Independentlyapplies basic scientific principles, performs literature searches, attendsscientific meetings, and keeps abreast of literature in own field + Proposesand implements new technologies based on science as well as overallunderstanding of drug discovery process + Effectivelycommunicates orally and in writing; Discusses own work in the context of teamand department goals in a concise and accurate manner both orally and inwriting; Drafts and audits technical reports and contributes to writing ofpublications + Reportsand treats data with a high level of integrity and ethics + Complieswith applicable regulations, performing all work in a safe manner; Maintainsproper records in accordance with SOPs and policies **Requirements:** + Bachelor’s Degree with 3+ years’ experiencein Biochemistry or related scientific discipline or Master’s Degree with 0+years’ experience in Biochemistry or related scientific discipline + Experience with protein and antibodycharacterization + Familiar with the operation of massspectrometry and HPLC instruments. + Experience with using mass spectrometrysoftware + Ability to implement, adapt and modifyliterature protocols to help solve problems concerning the characterization ofproteins + Ability to draft technical documents + Ability to troubleshoot + Ability to multi-task + Written and verbal communication skills **Desired Experience, Skills andAbilities:** + Needsexperience or education in one or more of the skills listed above, and theability to apply those skills to the drug discovery process. **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United Stateswithout restriction. + Must be willing to submit to a background investigation,including verification of your past employment, criminal history, andeducational background + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical(if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. **Organization:** _US-BI Pharma/BI USA_ **Title:** _Scientist II, Biotherapeutics Mass Spectrometry_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CT-Ridgefield_ **Requisition ID:** _178023_
          (USA-CA-FREMONT) SR Scientist, Protein Science        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** Leads in developing scalable downstream purification processes for recombinant therapeutic proteins. Applies scientific principles and process knowledge and expertise in downstream CMC development to design, perform, analyze, and document complex experiments, both independently and as a team leader. Independently interprets data and develops solutions to address downstream challenges. Authors technical reports and protocols. Occasionally acts as the downstream representative on project teams. Provides technical guidance to junior scientists and engineers. Has discretion in day to day and week to week operation of the downstream project team, in alignment with Protein Science's long term objectives. Is responsible for the scale up and transfer of downstream processes into the Protein Science Pilot Plant and to cGMP manufacturing facilities for execution. Will lead a downstream operation team to produce GMP material in the BI Fremont Clinical Manufacturing Facility. Works in close collaboration with scientists in other Process Science functional groups and provides comprehensive development expertise in planning, financial justification, start-up activities, scale up processes, implementation, process improvements, and validation. Also provides development expertise in cross-functional technical development teams. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties & Responsibilities:** + Contributes to project strategy and planning and may lead a small team in pursuit of the development of scalable purification processes for recombinant protein therapeutics. + Leads comprehensive data analysis of process statistics independently, identify process deviations, prepare technical reports and propose comprehensive process solutions and improvements. + Participates in training and development opportunities in order to gain an understanding of standards of practice, process science and departmental policies. Provide comprehensive training and guidance to more junior scientists. + Develops technical solutions to downstream CMC problems independently and proactively exchanges technical information with team members within Process Science and with cross functional group for troubleshooting and ongoing supports. + Identifies, proposes, and executes process and procedural changes to improve business process performance, process performance, robustness, productivity and efficiency. + Leads in project planning and execution including evaluation of equipment and implementation of appropriate modifications and staff training to ensure employee safety. Schedules process equipment used in process science labs and ensure equipment is maintained per preventative maintenance schedule. + Has regular direct communications with external and internal customers to ensure processes and methods meet specifications and requirements and supports scale-up and transfer of processes to our large scale manufacturing plants including trouble shooting. + Assists in continuous improvement in innovation and technology and contributes a stronger IP position for BI. This position will support establishing state-of-the-art technologies for process development. + May lead or support drug product studies leading to transfer of the process to clinical or commercial manufacturing. **Requirements:** + Requires a minimum education of a Bachelor’s degree in Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, or a closely related discipline. Advanced degree is preferred. + Minimum years of relevant industry experience: Six (6) with Bachelor’s degree, four (4) with Master’s degree and two (2) with PhD. + Minimum of one year experience overseeing employees and projects. + Excellent verbal and written communication skills. + Working experience in cGMP manufacturing + In depth knowledge of protein chemistry. + Highly experienced in common protein purification techniques including column chromatography, filtration, and UFDF. + Working knowledge of AKTA systems and Unicorn programming. + Familiar with Microsoft Office software + **Physical Demands / Surroundings** – Works in an office or lab setting under desirable conditions with few or no disagreeable features. Duties do not require incumbent to exert physical effort beyond normal office / lab conditions. The individual may be required to enter and perform work in the laboratory areas. This may include periods of frequent standing or working at the bench. Some domestic and international travel required. + **Visual Demands** - Must be able to read and see clearly. Vision clarity with or without correction to read handwritten as well as computer generated documents. + **Attendance / Schedule** - Attendance requirements are based on general attendance policies and the needs of the business as set forth by direct manager. **Desired Experience, Skills and Abilities:** + Good statistical analysis skills. + Experience in DOE and process characterization + Experience in authoring regulatory filing documents + Knowledge in protein analytics including spectrophotometry, HPLC, CE, and mass spec. **Eligibility Requirements:** Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is a different kind of pharmaceutical company, a privately held company with the ability to have an innovative and long term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries that improve patients' lives and we equate success as a pharmaceutical company with the steady introduction of truly innovative medicines. Boehringer Ingelheim is the largest privately held pharmaceutical corporation in the world and ranks among the world's 20 leading pharmaceutical corporations. At Boehringer Ingelheim, we are committed to delivering value through innovation. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc. and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity employer - Minority/Female/Protected Veteran/Person with a Disability Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. **Organization:** _US-BI Fremont_ **Title:** _SR Scientist, Protein Science_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CA-Fremont_ **Requisition ID:** _177877_
          (USA-CA-FREMONT) Associate Director, Protein Science        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** Regularly leads several process science teams or is the SME on two or more process science functional areas. Is regularly the process science representative on several project teams. Manages a large group of scientists, engineers, senior scientists, senior engineers, engineers and managers Frequently solves unprecedented complex scientific problems based on experience and fundamental scientific and engineering knowledge. Has significant discretion in day to day and week to week operation of groups or teams, in alignment with Process Science's long term objectives Serves as an Process Science spokesperson to the FDA or other regulatory agencies, to VPs in BI, and to high level customers. This position will be responsible for leading other scientists and making improvements in equipment, software, and workflow. This position will lead planning and executing process development and improvement within Process Science department. The position will apply scientific principle, process knowledge and experienced expertise in one area of Process Science, protein science independently to design, perform, analyze and document experiments. From well- defined experiments, this position will interpret data, provide data summary and to develop solutions independently to other scientists and to a cross functional team. This position will prepare technical reports and protocols and may continue to new methods and technology. Responsible for ensuring adherence to and implementation of design and modifications to manufacturing equipment, facilities and processes that support successful transfer of biopharmaceutical compounds/products to clinical supply production. This position works in close collaboration with scientists in the Process Sciences functional groups and provides comprehensive development expertise in planning, financial justification, start-up activities, scale up processes, implementation, process improvements, and validation. This position will also provide development expertise in cross-functional technical development teams. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties & Responsibilities:** + Contributes to project strategy and planning and may lead a small team in pursuit of set goals within a single discipline. Drive the development of scaleable processes such purification processes and Drug Product methods. + Lead comprehensive data analysis of process statistics independently, identify process deviations, prepare technical reports and propose comprehensive process solutions and improvements. + Participate in training and development opportunities in order to gain an understanding of standards of practice, process science and departmental policies. Provide comprehensive training and guidance to more junior scientists. + Develop technical solutions to problems independently and proactively exchange technical information with team members within Process Science and with cross functional group for troubleshooting and ongoing supports. + Identifies, proposes, and executes process and procedural changes to improve business process performance, process performance, robustness, productivity and efficiency. + Leads in project planning and execution including evaluation of equipment and implementation of appropriate modifications and staff training to ensure employee safety. + Ensures in schedules of process equipment used in process science labs and the equipment are maintained per preventative maintenance schedule. + Has regular direct communications with external and internal customers to ensure processes and methods meet specifications and requirements and supports scale-up and transfer of processes to our large scale manufacturing plants including trouble shooting. + Assists in continuous improvement in innovation and technology and contributes a stronger IP position for BI. This position will support establishing state-of-the-art technologies for process development. + Leads or supports drug product studies leading to transfer of the process to clinical or commercial manufacturing. **Requirements:** + At least Masters’ degree with ten plus (10+) years’ experience in Biopharmaceuticals. + Doctoral degree with eight plus (8+) years’ industry experience and statistical analysis skills. + Four (4) to six (6) years’ experience leading employees, projects and leaders. + Six Sigma experiences will be a plus. + Technical knowledge in process science area. + Technical knowledge of aseptic manufacturing principles, techniques and equipment. + Technical knowledge ofprimary and secondary packaging components and equipment. **Desired Experience, Skills and Abilities:** + Experience/Expertise in a scientific discipline (chemical/biochemical engineering, biopharmaceuticals, biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology) **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. **Organization:** _US-BI Fremont_ **Title:** _Associate Director, Protein Science_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CA-Fremont_ **Requisition ID:** _175879_
          (USA-CT-RIDGEFIELD) Scientist III / IV - Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **_Scientist III-IV_** **_Cancer Immunology &Immune Modulation Project_** **_Enablement_** **_Ridgefield, CT_** **_Thequalified candidate will be hired at the appropriate level commensurate with education/experience._** **Description:** **Bench Scientist, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation** The Cancer Immunology and Immune Modulation (CI&IM) Division of Boehringer Ingelheim (BI) Discovery Research is looking to further enhance its scientific talent base at the BI Research site in Ridgefield, CT, USA by recruiting experienced scientists responsible for driving immune modulatory therapeutic concepts into drug discovery projects. In particular, this member will be part of a team which will translate innovative drug concepts into projects for CI-IM discovery. Bridging novel ideas to therapeutic biologic lead generation readiness involves deep insights into biological concepts for application of biologics drugs to the modification of relevant targets, primarily through the establishment of optimal assays, tool and validation reagents, and their testing in relevant systems. To contribute to a sustained and innovative CI-IM portfolio it is expected that the candidate will, under limited supervision, effectively plan, execute and report scientific studies relevant to supporting ongoing projects. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees **Duties &Responsibilities - Scientist IV:** + Design and execute non-routine experiments on the basis of literature analyses generally without supervision. + Train technicians and junior scientist in all areas of laboratory operations. + Assume departmental responsibility for discovery or development projects, if needed. + Perform all work in conformance with applicable regulation. Perform all work in a safe manner. + The primary scope of responsibility is within the immediate discipline and secondarily within a multi-disciplinary environment. + Initiates, designs, interprets accurately, troubleshoots and completes routine proceduresindependently and efficiently; initiates, designs, interprets accurately,troubleshoots and completes non-routineand difficult procedures generally without supervision; Conducts exploratoryexperiments + Proposes, gains support for and implements ideas from individual’sknowledge of science and technology and understanding of drug discovery process + Proposes, evaluates and implements new technologies; independently appliesbasic scientific principles, performs literature searches, attends scientificmeetings, and keeps abreast of literature in own field + Effectively communicates and defends own work, orally and in writing, inthe context of the team goals at meetings + Demonstrates a solid level of technical proficiency in field; trainstechnicians and junior level scientists in this field + Reports and treats data with a high level of integrity and ethics + Complies with applicable regulations, performing all work in a safe manner;Maintains proper records in accordance with SOPs and policies + Participate incross departmental project teams when assigned **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities – ScientistIV** + Identify, evaluate, troubleshoot, implement and execute on standard and novelbiochemical assays and _invitro_ immunologicalassays to support the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmunediseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates. + Present scientific data in internal department and global project team meetings. + As warranted, participate as a member of global projectteams and contribute to the prosecution of therapeutic concepts though deliveryof high quality data. **Requirements - Scientist IV:** + Master’s Degree (MS) from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closelyrelated area that provides the appropriate background + With six-plus (6+) years of experience a related scientific field or experience indrug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing to therapeuticconcepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + OR Bachelor’s Degree in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closelyrelated area that provides the appropriate background from an accreditedinstitution + With ten (10+) years of experience a related scientific field or experience indrug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing to therapeuticconcepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + A very good understanding of the discovery and development ofbiologics including + monoclonal antibodies an advantage.of immune cells and molecules an advantage.Excellent communication and collaboration skills + An excellent track record of publications in the field a plus + Experience in cell/molecular biology with proficiency in the analysisand understanding + Advanced trainingin the area of technical expertise + Propose newexperimental designs, Conduct probing experiments + Plan and conductlaboratory experiments and evaluate and interpret data + Provide trainingand guidance to laboratory personnel + Prepare technicalreports, publications and oral presentations + Act as a leader inabsence of supervisor + Appropriate levelof understanding of applicable regulations **Duties & Responsibilities - Scientist III:** + Performs routine lab duties without supervision. + Designs and executes non-routine experiments on a basis of literature analyses with minimal supervision. + Assists in supervising/training technicians and junior scientist. + Performs all work in conformance with applicable regulations. + Performs all work in a safe manner. + The primary scope of responsibility is within the immediate discipline and secondarily within a multi-disciplinary environment. + Initiates and completes routine procedures in an independent and efficient manner; Troubleshoots effectively and solves scientific problems independently; Operates lab equipment and is independently responsible for maintenance + Designs and executes non-routine experiments on a basis of literature analyses with minimal supervision + Independently applies basic scientific principles, performs literature searches, attends scientific meetings, and keeps abreast of literature in own field + Proposes new experiments/technologies based on science as well as overall understanding of drug discovery/development process; Demonstrates expertise in field and contributes to training technicians and junior level scientists + Effectively communicates and defends own work in the context of team and department goals both orally and in writing + Reports and treats data with a high level of integrity and ethics; Write protocols, procedures, and technical reports; Provide input for scientific reports + Complies with applicable regulations, performing all work in a safe manner; Maintains proper records in accordance with SOPs and policies **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities - Scientist III** + Execute on standard biochemical assays and _in vitro_ immunological assays to support the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates. + Under supervision,evaluate and implement novel biochemical assays and _in vitro_ immunological techniques to support the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates. + Present scientific data in internal department meetings. + As warranted and under supervision, present scientific data in global project team meetings. **Requirements - Scientist III:** + Master’s Degree (MS) from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closelyrelated area that provides the appropriate background + With three-plus (3+) years of experiencein a related scientific field or experience in drug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing totherapeutic concepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + OR Bachelor’s Degree (BS) from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closely related area that provides the appropriate background + With seven-plus (7+) years of experience a related scientific field or experience in drug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing totherapeutic concepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + A very good understanding of the discovery and development ofbiologics includingmonoclonal antibodies an advantage.of immune cells and molecules an advantage. + An track record of publications in the field a plus + Excellent communication and collaboration skills + Experience in cell/molecular biology with proficiency in the analysisand understanding + Supplemental technical courses in area of expertise + Ability to operate laboratory equipment with independence + Ability to draft technical reports + Demonstrate written and verbal communication skills + Concise and accurate reporting of technical data and interpretation thereof + Proven problem solving ability + Able to act for supervisor in his/her absence + Appropriate level of understanding of applicable regulations **EligibilityRequirements:** + Must be legallyauthorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing totake a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years ofage or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is a different kind of pharmaceutical company, a privately held company with the ability to have an innovative and long term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries that improve patients' lives and we equate success as a pharmaceutical company with the steady introduction of truly innovative medicines. Boehringer Ingelheim is the largest privately held pharmaceutical corporation in the world and ranks among the world's 20 leading pharmaceutical corporations. At Boehringer Ingelheim, we are committed to delivering value through innovation. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce - Minority/Female/Protected Veteran/Person with a Disability. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status or liability for military status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-DS1 *I-DS1 **Organization:** _US-BI Pharma/BI USA_ **Title:** _Scientist III / IV - Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CT-Ridgefield_ **Requisition ID:** _177650_
          (USA-CT-RIDGEFIELD) Scientist III / IV - Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **_Scientist III-IV_** **_Cancer Immunology &Immune Modulation Project_** **_Enablement_** **_Ridgefield, CT_** **_Thequalified candidate will be hired at the appropriate level commensurate with education/experience._** **Description:** **Bench Scientist, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation** The Cancer Immunology and Immune Modulation (CI&IM) Division of Boehringer Ingelheim (BI) Discovery Research is looking to further enhance its scientific talent base at the BI Research site in Ridgefield, CT, USA by recruiting experienced scientists responsible for driving immune modulatory therapeutic concepts into drug discovery projects. In particular, this member will be part of a team which will translate innovative drug concepts into projects for CI-IM discovery. Bridging novel ideas to therapeutic biologic lead generation readiness involves deep insights into biological concepts for application of biologics drugs to the modification of relevant targets, primarily through the establishment of optimal assays, tool and validation reagents, and their testing in relevant systems. To contribute to a sustained and innovative CI-IM portfolio it is expected that the candidate will, under limited supervision, effectively plan, execute and report scientific studies relevant to supporting ongoing projects. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees **Duties &Responsibilities - Scientist IV:** + Design and execute non-routine experiments on the basis of literature analyses generally without supervision. + Train technicians and junior scientist in all areas of laboratory operations. + Assume departmental responsibility for discovery or development projects, if needed. + Perform all work in conformance with applicable regulation. Perform all work in a safe manner. + The primary scope of responsibility is within the immediate discipline and secondarily within a multi-disciplinary environment. + Initiates, designs, interprets accurately, troubleshoots and completes routine proceduresindependently and efficiently; initiates, designs, interprets accurately,troubleshoots and completes non-routineand difficult procedures generally without supervision; Conducts exploratoryexperiments + Proposes, gains support for and implements ideas from individual’sknowledge of science and technology and understanding of drug discovery process + Proposes, evaluates and implements new technologies; independently appliesbasic scientific principles, performs literature searches, attends scientificmeetings, and keeps abreast of literature in own field + Effectively communicates and defends own work, orally and in writing, inthe context of the team goals at meetings + Demonstrates a solid level of technical proficiency in field; trainstechnicians and junior level scientists in this field + Reports and treats data with a high level of integrity and ethics + Complies with applicable regulations, performing all work in a safe manner;Maintains proper records in accordance with SOPs and policies + Participate incross departmental project teams when assigned **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities – ScientistIV** + Identify, evaluate, troubleshoot, implement and execute on standard and novel biochemical assays and _invitro_ immunologicalassays to support the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmunediseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates. + Present scientific data in internal department and global project team meetings. + As warranted, participate as a member of global projectteams and contribute to the prosecution of therapeutic concepts though deliveryof high quality data. **Requirements - Scientist IV:** + Master’s Degree (MS) from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closelyrelated area that provides the appropriate background + With six-plus (6+) years of experience a related scientific field or experience indrug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing to therapeuticconcepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + OR Bachelor’s Degree in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closelyrelated area that provides the appropriate background from an accreditedinstitution + With ten (10+) years of experience a related scientific field or experience indrug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing to therapeuticconcepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + A very good understanding of the discovery and development ofbiologics including monoclonal antibodies an advantage. + Excellent communication and collaboration skills + An excellent track record of publications in the field a plus + Experience in cell/molecular biology with proficiency in the analysisand understanding of immune cells and molecules an advantage. + Advanced trainingin the area of technical expertise + Propose newexperimental designs, Conduct probing experiments + Plan and conductlaboratory experiments and evaluate and interpret data + Provide trainingand guidance to laboratory personnel + Prepare technicalreports, publications and oral presentations + Act as a leader inabsence of supervisor + Appropriate levelof understanding of applicable regulations **Duties & Responsibilities - Scientist III:** + Performs routine lab duties without supervision. + Designs and executes non-routine experiments on a basis of literature analyses with minimal supervision. + Assists in supervising/training technicians and junior scientist. + Performs all work in conformance with applicable regulations. + Performs all work in a safe manner. + The primary scope of responsibility is within the immediate discipline and secondarily within a multi-disciplinary environment. + Initiates and completes routine procedures in an independent and efficient manner; Troubleshoots effectively and solves scientific problems independently; Operates lab equipment and is independently responsible for maintenance + Designs and executes non-routine experiments on a basis of literature analyses with minimal supervision + Independently applies basic scientific principles, performs literature searches, attends scientific meetings, and keeps abreast of literature in own field + Proposes new experiments/technologies based on science as well as overall understanding of drug discovery/development process; Demonstrates expertise in field and contributes to training technicians and junior level scientists + Effectively communicates and defends own work in the context of team and department goals both orally and in writing + Reports and treats data with a high level of integrity and ethics; Write protocols, procedures, and technical reports; Provide input for scientific reports + Complies with applicable regulations, performing all work in a safe manner; Maintains proper records in accordance with SOPs and policies **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities - Scientist III** + Execute on standard biochemical assays and _in vitro_ immunological assays to support the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates. + Under supervision, evaluate and implement novel biochemical assays and _in vitro_ immunological techniques to support the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates. + Present scientific data in internal department meetings. + As warranted and under supervision, present scientific data in global project team meetings. **Requirements - Scientist III:** + Master’s Degree (MS) from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closelyrelated area that provides the appropriate background + With three-plus (3+) years of experiencein a related scientific field or experience in drug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing totherapeutic concepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + OR Bachelor’s Degree (BS) from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closely related area that provides the appropriate background + With seven-plus (7+) years of experience a related scientific field or experience in drug discovery with a track record of effectively contributing totherapeutic concepts within a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting preferred + A very good understanding of the discovery and development ofbiologics includingmonoclonal antibodies an advantage.of immune cells and molecules an advantage. + An track record of publications in the field a plus + Excellent communication and collaboration skills + Experience in cell/molecular biology with proficiency in the analysisand understanding + Supplemental technical courses in area of expertise + Ability to operate laboratory equipment with independence + Ability to draft technical reports + Demonstrate written and verbal communication skills + Concise and accurate reporting of technical data and interpretation thereof + Proven problem solving ability + Able to act for supervisor in his/her absence + Appropriate level of understanding of applicable regulations **EligibilityRequirements:** + Must be legallyauthorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing totake a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years ofage or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is a different kind of pharmaceutical company, a privately held company with the ability to have an innovative and long term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries that improve patients' lives and we equate success as a pharmaceutical company with the steady introduction of truly innovative medicines. Boehringer Ingelheim is the largest privately held pharmaceutical corporation in the world and ranks among the world's 20 leading pharmaceutical corporations. At Boehringer Ingelheim, we are committed to delivering value through innovation. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce - Minority/Female/Protected Veteran/Person with a Disability. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status or liability for military status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-DS1 *I-DS1 **Organization:** _US-BI Pharma/BI USA_ **Title:** _Scientist III / IV - Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CT-Ridgefield_ **Requisition ID:** _177649_
          (USA-CT-RIDGEFIELD) Executive Director, Principal Translational Medicine & Biomarker Expert        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** As a Translational Medicine and Biomarker Expert you directly support Immuno-Oncology drug development projects in the transition from research to early clinical development and up to clinical phases by providing senior leadership in establishing strategies for pharmacodynamic, safety and patient selection selection biomarkers and assessing novel biomarker methods and assays. You will have responsibility for the following aspects: + Medical translational aspects of early clinical development strategy up to and including Proof of Clinical Principle, provide high quality, innovative, medical translational support to research for assigned projects and beyond + Collaborate with assigned project teams on the identification of relevant Immuno-Oncology biomarkers and ensure bringing such biomarkers into clinical development, includingclinical fit for purpose qualification/validation of biomarkers + Ensure optimal use of biomarkers for clinical development programs of assigned projects in close collaboration with other team members, eg in clinical Proof of Clinical Principle and other clinical studies, for early decision making or for stratification of patients in clinical development programs (eg stratified/personalized medicine approaches)and development of companion diagnostics, if applicable. You will provide Medical input and expertise in the development of biomarker strategies in Immuno-Oncology. These biomarkers may be clinical endpoints or biomarkers using biochemistry, molecular or imaging or any other appropriate technologies. The implementation of these biomarkers will be carried out in close collaboration with other Translational Medicine Scientists, Early Clinical Research Teams as well as Research Teams. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties & Responsibilities:** + Responsible for enabling the discovery, translation, implementation, and clinical fit for purpose qualification/validation of biomarkers in BI sponsored clinical trials - either in collaboration with inhouse experts or with CROs. Responsible for the selection of appropriate CROs considering its scientific and compliance skills as well as responsible for scientific monitoring of biomarker analyses/assay qualification/validation performed at a CRO. Complies with applicable regulations - either inhouse or in collaboration with CROs - and ensures that work performed in areas of responsibility is conducted in a compliant manner. + Responsibility for delivering medical translational aspects of early medical strategy for assigned projects up to and including Proof of Clinical Principle. + Ensure innovative and fast-to PoCP plans, including potential investigation of several indications per target. + Provide early medical translational support to assigned projects on the usefulness of specific targets in specific indications, contribute in identifying the right indication for the right target. Engage in team discussions and provide input on the identification of preclinical biomarkers and their usefulness during clinical development. + Identify and develop clinical surrogate markers revealing activity in the respective indication together with Biomarker Technology Experts, Pharmacogenomic Experts and Imaging scientists, seeking input from the respective Research and Clinical Teams. These markers may be used to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a particular drug candidate, but also to explore potential side effects. + Ensure implementation of biomarkers in early clinical studies, Ensure clinical fit for purpose qualification/validation of biomarkers. This includes close collaboration with relevant internal teams and disciplines as well as external partners and CROs. Be accountable for the identification, acceptance and implementation of new potential surrogate endpoints also in Phase 2 and 3 studies. + Contribute in designing relevant exploratory clinical studies with the clear intent to establish early Proof of Clinical Principle in relevant indications. + Establish collaboration with leading academic experts in the assigned field. + Provide input into regulatory documents as needed and represent Translational Medicine at relevant internal and external meetings incl. agency meetings, as appropriate. + Provide expertise to the company on biomarkers related to the assigned indications. This will require close collaboration with other internal scientists as well as collaboration with world leading academic centers. + Represent Translational Medicine in relevant project teams. + Contribute to the implementation of Stratified Medicine for assigned projects. Contribute to the identification of the most promising assigned projects for a Stratified Medicine approach. + Contribute to critical evaluations to non-translational components of registrations and marketing strategy. + Act as an effective external representative to medically related experts and organizations and be externally recognized as an expert on Translational Medicine. Advance the interests of BI by knowledge, publications, style and personal skill, and enhance the position of the corporation with these individuals and groups. + As appropriate, lead multidisciplinary teams with the aim to elaborate an integrated Translational Medicine strategy as an integral part of the clinical development plan. + Act as an internal reference contact concerning translational approaches in a certain therapeutic disease area or with regard to special applications of certain biomarkers or methodologies (includes expert peer reviews of e.g. submission documents). **Requirements:** + PhD or MD plus specialization in assigned TA preferred. + If PhD scientist,deep familiarity withthe clinical and pathologic features of cancer as well as current therapeuticapproaches in oncology are expected and high scientific reputation in therespective field required as documented by excellent list of publications + If MD board certification as a specialist is preferred. + Distinguishedexpertise in Immuno-Oncology or related area required + Knowledge of overall drug development process. + Credible, in-depth knowledge and experience in clinical and exploratory medicine for assigned indications. + Credible, in-depth knowledge and experience of the implementation of biomarkers in drug development with understanding of the clinical application of such markers, their evaluation and analysis + Priordirect-line management experience is preferred + Ability to present a well reasoned business case, and influence other departmental leaders to support cross functional implementation of new initiatives and projects. + Ability to communicate effectively with internal and external opinion leaders including pharmaceutical regulatory agencies, e.g. FDA, EMEA. + Ability to work in a matrix type environment. **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-DS1 *I-DS1 **Organization:** _US-BI Pharma/BI USA_ **Title:** _Executive Director, Principal Translational Medicine & Biomarker Expert_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CT-Ridgefield_ **Requisition ID:** _176142_
          (USA-CT-RIDGEFIELD) Principal Scientist/Senior Principal Scientist, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Principal Scientist/Senior PrincipalScientist,** **Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation** **Project** **Enablement** **Ridgefield, CT** **_The qualified candidate will be hired at the appropriate level commensurate with education/experience._** **Description:** **Lab Head, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation** The Cancer Immunology and Immune Modulation (CI&IM) Division of Boehringer Ingelheim (BI) Discovery Research is looking to further enhance its scientific talent base at the BI Research site in Ridgefield, CT, USA by appointing an experienced scientist who can build and lead an outstanding team responsible for driving immune modulatory therapeutic concepts into drug discovery projects. In particular the team will identify and translate innovative drug concepts into projects for CI-IM discovery. Bridging novel ideas to therapeutic biologic lead generation readiness involves deep insights into biological concepts for application of biologics drugs to the modification of relevant targets, as well as the coordination and establishment of optimal assays, tool and validation reagents, and their testing in relevant systems. To contribute to a sustained and innovative CI-IM portfolio it is expected that the appointee will effectively and frequently collaborate with the Biotherapeutics Discovery (lead generation) Department in Ridgefield, but especially closely with scientists located at the Ridgefield and Vienna Research sites representing cancer immunology and immune modulation drug discovery. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees **Duties &Responsibilities - Senior Principal Scientist:** + Lead in proposing and implementing newexperimental designs and concepts that contribute to core group/research goalsand reflect expert knowledge; Direct and oversee experimental design andresults of junior staff; Independently propose and oversee implementation ofnew areas of research + Assumesleadership role for either project teams OR acts as a representative onmultiple project teams and contributes to overall program goals + Independentlycommunicates results by preparing clear technical reports, publications andoral presentations; Effectively delivers updates to senior management incontext of overall project goals + Functionsas an acknowledged resource and technical leader within and outside of thedepartment in a specific project-relevant area OR technology; Provide guidanceand expertise to advance specific R&D projects OR evaluates and proposes new technologies and concepts, in support of theadvancement of multiple R&D projects + Demonstratesbroad knowledge in field of expertise, the ability to interpret currentliterature and apply to relevant R&D projects Complies with all applicable regulations; Ensures that work performed inarea of responsibility is conducted in a safe and compliant manner; Maintainsproper records in accordance with SOPs and policies + Provides administration within area of responsibility including: recruiting, managing, mentoring anddeveloping scientific staff; Provide assistance in the preparation andmanagement of operating and capital equipment budgets, as required **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities –Senior Principal Scientist** + Build and lead a research team with highly motivated and qualified labscientists + Establish biochemical assays and reagents and _in vitro_ immunological assays to enable the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancerimmunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates + Co-Lead portfolio projects towards the discovery of innovativeimmune-modulating biological drugs + Collaborate and coordinate effectively with other research teams anddisciplines across a global Discovery Research organization + As a member of a global expert working team contribute to the proposaland evaluation of new therapeutic drug concepts for cancer immunotherapy + Present scientific data at internal and external meetings, and publishfindings in peer-reviewed scientific journals + Establish and manage external collaborations **Requirements -** **Senior Principal Scientist** **:** + Ph.D., MD/Ph.D from anaccredited institution, in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closely related area that providesthe appropriate background, with strong post-doctoral experience or equivalent in relevant field, + With seven-plus (7+)years of experience in drug discovery. Highlypreferred to have experience with a track record of effectively movingtherapeutic candidates through discovery phases within a Pharmaceutical orbiotechnology setting + Appropriate levelof understanding of applicable regulations + Ability tocommunicate effectively both orally and in writing in an inter-disciplinaryenvironment + A very good understanding of thediscovery and development of biologics includingmonoclonal antibodies + Experience in cell/molecular biology and will be proficient in the analysis and understanding of immune cells and molecules, but ideally also with a breadth ofknowledge into barrier tissue function (e.g. IBD) and/or cancer + Past experience with building successful and productive research teamis considered an advantage + Past experienceestablishing and managing external collaborations an advantage + An excellent track record of publications in the field + Excellent communication and collaboration skills **Duties & Responsibilities - Principal Scientist:** + Independently designs and performs scientific experiments with a predefined goal including developing new methodologies, protocols and or test procedures that contribute to core group/research goals and reflect expert knowledge; Direct and oversee experimental design and results of technicians and junior level scientists + Contributes to defining R&D team goals and collaborates with scientists within and outside functional area in achieving them; Assumes departmental responsibility for projects OR has ability to participate as representative on multiple project teams and contribute to defining expertise-related aspects of overall program goals + Prepares clear technical reports, publications and oral presentations. Independently communicate results in the form of reports and/ or presentations; Deliver updates to senior level management in context of overall project goals + Demonstrates an expertise in a specific project-relevant area OR technology; Provide guidance and expertise to advance specific projects OR evaluate and propose new technologies and concepts in support of multiple projects + Develops broad knowledge in field of expertise, including the ability to interpret current literature relevant to R&D projects, and visibility outside of functional area + Assumes responsibility for direct reports as needed including recruiting, managing, mentoring and developing scientific staff + Complies with all applicable regulations; Ensures that work performed in area of responsibility is conducted in a safe and compliant manner; Maintains proper records in accordance with SOPs and policies + Contributes to departmental administration; Demonstrates fiscal responsibility with respect to cost of experiments, technology, external collaborations, and travel **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities – Principal Scientist** + Build and lead a research team with highly motivated and qualified lab scientists + Establish biochemical assays and reagents and _in vitro_ immunological assays to enable the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates + Co-Lead portfolio projects towards the discovery of innovative immune-modulating biological drugs + Collaborate and coordinate effectively with other research teams and disciplines across a global Discovery Research organization + As a member of a global expert working team contribute to the proposal and evaluation of new therapeutic drug concepts for cancer immunotherapy + Present scientific data at internal and external meetings, and publish findings in peer-reviewed scientific journals **Requirements - Principal Scientist:** + Ph.D., MD/Ph.D from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closely related area that providesthe appropriate background, with strong post-doctoral experience, or equivalent, + With five-plus (5+) years’ experience in drug discovery or related field.Highly preferred to have experience with a trackrecord of effectively moving therapeutic candidates through discovery phaseswithin a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting + Experience in leading/mentoringteams. + A very good understanding of the discovery and development ofbiologics including monoclonal antibodies + Past experience with building successful and productive research teamis considered an advantage. + An excellent track record of publications in the field + Excellent communication and collaboration skills + Experience in cell/molecular biology and will be proficient in the analysis and understanding of immune cells and molecules, but ideally also with a breadth ofknowledge into barrier tissue function (e.g. IBD) and/or cancer + Demonstrates a broad knowledge of field + Appropriate level of understanding of applicable regulations + Ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing in an interdisciplinary environment **EligibilityRequirements:** + Must be legallyauthorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing totake a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years ofage or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is a different kind of pharmaceutical company, a privately held company with the ability to have an innovative and long term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries that improve patients' lives and we equate success as a pharmaceutical company with the steady introduction of truly innovative medicines. Boehringer Ingelheim is the largest privately held pharmaceutical corporation in the world and ranks among the world's 20 leading pharmaceutical corporations. At Boehringer Ingelheim, we are committed to delivering value through innovation. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce - Minority/Female/Protected Veteran/Person with a Disability. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status or liability for military status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-DS1 *I-DS1 **Organization:** _US-BI Pharma/BI USA_ **Title:** _Principal Scientist/Senior Principal Scientist, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CT-Ridgefield_ **Requisition ID:** _177656_
          (USA-CT-RIDGEFIELD) Principal Scientist/Senior Principal Scientist, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Principal Scientist/Senior PrincipalScientist,** **Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation** **Project** **Enablement** **Ridgefield, CT** **_The qualified candidate will be hired at the appropriate level commensurate with education/experience._** **Description:** **Lab Head, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation** The Cancer Immunology and Immune Modulation (CI&IM) Division of Boehringer Ingelheim (BI) Discovery Research is looking to further enhance its scientific talent base at the BI Research site in Ridgefield, CT, USA by appointing an experienced scientist who can build and lead an outstanding team responsible for driving immune modulatory therapeutic concepts into drug discovery projects. In particular the team will identify and translate innovative drug concepts into projects for CI-IM discovery. Bridging novel ideas to therapeutic biologic lead generation readiness involves deep insights into biological concepts for application of biologics drugs to the modification of relevant targets, as well as the coordination and establishment of optimal assays, tool and validation reagents, and their testing in relevant systems. To contribute to a sustained and innovative CI-IM portfolio it is expected that the appointee will effectively and frequently collaborate with the Biotherapeutics Discovery (lead generation) Department in Ridgefield, but especially closely with scientists located at the Ridgefield and Vienna Research sites representing cancer immunology and immune modulation drug discovery. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees **Duties &Responsibilities - Senior Principal Scientist:** + Lead in proposing and implementing newexperimental designs and concepts that contribute to core group/research goalsand reflect expert knowledge; Direct and oversee experimental design andresults of junior staff; Independently propose and oversee implementation ofnew areas of research + Assumesleadership role for either project teams OR acts as a representative onmultiple project teams and contributes to overall program goals + Independentlycommunicates results by preparing clear technical reports, publications andoral presentations; Effectively delivers updates to senior management incontext of overall project goals + Functionsas an acknowledged resource and technical leader within and outside of thedepartment in a specific project-relevant area OR technology; Provide guidanceand expertise to advance specific R&D projects OR evaluates and proposes new technologies and concepts, in support of theadvancement of multiple R&D projects + Demonstratesbroad knowledge in field of expertise, the ability to interpret currentliterature and apply to relevant R&D projects Complies with all applicable regulations; Ensures that work performed inarea of responsibility is conducted in a safe and compliant manner; Maintainsproper records in accordance with SOPs and policies + Provides administration within area of responsibility including: recruiting, managing, mentoring anddeveloping scientific staff; Provide assistance in the preparation andmanagement of operating and capital equipment budgets, as required **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities –Senior Principal Scientist** + Build and lead a research team with highly motivated and qualified labscientists + Establish biochemical assays and reagents and _in vitro_ immunological assays to enable the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancerimmunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates + Co-Lead portfolio projects towards the discovery of innovativeimmune-modulating biological drugs + Collaborate and coordinate effectively with other research teams anddisciplines across a global Discovery Research organization + As a member of a global expert working team contribute to the proposaland evaluation of new therapeutic drug concepts for cancer immunotherapy + Present scientific data at internal and external meetings, and publishfindings in peer-reviewed scientific journals + Establish and manage external collaborations **Requirements -** **Senior Principal Scientist** **:** + Ph.D., MD/Ph.D from anaccredited institution, in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closely related area that providesthe appropriate background, with strong post-doctoral experience or equivalent in relevant field, + With seven-plus (7+)years of experience in drug discovery. Highlypreferred to have experience with a track record of effectively movingtherapeutic candidates through discovery phases within a Pharmaceutical orbiotechnology setting + Appropriate levelof understanding of applicable regulations + Ability tocommunicate effectively both orally and in writing in an inter-disciplinaryenvironment + A very good understanding of thediscovery and development of biologics includingmonoclonal antibodies + Experience in cell/molecular biology and will be proficient in the analysis and understanding of immune cells and molecules, but ideally also with a breadth ofknowledge into barrier tissue function (e.g. IBD) and/or cancer + Past experience with building successful and productive research teamis considered an advantage + Past experienceestablishing and managing external collaborations an advantage + An excellent track record of publications in the field + Excellent communication and collaboration skills **Duties & Responsibilities - Principal Scientist:** + Independently designs and performs scientific experiments with a predefined goal including developing new methodologies, protocols and or test procedures that contribute to core group/research goals and reflect expert knowledge; Direct and oversee experimental design and results of technicians and junior level scientists + Contributes to defining R&D team goals and collaborates with scientists within and outside functional area in achieving them; Assumes departmental responsibility for projects OR has ability to participate as representative on multiple project teams and contribute to defining expertise-related aspects of overall program goals + Prepares clear technical reports, publications and oral presentations. Independently communicate results in the form of reports and/ or presentations; Deliver updates to senior level management in context of overall project goals + Demonstrates an expertise in a specific project-relevant area OR technology; Provide guidance and expertise to advance specific projects OR evaluate and propose new technologies and concepts in support of multiple projects + Develops broad knowledge in field of expertise, including the ability to interpret current literature relevant to R&D projects, and visibility outside of functional area + Assumes responsibility for direct reports as needed including recruiting, managing, mentoring and developing scientific staff + Complies with all applicable regulations; Ensures that work performed in area of responsibility is conducted in a safe and compliant manner; Maintains proper records in accordance with SOPs and policies + Contributes to departmental administration; Demonstrates fiscal responsibility with respect to cost of experiments, technology, external collaborations, and travel **Additional Specifics Regarding Duties & Responsibilities – Principal Scientist** + Build and lead a research team with highly motivated and qualified lab scientists + Establish biochemical assays and reagents and _in vitro_ immunological assays to enable the discovery of biotherapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer immunotherapy, and profiling of drug candidates + Co-Lead portfolio projects towards the discovery of innovative immune-modulating biological drugs + Collaborate and coordinate effectively with other research teams and disciplines across a global Discovery Research organization + As a member of a global expert working team contribute to the proposal and evaluation of new therapeutic drug concepts for cancer immunotherapy + Present scientific data at internal and external meetings, and publish findings in peer-reviewed scientific journals **Requirements - Principal Scientist:** + Ph.D., MD/Ph.D from an accredited institution in Immunology, Cell Biology, or a closely related area that providesthe appropriate background, with strong post-doctoral experience, or equivalent, + With five-plus (5+) years’ experience in drug discovery or related field.Highly preferred to have experience with a trackrecord of effectively moving therapeutic candidates through discovery phaseswithin a Pharmaceutical or biotechnology setting + Experience in leading/mentoringteams. + A very good understanding of the discovery and development ofbiologics including monoclonal antibodies + Past experience with building successful and productive research teamis considered an advantage. + An excellent track record of publications in the field + Excellent communication and collaboration skills + Experience in cell/molecular biology and will be proficient in the analysis and understanding of immune cells and molecules, but ideally also with a breadth ofknowledge into barrier tissue function (e.g. IBD) and/or cancer + Demonstrates a broad knowledge of field + Appropriate level of understanding of applicable regulations + Ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing in an interdisciplinary environment **EligibilityRequirements:** + Must be legallyauthorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing totake a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years ofage or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is a different kind of pharmaceutical company, a privately held company with the ability to have an innovative and long term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries that improve patients' lives and we equate success as a pharmaceutical company with the steady introduction of truly innovative medicines. Boehringer Ingelheim is the largest privately held pharmaceutical corporation in the world and ranks among the world's 20 leading pharmaceutical corporations. At Boehringer Ingelheim, we are committed to delivering value through innovation. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce - Minority/Female/Protected Veteran/Person with a Disability. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status or liability for military status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-DS1 *I-DS1 **Organization:** _US-BI Pharma/BI USA_ **Title:** _Principal Scientist/Senior Principal Scientist, Cancer Immunology & Immune Modulation Project Enablement_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CT-Ridgefield_ **Requisition ID:** _177657_
          (USA-CA-FREMONT) Senior Specialist, QC Biochemistry - Bioassay        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** Works independently to provide analytical testing support for release, stability, validation, and in-process samples while adhering to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs). Utilizing a wealth of previous experience, provides a high level of independent judgment and discretion in the timely identification, investigation and resolution of events impacting the Quality of products and processes. Responsibilities include conducting analytical testing per approved SOPs and methods, analyzing, reviewing, and reporting data, and maintaining lab equipment. Must be able to identify and report aberrant results to manager and conduct or assist in laboratory investigations. Must be able to author analytical protocols and reports for method transfer validation and reagent qualification. Individual must understand regulatory guidelines for analytical method validation and translate guidelines into effective experimental designs. Must be able to communicate experimental design to other analysts that would participate. Must be able to effectively multi-task with respect to overseeing multiple individual assays, writing protocols/reports, and reviewing data. With autonomy and authority, makes difficult decisions with little time for deliberation which may have a direct impact on active manufacturing operations, the release of equipment, and test results. Responsible for mentoring, coaching, may act as a delegate to sign official documentation in the place of management, regarding decision making processes and process expertise with high-level quality oversight to ensure compliance with cGMP’s, regulatory, industry, and corporate requirements. Implements continuous improvement efforts as it relates to QC activities. Indirectly leads others within the QC team under the leadership of the area head. Fosters quality collaboration among the site and QC staff. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees. **Duties & Responsibilities:** + Responsible for both executing the tactical operations and overseeing junior team members executing testing. Under no supervision leads/participates in analytical laboratory investigations, solve technical problems such as invalid assays or equipment breakdown, and identify aberrant results to management. Follows well-defined and established procedures and best practices. Reviews and approves QC test results in a timely manner. + Must be able to pro-actively identify issues to prevent missed timelines. + Responsible for method validation and method transfer activities. Must understand ICH guidelines and translate requirements into effective experimental designs. Must be able to manage completion of entire method validation including the coordination of approvals for protocols/report, completion of experiments by other junior analysts, incorporation of comments into protocols/report, and overall completion to agreed timelines and ensuring communication/escalation of potential issues of broader impact to the business. + Actively support cross functional teams and share information, able to initiate and effectively conduct cross-functional meetings as appropriate, with colleagues. + Leads instrument validation, writes equipment SOP, administers software, and owns associated change control. + Provides guidance to MFG, E&T, and/or QA to ensure compliance with all applicable regulations and assists in resolution of issues identified. Information must be pro-actively shared across QC and the business including the on-going training of junior team members. Must be able to interact effectively with other groups to provide support, review of data, sharing of information/scheduling. + Independently serves as QC representative in decision making and conflict resolution with junior team members as needed in the absence of the department head. + Identifies and resolves critical issues (including deviations, investigations, OOS, etc.), as appropriate and typically works on complex Major issues. Oversees execution of remediation/CAPA activities required to continue production or move a process to the next milestone. Works closely with others to determine root cause and potential preventative/corrective actions. Ensures support for the timely closure of investigations. + Authorized to inhibit the release of test results when the situation warrants. Provides guidance and control directives regarding remediation activities required to continue testing. Is required to resolve critical issues utilizing independent judgment and decision making as a senior level of the department. May serve as the final decision-maker in situations requiring the Sr. QC Specialist utilizing the input of others to make a final compliance determination. + Highly productive, attention to detail, ability to manage own time and time of junior staff to prioritize tasks independently and meet timelines. Maintain laboratory to a high quality and compliance standard. Provide supervisory role to ensure testing result is released on time in Manager's absence. + Effectively communicate with supervisors, colleagues and/or managers in other departments and sites. Sought after by junior team members for guidance on method validation, transfer, qualification. + Performs independent technical review of documentation during and post-execution of cGMP activities. Has authority to sign off/qualify/train junior staff on QC responsibilities. Ensures all specifications, assay and system suitability are met and that applicable requirements are completed and acceptable. Ensures all issues/documentation associated with each process in assigned area have been resolved and approved are compliant with cGMPs and SOPs and current manufacturing regulations and site procedures. Analyzes and reports findings to appropriate departments. + Works closely with others in the assigned area to recognize opportunities for improvement and drive change through the use of BIFI’s Quality Systems. May be asked to become a certified Green-Belt and be assigned to lead process improvement initiatives via the BPE program. May also attend, as a QC project team member to provide QC guidance and oversight to such improvements. + Will serve as Subject Matter Expert for internal or external matters. Participates in inspection readiness activities and significantly involved in inspections by regulatory agencies. + Models effective and constructive communication behaviors and interactions with technical departments, junior team members and senior business leaders, both orally and in writing; maintain acceptable proficiency in technical and non-technical (e.g. interpersonal) skills. + Is proficient in technical and non-technical (e.g. interpersonal) skills to ensure the continued success of the department and quality control provided to the business. + Creates and establishes processes and procedures to ensure compliance and adherence to regulated QC activities for cGMP operations. + Mentors, trains and coaches new personnel as required and supports the development and implementation of training programs. Available to act as a resource for colleagues with less experience regardless of the level. Will provide input on the performance of junior team members to the department head as part of the performance management process. **Requirements:** + Requires a Bachelor’s Degree in Biochemistry, Chemistry, Microbiology, Molecular and Cellular Biology, or Biology (or closely related degree with these core courses as the foundation) OR Master's degree with (4) to six (6) years of experience OR PhD with one (1) to three (3) years preferred. + Eight (8) years of quality control experience in the pharmaceutical industry providing guidance to Manufacturing Operations, QA, and other cGMP areas. + Experience leading people and/or projects with history of achieving results and outstanding outcomes. + Strong independent judgment and decision making abilities required. + Advanced knowledge of relevant regulations and guidances required in order to act as a resource for colleagues. + Independent decision making capability and ability to think conceptually and understand impact of decisions critical. + Strong conflict resolution and negotiation skills required. + Proven project management skills required. Must possess demonstrated organizational skills that have proven results in the ability to be self-directed while managing multiple projects. + Must possess excellent verbal and written communication skills; good interpersonal skills. + Mentoring experience required. + Direct experience is required in method qualification, method transfer, and method validation in accordance with ICH guidelines. + Must be able to independently represent the department in a wide-assortment of situations + Emerging leadership and mentoring experience required. Must be able to indirectly lead others at the bench in the absence of the department head. + Experience performing and/or overseeing bioassays and/or ELISA methods + Direct experience is desired in participating and supporting regulatory inspections through explanations of methodologies, investigations, and/or laboratory systems. + Experience in method development is desired, preferably related to bioassay and ELISA. + Knowledge of and the ability to implement CFR, USP, and ICH requirements is required. + Knowledge of LIMS is desired. Ability to implement and demonstrate testing in accordance with 21CFR11 is required. + **Physical Demands / Surroundings** - The duties of this position may require the incumbent to exert some physical effort. Lifting requirements may vary dependent of the QA area assigned. Weight is typically no more than 25 pounds. Work environment is dependent upon the area assigned. + **Visual Demands** - Must be able to read and see clearly. + **Temperaments/Mental Requirements** - Frequently required to exercise judgment and make decisions. Probable errors might cause moderately serious delays, confusion, and could affect company reputation/customer relations or expense to correct. + **Attendance / Schedule** - Attendance requirements are based on BIFI general attendance policies. **Desired Experience, Skills and Abilities:** + Capability to establish good relationships with others who have different values, cultural styles and perspectives. Setting high and ambitious goals and standards for oneself and others, continuously raises the bar. **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. ***LI-SF1** ***I-SF1** **Organization:** _US-BI Fremont_ **Title:** _Senior Specialist, QC Biochemistry - Bioassay_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CA-Fremont_ **Requisition ID:** _175135_
          (USA-CA-FREMONT) Engineer II/Senior Engineer, MSAT Upstream        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont Inc. - Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world's leading biopharmaceutical contract development and manufacturing organizations. Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont Inc. is currently searching for a talented and innovative **Engineer/Senior Engineer** to join the **MSAT (Manufacturing Science & Technology)** group in the **Process Science** department at Boehringer Ingelheim’s Fremont, CA location. _There are several roles open in this group, but the identified Candidate will be hired at the level commensurate with education and years of experience._ The primary purpose of the Engineer II position is to execute projects, perform complex experiments and analyze complex data in the Upstream Manufacturing Science and Technology (MSAT) group. The position holder occasionally represents MSAT in interactions with customers and collaborators internal and external. The Engineer II must live the BI values and promote a positive work environment for others. Has discretion in tactical execution of process improvement projects, investigations and experiments. Frequently executes complex experiments with sound scientific and engineering principals to resolve problems. The Engineer II frequently executes against specific deliverables developed by the department leadership and occasionally creates proposals to improve operational efficiency. This position may support New Product Introduction and GMP operations in the Disposables Clinical Manufacturing Facility to produce drug substance under GMP/GLP conditions for toxicology and clinical studies. The primary purpose of the Senior Engineer position is to manage project, perform experiments and analyze data in the Upstream (US) Manufacturing Science and Technology (MSAT) group. The Senior Engineer must provide technical and scientific expertise to specific areas of responsibility of the US MSAT group. The position holder must be an effective representative of MSAT in interactions with customers and collaborators internal and external. The Senior Engineer must live the BI values and promote a positive work environment for others. The Senior Engineer also a frequently leads the design and execution of complex experiments with sound scientific and engineering principals to resolve problems, recognizes and resolves unprecedented problems under minimum guidance and frequently executes against specific deliverables developed by the department leadership. The Senior Engineer creates proposals to improve operational efficiency. The Senior Engineer occasionally serves as Process Science representative on project teams. This position may lead New Product Introduction and GMP operations in the Disposables Clinical Manufacturing Facility to produce drug substance under GMP/GLP conditions for toxicology and clinical studies. As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees **Duties & Responsibilities:** + This position executes and occasionally leads the robust scale-up and implementation of new Upstream processes and equipment by performing process design reviews and experimentation on specific aspects of the process. The Senior Engineer utilizes scale-up experience, facility specific knowledge and engineering principals to troubleshoot equipment and processes; anticipate potential problems and propose risk mitigations and proactive solutions. This position executes and occasionally leads the robust scale-up and implementation of new Upstream processes and equipment by performing process design reviews and experimentation on specific aspects of the process. The Senior Engineer utilizes scale-up experience, facility specific knowledge and engineering principals to trouble shoot equipment and processes; anticipate potential problems and propose risk mitigations and proactive solutions. + This position executes and occasionally develops plans independently to determine the root cause of process related deviations in the Upstream areas in a timely and conclusive manner. The Senior Engineer works with the MSAT team to resolve complex problems and deviations using experience and efficient application of scientific methodology and technical reasoning. This position designs and executes complex experiments to resolve specific deviation questions, prepares technical reports and proposes comprehensive process solutions and improvements. The Senior Engineer effectively communicates investigational designs, results and recommendations to internal teams and customers. + This position participates in training and development opportunities in order to gain an understanding of standards of practice, process science and departmental policies. Provides comprehensive training and guidance to other scientists. + This position frequently executes and occasionally leads Initial Facility Fit assessment subtask for the Upstream portions of the GMP Manufacturing facilities. + This position identifies and proposes continuous process improvements to management. The incumbent frequently executes and occasionally leads complex process and procedural changes to improve Upstream manufacturing process performance, robustness, productivity, safety and efficiency. + This position executes and occasionally develops plans for continuous improvement in innovation and technology and contributes to a stronger IP position for BI. This position supports establishing state-of-the-art Upstream technologies for MSAT as well as supporting Upstream manufacturing facility and production equipment modifications needed to maintain state-of-the-art production. + This position plans and executes specific deliverables for new Upstream equipment and facility modification and expansion. The Senior Engineer applies engineering principals and experience to optimize facility and equipment design. **Engineer II Requirements & Desired Skills, Experience and Abilities:** + At least Bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution with four plus (4+) years’ experience OR Master’s degree from an accredited institution with two plus (2+) years’ experience OR PhD from an accredited institution with zero (0) years of industry experience and statistical analysis skills + Technical knowledge in process science area + Technical knowledge of Upstream manufacturing principles, techniques and equipment + Understanding of validation of biopharmaceutical facilities, equipment and process + Drives continuous process improvements + Ability to lead effectively in a matrixed organization + Proven skills building and maintaining productive relationships with organizational partners such as manufacturing and quality + Experience/Expertise in a scientific discipline (chemical/biochemical engineering, biopharmaceuticals, biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology + Six Sigma experiences will be a plus **Senior Engineer Requirements & Desired Skills, Experience and Abilities:** + At least Bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution with five plus (5+) OR Master’s from an accredited institution with three plus (3+) OR PhD from an accredited institution with zero plus (0+) years of industry experience, statistical analysis skills. + Project management experience + Six Sigma experiences will be a plus + Technical knowledge in process science area + Technical knowledge of Upstream manufacturing principles, techniques and equipment + Understanding of validation of biopharmaceutical facilities, equipment and process + Drives continuous process improvements + Ability to lead effectively in a matrixed organization + Proven skills building and maintaining productive relationships with organizational partners such as manufacturing and quality + This position may be accountable to answer process related questions of regulators. The position must have expert knowledge of upstream processes and related manufacturing equipment and facility attributes for the BIFI site. + Experience/Expertise in a scientific discipline (chemical/biochemical engineering, biopharmaceuticals, biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology) **Eligibility Requirements:** + Must be legally authorized to work in the United States without restriction. + Must be willing to take a drug test and post-offer physical (if required) + Must be 18 years of age or older **Our Culture:** Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world’s top 20 pharmaceutical companies and operates globally with approximately 50,000 employees. Since our founding in 1885, the company has remained family-owned and today we are committed to creating value through innovation in three business areas including human pharmaceuticals, animal health and biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing. Since we are privately held, we have the ability to take an innovative, long-term view. Our focus is on scientific discoveries and the introduction of truly novel medicines that improve lives and provide valuable services and support to patients and their families. Employees are challenged to take initiative and achieve outstanding results. Ultimately, our culture and drive allows us to maintain one of the highest levels of excellence in our industry. We are also deeply committed to our communities and our employees create and engage in programs that strengthen the neighborhoods where we live and work. Boehringer Ingelheim, including Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA, Inc., Merial Barceloneta, LLC and Boehringer Ingelheim Fremont, Inc. is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer committed to a culturally diverse workforce. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race; color; creed; religion; national origin; age; ancestry; nationality; marital, domestic partnership or civil union status; sex, gender identity or expression; affectional or sexual orientation; disability; veteran or military status, including protected veteran status; domestic violence victim status; atypical cellular or blood trait; genetic information (including the refusal to submit to genetic testing) or any other characteristic protected by law. Boehringer Ingelheim is firmly committed to ensuring a safe, healthy, productive and efficient work environment for our employees, partners and customers. As part of that commitment, Boehringer Ingelheim conducts pre-employment verifications and drug screenings. *LI-SF1 *I-SF1 **Organization:** _US-BI Fremont_ **Title:** _Engineer II/Senior Engineer, MSAT Upstream_ **Location:** _Americas-United States-CA-Fremont_ **Requisition ID:** _175038_
          (USA-GA-ATHENS) Sr Research Scientist, Bio Process Development        
Boehringer Ingelheim is an equal opportunity global employer who takes pride in maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture. We embrace diversity of perspectives and strive for an inclusive environment which benefits our employees, patients and communities. **Description:** This position is in the BPDI Downstream Process group in Athens, providing expertise in the development of bacterial and viral vaccines for all species using industrial downstream technologies to develop Active Ingredient processes and produce experimental product for vaccine formulation. The incumbent should demonstrate team building skills, strong organizational and project management skills, and be highly effective at networking As an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim, you will actively contribute to the discovery, development and delivery of our products to our patients and customers. Our global presence provides opportunity for all employees to collaborate internationally, offering visibility and opportunity to directly contribute to the companies' success. We realize that our strength and competitive advantage lie with our people. We support our employees in a number of ways to foster a healthy working environment, meaningful work, diversity and inclusion, mobility, networking and work-life balance. Our competitive compensation and benefit programs reflect Boehringer Ingelheim's high regard for our employees **Duties &Responsibilities:** + Developmentof scalable processes with expertise in the area of inactivation, sonication,homogenization, extraction, centrifugation, micro and ultrafiltration, depthfiltration, and chromatography techniques for bacterial and viral projects. + Schedule, conduct, and supervisedownstream process optimization and development studies according to BioR&D project prioritization. + Supervise/train other technical staff ortrainee as needed. Cross train staff in at least 1 other Processdepartment. + Author protocols, plan and performexperiments, provide progress reports, and write final reports on studiesfor development and validation of biological product processes, forsubmission to management and regulatory agencies. + Coordinate documents and data requiredfor transfer of final processes to Pilot/Manufacturing. Initiate andorganize the transfer developed processes to pilot/manufacturing. + Represent Downstream Process in projecttask force and project team meetings. + Advise and support New Antigen Discoverywith early phase development. + Serve as internal expert to supportIndustrial Development with existing Manufacturing products. + Interface with In-Process Analytical andNew Antigen Discovery in Athens, Gainesville, and Lyon. + To perform scientific literatures andinformation searches as assigned. + To follow Research & Developmentpolicies and procedures to maintain high quality standards within theestablished Quality System, and to contribute to continuous improvement byapplying best practices (operational excellence). + Laboratory management: Develop andconduct equipment validation & qualification studies for laboratoryequipment. Recommend equipment expenditures for current and future budget.Assist with management and Engineering to design laboratory utilities fordownstream equipment. **Safety objectives:** + Demonstrate a commitment to the HSEProgram. Work in a safe, responsible manner. Support safety policies andprocedures. Identifies & properly reports unsafe work habits,conditions, &/or practices. One will conduct workplace risk analysis. + This position may require the handling,storing, and managing of hazardous waste and this employee shal